WorldWideScience

Sample records for bunkers

  1. Bioremediation of bunker C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation works extremely well for most common hydrocarbons including aviation fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. Bunker C, a high boiling point distillate, is the most recalcitrant hydrocarbon for treatment and is the topic of this paper. Bioremediation, Inc. has had an opportunity to perform two projects involving soil contaminated with bunker C. One was at a bulk terminal site which involved predominantly diesel, but also had bunker C contamination; the other was a paper-mill site which had exclusively bunker C contamination. This paper will address the authors' experiences at the paper-mill site. Bunker C lives up to its reputation of being a very recalcitrant hydrocarbon to biodegrade. They have demonstrated, however, that the soil matrix standards at industrial sites in Washington and Oregon can be achieved using new bioremediation techniques. These techniques are necessary over those typically used to biodegrade jet fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. These extra steps, as discussed later, have been developed for their own use in their treatability laboratory

  2. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    constraints such as capacity limits, reserve requirements and sulphur content. Contracts are often used for bunker purchasing, ensuring supply and often giving a discounted price. A contract can supply any vessel in a period and port, and is thus a shared resource between vessels, which must be distributed...... up to 500+ vessels and 500+ contracts, and provide near optimal solutions. This makes it possible for a major liner shipping company to plan bunker purchasing on a global level, and provides an efficient tool for assessing new contracts....

  3. Bioremediation of Bunker C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the states of Washington and Oregon, the highest priority for waste management is now given to recycling, reuse and permanent solutions as opposed to landfill disposal. Bioremediation is recognized as a treatment of choice over other technologies that do not provide permanent solutions. From a business point of view, it is usually the most cost-effective. Bioremediation works extremely well for most common hydrocarbons including aviation fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. Bunker C, a high boiling point distillate, is the most recalcitrant hydrocarbon for treatment and is the topic of this paper. Bunker C lives up to its reputation of being a very recalcitrant hydrocarbon to biodegrade. The authors have demonstrated, however, that the soil matrix standards at industrial sites in Washington and Oregon can be achieved using new bioremediation techniques. These techniques are necessary over those typically used to biodegrade jet fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. These extra steps have been developed for our own use in our treatability laboratory

  4. Monitoring of bunker fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.

    2013-03-15

    Monitoring of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping is currently under discussion at the EU level as well as at the IMO (International Maritime Organization). There are several approaches to monitoring, each with different characteristics. Based on a survey of the literature and information from equipment suppliers, this report analyses the four main methods for monitoring emissions: (1) Bunker delivery notes (i.e. a note provided by the bunker fuel supplier specifying, inter alia, the amount of fuel bunkered); (2) Tank sounding (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel in the fuel tanks); (3) Fuel flow meters (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel supplied to the engines, generators or boilers); and (4) Direct emissions monitoring (i.e. measuring the exhaust emissions in the stack). The report finds that bunker delivery notes and tank soundings have the lowest investment cost. However, unless tank sounding is automated, these systems have higher operational costs than fuel flow meters or direct emissions monitoring because manual readings have to be entered in monitoring systems. Fuel flow meters have the highest potential accuracy. Depending on the technology selected, their accuracy can be an order of magnitude better than the other systems, which typically have errors of a few percent. By providing real-time feed-back on fuel use or emissions, fuel flow meters and direct emissions monitoring provide ship operators with the means to train their crew to adopt fuel-efficient sailing methods and to optimise their maintenance and hull cleaning schedules. Except for bunker delivery notes, all systems allow for both time-based and route-based (or otherwise geographically delineated) systems.

  5. RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT OF SPIRAL BUNKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董正筑; 曹璎珞; 王启广

    1996-01-01

    A great attention has been paid to slowing the degradation of coal nowadays. The spiral bunker is the main measure to lower the degradation. In this paper the application and research of spiral bunker are introduced. And two non-normal spiral chutes are discussed. One is in the tangential direction of the inner wall of the bunker, another is in the direction of the diameter of the bunker. Mathematical models of the non-normal spiral chutes are set up to optimize the geometrical parameters of the spiral curved surface, which would ensure that coal travels smoothly to the bottom of the bunker. The results would be useful for designing and retrofitting the spiral bunker.

  6. The Bunker Convention : International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollition Damage

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to examine the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage – the Bunker Convention – that implements a liability and compensation regime for pollution damage caused by spills of oil carried as fuel in the ship’s bunkers. The Bunker Convention will enter into force on 21 November 2008, more than six years after its adoption by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 23 March 2001. Firstly, the thesis will provide an overvi...

  7. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  8. Internationalization Process of Bunkering Companies: a Case Study of OW Bunker Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilov, Sergej

    2012-01-01

    Even though that the significance of the international service companies in the global economy increases every year, there is little knowledge on the internationalization process of the service companies, especially on the bunkering companies. This research paper discusses findings of exploratory and descriptive case study of internationalization process of the OW Bunker Company. The combination of Uppsala model and network theory is used as theoretical platform for the case study. The findin...

  9. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    operations. Therefore, route and schedule decisions a_ect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning...... in the routing and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs......, speed and bunker consumption. We devise a solution method based on column generation with a dynamic programming algorithm to generate columns. The method is heuristic mainly due to a discretization of the continuous bunker purchase variables. We show that the integrated planning approach can increase...

  10. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    , route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...... and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed and bunker...... consumption. We devise a solution method based on column generation with a dynamic programming algorithm to generate columns. The method is heuristic mainly due to a discretization of the continuous bunker purchase variables. We show that the integrated planning approach can increase profits and that the...

  11. Tramp ship routing and scheduling with integrated bunker optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    , route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...... and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed and bunker...... consumption. We devise a solution method based on column generation with a dynamic programming algorithm to generate columns. The method is heuristic mainly due to a discretization of the continuous bunker purchase variables. We show that the integrated planning approach can increase prots and that the...

  12. 19 CFR 10.62 - Bunker fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bunker fuel oil. 10.62 Section 10.62 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.62 Bunker fuel oil. (a) Withdrawal under section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as... section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1309), when all the bunker fuel oil in a...

  13. Beating the bunker: the effect of PETTLEP imagery on golf bunker shot performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dave; Wright, Caroline J; Cantwell, Cara

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physical practice with PETTLEP-based (Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspective; Holmes & Collins, 2001) imagery and PETTLEP + physical practice interventions on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two male county- or international-level golfers were assigned to one of four groups; PETTLEP imagery, physical practice, PETTLEP + physical practice, or control. The PETTLEP imagery group imaged 15 bunker shots, their interventions incorporating PETTLEP components, such as physical, environment, and emotion, twice a week. The physical practice group physically performed their 15 bunker shots twice per week; the PETTLEP + physical practice group performed PETTLEP imagery once per week and physical practice once per week. Each group performed their respective tasks for 6 weeks. Pre- and posttests consisted of 15 bunker shots, with points awarded according to the ball proximity to the pin. All groups improved significantly (p .05). Findings, therefore, support the effectiveness of PETTLEP in enhancing golf performance, especially when combined with physical practice. PMID:18816950

  14. Beating the Bunker: The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Golf Bunker Shot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dave; Wright, Caroline J.; Cantwell, Cara

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physical practice with PETTLEP-based (Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspective; Holmes & Collins, 2001) imagery and PETTLEP + physical practice interventions on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two male county- or international-level golfers were assigned to one…

  15. Backfitting the NANO bunkered emergency heat removal system at Beznau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baschek, Heinz

    1987-09-01

    Construction is due to start in 1988 of bunkered emergency heat removal systems at Beznau nuclear power station. Ten hours core cooling will be maintained by new emergency systems, located in bunkered buildings, in the event of a loss of primary coolant with the primary loop remaining intact.

  16. Oil Bunkering Activities in the Niger Delta "The Way Forward"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orijialurechi Boniface

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bunkeringis the practice and business whereby duly licensed operators stores petroleum products in tanks and subsequently provide fuels, water and lubricants (bunkering services for marine services on request. It could be likened to establishing a floating fuel service station on the high seas or at coastal jetties to supply fuel and provisions of water to ships. The Niger Delta is a host to Nigeria’s proved Oil and Gas reserves. In this study, the history of Bunker oïl and the various types of bunkers were examined; Bunker trade, transportation of bunker fuel and the various types of vessels used were also analyzed. The study provides accurate information on how the bunkering business could be managed using world best practices for the economic benefit of the Nigerian economy thereby creating jobs for citizens and income for the gouvernement. Also, this research gives a guide line on how to re-orient Nigerian citizens on the legitimacy and the economic potential for the bunkering business in Niger Delta. The results showed that an organized bunker trade would add positively to the GDP of Nigeria

  17. Bunker C tank cars derailment in remote region of Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of cleaning up following a 1994 train derailment involving six Bunker C tank cars in a remote region of Labrador were described. 345,000 litres of Bunker C spilled in a ditch, through a culvert and into a section of the Summit River. Methods used in the reclamation of the bunker oil from the tank cars, from inside the culvert, and from the bottom of the Summit River were also reviewed.Principal problems encountered in the clean-up included severe winter conditions, remoteness of the spill site, and the onset of spring breakup. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Beznau upgrades include NANO bunkered system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two 350 MWe Beznau pressurised water reactors (PWRs), are the oldest in Switzerland. Together with the Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt stations they provide 40% of the total electrical power in the country. In 1979, when the fourth nuclear plant, Leibstadt, was under construction, the Swiss authorities started to evaluate the differences in technology with respect to previous generation plants, and asked Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK) to upgrade its Beznau units, in line with the latest 'state-of-the-art', as a requirement of operating licence extension. The completion of bunkered safety systems under the NANO project at Beznau 2 on 16 June 1992 and Beznau 1 on 14 July 1993 was a significant accomplishment in which a major safety backfitting programme was implemented without affecting normal plant availability. (Author)

  19. Development of coal store and transportation technology using horizontal coal bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jian-sheng; CHEN Qing-shu

    2005-01-01

    Discussed the necessity of setting up the coal bunker in mining, introduced the development of coal bunker technology, combining the mining characteristic of the high yield and high-efficient working face in China at present, and point out that the type of horizontal coal bunker, is a kind of security, high-efficient coal store and transportation technology of suiting the modern production need of the colliery, is the developing direction of technology of store and transportation of coal bunker.

  20. Bunker door interlock limit issues of K-130 cyclotron, VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K-130 cyclotron is in operation at VECC, Kolkata. Recently modernization of the cyclotron has taken place. Central region modification has increased reasonable internal beam current. During the tuning of the projectiles, loss of beam is unavoidable and projectiles hitting different parts of the machine inside the vacuum chamber . These interactions produce prompt radiation comprising neutron and gamma. However machine bunker is not accessible during the operation of the machine. The induced activity produced because of interactions of the primary and secondary radiation a radiation hazardous environment during the shut down for the related maintenance work. Area radiation monitors placed at machine bunker room have the interlock with massive shield door of the bunker. Area radiation monitors are set to specified limiting value, lower than that will allow to open the shield door in normal condition. As, the internal beam current being increased and the probability of beam spread being more. Consequently generation of induced activity is also high leading to delay in machine bunker door opening because of the interlock settings. Radiation dose mapping after a long operation of the machine was done for the different strategic points (The locations mainly people access immediate after shut down). Different consequences and remedial measures being presented in paper to raise the dose rate limit level for the interlocks between the area radiation monitors with machine bunker door, keeping in mind of the regulatory requirements. Raising the limit of dose rate limiting value will minimize the waiting time to access the machine bunker which will increase the duty factor of the machine. (author)

  1. Integrated hedging and network planning for container shipping's bunker fuel management

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyu Wang; Chee-Chong Teo

    2013-01-01

    Bunker fuel costs could account for 50–60 per cent of a ship's total operating cost in times of high fuel prices. The volatility of the bunker market over recent years has contributed to significant instability of cash flows for shipping lines. In this study, we consider two of the bunker fuel risk management measures employed by container shipping companies to reduce bunker fuel price risk – re-planning of network configuration and financial hedging of bunker fuel prices. The current industr...

  2. FUZZY CONTROLLED AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR THE MAIN COAL BUNKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵良杉; 叶景楼; 付华

    1997-01-01

    A fuzzy control scheme is presented according to the coal quantity in the main coal bunker, this method has a good dynamic response characteristic and is suited for complex nonlinear systems. The designation of self-adopting fuzzy controller, the working principle and functions of this system are also proposed, with the hardware and the main flow diagram of this system introduced in this paper.

  3. Does concrete composition affect photoneutron production inside radiation therapy bunkers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of concretes are used for bunker construction for radiation therapy. As neutron production occurs in high-energy photon beams, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different concretes on photoneutron doses at an isocenter and maze entrance door. The 18-MV photon beam of a Varian 2100 C/D linear accelerator and a radiation therapy bunker were simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Different commercially available concretes were used in photoneutron calculations for the simulated bunker. Higher neutron doses of the water phantom were seen for barytes and galena concretes, while there was no significant (less than 1%) difference between the neutron dose of the phantom for all other concretes. Also, the neutron fluence at the inner and outer maze entrance varied up to 36% depending on the concretes' atomic compositions. It can be concluded that application of high-density concretes in order to use limited space or for other purposes may cause higher neutron doses in the maze entrance door and consequently may impose stricter requirements for neutron shielding of maze entrance doors. (author)

  4. 78 FR 35314 - Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 3655). The Environmental Protection Agency Notice of Availability was published on January... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin... capacity in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin and the Chino Basin. We issued a Notice of Intent on...

  5. Earth-mounded concrete bunker PLAP technical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, R.

    1989-11-01

    Under the US DOE Prototype License Application Project (PLAP), Ebasco Services Incorporated was commissioned to develop a preliminary design of the Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker (EMCB) concept for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. The EMCB disposal concept is of great interest because it represents the only engineered LLW disposal technology currently in use in the commercial sector. By definition, the EMCB disposal structure is located partially below grade and partially above grade. The concrete bunker is an engineered structure designed to be structurally stable for the prerequisite time horizon. The basic design parameters of the disposal facility were stipulated by US DOE, a northeast site location, representative waste, 30 year operational life, and a 250,000 ft{sup 3}/year disposal capacity. The design was developed to satisfy only US NRC Part 61 disposal requirements, not individual state requirements that may go beyond Part 61 requirements. The technical safety analysis of the preliminary design was documented according to the format specifications of NUREG-1199, to the extent practicable with quite limited resources.

  6. 18MV steel laminate bunker designed for VMAT and IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The radiation shielding design for three additional linear accelerator bunkers has been completed and assessed at the Princess Alexandra Hospital. The bunkers are to hold dual modality Elekta linear accelerators with high energy photon beams of up to 18 MV. The shielding design included allowances for new technologies including IMRT and VMAT. Space limitations required the shielding to include laminated steel primary barriers. Methods: The workload for the new linear accelerators was calculated from past data on the existing linear accelerators. This patient workload was then increased to account for the Physics QA workload, and the additional leakage workload due to IMRT and VMAT. Dose calculations from NCRP 151 were used to assess the shielding design. Particular attention was paid to the possible increase of dose behind the primary barriers due to the production of photoneutrons and neutron capture gamma rays within the steel. Conclusion: Steel thicknesses of 250 mm encased within a 1350 mm thick concrete wall (1600 mm total thickness) were proved sufficient to keep the dose within the limits specified by the Queensland Radiation Safety Standard PRoo4:2004. A neutron door within the maze is required.

  7. Chemical dispersibility study of heavy bunker fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiocco, R. J. [R. J. Fiocco Associates, Summit, NJ (United States); Daling, P. S. [SINTEF, Trondheim, (Norway); DeMarco, G.; Lessard, R. R. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, NJ (United States); Canevari, G. P. [G. P. Canevari and Associates, Cranford, NJ (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Chemical dispersibility of heavy bunker fuel oil, which historically has been characterized as not dispersible, was studied, using the well-known SINTEF methodology for evaluating the dispersibility of fresh and weathered oils. Several heavy fuel oils, specifically IFO-380 fuel oils, were involved in the study. Corexit 9500, which has been shown to be effective for viscous and weathered oils, was used as the dispersant. Results indicated that in many cases heavy fuel oils are dispersible, and that viscosity and dispersant dosage are particularly important factors. As a general rule, more viscous and weathered oils were found to require longer time for the dispersion process to occur. The standard SINTEF laboratory effectiveness test, particularly the 60-minute extended -time MNS tests, have been found to be very useful in characterizing heavy fuel oil dispersibility. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  8. Chemical dispersibility study of heavy bunker fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiocco, R. J. [R. J. Fiocco Associates, Summit, NJ (United States); Daling, P. S. [SINTEF, Trondheim, (Norway); DeMarco, G.; Lessard, R. R. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, NJ (United States); Canevari, G. P. [G. P. Canevari and Associates, Cranford, NJ (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Chemical dispersibility of heavy bunker fuel oil, which historically has been characterized as not dispersible, was studied, using the well-known SINTEF methodology for evaluating the dispersibility of fresh and weathered oils. Several heavy fuel oils, specifically IFO-380 fuel oils, were involved in the study. Corexit 9500, which has been shown to be effective for viscous and weathered oils, was used as the dispersant. Results indicated that in many cases heavy fuel oils are dispersible, and that viscosity and dispersant dosage are particularly important factors. As a general rule, more viscous and weathered oils were found to require longer time for the dispersion process to occur. The standard SINTEF laboratory effectiveness test, particularly the 60-minute extended -time MNS tests, have been found to be very useful in characterizing heavy fuel oil dispersibility. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Chemical dispersibility study of heavy bunker fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiocco, R. J. (R. J. Fiocco Associates, Summit, NJ (United States)); Daling, P. S. (SINTEF, Trondheim, (Norway)); DeMarco, G.; Lessard, R. R. (Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, NJ (United States)); Canevari, G. P. (G. P. Canevari and Associates, Cranford, NJ (United States))

    1999-01-01

    Chemical dispersibility of heavy bunker fuel oil, which historically has been characterized as not dispersible, was studied, using the well-known SINTEF methodology for evaluating the dispersibility of fresh and weathered oils. Several heavy fuel oils, specifically IFO-380 fuel oils, were involved in the study. Corexit 9500, which has been shown to be effective for viscous and weathered oils, was used as the dispersant. Results indicated that in many cases heavy fuel oils are dispersible, and that viscosity and dispersant dosage are particularly important factors. As a general rule, more viscous and weathered oils were found to require longer time for the dispersion process to occur. The standard SINTEF laboratory effectiveness test, particularly the 60-minute extended -time MNS tests, have been found to be very useful in characterizing heavy fuel oil dispersibility. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  10. A perspective on sorbents: responding to a bunker oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some practical guidelines for the selection of sorbents for use in oil spill cleanup are provided. Sorbents may be classified as selective or oleophilic, and non-selective or universal. Oleophilic sorbents are water-repelling, i.e. they will soak up oil spills and leave water behind. Universal sorbents will soak up most liquids. Sorbents come in such forms as booms, pads, socks, pillows, and loose particulates for spills on land. A case history involving a spill of Bunker C oil in a drainage ditch was provided to illustrate the variety of sorbents that may have to be employed to contain a particular spill. Since unexpected situations during a cleanup effort are the rule more than the exception, it is wise to use a sorbent supplier company that can fulfill a variety of spill response needs

  11. Leakage Radiation Dose Analysis at ELV-4 Bunker's Door

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker shielding is most important in the safety of an accelerator and one of the most important aspects of this shielding is the door. The bunker's door have be properly designed to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5 μSv/ hr. In such a bunker, the leakage radiation doses were estimated using the radiation protection concept and the data provided by machine supplier (BINP). The radiation leakage outside the bunker was determined through direct measurement using a survey meter. It was found that there were leakage radiation doses that have exceeded the permitted limit of 2.5 μSv/ hr at the gap between the bunkers door and the wall, with the highest joined to be at the labeled location 10 which were 466.647 μSv/ hr (from the calculation) and 479.573 μSv/ hr (from direct measurement). This high leakage radiation dose was due to the lack of significant thickness in the bunkers door of the shielding and the size of the gaps between the door and the wall. Thus modification and improvement to the shielding need to be done in order to protect workers and the public whilst the accelerator is in operation. (author)

  12. Bunker Conversion and the Overcoming of Siege Mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Morgan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bunkers are concrete responses to threats, whether these be real or imagined. They are indicators of a defensive attitude and a siege mentality. My paper wishes to analyse specific sites of historical reinscription, where such constructions have undergone a process of cultural transformation which has converted them into places of creative experimentation, ludic activity and everyday use. Such initiatives in translation are important ways of reworking the past, addressing presents needs and projecting different- less reactive, and maybe more pacific- prospects for the future. A similar undertaking was proposed by Henri de Saint-Simon when he diverted the term “avant-garde” away from its military implementation towards more a progressive usage. The “avant-garde” became an experimental association of artists working together for the benefit of society as an evolving whole.In On Social Organisation Saint-Simon described the “avant-garde” as follows:They [the artists, the men of imagination] will lead the way in that great undertaking; they will proclaim the future of mankind; they will bring back the golden age from the past to enrich future generations; they will inspire society with enthusiasm for the increase of its well-being by laying before it a tempting picture of a new prosperity.Economic “prosperity” might well be an appealing prospect for “us”, especially in these times of “crisis” when “we” are made to feel that our day-to-day existence is precarious. However, when Saint-Simon employs the term “new prosperity”, he is envisaging social values that are largely incompatible with capitalist consumer “culture” and competitive “market forces”. His suggestion that new technologies should serve to nationalize “luxury” and internationalise peace would require a radically different approach to social organisation from that prevalent today. Likewise, the demilitarized bunkers I wish to analyse also figure

  13. Radiation mapping inside the Bunkers of medium energy accelerators using a robotic carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of ambient and peak radiation levels prevailing inside the bunkers of the accelerator facilities is essential in assessing the accidental human exposure inside the bunkers and in protecting sensitive electronic equipments by minimizing the exposure to high intensity mixed radiation fields. Radiation field mapping dynamically, inside bunkers are rare, though generally dose-rate data are available in every particle accelerator facilities at specific locations. Taking into account of the fact that the existing neutron fields with a spread of energy from thermal up to the energy of the accelerated charged projectiles, prompt photons and other particles prevailing during cyclotron operation inside the bunkers, neutron and gamma survey meters with extended energy ranges attached to a robotic carrier have been used. The robotic carrier movement was controlled remotely from the control room with the help of multiple visible range optical cameras provided inside the bunkers and the wireless and wired protocols of communication helped its movement and data acquisition from the survey meters. Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata has positive ion accelerating facilities such as K-130 room Temperature Cyclotron, K-500 Super Conducting Cyclotron and a forthcoming 30 MeV Proton Medical Cyclotron with high beam current. The dose rates data for K-130 Room Temperature Cyclotron, VECC were collected for various energies of alpha and proton beams losing their total energy at different stages on different materials at various strategic locations of radiological importance inside the bunkers. The measurements established that radiation levels inside the machine bunker dynamically change depending upon the beam type, beam energy, machine operation parameters, deflector condition, slit placement and central region beam tuning. The obtained inference from the association of dose rates with the parameters like beam intensity, type and energy of projectiles, helped in

  14. Temporal evolution of the environmental dose remaining in a clinical irradiation bunker after the cessation of irradiation; Evolucion temporal de la Dosis ambiental remanente en un bunker de irradiacion clinica tras el cese de la irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we try to quantify the dose emitted by different radioactive processes that occur in the head of a clinical linear accelerator and the patient is irradiated, or walls of the bunker, converted into tertiary sources of radiation trying to establish the origin of the came in different parts of the bunker.

  15. Temporal evolution of the environmental doce remaining in a clinical irradiation bunker after the cessation of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we try to quantify tite doce emitted by different radioactive processes that occur in the head of a clinica. Linear accelerator and the patient is irradiated, or wallc of the bunker, converted into tertiary sources of radiation trying to ectablish tite origin of the came in different parts of the bunker.

  16. Risks attached to container- and bunker-storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a literature study into the risks attached to the two dry-storage options selected by the Dutch Central Organization For Radioactive Waste (COVRA): the container- and the bunker-storage for irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and nuclear waste. Since the COVRA does not make it clear how these concepts should have to be realized, the experiences abroad with dry interim-storage are considered. In particular the Castor-container-storage and the bunker storage proposed in the committee MINSK (Possibilities of Interim-storage in the Netherlands of Irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and Nuclear waste) are studied further in depth. The committee MINSK has performed a study into the technical realizability of various interim-storage facilities, among which a storage in bunkers. (author). 75 refs.; 14 figs.; 16 tabs

  17. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: fernandofernandes@biofarmaco.com.br [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  18. Overview of the earth mounded concrete bunker prototype license application project: Objectives and approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1989-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the objectives and approach taken in developing the Earth-mounded Concrete Bunker Prototype License Application Project. The Prototype License Application Project was initiated by the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program in early 1987 and completed in November 1988. As part of this project a prototype safety analysis report was developed. The safety analysis report evaluates the licensibility of an earth-mounded concrete bunker for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility located on a hypothetical site in the northeastern United States. The project required approximately five person-years and twenty months to develop.

  19. How a tax stole a market overnight: Bunkers in Los Angeles, California, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the bottom of the barrel is bunker fuel, a lesser value to refineries but quite important to shippers, port authorities, and associated sectors. Here is a brief story about how a California tax sent ships to ports of call other than Los Angeles and Long Beach - and slashed bunker sales and jobs. The government is reconsidering its actions, but some damage may be irreversible. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam and Singapore as of July 24, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, July 1992 Edition

  20. Temporal and spatial assessment of microbial communities in commercial silages from bunker silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut-Cohen, J; Tripathi, V; Chen, Y; Gatica, J; Volchinski, V; Sela, S; Weinberg, Z; Cytryn, E

    2016-08-01

    Ensiling is a feed preservation method of moist forage crops that generally depends on naturally developing lactic acid bacteria to convert water-soluble carbohydrates into organic acids. While bacterial community dynamics have been previously assessed in bench-scale and pilot ensiling facilities, almost no studies have assessed the microbiomes of large-scale silage facilities. This study analyzed bacterial community composition in mature silage from bunker silos in three commercial production centers as related to pH, organic matter, volatile fatty acid composition, and spatial distribution within the ensiling bunker. It revealed significant physicochemical differences between "preserved" regions situated in the center and along the walls of the silage bunkers that were characterized by high concentrations of lactic acid and other volatiles and pH values below 5, and "spoiled" regions in the corners (shoulders) of the bunkers that had low lactic acid concentrations and high pH values. Preserved silage was dominated (>90 %) by lactic acid bacteria and characterized by high similarity and low taxonomic diversity, whereas spoiled silage had highly diverse microbiomes with low abundances of lactic acid bacteria (<5 %) that were sometimes characterized by high levels of Enterobacteriaceae. Spatial position had a much stronger impact on the microbial community composition than feedstock type, sampling date, or production center location supporting previous studies demonstrating that ecology and not geography is a major driver of environmental microbiomes. PMID:27075739

  1. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  2. A New Small-Scale LNG Distribution and Bunkering Facility: - An Approach to Risk Based Design and Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Steine, Caroline Mortmannsgård Gams

    2013-01-01

    LNG is the preferred solution to meet environmental requirement and a great market growth is expected within few years. Lack of suitable infrastructure, regulation and bunkering practices poses challenges to the industry, however these barriers are currently being broken. Connect-LNG is in a conceptual phase of developing an innovative solution for LNG distribution and bunkering at inshore locations. A study of industry legislatives, normal industry practice, LNG properties and historical acc...

  3. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline following the grounding of the tanker 'Arrow'. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery

  4. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Incardona

    Full Text Available Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network.

  5. A new barite–colemanite concrete with lower neutron production in radiation therapy bunkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Photoneutron production from barite concrete is higher than ordinary concrete. ► The effect of adding colemanite to barite was studied by Monte Carlo simulation. ► Results showed lower photoneutron production for barite–colemanite concretes. ► Results showed reduced attenuation and compressive strength for new concretes. -- Abstract: The purpose of the current was to design a new high density concrete with low photoneutron production rate for radiation therapy bunker constructions. We used MCNPX Monte Carlo (MC) code for photoneutron productions in a radiation therapy bunker. The validated MC model of Varian Clinac 2100 C/D, 18 MeV photon beam and a radiation therapy bunkers made of barite was used for photoneutron calculations. Colemanite mineral with weight fraction of 5% and 10% was added to the barite concrete in bunker walls. Photoneutrons absorbed doses at beam isocenter and at the maze entrance door were calculated. The Barite–colemanite concretes with two different compositions were built and their linear attenuation coefficients were measured against Cobalt-60, 9 and 18 MeV photon beams. MC results showed that adding 5% and 10% Colemanite to Barite concrete reduces photoneutron production rate 7% and 16% respectively. However, experimental measurement of photon attenuation showed its lower photon attenuation coefficient and reduced mechanical properties. The results indicated that adding colemanite reduces photoneutrons received by the maze entrance door, but its photon attenuation and mechanical properties were compromised accordingly. Further studies on proposed concrete composition to enhance its mechanical properties are recommend.

  6. Shielding analysis of the microtron MT-25 bunker using the MCNP-4C code and NCRP report 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cyclic electron accelerator Microtron MT-25 will be installed in Havana (Cuba)). Electrons, neutrons and gamma radiation up to 25 MeV can be produced in the MT-25. A detailed shielding analysis for the bunker is carried out using two ways: the NCRP-51 Report and the Monte Carlo Method (MCNP-4C Code). The walls and ceiling thicknesses are estimated with dose constraints of 0.5 and 20 mSv y-1, respectively, and an area occupancy factor of 1/16. Both results are compared and a preliminary bunker design is shown. (authors)

  7. Effects of an experimental oil spill (bunker) on seedling survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Emanoela Nardes; Maurício Garcia de Camargo; Paulo Cunha Lana

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bunker oil on survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa were tested using 60 seedlings planted in small plastic bags (experimental unit). One of the six treatments was randomly assigned to each bag: 0 mL (control), 10 mL, 20 mL, 30 mL, 40 mL e 50 mL of bunker oil spilled in each bag. The experiment was monitored weekly for 20 weeks. The results were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and linear regression. In the first seven weeks, we observed chlorosis, loss of leafs a...

  8. A study on leakage radiation dose at ELV-4 electron accelerator bunker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shielding is an important aspect in the safety of an accelerator and the most important aspects of a bunker shielding is the door. The bunker’s door should be designed properly to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5μSv/hr. In determining the leakage radiation dose that passed through the door and gaps between the door and the wall, 2-dimensional manual calculations are often used. This method is hard to perform because visual 2-dimensional is limited and is also very difficult in the real situation. Therefore estimation values are normally performed. In doing so, the construction cost would be higher because of overestimate or underestimate which require costly modification to the bunker. Therefore in this study, two methods are introduced to overcome the problem such as simulation using MCNPX Version 2.6.0 software and manual calculation using 3-dimensional model from Autodesk Inventor 2010 software. The values from the two methods were eventually compared to the real values from direct measurements using Ludlum Model 3 with Model 44-9 probe survey meter

  9. Marine fuel bunkering : environmental and economic consequences of low sulfur fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J.B.; Vossoughi, S. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The marine fuel bunkering industry sells fuel to ships. The 3 most common products purchased by the industry include heavy fuel oil (HFO); marine diesel oil (MDO) and marine gas oil (MGO). Use of the petroleum products drives the global economy (GNP) while emitting millions of tonnes of air pollution. This paper discussed a recent initiative involving 164 nations that has been formed to control emissions related to shipping. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has mandated that shipping not be allowed to operate within specified sulphur emission control areas (SECA) unless the sulphur content of marine fuels is less than 1.5 per cent. Deadlines have also been set for all member states to meet and maintain sulphur limits of 4.5 per cent on marine fuel bunkers. It is hoped that the restrictions will cause the world's fleets to demand an increased availability of lower sulphur fuels. It was concluded that the restrictions will reduce sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions by over 500,000 tonnes per year. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The 'Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204

  11. 76 FR 21849 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... the ``Submit a Comment'' screen. Please include your name, company name (if any), and ``DFARS Case... Office of Management and Budget under the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. chapter 35). List of... Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card and Aircraft Ground Services (DFARS...

  12. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H.; Sun, Yurui; Cheng, Qiang; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Lin, Jianhui; Zhou, Haiyang; Wang, Zhongyi

    2016-01-01

    For silage production, high bulk density (BD) is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC) out of the penetration resistance (PR), transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc) to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m). The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m−3) demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos. PMID:27399703

  13. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  15. Effects of an experimental oil spill (bunker on seedling survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Nardes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bunker oil on survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa were tested using 60 seedlings planted in small plastic bags (experimental unit. One of the six treatments was randomly assigned to each bag: 0 mL (control, 10 mL, 20 mL, 30 mL, 40 mL e 50 mL of bunker oil spilled in each bag. The experiment was monitored weekly for 20 weeks. The results were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and linear regression. In the first seven weeks, we observed chlorosis, loss of leafs and death rate significantly superior to plants of all treatments compared to the control group. Persistent effects like reduction of stem growth and leaf production was proportional to the initial oil concentration. The plants from control and 10 mL treatments were significantly superior to all remaining treatments in height, leaf number and healthy level. Results indicated that L. racemosa seedlings suffer both lethal and sublethal effects from exposition to bunker oil exposure.

  16. A Preliminary Study on the Air and Concrete Activation Analysis for RAON ISOL-Bunker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two radiation analysis field; (i) prompt radiation and (ii) residual radiation. The residual radiation is generated from materials irradiated from the high energy prompt radiation. The dose of the residual radiation is relatively lower than that of the prompt radiation; therefore, the analysis is usually performed after turn-off of the accelerators. In this study, radioactivity analyses were performed to establish the strategy of the activation analysis in ISOL facilities of RAON. To estimate the residual radiation dose calculation, the rigorous-two-step method (R2S) was used with coupling the MCNPX 2.7 and SP-FISPECT-2010 code. In this study, a preliminary study for the air and concrete activation in ISOL-bunker was evaluated using the MCNPX 2.7 and SP-FISPACT-2010 codes. For the air activation, humidity effect was first evaluated; then, the air composition was determined. Also, a calculation procedure of the air activation was established. For the concrete activation, the strategy of dividing the concrete wall was constructed. These results can be used as the reference data to design the ISOL facility with considering radiation safety

  17. Jakuta Alikavazovic, La blonde et le bunker derrière le miroir…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Broussin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le roman que nous propose la romancière française, née en 1979, après le prix Goncourt du premier roman avec Les corps Volatils, a remporté la mention spéciale du jury Wepler. Et l’œuvre perturbe en effet tous nos repères, réalisant les aspirations de son auteure : « L’originalité dans la répétition. Le déjà-vu comme condition du sens, et paradoxalement comme irruption de la nouveauté. » Impossible de se raccrocher longtemps au désir d’élucidation, moteur du roman noir, tant la narration joue du speculum, à la fois jeux de regards et de miroirs, et spéculations de toutes sortes. Et pourtant, Jakuta Alikavazovic a éveillé notre curiosité et notre instinct de détective. C’est pourquoi nous vous proposons de nous suivre dans cette enquête, sur les traces du récit, avec pour seul indice celui qu’a laissé l’auteure derrière elle : « L’un des thèmes de La blonde et le bunker (comme de tous mes livres est la disparition »

  18. Water chemistry and isotope data from a five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave, NW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, S.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Spötl, C.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Richter, D. K.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-04-01

    Water chemistry and isotope data from a five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave, NW Germany Sylvia Riechelmann (1), Andrea Schröder-Ritzrau (2), Christoph Spötl (3), Dana F.C. Riechelmann (4), Detlev K. Richter (1), Adrian Immenhauser (1) (1) Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Geophysics, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801 Bochum, Germany (2) Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany (3) Leopold-Franzens-University Innsbruck, Institute for Geology and Palaeontology, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria (4) Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Geography, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 21, D-55128 Mainz, Germany Monitoring of cave environments is essential to understand the processes taking place in the soil, karst and cave zone and the interpretation of speleothem archives is increasingly based on monitoring data. A five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave (NW Germany) included monthly sampling of rain, soil and drip water. The delta18O ratios of the drip waters reflect the mean annual delta18O composition of rain water. The weak seasonal pattern in drip water delta18O composition is overlain by a trend to increasing values (approximately 0.3‰ in the monitoring period between 2007 and 2011). Up to the year 2009, rain water delta18O values show an increasing trend. In 2010, the lowest yearly mean delta18O ratio of rain water (-9.20‰) was observed, probably due to cool summer air temperatures and significant amounts of snow fall during winter months 2010. A decrease of the drip water delta18O in the future will expectedly allow to stack both data series and to identify time delay between rain water and drip water series and allow for the quantification of the approximate transfer time of rain water from soil surface into the cave. The Mg2+-concentration of one drip site correlates positively with drip rate. High Mg2+-concentrations occur especially after dry periods (low

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document

  20. Application of Moving Bunker in Mining in Steeply-inclined Seam%移动煤仓在急倾斜煤层开采中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹相证; 王守安; 张迎新

    2011-01-01

    简要阐述了移动式煤仓的设计,分析了原有急倾斜煤层走向长壁后退式分带仰斜采煤工作面在煤仓设计中的不足,结合生产实际,提出移动煤仓在实际生产中与原有设计相比的长处及具体的施工操作步骤。%By analysis of the disadvantages of original bunker design in retreating longwall rise mining face with steeply-inclined seam,the paper elaborates the design of moving bunker,and introduces the advantages of moving bunker compared with the old design and its concrete construction operating steps in actual production.

  1. When is a soil remediated? Comparison of biopiled and windrowed soils contaminated with bunker-fuel in a full-scale trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six month field scale study was carried out to compare windrow turning and biopile techniques for the remediation of soil contaminated with bunker C fuel oil. End-point clean-up targets were defined by human risk assessment and ecotoxicological hazard assessment approaches. Replicate windrows and biopiles were amended with either nutrients and inocula, nutrients alone or no amendment. In addition to fractionated hydrocarbon analysis, culturable microbial characterisation and soil ecotoxicological assays were performed. This particular soil, heavy in texture and historically contaminated with bunker fuel was more effectively remediated by windrowing, but coarser textures may be more amendable to biopiling. This trial reveals the benefit of developing risk and hazard based approaches in defining end-point bioremediation of heavy hydrocarbons when engineered biopile or windrow are proposed as treatment option. - Windrows outperform biopiles in the bioremediation of bunker oil contaminated soils.

  2. Design Considerations and Validation of Tenth Value Layer Used for a Medical Linear Accelerator Bunker Using High Density Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet, Deborah; Horton, Patrick; Jones, Matthew; Ramsdale, Malcolm [Medical Physics Department, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    A bunker for the containment and medical use of 10 MV and 6 MV X-rays from a linear accelerator was designed to be added on to four existing bunkers. Space was limited and the walls of the bunker were built using Magnadense, a high density aggregate mined in Sweden and imported into the UK by Minelco Minerals Ltd. The density was specified by the user to be a minimum of 3800 kg/m{sup 3}. This reduced the thickness of primary and secondary shielding over that required using standard concrete. Standard concrete (density 2350 kg/m{sup 3}) was used for the roof of the bunker. No published data for the tenth value layer (T.V.L.) of the high density concrete were available and values of T.V.L. were derived from those for standard concrete using the ratio of density. Calculations of wall thickness along established principles using normal assumptions and dose constraints resulted in a design with minimum primary wall barriers of 1500 mm and secondary barriers of between 800 mm and 1000 mm of high density concrete. Following construction, measurements were made of the dose rates outside the shielding thereby allowing estimates of the T.V.L. of the material for 6 and 10 MV X-rays. The instantaneous dose rates outside the primary barrier walls were calculated to be less than 6 x 10{sup -6} Sv/hr but on measurement were found to be more than a factor of 4 times lower than this. Calculations were reviewed and the T.V.L. was found to be 12% greater than that required to achieve the measured dose rate. On the roof, the instantaneous dose rate at the primary barrier was measured to be within 3% of that predicted using the published values of T.V.L. for standard concrete. Sample cubes of standard and high density concrete poured during construction showed that the density of the standard concrete in the roof was close to that used in the design whereas the physical density of Magnadense concrete was on average 5% higher than that specified. In conclusion, values of T.V.L. for the

  3. Design Considerations and Validation of Tenth Value Layer Used for a Medical Linear Accelerator Bunker Using High Density Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bunker for the containment and medical use of 10 MV and 6 MV X-rays from a linear accelerator was designed to be added on to four existing bunkers. Space was limited and the walls of the bunker were built using Magnadense, a high density aggregate mined in Sweden and imported into the UK by Minelco Minerals Ltd. The density was specified by the user to be a minimum of 3800 kg/m3. This reduced the thickness of primary and secondary shielding over that required using standard concrete. Standard concrete (density 2350 kg/m3) was used for the roof of the bunker. No published data for the tenth value layer (T.V.L.) of the high density concrete were available and values of T.V.L. were derived from those for standard concrete using the ratio of density. Calculations of wall thickness along established principles using normal assumptions and dose constraints resulted in a design with minimum primary wall barriers of 1500 mm and secondary barriers of between 800 mm and 1000 mm of high density concrete. Following construction, measurements were made of the dose rates outside the shielding thereby allowing estimates of the T.V.L. of the material for 6 and 10 MV X-rays. The instantaneous dose rates outside the primary barrier walls were calculated to be less than 6 x 10-6 Sv/hr but on measurement were found to be more than a factor of 4 times lower than this. Calculations were reviewed and the T.V.L. was found to be 12% greater than that required to achieve the measured dose rate. On the roof, the instantaneous dose rate at the primary barrier was measured to be within 3% of that predicted using the published values of T.V.L. for standard concrete. Sample cubes of standard and high density concrete poured during construction showed that the density of the standard concrete in the roof was close to that used in the design whereas the physical density of Magnadense concrete was on average 5% higher than that specified. In conclusion, values of T.V.L. for the high density

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  5. Measures neutronics with detector CZT for acceptance of the access to the bunker of a Linac 15 MV Radiotherapy; Medidas neutronicas con detector CZT para aceptacion del acceso al bunker de un LINAC de radioterapia de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero Sanz, R.; Anton, D. A.; Iniguez de la Torre, P. L.; Castillo Belmonte, A. C. del; Alonso, D. A.; Miguel, D. M. de; Lopez Lara-Martin, F. L.

    2013-07-01

    After the construction of the bunker and any accelerator installation and prior to start up, be accept built shields from the treatment room to ensure adequate radiation protection during their operation. This acceptance includes the verification of the dose by voltammetry in operation of high energy (15MV) in the labyrinth of access to your computer. The acquisition by the hospital of a specific detector for neutrons represents a cost usually unacceptable, by what is often resort to external entities to obtain doses of the same. The solution in our case it has been using a spectrometer equipped with CZT detector acquired for measurement of Photonic fields, but that has been calibrated for measurement of thermal neutrons, which are those found in the access to the accelerator. In the work are presented the measures carried out and the results obtained. (Author)

  6. Cosmogenic 36Cl in karst waters from Bunker Cave North Western Germany - A tool to derive local evapotranspiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münsterer, C.; Fohlmeister, J.; Christl, M.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Alfimov, V.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Wackerbarth, A.; Mangini, A.

    2012-06-01

    Monthly rain and drip waters were collected over a period of 10 months at Bunker Cave, Germany. The concentration of 36Cl and the 36Cl/Cl-ratios were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), while stable (35+37)Cl concentrations were measured with both, ion chromatography (IC) and AMS. The measured 36Cl-fluxes of (0.97 ± 0.57) × 104 atoms cm-2 month-1 (0.97 atoms m-2 month-1) in precipitation were on average twice as high as the global mean atmospheric production rate. This observation is consistent with the local fallout pattern, which is characterized by a maximum at mid-latitudes. The stable chloride concentration in drip waters (ranging from 13.2 to 20.9 mg/l) and the 36Cl-concentrations (ranging from 16.9 × 106 to 35.3 × 106 atoms/l) are a factor of 7 and 10 above the values expected from empirical evapotranspiration formulas and the rain water concentrations, respectively. Most likely the additional stable Cl is due to human impact from a nearby urban conglomeration. The large 36Cl-enrichment is attributed to the local evapotranspiration effect, which appears to be higher than the calculated values and to additional bomb-derived 36Cl from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 60s stored in the soil above the cave. In the densely vegetated soil above Bunker Cave, 36Cl seems not to behave as a completely conservative tracer. The bomb derived 36Cl might be retained in the soil due to uptake by minerals and organic material and is still being released now. Based on our data, the residence time of 36Cl in the soil is estimated to be about 75-85 years.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels

  8. Bunker glocal: configuração majoritária sutil do imaginário mediático contemporâneo e militarização imperceptível da vida cotidiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Trivinho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunker glocal – esta expressão heterodoxa – é o fundamento mediático do processo civilizatório contemporâneo. Sua análise no âmbito da teoria social e da comunicação apreende o principal aspecto de sua múltipla significação social-histórica: a militarização velada da existência humana no contexto civil da era digital. Ao materializar essa injunção teórica, o presente artigo detalha os vínculos inextricáveis entre processo de bunkerização ampliada, imaginário social e fenômeno glocal (além do global e do local, para, em conclusão, qualificar o bunker glocal como linguagem matricial de equivalência generalizada na cibercultura. Palavras-chave: Comunicação; cibercultura; bunker glocal; processo de bunkerização; militarização velada da vida social. ABSTRACT Glocal bunker – this heterodox expression – is the mediatic fundament of the contemporary civilizing process. Its analysis within the ambit of social and communication theory apprehends the principal aspects of its multiple social and historical meaning: the covert militarization of human existence in the civil context of the digital era. By materializing this theoretical injunction, this article details the inextricable links between the expanded bunkering process, the social imaginary and the glocal phenomenon (beyond the global and local, and concludes by qualifying the glocal bunker as a matricial language of generalized equivalence in cyberculture. Keywords: Communication; cyberculture; glocal bunker; bunkering process; covert militarization of social life.

  9. Neutron transport in a clinical linear accelerator bunker: comparison of materials for reducing the photo-neutron dose at the maze entrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megavoltage photons above 10 MeV used in external beam radiotherapy lead to a significant photo-neutron fluence, which must be taken into account in bunker design (IPEM, 1997, Report 75, The design of radiotherapy treatment room facilities). This work describes Monte-Carlo simulations of such neutrons for a proposed bunker, which is to house a 15 MV accelerator. Neutron fluence spectra and absorbed dose due to neutrons and neutron-capture photons were scored at the accelerator iso centre and at the maze entrance for mono-energetic neutron sources of 0.5, 3 and 6 MeV. The reduction in neutron and photon dose at the maze entrance, achieved by cladding concrete maze walls with either wood, polyethylene or a commercially available plastic, was determined.

  10. Attenuation characteristics of MagnaDense high-density concrete at 6, 10 and 15 mv for use in radiotherapy bunker design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M R; Peet, D J; Horton, P W

    2009-01-01

    The attenuation characteristics of MagnaDense high-density concrete are measured using the x-ray beams from two Varian linear accelerators at nominal 6, 10, and 15 megavolt energies. The tenth value layers for the primary beam are evaluated under broad- and narrow-beam conditions. The attenuation of secondary radiation is also investigated. Measured data are compared with existing data used in radiotherapy bunker design, derived from the scaling of published tenth value layers for ordinary concrete according to physical density. Instantaneous dose rates around an existing bunker with MagnaDense concrete walls and a conventional concrete roof are predicted using the various different data and compared to actual dose-rate measurements. Primary beam tenth value layer values derived from the broad-beam measurements are found to represent the attenuation properties of the MagnaDense more accurately than those produced by density-based scaling or from narrow-beam measurements. PMID:19066488

  11. Usefulness of product policy in the oil supply as a supplement to target group policy. LCA study on the basis of the case 'Desulfurization of bunker oil'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, a life cycle analysis of refinery products in general is carried out, limited to the environmental effects of the phases extraction, transport and refining. Results are presented and compared with other literature data. The policy problem whether bunker oils for sea vessels should be desulfurized or not is used to illustrate the usefulness of LCA as an instrument in product policy. A computer program has been used to classify the different environmental effects. 37 figs., 65 tabs., 62 refs., 7 appendices

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  13. Biodegradation of Heavy C Oil by Alcanivorax sp. a1 Strain Isolated from Recovered Bunker Oil Spilt in the “Solar I” Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Murata, Kei; Uno, Seiichi; Koyama, Jiro; Maeda, Hiroto; Hayashi, Masazumi; Sadaba, Resurreccion B.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Alcanivorax is known as a petroleum hydrocarbon degrader and primarily contributes to bioremediation process of hydrocarbon pollution in petroleum-contaminated marine environments. In the present study, biodegradability of heavy C oil constituents by Alcanivorax sp. a1 strain, isolated from bunker oil recovered from the “Solar1” oil spill accident offshore the Guimaras Island, the Philippines in 2006, was investigated. The isolate showed remarkable growth in UPFe medium supplemen...

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  15. Application of fracture-flow hydrogeology to acid-mine drainage at the Bunker Hill Mine, Kellogg, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmar, Thomas E.

    1994-03-01

    The mechanics of groundwater flow through fractured rock has become an object of major research interest during recent years. This project has investigated the flow of groundwater through fractured Precambrian metaquartzite rocks in a portion of the Bunker Hill Mine near Kellogg, Idaho. Groundwater flow through these types of rocks is largely dependent upon the properties of fractures such as faults, joints and relict bedding planes. Groundwater that flows into the mine via the fractures is acidic and is contaminated by heavy metals, which results in a severe acid mine drainage problem. A more complete understanding of how the fractures influence the groundwater flow system is a prerequisite of the evaluation of reclamation alternatives to reduce acid drainage from the mine. Fracture mapping techniques were used to obtain detailed information on the fracture properties observed in the New East Reed drift of the Bunker Hill Mine. The information obtained includes fracture type, orientation, trace length, the number of visible terminations, roughness, waviness, infilling material, and a qualitative measure of the amount of water flowing through each fracture. The hydrogeologic field data collected include routine measurements of the discharge from four individual structural features and four areas where large quantities of water are discharging from vertical rock bolts, the depths to water in three piezometer nests at the ground surface, the pressure variations in four diamond drillholes, and constant discharge flow tests conducted on three of the diamond drillholes. The field data indicate that relict bedding planes are the primary conduits for groundwater flow, and suggest that the two major joint sets that are present connect water flowing through the discontinuous bedding planes. The three minor joint sets that are present do not seem to have a significant impact on groundwater flow, but along with the two major joint sets may store relatively large quantities of

  16. Influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained inside a bunker of a PET cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a cyclotron facility is strongly advised the use of spectrometry techniques to support workplace neutron dosimetry. Bonner sphere spectrometer (Bss) is the most used for radiation protection applications. Bss data must be unfolded to determine the spectral particle fluence. Some computer codes have been utilized for this purpose. These codes allow unfolding the spectrum from the Bss count rates through different algorithms. Some iterative routines need an initial guess spectrum to start the unfolding. The adequate choice of this initial spectrum is a critical part of the process and can affect the final solution. In this work, we evaluate the influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained in four points inside the bunker of a PET cyclotron. The measurements were done utilizing a modified Bss system with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Codes BUNKIUT and NSDUAZ were utilized to unfold the Bss data. For the NSDUAZ the starting spectrum is automatically obtained from a library initial guess spectra. For the BUNKIUT code were utilized two different initial guess spectra: (a) a Maxwellian spectrum with temperature of 1.4 MeV and shape factor of 0.1, created with the MAXIET algorithm and; (b) the spectra obtained through simulation with the MCNPX code version 2.7. Spectra obtained with both unfold codes and with the different initial guess spectra presented epithermal and thermal neutrons due to room-return effects. However, the contribution of the fast neutron to the total fluence were quite different for the different cases studied. These differences highlight the importance of an appropriate choice of an initial guess spectra for the quality of the results. (Author)

  17. Influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained inside a bunker of a PET cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente C, J. A.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Da Silva, T. A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In a cyclotron facility is strongly advised the use of spectrometry techniques to support workplace neutron dosimetry. Bonner sphere spectrometer (Bss) is the most used for radiation protection applications. Bss data must be unfolded to determine the spectral particle fluence. Some computer codes have been utilized for this purpose. These codes allow unfolding the spectrum from the Bss count rates through different algorithms. Some iterative routines need an initial guess spectrum to start the unfolding. The adequate choice of this initial spectrum is a critical part of the process and can affect the final solution. In this work, we evaluate the influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained in four points inside the bunker of a PET cyclotron. The measurements were done utilizing a modified Bss system with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Codes BUNKIUT and NSDUAZ were utilized to unfold the Bss data. For the NSDUAZ the starting spectrum is automatically obtained from a library initial guess spectra. For the BUNKIUT code were utilized two different initial guess spectra: (a) a Maxwellian spectrum with temperature of 1.4 MeV and shape factor of 0.1, created with the MAXIET algorithm and; (b) the spectra obtained through simulation with the MCNPX code version 2.7. Spectra obtained with both unfold codes and with the different initial guess spectra presented epithermal and thermal neutrons due to room-return effects. However, the contribution of the fast neutron to the total fluence were quite different for the different cases studied. These differences highlight the importance of an appropriate choice of an initial guess spectra for the quality of the results. (Author)

  18. Trace metal determination by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for the differentiation between pure fuel oil (bunker oil) and waste oil (sludge) in maritime shipping legal cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a simple sample preparation technique, the concentrations of Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in several bunker and sludge oils have been measured simultaneously by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) in the mg/kg range. As a result, five elements are suitable in distinguishing between both types of oil: Ca, V, Fe, Ni and Zn. This differentiation can be used in cases where shipping vessel captains or chiefs attempt to conceal illegal waste oil discharge at sea by wrongly declaring bunker oil as sludge. (author)

  19. Trace metal determination by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for the differentiation between pure fuel oil (bunker oil) and waste oil (sludge) in maritime shipping legal cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmacher, Martina; Freimann, Peter; Schmidt, Diether; Dahlmann, Gerhard

    1993-02-01

    Using a simple sample preparation technique, the concentrations of Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in several bunker and sludge oils have been measured simultaneously by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) in the mg/kg range. As a result, five elements are suitable in distinguishing between both types of oil: Ca, V, Fe, Ni and Zn. This differentiation can be used in cases where shipping vessel captains or chiefs attempt to conceal illegal waste oil discharge at sea by wrongly declaring bunker oil as sludge.

  20. Neutron transport in a clinical linear accelerator bunker: comparison of materials for reducing the photo-neutron dose at the maze entrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megavoltage photons above 10 MeV used in external beam radiotherapy lead to a significant photoneutron fluence, which must be taken into account in bunker design. This work describes Monte-Carlo simulations of such neutrons for a proposed bunker which is to house a 15 MV accelerator. Of particular interest was the effect on the neutron dose at the maze entrance, of cladding maze walls with various materials. Simulations were performed using the MCNP4B Monte-Carlo code. Mean photo-neutron energies of 0.5, 3 and 6 MeV were assumed to be produced isotropically from the accelerator head. Neutron fluence spectra and absorbed dose due to neutrons and neutron-capture photons were scored at the machine isocentre and at the maze entrance in a 30 cm diameter sphere of tissue. Absorbed dose at the maze entrance was then determined relative to isocentre dose. The reduction in neutron dose at the maze entrance, achieved by cladding concrete maze walls with either wood, polystyrene or a commercially available plastic, was determined. A comparison of materials has been made in terms of efficiency and cost implications. (author)

  1. : The glocal bunker and its paradox: operational dialetic between "reclosure" and "openness" in advanced mediatic civilization. O bunker glocal e seu paradoxo: dialética operacional entre "refechamento" e "abertura" na civilização mediática avançada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Trivinho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available in advanced mediatic civilization — In this article, the author reflects upon the sociohistorical signification of the glocal bunker today — the mediatic bunker of cyberculture (cyberspace, which, extending beyond the global and the local, within the very fabric of planetary glocaliza- tion, culturally rearticulates and reinforces the process of obliterated militarization of social life. His discussion dissects an autopoietic sociophenomenological and fundamental filigrain of the material and subjective experience of this bunker: a paradoxical intra-operational movement which simultaneously encompasses "reclosure" and "openness" in relation to the world, and particularly to alterity. This peculiar paradox conceals the way in which the collective and indi- vidual appropriation by the majority of digital networks is expressed in the sociohistorical and in quotidian life. In effect, internationally established cyber-overoptimistic discourse promotes the "openness" brought about by interactivity as the only fact worthy of attention in the current stage of the productive forces. The material and subjective "reclosure" it also represents is discarded as a mere historical exception, accident or minor inconvenience. The present study examines the naiveté of this epochal fallacy. "Openness" can only be understood if in inter-remission with the tendency for "reclosure". If, in cyberculture, there is no confinement or total atomization of the subject, neither is there an unquestionable horizon absolutely free to him. O artigo desdobra a reflexão do autor sobre a significação social-histórica do bunker glocal na atualidade — bunker mediático da cibercultura (o cyberspace que, vigorando para além do global e do local, já no tecido próprio da glocalização planetária, rearticula e reforça, cul- turalmente, o processo de militarização obliterada da vida social. A argumentação disseca uma

  2. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Improving corn silage quality in the top layer of farm bunker silos through the use of a next-generation barrier film with high impermeability to oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect on the fermentation, chemical, and microbiological quality of corn silage covered with a new-generation high oxygen barrier film (HOB) made with a special grade of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) compared with a standard polyethylene film (PE). Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that half of the silo would be covered with PE film and the other with HOB film. Plastic net bags with fresh chopped corn were buried in the upper layer (close to and far from the wall) and in the central part of the bunkers. During spring-summer consumption, the bags were unloaded, weighed, and subsampled to analyze the dry matter (DM) content, neutral detergent fiber and starch contents, pH, lactic and monocarboxylic acids, yeast and mold counts, aerobic and anaerobic spore-former counts, and aerobic stability. We also determined the economic benefit of applying the novel covering. The top layer of silage conserved under the HOB film had a higher lactic acid content and lower pH; lower counts of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers; higher aerobic stability; and lower DM losses than the silage conserved under the PE film. The use of the HOB film prevented almost all of the silage in the upper layer from spoiling; only 2 out of 32 samples had a mold count >6log10 cfu/g. This led to a net economic gain when the HOB film was used on both farms due to the increased DM recovery and reduced labor time required to clean the upper layer, even though the HOB film cost about 2.3 times more than the PE film. Furthermore, use of the HOB film, which ensures a longer shelf life of silage during consumption, reduced the detrimental effect of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers on the nutritional and microbiological quality of the unloaded silage. PMID:24565321

  4. Estimating Children’s Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates through Retrospective Analyses of Blood Lead Biomonitoring from the Bunker Hill Superfund Site in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lindern, Ian; Spalinger, Susan; Stifelman, Marc L.; Stanek, Lindsay Wichers; Bartrem, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Soil/dust ingestion rates are important variables in assessing children’s health risks in contaminated environments. Current estimates are based largely on soil tracer methodology, which is limited by analytical uncertainty, small sample size, and short study duration. Objectives: The objective was to estimate site-specific soil/dust ingestion rates through reevaluation of the lead absorption dose–response relationship using new bioavailability data from the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (BHSS) in Idaho, USA. Methods: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in vitro bioavailability methodology was applied to archived BHSS soil and dust samples. Using age-specific biokinetic slope factors, we related bioavailable lead from these sources to children’s blood lead levels (BLLs) monitored during cleanup from 1988 through 2002. Quantitative regression analyses and exposure assessment guidance were used to develop candidate soil/dust source partition scenarios estimating lead intake, allowing estimation of age-specific soil/dust ingestion rates. These ingestion rate and bioavailability estimates were simultaneously applied to the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children to determine those combinations best approximating observed BLLs. Results: Absolute soil and house dust bioavailability averaged 33% (SD ± 4%) and 28% (SD ± 6%), respectively. Estimated BHSS age-specific soil/dust ingestion rates are 86–94 mg/day for 6-month- to 2-year-old children and 51–67 mg/day for 2- to 9-year-old children. Conclusions: Soil/dust ingestion rate estimates for 1- to 9-year-old children at the BHSS are lower than those commonly used in human health risk assessment. A substantial component of children’s exposure comes from sources beyond the immediate home environment. Citation: von Lindern I, Spalinger S, Stifelman ML, Stanek LW, Bartrem C. 2016. Estimating children’s soil/dust ingestion

  5. Modelling of a simple bunker problem with Monte Carlo codes TRIPOLI 4.3 and MCNPX 2.4 to test the efficiency of the biasing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo codes are particularly used at IRSN to simulate the particle transport in complex geometries such as multi-element detectors, voxel phantoms and irradiation facilities. These calculations without any optimisation could run over several CPU days. The biasing methods of TRIPOLI 4.3 or MCNPX 2.4 appear to be very powerful but they require a careful control in order to obtain reliable results. This is why IRSN users of these codes have developed a simple model, i.e. a bunker room, in order to test in terms of CPU time and control difficulty different variance reduction methods proposed by the codes. The geometry of the model is a square room in which there is a neutron isotropic source of UO2, which is typical of the sources simulated in engineering calculations to evaluate the protection shields of the installation facilities. The ceiling, floor and walls are made of concrete. The purpose of the simulation is to calculate the ambient dose equivalent rate outside the room at 20 cm from a wall. The presented results obtained with the two codes are compared with respect to CPU time. (authors)

  6. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, MIS3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS3: −8.6 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 ka: −9.7 ± 0.2‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.6 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  7. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS 3: −8.5 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 kyr: −9.3 ± 0.1‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.5 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  8. Chronic fuel oil toxicity in American mink (Mustela vison): systemic and hematological effects of ingestion of a low-concentration of bunker C fuel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum oil enters the coastal marine environment through various sources; marine mammals such as sea otters that inhabit this environment may be exposed to low concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons through ingestion of contaminated prey. The inability to perform controlled studies in free-ranging animals hinders investigations of the effects of chronic petroleum oil exposure on sea otter morbidity and mortality, necessitating the development of a reliable laboratory model. We examined the effects of oral exposure to 500 ppm bunker C fuel oil over 113-118 days on American mink, a species phylogenetically related to the sea otter. Hematological parameters and organs were examined for fuel oil-associated changes. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA expression and fecal cortisol concentrations were also measured. Ingestion of fuel oil was associated with a decrease in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration (Hgb), hematocrit (HCT), and an increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Total leukocytes were elevated in the fuel oil group from increases in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Significant interactions between fuel oil and antigen challenge were found for erythrocyte parameters, monocyte and lymphocyte counts. Liver and adrenal weights were increased although mesenteric lymph node weights were decreased in the fuel oil group. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA was elevated in the fuel oil group. Fecal cortisol concentration did not vary between the two groups. Our findings show that fuel oil exposure alters circulating leukocyte numbers, erythrocyte homeostasis, hepatic metabolism and adrenal physiology and establish a framework to use mink as a model for sea otters in studying the systemic effects of marine contaminants

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  10. Bunker glocal: configuração majoritária sutil do imaginário mediático contemporâneo e militarização imperceptível da vida cotidiana

    OpenAIRE

    Eugênio Trivinho

    2008-01-01

    Bunker glocal – esta expressão heterodoxa – é o fundamento mediático do processo civilizatório contemporâneo. Sua análise no âmbito da teoria social e da comunicação apreende o principal aspecto de sua múltipla significação social-histórica: a militarização velada da existência humana no contexto civil da era digital. Ao materializar essa injunção teórica, o presente artigo detalha os vínculos inextricáveis entre processo de bunkerização ampliada, imaginário social e fenômeno glocal (além ...

  11. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria. [Alternative methods are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults; earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, augered holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria.

  12. Trends in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids in public supply wells of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins, San Bernardino County, California: influence of legacy land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Landon, Matthew K

    2013-05-01

    Concentrations and temporal changes in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins of the Upper Santa Ana Valley Groundwater Basin were evaluated to identify trends and factors that may be affecting trends. One hundred, thirty-one public-supply wells were selected for analysis based on the availability of data spanning at least 11 years between the late 1980s and the 2000s. Forty-one of the 131 wells (31%) had a significant (porganic compounds (VOCs); VOC occurrence decreases with increasing depth. The relations of nitrate trends to depth, lateral position, and VOCs imply that increasing nitrate concentrations are associated with nitrate loading from historical agricultural land use and that more recent urban land use is generally associated with lower nitrate concentrations and greater VOC occurrence. Increasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater current nitrate concentrations and relatively greater amounts of urban land. Decreasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater amounts of natural land use. Trends in TDS concentrations were not related to depth, lateral position, or VOC occurrence, reflecting more complex factors affecting TDS than nitrate in the study area. PMID:23500406

  13. Large protective bunker for ABC weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cylindrical concrete jacket standing vertically in the earth has a steel ring similar to a cutter and is lowered into the ground under its own weight. Ceilings for storeys made of prefabricated parts are built into the concrete cylinder and it is divided into individual rooms by walls. In the centre of the cylinder there is a lift with a staircase. All internal parts are lowered into the cylinder, which is later closed by a dome-shaped dome 3-5 m thick. The rate of work at the manufacturer is such that first class protective rooms for about 400 people can be produced per month. (orig./HP)

  14. Composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de capim-elefante obtida em diferentes tipos de silos experimentais e no silo tipo trincheira Chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephantgrass silage obtained in different experimental and bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes tipos de silos experimentais, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos, sacos plásticos e manilhas de concreto não impermeabilizadas, foram comparados com o silo comercial tipo trincheira, amostrado a 30 e 60 cm da sua superfície, para a ensilagem do capim-elefante (cv. Napier. Utilizaram-se, ainda, dois diferentes graus de compactação, correspondentes a 400 ou 600 kg de silagem/m³. O capim (33,0% de MS e 4,2% de PB foi homogeneizado e utilizado para encher quatro silos por tratamento, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Depois de abertos, estes foram amostrados, para análise da composição bromatológica e do perfil fermentativo. Silagens produzidas em manilhas de concreto não impermeabilizadas apresentaram altos valores de pH, NIDA e lignina, baixas concentrações de ácido lático e nitrogênio amoniacal, baixo poder tampão e baixa digestibilidade in vitro. Silagens produzidas em silos experimentais apresentaram qualidade superior, quanto aos parâmetros amido, carboidratos solúveis, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal, poder tampão, ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático, do que aquelas produzidas no silo comercial. Silagens obtidas dos diferentes extratos do silo comercial apresentaram maior variabilidade para os parâmetros de fermentação do que aquelas obtidas entre diferentes tipos de silos experimentais.One type of commercial silo and three types of experimental silos were used for determination of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum (33.0% DM and 4.2% CP ensiled in two different densities (400 or 600 kg of silage/m³: 1 commercial bunker silo sampled at 30 (top and 60 (deep cm from the top; 2 plastic silo with bulsen valve; 3 plastic bag; and 4 concrete pipe. A completely randomized design was used. The concrete pipe silo produced silage with higher pH, ADIN and lignin values, as well as lower in vitro

  15. Incident of inadvertent radiation exposure in a linac bunker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Implementation of a new Biomedical Equipment and service database poses special challenges. This paper describes the challenges and solutions during implementation of BEIMS (Mercury Computers) at RPAH and other sites within SSWAHS. During implementation we faced challenges of Code/Label design, workflow redesign, and data cleanup. Considerable time and effort went into the design of descriptive codes for breakdowns, tests, equipment types, meta-categories and the like. Some of the codes are explored and described to allow adoption by other entities if desired. Workflow redesign required us to include considerations of biomedical Technicians and Nurse Requestors. A simplified document was created for the self-education of Requestors and a full user manual (complete with screen shots) was created for Biomeds. More work remains, including simplification of standardised reports and ability to generate KPI's. The result is a system with improved utility compared to the old system and a flexible design enabling future improvements. (author)

  16. RADIATION PROTECTION OF LINAC BUNKERS. A USER-FRIENDLY APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Sørensen, Thyge; Olsen, Kjeld Jørgen; Behrens, Claus Flensted

    2015-01-01

    A well-known but complex formalism for the calculation of the leakage dose at the entrance of the linac maze was considered and simplified. These simplifications were based partly on the literature and partly on the authors' own measurements. The authors have included photon scatter originating f...

  17. Lokale Ertragsermittlung und Betriebsdatenerfassung am selbstfahrenden sechsreihigen Köpf-Rode-Bunker

    OpenAIRE

    Krinner, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Durch sinkende Erzeugerpreise und steigende Kosten wird die teilflächenspezifische Bewirtschaftung, das sogenannte "Precision Farming", in der Landwirtschaft immer mehr eingeführt. Arbeitsprozesse und auch Flächen werden zunehmend differenzierter betrachtet, um Produktionssysteme zu optimieren. So werden Systeme zur lokalen Ertragsermittlung und Betriebsdatenerfassung auf großen Mähdreschern schon seit mehreren Jahren erfolgreich eingesetzt. Es gibt Versuche, ähnliche Systeme nun auch in selb...

  18. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 204: STORAGE BUNKERS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. CAU 330 consists of the following CASs: CAS 06-02-04, Underground Storage Tank (UST) and Piping CAS 22-99-06, Fuel Spill CAS 23-01-02, Large Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Farm CAS 23-25-05, Asphalt Oil Spill/Tar Release

  19. Estimated doses related to 222Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39®). The concentration of 222Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm2 equivalent to 0,434 Bqm-3 per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10-6 mSv h -1 by Bqm-3, it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva-1 and 150 micro risk cancer

  20. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 204: STORAGE BUNKERS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. CAU 330 consists of the following CASs: CAS 06-02-04, Underground Storage Tank (UST) and Piping CAS 22-99-06, Fuel Spill CAS 23-01-02, Large Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Farm CAS 23-25-05, Asphalt Oil Spill/Tar Release

  1. Estimation of activity of air in the cyclotron bunker for PET diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskanjan Karen Varuzhanovich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the estimation of air activation by argon-41 induced by accelerated protons in 18 MeV Cyclotron. It has been demonstrated that activity of air is below significant minimum at proton current of 150 microamps.

  2. When Father Was at Bunker Hill and Mother Was Sewing Flags, What Were the Children Doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, June S.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of educational history in America leads up to a Bicentennial reflection that the task of educators is to release children's intellectual capacity through language, creativity, and democratic living. (MM)

  3. Vergeten linies: Antwerpse bunkers en loopgraven door de lens van Leutnant Zimmermann (1918)

    OpenAIRE

    Gheyle, Wouter; Ignace, Bourgeois

    2013-01-01

    Onderzoek van de Universiteit Gent in het Koninklijk Legermuseum (KLM) in Brussel bracht in 2007 een reeks van 46 onbekende luchtfoto’s aan het licht. De foto’s dateren van januari 1918 en zijn van Duitse origine. Ze dragen het opschrift Kaiserliche Fortifikation Antwerpen en werden genomen door de tot dan toe onbekende luitenant Zimmermann. Het was direct duidelijk dat de foto’s een schat aan historische informatie bevatten. Het provinciebestuur van Antwerpen liet ze grondig analyseren om er...

  4. 75 FR 8395 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA...: Background The proposed project is a large capacity water pipeline associated with an aquifer storage and... . No known Indian trust assets or environmental justice issues are associated with the Proposed...

  5. From Bunker to Building: Results from the 2010 Chief Human Resource Officer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patrick M.; Stewart, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the researchers, with funding from the Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS), began conducting the annual Chief Human Resource Officers (CHRO) Survey. The 2009 survey was sent to CHROs at the U.S. Fortune 150 companies, as well as to ten other CHROs at CAHRS partner companies. That survey focused on understanding how CHROs…

  6. Measurements of thermal neutron fluence in the bunker of a cyclotron for PET isotope production; Medidas de fluencia de neutrones termicos en el bunker de un ciclotron de produccion de isotopos para PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Villafane, R.; Sansoloni florit, F.; Lagares gonzalez, J. L.; Llop Roig, J.; Guerrero Araque, J. E.; Muniz Gutierrez, J. L.; Perez Morales, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    To measure the neutron spectrum has been used spectrometry system based on Bonner spheres with Au flakes as thermal neutron detector at its center while the results are still pending and will be analyzing another job.

  7. Cool computers in a bunker. 10 000 kW of cold demand for 160 000 internet computers; Coole Rechner im Bunker. 10 000 kW Kaeltebedarf fuer 160 000 Internetrechner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S. [Combitherm GmbH, Stuttgart-Fellbach (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    In 2005, Combitherm GmbH of Stuttgart-Fellbach, a producer of refrigerators and heat pumps specializing in customized solutions, was given an unusual order as 1 and 1 Internet AG, one of the world's biggest internet providers, was looking for a cooling concept for their new central computer system near Baden-Baden, which was to become a central node in international data transmission. Combitherm already had experience with cold water units and free cooling elements in the 5000 kW range for a big computer center. The tasks were defined in close cooperation with the customer and with a Karlsruhe bureau of engineering consultants, and a refrigerating concept was developed. (orig.)

  8. Estimated doses related to {sup 222}Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes; Dosis estimada por concentraciones de {sup 222}Rn en bunker de radioterapia y de almacenamiento de isotopos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, Freddy; Carrizales-Silva, Lila, E-mail: freddymest@gmail.com, E-mail: lcarriza@ivic.gob.ve [Instituto Venezolano de lnvestigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo, E-mail: sajobohus@gmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear; Diaz, Cruz, E-mail: cruzediaZ@gmail.com [Universidad Pedagogica Experimental Libertador, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Instituto Pedagogico

    2013-07-01

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39 Registered-Sign ). The concentration of {sup 222}Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm{sup 2} equivalent to 0,434 Bqm{sup -3} per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10{sup -6} mSv h {sup -1} by Bqm{sup -3}, it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva{sup -1} and 150 micro risk cancer.

  9. Artificial neural network for the determination of neutron spectra in the bunker of a Linac of 18 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron spectrum and equivalent of environmental dose H(10) were calculated for a radiotherapy room in 16 punctual detectors, 15 inside of and 1 outside of the same one. The calculations were carried out with the Monte Carlo method and with the code MCNP5 for a generic room model with a Linac of 18 MV, obtaining this way 16 spectra with 47 intervals of energy class, starting from these spectra the values of H(10) were calculated. On the other hand, an artificial neural network was designed and trained to determine the spectra by neutrons in 15 different locations inside the radiotherapy room starting from the value of H(10) in the detector 16 located in the exterior of the room, using as training data the spectra and calculated dose by neutrons, of which a medium quadratic error was obtained (m se) in the adjustment between the objective data and the exit data of m se=1E(-8). The results demonstrate that the use of the artificial intelligence as technique is an useful tool in the spectrometry and dosimetry of neutrons, since it simplifies the characterization process of neutron fields in radiotherapy rooms without the use of spectrometry systems, and that once the energy distribution of the neutrons produced by the Linac is known and the corresponding doses be calculated H(10), they can take the appropriate cautions for the security patient in treatment as well as for the personnel in the room. (Author)

  10. A Semiotic Analysis of Visual Elements Particular to the Medium of Comics in Alan Ford by Max Bunker and Magnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Gržina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a semiotic analysis of visual elements characteristic for the medium of comic books applied to the first seventy-five issues of the Croatian edition of Alan Ford. After a description of the cultural and historical framework, it analyzes individual signs in comics and different elements specific for expression in comic books in Western culture with the aim of exploring which of these signs are present in Alan Ford, and to what extent. The results show that the analyzed comic book is deeply rooted in the visual and literary Western tradition, and that it contains virtually all the characteristic elements of representation in comic books. However, the paper also concludes that certain iconic elements of the vocabulary of comics – i.e. onomatopoeic neologisms – are to a certain extent specific and typical only for Alan Ford.

  11. Marine pollution damage in Australia: implementing the Bunker Oil Convention 2001 and the Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskell, Nicholas; Forrest, Craig

    2008-01-01

    The grounding of the bulk carrier Pasha Bulker on Nobbys beach, Newcastle in June 2007 has again highlighted the risk from shipping posed to Australia’s extensive and environmentally fragile coastline. Whilst a pollution incident was averted in this case, spills from shipping in other states (such as the Nakhodka spill off Japan in 1997, the Prestige spill off France in 1999, the Erika spill off Spain in 2003 and the Hebei Spirit spill of South Korea in 2007), have required the constant monit...

  12. National Assembly report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first gives an overview of the progressive implementation of measures and international convention to prevent pollution by ships: the Oilpol convention (Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil), the Marpol convention (Marine Pollution), and the different international conventions on liability and compensation (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution, International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, convention on other damages). It also describes the French system to struggle against marine pollution. Then, it presents the main arrangements of the 2001 Convention (liability, mandatory insurance and certificate, and so on), expresses some reserves on the chosen arrangement, and comments the impact of this convention

  13. Bunker culturel : la régénération du patrimoine militaire urbain à Saint-Nazaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Lecardane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des deux dernières décennies Saint-Nazaire a relancé son développement sans se référer nécessairement aux modèles des métropoles européennes. Concentrées autour de la zone portuaire, près de la base sous-marine allemande, les nouvelles opérations urbaines ont contribué à définir un important projet touristique et culturel. La spécificité symbolique et la valorisation du patrimoine militaire ont permis à Saint-Nazaire de montrer que l’identité d’une ville pouvait activer sa croissance.Over the last two decades, the port city of Saint-Nazaire has encouraged urban redevelopment without necessarily following the models suggested by other European cities. An important cultural and tourist centre has been developed around the port zone, close to the German submarine base dating from the Second World War. The symbolic specificity and the interpretation of this military heritage have shown, at Saint-Nazaire, how a town's special identity can foster growth.

  14. The effect of high fuel costs on liner service configuration in container shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Notteboom, T.; Vernimmen, B.

    2009-01-01

    For shipping activities, not least container shipping, bunker fuel is a considerable expense. In the last 5 years, bunker prices have risen considerably. An increasing bunker price in container shipping, especially in the short term, is only partially compensated through surcharges and will therefore affect earnings negatively. This paper deals with the impact of increasing bunker costs on the design of liner services on the Europe–Far East trade. The paper assesses how shipping lines have ad...

  15. 输灰仓泵改发送器发送的可行性探讨%Discussions on the Feasibility of Ash Conveying with Transmitter instead of Ash Bunker Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皇甫守义; 张振华; 林文菊

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1概述 天脊煤化工集团有限公司3#锅炉是单炉膛煤粉锅炉,额定蒸发量220t/h,为热电并供系统.设计燃烧耗煤24.63t/h.锅炉配置双室三电场电除尘器1台,共6只灰斗,灰斗下设置4台埋刮板输送机,2台运行,2台备用,埋刮板输送机把灰集中至料仓,然后由2台仓泵输送至灰场.输灰系统选用上引式仓泵输灰工艺.2台仓泵间断输送,设计输送能力13t/h,输送距离约1100m,仓泵实际工作压力0.4~0.6MPa.输送气源为3台40 m3/min、出口压力0.8MPa空压机,二开一备.

  16. Report of findings: Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge contaminants study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During World War II, the Kodiak Naval Reservation (Figures 1 and 2) was rapidly expanded to thwart threats of a Japanese invasion. Bunkers, fuel tanks, and...

  17. Lead for radiation shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication programme lead in radiation protection: lead bricks, radiation protection tables and windows, locks, lead containers, vaults and bunkers, radiation protection capsules as well as lead fillings for reactor aggregates. (RW/LH)

  18. Factors in spontaneous combustion of solid fuels in the area of boiler systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses hazards of spontaneous coal combustion in coal-fired power plants. Factors which influence coal spontaneous combustion in coal yards, during coal transport and in coal bunkers before pulverizing are analyzed. Two oxidation models are described: a diffusion model and a forced-flow model. Three stages of coal spontaneous combustion are compared: initial stage, development stage and stabilization stage. Hazards of coal spontaneous combustion in a coal bunker from which coal is fed to a pulverizing system are analyzed. Effects of forced air flow through a coal layer on oxidation rate are investigated. The decisive role of gas pressure in a pulverizing system and the height of the coal layer in a coal bunker is stressed. Recommendations for reducing hazards of coal spontaneous combustion in coal bunkers are made. 4 refs.

  19. CSIR helps prevent spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuuren, M. van (CSIR Energy Technology (South Africa))

    1992-03-01

    Heaps of stockpiled coal could present a fire hazard due to the risk of spontaneous combustion. Regular monitoring of stockpiles and bunker testing of coals help to prevent stockpile fires. This brief article describes the recent upgrading of the CSIR's bunker test facility that enables coal producers, users and exporters to test their products under simulated conditions that duplicate the actual conditions under which coal is stored. 2 photos.

  20. Concrete Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the presence of Atlantikwall bunkers in amateur holiday snapshots and discusses the ambiguous role of the bunker site in visual cultural memory. Departing from my family’s private photo collection from twenty years of vacationing at the Danish West coast, the different mundane...... meets the bunkers’ changing visuality and the cultural topography they both actively transform and are being transformed by through juxtaposing different acts and objects of memory over time and in different visual articulations....

  1. Livscykelanalys (LCA) av ensilage

    OpenAIRE

    Strid, Ingrid; Flysjö, Anna

    2007-01-01

    LCA of Silage – comparison of Tower silo, Bunker silo and Round-bales The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in environmental impact from three types of silage (silage from tower silo, bunker silo and round-bales) used in Swedish dairy production. The silage was studied from ley cultivation, via harvesting and silage making up to and including delivery at the feeding table. The environmental impact categories studied were: energy use, global warming potential (GWP), acid...

  2. Simulated European stalagmite record and its relation to a quasi-decadal climate mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic stalagmite δ18O record for the Bunker Cave (51° N, 7° E is constructed using a combined climate–stalagmite modelling approach where we combine an atmospheric circulation model equipped with water isotopes and a model simulating stalagmite calcite δ18O values. Mixing processes in the soil and karst above the cave represent a natural low-pass filter of the speleothem climate archive. Stalagmite δ18O values at Bunker Cave lag the regional surface climate by 3–4 yr. The power spectrum of the simulated speleothem calcite δ18O record has a pronounced peak at quasi-decadal time scale, which is associated with a large-scale climate variability pattern in the North Atlantic. Our modelling study suggests that stalagmite records from Bunker Cave are representative for large-scale teleconnections and can be used to obtain information about the North Atlantic and its decadal variability.

  3. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with 3He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance

  4. Millie-Christine McKoy and the American Freak Show: Race, Gender, and Freedom in the Postbellum Era, 1851 - 1912

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Sarah E

    2010-01-01

    Recent historical research has focused on a few popular acts of late nineteenth-century American freak shows, such as the “Siamese Twins” Chang and Eng Bunker, in order to understand how notions of inherent racial and physical difference continued to be institutionalized in the absence of slavery. Although the conjoined twin sisters Millie-Christine McKoy enjoyed a similar level of celebrity and financial success as the Bunker twins, they have not received nearly the same amount of attention ...

  5. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  6. Correcting radiation survey data to account for increased leakage during intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kairn, T. [Premion Cancer Care, Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower Qld 4066, Australia and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia); Crowe, S. B.; Trapp, J. V. [Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments require more beam-on time and produce more linac head leakage to deliver similar doses to conventional, unmodulated, radiotherapy treatments. It is necessary to take this increased leakage into account when evaluating the results of radiation surveys around bunkers that are, or will be, used for IMRT. The recommended procedure of applying a monitor-unit based workload correction factor to secondary barrier survey measurements, to account for this increased leakage when evaluating radiation survey measurements around IMRT bunkers, can lead to potentially costly overestimation of the required barrier thickness. This study aims to provide initial guidance on the validity of reducing the value of the correction factor when applied to different radiation barriers (primary barriers, doors, maze walls, and other walls) by evaluating three different bunker designs.Methods: Radiation survey measurements of primary, scattered, and leakage radiation were obtained at each of five survey points around each of three different radiotherapy bunkers and the contribution of leakage to the total measured radiation dose at each point was evaluated. Measurements at each survey point were made with the linac gantry set to 12 equidistant positions from 0° to 330°, to assess the effects of radiation beam direction on the results.Results: For all three bunker designs, less than 0.5% of dose measured at and alongside the primary barriers, less than 25% of the dose measured outside the bunker doors and up to 100% of the dose measured outside other secondary barriers was found to be caused by linac head leakage.Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that IMRT workload corrections are unnecessary, for survey measurements made at and alongside primary barriers. Use of reduced IMRT workload correction factors is recommended when evaluating survey measurements around a bunker door, provided that a subset of the measurements used in

  7. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout

    OpenAIRE

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-01-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show...

  8. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs

  9. Operation of heat-removal system in closed volume of the generator ''Ehfir''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calculation of radiators fins used as heat removal systems in radioisotopic thermoelectric generators has been shown. The thermal resistance of underground bunkers (with ratio H/d equal at least two) can be calculated on the formula used for the determination of the thermal conditions of an underground wire. The error of the bunker wall heat emission coefficient determination calculated according to the formula for unlimited space, can reach 45% though the more probable value is 10%. Therefore when using the formula for determining wall heat emission coefficient it is necessary to introduce one and a half margin for heat exchange surface

  10. Combustion of high-rank light fraction. First experiences with GAVI/VAM; Verbrennung von heizwertreicher Leichtfraktion. Erste Erfahrungen aus der GAVI-VAM (Wijster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandschneider, J. [Goepfert, Reimer und Partner Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    GAVI/VAM consists of a sorting plant which is topped by an RDF combustion plant. These two plant components are directly linked with each other via an RDF bunker (24 h). The present contribution addresses the main components of the combustion plant individually and points out its special features as compared with crude waste combustion. [Deutsch] Die GAVI/VAM besteht aus einer Sortieranlage mit nachgeschalteter RDF-Verbrennungsanlage, beide Anlagenteile sind durch einen RDF-Bunker (24 h) unmittelbar miteinander verbunden. Nachfolgend werden die wesentlichen Komponenten der Verbrennungsanlage einzeln angesprochen und die Besonderheiten im Vergleich zur Rohmuellverbrennung dargestellt. (orig./SR)

  11. Throwing and Catching as Relational Skills in Game Play: Situated Learning in a Modified Game Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Ann; Kirk, David; Griffin, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we were interested in how young people learn to play games within a tactical games model (TGM) approach (Griffin, Oslin, & Mitchell, 1997) in terms of the physical-perceptual and social-interactive dimensions of situativity. Kirk and MacPhail's (2002) development of the Bunker-Thorpe TGfU model was used to conceptualize the nature…

  12. Overview of NRC review process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokar, M.; Kane, J.D.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes the NRC staff`s review of the Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) for an Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker low-level waste disposal facility. Described are the objectives of the review, the resources (e.g., background guidance documents and staff technical disciplines) used, and the products produced. Evaluation conclusions are summarized.

  13. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f... those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond which are listed under appendix III to this part. (b..., underground mine or cave, or placement in a concrete vault, or bunker intended for disposal purposes....

  14. La generación de electricidad a partir de eucalipto y bagazo en ingenios azucareros en Nicaragua: costes, aspectos macroeconómicos y medioambientales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van

    2006-01-01

    Se hace una comparación entre la generación de electricidad a partir de bagazo y eucalipto mediante ingenios azucareros y la generación de electricidad a partir de bunker (fueloil) en Nicaragua. El combustible utilizado por los ingenios es bagazo durante la zafra y eucalipto de plantaciones energéti

  15. La generación de electricidad a partir de eucalipto en ingenios azucareros en Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van

    2006-01-01

    Se hace una comparación entre la generación de electricidad a partir de plantaciones de eucalipto mediante ingenios azucareros durante la no-zafra y la generación de electricidad a partir de bunker (fueloil) en Nicaragua. Se comparan los costes y los efectos socioeconómicos y medioambientales de est

  16. Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low and intermediate level wastes are produced from radioisotopic application in medicine and industry in Peru. Intermediate level solid waste are collected from Nuclear Research Centre. This wastes are cemented for final disposal. This poster presents description of the bunker used for disposal and future plans for radioactive waste management. 3 refs, 1 fig

  17. Looking for 'God'

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2003-01-01

    "Scientists seeking the God particle that is thought to shape the universe, have hollowed out a concrete bunker bigger than the nave of Canterbury Cathedral to study a beam of energy a quarter of the thickness of a human hair" (1 page).

  18. What is that we were worried about?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedir, M.; Ince, A.

    2014-01-01

    “What is it that you were worried about” is an art video3 where an energy rebalancing coach heals and cleans the unsettling energies of spaces by putting them into a holographic energy scan. Two artists draw our attention to an old bunker in a Bosnian Town, which used to be Tito’s atomic bomb comman

  19. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recreation Airlines Economy Airlines PacAir Transport Schedules The Bunker International Airport (BIA... change flight plans when required to preclude interference with military activities or operations... Manager, in advance, of armed security or law enforcement officers arriving or departing on a flight....

  20. Teaching Games and Sport for Understanding: Exploring and Reconsidering its Relevance in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Steven; Pill, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Over 30 years ago the original teaching games for understanding (TGfU) proposition was published in a special edition of the Bulletin of Physical Education (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). In that time TGfU has attracted significant attention from a theoretical and pedagogical perspective as an improved approach to games and sport teaching in physical…

  1. Get ready to enter a new DIMENSION

    CERN Multimedia

    Graham-Rowe, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    "Deep in an underground bunker, experts have built the world's largest science experiment. It has the potential to open new dimensins, help us look into the past and the future, and explain the mysteries of the space. There's also a chance it could create a black hole that devours the universe..."

  2. A Move to an Innovative Games Teaching Model: Style E Tactical (SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sanmuga; Haynes, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and testing of a hybrid model of teaching games--The Style "E" Tactical (SET) Model. The SET is a combination of two pedagogical approaches: Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles and Bunker and Thorpe's Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU). To test the efficacy of this new model, the…

  3. Effects of Silo Type on Silage Quality and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine how storage structure affects alfalfa silage dry matter losses and quality. A study was conducted for two consecutive years. Each year, second cutting alfalfa was ensiled in one bunker silo (4.9 x 21 x 3.5 m), one pressed bag silo (2.4 x 52 m) and one oxygen-limiting s...

  4. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo;

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  5. Quick Scan of the Economic Consequences of Prohibiting Residual Fuels in Shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 'Quick Scan' has been carried out on the impact on the Netherlands economy, resulting from a potential prohibition of residual fuels in international shipping. The Dutch refinery industry annually produces about 8 million tons of refinery residues, the main component of the presently used shipping fuel. It is technically possible to convert all residues into lighter products, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 3.5 million tons. A fast introduction would lead to market disruptions and peak prices. These effects could be limited by a gradual introduction over about six years, preceded by a preparation phase for the refineries of approximately six years. The investment costs for the Netherlands are estimated at about .5 tot 2 billion euros. The Rotterdam bunker market processes both domestic and imported refinery residues. The residues are used to blend shipping bunker fuels, which are both sold to ships and exported to other harbours. Rotterdam will not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of distilled shipping fuels. On balance, there is a reasonable chance that the bunker sector, where about 1500 people are employed, would decrease

  6. The Game TV Plays: Or, Why an English Teacher Came to Hate Barnaby Jones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Patrick W.

    The message of current popular television shows in which the hero is, or appears to be, a dumb clod (e.g., Archie Bunker, Fred Sanford, Columbo, and Barnaby Jones), apparently is that corruption may be equated with articulation, wealth, and education, while virtue may be equated with poverty and, often, illiteracy. Unfortunately, the effect of…

  7. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). (a) Scope... with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs or bedding.... The raw materials storage area includes but is not limited to feed silos, silage bunkers, and...

  8. En middelalderdronning og en tysk bunkersoldat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Kirkedahl Lysholm; Ringskou, Christian

    2013-01-01

    challenging myths, respectively about a Danish medieval queen and a German nazi soldier fortified in a bunker in Denmark. This unfolds perspectives on how museums both add to myth as well as putting myths into perspective, which again points to the role of the museum as places where narratives are constructed...

  9. The Tebuconazole-based Protectant of Seeds “Bunker” Induces the Synthesis of Dehydrins During Cold Hardening and Increases the Frost Resistance of Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Triazole derivatives are widely used in agriculture for seed protectant of cereals against seed and soil infection. Triazole derivatives can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of plants. The tebuconazole-based protectant of seeds «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L is a systemic fungicide of preventive and therapeutic action. The effect of the seed treatment by «Bunker» preparation on the shoot growth and cell viability coleoptile, synthesis of dehydrins in shoots and frost resistance etiolated winter and spring wheat seedlings has been studied. It has been shown that treatment of winter and spring wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation induces similar concentration-dependent inhibition of the coleoptiles length. At the recommended dose (0,5 liter per tonne of seeds, L/t growth inhibition was 28 - 30%, at a concentration of 1 L/t – 33 - 36%, at a concentration of 1,5 L/t – 40 - 42%, at a concentration of 3 L/t – 43 - 47%, at a concentration of 4 L/t – 48 - 51% and at 5 L/t – 53 - 56%. The treatment of wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation had no phytotoxic effect on coleoptile cells in any of the studied concentrations, on the contrary, with increasing concentration of preparation observed the increase in cell viability, as measured by recovery of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. We can assume that having retardant properties, tebuconazole not only inhibits the growth of plants, but also delays their aging. The treatment of seed protectant at a concentration of 1.5 L/t induced synthesis of the dehydrins with molecular masses about 19, 21, 22, 25 and 27 kD in winter wheat shoots and 18,6, 27 and 28,5 kD in spring wheat shoots during cold hardening. Among identified dehydrins the dehydrin of 27 kD is most significantly induced both in winter and spring wheat. The treatment of seed protectant «Bunker» in the same concentration increased the frost resistance of winter and spring wheat

  10. Hans sidste ønske var et pas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Selv med svære sygdomme, bunker af lægeerklæringer, ekspertvurderinger og værdig stædighed opnår flygtninge ikke at få et dansk pas. Justitsministeriet bagatelliserer lægernes oplysninger og holder ansøgere hen med ligegyldigheder, indtil de dør åndeligt eller fysisk......Selv med svære sygdomme, bunker af lægeerklæringer, ekspertvurderinger og værdig stædighed opnår flygtninge ikke at få et dansk pas. Justitsministeriet bagatelliserer lægernes oplysninger og holder ansøgere hen med ligegyldigheder, indtil de dør åndeligt eller fysisk...

  11. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ''A through K'' evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site

  12. Initial performance evaluation of major components in the head-end reprocessing solids handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Atomic cold head-end reprocessing pilot plant has been built to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed commercial reprocessing flowsheet, in particular its integrated operation. This integration is accomplished in part by the solids handling system, which is designed to provide transfer of material at required rates between different steps in the process and to provide the required surge capacity. The major components of the solids handling system have been tested in order to verify or upgrade the design. The components described here are: inlet filters, conveying lines, bunkers, in-bunker filters, blowers, level sensors, feeders, and weigh cells. By and large, the equipment has performed as expected. Feeding of the various materials in the system has received considerable attention, and several improvements were necessary. The system is now equipped to perform its function of serving the needs of the other unit operations in the pilot plant

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D&D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  14. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  15. Final design and construction issues of the TAPIRO epithermal column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the epithermal column for clinical trials at the 5 kW fast reactor TAPIRO (ENEA, Casaccia, Italy) has been completed, the experimental bunker in the reactor hall has been designed and the beam characterisation will shortly be underway. As has been reviewed at the last two ICNCT conferences, the low power of the neuron source and the relatively distant patient position outside the reactor shield led to a column design with certain characteristics. One consequence is the employment of a collimator containing lead of high purity with the resultant problems of mechanical construction. Another is the substantial neutron leakage from the column outside the aperture into the experimental bunker. Furthermore the absence of a gamma shield has led to an electron dose to the skin. This is resolved with an electron shield of aluminium. Here the construction and final design issues are discussed and the state of the project is presented. (author)

  16. The LHC goes in for an X-ray

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    For the past two years, a radiography laboratory has been operating in a "bunker" where it can X-ray materials in complete safety. The primary function of the radiography laboratory, run by Jean-Michel Dalin and Aline Piguiet, is to inspect welds and LHC components.   Technicians Jean-Michel Dalin and Aline Piguiet, from the EN department,  with the scanner used for digital radiography. In the basement of Building 112 lies a bunker heavily protected against radiation leaks and housing a laboratory that employs high-tech apparatus capable of detecting the slightest fault in materials without destroying or damaging them. "It's the principle of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). In our laboratory we essentially use two methods, tomography and digital radiography," explains Jean-Michel Dalin, who is a NDT radiography technician in the EN Department's MM Section. It was he who designed the laboratory in collaboration with CERN's radiation protection service, wh...

  17. Reconciling Americas: Salvadoran Immigrant Activists and Political Transnationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Arpi Misha

    2013-01-01

    In the 1980s, a violent civil war in El Salvador led to the mass emigration of over a million Salvadorans, many of whom fled national territory only to seek refuge in the U.S. - the very country funding the military dictatorship in their homeland. Although many Salvadorans bunkered down in cities like Los Angeles in the years to follow, a cohort of politicized Salvadoran migrants remained entrenched in the struggle in their homeland, supporting the resistance movement there and partnering wi...

  18. PetroChina and COSCO Signed Agreement to Jointly Develop Ship Fuels Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina signed a cooperation framework agreement with China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company (“COSCO”) in Beijing on March 8. It is preliminarily agreed that PetroChina will become a shareholder of China Marine Bunker Supply Company (“CMBSC”), a subsidiary of COSCO, by injecting capital into the company and CMBSC will be restructured to become a company with limited liability.

  19. The Film Industry and Urban Development in Metropolitan Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Frank

    2012-01-01

    Due north of Culver City and southwest of Hollywood, lies Century City, an icon of midcentury modernism and urban planning (see Figure 2.1). Midcentury modernism in Los Angeles is most closely associated with sleek glass houses in the Hollywood Hills, while Los Angeles midcentury planning evokes images of freeways and the urban renewal scheme that leveled downtown’s Bunker Hill. Absent the freeway building or single - family homes associated with postwar Los Angeles, Century City reconceive...

  20. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in years 1992 and 1993; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per gli anni 1992 e 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche, Portici (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-11-01

    In 1992, the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy was 167.5 MTOE (including bunkers) while in 1993 it decreased to 165.9 MTOE. The overall electricity demand passed from 244.8 TWh in 1992 to 246.6 TWh in 1993. In the same period, the overall contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) kept almost constant at 5.y consumption. The RES contribution represented a share larger than gross National production of energy in 1992.

  1. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in the year 1994; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per l`anno 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P.; Manzo, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-11-01

    The gross domestic energy consumption in 1994 (including bunkers) decreased to 165.8 Mtoe from the 1993 figure of 166.6 Mtoe. At the same time the overall electricity demand reached 253.6 TWh from 246.6 TWh, closely reflecting the 2 contribution of renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, biomasses, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption has been 9 1994. It represented more than 34% of the domestic energy production.

  2. Epidemiology and biology of multiple gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Loraine; Wilkins, Isabelle

    2005-06-01

    Twins have always aroused interest and have been represented throughout history. Conjoined twins have caused even more sensation, the best-known pair being Chang and Eng Bunker, who were born in Thailand in 1811 and inspired the term Siamese twins. Recently, higher-order multiples have caused controversy, and there has been heavy media coverage of large-number deliveries, such as the McCaughey septuplets. In this article, we review the incidence, types, and causes of multiple gestations. PMID:15922784

  3. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Oil pollution in the North Sea—a microbiological point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Minas, W; Gunkel, W.

    1995-01-01

    In this study we determined oil degradation rates in the North Sea under most natural conditions. We used the heavy fuel oil, Bunker C, the major oil pollutant of the North Sea, as the model oil. Experiments were conducted in closed systems with water sampled during winter and repeated under identical conditions with water collected during summer. No nitrogen or phosphorous was added and conditions were chosen such that neither oxygen nor nutrients, present in the water, would become limiting...

  5. Comprehensive Technical Support for High-Quality Anthracite Production: A Case Study in the Xinqiao Coal Mine, Yongxia Mining Area, China

    OpenAIRE

    , Wei Zhang; Dongsheng Zhang; Hongzhi Wang; Jixin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The effective production of high-quality anthracite has attracted increasing global attention. Based on the coal occurrence in Yongxia Mining Area and mining conditions of a coalface in Xinqiao Coal Mine, we proposed a systematic study on the technical support for the production of high-quality anthracite. Six key steps were explored, including coal falling at the coalface, transport, underground bunker storage, main shaft hoisting, coal preparation on the ground, and railway wagon loading. T...

  6. Vasketøjssortering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    teknologiske løsning er udviklet af Bunker43 og består af chips med RFID (radio Frequency Identification), en scanner der kører på UHF-frekvenser (Ultra High Frequences) og en tablet med android Linux styresystem, som styrer processen med identifikation af vasketøj. Projektet har haft til formål at undersøge...

  7. Conception of CTMSP ionizing radiation calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the implantation process of an ionizing radiation calibration laboratory in a preexistent installation in CTMSP (bunker) approved by CNEN to operate with gamma-ray for non destructive testing. This laboratory will extend and improve the current metrological capacity for the attendance to the increasing demand for services of calibration of ionizing radiation measuring instruments. Statutory and regulatory requirements for the licensing of the installation are presented and deeply reviewed. (author)

  8. Activity report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activites of the Eurochemic (European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels) at Mol is summarized under the following headings: the decontamination and intervention in the Fuel Reception and Storage Building, the active operation of the bituminization facility, the construction of two additional storage bunkers, the full active operation of the section for the handling of solid waste and the construction of various units for the conditioning of organic liquid waste and plutonium hearing solid wastes. (AF)

  9. TLD characterization and its roles in the personal dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision of personal dose analysis using TLD card depends on the TLD characterization that needs to be carried out before the card is supplied to the users. Characterization includes determination of ECC (Element Correction Coefficient), RCF (Reader Calibration Factor), Reproducibility and Linearity test against exposure. All tests are carried out using 137 Cs sources at Bunker 2, SSDL. TLD cards which have performance within ±10% of delivered exposure (i.e. 100 mR) are then supplied to the users. (Author)

  10. Neutron dosimetry in solid water phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites-Rengifo, Jorge Luis, E-mail: jlbenitesr@prodigy.net.mx [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Calzada de la Cruz 118 Sur, Tepic Nayarit, Mexico and Instituto Tecnico Superior de Radiologia, ITEC, Calle Leon 129, Tepic Nayarit (Mexico); Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene, E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. postal 336, 98000, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The neutron spectra, the Kerma and the absorbed dose due to neutrons were estimated along the incoming beam in a solid water phantom. Calculations were carried out with the MCNP5 code, where the bunker, the phantom and the model of the15 MV LINAC head were modeled. As the incoming beam goes into the phantom the neutron spectrum is modified and the dosimetric values are reduced.

  11. Princíp "znečisťovateľ platí" v judikatúre Súdneho dvora EÚ

    OpenAIRE

    Humeníková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the "polluter pays" principle and its legislation at international and European level. International level is represented by legislation OECD, the UN and the international treaties to which the 'polluter pays' is included. Such contracts include, for example, the Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, which focuses on strict liability for damages caused by the oil pollution on the sea. International treaties in the text of the thesis allocated on...

  12. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  13. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation

    OpenAIRE

    MariaGenovese; DanielaRusso; AlfonsoModica; LauraGiuliano; PeterN.Golyshin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) in coastal sediments. Approximately 1,000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6,500 ppm). The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after three months of ageing, the anaerobic s...

  14. Air-kerma evaluation at the maze entrance of HDR brachytherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the absence of procedures for evaluating the design of brachytherapy (BT) facilities for radiation protection purposes, the methodology used for external beam radiotherapy facilities is often adapted. The purpose of this study is to adapt the NCRP 151 methodology for estimating the air-kerma rate at the door in BT facilities. Such methodology was checked against Monte Carlo (MC) techniques using the code Geant4. Five different facility designs were studied for 192Ir and 60Co HDR applications to account for several different bunker layouts. For the estimation of the lead thickness needed at the door, the use of transmission data for the real spectra at the door instead of the ones emitted by 192Ir and 60Co will reduce the lead thickness by a factor of five for 192Ir and ten for 60Co. This will significantly lighten the door and hence simplify construction and operating requirements for all bunkers. The adaptation proposed in this study to estimate the air-kerma rate at the door depends on the complexity of the maze: it provides good results for bunkers with a maze (i.e. similar to those used for linacs for which the NCRP 151 methodology was developed) but fails for less conventional designs. For those facilities, a specific Monte Carlo study is in order for reasons of safety and cost-effectiveness. (paper)

  15. Radiation protection in large linear accelerators; Seguranca radiologica de aceleradores lineares de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Jose de Jesus Rivero, E-mail: rivero@con.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Sousa, Fernando Nuno Carneiro de, E-mail: fernandonunosousa@gmail.com [Aceletron Irradiacao lndustrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The electron linear accelerators can be used in industrial applications that require powerful sources of ionizing radiation. They have the important characteristic of not representing a radiation hazard when the accelerators remain electrically disconnected. With the plant in operation, a high reliability defense in depth reduces the risk of radiological accidents to extremely small levels. It is practically impossible that a person could enter into the radiation bunker with the accelerators connected. Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, located in Rio de Janeiro, offers services of irradiation by means of two powerful electron linear accelerators, with 15 kW power and 10 MeV electron energy. Despite the high level of existing radiation safety, a simplified risk study is underway to identify possible sequences of radiological accidents. The study is based on the combined application of the event and fault trees techniques. Preliminary results confirm that there is a very small risk of entering into the irradiation bunker with the accelerators in operation, but the risk of an operator entering into the bunker during a process interruption and remaining there without notice after the accelerators were restarted may be considerably larger. Based on these results the Company is considering alternatives to reduce the likelihood of human error of this type that could lead to a radiological accident. The paper describes the defense in depth of the irradiation process in Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, as well as the models and preliminary results of the ongoing risk analysis, including the additional safety measures which are being evaluated. (author)

  16. Emissions to air in Sweden: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for calculating emissions to air has been revised, which has led to adjustments. Because of this, emissions in 1999 cannot yet be compared with previous years. Emissions in 1990 - 1998 are being recalculated now using the new method and are expected to be ready during 2001. Emissions to air of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Sweden was 56.58 million tonnes in 1999, not including emissions from biofuels and international bunkers. The major sources of CO2 emissions are the combustion of fossil fuels and the use of fuels for mobile sources. Total emissions to air of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, counted as NO2) in Sweden was 66 000 and 263 000 tonnes respectively in 1999. International bunkers are not included. The major source of SO2 emissions is combustion of fossil fuels. Road traffic is the major source of NOx emissions. Emissions to air of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in 1999 were 253 000, 26 000, 924 000 and 430 000 tonnes respectively, not including international bunkers. Agriculture is the major source of CH4 and N2O emissions. CO mainly derives from road traffic and NMVOC mainly derives from household combustion and road traffic

  17. Buddy Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Projekt ’BuddyBoard’ er kommet i stand via et samarbejde mellem Frederikshavn kommune, Bunker43 og Lab. X. Afdeling en ’Havly’ på Sæby Ældrecenter fungerer som living lab, hvilket betyder, at det udgør et levende laboratorium for udvikling og afprøvning af teknologi (Schultz, 2013). Projektet er....... Bunker43 har udviklet en teknologi (BuddyBoard) til hurtig formidling af billeder fra pårørende og personale til beboere på institutioner. Pårørende og personale uploader billeder via en APP eller en hjemmeside og har mulighed for at tilføje en kort forklarende tekst til hvert billede. Beboeren ser...... billederne via en tablet. Systemet bygger på et simpelt og brugervenligt design, så ældre med kognitive og/eller fysiske funktionsnedsættelser kan anvende teknologien. BuddyBoard fungerer via internettet, og billederne gemmes på en sikret server hos udbyderen, som er Bunker43. Intentionerne med BuddyBoard er...

  18. Report on three accidents that occurred in a cobalt therapy centre in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In one of the main hospitals in a large province of Italy some accidents occurred in a cobalt therapy unit, after a new source had been installed. The first accident occurred one month later, at the end of a patient treatment. At the control desk a signal indicated that the source was not in the storage position. The operator first pushed unsuccessfully the emergency button, then entered the bunker to help the patient. Ten minutes later, pushing again the emergency button, the source went in the storage position, was not significant. The same day of the accident the technicians of the cobalt equipment were called for a control. About ten days later the same situation occurred and the operator, that had been in charge for the Radiotherapy Division for 30 years, did not follow the emergency radiation protection rules. He did not use the manual device (the wheel) to recall the source in the storage position. When he entered the bunker, the head of the equipment was set on 310 deg C to irradiate the left breast of the patient. To help the aged patient get off the bunker he lifted the patient off the cot thus exposing the right side of his breast to the direct beam. His intervention lasted about 45 seconds. In this case the personal dosimeter measured a dose of 54 mSv. (Author)

  19. Sensor Based Effective Monitoring of Coal Handling System (CHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttalakkani.M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal level detection is an important aspect to assess the performance of a coal-fired power plant. Coal has to be transported, via a coal handling system. The fuel in a coal-fired power plant is stored in silos, bunkers or stock piles. Coal is stored in silos in a small plant, Bunkers for handling a day’s operation and Stock piling methods for large plants. So, fuel handling had to done efficiently. To accurately sense the coal height, Real-time feedback is deployed within the bunker or stock pile. The real time range information is then fedback to the control system. Of the different types of ranging sensors, radar based system is used. Also a real-time temperature monitoring system is developed to protect the coal. The range and temperature data from sensors are sent to the main system through GSM modem by means of SMS. The range information is used to start the conveyor belt to draw the coal from coal yard. If the temperature exceeds the limit, the SMS will be sent through the software or it will call the respective person to monitor the process. A fire sensor is also used to extinguish the fire by initiating the water spraying system. A PIC Microcontroller is interfaced all the sensors for effective handling of thermal power plant.

  20. Simulated European stalagmite record and its relation to a quasi-decadal climate mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, G.; Wackerbarth, A.; Langebroek, P.; Werner, M.; Fohlmeister, J.; Scholz, D.; Mangini, A.

    2012-08-01

    A synthetic stalagmite record for the Bunker cave is constructed using a combined climate-stalagmite modeling approach. The power spectrum of the simulated speleothem calcite δ18O record has a pronounced peak at quasi-decadal time scale. Interestingly, mixing processes in the soil and karst above the cave represent a natural low-pass filter of the speleothem climate archive. We identify a quasi-decadal mode characterized by a "tripole pattern" of sea surface temperature affecting stalagmite δ18O values. This pattern, which is well-known in literature as the quasi-decadal mode in the North Atlantic, propagates eastwards and affects western European temperature surrounding the cave. Stalagmite δ18O values at Bunker Cave lag the regional surface temperature (r = 0.4) and soil moisture (r = -0.4) signal by 2-3 yr. Our modelling study suggests that stalagmite records from Bunker Cave are representative for large-scale teleconnections and can be used to obtain information about the North Atlantic and its decadal variability.

  1. Simulated European stalagmite record and its relation to a quasi-decadal climate mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic stalagmite record for the Bunker cave is constructed using a combined climate-stalagmite modeling approach. The power spectrum of the simulated speleothem calcite δ18O record has a pronounced peak at quasi-decadal time scale. Interestingly, mixing processes in the soil and karst above the cave represent a natural low-pass filter of the speleothem climate archive. We identify a quasi-decadal mode characterized by a "tripole pattern" of sea surface temperature affecting stalagmite δ18O values. This pattern, which is well-known in literature as the quasi-decadal mode in the North Atlantic, propagates eastwards and affects western European temperature surrounding the cave. Stalagmite δ18O values at Bunker Cave lag the regional surface temperature (r = 0.4 and soil moisture (r = −0.4 signal by 2–3 yr. Our modelling study suggests that stalagmite records from Bunker Cave are representative for large-scale teleconnections and can be used to obtain information about the North Atlantic and its decadal variability.

  2. Analysis of past marine oil spill rates and trends for future contingency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the increase in oil production and transportation, the rate of oil spillage has generally decreased over the past 30 years according to U.S. and international marine oil spill data. However, due to greater expectations for effective spill response, complex contingency planning is needed for increasingly rare, high-impact events. This study analyzed past oil spill trends for vessels from 1985-2000 and compared it with potential future spill rates considering the use of double hulls on tankers and bunkers. The paper then presented a methodology for determining theoretical and most-likely worst-case oil spill scenarios for contingency planning for ports. The analyses of spill scenarios included vessels such as tankers, barges, freighters, fishing vessels, and passenger vessels. Probability distribution functions were analyzed to determine various percentile spills and worst-case discharges. Spill data was also analyzed to determine the percentage of cargo or bunker fuel spilled for each incident involving an accidental cause. Theoretical future oil spill volumes were determined based on the use of cargo and fuel-loss percentages and probabilities for different sized and types of vessels from US data on vessels in waters off the Washington coast and Sans Francisco Bay area. It was noted that double hulls on bunkers decrease the probability of spillage upon impact, but they are likely to release just as much oil as single hulled tanks once they are breached. 6 refs., 10 tabs., 34 figs

  3. Advanced array techniques for unattended ground sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, F.E.; Wolford, J.K.; Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-06

    Sensor arrays offer opportunities to beam form, and time-frequency analyses offer additional insights to the wavefield data. Data collected while monitoring three different sources with unattended ground sensors in a 16-element, small-aperture (approximately 5 meters) geophone array are used as examples of model-based seismic signal processing on actual geophone array data. The three sources monitored were: (Source 01). A frequency-modulated chirp of an electromechanical shaker mounted on the floor of an underground bunker. Three 60-second time-windows corresponding to (a) 50 Hz to 55 Hz sweep, (b) 60 Hz to 70 Hz sweep, and (c) 80 Hz to 90 Hz sweep. (Source 02). A single transient impact of a hammer striking the floor of the bunker. Twenty seconds of data (with the transient event approximately mid-point in the time window.(Source 11)). The transient event of a diesel generator turning on, including a few seconds before the turn-on time and a few seconds after the generator reaches steady-state conditions. The high-frequency seismic array was positioned at the surface of the ground at a distance of 150 meters (North) of the underground bunker. Four Y-shaped subarrays (each with 2-meter apertures) in a Y-shaped pattern (with a 6-meter aperture) using a total of 16 3-component, high-frequency geophones were deployed. These 48 channels of seismic data were recorded at 6000 and 12000 samples per second on 16-bit data loggers. Representative examples of the data and analyses illustrate the results of this experiment.

  4. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGenovese

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs in coastal sediments. Approximately 1,000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6,500 ppm. The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after three months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS allowing the containment of sediments and their physical-chemical treatment, e.g. aeration. Aeration for three months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB, and after one month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus- and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB.

  5. Occupational radiation protection around medical linear accelerators: measurements and semi-analytical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: X-rays produced by high-energy (larger than 6 MeV) medical electron linear accelerators create secondary neutron radiation fields mainly by photonuclear reactions inside the materials of the accelerator head, the patient and the walls of the therapy room. Numerous papers were devoted to the study of neutron production in medical linear accelerators and resulting decay of activation products. However, data associated to doses delivered to workers in treatment conditions are scarce. In France, there are more than 350 external radiotherapy facilities representing almost all types of techniques and designs. IRSN carried out a measurement campaign in order to investigate the variation of the occupational dose according the different encountered situations. Six installations were investigated, associated with the main manufacturers (Varian, Elekta, General Electrics, Siemens), for several nominal energies, conventional and IMRT techniques, and bunker designs. Measurements were carried out separately for neutron and photon radiation fields, and for radiation associated with the decay of the activation products, by means of radiometers, tissue-equivalent proportional counters and spectrometers (neutron and photon spectrometry). They were performed at the positions occupied by the workers, i.e. outside the bunker during treatments, inside between treatments. Measurements have been compared to published data. In addition, semi-empirical analytical approaches recommended by international protocols were used to estimate doses inside and outside the bunkers. The results obtained by both approaches were compared and analysed. The annual occupational effective dose was estimated to about 1 mSv, including more than 50 % associated with the decay of activation products and less than 10 % due to direct exposure to leakage neutrons produced during treatments. (author)

  6. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Maria; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Cappello, Simone; Russo, Daniela; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Modica, Alfonso; Smedile, Francesco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura; Yakimov, Michail M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) in coastal sediments. Approximately 1000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6500 ppm). The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after 3 months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS) allowing the containment of sediments and their physical-chemical treatment, e.g., aeration. Aeration for 3 months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR, and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB), and after 1 month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus-, and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB. PMID:24782850

  7. Neutron distribution and induced activity inside a Linac treatment room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, B; Miró, R; Verdú, G; Díez, S; Campayo, J M

    2015-08-01

    Induced radioactivity and photoneutron contamination inside a radiation therapy bunker of a medical linear accelerator (Linac) is investigated in this work. The Linac studied is an Elekta Precise electron accelerator which maximum treatment photon energy is 15 MeV. This energy exceeds the photonuclear reaction threshold (around 7 MeV for high atomic number metals). The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 has been used for quantifying the neutron contamination inside the treatment room for different gantry rotation configuration. Walls activation processes have also been simulated. The approach described in this paper is useful to prevent the overexposure of patients and medical staff. PMID:26737878

  8. Development of a system for passive spectrometry characterization neutron of a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most widely used for Neutron spectrometry system is formed by the Bonner spheres with an active sensor sensitive to thermal neutrons in its Center. But, the presence of strong electromagnetic fields and the hold character around a cyclotron radiation detectors active employment make unviable so it is necessary to replace it with other liabilities. In this case it has resorted to the use of Au foils such as thermal neutron detectors, found the matrix the new spectrometer response and has been validated with a source of 252Cf for later measurements in the interior of the bunker of a cyclotron production of radioisotopes for PET. (Author)

  9. The Impact of Russia’s Refinery Upgrade Plans on Global Fuel Oil Markets: OIES paper: WPM 48

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, James; Fattouh, Bassam

    2012-01-01

    While higher fuel specifications and regulatory changes in the bunkers market are most likely to have a big impact on long-term fuel oil demand, a structural shift of a similar magnitude on the supply side is already taking place, particularly in Russia, the largest exporter of fuel oil. The Russian government’s firmly stated commitment to the regeneration of its country’s refining industry and its determination to ensure that domestic demand for higher quality products is met would suggest t...

  10. Special Issue on Marian Pankowski (of the journal "Russian Literature", LXX-IV)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The first cluster of three papers in the special issue on Marian Pankowski focuses on the various aspects and functions of gender and sexual identities in Pankowski’s writings. By means of a ‘revindicative’, feminist reading of a selection of Pankowski’s works, Inga Iwasiów challenges the “conviction that the transgressive edge of his texts deconstructs gender binaries”. The author examines feminine roles in Pankowski’s writings within three intersecting areas: the motherland, the bunker as a...

  11. Accelerator and detector physics at the Bern medical cyclotron and its beam transport line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auger Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyclotron laboratory for radioisotope production and multi-disciplinary research at the Bern University Hospital (Inselspital is based on an 18-MeV proton accelerator, equipped with a specifically conceived 6-m long external beam line, ending in a separate bunker. This facility allows performing daily positron emission tomography (PET radioisotope production and research activities running in parallel. Some of the latest developments on accelerator and detector physics are reported. They encompass novel detectors for beam monitoring and studies of low current beams.

  12. Reduction of NOx emission in tangential fired - furnace by changing the, mode of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work analyses tile results of tests on 575 MW units with tangential firing furnace arrangement in sub-stoichiometric combustion. Tangential firing provides good conditions for implementing sub-stoichiometric combustion owing to the delivery scheme of pulverized coal and air. The furnace was tested in several different modes of operation (Over Fire Air, Bunkers Out Of Service, Excess air, Tilt etc.) to achieve low cost NOx reduction. Actual performance data are presented based on experiments made on lEC's boiler in M.D. 'B' power station

  13. Schkopau power station coal handling plant; Die Bekohlungsanlage im Kraftwerk Schkopau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanowski, K.

    1996-12-31

    Schkopau power station with a total equivalent capacity of 900 MW is the first new lignite-fired power plant in re-unified Germany. Up a 6 million tonnes of lignite from the open cast mines of Profen are annually converted into electricity and process steam. A completely new coal handling plant had to be built for this power station. The coal is delivered by coal trains and then unloaded in 24-hour continuous operation via two underground bunkers with three discharge conveyors each. The transport to the boiler coal bunkers is handled by two separately operating coal conveyors. The coal is either delivered directly from the underground bunkers to the boiler coal bunker or brought to a reserve coalyard for intermediate storage. Two combined bucket reclaimers were erected for storage and unloading of the coal. The capacity of the coal handling plant reaches 3,000 tonnes per hour at the most. The coal handling plant has been in operation since the end of 1995. The layout of the plant is described. Revent operating experiences as for example measures against dust emission, prevention of glowing coal particles and damage to one of the bucket reclaimers will be reported on. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Kraftwerk Schkopau mit einer Gesamtleistung von 900 MW ist das erste neue Braunkohlekraftwerk im vereinten Deutschland. Es werden bis zu 6 Millionen Tonnen Braunkohle im Jahr aus dem Tagebau Profen in Strom und Prozessdampf umgewandelt. Fuer das Kraftwerk musste eine komplett neue Bekohlungsanlage gebaut werden. Die Kohle wird per Eisenbahn angeliefert und in einem 24-Stunden-Betrieb ueber zwei Tiefbunker mit jeweils drei Rundaustraegern entladen. Der Transport zu den Kesselbunkern erfolgt ueber zwei getrennt arbeitende Bekohlungsstrassen. Die Kohle wird entweder direkt von den Tiefbunkern zu den Kesselbunkern gefoerdert oder auf einem Lagerplatz zwischegelagert. Fuer das Einlagern bzw. Auslagern der Kohle wurden zwei kombinierte Schaufelradlader installiert. Die Foerderleistung

  14. How the Norwegian Maritime Sector can succeed in internationalizing LNG-technology to Southeast Asia: A Case Study of Rolls-Royce Marine

    OpenAIRE

    Tveten, Rolf Erik; Løset, Gaute Dag

    2012-01-01

    The future potential of LNG as a bunker fuel in the Southeast Asian market is huge, although it is still immature. An emerging market for LNG-propulsion in the region creates a business opportunity for Norwegian companies delivering relevant products and services. This is a summary of the strategy that will yield the highest return on a foreign market entry with focus on export of LNG-technology in the Southeast Asian region. This thesis has assessed the gas producing and consuming countries,...

  15. Energy and Technology Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specialized laser amplifier for use with velocity-measuring systems is described which makes possible detailed measurements of explosion-driven targets extending over long times. The experimental and diagnostic facilities of the Bunker 801 project enables sensitive and thorough hydrodynamics tests on the high-explosive components of nuclear devices. An improved spectrometry system has been developed covering the energy range from 0.025 eV to 20 MeV for use in radiation monitoring, and a new material is being tested for the neutron dosimeter worn with identification badges

  16. The Debris of Urban Imagination

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Sgarbi

    2013-01-01

    “Il Guasto” is an urban context, a place in the heart of the historic city of Bologna which is a mound of debris (resulting from the demolition of an important building, the Bentivoglio Family palace during a popular revolt in the 1506) on top of which a “public garden” was created 40 years ago. The garden is well known in Bologna as “Giardino del Guasto”. Underneath, in between the debris, an underground space (bunker) was created to protect the citizen during the bombing of the second world...

  17. THE PROBLEM OF OIL SPILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Nguen, T.; Kochegarova, N.

    2011-01-01

    An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, and heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the s...

  18. Ambient neutron dose equivalent outside concrete vault rooms for 15 and 18 MV radiotherapy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), due to neutrons outside three bunkers that house a 15- and a 18-MV Varian Clinac 2100C/D and a 15-MV Elekta Inor clinical linacs, has been calculated. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX (v. 2.5) has been used to simulate the neutron production and transport. The complete geometries including linacs and full installations have been built up according to the specifications of the manufacturers and the planes provided by the corresponding medical physical services of the hospitals where the three linacs operate. Two of these installations, those lodging the Varian linacs, have an entrance door to the bunker while the other one does not, although it has a maze with two bends. Various treatment orientations were simulated in order to establish plausible annual equivalent doses. Specifically anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left lateral, right lateral orientations and an additional one with the gantry rotated 30 deg. have been studied. Significant dose rates have been found only behind the walls and the door of the bunker, near the entrance and the console, with a maximum of 12 μSv h-1. Dose rates per year have been calculated assuming a conservative workload for the three facilities. The higher dose rates in the corresponding control areas were 799 μSv y-1, in the case of the facility which operates the 15-MV Clinac, 159 μSv y-1, for that with the 15-MV Elekta, and 21 μSv y-1 for the facility housing the 18-MV Varian. A comparison with measurements performed in similar installations has been carried out and a reasonable agreement has been found. The results obtained indicate that the neutron contamination does not increase the doses above the legal limits and does not produce a significant enhancement of the dose equivalent calculated. When doses are below the detection limits provided by the measuring devices available today, MCNPX simulation provides an useful method to evaluate neutron dose equivalents based on a

  19. La enseñanza para la comprensión de los juegos deportivos : un estudio de casos en Educación Secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Gómez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    El enfoque de enseñanza denominado Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) fue elaborado por Bunker y Thorpe (1982) hace tres décadas. Desde entonces, se ha ido enriqueciendo con diferentes aportaciones teóricas y prácticas hasta llegar a considerarse en la actualidad un modelo curricular de enseñanza de los juegos deportivos en el que se reconoce como propios una serie de objetivos, contenidos y pautas de enseñanza y evaluación (Metzler, 2000). El impacto que provocó desde el primer momento ...

  20. Neutron Spectra and H*(10) in a 15 MV Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron spectra and the ambient dose equivalent were calculated inside the bunker of a 15 MV Varian linac model CLINAC iX. Calculations were carried out using Monte Carlo methods. Neutron spectra in the vicinity of isocentre show the presence of evaporation and knock-on neutrons produced by the source term, while epithermal and thermal neutron remain constant regardless the distance respect to isocentre, due to room return. Along the maze neutron spectra becomes softer as the detector moves along the maze. The ambient dose equivalent is decreased but do not follow the 1/r2 rule due to changes in the neutron spectra.

  1. Development of a system for passive spectrometry characterization neutron of a cyclotron; Desarrollo de un sistema de espectrometria pasivo para la caracterizacion neutronica de un ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, R.; Guerrero, J. E.; Lagares, J. I.; Sansaloni, F.; Perez, J. M.; Llop, J.; Kralik, M.

    2013-07-01

    The most widely used for Neutron spectrometry system is formed by the Bonner spheres with an active sensor sensitive to thermal neutrons in its Center. But, the presence of strong electromagnetic fields and the hold character around a cyclotron radiation detectors active employment make unviable so it is necessary to replace it with other liabilities. In this case it has resorted to the use of Au foils such as thermal neutron detectors, found the matrix the new spectrometer response and has been validated with a source of {sup 2}52Cf for later measurements in the interior of the bunker of a cyclotron production of radioisotopes for PET. (Author)

  2. Stochastic Still Water Response Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2002-01-01

    obtaining the stochastic cargo container load field is based on a queuing and loading policy that assumes containers are handled by a first-come-first-serve policy. The load field is assumed to be Gaussian. The ballast system is imposed to counteract the angle of heel and to regulate both the draft and the...... trim caused by the possible uneven distribution of the cargo load and the bunker load over the system. Stability is not explicitly accounted for. Finally the calculated second moment statistics of the sectional forces in a container vessel in a full load condition are reported. The obtained statistics...

  3. Coal mining in the Saar; Der Steinkohlenbergbau im Saarland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Ensdorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Early in 2004, the Deutsche Steinkohle Aktiengesellschaft set the pace for future coal mining in the Saar district by combining two mines, Warndt/Luisenthal and Ensdorf, into Bergwerk Saar, which is now Germany's biggest coal mine. The measures taken are described in detail in this contribution. Examples are presented of mining technologies, and improvements of the underground infrastructure by means of an optimized bunker and production concept are described. The Deutsche Steinkohle Aktiengesellschaft is optimistic about the future of Saar coal mining. (orig.)

  4. Sterilisers on ultraviolet light basis fulfill the requirements in the regulations on drinking water sterilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ships bunkering drinking water in foreign ports do not always get water to the required bacteria free standard. Also when generating drinking water from seawater by low temperature/vacuum evaporation bacteria may be carried over. An improved type of ultraviolet radiation steriliser is described in which the water passes through a quartz pipe with six ultraviolet light tubes placed peripherally around it, each tube being equipped with a special reflector. Tests have shown this system to be superior to previous types, and models can be supplied with capacities of from 0.5-10 cc/h. (JIW)

  5. Progetto Roost Chirotteri Piemonte - Valle d'Aosta. Primo censimento dei siti e priorità di conservazione

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Bernardi; Elena Patriarca; Roberto Toffoli

    2003-01-01

    Secondo la metodologia del Progetto Roost Chirotteri Italia, coordinato a livello nazionale dal GIRC, sono stati archiviati tutti i dati disponibili (pubblicati o inediti, raccolti da 24 rilevatori) circa i siti di rifugio utilizzati da Chirotteri in Piemonte e Valle d'Aosta a partire dal 1990. Risultano segnalati 193 roost, complessivamente utilizzati da almeno 17 specie, ai fini di: svernamento (57 siti, il 66,7% dei quali rappresentati da grotte e il 24,6% da miniere e bunker), parto e del...

  6. Traceable assembly of microparts using optical tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assembly of components with a size in the order of tens of micrometers or less is difficult because the gravitational forces become smaller than weak forces such as capillary, electrostatic and van der Waals forces. As such, the picked-up components commonly adhere to the manipulator, making the release operation troublesome, and the repeatable supply of components cannot be guaranteed because the magazining and bunkering scheme available in conventional scale assembly cannot be extended to these small objects. Moreover, there are also no effective ways known to deliver the finalized assembly externally. In this paper, we present the manipulation and assembly of microparts using optical tweezers, which by nature do not have stiction problems. Techniques allowing bunkering and finalizing the assembly for exporting are also presented. Finally, we demonstrate an exemplary microassembly formed by assembling two microparts: a movable microring and a microrod fixed on a glass substrate. We believe this traceable microassembly to be an important step forward for micro- and nano-manufacturing. (paper)

  7. Analysis of effect of harvest corn plant in different stages of reproductive and processing of grain on the quality of silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Marafon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Department of Animal Production (NUPRAN State University Midwest (UNICENTRO, with the objective of evaluate the effect of harvesting the maize plant at different reproductive stages and with different grains process on dry matter digestibility, neutral detergent fiber digestibility and animal performance. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and four replications, where each replication consisted of a pen with two steers, totaling sixteen experimental units. During the silage confection, homogeneous and representative samples from processed plants were collected, part intended for chemical analyses and inserted part in “bags” silo, putting these in the profile of each bunker silo, being considered as experimental units. The experiment lasted 84 days after opining de bunker silos, being 14 days for adaption, followed by 4 periods of 21 days. Thus, silage harvested at dough stage showed higher values of in vitro digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. The use of corn silage harvested at R5 stage facilitated better animal performance with consequent transformation of dry matter consumed in daily weight gain.

  8. In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Cooper, D. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  9. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department

  10. Identification and linkage of tarballs from the coast of Vancouver Island and northern California using GC/MS and isotophic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarball/patty samples collected along the coast of Vancouver Island, Washington, Oregon, and California were collected, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GS/FID). A tiered analytical approach was used to determine the origin of the oil. The analysis revealed that the California/Oregon samples were chemically similar in that they were identified to be 'Bunker C' type fuel and consistent with the same source. The samples taken from the British Columbia/Washington coasts were also of 'Bunker C' type . The latter sample was also similar to the California/Oregon samples , however, the oil may have originated from a different source. None of the tarball/patty samples was Alaska North Slope oil or California Monterrey Miocene oil. Although all samples were considerably weathered, the California samples were more weathered than the samples taken from the British Columbia coast. A large ship that travelled to or from a possible destination such as San Francisco Bay, may have been the source. The study indicates the widespread character of tarball incidents and the significant threat they pose for wildlife and other resources along the entire Pacific coastline. 34 ref., 5 tabs.,7 figs

  11. Flexible production and logistics of wood chips; Joustava hakkeen valmistus ja logistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, M.; Pankakari, P. [Metsaeenergia Meter Ky, Louhi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The target of the project was to develop a multi-purpose chipper-lorry (MOHA), which could be used both as chipping and transportation unit. MOHA is capable of chipping trees directly from the lot, so the size of the storage plays no role. Even though the MOHA-unit can be used as an individual transportation unit, it can also be used for feeding any further dispatch unit equipped with interchangeable container system e.g. when the transportation distances are long and the ordered volumes of wood chips are large. Previous projects concerning chipping-logistics are based on various intermediate storage models, but the MOHA delivers the chips strait from the lot to the site of utilization. The raw material short-distance haulage is reduced from previous 150 - 250 m to 1 - 50 m. In this new delivery model chips are bunkered only at largest heating plants. At smaller heating plants no bunker storages are needed. MOHA collects self the load, delivers it, brings, if controlled properly, back-haul, and delivers it to another site of utilization

  12. Development of explosive event scale model testing capability at Sandia`s large scale centrifuge facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Davie, N.T.; Calderone, J.J. [and others

    1998-02-01

    Geotechnical structures such as underground bunkers, tunnels, and building foundations are subjected to stress fields produced by the gravity load on the structure and/or any overlying strata. These stress fields may be reproduced on a scaled model of the structure by proportionally increasing the gravity field through the use of a centrifuge. This technology can then be used to assess the vulnerability of various geotechnical structures to explosive loading. Applications of this technology include assessing the effectiveness of earth penetrating weapons, evaluating the vulnerability of various structures, counter-terrorism, and model validation. This document describes the development of expertise in scale model explosive testing on geotechnical structures using Sandia`s large scale centrifuge facility. This study focused on buried structures such as hardened storage bunkers or tunnels. Data from this study was used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of existing hydrocodes and structural dynamics codes developed at Sandia National Laboratories (such as Pronto/SPH, Pronto/CTH, and ALEGRA). 7 refs., 50 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  14. Comparison between steel and lead shieldings for radiotherapy rooms regarding neutron doses to patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.G.; Rebello, W.F.; Andrade, E.R.; Medeiros, M.P.C.; Mendes, R.M.S.; Braga, K.L.; Gomes, R.G., E-mail: eng.cavaliere@gmail.com, E-mail: ggrprojetos@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva, A.X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The NCRP Report No. 151, Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities, considers, in shielding calculations for radiotherapy rooms, the use of lead and/or steel to be applied on bunker walls. The NCRP Report calculations were performed foreseeing a better protection of people outside the radiotherapy room. However, contribution of lead and steel to patient dose should be taken into account for radioprotection purposes. This work presents calculations performed by MCNPX code in analyzing the Ambient Dose Equivalent due to neutron, H *(10){sub n}, within a radiotherapy room, in the patients area, considering the use of additional shielding of 1 TVL of lead or 1 TVL of steel, positioned at the inner faces of walls and ceiling of a bunker. The head of the linear accelerator Varian 2100/2300 C/D was modeled working at 18MeV, with 5 x 5 cm{sup 2}, 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}, 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}, 30 x 30 cm{sup 2} and 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} openings for jaws and MLC and operating in eight gantry's angles. This study shows that the use of lead generates an average value of H *(10){sub n} at patients area, 8.02% higher than the expected when using steel. Further studies should be performed based on experimental data for comparison with those from MCNPX simulation. (author)

  15. Use of an oiled gravel column dosing system to characterize exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Hodson, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In August 2005, a freight train derailment near the shore of Lake Wabamun near Edmonton, Alberta resulted in the release of nearly 150,000 litres of Bunker C oil on the lakeshore. The purpose of this study was to define the toxic load of oil in sediments to better describe the exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates. Heavy Bunker C fuel contains a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly the 3-4 ringed alkylated forms that cause sublethal toxic responses in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments where fish spawn. This study evaluated how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to trout embryo. Flow-through oiled gravel columns were used to determine whether the toxic constituents of heavy oil are transferred to water quickly enough to cause toxicity. Embryonic trout exposed to the outflow of these columns showed signs of sublethal toxicity and dose-dependent mortality. In addition, column output of hydrocarbons and CYP1A induction in fish were flow-dependent. The desorption kinetics of the gravel column dosing was characterized in order to evaluate the toxicity of oil on these substrates and relate it back to toxicity of oil in sediments. The time to steady-state desorption of oil constituents in water was first determined, and then the rate at which different classes of oil constituents partition into water were identified.

  16. Fuel isolation, identification and quantitation from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fuel Isolation, Identification and Quantitation method is designed to extract, classify and effectively quantitate fuels such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuels, diesel, certain motor oils, heating oils and bunker ''C'' from surface and subsurface soils. This method also provides the solution to problems associated with modified methods used by individual states for analysis of fuels during underground storage tank removal or servicing. Twenty to thirty grams of soil mixed with equal portions of sodium sulfate are extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts are dried over sodium sulfate, concentrated using Kuderna-Danish concentrators, cleaned and then subjected to gas chromatographic analysis. Accelerated extraction is achieved using one gram of soil and sonicating the sample with methylene chloride for about five minutes. The extract analyzed by employing a temperature-programmed, capillary column and flame ionization detector. The fuel confirmation is achieved by comparing the sample chromatograms with chromatograms of standard fuels. The quantitation of specific fuel and lubricant content in the extract is accomplished by summing the area under the chromatogram over the entire characteristic range of the given fuel. This is done for samples and standards with sample concentrations determined from a standard curve. The matrix spike recoveries of gasoline, kerosene and mineral spirits range from 60 through 100%; high boiling fuels, including jet fuel, diesel fuel No. 2 and bunker ''C'' (diesel No. 6) range from 70 through 125% in soil. This method provides complete identification and quantitation of fuels without employing multiple analytical techniques

  17. Abundances of uranium, thorium, and potassium for some Australian crystalline rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Carl Maurice; Bush, C.A.; Munroe, Robert J.; Sass, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    This report contains a tabulation of the basic radioelement and radiogenic heat data obtained during an Australian National University (ANU) - United States Geological Survey (USGS) heat-flow project, directed jointly by J. C. Jaeger (ANU) and J. H. Sass (USGS). Most samples were collected during the periods June through September, 1971 and 1972. The measurements were made subsequently by two of us (C. M. Bunker and C. A. Bush) using the gamma-ray spec trometric techniques described by Bunker and Bush (1966, 1967). Interpreting the spectra for quantitative analyses of the radioelements was accomplished with an iterative leastsquares computer program modified from one by Schonfeld (1966). Uranium content determined by gamma-ray spectrometry is based on a measurement of the daughter products of 226Ra. Equilibrium in the uranium-decay series was assumed for these analyses . Throughout the report, when U content is stated, radium-equivalent uranium is implied. The coefficient of variation for the accuracy of the radioelement data, when compared to ana lyses by isotope dilution and flame photometry is about 3 percent for radium-equivalent uranium and thorium and about 1 percent for potassium. These percentages are in addition to minimum standard deviations of about 0.05 ppm for U and Th, and about 0.03 percent for K.

  18. The use of steel and lead shieldings in radiotherapy rooms and its comparison with respect to neutrons doses at patients; Comparacao de blindagens de aco e de chumbo usadas em salas de radioterapia quanto a dose devido a neutrons depositada em pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.G.; Rebello, W.F.; Andrade, E.R.; Medeiros, M.P.C.; Mendes, R.M.S.; Braga, K.L.; Gomes, R.G., E-mail: maglosilva15@gmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: eng.cavaliere@gmail.com, E-mail: raphaelmsm@gmail.com, E-mail: kelmo.lins@gmail.com, E-mail: ggrprojetos@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, R.F.G., E-mail: raphaelfgsantos@gmail.com [Centro Universitario Anhanguera, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The NCRP Report No. 151, Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities, considers, in shielding calculations for radiotherapy rooms, the use of lead and/or steel to be applied on bunker walls. The NCRP Report calculations were performed foreseeing a better protection of people outside the radiotherapy room. However, contribution of lead and steel to patient dose should be taken into account for radioprotection purposes. This work presents calculations performed by MCNPX code in analyzing the Ambient Dose Equivalent due to neutron, H*(10){sub n}, within a radiotherapy room, in the patients area, considering the use of additional shielding of 1 TVL of lead or 1 TVL of steel, positioned at the inner faces of walls and ceiling of a bunker. The head of the linear accelerator Varian 2100/2300 C/D was modeled working at 18MeV, with 5x5cm{sup 2}, 10x10cm{sup 2}, 20x20cm{sup 2}, 30x30cm{sup 2} and 40x40cm{sup 2} openings for jaws and MLC and operating in eight gantry's angles. This study shows that the use of lead generates an average value of H*(10){sub n} at patients area, 8.02% higher than the expected when using steel. Further studies should be performed based on experimental data for comparison with those from MCNPX simulation.

  19. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  20. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  1. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel

  2. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  3. Characterization of the neutron spectra at the final of the installations labyrinth with medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A linear electron accelerator for medical use is an equipment dedicated to the production of collimated beams of electrons and/or photons. In an accelerator of a bigger potential or equal to 6 MV, are produced neutrons starting from the reaction (gamma, n) due to the interaction of the photons with the materials that compose the headset and the target. In this work the theoretical and experimental studies carried out to characterize the neutron spectra to the exit of the labyrinth of three bunkers of different geometry with accelerators of 15 MV, with the purpose of evaluating the effective dose of the occupationally exposure personnel are presented. It was carried out the simulation of the neutron transport with the MCNPX code and the ENDF/B - VI library. With the objective of analyzing the variables that affect the spectral distribution the bunkers of two existent facilities in Argentina were modeled. It was considered a isotropic punctual source located in the supposed position of the target. The spectra of 252 Cf and of Watt of 1.8 MeV of half energy were simulated. The election of the sources was based on published works that suppose initial neutron sources with half energy between 1.8 and 2.3 MeV for accelerators of 15 at 25 MV. Its were considered headsets of different dimensions, with and without phantom of water disperser in the patient's position and several field dimensions in the isocenter. The spectral distribution doesn't present significant differences in the different modeling situations. Its were carried out measurements, with the multisphere spectrometric system based on twelve polyethylene spheres and a spherical detector of 3 He, to the exit of each one of the bunkers. It was carried out the convolution of the spectrum using the MXDFC33 code (of the UMG33 set), considering as initial spectrum that of the fission type (inverse of the energy). The obtained spectra and the environmental equivalent dose rate in each case are presented. Difference

  4. Measuring neutron spectra in radiotherapy using the nested neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglieri, Robert, E-mail: robert.maglieri@mail.mcgill.ca; Evans, Michael; Seuntjens, Jan; Kildea, John [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H4A 3J1 (Canada); Licea, Angel [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Out-of-field neutron doses resulting from photonuclear interactions in the head of a linear accelerator pose an iatrogenic risk to patients and an occupational risk to personnel during radiotherapy. To quantify neutron production, in-room measurements have traditionally been carried out using Bonner sphere systems (BSS) with activation foils and TLDs. In this work, a recently developed active detector, the nested neutron spectrometer (NNS), was tested in radiotherapy bunkers. Methods: The NNS is designed for easy handling and is more practical than the traditional BSS. Operated in current-mode, the problem of pulse pileup due to high dose-rates is overcome by measuring current, similar to an ionization chamber. In a bunker housing a Varian Clinac 21EX, the performance of the NNS was evaluated in terms of reproducibility, linearity, and dose-rate effects. Using a custom maximum-likelihood expectation–maximization algorithm, measured neutron spectra at various locations inside the bunker were then compared to Monte Carlo simulations of an identical setup. In terms of dose, neutron ambient dose equivalents were calculated from the measured spectra and compared to bubble detector neutron dose equivalent measurements. Results: The NNS-measured spectra for neutrons at various locations in a treatment room were found to be consistent with expectations for both relative shape and absolute magnitude. Neutron fluence-rate decreased with distance from the source and the shape of the spectrum changed from a dominant fast neutron peak near the Linac head to a dominant thermal neutron peak in the moderating conditions of the maze. Monte Carlo data and NNS-measured spectra agreed within 30% at all locations except in the maze where the deviation was a maximum of 40%. Neutron ambient dose equivalents calculated from the authors’ measured spectra were consistent (one standard deviation) with bubble detector measurements in the treatment room. Conclusions: The NNS may

  5. Timing and duration of climate variability during the 8.2 ka event reconstructed from four speleothems from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Sarah; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph; Plessen, Birgit; Mischel, Simon; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Fohlmeister, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The most prominent climate anomaly of the Holocene is the 8.2 ka event, which reflects the impact of a dramatic freshwater influx into the North Atlantic during an interglacial climate state. Thus, it can be considered as a possible analogue for future climate change. Due to the short-lived nature of the event (160.5 ± 5.5 years; Thomas et al., 2007), a detailed investigation requires archives of both high temporal resolution and accurate chronology. We present high-resolution stable oxygen and carbon isotope (ca. 3-4 years) as well as sub-annually resolved trace element records of the 8.2 ka event from stalagmites (BB-3, Bu4, HLK2 and TV1) from three cave systems in Germany (Blessberg Cave, Bunker Cave and Herbstlabyrinth). The location of these caves in central European is well suited in order to detect changes in temperature and precipitation in relation to changes in the North Atlantic region (Fohlmeister et al., 2012). The 8.2 ka event is clearly recorded as a pronounced negative excursion in the δ18O values of all four speleothems. While stalagmites BB-3 from Blessberg Cave and Bu4 from Bunker Cave also show a negative excursion in the δ13C values during the event, the two speleothems from Herbstlabyrinth show no distinctive features in their δ13C values. The timing, duration and structure of the event differ between the individual records. In BB-3, the event occurs earlier (ca. 8.4 ka) and has a relatively short duration of ca. 90 years. In Bu4, the event occurs later (ca. 8.1 ka) and shows a relatively long duration of more than 200 years. In the two speleothems from the Herbstlabyrinth, the event is replicated and has a timing between 8.3 and 8.1 ka and a duration of ca. 150 years. These differences may at least in part be related to the dating uncertainties of 100-200 years (95 % confidence limits). References: Fohlmeister, J., Schroder-Ritzrau, A., Scholz, D., Spötl, C., Riechelmann, D.F.C., Mudelsee, M., Wackerbarth, A., Gerdes, A., Riechelmann, S

  6. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.lima@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F., E-mail: samuelfisica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabriel.alo@aceletron.com.br [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Aceletrica Comercio e Representacoes Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Francisco C.A. Da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  7. SU-E-J-200: Operation of An Electron Accelerator On An Integrated MR-Linac System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: An integrated MRI guided radiotherapy system poses a challenge of operating a linear accelerator in the presence of a magnetic field as the magnetic force acting on the electrons could Result in radiation source displacement and subsequent reduction of dose output. It was the purpose of this work to test the performance of a linac in the presence of a 1.5T MRI system. Methods: The first experimental MRI guided radiotherapy system at UMC-Utrecht consisting of an Elekta linac rotating around a 1.5T Magnex magnet was examined. A passive magnetic shield was simulated, designed and installed to reduce the influence of the MRI magnet stray field on the electron beamline. The B field inside the shield was measured as a function of gantry angle and measurements of dose rate constancy upon gantry rotation were performed. Results: The magnitude of the magnetic field on the electron beam path without the shield was as high as 70G. It varied by up to 15G with gantry rotation due to the presence of metal beams in the bunker floor which resulted in dose output drop of up to 70% at certain gantry angles. With the prototype shield, field magnitude was reduced to well below 0.5G everywhere along the electron beam path. Field variation with gantry rotation was decreased to below 0.2G and enabled dose output of the linac to be recovered at all gantry angles. The homogeneity of the field inside the MRI magnet has not been compromised. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the influence of the 1.5T magnet and the bunker design on the linac operation has been minimised. The performance will be further improved on the Elekta Atlantic system which incorporates a newly developed and optimised Philips magnet design and bunker construction. J Harasimowicz, D Roberts, I Shinton and S Sund are employed by Elekta Limited Crawley, H Wang and M Zhong are employed by Elekta Beijing Medical Systems Co. Ltd., J Overweg is employed by Philips Technologie GmbH Forschungslaboratorien

  8. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  9. Radiation shielding for neutron guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersez, T. [Reactor Operations, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: tez@ansto.gov.au; Braoudakis, G. [Reactor Operations, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Osborn, J.C. [Reactor Operations, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Models of the neutron guide shielding for the out of bunker guides on the thermal and cold neutron beam lines of the OPAL Reactor (ANSTO) were constructed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP 4B. The neutrons that were not reflected inside the guides but were absorbed by the supermirror (SM) layers were noted to be a significant source of gammas. Gammas also arise from neutrons absorbed by the B, Si, Na and K contained in the glass. The proposed shielding design has produced compact shielding assemblies. These arrangements are consistent with safety requirements, floor load limits, and cost constraints. To verify the design a prototype was assembled consisting of 120 mm thick Pb(96%)Sb(4%) walls resting on a concrete block. There was good agreement between experimental measurements and calculated dose rates for bulk shield regions.

  10. Plan for research to improve the safety of light-water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's first annual report to Congress on recommendations for research on improving the safety of light-water nuclear power plants. Suggestions for reactor safety research were identified in, or received from, various sources, including the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, the NRC regulatory staff, and the consultants to the Research Review Group. After an initial screening to eliminate those not related to improved reactor safety, all the suggestions were consolidated into research topics. It is recommended that the following research projects be carried out: alternate containment concepts, especially vented containments; alternate decay heat removal concepts, especially add-on bunkered systems; alternate emergency core cooling concepts; improved in-plant accident response; and advanced seismic designs

  11. Experience with nuclear instrumentation techniques in the preparation of hard coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of nuclear techniques to the monitoring and control instrumentation in Federal German coal preparation plants is reviewed. Most instruments installed to date are used for determining the quantitative properties of flowing and static products, such as bunker levels, mass flow on conveyor belts and pipes, density and solids concentration in slurries. Provided regular maintenance and checks are carried out, these instruments have proven adequate in most monitoring and control applications. Many more problems are involved with the on-stream analysis for ash, moisture and sulphur. About 35 gamma-ray backscatter instruments are in operation for determining the ash content of metallurgical and steam coal, requiring primary cutting. Transmission techniques suitable for bulk materials on conveyor belts and for slurries are under investigation. No nuclear technique is practicable for the determination of moisture content. Extensive comparative on-plant measurements have proved the superiority as regards accuracy of microwave techniques developed at Bergbau-Forschung. (author)

  12. ANÁLISIS DE EVOLUCIÓN DE LA CONFIANZA EN LA INDUSTRIA DEL AUTOMÓVIL ¿HEMOS LLEGADO A LA CONFIANZA IDENTIFICATIVA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Rubio, I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar la evolución de la confianza en las relaciones entre los fabricantes de automóviles y sus proveedores. La importancia de la confianza para el buen funcionamiento de la relación ha sido reconocida ampliamente en la literatura económica, pero ahora es considerada un aspecto vital. Partimos el modelo de Lewicki y Bunker, debido a que se ha utilizado de manera intensiva en la literatura y se ajusta perfectamente a nuestros propósitos. Concluimos que en la industria del autómovil la confianza alcanza el estado de “Confianza Cognoscitiva”, sin llegar a la fase de Confianza Identificativa.

  13. Methodology for estimating cleaning effectiveness and dispersion of oil with shoreline cleaning agents in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, J.R.Jr.; Stransky, B.C.; Adkins, A.C.; Lees, D.C. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Michel, J. [Research Planning, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States); Schwartz, M.J.; Snyder, B.J. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reilly, T.J. [PCCI, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A method to evaluate shoreline cleaning agents (SCA) using a portable field kit, was described. SCAs enhance removal of oil from shoreline surfaces, but their performance can be influenced by site-specific variables, and the physical and chemical properties of the oil. On-site testing could provide a quantitative and qualitative estimate of cleaning capability and dispersion of oil with SCAs. The method was tested on three substrates, namely gravel rip-rap, and eelgrass and two oils (Bunker C and Bonny Light), and two SCAs (Corexit 9580 and PES-51). Results showed that values for cleaning performance and oil dispersion were reproducible enough to allow differences to be identified in tests with and without SCAs and between SCAs. The method could help users in their decision making as to which SCA, if any, to use in the field. 25 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact Commission: Regional management plan, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licensable (or traditional) shallow land burial results in the greatest computed exposure of the alternatives evaluated. The other alternatives in descending order of impact are belowground vaults, enhanced shallow land burial, augered holes, modular concrete containers, and earth mounded concrete bunker monoliths. The maximum exposure is received approximately 10,000 years after the closure of the facility and results primarily from the long-lived isotopes I-129 and C-14. This maximum dose is approximately four orders of magnitude below that received from natural background radiation and two orders of magnitude below the level proposed by NRC as the lower limit for consideration in developing population dose commitments. It is not anticipated that any public exposure would result in the groundwater from migration of nuclides emplaced in a mine. Similarly, the groundwater may not be the critical exposure pathway for at-or abovegrade technologies. 39 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Assessment of impacts from different waste treatment and waste disposal technologies: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents assessments of treatment and disposal technologies that appear to be appropriate for use in regional facilities in the Midwest Compact Region. Treatment technologies assessed are: compaction with a supercompactor, incineration, and incineration followed by solidification of the incinerator ash. Disposal technologies assessed are: shallow land burial, considered a baseline for comparison of other technologies, below-ground and above-ground vaults, the earth mounded concrete bunker, improved shallow land burial, modular concrete canister disposal, mined cavities, unlined and lined augered holes. The text indicates that assessment of treatment technologies sometimes depends on the disposal technology that will be used, and vice versa. However, the major thrust of assessments reported here is to evaluate the technologies without defining combinations of treatment and disposal methods. 20 refs

  16. Prediction of material strength and fracture of glass using the SPHINX smooth particle hydrodynamics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, D.A.; Wingate, C.A.

    1994-08-01

    The design of many military devices involves numerical predictions of the material strength and fracture of brittle materials. The materials of interest include ceramics, that are used in armor packages; glass that is used in truck and jeep windshields and in helicopters; and rock and concrete that are used in underground bunkers. As part of a program to develop advanced hydrocode design tools, the authors have implemented a brittle fracture model for glass into the SPHINX smooth particle hydrodynamics code. The authors have evaluated this model and the code by predicting data from one-dimensional flyer plate impacts into glass, and data from tungsten rods impacting glass. Since fractured glass properties, which are needed in the model, are not available, the authors did sensitivity studies of these properties, as well as sensitivity studies to determine the number of particles needed in the calculations. The numerical results are in good agreement with the data.

  17. Studies of water-in-oil emulsions: energy threshold of emulsion formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy onset of water-in-oil formation was studied. Four clearly-defined states of water-in-oil have been characterized by a number of measurements and by their visual appearance on the day of formation and a week later. Results showed that the energy threshold for the onset of the two states is very low, usually between 300 and 1500 ergs. Bunker C oil, which forms an entrained water state, exhibited no increase in stability with increasing energy input after the initial formation point. Prudhoe Bay oil formed a meso-stable emulsion. It also showed a similar tendency, i.e. no increase in stability after the energy onset, although energy onset occurs at a much higher level of about 25,000 ergs. Arabian Light and Sockeye oils that form stable emulsions exhibited increased stability with increasing energy, the rate of increase being gradual. 16 refs., 6 figs

  18. La Chute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gárate

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos días del III Reich, Hitler y sus lugartenientes se encuentran refugiados en un bunker de Berlín. Los soviéticos están a las puertas de la ciudad y el régimen agoniza. Adolfo Hitler prefiere sacrificar a su pueblo antes de enfrentar una nueva capitulación. Los recuerdos de la derrota de 1918 lo obsesionan mientras niños, mujeres y ancianos luchan por sobrevivir a la guerra total desatada por su líder.  El relato está construido partir del testimonio real de una joven que trabaj...

  19. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  20. Optimization of Container Line Networks with Flexible Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    the assets must be deployed in the best way possible to create a healthy business. To better manage the assets invested in container shipping and to control the use of fossils fuels used by the liner shipping industry, optimization methods for liner shipping is studied in this thesis. The domain...... this, carriers will often use contracts for delivery of bunker to ensure supply and achieve a small discount on volume. As these contracts are shared between vessels, it constitutes a shared resource, which must be distributed optimally. A model is formulated, which is decomposed, implemented and run......Liner shipping is at the core of the world’s supply chains, with an estimated 36 % of the value of global merchandize trade being shipped in containers. The containers, carried on thousands of container vessels in intricate networks operated by global liner shipping carriers, constitute a very...

  1. Toxicity of oils and petroleum hydrocarbons to estuarine crustaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E. (Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS); Cox, B.A.; Anderson, J.W.

    1978-04-01

    Bioassay experiments with various life stages of three estuarine shrimp and soluble petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) revealed residual Bunker C oil and refined No. 2 fuel oil to be more toxic than two crude oils tested. Larvae of Palaemonetes pugio were slightly more sensitive to the PH than adults, while young penaeid shrimp were shown to be more resistant than older, larger individuals. Shrimp exposed to PH in conjunction with temperature and salinity changes were more susceptible to the PH. Some common aromatic and diaromatic PH, including three naphthalene compounds, were utilized in bioassays. Naphthalenes were highly toxic. The toxicity of petroleum products is closely related to aromatic hydrocarbon content, especially the naphthalenes and related hydrocarbons.

  2. The Bugey 3 neutrino detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbes, M.; Achkar, B.; Ait-Boubker, S.; Aleksan, R.; Avenier, M.; Bagieu, G.; Ballansat, J.; Barnoux, C.; Bazzoli, R.; Berger, J.; Bermond, M.; Besson, P.; Billault, M.; Boucher, J.; Bouchez, J.; Bouriant, M.; Brissot, R.; Camberlin, B.; Cavaignac, J.F.; Charvin, P.; Collot, J.; Commercon, A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cussonneau, J.P.; Daguin-Moynot, G.; Declais, Y.; Desanlis, T.; Dubois, J.M.; Dufour, Y.; Farrache, G.; Favier, J.; Gally, Y.; Garciaz, F.; Giacobone, L.; Guerre-Chaley, B.; Jobez, J.P.; Jourde, D.; Kajfasz, E.; De Kerret, H.; Koang, D.H.; Lefievre, B.; Leon, F.; Lesquoy, E.; Mallet, J.; Menthe, A.; Metref, A.; Mullie, J.; Nagy, E.; Obolensky, M.; Ollive, P.; Oriboni, A.; Pessard, H.; Pierre, F.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Provasi, R.; Stutz, A.; Thion, J.; Thomas, J.F.; Wuthrick, J.P. [Laboratoire d`Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, LAPP, IN2P3-CNRS, BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)]|[Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, IN2P3-CNRS, F-38026 Grenoble, Cedex (France)]|[Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Faculte des Sciences de Luminy, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91288 Marseille, Cedex 09 (France)]|[College de France, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France)]|[CEA, DAPNIA, CE Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France)

    1996-05-21

    The Bugey 3 experiment, designed to measure oscillations of reactor neutrinos, has used 3 identical detection modules, each of 600 liters, filled with a new {sup 6}Li-loaded liquid scintillator. These modules were located in two shielding bunkers, respectively 15 and 40 m away from the reactor core. We describe here the mechanical characteristics of these modules, their shielding, the associated electronics, the trigger, the acquisition systems, the calibration and monitoring of these detectors, and the Monte Carlo simulations of their response to particles. We conclude on the overall performance of this new detection technique which has allowed the recording of 120 000 neutrino interactions with good neutron efficiency (49%), low background (2.5 evts/hr) and good energy resolution (4% at 4.4 MeV). (orig.).

  3. The SSC access shafts calculational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSC generic shaft requirements and access spacing are considered elsewhere. The shafts connecting the ground surface with the underground accelerator tunnel deliver to the surface some portion of the radiation created in the tunnel. The radiation safety problem of access shafts consists of two major questions: Does the dose equivalent at the ground surface exceed permissible limits? If it exceeds those limits, what additional shielding measures are required? A few works deal with this problem for high energy machines. This work is an attempt to answer these questions for the basic types of shafts specific to the SSC magnet delivery, utility and personnel shafts using full-scale Monte-Carlo calculations of the entire process from hadronic cascades in the lattice elements to particles scattered in the tunnel, niches, alcoves, shafts and surface bunkers and buildings. 9 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  4. Economic opportunities from military remediation sites in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of base closures occurring nationwide has created an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies for cleaning up toxic contamination. Traditional methods for characterizing and remediating contamination at military installations, and elsewhere, have not resulted in timely, efficient and cost-effective cleanups. Past industrial and waste management practices conducted at California bases have resulted in contamination of the soil and ground water by a variety of chemical contaminants. Cleaning solvents and fuel wastes are the most prevalent contamination found at military installations. However, other less common types of contamination may also be present in significant quantities at specific bases. Environmental contamination resulting from leaking underground fuel tanks is also prevalent at California military installations. Common fuels present at military bases include gasoline diesel, bunker fuel, and JP-4 and JP-5 jet fuels. The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) is actively involved in efforts to encourage the development of new environmental technologies, especially at closing military installations

  5. Environmental accounting for Arctic shipping - a framework building on ship tracking data from satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, A; Martinsen, K; Eide, M; Endresen, O

    2014-10-15

    Arctic shipping is on the rise, leading to increased concern over the potential environmental impacts. To better understand the magnitude of influence to the Arctic environment, detailed modelling of emissions and environmental risks are essential. This paper describes a framework for environmental accounting. A cornerstone in the framework is the use of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship tracking data from satellites. When merged with ship registers and other data sources, it enables unprecedented accuracy in modelling and geographical allocation of emissions and discharges. This paper presents results using two of the models in the framework; emissions of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, which is of particular concern for climate change, and; bunker fuels and wet bulk carriage in the Arctic, of particular concern for oil spill to the environment. Using the framework, a detailed footprint from Arctic shipping with regards to operational emissions and potential discharges is established. PMID:25168183

  6. Automatic dam concrete placing system; Dam concrete dasetsu sagyo no jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Y.; Hori, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Yoshihara, K.; Hironaka, T. [Okumura Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-15

    An automatic concrete placing system was developed for concrete dam construction. This system consists of the following five subsystems: a wireless data transmission system, an automatic dam concrete mixing system, a consistency determination system, an automatic dam concrete loading and transporting system, and a remote concrete bucket opening and closing system. The system includes the following features: mixing amount by mixing ratio and mixing intervals can be instructed from a concrete placing site by using a wireless handy terminal; concrete is mixed automatically in a batcher plant; a transfer car is started, and concrete is charged into a bucket automatically; the mixed concrete is determined of its properties automatically; labor cost can be reduced, the work efficiency improved, and the safety enhanced; and the system introduction has resulted in unattended operation from the aggregate draw-out to a bunker line, manpower saving of five persons, and reduction in cycle time by 10%. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Railway investigation report : derailment : Canadian National freight train M30351-03 mile 49.4, Edson Subdivision, Wabamun, Alberta, 03 August 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This railway investigation report described an incident in which 43 cars of a Canadian National (CN) freight train derailed near Wabamun, Alberta. The cars contained pole treating oil, toluene, and 700,000 litres of Bunker C heavy oil fuel oil. The accident caused extensive environmental and biological damage to the area, and approximately 20 people were evacuated. This report provided factual information concerning the accident, including details of the railway track and the defect that led to the derailment, as well as details of the CN incident response and remediation process and responses from Alberta Environment. An analysis of the incident examined fatigue limits, defect tracking, and emergency response systems. The report then concluded by examining safety actions taken to ensure improved rail testing, track inspection and maintenance practices. 57 refs., 3 tab., 3 fig

  8. Stopping the haemorrhage

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The cryogenic line, which has been supplying liquid helium to the SM18 Hall area dedicated for tests on radiofrequency cavities and cryomodules for the past 20 years, is currently being dismantled. It will soon be replaced with a state-of-the-art infrastructure with an up to 10 times enhanced performance.   Performing preliminary assembly works on the new cryogenic infrastructure in SM18. Part of the SM18 Hall is devoted to tests on radiofrequency (RF) cavities and cryomodules used for beam acceleration in various CERN experiments and accelerators. Inserted into cryostats and cooled to cryogenic temperatures, these cavities are tested at extreme conditions, which reflect their operating environment. The existing cryogenic infrastructure supplying liquid helium to the six RF tests stations – four vertical cryostats and two bunkers for the horizontal cryomodules – hasn’t quite been delivering the goods. Of the 25 g/s of liquid helium that the cryogenic tank was a...

  9. Verification of the shielding built for a Cyclotron accelerator; Verificacao da blindagem construida para um acelerador do tipo Ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videira, Heber S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com [CYCLOPET Radiofarmacos LTDA., Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Passaro, Bruno M.; Gonzalez, Julia A.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C.; Buchpigue, Carlos A. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear (CMN) do InRad HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    According to the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) resolution 112/2011, administrative controls must be applied during the construction of a cyclotron and documents must be created showing that the facility can operate without radiological risks, referring even to the shielding efficiency. This study aimed to perform the analysis of the construction and efficiency of the bunker built for shielding, in the cyclotron of University of Sao Paulo Medical School Health System. This was possible through the measurements of a radiometric survey in normal working conditions, and testing related to compression resistance and density. The results showed that the compression resistance of the concrete used is higher than the expected value and the average density value obtained is within the tolerated limits. The radiometric survey results showed that the levels of ionizing radiation are well below the established limits. (author)

  10. Verification of the shielding built for a Cyclotron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) resolution 112/2011, administrative controls must be applied during the construction of a cyclotron and documents must be created showing that the facility can operate without radiological risks, referring even to the shielding efficiency. This study aimed to perform the analysis of the construction and efficiency of the bunker built for shielding, in the cyclotron of University of Sao Paulo Medical School Health System. This was possible through the measurements of a radiometric survey in normal working conditions, and testing related to compression resistance and density. The results showed that the compression resistance of the concrete used is higher than the expected value and the average density value obtained is within the tolerated limits. The radiometric survey results showed that the levels of ionizing radiation are well below the established limits. (author)

  11. Verification of effectiveness of borated water shield for a cyclotron type self-shielded; Verificacao da eficacia da blindagem de agua borada construida para um acelerador ciclotron do tipo autoblindado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videira, Heber S.; Burkhardt, Guilherme M.; Santos, Ronielly S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com.br [Cyclopet Radiofarmacos Ltda., Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Passaro, Bruno M.; Gonzalez, Julia A.; Santos, Josefina; Guimaraes, Maria I.C.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Lenzi, Marcelo K. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitina (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica

    2013-04-15

    The technological advances in positron emission tomography (PET) in conventional clinic imaging have led to a steady increase in the number of cyclotrons worldwide. Most of these cyclotrons are being used to produce {sup 18}F-FDG, either for themselves as for the distribution to other centers that have PET. For there to be safety in radiological facilities, the cyclotron intended for medical purposes can be classified in category I and category II, ie, self-shielded or non-shielded (bunker). Therefore, the aim of this work is to verify the effectiveness of borated water shield built for a cyclotron accelerator-type Self-shielded PETtrace 860. Mixtures of water borated occurred in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications, as well as the results of the radiometric survey in the vicinity of the self-shielding of the cyclotron in the conditions established by the manufacturer showed that radiation levels were below the limits. (author)

  12. An investigation into the removal of oil from rock utilising magnetic particle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, John D; Dao, Hien V; Kapadia, Jignesh; Ngeh, Lawrence N; Bigger, Stephen W; Healy, Margaret; Jessop, Rosalind; Dann, Peter

    2007-12-01

    The application of magnetic particle technology to environmental remediation has tended to focus, up to now, upon the removal of oil contamination from plumage and fur. The present research demonstrates the potential of this technology to remove oil contamination from the surface of rock. Specifically, a single treatment has been demonstrated to remove more than 80% by weight of heavy bunker oil from the surface of a common foreshore rock type. A further three treatments have been shown to result in an optimum removal of up to 94% by weight. The results are highly reproducible and offer the possibility of achieving up to 100% removal with the appropriate use of pre-conditioners. PMID:17967468

  13. Programmable Electronic Delay Device for Detonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sudheer Babu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Delay devices are used to perform various roles like aiding in sequential release of payload, providing safety in flight/ trajectory, enabling self-destruction of ammunitions, allowing blast of the warhead after penetration in runway/bunker, etc. The delay time is introduced to cause a series of detonation events from the explosive charge, in order to achieve desired efficiency. Inspite of many improvements performed along the years, in search of precise delay compositions, it is noticed that the obtained accuracy in chemical delay compositions is of ±4%.The present work using microcontroller gives possible accuracy of upto ±1%.This paper discusses about programmable electronic delay device, timing accuracy of electronic delay device and its merits over chemical delay devices.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.305-307, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2880

  14. Safety evaluation review of the prototype license application safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and consultants reviewed a Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the belowground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste disposal. In Volume 1 of NUREG-1375, the NRC staff provided the safety review results for an earth-mounded concrete bunker PLASAR. In the current report, the staff focused its review on the design, construction, and operational aspects of the BGV PLASAR. The staff developed review comments and questions using the Standard Review Plan (SRP), Rev. 1 (NUREG-1200) as the basis for evaluating the acceptability of the information provided in the BGV PLASAR. The detailed review comments provided in this report are intended to be useful guidance to facility developers and State regulators in addressing issues likely to be encountered in the review of a license application for a low-level-waste disposal facility. 44 refs

  15. Verification of effectiveness of borated water shield for a cyclotron type self-shielded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological advances in positron emission tomography (PET) in conventional clinic imaging have led to a steady increase in the number of cyclotrons worldwide. Most of these cyclotrons are being used to produce 18F-FDG, either for themselves as for the distribution to other centers that have PET. For there to be safety in radiological facilities, the cyclotron intended for medical purposes can be classified in category I and category II, ie, self-shielded or non-shielded (bunker). Therefore, the aim of this work is to verify the effectiveness of borated water shield built for a cyclotron accelerator-type Self-shielded PETtrace 860. Mixtures of water borated occurred in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications, as well as the results of the radiometric survey in the vicinity of the self-shielding of the cyclotron in the conditions established by the manufacturer showed that radiation levels were below the limits. (author)

  16. Séminaire de physique corpusculaire | 27 February

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

      The new Bern cyclotron laboratory for PET radioisotope production and its beam line for multi-disciplinary research, by Dr Saverio Braccini, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern. Wednesday 27 February 2013 at 11:15 Science III, Auditoire 1S081 30, quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 Abstract: The new Bern cyclotron laboratory is based on a 18 MeV proton cyclotron equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long research beam line, terminated in a separate bunker. This particular configuration is designed for industrial Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radiation protection, materials science, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy scientific activities. This project is the result of the successful collaboration among the University Hospital in Bern (Inselspital), the University of Bern, private investors and industrial partners. This new facility is now operational and open to nation...

  17. Sorting facility for group 1,2 solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility for sorting group 1 and 2 solid radioactive waste (SRW) (its gamma radiation dose rate being not in excess of 5x10-4 and 0.5x10-2 Sv/h, respectively, at a distance of 0.1 m from the surface), which has been developed and manufactured by OJSC SverdNIIkhimmash is described. The facility integrates a bunker, a large guillotine, a box fitted out with manipulators, a discharge chamber, a small guillotine, a sorting chamber, a feeder and control system. The purpose and structure of each element of the facility are considered along with operation of the facility as a whole, its technical characteristics being provided

  18. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive for the...... bunker consumption in the network as well as the transit time of cargo. Speed optimization has been considered for tramp shipping showing significant reductions in fuel consumption. However, variable speeds has not been considered for post optimization of the LSNDP, where speed optimization could result...... in changes to the cargo flow due to transit time restrictions as well as significant savings in fuel consumption and required vessel deployment due to a weekly frequency requirement. We present a heuristic method to calculate variable speed on a service and present computational results for improving...

  19. Responding to the Sea Empress oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) is a government department which has responsibility in England and in Wales (acting on behalf of the Secretary of State for Wales) for controlling deposits in the sea, including approving the use of dispersants in oil spill response. MAFF also has responsibility in relation to the management of sustainable commercial fish and shellfish fisheries. Following the grounding of the tanker Sea Empress on 15 February 1996, over 72,000 tonnes of crude oil and bunker fuel was lost. This paper summarises the involvement of MAFF staff in the response phase, and in the subsequent assessment of the environmental impact of the oil spill and the associated clean up operations on commercial fisheries. After two and a half years of environmental monitoring and complementary research, it is concluded that the oil spill has had an insignificant impact on these fisheries beyond their closure during the incident response phase. Suggestions for further work are discussed. (author)

  20. Possibilities and limitations for existing oil protection equipment by use of ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of ''Program for further development of Norwegian oil protection technology'' SINTEF NHL, at the University of Trondheim, has performed testing of Foxtail Vertical Adhesion Band (VAB) oil collector. The purpose of the testing has been to make a survey of the possibilities and limitations of the collector in cleaning oil in ice. The experiments have been made in the ice pool of SINTEF NHL, with ice on seawater in temperature conditions down to -18oC. Three different oil types have been used in the experiments, diesel, crude oil and bunker oil. In 23 single experiments, it has been shown that the collector is performing well, and that the potential for extension of use is substantial. 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Economics of trigeneration in a kraft pulp mill for enhanced energy efficiency and reduced GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential to liberate steam production capacity for power generation has been assessed using actual energy consumption data and the recorded seasonal consumption fluctuations for a kraft pulp mill. The revenues from power production are compared with possible energy savings, achieved through enhancement of the process efficiency using an absorption heat pump (AHP). Bunker oil, wood bark and black liquor, the fuels used, have very different costs and heating values. The net present value (NPV) was used with a simple payback time (SPB) for the comparison of three cases: (i) power production from liberated steam capacity using a cogeneration unit (ii) maximised energy savings using an AHP and (iii) power production combined with heat upgrading and cold production using a trigeneration unit. The results show economic viability of all options investigated. The stand-alone AHP achieves the shortest SPB time, whereas the trigeneration option reaches the highest NPV and therefore the best overall economics

  2. Phase behavior and phase inversion for dispersant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes some preliminary phase behavior studies and phase inversion temperature measurements in seawater, bunker oil and dispersant. The objectives have been to find new ways of characterizing dispersants for dispersing oil spill at sea and, perhaps, to throw new lights on the mechanism of dispersion formation (oil-in-water emulsification). The work has been focussed on the relation to phase behavior and the existence of microemulsion in equilibrium with excess oil and water phases. The dispersing process is also compared to the recommended conditions for emulsion formation. When forming an oil-in-water emulsion in an industrial process, it is recommended to choose an emulsifier which gives a phase inversion temperature (PIT) which is 20 - 60oC higher than the actual temperature for use. The emulsification process must take place close to the PIT which is the temperature at which the emulsion change from oil-in-water emulsion to water-in-oil emulsion when the system is stirred. This condition corresponds to the temperature where the phase behavior change character. The purpose has been to find out if the composition of the dispersants corresponds to the recommendations for oil-in-water emulsification. The amount of experimental work has been limited. Two kinds of experiments have been carried out. Phase behavior studies have been done for seawater, bunker oil and four different dispersants where one had an optimal composition. The phase behavior was hard to interpret and is not recommended for standard dispersants test. The other experimental technique was PIT-measurements by conductivity measurements versus temperature. 4 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs

  3. Methodology for shielding design and evaluation in radiotherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of the Republic of Cuba has decided to carry out a wide programme concerning the purchase of more than a dozen dual linear accelerators and, also; more than a dozen cobalt-60 units. Due to the lack of a national methodology for the design and calculation of shielding enclosures for radiotherapy units, the medical physicists from different hospitals began to use different methodologies, e.g. those in: a) Medical Physics Publishing. Shielding Techniques for Radiation Oncology Facilities. Patton H. McGinley. 1998.; b) National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Structural shielding design and evaluation for medical use of X-rays and gamma-rays of energies up to 10 MeV, Report No. 49, NCRP, Washington, DC (1976).; c) National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Radiation Protection Guidelines for 0.1 - 100 MeV Particle Accelerator Facilities, Report No. 51, NCRP, Washington, DC (1977). In some cases this caused the overestimation of the shielding thickness, when applying the values of dose constraints required by the Cuban regulations. The objective of the present work is to provide the medical physicists, the Radiation Safety Officers and other related professionals with a consistent methodology for the design and remodelation of bunkers hosting radiotherapy units but not using shielding doors. This work shows the validity of the above mentioned methodology, and the feasibility of designing door less bunkers for radiotherapy purposes. This methodology is considered to be self consistent and therefore no other complementary materials for its application are required. The experience so far confirms that; entry of realistic input data, and adequate application of sound engineering concepts when using this methodology leads to the achievement of enclosure shielding designs for radiotherapy units that comply with the dose constraints established by the Cuban regulations. Radiation shielding is attained having no over expenses on

  4. Linking CO{sub 2} emissions from international shipping to the EU emissions trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaageson, Per [Nature Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    The objective of the report is to analyse the feasibility of a cap-and-trade system for CO{sub 2} emissions from international shipping linked to the European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). The idea presented in the paper is to tie the permission for a ship to call at a port of a participating country to the vessels participation in a scheme for emissions trading under a common cap. The ship would be liable for emissions from fuel bunkered during, say, six months prior to a call at a participating port. With this design, emissions from the return voyages of ships involved in intercontinental traffic would automatically be covered, and shipowners and operators would gain nothing by calling at ports just outside the European Union. The geographical scope would thus be global, albeit limited to ships that call at ports of the European Union (and other participating states). The fuel consumption, that the surrendered CO{sub 2} allowances would have to match, could be declared by using the existing mandatory bunker delivery notes that all ships above 400 GT need to keep according to Regulation 18 of MARPOL Annex VI. The report discusses various ways for initial allocation of allowances and concludes that the least distorting method would be to sell them on auction and recycle all or most of the revenues to the shipping sector in a way that does not interfere with the objective of the trading scheme. In the case where Maritime Emissions Trading Scheme (METS) is initially limited to the ports of the European Union, at least 6 200 million ton less CO{sub 2} would be emitted over the 23 years between 2012 and 2035 compared to a business-as-usual scenario. However, a great part of this would be reductions in land-based sources paid indirectly by the shipping sector. (orig.)

  5. Estimation of radiation dose rates around medical isotopes production facility of Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand of the radio isotopes for medical application is increasing day by day. Cyclotron is a tool for production of these proton rich isotopes which are termed a SPECT and PET isotopes. The irradiated hot targets from a cyclotron bunker are transferred to the hot cells for processing chemically to obtain the required radioisotope. A pre estimation of dose rates at various locations of the hot cells with worst and normal operation conditions is essential. An exercise of estimation of worst cases also gives an idea about the dose to the workers and necessary preparedness without compromising on the regulatory aspects. 18F, 67Ga, 201Tl are the most important isotopes that will be produced in medical cyclotron. They are produced by bombarding proton on suitable target materials. The activated targets transferred to the hot cells from irradiated machine/production bunker. Chemist has to work at hot cells for chemical synthesis for 18F to form FDG. For SPECT isotope production target has to under go two stages of chemical synthesis. The dose rate estimation around the hot cells will give the estimation of dose to the radiation workers. In addition to medical isotope the other materials surrounding the target also get activated because of proton or neutron activation. The dose estimation depends on the total activity that is produced and the period of time for entire the chemical processing. The dose rate are estimated by using suitable expressions considering normal and worst scenario conditions. A procedure and a case was discussed and result shown both for normal and worse scenario case. It is observed that not only shielding many other factors like ventilation etc played important role. A case study was made and results are shown with the suggestive preventive measures. (author)

  6. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  7. SU-E-T-560: Monte Carlo Simulation of the Neutron Radiation Field Around a Medical 18 MV Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Today the majority of radiation therapy treatments are performed at medical electron linear accelerators (linacs). The accelerated electrons are used for the generation of bremsstrahlung photons. The use of higher electron respectively photon energies has some advantages over lower energies such as the longer dose build-up. However photons with energies higher than ∼7 MeV can additionally to the interaction with bound electrons undergo inelastic reactions with nuclei. These photonuclear reactions lead to the emission of fast neutrons which contaminate the primary photon field. The neutrons might penetrate through the collimators and deliver out-of-field dose to the patient. Furthermore the materials inside the linac head as well as the air inside the treatment room get activated which might deliver dose to the medical employees even when the linac is not in operation. A detailed knowledge of these effects is essential for adequate radiation protection of the employees and an optimal patient treatment. Methods: It is a common method to study the radiation fields of such linacs by means of Monte Carlo simulations. For the investigation of the effects caused by photonuclear reactions a typical linac in high energy mode (Varian Clinac 18 MV-X) as well as the surrounding bunker were modelled and simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA which includes extensive nuclear reaction and neutron transport models additional to electron-photon transport as well as capabilities for a detailed study of effective dose distributions and activation yields. Results: Neutron spectra as well as neutron effective dose distributions within the bunker were obtained, reaching up to some mSv/Gy in the patient’s plane. The results are normalized per Gy in the depth dose maximum at 10×10 cm2 field size. Therefore an absolute interpretation is possible. Conclusion: The obtained data gives a better understanding of the photonuclear reaction caused effects

  8. La base sous-marine de Bordeaux, sous le béton la culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Marsan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Active à peine plus d’un an pendant l’Occupation, la base sous-marine de Bordeaux cristallise encore les souvenirs douloureux des heures sombres du Port de la Lune. Le bunker attire pourtant depuis les années 1960 des artistes, cinéastes, plasticiens et musiciens fascinés par l’esprit du lieu. Institutionnalisée au début des années 1990, la base sous-marine devient un espace dédié au nautisme avant d’être consacrée à l’art contemporain au début du XXIe siècle. Aujourd’hui au cœur du projet d’aménagement des bassins à flot du quartier de Bacalan, la base sous-marine questionne et intrigue ses visiteurs sur son passé, mais aussi – et surtout – sur son avenir.Build during the German occupation, the submarine base of Bordeaux active during hardly more than a year still crystallizes the painful memories of the dark hours of the « Port de la Lune ». Nevertheless, the bunker attracts artists, film-makers, visual artists and musicians fascinated by the spirit of the place since the 1960’s. Institutionalized at the beginning of 1990’s, the submarine base became a space dedicated to the yachting before contemporary art at the beginning of the XXIth century. Nowadays at the heart of the project of redevelopment of the wet docks in the urban area of Bacalan, the submarine base questions and intrigues its visitors on its past, but also – and especially – on its future.

  9. The INCOTUR model : estimation of losses in the tourism sector in Alcudia due to a hydrocarbon spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented a computer model that calculates the economic losses incurred by a hydrocarbon spill on a coastal area. In particular, it focused on the Balearic Islands in the Bay of Alcudia where the economy depends mainly on tourism. A large number of oil tankers carrying crude oil and petroleum products pass through the Balearic Sea. Any pollution resulting from a fuel spill can have a significant economic impact on both the tourism sector and the Balearic society in general. This study focused on the simulation of 18 spills of Jet A1 fuel oil, unleaded gasoline and Bunker C fuel oil. Simulations of the study area were produced with OILMAP, MIKE21, GNOME and ADIOS models which estimated the trajectories of various spills and the amount of oil washed ashore. The change in physical and chemical properties of the spilled hydrocarbons was also determined. The simulation models considered the trajectory followed by spills according to the type and amount of spill, weather conditions prevailing during the spill and the period immediately following the spill. The INCOTUR model was then used to calculate the economic losses resulting from an oil spill by considering the number of tonnes of oil washed ashore; number of days needed to organize cleanup; the percentage of tourism that will be maintained despite the effects of the spill; number of hotel beds; percentage of hotel occupancy by month; cost of package holidays; petty cash expenses; and, cost of advertising campaign for the affected area. With this data, the model can determine the number of days needed to clean and restore the coastline; monthly rate of recovery in tourism levels; and, losses in tourism sector. According to the INCOTUR model, the total losses incurred by a spill of 40,000 tonnes of Bunker C fuel, was estimated at 472 million Euros. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  10. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing

  11. Estudo comparativo de diferentes tipos de silos sobre a composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de milho Comparative studies on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Melotti

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes tipos de silos de laboratório, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos, sacos plásticos e manilhas de concreto com revestimento plástico, em dois diferentes graus de compactação (400 ou 600 kg de silagem/m3, foram comparados com o silo comercial tipo trincheira amostrado a 0, 50 e 100 cm da sua superfície. A planta de milho (27,3% de MS e 8,4% de PB foi picada, homogeneizada e utilizada para encher quatro silos por tratamento. Depois de abertos, estes foram amostrados para análise da composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo. Os teores de MS e PB variaram entre os diferentes extratos do silo comercial e foram intermediários nos silos laboratoriais, indicando maior translocação de água e nutrientes naquele do que nestes. Os silos laboratoriais representaram bem os comerciais, quanto aos componentes da parede celular, amido, carboidratos solúveis e DIVMS. O pH foi menor na silagem obtida no extrato médio, intermediário no profundo e maior na superfície do silo comercial. Silagens obtidas no extrato médio também apresentaram maiores teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido lático, enquanto que as obtidas no extrato profundo apresentaram as concentrações mais elevadas de ácido acético. De forma geral, os silos laboratoriais representaram bem o perfil de fermentação dos silos comerciais (pH, concentração de etanol, acético, propiônico, butírico, lático e N amoniacal, já que a maior variabilidade de resposta foi observada entre os extratos do silo comercialA commercial bunker silo and three types of experimental silos were used for determination of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage (27.3% DM and 8.4% CP ensiled in two different densities (400 or 600kg of silage/m3: 1 commercial bunker silo sampled at 0, 50 and 100 cm from the top; 2 plastic silo with bulsen valve; 3 plastic bag; and 4 concrete pipe. Dry matter and CP concentration showed larger variation

  12. Impact of oil spill and posterior clean-up activities on wrack-living talitrid amphipods on estuarine beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Borzone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A geomorphological and faunistic seasonal study of six estuarine beaches on Paranaguá Bay, Brazil, was abruptly interrupted when the Chilean ship "Vicuña" exploded and sank, spilling 291 tons of bunker fuel oil. The beaches sampled twice before the accident were affected by the oil spill deposition and the posterior clean-up activities. Neither drastic reduction in abundances nor occurrences of oil-covered individuals were registered. Significant variation in both amount of debris and talitrid amphipod densities was directly related to beach clean-up activities. A short (1-3 month manual clean-up of polluted wrack resulted in an increase in talitrid abundances, with the local distribution expansion of one species, Platorchestia monodi, from three to six of the beaches sampled. The active migration and concentration of organisms at sites without wrack during cleaning activities and a massive and continuous recovery of new debris, characteristic of estuarine beaches, may contribute to the findings.Um estudo sazonal da geomorfologia e fauna de seis praias estuarinas na baia de Paranaguá, Brasil, foi interrompido bruscamente pela explosão e posterior afundamento do navio chileno Vicuña, que derramou 291 toneladas de óleo bunker. As praias que foram afetadas pela deposição de óleo e pelas posteriores atividades de limpeza, tinham sido amostradas duas vezes antes do acidente. Nas coletas posteriores ao acidente não foram registradas nem reduções drásticas das abundâncias nem indivíduos impregnados por óleo. As significativas variações tanto da quantidade de detrito quanto nas densidades de anfipodes talitrídeos foram relacionadas às atividades de limpeza. Uma limpeza manual e de curta duração (1 a 3 meses resultou num aumento das abundâncias dos talitrídeos, juntamente com o aumento da distribuição de uma das espécies, Platorchestia monodi, que de três passou a ser encontrada em seis praias amostradas.Os fatores que

  13. Safety and security of the CS-137 needles in disuse in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great majority of the accidents serious they are due to the loss or robbery radioactive sources. A radioactive source sealed in disuse is an accident in power if it is not stored under security's conditions, and it is conditioned properly or it is undergoes an adapted final disposition. Often these sources in disuse are forgotten and they are not object the appropriate heretic's loss test, that which could give place to their it lost or robbery Because Paraguay doesn't have a National System of the Radioactive Waste management, for disposition of the Regulatory Authority, the users kept in their own facilities their radioactive sources sealed in disuse without management, and distributed in different places, but under the CNEA Regulatory Control. The provisional storage is accepted by the Regulatory Authority if the Installation gathers the security conditions to avoid the loss or robbery Nevertheless, the Physical Security gives in the Interim Storage maybe it is not viable in a hospital or another type of medical installation, it given the possibility that kind of source could be stolen. As it is possible that a source gives this type it is stolen, the Regulatory Authority has adopted safety precaution efficacies to guarantee the source physical security, like it is the specific case of the National Institute the Cancer that has the following sources in disuse: 1. A header cobalt 60 (stored in its own Bunker) 2. 108 needles Cesium 137 (stored in an deposit inside the property) 3. 268 mg of Radio 226 (Conditioned under a project with the OIEA) Due these sources are in different deposits inside the hospital, and for a better control and security of them, the CNEA dispose to transfer the sources Cs-137 (108 needles distributed in 10 lead containers) inside the Bunker, where is stored the Co-60 Teletherapy source. This procedure was realized because these sources were stored in an precarious deposit and without the corresponding system physical security, avoiding

  14. Safety and security of the CS-137 needles in disuse in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great majority of the accidents serious they are due to the loss or robbery radioactive sources. A radioactive source sealed in disuse is an accident in power if it is not stored under security's conditions, and it is conditioned properly or it is undergoes an adapted final disposition. Often these sources in disuse are forgotten and they are not object the appropriate heretic's loss test, that which could give place to their it lost or robbery. Because Paraguay doesn't have a National System of the Radioactive Waste management, for disposition of the Regulatory Authority, the users kept in their own facilities their radioactive sources sealed in disuse without management, and distributed in different places, but under the CNEA Regulatory Control. The provisional storage is accepted by the Regulatory Authority if the Installation gathers the security conditions to avoid the loss or robbery Nevertheless, the Physical Security gives in the Interim Storage maybe it is not viable in a hospital or another type of medical installation, it given the possibility that kind of source could be stolen. As it is possible that a source gives this type it is stolen, the Regulatory Authority has adopted safety precaution efficacies to guarantee the source physical security, like it is the specific case of the National Institute the Cancer that has the following sources in disuse: 1.) A header cobalt 60 (stored in its own Bunker); 2.) 108 needles Cesium 137 (stored in an deposit inside the property); 3.) 268 mg of Radio 226 (Conditioned under a project with the OIEA). Due these sources are in different deposits inside the hospital, and for a better control and security of them, the CNEA dispose to transfer the sources Cs-137 (108 needles distributed in 10 lead containers) inside the Bunker, where is stored the Co-60 Teletherapy source. This procedure was realized because these sources were stored in an precarious deposit and without the corresponding system physical security

  15. España ante la II Guerra Mundial. El sistema defensivo contemporáneo del Campo de Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel J. Sáez Rodríguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El sistema defensivo contemporáneo del Campo de Gibraltar es un plan de elaborado por el Estado Mayor de Franco antes del estallido de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Se basa en más de quinientos fortines de hormigón, construidos desde mayo de 1939 y durante el conflicto mundial, a partir del temor a una invasión anglo-francesa procedente de Gibraltar. Ciertas informaciones del espionaje militar, con escasa base, condujeron al inicio de la fortificación del istmo de Gibraltar, extendiendo sus flancos desde la desembocadura del río Guadiaro hasta las playas de Conil. Es un proyecto diferente del plan de artillado del Estrecho que aborda, inmediatamente después, la Comisión de Fortificación de la Frontera Sur del general Jevenois. Aunque el sistema presenta claras influencias formales europeas, continúa principios tácticos ensayados ampliamente en la Guerra Civil Española.Palabras clave: Campo de Gibraltar, Fortín, General Jevenois, Sistema defensivo contemporáneo, Segunda Guerra Mundial, Comisión de Fortificación de la Frontera Sur___________________________Abstract:The contemporary defensive system in the Campo de Gibraltar was planned by General Franco before the Second World War outbreak. It consists of over five thousand bunkers which were built between May 1939 and the end of the war, due to the fear of a British-French attack from Gibraltar. This unfounded information, provided by the military intelligence services, led to the building of the aforementioned defensive system, starting in the isthmus of Gibraltar and occupying the area between River Guadiaro and the beaches of Conil. This plan is different from the Strait artillery plan which was developed just after the aforementioned one by General Jenevois' Comisión de Fortificación de la Frontera Sur (South Border Fortification Comission. Although this defence system is clearly influenced by the European trend, it is based on the tactics developed during the Spanish Civil War

  16. Passive Strategy with Integrated Passive Safety System (IPSS) for DBAs in SBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jihee; Choi, Jae Young; Jeon, Inseop; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the strategies of coping with DBAs in SBO were proposed by the design with IPSS. Current nuclear power plants adopt emergency strategies using fire truck as a provision of steam generator cooling. However, it has a lot of limitation like water inventory, preparedness and accessibility. In the case of passive strategy by the application of IPSS, faster actions and more efficient performances can be achieved. The application of IPSS implies the preparedness of big water tank which can be used as water supplier, heat sink and filtering medium. The proposed strategies are set under the conservative conditions without AC power. In order to set more realistic and acceptable strategy, the proposed passive strategy has to be combined with the current strategies. The combined strategies can avoid the reiteration and complexity in accidents. Accordingly, the set of operation mode considering action priority with estimating specific conditions is the further work of this research. Removing decay heat is one of the most important issues in safety of nuclear engineering. In the Fukushima accidents, the initial problem was an occurrence of tsunami. It was connected into a station black out (SBO) which lost AC power in site. Finally, SBO with human error induced the failure of decay heat removal. The occurrence of SBO and the failure of decay heat removal imply the questions for solving them. In order to prevent and mitigate SBO, some solutions have been proposed after the Fukushima accident. First of all, physical protection is enhanced to prevent external risks. For example, the tsunami barrier was modified to be higher from 7.5 m to 10 m. The second is to add electrical redundancy to prevent a total loss of electrical power. AAC diesel generators and movable diesel generators are examples for emergency conditions to supply AC power in site. Bunker concept which was proposed in Europe is a representative example. The bunker concept was analyzed to be applied in

  17. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  18. Winter survival of blood-fed and nonblood-fed Culex pipiens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C L; Faran, M E; Gargan, T P; Hayes, D E

    1982-09-01

    Comparisons were made between groups of Culex pipiens L. with different physiologic histories to test their ability to sucessfully overwinter under field conditions. On 14 December 1978, each group of mosquitoes was marked with a distinctive fluorescent dust and released inside an abandoned ammunition bunker at Fort Washington, Maryland. To insure that dead mosquitoes could be dissected and information obtained on their ovarian development, a sample of females from each group was also released into a plexiglass cage that was attached to the inside wall of the room. The physiologic histories of each group of mosquitoes were as follows: (a) "wild caught", those which had entered the bunker prior to the release date, (b) "lab-reared diapausing nonblood-fed," (c) "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed nongravid, " (d)"lab-reared diapausing blood-fed gravid," (e) "lab-reared nondiapausing nonblood-fed," and (f) "lab-reared nondiapausing blood-fed." By 8 March 1979, all of the lab-reared nondiapausing groups, of mosquitoes released in the room had died, whereas 15.7, 22.4 and 24.7% were recovered from the "lab-reared diapausing nonblood-fed," "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed" (gravid and nongravid) and "wild caught" mosquitoes, respectively. For the mosquitoes in the cage, only 0, 2.1 and 7.0% of the "lab-reared nondiapausing blood-fed," "lab-reared nondiapausing nonblood-fed" and "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed gravid," respectively, survived. This compared to 45.4, 56.8 and 58.0%, respectively, for the "lab-reared diapausing nonblood-fed," "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed nongravid" and the "wild caught" groups. These data provide evidence to support the theory that a significant number of diapausing Cx. pipiens which have taken a prehibernation (possibly viremic) blood meal do not develop eggs and can survive the winter at rates comparable to diapausing nonblood-fed mosquitoes. PMID:6289686

  19. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil

  20. Monte Carlo simulation for the production of neutrons inside the labyrinth function rooms radiotherapy in head rotation of medical linear accelerator use and energy operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work consists of an analysis, through computer simulation using the Monte Carlo method, the production of neutrons generated by the interaction of the beam with useful materials that are heavy in head-accelerated linear medical use. We developed a computer model of the head of the linear accelerator Varian, where there was the ambient dose equivalent due to the neutrons H*(10)n the plane of the patient and the region of the labyrinth bunker for several angles of operating at energies of 10, 15, 18 MV. It was found that production of neutrons in the plane of the patient has direct dependency with increasing beam energy useful, since the labyrinth it appears that besides energy the operating angle also has a direct influence on the production of neutrons in the region of the labyrinth, consequently the door. Therefore, a survey of H*(10)n at various angles with different operating ranges of energy contributes to better planning studies concerning shielding doors in rooms radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Status of neutron beam facilities at HANARO and a thermal neutron guide project of KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After successful installation of cold neutron facilities at HANARO such as neutron guides, cold neutron source including cold neutron instruments, now 14 cold and thermal neutron spectrometers are operating, and 5 instruments are under commissioning. The neutron guides with complicated shapes placed in the beam plug and the main shutter also in the curved part were delivered by a guide provider but the rest guides such as the guides in the guide bunker and the guide hall area were fabricated by KAERI. All the guides are coated with M=2 supermirror having different cross-sections and curvatures were operating with a high performance, where 10 cold neutron spectrometers will open to outside users. For a planning of a new project called ‘thermal guide facilities development’, the neutron guide system design started late last year, which was carried out to optimize the layout of the instruments and to calculate the neutron flux at sample position. At this meeting, the simulation results of the thermal neutron guide beam lines, status of in-house neutron guide development and specifications of some instruments will be presented.

  2. Technical Requirements for Fabrication and Installation of Removable Shield for CNRF in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Lee, Jung Hee; Shin, Jin Won

    2008-04-15

    This report details the technical requirements for the fabrication and installation of the removable shield for the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) in HANARO reactor hall. The removable shield is classified as non-nuclear safety (NNS), seismic category II, and quality class T. The main function of the removable shield is to do the biological shielding of neutrons and gamma from the CN port and the guides. The removable shield consists of block type walls and roofs that can be necessarily assembled, disassembled and moveable. These will be installed between the reactor pool wall and the CNS guide bunker in. This report describes technical requirements for the removable shield such as quality assurance, seismic analysis requirements, configuration, concrete compositions, fabrication and installation requirements, test and inspection, shipping, delivery, etc. Appendix is the technical specification of structural design and analysis. Attachments are composed of the technical specification for the fabrication of the removable shield, shielding design drawings and procurement quality requirements. These technical requirements will be provided to a contract for the manufacturing and installation.

  3. Digital neutron moisture meter for moisture determination in the cokes and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description is given of the digital neutron moisture gage for measuring water content in coke or in dry building materials. The device can work independently with indication of the results to personnel carrying out control operation and adjustment of the process or as a part of an automated control system with supplying the results of measurements in a form of analogous signals or electric pulses in the preselected code. The moisture gage described consists of two units: measuring probes with containers and the desk with power supply and the system for digital processing of a radiometric signal. The measuring probe consists of the asotopic fast neutrons source; helium proportional counter of slow neutrons and a pulse amplifier. The probe is mounted in the bunker with the material measured and is located inside the protective tube made of the weare-resistant material. To obtain high accuracy of measurements and to obtain the measuring instrument's reading immediately in the units of moisture measurement, the digizal converter circuit for radiometric signals processing is used. The The digital converter circuit cited, can be applied to any calibration dependence of linear type with initial value. The block diagram of the device is given. The device described permits to measure the moisture content in the metallurgy coks and in the building materials in one minute and with the error not more than 0.5%

  4. Panorama 2010: Refining: Adjusting to a changing business environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the latter half of 2008, the sharp deterioration in the economic situation translated into a decline in world oil demand and, after a certain time lag, a collapse in refining margins. In 2009, this downtrend continued and was aggravated by the emergence of large amounts of surplus capacity. For one thing, the investment programs undertaken in recent years to cover growing demand for petroleum products cannot be discontinued in an abrupt manner. For another, the growth rate in 2009 was obviously flagging and inertia was strong, contributing to the accumulation of excess capacity. In the OECD countries, the current slump is expected to persist. In the medium term, a reorganization of the sector is anticipated, especially in Europe and in the United States: refining capacity will be scaled back and more stringent refinery emissions standards (SO2, CO2 quota) and fuel specifications (sulfur content in bunker fuels) will be enforced. Projects will gravitate even more towards the regions of high-growth demand: the bulk of new capacity will be located in Asia. (author)

  5. Project of an integrated calibration laboratory of instruments at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Calibration Laboratory of Instruments of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares offers calibration services of radiation detectors used in radioprotection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, for IPEN and for external facilities (public and private). One part of its facilities is located in the main building, along with other laboratories and study rooms, and another part in an isolated building called Bunker. For the optimization, modernization and specially the safety, the laboratories in the main building shall be transferred to an isolated place. In this work, a project of an integrated laboratory for calibration of instruments was developed, and it will be an expansion of the current Calibration Laboratory of Instruments of IPEN. Therefore, a series of radiometric monitoring of the chosen localization of the future laboratory was realized, and all staff needs (dimensions and disposition of the study rooms and laboratories) were defined. In this project, the laboratories with X ray equipment, alpha and beta radiation sources were located at an isolated part of the building, and the wall shielding was determined, depending on the use of each laboratory. (author)

  6. Habog: a new multi-purpose, safe and economic storage facility for Covra in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COVRA's HABOG facility has been under construction since spring 1999, alter a three-year design phase during which the facility was devised to meet different stringent requirements: - ability to store multiple products: reprocessing waste, particularly glasses; research reactor fuel; miscellaneous waste from Dutch research centres etc.; - lifetime of about 100 years; - compliance with the most recent radiological standards for operations; - consideration of external risks such as earthquake, aircraft crash, external explosion, flooding, tornado. A major feature of the facility is that cooling of the stored high heat generating waste is totally passive by natural air convection. Once unloaded from the shipping casks the waste packages are checked and emplaced in bunkers if they do not generate significant heat and in vertical wells if they generate heat, like vitrified waste and fuel. Spent fuel is canistered before being stored. HABOG has been designed (i) by SGN for the basic concept, relying on experience from similar installations in France, at La Hague and Cadarache, particularly for the natural convection cooling system of the storage wells; (ii) by COVRA for some specific aspects, e.g. criticality safety; and (iii) by HBKC (Dutch civil engineering contractor) for civil engineering, particularly the consideration of seism, aircraft crash and flooding. The concept has been approved by Dutch Safety Authorities. Construction is under SGN' responsibility, except civil works entrusted to HBKC. The manufacturing of the main equipment is under progress as well as the construction works on site. The HABOG facility will start receiving packages in 2003. (authors)

  7. Application of gold-198 in investigation of technological processes in cellulose and paper industry and in production of combined forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To label cellulose fibers and sawdust in investigation of acting installations for production of cellulose and semicellulose, gold-198 was used. The aim of investigation was to determine time of material's transfer in the cellulose production shop from the boiler to the outlet from washer and in the semicellulose production shop from the feeding bunker to refiners. Stable labelling of the cellulose fibers and sawdust has been gained, which permitted successfully to perform investigations of two installations in spite of high temperature and pressure and aggressive medium. Gold-198 is also a good indicator in investigations of technological lines of feed mills. After labelling of one of the main components of fodder mixture, it is introduced into mixer in the proportion used in the production for mixing. It is possible to trace process of mixing either by means of continious registering of by means of sampling. As a result of investigations, optimal time of mixing, segregation processes influence of the factory transport and intershop idle stand on the homogenity of product for factories with different equipment, can be determined

  8. Preliminary report of the past and present uses, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. Uppsala High Power Test Stand for ESS Spoke Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Yogi, RA; Dancila, D; Gajewski, K; Hermansson, L; Noor, M; Wedberg, R; Santiago-Kern, R; Ekelöf, T; Lofnes, T; Ziemann, V; Goryashko, V; Ruber, R

    2013-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is one of the world’s most powerful neutron source. The ESS linac will accelerate 50mA pulse current of protons to 2.5GeV in 2.86 ms long pulses at a repetition rate of 14 Hz. It produces a beam with 5MW average power and 125MW peak power. ESS Spoke Linac consist of 28 superconducting spoke cavities, which will be developed by IPN Orsay, France. These Spoke Cavities will be tested at low power at IPN Orsay and high power testing will be performed in a high power test stand at Uppsala University. The test stand consists of tetrode based RF amplifier chain (352MHz, 350 kW) power and related RF distribution. Outputs of two tetrodes shall be combined with the hybrid coupler to produce 350 kW power. Preamplifier for a tetrode shall be solid state amplifier. As the spoke cavities are superconducting, the test stand also includes horizontal cryostat, Helium liquefier, test bunker etc. The paper describes features of the test stand in details.

  10. MCNPX simulations of the response of the extended-range rem meter WENDI-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Smet Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton therapy uses proton beams with energies typically between 50 and 230 MeV to treat cancerous tumors very efficiently, while protecting as much as possible surrounding healthy tissues from radiation damage. Protons interacting with matter inevitably induce secondary radiation from which all people inside the proton therapy center have to be protected. The ambient dose equivalent H*(10 in such a facility is mainly due to neutrons, which can have energies up to 230 MeV. Although various dose monitoring systems sensitive to high energy neutrons have already been developed, the response function of these detectors is often insufficiently characterized, and so are the calibration factors appropriate for the specific neutron spectra encountered inside a proton therapy facility. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.5.0 has been used to study the response function of the extended-range rem-meter WENDI-2 from thermal energies up to 5 GeV. A good match has been obtained with equivalent simulation results found in literature. As a first step towards the characterization of the WENDI-2 response in continuous neutron fields, MCNPX simulations have also been carried out for the case-study of a bunker around an 18 MeV H-cyclotron, which involves neutron fields from thermal energies up to 18 MeV.

  11. Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels combustion in the main sectors of selected countries 1971-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of sectoral CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning in the period 1971-1990 were done for the 15 countries at the top of the list of nations ordered by decreasing contribution to global emissions, namely: United States of America, Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom, India, Poland, Canada, France, Italy, German Democratic Republic, South Africa, Mexico and Czechoslovakia. In addition, the CO2 emission of two groups of industrialized countries, namely the OECD and the European Economic Community (EEC) were calculated. The main recommendations of the IPCC/OECD current methodology have been adopted for the calculations, with the principal exception that CO2 emissions from the use of bunker fuels have not been included in the national estimates. The sectors are: 1. Transformations. Total emissions and the part stemming from power plants 2. Industry (excluding Feedstocks) 3. Transportation 4. Agriculture 5. Residential 6. Commerce and Public Services 7. Non-specified Other 8. Non-Energy Use 9. Feedstocks (in Industry). Data are presented in tables and diagrams. (orig./KW)

  12. Radiation protection commissioning of neutron beam instruments at the OPAL research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron beam facilities at the 20 MW OPAL Research Reactor were commissioned in 2007 and 2008. The initial suite of eight neutron beam instruments on two thermal neutron guides, two cold neutron guides and one thermal beam port located at the reactor face, together with their associated shielding were progressively installed and commissioned according to their individual project plans. Radiation surveys were systematically conducted as reactor power was raised in a step-wise manner to 20 MW in order to validate instrument shielding design and performance. The performance of each neutron guide was assessed by neutron energy spectrum and flux measurements. The activation of beam line components, decay times assessments and access procedures for Bragg Institute beam instrument scientists were established. The multiple configurations for each instrument and the influence of operating more than one instrument or beamline simultaneously were also tested. Areas of interest were the shielding around the secondary shutters, guide shield and bunker shield interfaces and monochromator doors. The shielding performance, safety interlock checks, improvements, radiation exposures and related radiation protection challenges are discussed. This paper discusses the health physics experience of commissioning the OPAL Research Reactor neutron beam facilities and describes health physics results, actions taken and lessons learned during commissioning. (author)

  13. Source targeting tar balls along the southern Louisiana coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranded oil and tarballs deposited along the southern coast of Louisiana were source targeted, or compared for petroleum similarities, during 1992. The distribution, frequency, and composition of the stranded oil was assessed for specific study sites covering about 200 miles of the Louisiana coastline. Petroleum transportation off Louisiana shores is in the millions of barrels; with the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port receiving more than 200 million barrels per year. Also contributing to this transportation system are the outer continental shelf production activities, transporting 98 percent of their production by pipeline and 2 percent by barge. The questions addressed here are: What are the sources of the stranded oil and tar found upon the beaches? Are they primarily from small unrelated events, or are they from chronic discharges of identifiable sources? Preliminary data indicates a wide range of petroleum sources, with bunker oils most abundant. The petroleum has undergone varying degrees of weathering, or degradation by environmental processes. Preliminary data indicate relatively undegraded as well as extremely degraded petroleum, with no apparent correlation with study stations. Stations selected along the coastline were biannually surveyed, and petroleum samples collected were quantitatively assessed for petroleum per square meter per station. For a complete chemical assessment, the samples were qualitatively analyzed by detailed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) characterization and source fingerprinting using selective ion monitoring (SIM). The results were plotted in a cluster matrix to highlight the number of possible sources and the chemical characteristics of the petroleum found

  14. Renewable energy sources in the European Union countries and their contribution to the italian domestic energy productions and consumption in the year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995, in the fifteen EU countries renewable energy sources reached almost 72.9 Mtoe in terms of primary energy (65.2 Mtoe in 1990) representing 9.9% of the total production and 5.3% of the demand. In 1995 the share of the energy production covered by renewable has been 18.5% in Spain, 13.8% in France, 0.6% in UK and 4.5% in Germany. In Italy, in 1996, the gross domestic energy consumption (including bunkers) increased to 172.8 Mtoe from the 1995 figure of 172.6 Mtoe, with a minor increase. At the same time the overall electricity demand reached 262.9 TWh (261 TWh in 1995) following the 0.7% growth of the gross domestic product recorded over the same period. The contribution of renewable energy sources /hydroelectricity, geothermal energy, biomasses, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption in 1996 has been 13.8 Mtoe (12.7 Mtoe in 1995). The strong decrease of the hydroelectricity production recorded in 1995 has been recovered in 1996, an average year for the rain precipitations

  15. A state-of-the-art methodology for impact assessment of covered uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An impact assessment methodology is being developed that integrates several advanced modelling and characterisation techniques for the purpose of assessing the current and future environmental and health impact of a surface repository containing wastes from uranium milling and radium processing. The former radium processing plant at Olen, Belgium, accumulated during nearly half a century considerable amounts of radium-containing wastes. Also present at the site are uranium mill tailings. These wastes were disposed of in a heavily engineered surface repository at the occasion of a remediation plan carried out in the mid eighties. The repository contains several concrete bunkers covered with a multi-layer hydraulic barrier. In the current impact assessment study the only exposure pathway discussed is by contamination of groundwater. For this purpose we calculated variably-saturated water flow in the multi-layer barrier and the underlying waste zones and used geochemical modelling to estimate the chemical species and their solubility's in the aqueous phase of the various waste forms. The assessment further includes modelling of contaminant leaching from the tailings towards the groundwater, contaminant transport in the surrounding groundwater towards a water well, and evaluation of the doses for ingestion, inhalation and external irradiation resulting from use of groundwater from the well. Details of the waste and site characterisation as well as contaminant modelling are discussed. (author)

  16. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

  17. Mechanical collection of surface oil treated with dispersing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the project described in this report was to investigate whether treating surface oil with dispersing agents affected the efficiency of skimmers. The project included small-scale experiments and meso-scale basin studies. The results are: (1) Dispersing agents did not reduce the adsorption of the oil to the skimmer materials. (2) Using dispersing agents on high-viscosity emulsions either increased or did not affect the efficiency of the Komara Mini Disk skimmer. On low-viscosity emulsions, however, the efficiency was reduced. (3) The maximum collection rate of this skimmer was 1.8 m3/h for the viscosity range of 3000-4000 cP. The rate of collection would probably be different for other skimmer types. (4) When a dispersion agent was applied to a bunker oil emulsion, no reduction in water content was observed parallel to the reduction of viscosity. Such a reduction would have taken place with a crude oil emulsion. For water-free oil, this would have improved the collection, even if the collection of emulsion was reduced. 17 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Remote sensing of water-in-oil emulsions : initial laser fluorosensor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a study in which laser-induced fluorescence spectra were collected in a controlled environment for fresh oils, water-in-oil emulsions of the same oils and of the emulsions in water. Water-in-oil emulsions and other neutrally buoyant oils can be difficult or impossible to detect using commercial sensors, but preliminary airborne field experiments have shown that laser fluorosensors can detect and properly classify oils. Laser fluorosensors provide their own source of illumination and can be used during the night or day. They detect the fluorescence spectral signature and intensity of specific oils. This study analyzed Point Arguello Light, Mississippi Canyon and Bunker C oils. The fluorescence spectra of the water-in-oil emulsions were found to be identical to the spectra of the fresh oils, both in spectral shape and signal intensity, confirming that laser-induced fluorescence can be used to detect and classify fresh and water-in-oil emulsified forms of hydrocarbons. It was concluded that laser fluorosensor are promising sensors for airborne detection, classification and mapping of oil and related petroleum products in both marine and terrestrial environments. 4 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs

  19. Nonlinear Oscillations in Biology and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting entitled 'Nonlinear Oscillations in Biology and Chemistry', which was held at the University of Utah May 9-11,1985. The papers fall into four major categories: (i) those that deal with biological problems, particularly problems arising in cell biology, (ii) those that deal with chemical systems, (iii) those that treat problems which arise in neurophysiology, and (iv), those whose primary emphasis is on more general models and the mathematical techniques involved in their analysis. Except for the paper by Auchmuty, all are based on talks given at the meeting. The diversity of papers gives some indication of the scope of the meeting, but the printed word conveys neither the degree of interaction between the participants nor the intellectual sparks generated by that interaction. The meeting was made possible by the financial support of the Department of Mathe­ matics of the University of Utah. I am indebted to Ms. Toni Bunker of the Department of Mathematics for...

  20. Nigerian Security Forces and the Management of Internal Conflict in the Niger Delta: Challenges of Human Security and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Dode

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Armed Forces personnel have over the years maintained a trackrecord of effective peace keeping campaigns in the world. The role Nigeria playedin especially crises ridden Sierra Leone and Liberia can not be overemphasized.Paradoxically though, this record does not seem to be playing out in their securityand crisis operations in the country. Analysts would quickly make reference toUmuechem, Odi and recently, the military bombardment of Ijaw communities inGbaramatu Kingdom in Warri South West Council of Delta State. Some studieshave shown that at the end of most of those operations, the military stay behind as“armies of occupation”. This paper therefore, raises a number of questions whichinclude: how effective and to whose benefit have measures adopted (like aerialbombardment in the management of internal crisis by security forces in Nigeriabeen in recent times (1999-2011? Is it not an indirect call for military interregnum,when democratic regimes authorize the rolling out of war machines by the militaryagainst the civilians? Are the military forces fully trained in surveillance and othernon-combative skills of security maintenance? This study intends to consider anumber of options available for the country to adopt and solve crisis situationswith minimal collateral damage. These options include good governance, genuinenational dialogue, adequate surveillance of the Niger Delta creeks, blocking of thesources of small and light weapons importation and sale of illegally bunkered crudeoil into the international market.

  1. Nigerian Security Forces and the Management of Internal Conflict in the Niger Delta: Challenges of Human Security and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Dode

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Armed Forces personnel have over the years maintained a trackrecord of effective peace keeping campaigns in the world. The role Nigeria playedin especially crises ridden Sierra Leone and Liberia can not be overemphasized.Paradoxically though, this record does not seem to be playing out in their securityand crisis operations in the country. Analysts would quickly make reference toUmuechem, Odi and recently, the military bombardment of Ijaw communities inGbaramatu Kingdom in Warri South West Council of Delta State. Some studieshave shown that at the end of most of those operations, the military stay behind as“armies of occupation”. This paper therefore, raises a number of questions whichinclude: how effective and to whose benefit have measures adopted (like aerialbombardment in the management of internal crisis by security forces in Nigeriabeen in recent times (1999-2011? Is it not an indirect call for military interregnum,when democratic regimes authorize the rolling out of war machines by the militaryagainst the civilians? Are the military forces fully trained in surveillance and othernon-combative skills of security maintenance? This study intends to consider anumber of options available for the country to adopt and solve crisis situationswith minimal collateral damage. These options include good governance, genuinenational dialogue, adequate surveillance of the Niger Delta creeks, blocking of thesources of small and light weapons importation and sale of illegally bunkered crudeoil into the international market.

  2. Coal handling facilities and the expert system ELIGO at the Meri-Pori power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H. [Imatran Voima Oy (IVO), Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) is responsible for about 35 per cent of the total power supply in Finland. About 15 per cent of IVO`s supply is generated by coal. IVO runs three large coal-fired power plants: Inkoo, Naantali and Meri-Pori. Annually this means a coal consumption of one to three million tons. The 560 MW Meri-Pori power plant was introduced into commercial operation in 1994 as one of the world`s cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants. It is in base load operation. The coal to Meri-Pori is delivered by sea. The coal is transported with conveyor belts to the operational coal yard. Instead of normal stacker/reclaimer system, a special `aeroplane` stacker method is used. A tripper-car combined with stacking conveyor travels on a conveyor bridge at a height of approx. 30 m above ground. Two travelling paddle feeders, positioned under the stock pile, are used for reclaiming of coal. Additional four underground belt feeders enable the feeding of two or more different coal qualities simultaneously. The feeders are also used for coal blending purposes. Coal is then conveyed to the crushing station and then into the power plant coal bunkers. ELIGO expert system helps coal buyers in decision making and power plant operators in evaluating coal characteristics and cost effects. By filing the main coal parameters and cost components in the ELIGO database, the model estimates the main operational parameters and direct operational costs. (orig.)

  3. A Brief Summary of Some of the Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2006-01-01

    Our present knowledge of the molecular universe has come primarily from radio observations [ I include here millimeter and submillimeter in this rubric]. There are a number of reasons for this but the primary one is the extremely high spectral resolution. The ease of observing emission from the volume of dense molecular clouds without significant attenuation by scattering from dust has shown this to be the powerful observational tool for molecular astronomy. Finally the relative simplicity of rotational compared to vibrational or electronic spectroscopy allows carrier identification as well as facile evaluation of cloud conditions such as density and temperature. These virtues become tenuous as the astronomical observations are pushed to higher frequencies for enhanced observational sensitivity. Thus precision rest frequencies are mandatory for the search for new species. We may inquire about which new species require particular attention, and which species may be relatively safely predicted on the basis of lower frequency laboratory measurements. For a rigid rotor the three rotational constants are sufficient to completely specify the transition frequencies. The intensities require the three components of the electric dipole moment. For semirigid species, where the centrifugal distortion, may be treated at the quartic level of angular momentum (Bunker et al. 1998), up to five additional constants are required (Watson 1967). There are a number of such species of considerable interest, where laboratory measurements are adequate for astronomical searches.

  4. The effects of vibrational resonances on Renner-Teller coupling in triatomic molecules: The stretch-bender approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Geoffrey; McDonald, Barry D.; Van Gogh, Marcel; Alijah, Alexander; Jungen, Christian; Palivan, Horatiu

    1998-02-01

    A vibration-rotation Hamiltonian for a symmetric triatomic molecule, based upon a stretch-bender reference frame has been derived. This frame is chosen so that as the molecule bends the reference geometry follows the minimum in the potential energy surface, thus minimizing the size of the displacements required to reach the instantaneous axis geometry. This may be regarded as an extension of methods based upon the rigid-bender reference frame approach developed by Hougen, Bunker, and Johns [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 34, 136 (1970)]. This new stretch-bender Hamiltonian is combined with the Barrow, Dixon, and Duxbury [Mol. Phys. 27, 1217 (1974)] and the Jungen and Merer [Mol. Phys. 40, 25 (1980)] methods of solving the Renner-Teller coupling problem in which molecules execute large amplitude nuclear motion, producing a compact method for the variational calculation of the energies of such a system. The ã 1A1 and b˜ 1B1 states of the methylene radical, CH2, are used to demonstrate the use of this method for the analysis of the behavior of strongly coupled electronic and vibrational states.

  5. Photo neutron dose equivalent rate in 15 MV X-ray beam from a Siemens Primus Linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghasemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and thermal neutron fluence rates from a 15 MV X-ray beams of a Siemens Primus Linac were measured using bare and moderated BF 3 proportional counter inside the treatment room at different locations. Fluence rate values were converted to dose equivalent rate (DER utilizing conversion factors of American Association of Physicist in Medicine′s (AAPM report number 19. For thermal neutrons, maximum and minimum DERs were 3.46 × 10 -6 (3 m from isocenter in +Y direction, 0 × 0 field size and 8.36 × 10 -8 Sv/min (in maze, 40 × 40 field size, respectively. For fast neutrons, maximum DERs using 9" and 3" moderators were 1.6 × 10 -5 and 1.74 × 10 -5 Sv/min (2 m from isocenter in +Y direction, 0 × 0 field size, respectively. By changing the field size, the variation in thermal neutron DER was more than the fast neutron DER and the changes in fast neutron DER were not significant in the bunker except inside the radiation field. This study showed that at all points and distances, by decreasing field size of the beam, thermal and fast neutron DER increases and the number of thermal neutrons is more than fast neutrons.

  6. Energy balance of Flanders 1995: Disparity method; Energiebalans Vlaanderen 1995: verschilmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aernouts, K.; Moorkens, I.

    1998-10-01

    In this report the energy balance is presented, together with an estimation of the CO2-emissions. Apart from data about 1995, comparable data about the 1990-1994 period are presented in order to give a picture of the evolution of both the energy consumption and the CO2-emissions in Flanders. The energy balance is calculated by subtracting the energy balances of the Walloon and Brussels region from the Belgian one. Afterward, these results were corrected as far as specific Flemish data were available. For the calculation of the CO2-emissions the revised 1996 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories were used.In 1995, the primary energy consumption in Flanders was 1 502 PJ, the gross inland consumption was 1 294 PJ. The final energy consumption amounted 948 PJ. The total CO2-emission was 71 790 kton (excluding emissions from international aviation and marine bunkering). Compared to 1990, the gross inland consumption had increased some 12.8 per cent by 1995, the final energy consumption 17.8 per cent and the CO2-emissions 7.4 per cent.

  7. THE LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION OF STIFFENERS FOR PLATE-SHELL STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Suhuan; Yang Zhijun

    2005-01-01

    The plate-shell structures with stiffeners are widely used in a broad range of engineering structures. This study presents the layout optimization of stiffeners. The minimum weight of stiffeners is taken as the objective function with the global stiffness constraint. In the layout optimization, the stiffeners should be placed at the locations with high strain energy/or stress.Conversely, elements of stiffeners with a small strain energy/or stress are considered to be used inefficiently and can be removed. Thus, to identify the element efficiency so that most inefficiently used elements of stiffeners can be removed, the element sensitivity of the strain energy of stiffeners is introduced, and a search criterion for locations of stiffeners is presented. The layout optimization approach is given for determining which elements of the stiffeners need to be kept or removed. In each iterative design, a high efficiency reanalysis approach is used to reduce the computational effort. The present approach is implemented for the layout optimization of stiffeners for a bunker loaded by the hydrostatic pressure. The numerical results show that the present approach is effective for dealing with layout optimization of stiffeners for plate-shell structures.

  8. Impact of Iron Baron oil spill on subtidal reef assemblages in Tasmania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological impact of the grounding of the bulk carrier Iron Baron on Hebe Reef in northern Tasmania, with release of approximately 350 tonnes of Bunker C fuel oil, was assessed using quantitative underwater censuses at numerous reef sites before and after the spill. Physical abrasion of the ship's hull during ground caused the complete destruction of the subtidal reef community within a localised area of ∼170 m by ∼20 m on Hebe Reef. However, the release of fuel oil did not appear to have substantially affected populations of subtidal reef-associated organisms in the near vicinity. Analyses of changes over time outside the hull impact area of oiled sites before and after the spill, and comparisons with undisturbed reference sites, indicated no significant change in number of species on reefs or densities of the most abundant animal and plant species. Post-impact monitoring of the grounding zone in adjacent reference sites on Hebe Reef indicated that the fish assemblages associated with the hull scar recovered rapidly in terms of species composition and species richness within one year, whereas plant and invertebrate assemblages had not reached inferred pre-disturbance levels after two years. Wave disturbance appeared to be hindering re-establishment of large macroalgae over part of the abrasion zone where the reef substrata had been converted to unstable gravels. (Author)

  9. Granular Materials and Risks In ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Robert P.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Working with soil, sand, powders, ores, cement and sintered bricks, excavating, grading construction sites, driving off-road, transporting granules in chutes and pipes, sifting gravel, separating solids from gases, and using hoppers are so routine that it seems straightforward to execute these operations on the Moon and Mars as we do on Earth. We discuss how little these processes are understood and point out the nature of trial-and-error practices that are used in today's massive over-design. Nevertheless, such designs have a high failure rate. Implementation and extensive incremental scaling up of industrial processes are routine because of the inadequate predictive tools for design. We present a number of pragmatic scenarios where granular materials play a role, the risks involved, what some of the basic issues are, and what understanding is needed to greatly reduce the risks. This talk will focus on a particular class of granular flow issues, those that pertain to dense materials, their physics, and the failure problems associated with them. In particular, key issues where basic predictability is lacking include stability of soils for the support of vehicles and facilities, ability to control the flow of dense materials (jamming and flooding/unjamming at the wrong time), the ability to predict stress profiles (hence create reliable designs) for containers such as bunkers or silos. In particular, stress fluctuations, which are not accounted for in standard granular design models, can be very large as granular materials flows, and one result is frequent catastrophic failure of granular devices.

  10. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Warsaw, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process, the IEA is making available for free download the ''Highlights'' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion now for sale on IEA Bookshop. This annual publication contains, for more than 140 countries and regions: estimates of CO2 emissions from 1971 to 2011; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; a decomposition of CO2 emissions into driving factors; and CO2emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, key sources, and other relevant information. The nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP-19), in conjunction with the ninth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 9), met in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 22 November 2013. This volume of ''Highlights'', drawn from the full-scale study, was specially designed for delegations and observers of the meeting in Warsaw.

  11. Remote sensing of water-in-oil emulsions : initial laser fluorosensor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.E.; Fingas, M.F.; Marois, R.; Fieldhouse, B.; Gamble, R.L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which laser-induced fluorescence spectra were collected in a controlled environment for fresh oils, water-in-oil emulsions of the same oils and of the emulsions in water. Water-in-oil emulsions and other neutrally buoyant oils can be difficult or impossible to detect using commercial sensors, but preliminary airborne field experiments have shown that laser fluorosensors can detect and properly classify oils. Laser fluorosensors provide their own source of illumination and can be used during the night or day. They detect the fluorescence spectral signature and intensity of specific oils. This study analyzed Point Arguello Light, Mississippi Canyon and Bunker C oils. The fluorescence spectra of the water-in-oil emulsions were found to be identical to the spectra of the fresh oils, both in spectral shape and signal intensity, confirming that laser-induced fluorescence can be used to detect and classify fresh and water-in-oil emulsified forms of hydrocarbons. It was concluded that laser fluorosensor are promising sensors for airborne detection, classification and mapping of oil and related petroleum products in both marine and terrestrial environments. 4 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  12. Nuclear weapon race does not stop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    60 years after Hiroshima, the race for nuclear weaponry keeps on. The comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), signed in 1996 by the 5 official nuclear-weapon-owning states (Usa, Russia, China, U.K. and France), has not yet been implemented because its implementation requires the ratification of 44 states that harbour on their territories industrial or research nuclear reactors. Till now only 33 such states have ratified CTBT. CTBT aims at prohibiting any nuclear test whatever the amount of energy released in it. Countries like Usa, North-Korea, Russia, soon Iran... are suspected to develop new types of nuclear warfare. For 2005 the American Congress have decided to freeze the funding of programmes dedicated to the development of 'mini-nukes' like the bunker-burster. The international network of monitoring stations will soon cover all the world and will be able to detect and locate, in an almost automated way, any test involving an energy greater than 1 kiloton. 321 stations have been settled and their efficient detection systems are based on seismic or infra-sound or radioactivity or hydro-acoustic analysis. (A.C.)

  13. Preliminary results from the laboratory study of a flow-through fluorometer for measuring oil-in-water levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive bench-scale test program was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Turner Instruments flow-through model 10AU and model 10 fluorometers for measuring real-time concentrations of oil in water. The results were compared with alternative total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) methods. The 10AU model was equipped with a long wavelength optical kit, the other with the short wavelength optical kit for diesel fuels and light refined oil products. The oils tested were Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil, Bunker C fuel oil and diesel fuel. It was determined that the long wavelength optical kit has minimal capacity to detect and quantify diesel fuels compared to the short wavelength kit, although the latter exhibits a lower performance level. A calibration procedure was also established for oil-in-water to convert the real-time fluorometer data to oil concentrations. Initial comparisons of these tests with standard infrared and gas chromatography procedures were promising. It was determined that fluorometer data can differentiate between various oil-in-water concentrations, but regularly gives concentration values double those of the solvent extraction, infrared or gas chromatography methods. Future studies are being planned to relate the results of this study to the chemical composition of various oils. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Critical analysis of the positioning of monitoring system of the cyclotron accelerator; Analise critica do posicionamento de um sistema de monitoramento de acelerador Ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Julia A.; Passaro, Bruno M.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C.; Buchpigue, Carlos A. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear (CMN) do InRad HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com [CYCLOPET Radiofarmacos LTDA., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Ever since the first concerns arose about the possibility that the ionizing radiation induced detriment to human health, were created the methods of production, characterization and measurement of radiation, as well as definition of quantities that realistically express its interaction with human tissue. From this point, the monitoring program of the installation of a cyclotron must be continuously performed and contain the critical points of contamination according to the CNEN standard N.E. 3.02 - Radioprotection Service to avoid contamination and maintain radioactive exposure rates as low as reasonably achievable. The results obtained during the analysis showed that the positioning of monitors is suitable, except for the physico-chemical control laboratory monitors, which were installed next to the chapel of manipulation and below the dose calibrator. The answer obtained from the monitoring system in the position that the ionization chamber is in the door of the bunker should be taken into account, because the intensity of radiation emitted by the activation of the targets is slightly attenuated by the cyclotron. (author)

  15. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important part of the Nordic studies on system- and safety analysis of the management of low and medium level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, is the safety analysis of a Reference System. This reference system was established within the study and is described in this Technical Part 1. The reference system covers waste management Schemes that are potential possibilities in either one of the four participating Nordic countries. The reference system is based on: a power reactor system consisting of 6 BWR's of 500 MWe each, operated simultaneously over the same 30 year period, and deep bed granular ion exchange resin wastes from the Reactor Water Clean-Up System (RWCS and powdered ion exchange resin from the Spent Fuel Pool Cleanup System (SFPCS)). Both waste types are supposed to be solidified by mixing with cement and bitumen. Two basic types of containers are considered. Standard 200 liter steel drums and specially made cubicreinforced concrete moulds with a net volume of 1 m3. The Nordic study assumes temporary storage of the solidified waste for a maximum of 50 years before the waste is transferred to the disposal site. Transportation of the waste from the storage facilitiy to the disposal site will be by road or sea. Three different disposal facilities are considered: Shallow land burial, near surface concrete bunker, and rock cavern with about 30 m granite cover. (EG)

  16. The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine to protect the human cochlea from subclinical hearing loss caused by impulse noise: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Cathrine Lindblad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In military outdoor shooting training, with safety measures enforced, the risk of a permanent, noise-induced hearing loss is very small. But urban warfare training performed indoors, with reflections from walls, might increase the risk. A question is whether antioxidants can reduce the negative effects of noise on human hearing as it does on research animals. Hearing tests were performed on a control group of 23 military officers before and after a shooting session in a bunker-like room. The experiments were repeated on another group of 11 officers with peroral adminstration of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, directly after the shooting. The measurements performed were tone thresholds; transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, with and without contralateral noise; and psycho-acoustical modulation transfer function (PMTF, thresholds for brief tones in modulated noise. Effects from shooting on hearing thresholds were small, but threshold behavior supports use of NAC treatment. On the PMTF, shooting without NAC gave strong effects. Those effects were like those from continuous noise, which means that strict safety measures should be enforced. The most striking finding was that the non-linearity of the cochlea, that was strongly reduced in the group without NAC, as manifested by the PMTF-results, was practically unchanged in the NAC-group throughout the study. NAC treatment directly after shooting in a bunkerlike room seems to give some protection of the cochlea.

  17. Materials and wastes from power generation of nuclear origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most countries, spent nuclear fuel is directly stored in pools and constitute the bulk of highly radioactive waste. In France, reprocessing separates spent fuel into three categories: uranium, plutonium, minor actinides and fission products. Hence, a vast amount of very diverse radioactive materials are stored in various sites and conditions, under two denominations: 'nuclear materials' (which can be or are partly recycled) and 'radioactive waste' which should be permanently disposed of. The production of highly radioactive and long-lived waste raise legitimate questions on the use of nuclear energy for power production and many people think that it's a sufficient reason for giving up this technique. Concerning existing radioactive waste, the alternative to deep disposal should be: a) dry storage of spent fuel and other existing waste in protected sites (bunkers or hills), and b) more active research on the possibilities to reduce both radioactivity and the lifetime of radioactive waste. (authors)

  18. Panorama 2012 - Refining 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major uncertainty characterizing the global energy landscape impacts particularly on transport, which remains the virtually-exclusive bastion of the oil industry. The industry must therefore respond to increasing demand for mobility against a background marked by the emergence of alternatives to oil-based fuels and the need to reduce emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). It is in this context that the 'Refining 2030' study conducted by IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) forecasts what the global supply and demand balance for oil products could be, and highlights the type and geographical location of the refinery investment required. Our study shows that the bulk of the refining investment will be concentrated in the emerging countries (mainly those in Asia), whilst the areas historically strong in refining (Europe and North America) face reductions in capacity. In this context, the drastic reduction in the sulphur specification of bunker oil emerges as a structural issue for European refining, in the same way as increasingly restrictive regulation of refinery CO2 emissions (quotas/taxation) and the persistent imbalance between gasoline and diesel fuels. (authors)

  19. Smashing physics. Inside the world's biggest experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working knowledge of the new physics and what the discovery of the Higgs particle means for how we define the laws of nature. It will take you to the cutting edge of modern scientific thinking.

  20. Monte-Carlo investigation of radiation beam quality of the CRNA neutron irradiator for calibration purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazrou, Hakim, E-mail: mazrou_h@crna.d [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz, Fanon, B.P. 399, Alger-RP 16000 (Algeria); Sidahmed, Tassadit [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz, Fanon, B.P. 399, Alger-RP 16000 (Algeria); Allab, Malika [Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie de Houari-Boumediene (USTHB), 16111, Alger (Algeria)

    2010-10-15

    An irradiation system has been acquired by the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (CRNA) to provide neutron references for metrology and dosimetry purposes. It consists of an {sup 241}Am-Be radionuclide source of 185 GBq (5 Ci) activity inside a cylindrical steel-enveloped polyethylene container with radially positioned beam channel. Because of its composition, filled with hydrogenous material, which is not recommended by ISO standards, we expect large changes in the physical quantities of primary importance of the source compared to a free-field situation. Thus, the main goal of the present work is to fully characterize neutron field of such special delivered set-up. This was conducted by both extensive Monte-Carlo calculations and experimental measurements obtained by using BF{sub 3} and {sup 3}He based neutron area dosimeters. Effects of each component present in the bunker facility of the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) on the energy neutron spectrum have been investigated by simulating four irradiation configurations and comparison to the ISO spectrum has been performed. The ambient dose equivalent rate was determined based upon a correct estimate of the mean fluence to ambient dose equivalent conversion factors at different irradiations positions by means of a 3-D transport code MCNP5. Finally, according to practical requirements established for calibration purposes an optimal irradiation position has been suggested to the SSDL staff to perform, in appropriate manner, their routine calibrations.

  1. Neutron field characterisation of the OB26 CRNA irradiator in view of its use for calibration purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the present work is to characterise the neutron field of an OB26 irradiation system acquired by the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers for radiation protection purposes. Extensive Monte-Carlo (MC) calculations and measurements using BF3- and 3He-based neutron area dosemeters were performed to estimate the contribution, on the energy neutron spectrum, of each component present in the bunker facility of the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) where the irradiator has been installed. For this purpose, new irradiation configurations based on the 241Am-Be source placed in the OB 26/2 biological shielding inside its environment have been investigated by MC simulations, and comparison with the ISO spectrum has been performed. During MC simulations, sensitivity analysis has been considered to estimate the effect of several physical parameters on the neutron fluence and dose equivalent rates. In addition, the contribution of the gamma dose equivalent rates to the total neutron dose equivalent rates was estimated for both selected source-detector distances (SDDs) 150 and 200 cm. Finally, a theoretical approach has been adopted, using MCNP5 fluence rates, to estimate the readings of the instruments taking into account their response functions. A low mean difference (12%) between measured and predicted dose equivalent rates for two selected SDDs has been observed. Overall, the obtained MCNP5 results regarding the actual SSDL irradiation facility are particularly encouraging, but need to be supported by further experimental data. (authors)

  2. Radiation protection commissioning of neutron beam instruments at the OPAL Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron beam facilities at the 20 MW OPAL Research Reactor were commissioned in 2007 and 2008. The initial suite of eight neutron beam instruments on two thermal neutron guides, two cold neutron guides and one thermal beam port located at the reactor face, together with their associated shielding were progressively installed and commissioned according to their individual project plans. Radiation surveys were systematically conducted as reactor power was raised in a step-wise manner to 20MW in order to validate instrument shielding design and performance. The performance of each neutron guide was assessed by neutron energy spectrum and flux measurements. The activation of beam line components, decay times assessments and access procedures for Bragg Institute beam instrument scientists were established. The multiple configurations for each instrument and the influence of operating more than one instrument or beamline simultaneously were also tested. Areas of interest were the shielding around the secondary shutters, guide shield and bunker shield interfaces and monochromator doors. The shielding performance, safety interlock checks, improvements, radiation exposures and related radiation protection challenges are discussed. This paper discusses the health physics experience of commissioning the OPAL Research Reactor neutron beam facilities and describes health physics results, actions taken and lessons learned during commissioning. (author)

  3. Overview of a large-scale bioremediation soil treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How long does it take to remediate 290,000 yd3 of impacted soil containing an average total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 3,000 ppm? Approximately 15 months from start to end of treatment using bioremediation. Mittelhauser was retained by the seller of the property (a major oil company) as technical manager to supervise remediation of a 45-ac parcel in the Los Angeles basin. Mittelhauser completed site characterization, negotiated clean-up levels with the regulatory agencies, and prepared the remedial action plan (RAP) with which the treatment approach was approved and permitted. The RAP outlined the excavation, treatment, and recompaction procedures for the impacted soil resulting from leakage of bunker fuel oil from a large surface impoundment. The impacted soil was treated on site in unline Land Treatment Units (LTUs) in 18-in.-thick lifts. Due to space restraints, multiple lifts site. The native microbial population was cultivated using soil stabilization mixing equipment with the application of water and agricultural grade fertilizers. Costs on this multimillion dollar project are broken down as follows: general contractor cost (47%), bioremediation subcontractor cost (35%), site characterization (10%), technical management (7%), analytical services (3%), RAP preparation and permitting (1%), and civil engineering subcontractor cost (1%). Start-up of field work could have been severely impacted by the existence of Red Fox habitation. The foxes were successfully relocated prior to start of field work

  4. The Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Lactic Acid Bacteria+Enzyme Mixture Silage Inoculants on Maize Silage Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Ozduven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria and lact ic acidbacteria+enzyme mixture inoculants as silage additives, on the fermentation, aerobic stability, cell wallcontent, and nutrient digestibility in lambs of maize silages. Pioneer 1174 (Iowa, USA, and Maize -All(Alltech, UK were used as lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid bacteria+enzyme mixture inoculants. Plantmaterials were fermented for 60 days in bunker type silos. Aerobic stability test was applied to all silosopened in the end of fermentation period. Relating to silage fermentation analysis of pH, ammonia nitrogen,water soluble carbohydrate, organic acids (lactic, acetic and butyric acid were carried out andmicrobiological analyses had been done. Digestional value of crude nutritive matters of silages determinedwith classical digestive experiments. Both inoculants increased characteristics of fermentation but impairedaerobic stability of maize silages. Inoculants were not effect on the nutritient digestibility of silages. Lacticacid bacteria+enzyme mixture inoculant decreased neutral and acid detergent fiber content.

  5. Consequences of Market-Based Measures CO2-emission Reduction Maritime Transport for the Netherlands; Gevolgen Market Based Measures CO2-emissiereductie zeevaart voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortelboer-van Donselaar, P.; Kansen, M.; Moorman, S. [Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid KiM, Den Haag (Netherlands); Faber, J.; Koopman, M.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    The introduction of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce the CO2 emissions of international sea shipping will have relatively limited economic effects for the Netherlands. Moreover, these effects are largely in line with those in other countries. For the Netherlands, however, the manner in which MBMS are organised and enforced is likely to be particularly important, given the importance of ports to the Dutch economy, the country's relatively large bunker sector, and the fact that Dutch shipowners operate relatively small vessels and on a relatively small scale. MBMs include pricing measures in the form of tax or trade systems, as well as other market-related proposals. In this research study, the consequences are analysed of four international MBM proposals for the Netherlands [Dutch] Om de CO2-uitstoot van de internationale zeevaartsector terug te dringen worden momenteel zogeheten Market Based Measures (MBMs), zoals bijvoorbeeld het veilen van emissierechten of het invoeren van een heffing, overwogen. De invoering van de MBMs zal voor Nederland relatief beperkte economische effecten hebben. Deze effecten wijken bovendien niet bijzonder af van die voor andere landen. De wijze waarop de MBMs worden georganiseerd en gehandhaafd, is voor Nederland mogelijk wel van onderscheidend belang. Dit gezien het belang van de havens voor de Nederlandse economie, de relatief grote bunkersector, en de relatief kleine schepen en kleinschaligheid van de Nederlandse reders.

  6. 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This characterization plan provides instructions for obtaining and analyzing samples for waste designation and disposal. The 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave is located in the 100-C Area about 328 ft (100 m) southeast of the 105-C Reactor (Figure 1). The 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave (Figure 2) is a reinforced concrete bunker approximately 70- ft (21.3-m) long, 7-ft (2.1-m) high, and 12-ft (3.6-m) wide, with triangular-shaped concrete ends 3-ft (0.9-m) high. The rod cave was used to store radiologically contaminated control-rod tips. If control rod tips are present, release of control rod activation products will not change expectations with respect to principal contaminants. The north portion of the cave is empty and the south portion contains two aluminum tubes that may contain rod tips (Figure 3). The caves are contaminated with activation and fission products (e.g., 60Co and 137Cs) common to the 100 Areas (see Appendix for data). Dose rates up to 0.7 mR/hr were measured in the south cave and 0.5 mR/hr in the north cave during an inspection of the facility in December 1996

  7. Comprehensive Technical Support for High-Quality Anthracite Production: A Case Study in the Xinqiao Coal Mine, Yongxia Mining Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective production of high-quality anthracite has attracted increasing global attention. Based on the coal occurrence in Yongxia Mining Area and mining conditions of a coalface in Xinqiao Coal Mine, we proposed a systematic study on the technical support for the production of high-quality anthracite. Six key steps were explored, including coal falling at the coalface, transport, underground bunker storage, main shaft hoisting, coal preparation on the ground, and railway wagon loading. The study resulted in optimized running parameters for the shearers, and the rotating patterns of the shearer drums was altered (one-way cutting was employed. Mining height and roof supporting intensity were reduced. Besides, loose presplitting millisecond blasting and mechanized mining were applied to upgrade the coal quantity and the lump coal production rate. Additionally, the coalface end transloading, coalface crush, transport systems, underground storage, and main shaft skip unloading processes were improved, and fragmentation-prevention techniques were used in the washing and railway wagon loading processes. As a result, the lump coal production rate was maintained at a high level and fragmentation was significantly reduced. Because of using the parameters and techniques determined in this research, high-quality coal production and increased profits were achieved. The research results could provide theoretical guidance and methodology for other anthracite production bases.

  8. Ecological risk assessment of a site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aquatic and terrestrial health risks associated with petroleum contamination on a decommissioned military base, contaminated with products ranging from Bunker C oil to aviation fuel, were assessed using a methodology whereby an analytical measurement of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) could be correlated with compositional characterization and thus with toxicity. The constituents of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination represent wide ranges of physical-chemical properties, environmental fate, and toxicity. The composition of TPH can vary greatly, dependent on the sources or fuel types and the interaction of age as well as site- and chemical-specific characteristics in determining the impact of weathering processes. Therefore, a bulk sum analysis of TPH cannot be related to toxicity without characterization of its composition and association of the constituents, and therefore composition, with actual toxicity data. To address this need, the constituents of TPH were represented by surrogate chemicals, with selection based on structure-activity relationships and available toxicity data. Toxicological profiles were developed from governmental regulations and on the published literature for both the aquatic and terrestrial media. Risk characterization consisted of a comparison of water concentration limits and exposure limits, developed for each surrogate, to estimated surrogate concentrations throughout the site. The concentrations of surrogates were extrapolated from TPH composition characterization analyses, conducted at a select number of sampling locations, to bulk sum analyses of TPH at related sampling locations

  9. High resolution source fingerprinting of oils stranded along the Northern Gulf of Mexico coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the southern coast of Louisiana, nine beach stations were selected for collection of deposited pelagic tar and oil during 1992. A preliminary examination of data indicates a wide range of petroleum sources with bunker oils most often identified as the source of the oil/tarballs. Petroleum weathering or degradation by environmental processes for these samples altered their composition to various degrees. The Spring survey data indicate relatively undergraded petroleum as well as extremely degraded samples, with no apparent correlation between these samples and the location of sample collection. An assessment of source fingerprinting for these data indicates eight sources with multiple occurrences and 28 unrelated sources with single occurrences. For a complete chemical assessment, the samples were qualitatively analyzed by detailed GC/MS characterization using selected ion monitoring (SIM) and source fingerprinted utilizing mathematical as well as manual examination of the quantitative saturate, aromatic and triterpane chemical compositions. The final results were also processed by a cluster analysis algorithm to indicated or highlight the number of possible sources and the chemical characteristics of the petroleum found. Results of the manual verses clustering examination will be discussed

  10. A summary of the XAFS X Conference in Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On August 10-14, 1998, the 10th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS X) was held on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus in Chicago. This is one of the major synchrotron radiation conferences, held every two years since 1981 when the first international meeting of XAFS experts was held in Daresbury, coincident with the operation of the first of the second-generation dedicated synchrotron radiation sources. The XAFS conferences have evolved over the years with the more recent conferences covering not only the advances in instrumentation, theory and method but also their applications in disciplines ranging from biological to environmental sciences. Approximately 360 scientists from 23 countries attended the conference. The program consisted of 467 abstracts for plenary talks, invited talks, contributed talks, and posters. The co-chairs for the conference were B. Bunker, S. Heald, and T. Morrison and the Program Chair was J. Penner-Hahn. The first IXS award for career contributions to the field was presented to F. Lytle who gave a plenary talk on 'The EXAFS Family Tree: History of the Development of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy'. In addition, awards were given for the best poster by a young scientist at each session. The winners were M. Duff, D. Cabaret and S. Rossano. The International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) also sponsored poster prizes for the best posters in the areas of biology and instrumentation and methods. These winners were A. Templeton and M. Suzuki

  11. Using systematic and comparative GC/MS and GC/FID data to identify the source of an unknown oil on contaminated birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to identify and differentiate spilled oil and petroleum products was developed. In January 1996, four birds covered with an unknown oil were found near Larchipel-de-Mingan National Park in Quebec. Environment Canada wanted to know if the oil came from a leak in a barge which was grounded on Anticosti Island. To do so, it was necessary to determine the nature of the oil, the type of petroleum hydrocarbons, the age, the weathering and degradation extent of the spilled oil, and changes in oil character since the occurrence of any possible spill. The analytical approach to determine the source of the unknown oil was described. The analysis of individual aliphatic, aromatic, and biomarker hydrocarbons were made with the use of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Pattern recognition plot analysis was also used in determining the source of the oil. It was concluded that the residual oil on the birds was not from the suspected barge oil, and was most probably old, highly weathered, somewhat biodegraded bunker type oil. 23 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs

  12. Uranium content in soil after bombing FRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of uranium enrichment process and its use is very dangerous and harmful. NATO has used DU ammunition in Yugoslav conflict during its air campaign against the tanks and bunkers. The estimated number of about 3,000-10,000 of 30 mm DU rounds as armor-piercing shells were fired from cannons fitted to A-10 aircraft and probably a usage in some of 1,500 launched Tomahawk Cruise missiles. We measured uranium content in the surface soil (0-5 cm depth) from bomb craters during NATO attack. Selected locations were Belgrade, Smederevo, Nis, Bor, Prahovo, Kadinjaca, Jadovnik, Raska, Sjenica, and Cape Arza. Total uranium concentration and isotopic ratio were determined using γ-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma method. Obtained results were in the range 21 - 762.000 Bq/kg dry soil. They were at the all locations except Cape Arza comparable to the uranium content found in off-side locations of soils. (author)

  13. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry lane to a bunker of World War II, temporarily paved with coarse industrial waste fragments and removed at the end of the war. Thin sections made from undisturbed soil samples from A and B horizons were studied. Optical microscopy revealed the occurrence of yellow micrometer-sized (Ap horizon) and red decamicrometer-sized spherulites (AB, B1g horizons) as well as distinct distribution patterns. The chemical composition of the spherulites was dominated by Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ca, and P. Comparison of calculated Zn stocks, both in the groundmass and in spherulites, showed a quasi-exclusive Zn accumulation in these neoformed features. Their formation was related to several factors: (i) liberation of metal elements due to weathering of waste products, (ii) Ca and P supply from fertilizing practices, (iii) co-precipitation of metal elements and Ca and P in a porous soil environment, after slow exudation of a supersaturated soil solution in more confined mineral media. - Metal spherulites may act as high metal-trapping mineral phases in polluted agricultural soils

  14. Recovery of the Irving Whale oil barge: overflights with the laser environmental airborne fluorosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contribution of Environment Canada's laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (LEAF) to the recovery in 1996 of the oil barge 'Irving Whale' from the St. Lawrence River was described. Additional equipment employed on board the DC-3 aircraft included an RC-10 colour mapping camera and two down-looking video cameras. Leaking of Bunker C fuel oil was detected around the sunken barge in the days immediately prior to and during the day of the raising of the vessel. During each overflight, the LEAF system produced timely, concise map-based contamination information in hard copy form. The LEAF system also detected extremely thin, sub-sheen levels of oil on the day of the lift over the majority of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. The extent of coverage was greatly reduced by the next day and essentially eliminated by the second day after the lift. The LEAF system continued to monitor the 'Irving Whale' as it was transported to Halifax on the deck of the submersible vessel Boabarge 10. There was no evidence of oil leakage during the transit attributable to the 'Irving Whale'. During the entire period of lift and recovery the LEAF system performed flawlessly, and demonstrated the usefulness of remote sensing flights during oil spill response operations. 3 refs., 4 figs

  15. Estimation of neutron-equivalent dose in organs of patients undergoing radiotherapy by the use of a novel online digital detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron peripheral contamination in patients undergoing high-energy photon radiotherapy is considered as a risk factor for secondary cancer induction. Organ-specific neutron-equivalent dose estimation is therefore essential for a reasonable assessment of these associated risks. This work aimed to develop a method to estimate neutron-equivalent doses in multiple organs of radiotherapy patients. The method involved the convolution, at 16 reference points in an anthropomorphic phantom, of the normalized Monte Carlo neutron fluence energy spectra with the kerma and energy-dependent radiation weighting factor. This was then scaled with the total neutron fluence measured with passive detectors, at the same reference points, in order to obtain the equivalent doses in organs. The latter were correlated with the readings of a neutron digital detector located inside the treatment room during phantom irradiation. This digital detector, designed and developed by our group, integrates the thermal neutron fluence. The correlation model, applied to the digital detector readings during patient irradiation, enables the online estimation of neutron-equivalent doses in organs. The model takes into account the specific irradiation site, the field parameters (energy, field size, angle incidence, etc) and the installation (linac and bunker geometry). This method, which is suitable for routine clinical use, will help to systematically generate the dosimetric data essential for the improvement of current risk-estimation models. (paper)

  16. High-power RF pulse compression with SLED-II at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the peak rf power available from X-band microwave tubes by means of rf pulse compression is envisioned as a way of achieving the few-hundred-megawatt power levels needed to drive a next-generation linear collider with 50-100 MW klystrons. SLED-II is a method of pulse compression similar in principal to the SLED method currently in use on the SLC and the LEP injector linac. It utilizes low-loss resonant delay lines in place of the storage cavities of the latter. This produces the added benefit of a flat-topped output pulse. At SLAC, the authors have designed and constructed a prototype SLED-II pulse-compression system which operates in the circulator TE01 mode. It includes a circular-guide 3-dB coupler and other novel components. Low-power and initial high-power tests have been made, yielding a peak power multiplication of 4.8 at an efficiency of 40%. The system will be used in providing power for structure tests in the ASTA (Accelerator Structures Test Area) bunker. An upgraded second prototype will have improved efficiency and will serve as a model for the pulse compression system of the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator)

  17. S.A.C.I.: Incident Combat Support System; S.A.C.I.: Sistema de Apoio ao Combate de Incidentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Antonio R.L. [ARMTEC Tecnologia em Robotica, Fotrtaleza, CE (Brazil); Macedo, Antonio R.M. [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The incidents that occur in the petrochemical industry are extremely dangerous, because of the range of temperature that it reaches and the radius of the explosion. For this reason the S.A.C.I. that is an Incident's Combat Support System was developed. The purpose of this paper is to present the complete operational capability of this machine, and also some of the construction design calculations. It is a controlled-by-distance robot that carries one water cannon that generates fog, stream or foam with a limit pressure of 125 psi. It works within 90 m from the operator, has 3 degrees of freedom and a minimum autonomy of 3 hours. Before this prototype was made, only the United Kingdom by Qinetiq and the Japan by the Tokyo Fire Department had this technology. This prototype is around 70% of the investment of the ones in the market. The tests shown in the paper were made in the training bunker of Ceara's Military Fire Corp. Headquarters and in an arena in the Gloria Marine in Rio de Janeiro. The results of this project is a national product that improves the incident's combat response time, saving the most important resource, that is the human been. (author)

  18. The Steel and Shipbuilding Industries of South Korea: Rising East Asia and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-ho Shin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the roles of the steel and shipbuilding industries as generative sectors in Korea’s rapid economic ascent. We argue that a world-systems analysis focusing on these generative sectors provides a more complete understanding of Korea’s rapid economic ascent than do other theoretical models. We outline the similarities between this case and those analyzed by Bunker and Ciccantell (2005, 2007 both in terms of the central role of generative sectors in raw materials and transport industries and how the creation and growth of these two industrial sectors shaped institutional patterns and the broader economic ascent of South Korea and East Asia. Even though South Korea has not and may never become a challenger for global hegemony, its rapid ascent has helped reshape East Asia and the capitalist world-economy. We use the model of generative sectors to analyze the critical industries that underlay and shaped South Korea’s ascent from a low wage, light industry base to a world leader in electronics, automobiles, and other advanced industries.

  19. Status of site investigation for L/ILW facilities in the Philippines - 59262

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive waste in the Philippines is generated from the various applications of radioactive materials in medicine, industries and research. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) currently manages these wastes through its centralized treatment and storage facilities on site. Radioactive wastes that are received at the Institute are of different types ranging from contaminated solid and liquid materials to spent sealed sources, including radium. Treated and conditioned wastes are temporarily stored in simple roofed above ground concrete bunkers. The Philippine government through the Inter-agency Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Management is committed to the development of a national repository for the country's radioactive waste. This policy has been recognized in spite of the relatively small volume of radioactive waste compared with countries that have a nuclear power program. To date, a potential site has been identified for detailed investigation with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The site is located in the northern part of the Philippine archipelago and has about 34 hectares for potential development. A drilling program that aimed to investigate the geologic, hydrogeologic and hydrologic properties of the site has been implemented

  20. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Scampoli, P. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Department of Physical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Cintia, I-60126 Napoli (Italy); Bremen, K. von [SWAN Isotopen AG, Inselspital, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  1. 12 September 2012: A supercell outbreak in NE Italy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzato, Agostino; Davolio, Silvio; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Pucillo, Arturo; Setvák, Martin

    2015-02-01

    On 12 September 2012 a sequence of convective events hit the northeastern part of Italy and in particular the eastern part of Veneto and the plain of Friuli Venezia Giulia regions. During the day at least two events could be classified as supercells, the first one being also associated with a heavy hailfall. After a few hours, a third storm system, resembling a squall-line, although of limited dimensions, swept over the area. This event occurred during the first Special Observing Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX project as IOP2 (Intense Observing Period) and - also for this reason - many observations managed by different institutions were collected, including Doppler radar, extra-soundings, sodar and surface stations. Moreover, EUMETSAT was conducting its first experimental 2.5-minute rapid scan with the MSG-3 satellite, with data available from early morning until 0900 UTC of the IOP2 day. Several mesoscale models were run during the HyMeX SOP to support the field operations. A comparison between simulations of two high-resolution models (MOLOCH and WRF) is presented here and shows the capability in forecasting the intense convective activity in the area, although the exact temporal evolution of the systems was missed. Model simulations also provide useful insights concerning the mesoscale conditions conducive to the development of the convective systems. Finally, a diagnostic tool (Corfidi and Bunkers vectors) is applied using the model wind field, in order to infer further information on the temporal evolution of the convective cells.

  2. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Adriano; Scafetta, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius. The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during daytime. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice, with external geomagnetic field and with magnetostriction, which stress the rocks. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasing since 2008. Finally, we propose a seismic activity index to monitor the 24-hour oscillation that could be used to complement other methodologies currently adopted to determine the seismic status of the volcano to prevent the relative hazard.

  3. The Esso-Bernicia oil spill, Shetland, 1978-79: Experiences and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 200 tons of Bunker C fuel oil escaped from a ruptured tank in a berthing incident in the winter of 1978-79. The worst weather conditions in a decade and failure of equipment led to widespread environmental damage. Local crofters also suffered some loss of sheep through oiling and subsequent drowning (sheep graze backshore beach areas of Shetland). The environmental response to the experiences of this accident produced reinforcement of baseline and operational monitoring of the physical and biological environments. SOTEAG (the Shetland Oil Terminal Environmental Group - a committee set up and funded jointly by industry (the terminal and pipeline operators) and Shetland Island Council and including the Port of Sullom Voe Harbour Authority) also commissioned special surveys to investigate other claims of environmental damage. At a managerial level, links between the Sullom Voe Oil Spills Advisory Committee (SVOSAC) and SOTEAG were reinforced. To prevent any recurrence of the widespread damage caused by 'Bernicia' a multimillion dollar engineering project was completed to build permanent spill booms to intercept oil moving along the coast at strategic points and to boom-off environmentally sensitive areas. Oil spill response equipment and deployment capacity were also increased substantially. Although not related directly to 'Bernicia,' other improvements over the last decade have included an 'area of avoidance' for the prescribed westerly, Atlantic, tanker approach to the terminal (effectively at least 10 mi away from land), aerial and video inspection of all inbound tankers, and the introduction of legislation relating to the amount and quality of ballast water

  4. Dock treatment process : M/T King Darwin spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkes, R. [Eastern Canada Response Corp. Ltd., Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed the challenges that oil spill responder face when dealing with an incident on docks, piers and other marine structures. In September 2008, Bunker C fuel oil was spilled from the M/T King Darwin during the offloading operation when a pipe flange broke on the deck of the tanker. An estimated 64 tonnes of fuel was spilled in the West Wharf in Dalhousie, New Brunswick. The incident provided an opportunity to develop a response process designed for under-dock structures. The response process involved the following 3 phases: (1) survey and documentation, (2) assessment and characterization, and (3) under-dock treatment plan, development and implementation. Containment booms were deployed around the vessel and dock to control the movement of oil. Oil was also contained on the surface decking of the dock. Most of the oil was contained to the immediate area of the dock. Only a small amount of oil escaped outside the containment boom. The methodology used in this incident proved to be effective and has broader application for future spills. The development of a Dock Oiling Cleanup Assessment Technique (DOCAT) that is complimentary to the established Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) process was recommended. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Subtidal survey of the Strait of Magellan in the vicinity of the Metula oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, R.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Newport, OR); Gallardo, V.A.

    1976-09-01

    On 9 August 1974 the oil tanker Metula ran aground on the Satellite Bank (52/sup 0/33.8'S. 69/sup 0/ 42.1'W.) immediately west of the First Narrows in the Strait of Magellan. The ship spilled an estimated 52,300 metric tons of Arabian light crude and 2,000 tons of bunker C fuel oil into the Strait. Most of the oil was rapidly driven onto the beaches. No attempt was made to disperse the spilled oil or to remove it from the shoreline. We surveyed subtidal benthic communities and sediment oil contamination from the National Science Foundation's research ship Hero during 5--13 April 1976. We encountered a great diversity of subtidal benthic habitats. Sediment types ranged from clays to boulders, and benthic communities appeared to be equally heterogeneous. Quantities of oil were still on the beaches. We found a 25-centimeter-thick oil ''mousse'' layer 45 centimeters below the surface of the upper intertidal zone at the first beach station. Oil in the east estuary on the southern shore of First Narrows extended from the main channel to the supralittoral zone where it affected Lepidophylum and Salicornia plant communities. The beaches and inlets appear to be a continuing source of oil pollution in the Strait.

  6. The EED [Emergencies Engineering Division] solvent extraction process for the removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was conducted to investigate the ability of hexane and natural gas condensate (NGC) to extract three different types of hydrocarbon contaminant (light crude oil, diesel fuel, and bunker C oil) from three types of soil (sand, peat, and clay). A separate but related study determined the efficiency of solvent extraction (using hexane and five other solvents but not NGC) for removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from contaminated soil. The process developed for this research includes stages of mixing, extraction, separation, and solvent recovery, for eventual implementation as a mobile solvent extraction unit. In experiments on samples created in the laboratory, extraction efficiencies of hydrocarbons often rose above 95%. On samples from a petroleum contaminated site, average extraction efficiency was ca 82%. Sandy soils contaminated in the laboratory were effectively cleaned of all hydrocarbons tested but only diesel fuel was successfully extracted from peat soils. No significant differences were observed in the effectiveness of hexane and NGC for contamination levels above 3%. Below this number, NGC seems more effective at removing oil from peat while hexane is slightly more effective on clay soils. Sand is equally cleaned by both solvents at all contamination levels. Safety considerations, odor, extra care needed to deal with light ends and aromatics, and the fact that only 26% of the solvent is actually usable make NGC an unfeasible option in spite of its significantly lower cost compared to hexane. For extracting PCBs, a hexane/acetone mixture proved to have the best removal efficiency. 14 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  7. How to prioritize numerous environmental issues? Case study of the Havre-Saint-Pierre spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While docking at the QIT facility at Havre St. Pierre, Quebec, on March 23, 1999, the cargo ship M/V Gordon C. Leitch collided with the dock, ruptured a fuel tank, and spilled 49 metric tons of light bunker oil (IFO-180) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The situation seemed under control at the beginning since the ice cover contained the migration of oil, but it quickly degenerated when the whole picture became clear. The spill occurred in a remote location where wildlife is abundant and diversified. The economy was largely dependant on ecotourism and several environmental and social factors had to be considered when devising the clean up procedure. Oil was found on 120 km of shoreline in the vicinity of the Mingan Archipelago National Park, a wildlife sanctuary protected by the government of Canada. There were oil-covered birds, a native hunting ground, several fishing zones and the National Park. The spill was cleaned up in two months. The authors described the different factors to be considered and the appropriateness and effectiveness of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team in setting priorities and choosing the best course of action to deal with each set of circumstances. 1 tab., 2 figs

  8. Detection of petroleum contamination in river sediments from Quebec City region using GC-IRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic analysis by compound specific gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) is used to detect and characterize petroleum pollution in surficial sediments along the St Lawrence River, near Quebec City. Unusually mature n-alkane distributions have been found in some recent intertidal sediments in the region. GC-IRMS results suggest that the n-alkanes are not derived from indigenous organic sources because they carry delta13C values between -30.0 and -27.0 per mille, as well as very small isotopic differences between odd and even numbered n-alkanes, which are both typically associated with petroleum products. Comparison of these sediments with bunker fuel, an oil used in the shipping industry, has shown a close isotopic correlation in some sites, which is further supported by biomarkers. Overall, the contamination has been dispersed along the river but is generally localized around the industrial region where hydrocarbon transfer from shore storage to ships takes place. This study illustrates how GC-IRMS can be used effectively in the detection and characterization of petroleum pollutants in sediments. (author)

  9. Oil spill simulation system : structure and verification for the Sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil spill from the Nakhodka tanker in the Sea of Japan in January 1997 caused extensive damage to the coastal environment of Japan and provided the impetus to develop an oil spill simulation system. The newly developed system presented here consists of a meteorological data processing subsystem, an ocean circulation model, and an oil spill model. The spill model makes use of the particles tracking method and includes the simulation of the physical properties of oil, allowing the particle properties of the oil (such as density, size, viscosity and water content) to be modified as the spill evolves. The system was tested with the sea currents information provided by the three-dimensional modular ocean model and with a more simplified nonlinear model of sea currents. This paper also presented a test of the simulation system using information from the oil spill incident in the Sea of Japan in April 1997 involving the Osung No 3 Korean tanker. This incident involved about 229 kilolitres of heavy Bunker C type oil spilled into an area characterized by strong Tsushima currents and by strong tidal currents. The oil spill simulation system was found to be in good agreement with the actual observations of the oil spill. 31 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  10. Study of long-term spilled Metula oil : degradation and persistence of petroleum biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1974, the oil tanker 'Metula' carrying 1.42 million barrels of light Arabian crude ran aground in the Strait of Magellan in Chile, spilling about 50,000 tons of light Arabian crude and 2,000 tons of Bunker C fuel, and polluting 250 km of shoreline. Since no attempt was made to recover or treat the slick, the oil was left to weather naturally. Several field surveys of the distribution of the oil have been conducted since the original spill. In this study, a total oil analysis was conducted on oil samples collected during a 1998 field visit. It was shown that the oil has gone through major alteration in chemical composition after 24 years through natural attenuation. The only location with any significant amounts of residual oil was in Punta Espora area where the oil was concentrated in two marsh areas and one in an asphalt pavement on a sheltered beach. The objective of the 1998 field visit was to obtain the latest information on oiling conditions, any changes in stranded oil and vegetative recovery in the area. All samples except those in the East Marsh showed a significant loss of n-alkanes and PAH compounds. The East Marsh showed the least degradation, while the asphalt pavement weathered most heavily. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Low current performance of the Bern medical cyclotron down to the pA range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, M.; Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Nesteruk, K. P.; Scampoli, P.

    2015-09-01

    A medical cyclotron accelerating H- ions to 18 MeV is in operation at the Bern University Hospital (Inselspital). It is the commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker. This feature is unique for a hospital-based facility and makes it possible to conduct routine radioisotope production for PET diagnostics in parallel with multidisciplinary research activities, among which are novel particle detectors, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. Several of these activities, such as radiobiology experiments for example, require low current beams down to the pA range, while medical cyclotrons are designed for high current operation above 10 μA. In this paper, we present the first results on the low current performance of a PET medical cyclotron obtained by ion source, radio-frequency and main coil tuning. With this method, stable beam currents down to (1.5+/- 0.5 ) pA were obtained and measured with a high-sensitivity Faraday cup located at the end of the beam transport line.

  12. TURNING THE TIDE: REVISITING AFRICAN MARITIME SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Vrey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Maritime security appears to be assuming an increasingly more prominent place on the African security agenda. Although the growing scholarly debate and international responses seem to attend to more than piracy, the latter unfortunately skews perceptions about Africa’s maritime landscape. The piracy focus suggests a limited problem-solving approach, but Africa’s offshore domain calls for a more critical stance that entails more than anti-piracy. Perceptions and realities of maritime terrorism, piracy, illegal oil bunkering, criminality and unsettled maritime boundaries increasingly complicate traditional African threats and vulnerabilities on land. The growing range of threats requires a framework to explain events taking shape off West and East Africa in particular better. In this regard, the constituent elements of good order at sea house a more critical line to view security off Africa through safe access to resources (food and minerals, safe sea routes, as well as dominium and jurisdiction. Opposition to threats off the African coast tends to privilege naval responses, but closer scrutiny reflects that responses are found to also display a profile of cooperation between numerous actors and agencies that securitise maritime threats beyond piracy. The resultant cooperation reveals landward and offshore initiatives that promote maritime security, rather than merely fighting piracy.

  13. Nanoscopic fuel-rich thermobaric formulations: Chemical composition optimization and sustained secondary combustion shock wave modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed K; Mostafa, Hosam E; Elbasuney, Sherif

    2016-01-15

    Advanced thermobaric explosives have become one of the urgent requirements when targeting caves, fortified structures, and bunkers. Highly metal-based systems are designed to exploit the secondary combustion resulted from active metal particles; thus sustained overpressure and additional thermal loadings can be achieved. This study, reports on a novel approach for chemical composition optimization using thermochemical calculations in an attempt to achieve the highest explosion power. Shock wave resulted from thermobaric explosives (TBX) was simulated using ANSYS(®) AUTODYN(®) 2D hydrocode. Nanoscopic fuel-rich thermobaric charge was prepared by pressing technique; static field test was conducted. Comparative studies of modeled pressure-time histories to practical measurements were conducted. Good agreement between numerical modeling and experimental measurements was observed, particularly in terms of the prediction of wider overpressure profile which is the main characteristics of TBX. The TBX wider overpressure profile was ascribed to the secondary shock wave resulted from fuel combustion. The shock wave duration time and its decay pattern were acceptably predicted. Effective lethal fire-ball duration up to 50ms was achieved and evaluated using image analysis technique. The extended fire-ball duration was correlated to the additional thermal loading due to active metal fuel combustion. The tailored thermobaric charge exhibited an increase in the total impulse by 40-45% compared with reference charge. PMID:26426986

  14. Assessment of work environmental hazard and exposure of a worker utilizing 226Ra in an oncological center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our study presents dosimetric evaluation of activities associated with sealing in glass 72 sources of 226Ra prepared for utilization, and of the effect of an absorbed dose on a worker's select laboratory parameters. During 3 h exposure to 226Ra of activity 31 GBq, it was demonstrated that taking the sources from a bunker in portions only for the time of sealing them in glass, decreases the worker's exposure to the obtained dose from 91.5 mSv to 6 mSv, and additionally used 5 cm shield to 2 mSv. Nine days after the worker's absorption of the radiation dose, we observed in laboratory tests disorders expressed by decreased numbers of white blood cells and neutrophils, decreased activity of antioxidative enzymes in erythrocytes, concentrations of protein thiol groups, vascular endothelial growth factors in serum, and an increase of plasma total antioxidant status level, of insulin-like growth factor I level, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor level in blood serum. (authors)

  15. Implementation of the Borehole Disposal Project for Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute currently manages radioactive waste generated from the various applications of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research through its centralized treatment and storage facilities on site. Treated and conditioned wastes are temporarily stored in simple, roofed, above ground concrete bunkers. To date, a potential site for the co-location of near surface and the borehole disposal of disused sealed sources (BOSS) disposal facility has been identified for detailed investigation with the assistance of the IAEA. The preferred site is located in the northern part of the Philippines and has about 40 ha for potential development. A drilling programme that aimed to investigate further the geologic, hydrogeologic and hydrologic properties of the site has been carried out. Based on the current results of investigation, the design concept of the proposed BOSS facility as well as preliminary radionuclide transport calculations have been conducted. The paper presents the current status and initiatives that have been implemented for the borehole disposal concept of high activity sources in the Philippines. It focuses on the results of the drilling programme, the proposed design for consideration and the initial safety assessment of the site resulting from the disposal of major radionuclides from the waste inventory. (author)

  16. The SINQ neutron guide system principles, technical layout and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss Spallation neutron source SINQ, operating since 1997, is equipped with a cold source and an extended neutron guide system. The design of the guide system was dominated by the intention to provide an optimum supply for general and dedicated types of instruments by simultaneously considering the best possible conditions for future users. It consists of seven individual guides, starting at a distance of 150 cm from the 20 l liquid D2-modeator. All guides are curved to prevent the direct view to the source within a 25 m shielding bunker, thus filtering the high energy neutrons and other disturbing radiation. Supermirror coating of six guides, combined with a shallow curvature, allows access to thermal neutrons up to 36 meV in energy, equivalent to 1.5 A down in wavelength. Extensive flux measurements were made at the guide system applying primarily gold-foil activation and time-of-flight spectroscopy. The tests have proven that the guide system fulfills the expectations regarding performance, shielding quality and, last not least, neutron flux levels. The latter compare favorably with those of currently operating medium-flux reactors. In particular, the neutron guide system of SINQ has taken full advantage of supermirror coating with considerable gains in spectral range and integral flux at the instrument positions

  17. Smashing physics. Inside the world's biggest experiment; Der Kosmos im Crashtest. So haben wir das Higgs gejagt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterworth, Jon [University College, London (United Kingdom). Fachbereich Physik und Astronomie

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working knowledge of the new physics and what the discovery of the Higgs particle means for how we define the laws of nature. It will take you to the cutting edge of modern scientific thinking.

  18. Vicissitudes in the Hong Kong oil market, 1980-97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Kong, devoid of natural resources, has to import all the energy it consumes. Up to 1981, oil accounted for almost 100 per cent of the total primary energy requirement, of which about 59 per cent was used to generate electricity. Starting in 1982, the electricity sector switched to coal generation, leading to plummeting oil consumption. The conversion process was essentially completed by 1988. Local sales of oil products declined from 5.790 million kilolitres in 1981 to 3.470m kl in 1987, but climbed back to 5.157m kl in 1997; oil consumption stagnated between 1981 and 1997. This paper analyses the fluctuations in oil consumption during the period, covering use by the utility and non-utility sectors. Next, it deals with consumption of, and the factors involved in, the six major oil products, i.e. fuel oil, diesel, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, kerosene and jet fuel. Interestingly, bunker sales, including air and sea transport, rose noticeably during these years, partly offsetting the effect of slumping oil sales to the power plants and helping boost total oil demand in the 1990s. Lastly, a glimpse into the future of the Hong Kong oil market is taken. (author)

  19. State workshop on shallow land burial and alternative disposal concepts: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three of the major conclusions reached by state participants were the following: (1) Significant data gaps and information needs have to be addressed before timely state decisionmaking can be accomplished. State participants felt a generic cost/risk/benefit analysis for all viable alternatives would be useful and might best be performed by the federal government on behalf of the states. (2) Recognizing the imprecision in summarizing overall attitudes of the workshop participants, alternative disposal concepts that appear to be the most favorably perceived when rank ordered by critical factors are augered holes with liners, belowground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, aboveground vaults and mined cavities. (3) The public appears to place greater confidence in disposal methods that incorporate man-made engineered barriers because of some past problems at closed shallow land burial facilities. Concern was expressed by workshop participants that the public may not consider the perceived risks associated with shallow land burial to be acceptable. In addition to the four 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C performance objectives, public acceptance of risk was considered to be a critical factor by state officials in selecting a disposal technology. The states should take the lead in pursuing development-oriented analyses, such as detailed concept engineering and economic feasibility studies. It is not within the purview of NRC responsibility to undertake such studies

  20. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  1. Indications for solar influence on radon signal in the subsurface of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon at two locations in Tenerife is investigated. The MM-0 site is located in a bunker near Teide volcano. Daily radon (DR) signals are dominated by a 12-hour (S2) periodicity. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of day-time and night-time series results in a day-night differentiation, which does not occur in the coeval temperature and pressure. This indicates that the radon system is directly affected by the rotation of Earth around its axis, and not via the pressure and/or temperature pattern. San Fernando sites are in an underground gallery, located at 2.1 and 3 km from the entrance. Alpha and gamma time series show DR signals having an S1 and a strong S2 periodicity. Sidebands occur around the S1 periodicity. The lower sideband is close to 0.9972696 cycles per day (CPD; = sidereal frequency) and the upper sideband at a symmetric frequency above. They reflect a driver containing two waveforms having periodicities of rotation of Earth around its axis and around the Sun that influences radon in a non-linear fashion, leading to the sidebands around the S1 periodicity. Observation in Tenerife of sidebands and day-night phenomena substantiates the notion that the periodic components in the diurnal and annual frequency band of radon time series are due to the influence of a component in solar radiation. (authors)

  2. Mesmerism, Sexuality, and Medicine:"Karezza" and the Sexual Reform Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heinz Schott

    2015-01-01

    Within the scope of certain social and religious movements, mesmerism had a considerable impact on the Americanway of life during the last decades of 19th century. A famous example is the Christian Science of Mary Baker EddyBut also less known groups adopted mesmeric ideas and practices. The paper focuses on the concept of"Karezza".It combined a specific sexual practice with religious ideas of divine love, birth control, social reform, women'semancipation and health education. It was created by Alice Bunker Stockham (1833-1912), an obstetrician andgynecologist from Chicago. Among other authorities, the writer Leo Tolstoy and medical psychologist HavelockEllis appreciated her approach. She was a pioneer of the sexual and marriage reform promoting practical advice foreveryday life. As a doctor, she stressed especially the disastrous consequences of a brutal sexual life destroyingbody and mind (not only of the women). As an antidote, she propagated the "Karezza love" avoiding ejaculation ada punctual orgasm (climax) during intercourse. The leading idea was the imagery of a mesmeric "fluidum" unitingindividuals spiritually. Bunker's publications were translated into German. They corresponded to the Lebensreformmovement, but never became popular. Also the early sexology about 1900 ignored Bunker's concept as well as thesexual medicine later on. It is worthwhile to reconsider it within the context of the history of medicine, culture, andanthropology.

  3. Industrial potential for application of radiation curing in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential applications of radiation curing of coating are in the field of wood and wood products, drying of printing inks, ceramics (roof and floor tiles) and textiles. Pakistan a 'timber deficit' country needs to improve her wood, plywood, hardboard and particle board to make for shortage of quality wood. Imports of wood and wood products are in excess of 3000 million rupees. Radiation curing can be applied and itexcels over heat treatment. Whereas costs of high energy units (500 KeV) with scanning type are rather high, low energy (100-175 KeV) flat beam self-shielded units costing 200,000 US$ are available. For developing countries ultraviolet (UV) curing is ideally suited because of its low price, flexibility and simplicity in handling. Alternately, multipurpose bunker type facility such as 500 KeV current mA can be utilized in carrying out heat-shrinkables production, irradiation of cable and wire and curing of coatings on wood and wood products. (author)

  4. In-situ corrosion measurements of WWII shipwrecks in Chuuk Lagoon, quantification of decay mechanisms and rates of deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Donald Macleod

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a series of measurements taken on WWII historic shipwrecks that resulted from the effects of Operation Hailstone in February 1944 on the Japanese merchant fleet which was assembled in Chuuk lagoon, Federated States of Micronesia. More than 65 shipwrecks and 250 aircraft were sunk during two main bombing raids. The vessels lost covered a wide range of underwater orientation and water depths and so provided a perfect suite of corrosion experiments. Since the fuel on board the aircraft was either readily burnt at the time or was lost through volatilisation, the wrecked planes present no pollution problems today. However the bunker fuel kept inside on-board storage tanks does present a real conservation management crisis. In-situ measurements on many vessels have determined how water depth, the localised wreck topography, dissolved oxygen levels, temperature and salinity affects the corrosion rate of cast iron and mild steel. Thus corrosion rates can be calculated with confidence.

  5. The use of a centralized microprocessor-based monitor and control system (Japan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, K.

    1983-01-01

    In 1978, a multiplexed transmission system was incorporated at the Ikeshima mine. Initially, measurement, monitoring and control were incorporated at 44 stations only, and in 1982 the number of stations was increased to 1000. In recent years, in connection with the rapid development of integrated microprocessor circuitry, the microprocessor has become widely used. The purpose of using the microprocessor in mines is to modernize and improve the mining equipment, the installation of safety equipment and to improve the environment in the mine. For this purpose, a central control and computer panel was installed in the central control cabinet at the surface of the mine. The MUS-10 microprocessor is the primary component in this panel, which is manufactured by Mitsubishi. The central control equipment monitors the methane concentration, the atmospheric temperature, the compressed air pressure, the pressure in the water spraying system, the flow of cooling water, the amount of coal in the bunkers, the analog value of the electrical current and the state of operations and condition of various equipment, as well as the safety equipment in the complexes. This unit also provides remote control. The central control and computer panel consists of an on-line control unit, a memory and a remote control device. The local panels have a blastresistant design.

  6. Adaptation to carbon dioxide tax in shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note discusses the consequences for the sea transport sector between Norway and continental Europe of levying a carbon dioxide tax on international bunker. The influence of such a tax on the operational costs of various types of ship and various transport routes is calculated. The profit obtainable from the following ways of adapting to an increased tax level is assessed: (1) Reducing the speed, (2) Rebuilding the engine to decrease fuel consumption, (3) Changing the design speed for new ships. It is found that a carbon dioxide tax of NOK 200 per tonne of CO2 will increase the transport costs by 3 - 15 percent. In the long run much of this may be transferred to the freight rates since so much of the sea transport are in segments in which the demand for the service is not sensitive to the prices. Even if the freight rates are not changed, a tax this size will not make it necessary to reduce the speed of the existing fleet. The income lost by taking fewer trips will exceed the costs saved in reducing the speed. However, the optimum design speed for new ships may be somewhat reduced (0.5 knots). Rebuilding engines to reduce the fuel consumption would pay off were it not for the fact that the remaining life of the present fleet is probably too short for this to be interesting

  7. Activation products in a treatment room of a 15 MV linear accelerator for medical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon M, H. A.; Soto B, T. G.; Rivera P, E.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: asa_15@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Linacs working above 8 MV produce an undesirable neutron field mainly through ({gamma}, n) nuclear reactions. Due to room-return effect inside the vault there is a thermal neutron flux that is constant regarded the distance to the isocenter. When thermal neutrons collide with the bunker walls and the Linac head some radioisotopes are induced in the concrete, wedges and collimators due to neutron and photon activation. The aim of this work is to study the induced radioisotopes in concrete samples and a wedge, which emits gamma-ray during its decay, the presence of this protons will represent a radiological risk for the patient. Induced radioisotopes were studied with a 15 MV Linac, and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a Nal(Tl) scintillator where 846.8, 1368.6 and 1778.8 keV gamma-rays were observed, these photons are produced during the decay of {sup 54}Mn, {sup 24}Na and {sup 28}Al respectively, being in agreement with radionuclides reported in the literature. (Author)

  8. Statistical assessment: Two laboratory tests for estimating performance of shoreline cleaning agents for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical cleaning agents are an option that can be used to mitigate detrimental effects of stranded oil on natural shorelines under appropriate circumstances. Experiments were conducted with two test methods (the inclined trough and the swirling coupon) and two substrates (stainless steel and porcelain tile) to evaluate performance of such cleaning agents. Tests were performed with two types of oil (Prudhoe Bay crude and Bunker C) and three commercially available cleaning agents (Corexit 9850, Citrikleen XPC, and Corexit 7664). Separate measurements were made in all tests for oil released into the wash water and oil remaining on substrate surfaces. Statistical analyses of the effects of experimental variables (test method, substrate type, oil type, cleaning agent type, and analytical wavelength in ultraviolet spectrophotometric measurements) on values of cleaning performance are presented and discussed. Results show that absolute values for cleaning performance generally show significant differences between test procedures for specific combinations of a test oil and a cleaning agent. For the individual test procedures, estimates of the variabilities for repeated measurements of cleaning performance are ca 4-7% and 9-12% for the inclined trough and swirling coupon tests respectively. However, the latter values must be viewed only as best estimates because all assumptions for the conduct of the parametric statistics used to obtain these values were not satisfied. 8 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs

  9. Optimization of mining technology in the Lusatian mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrich, F. [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Senftenberg (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The following article is a representation and discussion of all relevant technological process chains and sequences to give an overview of the mining equipment and plants used in lignite mining in the Lusatian area. The following complexes are described in particular: Pre-stripping operations with heavy-duty excavators, large belt conveyor systems and spreaders; Efficient overburden removal by overburden conveyor bridges; Coal extraction with four excavators per opencast mine, coal belt conveyor systems, bunker/stockpile systems, train loading systems; Efficient filter well systems for dewatering pre-mining areas and outer filter well galleries as well as the required modern process control systems; Extensive track systems and rail cars for rail transport including advanced signalling and safety systems and systems for operations management; Use of highly efficient IT systems and tools in mine planning and preparatory areas; Complex interprocess chain and interregional systems of communication infrastructure; Innovative equipment for power supply and electric energy management; Modern information systems and IT tools for all technological process chains and components. (orig.)

  10. Technical and economic criteria for type definition of radiation protection cabins for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive testing is used for testing the quality and dimensions of many materials, e.g. steel, aluminium, or plastics. The most common systems at the moment are X-ray sources up to 450 kV, linear accelerators up to 6 MV, and isotope emitters upl to 120 Ci (e.g. Ir-192, Se-75, Co-60). X-ray sources of more than 450 kV are currently on trial. Shielding of the radiation protection cabins and bunkers depends on the type of radiation source and the beam geometry (direction, distance) which in turn depends on the application and the users' needs. The shielding dimensions in lead equivalent according to the StrlSchV and RoeV (Radiation Protection Ordinance and X-ray Ordinance) are between 2 and 300 mm Pb. Radiation protection cabins as a rool are constructed of steel-lead sandwich constructions, baryte concrete components or bricks, or mixed constructions. The paper describes the technical and economic criteria for type testing of radiation protection cabins and provides hints as to design, dimensioning and materials selection

  11. Safety analysis of the existing 804 and 845 firing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 804 and 845 Firing Facilities at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, peronnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operation and credible accident that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequence were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but one of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exception was explosives. Since this hazard has the potential for causing significant on-site and minimum off-site consequences, Bunkers 804 and 845 have been classified as moderate hazard facilties per DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at these facilities will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public

  12. High-power RF distribution system for the 8-pack project

    CERN Document Server

    Nantista, C; Chan, J; Kazakov, S; Schultz, D; Tantawi, S

    2004-01-01

    The 8-Pack Project at SLAC is a prototype rf system whose goal is to demonstrate the high-power X-band technology developed in the NLC/GLC program. In its first phase, it has reliably produced a 400 ns rf pulse of over 500 MW using a solid-state modulator, four 11.424 GHz klystrons and a dual-moded SLED-II pulse compressor [1]. In Phase 2, the output power of our system has been delivered into the bunker of the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator) and divided between several accelerating structures, first four and finally eight, for beam acceleration. We describe here the design, cold-test measurements, and processing of this power distribution system. Due to the high power levels and the need for efficiency, overmoded waveguide and components are used. For power transport, the TE 01 mode is used in 7.44 cm and 4.064 cm diameter circular waveguide. Only near the structures is standard WR90 rectangular waveguide employed. Components used to manipulate the rf power include transitional tapers, mode con...

  13. Preliminary report of the past and present uses, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs

  14. Assessment of impacts from different waste treatment and waste disposal technologies: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents assessments of treatment and disposal technologies that appear to be appropriate for use in regional facilities in the Midwest Compact Region. The treatment technologies assessed: compaction with a supercompactor; incineration; and incineration followed by solidfication of the incinerator ash. The disposal technologies assessed are: shallow land burial, considered a baseline for comparison of other technologies; below-ground vaults; abov-groudn vaults; the earth mounded concrete bunker, a technology developed in France; improved shallow land burial, essentially deeper burial; modular concrete canister disposal; mined cavities (both new and existing); and unlined augered holes; and lined augered holes. The teatment technologies are assessed primarily in terms of the their impact on the waste management system, and generally not comparatively. The dispoal technologies are assessed relative to the present standard practice shallow land burial; shallow land burial was slected as a frame of reference because it has an experience base spanning several decades, not because of any preferential characteristics. 20 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Natural attenuation of heavy oil on a coarse sediment beach : results from Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia, Canada over 35 years following the Arrow oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, E.H. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); Prince, R.C. [ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc., Annandale, NJ (United States); Taylor, R.B. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2008-07-01

    In 1970, the tanker Arrow spilled bunker C oil into Black Duck Cove on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. The coarse sediment beaches provided an accessible natural laboratory for the study of the long-term fate and persistence of stranded oil in a coastal marine environment. Although the site is well known to the oil spill scientific community, it has not been studied systematically and much remains to be learned regarding the physical and chemical processes that have been ongoing. More information is needed pertaining to the character of the oil residues and the reasons for their persistence. This paper summarized the knowledge that has been acquired collectively over the last 35 years. The focus was primarily on coarse sediments, including cobbles and boulders. All tidal zones at the site have both surface and subsurface oil deposits. The sediments whose pore spaces remain filled with oil are examples of stable oil-sediment deposits. Wave action is slowly eroding these asphalt pavements. Intertidal pore-filled sediments are resistant to physical processes, and sequestered subsurface residues coat the cobble-boulder sediments below the zone of sediment redistribution. The subsurface oils will probably remain until the sediment is disturbed by major storms or by landward barrier migration. Although the surface oil is highly biodegraded, the subsurface oil remains similar to that of the spilled material. It was concluded that subsurface residues will likely remain sequestered and unaltered for the foreseeable future. 26 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. RTOD-photo operations and procedures manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-15

    This document presents a survey of the EG&G NRDS photographic operation in four major sections and includes the work scope, procedures, some technical backgrounding and operational information. Two sections, Instrumentation and Photo Systems, include the areas of direct responsibilities while a section on Film Handling and Coordination and a section covering special information, pertinent to the project, are included to adequately complete this survey. The photographic group is housed in two trailers within the control point area at NRDS and from these trailers provides photographic support at a number of locations. Four camera bunkers, three camera towers, a kinescope system, a microfilm system and remote camera controls comprise the facilities that the group maintains and operates outside these trailers. The work load includes major items such as: motion picture coverage of the nuclear rocket engine tests, data record microfilming, kinescope recording, and documentary coverage of the company related operational responsibilities. In addition, a number of minor photographic services are extended, when required. The nature of the work, because of its importance within the research and development efforts at NRDS, requires optimum quality and efficiency throughout. The many procedures outlined here have been designed to satisfy these requirements.

  17. How to prioritize numerous environmental issues? Case study of the Havre-Saint-Pierre spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenon, S. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Environmental Emergencies Div

    2000-07-01

    While docking at the QIT facility at Havre St. Pierre, Quebec, on March 23, 1999, the cargo ship M/V Gordon C. Leitch collided with the dock, ruptured a fuel tank, and spilled 49 metric tons of light bunker oil (IFO-180) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The situation seemed under control at the beginning since the ice cover contained the migration of oil, but it quickly degenerated when the whole picture became clear. The spill occurred in a remote location where wildlife is abundant and diversified. The economy was largely dependant on ecotourism and several environmental and social factors had to be considered when devising the clean up procedure. Oil was found on 120 km of shoreline in the vicinity of the Mingan Archipelago National Park, a wildlife sanctuary protected by the government of Canada. There were oil-covered birds, a native hunting ground, several fishing zones and the National Park. The spill was cleaned up in two months. The authors described the different factors to be considered and the appropriateness and effectiveness of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team in setting priorities and choosing the best course of action to deal with each set of circumstances. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  18. Photoneutron contamination from an 18 MV Saturne medical linear accelerator in the treatment room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose escalation with high-energy X rays of medical linear accelerators (linacs) in radiotherapy offers several distinct advantages over the lower energy photons. However, owing to photoneutron reactions, interaction of high-energy photons (>8 MV) with various high-Z nuclei of the materials in the linac head components produces unavoidable neutrons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photoneutron dose equivalent per unit therapeutic X-ray dose of 18 MV, GE Saturne 20 linac in the treatment room using Monte Carlo (MC) MCNP linac head full simulation as well as thermoluminescence dosemeter measurements. This machine is one of the old linac models manufactured by General Electric Company; however, it is widely used in the developing countries because of low cost and simple maintenance for radiotherapy applications. The results showed a significant photoneutron dose from Saturne 20 linac head components especially at distances near the linac head (<150 cm). Results of this work could be used in several applications, especially designing bunker and entrance door shielding against neutrons produced by photoneutron reactions in GE Saturne 20. However, a detailed cost optimisation for a specific room would require a dedicated calculation. (authors)

  19. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria

  20. Influence of orbital forcing and solar activity on water isotopes in precipitation during the mid- and late Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the impact of mid- and late Holocene orbital forcing and solar activity on variations of the oxygen isotopic composition in precipitation. The investigation is motivated by a recently published speleothem δ18O record from the well-monitored Bunker Cave in Germany. The record reveals some high variability on multi-centennial to millennial scales that does not linearly correspond to orbital forcing. Our model study is based on a set of novel climate simulations performed with the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso enhanced by explicit water isotope diagnostics. From the performed model experiments, we derive the following major results: (1 the response of both orbital and solar forcing lead to changes in surface temperatures and δ18O in precipitation with similar magnitudes during the mid- and late Holocene. (2 Past δ18O anomalies correspond to changing temperatures in the orbital driven simulations. This does not hold true if an additional solar forcing is added. (3 Two orbital driven mid-Holocene experiments, simulating the mean climate state approximately 5000 and 6000 yr ago, yield very similar results. However, if an identical additional solar activity-induced forcing is added, the simulated changes of surface temperatures as well as δ18O between both periods differ. We conclude from our simulation results that non-linear effects and feedbacks of the orbital and solar activity forcing substantially alter the δ18O in precipitation pattern and its relation to temperature change.

  1. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Scampoli, P.; von Bremen, K.; Weber, M.

    2013-07-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  2. Project of an integrated calibration laboratory of instruments at IPEN; Projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo Adolfo San Jose

    2009-07-01

    The Calibration Laboratory of Instruments of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares offers calibration services of radiation detectors used in radioprotection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, for IPEN and for external facilities (public and private). One part of its facilities is located in the main building, along with other laboratories and study rooms, and another part in an isolated building called Bunker. For the optimization, modernization and specially the safety, the laboratories in the main building shall be transferred to an isolated place. In this work, a project of an integrated laboratory for calibration of instruments was developed, and it will be an expansion of the current Calibration Laboratory of Instruments of IPEN. Therefore, a series of radiometric monitoring of the chosen localization of the future laboratory was realized, and all staff needs (dimensions and disposition of the study rooms and laboratories) were defined. In this project, the laboratories with X ray equipment, alpha and beta radiation sources were located at an isolated part of the building, and the wall shielding was determined, depending on the use of each laboratory. (author)

  3. Smashing physics inside the world's biggest experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working...

  4. Effect of a freshwater oil spill on embryonic development in lake whitefish and northern pike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A train derailment in August 2005 resulted in the release of about 149,500 litres of bunker C oil into Wabamun Lake, a lake which has been subject to ongoing contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from multiple sources for decades. This study compared the pattern, frequency and severity of deformity in larvae of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius) incubated in-situ in areas of Wabamun Lake exposed only to background PAH contamination as well as in areas exposed to PAHs from the oil spill. All sites in the lake had higher than normal incidences of deformity as observed in laboratory studies. At a small number of oil-exposed sites, lake whitefish showed higher incidences of some deformities and a tendency to exhibit deformities of higher severity than sites not exposed to oil. However, deformities in northern pike larvae were few and with relatively small differences among sites, and none that could be attributed to PAH exposure. Semipermeable membrane devices that were deployed with the eggs showed that northern pike embryos were exposed to higher concentrations of dissolved PAHs compared to lake whitefish, suggesting that uptake or sensitivity to PAHs is different between the 2 species.

  5. Safety evaluation status report for the prototype license application safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and consultants reviewed a Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste disposal. The NRC reviewers relied extensively on the Standard Review Plan (SRP), Rev.1 (NUREG-1200), to evaluate the acceptability of the information provided in the EMCB PLASAR. The NRC staff selected certain review areas in the PLASAR for development of safety evaluation report input to provide examples of safety assessments that are necessary as part of a licensing review. Because of the fictitious nature of the assumed disposal site, and the decision to limit the review to essentially first-round review status, the NRC staff report is labeled a ''Safety Evaluation Status Report'' (SESR). Appendix A comprises the NRC review comments and questions on the information that DOE submitted in the PLASAR. The NRC concentrated its review on the design and operations-related portions of the EMCB PLASAR

  6. A 12 GHZ RF Power source for the CLIC study

    CERN Document Server

    Peauger, F; Curt, S; Doebert, S; McMonagle, G; Rossat, G; Schirm, KM; Syratchev, I; Timeo, L; Kuzikhov, S; Vikharev, AA; Haase, A; Sprehn, D; Jensen, A; Jongewaard, EN; Nantista, CD; Vlieks, A

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  7. Cylinder with differential piston for mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a cylinder with differential piston, adapted for measuring the weight of fixed objects such as: fuel tanks (regardless of their capacity), bunkers and silos for all kind of materials, or mobile objects such as: automobiles, trucks, locomotives and railway cars. Although, the cylinder with differential piston is used on a large scale in hydraulic drive or hydraulic control circuits, till now it was not used as constituent part for weight measurements devices. The novelty of the present paper is precisely the use of the device for such purposes. Based on a computation algorithm, the paper presents the general design (assembly), of the device used for weighing important masses (1…. 100 tones). The fundamental idea consist in the fact that, a mass over 10 tones may be weighted with a helicoidally spring subjected to an axial force between 0 and 3000 N, with a deflection of about 30 mm. Simultaneously with the mechanical part, the electronic recording system is also described. The great advantage of the presented device consist in the fact that it can be used in heavy polluted atmosphere or difficult topographic conditions as a result of both the small dimensions and the protection systems adopted. Keywords: cylinder hydraulic with differential piston, hydrostatic pressure, measuring devices

  8. Selection of key stressors to develop virtual environments for practicing stress management skills with military personnel prior to deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Baus, Oliver; Bernier, François; McCreary, Donald R

    2010-02-01

    Virtual environments (VEs) are presently being used to treat military personnel suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In an attempt to reduce the risk of PTSD, VEs may also be useful for stress management training (SMT) to practice skills under stress, but such use necessitates the development of relevant stress-inducing scenarios and storyboards. This article describes the procedures followed to select which VEs could be built for the Canadian Forces. A review and analysis of the available literature and of data collected postdeployment from 1,319 respondents on the frequency of stressors and their association with psychological injuries were pulled together to propose eight potential virtual stressors that can be used to practice SMT: seeing dead bodies or uncovering human remains; knowing someone being seriously injured or killed; receiving artillery fire; being unable to help ill or wounded civilians because of the rules of engagement; seeing destroyed homes and villages; clearing and searching homes, caves, or bunkers; receiving small-arms fire; and participating in demining operations. Information reported in this article could also be useful to document traumatic stressors experienced in theater of operations and their potential impact on psychological injuries. PMID:20528298

  9. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland's south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary's Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia's shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluters

  10. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W

    1999-08-02

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland's south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary's Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia's shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluter00.

  11. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    1999-08-02

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland`s south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary`s Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia`s shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluters.

  12. NRC perspective on alternative disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper is discussed an NRC staff strategy for the development of technical criteria and procedures for the licensing of various alternatives for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Steps taken by the staff to identify viable alternative disposal methods and to comply with the requirements of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (LLRWPAA) of 1985 are also discussed. The strategy proposed by the NRC staff is to focus efforts in FY 87 on alternative concepts that incorporate concrete materials with soil or rock cover (e.g., below ground vaults and earth-mounded concrete bunkers), which several State and State Compacts have identified as preferred disposal options. While the NRC staff believes that other options, such as above ground vaults and mined cavities, are workable and licensable, the staff also believes, for reasons addressed in the paper, that it is in the best interest of the industry and the public to encourage standardization and to focus limited resources on a manageable number of alternative options. Therefore, guidance on above ground vaults, which are susceptible to long-term materials degradation due to climatological effects, and mined cavities, which represent a significant departure from the current experience base for low-level radioactive waste disposal, will receive minimal attention. 6 references

  13. Photoneutron production and backscattering in high density concretes used for radiation therapy shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Photoneutrons are produced in radiation therapy with high energy photons. → We studied high density concretes for photoneutron production and scattering. → Photoneutron production was higher for high density concretes relative to the ordinary. → Neutron backscattering was lower for high density concretes relative to the ordinary concrete. - Abstract: In the current study, the effect of high density concretes on photoneutron productions in radiation therapy was studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The photon and neutron spectra of an 18 MeV photon beam of the Varian linac head were used for all simulations. Ordinary and five high density concretes made of high density elements were simulated. The studied concretes consisted of Magnetite, Datolite-Galena, Magnetite-Steel, Limonite-Steel, and Serpentine. Our results showed that photoneutron production in these concretes strongly depends on their composition. It appears that the application of high density elements with higher probability for photoneutron production, such as Fe and Pb, increases the photoneutron production in concrete walls of radiation therapy bunkers. Further studies on the effect of concrete composition on photoneutrons in radiation therapy room are recommended.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 8/28/2002), Record of Technical Change No. 2 (dated 9/23/2002), and Record of Technical Change No. 3 (dated 6/2/2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

    2001-11-21

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 168 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 168 consists of a group of twelve relatively diverse Corrective Action Sites (CASs 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; 25-99-16, USW G3; 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2). These CASs vary in terms of the sources and nature of potential contamination. The CASs are located and/or associated wit h the following Nevada Test Site (NTS) facilities within three areas. The first eight CASs were in operation between 1958 to 1984 in Area 25 include the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Missile Experiment Salvage Yard; the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Radioactive Materials Storage Facility; and the Treatment Test Facility Building at Test Cell A. Secondly, the three CASs located in Area 26 include the Project Pluto testing area that operated from 1961 to 1964. Lastly, the Underground Southern Nevada Well (USW) G3 (CAS 25-99-16), a groundwater monitoring well located west of the NTS on the ridgeline of Yucca Mountain, was in operation during the 1980s. Based on site history and existing characterization data obtained to support the data quality objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for CAU 168 are primarily radionuclide; however, the COPCs for several CASs were not defined. To address COPC

  15. Ocean Pollution as a Result of Onshore Offshore Petroleum Activities in the African Gulf of Guinea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    The Gulf of Guinea region is located on the Atlantic side of Africa; the sub region has a total population of approximately 190million people. It comprises of five different countries and their territorial waters, which are as follows: Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Cameroon. The sub region is blessed with so many types of natural resources ranging from petroleum, Natural gas, Bitumen, Uranium Diamond and Gold to mention but a few. However the region since the last two decades started attracting the World's attention as a result of the continuous increasing discoveries of new oil fields on both its on shores and off shores. In view of this extra ordinary increasing discoveries of new oil fields in the region, the Gulf of Guinea has become a "Gold rush" to the oil companies and it has so far attracted almost all the top oil firms in the world including; Exxon Mobil, Shell, Total, Texaco, Agip, Chevron, Slumberger, Stat Oil and Conoco Phillips among many other oil giants. In the more recent time even the U.S. Marine Corp have stationed their War Ship in the territorial waters of the Gulf in the name of providing protection to the "Liquid Gold" (Petroleum) underlying the beneath of the region. OIL ACTIVITIES AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS IN THE GULF OF GUINEA As a result of the geometrically increasing oil activities in the region ranging from Drilling, Gas flaring, Bunkering and Exploration activities, there was increase in the general pollution of the region. For example recent reports released in June, 2005 by the internationally renown nongovernmental organization on environmental pollution the Netherlands based Climate Justice programme and the Nigeria's Environmental Rights Action, Under the aegis of friends of the Earth, had it that the region is ranked top on the world's total flare with Nigeria along accounting for 16 percent of the world's total flare. Another example is the increasing cases of oil spillages leading to the

  16. EU-stress test: Swiss national action plan. Follow-up of peer review 2012 year-end status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    of the events at Fukushima, are being processed according to their importance and urgency in a Swiss action plan. There was a lack of consistency identified with respect to natural hazards assessments where significant differences exist in national approaches and where difficulties were encountered with beyond design margins and cliff-edge effects assessments. The peer review Board recommends that the Western European Nuclear Safety Regulators Association (WENRA) develop guidance on natural hazards assessments, including earthquake, flooding and extreme weather conditions, as well as on the assessment of margins beyond the design basis and cliff-edge effects. In Switzerland, the periodic safety review is mandatory every 10 years; the risk from external hazards is re-evaluated. ENSI required a re-evaluation of severe weather conditions. A comprehensive research project on external flooding was initiated. The Fukushima disaster highlighted the importance of the containment function as the last barrier to protect the people and the environment against radioactive releases resulting from a nuclear accident. All Swiss NPPs are equipped with special bunkered safety systems designed against extreme external events. ENSI requested a new safety case to demonstrate that the Swiss NPPs have adequate protection against the 10,000-year earthquake and the combination of this earthquake and a 10,000-year flooding. The necessary analyses were submitted by the licence holders. A flood-proof and earthquake-resistant external storage facility is in place at Reitnau since June 2011, in order to strengthen the provision for accident mitigation. It contains various operational resources, in particular mobile motor-driven pumps, mobile emergency power generators, hoses and cables, radiation protection suits, tools, diesel fuel and boration agents. This storage facility is located on top of a hill and is accessible by road or by helicopter. The three independent storage buildings are

  17. EU-stress test: Swiss national action plan. Follow-up of peer review 2012 year-end status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of the events at Fukushima, are being processed according to their importance and urgency in a Swiss action plan. There was a lack of consistency identified with respect to natural hazards assessments where significant differences exist in national approaches and where difficulties were encountered with beyond design margins and cliff-edge effects assessments. The peer review Board recommends that the Western European Nuclear Safety Regulators Association (WENRA) develop guidance on natural hazards assessments, including earthquake, flooding and extreme weather conditions, as well as on the assessment of margins beyond the design basis and cliff-edge effects. In Switzerland, the periodic safety review is mandatory every 10 years; the risk from external hazards is re-evaluated. ENSI required a re-evaluation of severe weather conditions. A comprehensive research project on external flooding was initiated. The Fukushima disaster highlighted the importance of the containment function as the last barrier to protect the people and the environment against radioactive releases resulting from a nuclear accident. All Swiss NPPs are equipped with special bunkered safety systems designed against extreme external events. ENSI requested a new safety case to demonstrate that the Swiss NPPs have adequate protection against the 10,000-year earthquake and the combination of this earthquake and a 10,000-year flooding. The necessary analyses were submitted by the licence holders. A flood-proof and earthquake-resistant external storage facility is in place at Reitnau since June 2011, in order to strengthen the provision for accident mitigation. It contains various operational resources, in particular mobile motor-driven pumps, mobile emergency power generators, hoses and cables, radiation protection suits, tools, diesel fuel and boration agents. This storage facility is located on top of a hill and is accessible by road or by helicopter. The three independent storage buildings are

  18. Radiation Protection in the Commissioning and the use of a iort-dedicated mobile linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    equal to half of the electron beam energy, expressed in MeV, and that the useful range, or therapeutical range (corresponding to a DPP of 80%), always expressed in cm, is approximately equal to 1/3 of the electron beam energy, always expressed in MeV. From this considerations, it is clear that the availability of electron beams with initial energy in the range between 4 and 15 MeV allows to treat with IORT any target, up to a thickness of approximately 5 cm. the main reason why IORT with conventional linacs did not have a great diffusion, despite of its theoretical advantages, was the need of one of these two radical choices: the installation of an operating room inside the bunker of a linac or the transport of the patient, under anaesthesia, from the operating room to the bunker of the linac and back to the operating room after the irradiation: it is clear that both these two choice create a lot of problems and difficulties. These difficulties have been solved a few years ago with the development and the introduction in the clinical use of mobile linacs producing only electron beams, that can easily be transported and employed directly in the operating room. It is clear that the use of such linacs in a space not specially designed sets important problems of radiation protection, that must be analysed and solved specifically for each situation. At the beginning of 1999 a mobile Linac (Novac 7, manufactured by Hitesys, Aprilia, Italy) able to produce electron beans in the energy range 4.5-9 MeV became available at the European Institute of Oncology, Milano, for being employed in traditional operating rooms, especially for the IORT of early breast cancer patients. (Author

  19. Big emitting nations and the 2°C target:beyond integrated assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bows-Larkin, Alice; Sharmina, Maria; Kuriakose, Jaise; Anderson, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    within and between the energy and climate systems, a more transparent and dynamic framing based on highly constrained cumulative carbon budgets is proposed. Building on previous assessments that use a similar approach by authors Anderson and Bows, this analysis looks beyond the contested 'Annex 1' and 'non-Annex 1' division to backcast what the remaining CO2 budget implies for the world's top emitting nations. The analysis takes the top 25 nations, responsible for 85% of global CO2, and groups these nations on the basis of similarities within their energy systems. Using a range of explicit variables a suite of scenarios for these groups, as well as the 'rest of the world', 'deforestation' and 'bunker fuel CO2' are then developed, all constrained within a range of 2°C carbon budgets. By varying the levels of near-term emissions from each group's energy system, under a highly constrained CO2 budget, important sensitivities are revealed. Results demonstrate the significance of the coming 1-5 years' levels of emissions of the highest emitting groups and the importance of bunker-fuel emissions in shaping our collective futures. They also illustrate that only non-marginal futures with radical transitions across all energy systems can now be reconciled with the 2°C policy objective.

  20. Radiation Protection in the Commissioning and the use of a iort-dedicated mobile linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosi, G.; Ciocca, M.

    2002-07-01

    equal to half of the electron beam energy, expressed in MeV, and that the useful range, or therapeutical range (corresponding to a DPP of 80%), always expressed in cm, is approximately equal to 1/3 of the electron beam energy, always expressed in MeV. From this considerations, it is clear that the availability of electron beams with initial energy in the range between 4 and 15 MeV allows to treat with IORT any target, up to a thickness of approximately 5 cm. the main reason why IORT with conventional linacs did not have a great diffusion, despite of its theoretical advantages, was the need of one of these two radical choices: the installation of an operating room inside the bunker of a linac or the transport of the patient, under anaesthesia, from the operating room to the bunker of the linac and back to the operating room after the irradiation: it is clear that both these two choice create a lot of problems and difficulties. These difficulties have been solved a few years ago with the development and the introduction in the clinical use of mobile linacs producing only electron beams, that can easily be transported and employed directly in the operating room. It is clear that the use of such linacs in a space not specially designed sets important problems of radiation protection, that must be analysed and solved specifically for each situation. At the beginning of 1999 a mobile Linac (Novac 7, manufactured by Hitesys, Aprilia, Italy) able to produce electron beans in the energy range 4.5-9 MeV became available at the European Institute of Oncology, Milano, for being employed in traditional operating rooms, especially for the IORT of early breast cancer patients. (Author)

  1. Optimal synthesis of energy supply systems for remote open pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. Within the paper the energy demands for a remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario are considered as a case study to illustrate the technique and investigations. As expected, for mines close to electricity, natural gas, and diesel distribution infrastructures, the optimal choice is to connect. When a constraint is applied specifying that connection is not possible, as would be for the case exemplified, the optimal choice includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply. - Highlights: •Optimal mine site energy supply methodology is established. •Methodology permits innovative, lower cost, energy supply solutions to be identified. •The methodology allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. •A remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario is considered as a case study. •The optimal solution includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply

  2. Sainte-Bernardette du Banlay, Nevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Joly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Construite par Claude Parent et Paul Virilio en 1964-1965, l’église Sainte-Bernadette du Banlay témoigne de leurs travaux sur la fonction oblique. L’édifice fut édifié à l’issue d’un concours d’architecture lancé en 1963 par Mgr Vial et l’Abbé Bourgoin, curé de la paroisse. L’église est inspirée de l’architecture des bunkers. Deux coques de béton s’imbriquent l’une dans l’autre en se décalant par rapport à l’axe longitudinal. L’apparence générale est un édifice monolithique, qui évoque un rocher. Á l’intérieur, deux grands plans obliques paraissent exhumés pour constituer la nef et le chœur. En relation étroite avec la grotte des apparitions de Lourdes, l’église est construite comme une crypte suspendue dont la coupe adopte la forme d’un cœur. Par le choix de matériaux bruts et d’un éclairage zénithal, les architectes confèrent à l’ensemble une étonnante intimité. C’est par l’opposition entre le volume extérieur austère et fermé et l’espace intérieur accueillant et protecteur que les concepteurs expriment la nouvelle fonction d’une église conçue dans une période d’incertitude et de tensions.The Sainte-Bernadette du Banlay church at Nevers was built from 1964 to 1965 to the designs of the architects Claude Parent and Paul Virilio, working on their theme of the oblique function. It was the fruit of an architectural competition organised in 1963 by Monseigneur Vial and the Abbé Bourgoin, the parish priest. The church’s architecture is inspired by that of defensive bunkers. Two reinforced concrete shells are joined the one into the other but out of true on a longitudinal axis. The overall appearance of the church is that of a monolithic block, something like a rock. Inside, two large oblique planes seem to emerge to create the nave and the chancel. Closely related to the Lourdes grotto of the Virgin’s appearances, the church is designed as a suspended crypt

  3. Discovering Teenage Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Staring for the equivalent of every night for two weeks at the same little patch of sky with ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers has found the extremely faint light from teenage galaxies billions of light years away. These galaxies, which the research team believes are the building blocks of normal galaxies like our Milky Way, had eluded detection for three decades, despite intensive searches. ESO PR Photo 52/07 ESO PR Photo 52/07 A 92-hour long spectrum Two-dimensional spectrum obtained in 92 hours of exposure time, showing the line emitter candidates. The quasar absorption lines are visible close to the centre of the image. The team, led by Martin Haehnelt of the University of Cambridge, UK, Michael Rauch and George Becker of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, USA, and Andy Bunker of the Anglo-Australian Observatory, reports their results in the 1 March 2008 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. "This is the first time that the sky has been searched to this depth and the unrivalled sensitivity of the picture taken with the VLT was key to succeeding," says Haehnelt. Experts have long speculated that galaxies like ours were created by the amalgamation of proto-galaxies early in the history of the Universe, but the light from these fragments was so faint that astronomers had struggled to prove they were there at all. Astronomers thought that the teenage galaxies must be out there because they were blocking part of the light from objects even further away in space. "Previous attempts have usually been frustrated by the difficulty of detecting extremely faint objects: the amount of time required even with an 8-metre class telescope like the VLT considerably exceeds typical observing time awards. We have thus exploited the periods of less good weather with the FORS2 spectrograph at the VLT, taking advantage of the service observing mode," says Becker. In service mode, ESO staff astronomers at Paranal are responsible for carrying

  4. Comparison of Two Surface Contamination Sampling Techniques Conducted for the Characterization of Two Pajarito Site Manhattan Project National Historic Park Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Technical Area-18 (TA-18), also known as Pajarito Site, is located on Los Alamos National Laboratory property and has historic buildings that will be included in the Manhattan Project National Historic Park. Characterization studies of metal contamination were needed in two of the four buildings that are on the historic registry in this area, a “battleship” bunker building (TA-18-0002) and the Pond cabin (TA-18-0029). However, these two buildings have been exposed to the elements, are decades old, and have porous and rough surfaces (wood and concrete). Due to these conditions, it was questioned whether standard wipe sampling would be adequate to detect surface dust metal contamination in these buildings. Thus, micro-vacuum and surface wet wipe sampling techniques were performed side-by-side at both buildings and results were compared statistically. A two-tail paired t-test revealed that the micro-vacuum and wet wipe techniques were statistically different for both buildings. Further mathematical analysis revealed that the wet wipe technique picked up more metals from the surface than the microvacuum technique. Wet wipes revealed concentrations of beryllium and lead above internal housekeeping limits; however, using an yttrium normalization method with linear regression analysis between beryllium and yttrium revealed a correlation indicating that the beryllium levels were likely due to background and not operational contamination. PPE and administrative controls were implemented for National Park Service (NPS) and Department of Energy (DOE) tours as a result of this study. Overall, this study indicates that the micro-vacuum technique may not be an efficient technique to sample for metal dust contamination.

  5. Mapping man-made CO2 emissions using satellite-observed nighttime lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Andres, R. J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F. C.; Roman, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Open-Data Inventory for Anthropogenic Carbon dioxide (ODIAC) is a global high spatial resolution (1x1km) emission dataset for CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The original version of ODIAC was developed at the Japanese Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT) project to prescribe their inverse model. ODIAC first introduced the combined use of satellite-observed nighttime light data and individual power plant emission/geolocation information to estimate the spatial extent of fossil fuel CO2. The ODIAC emission data has been widely used by the international carbon cycle research community and appeared in a number of publications in the literature. Since its original publication in 2011, we have made numerous modifications to the ODIAC emission model and the emission data have been updated on annual basis. We are switching from BP statistical data based emission estimates to estimates made by Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In recent versions of ODIAC data, the emission seasonality has been adopted from the CDIAC monthly emission dataset. The emissions from international bunkers, which are not included in the CDIAC gridded emission data, are estimated using the UN Energy Database and included with the spatial distributions. In the next version of ODIAC emission model, we will explore the use of satellite data collected by the NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. We will estimate emission spatial distributions using global 500x500m nighttime lights data created from VIIRS data. We will also utilize a combustion detection algorithm Nightfire developed at NOAA National Geophysical Data Center to map gas flaring emissions. We also plan to expand our two emission sector emission distributing approach (power plant emission and non-point source emissions) by introducing a transportation emission sector which should improve emission distributions in urban and rural areas.

  6. Optimization of radiation protection in gamma radiography facilities; Otimizacao do sistema de radioprotecao nas instalacoes radiograficas de gamagrafia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    1999-07-01

    To determine optimized dose limits for workers, a study of optimization of radiation protection was undertaken in gamma radiography facilities closed, using the Technique Multiple Attributes Utility Analysis. A total of 217 protection options, distributed in 34 irradiation scenarios for tree facility types ( fixed open, moveable and closed (bunker) were analyzed. In the determination of the optimized limit dose, the following attributes were considered; costs of the protection barriers, costs attributed to the biological detriment for different alpha (the reference value of unit collective dose), size of the isolation area, constrained limits dose of annual individual equivalent doses and collective dose. The variables studied in the evaluation included: effective work load, type and activity of the sources of radiation ({sup 192}Ir and {sup 60}Co), source-operator distance related to the characteristic of the length of the command cable and the guide tube, type and thickness of the materials used in the protection barriers (concrete, barite, ceramic, lead, steel alloy and tungsten). The optimal analytic solutions obtained in the optimization process that resulted in the indication of the optimized dose limit were determined by means of a sensitivity analysis and by direct and logic evaluations, thus, independent of the values of the monetary coefficient attributed to the biological detriment, of the annual interest rate applied to the protection cost and of the type of installation studied, it was concluded that the primary limit of annual equivalent dose for workers (now 50 mSv) can be easily reduced to an optimized annual dose limit of 5 mSv. (author)

  7. 2002 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics Yearbook (formerly the Yearbook of World Energy Statistics). The Yearbook contains annual data on production, trade, stock changes, bunkers and apparent consumption for individual commodities for approximately 215 countries and areas of the world

  8. 1998 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yearbook (formerly the Yearbook of World Energy Statistics). The Yearbook contains annual data on production, trade, stock changes, bunkers and apparent consumption for individual commodities for approximately 215 countries and areas of the world

  9. 2000 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics Yearbook (formerly the Yearbook of World Energy Statistics). The Yearbook contains annual data on production, trade, stock changes, bunkers and apparent consumption for individual commodities for approximately 215 countries and areas of the world

  10. Endoscopic Treatment of Gluteus Medius Tears: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerebours, Frantz R; Cohn, Randy; Youm, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a term used to describe disorders of the peritrochanteric region. This constellation of conditions includes greater trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius (GM) tears, and external coxa saltans or snapping hip syndrome. Tears of the abductor mechanism, more specifically gluteus medius tears, have recently gained a considerable amount of interest in the orthopaedic literature. Abductor tears were first described by Bunker and Kagan in the late 1990s. They used the rotator cuff as an analogous structure to describe the pathological process associated with gluteus medius tears. Tears of the gluteus medius tendon can often be difficult to recognize. The clinical presentation is often attributed to trochanteric bursal inflammation, without any further workup. Provocative hip physical examination findings are an important key to proper diagnosis of abductor injuries. Depending on the size of the tear, patients with abductor tendon pathology may present with a Trendelenburg gait and reduced resisted abduction strength accompanied by pain. Initial noninvasive management of greater trochanteric pain syndrome includes oral or topical anti-inflammatory medication and activity modification. Physical therapy or other treatment modalities can be considered, with a focus on core strengthening, truncal alignment, and iliotibial band stretching. Gluteus medius tears have historically been repaired in an open fashion; however, the advent of new endoscopic surgery techniques has allowed for a less invasive approach. Access to the peritrochanteric space affords the surgeon with access to pathology associated with the greater trochanter, iliotibial band, trochanteric bursa, sciatic nerve, short external-rota tors, iliopsoas tendon, and the gluteus medius and minimus tendon attachments. Over the last decade, we have seen rapid technological advances in hip arthroscopy, improved diagnostic imaging and interpretation, and an improved

  11. 'Shrink' losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; Swanepoel, N; Heguy, J M; Price, T; Meyer, D M

    2016-01-15

    Silage 'shrink' (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term 'shrink' is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90±17, 68±18 and 28±21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses ('older' silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face. PMID:26524271

  12. Characterization of the neutron field from the 241Am-Be isotopic source of the IPHC irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement campaign has been carried out recently to provide the source intensity and the reference spectra around a neutron irradiation facility based on 241Am-Be radionuclide source, using the UAB Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. This facility, which consists of a bunker, a container/shielding for the source and an irradiation device that uses an automated remote-controlled system for the source positioning and rotating during the dosimeter irradiation, is intended to be routinely used to check the response of passive dosimeters, namely those based on photo-stimulated imaging plates and solid-state nuclear track detectors. The measurement results, in terms of neutron spectra and global dosimetric quantities (i.e., fluence and ambient dose equivalent rates) at different distances with respect to the 241Am-Be source, were compared with Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX code and a good agreement was observed. An estimation of the un-scattered neutron spectrum directly emitted from the 241Am-Be source is given as well. - Highlights: ► We describe a neutron irradiation facility based on 241Am-Be radioactive source. ► The neutron field was characterized with a Bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS). ► Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX code were in good agreement with BSS. ► The un-scattered neutron spectrum is provided and compared to that given by the ISO-8529 standard. ► The neutron intensity of the 241Am-Be source is also estimated

  13. HECTOR: A 240kV micro-CT setup optimized for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masschaele, Bert; Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Boone, Matthieu N.; Brabant, Loes; Pauwels, Elin; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2013-10-01

    X-ray micro-CT has become a very powerful and common tool for non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization and analysis of objects. Many systems are commercially available, but they are typically limited in terms of operational freedom both from a mechanical point of view as well as for acquisition routines. HECTOR is the latest system developed by the Ghent University Centre for X-ray Tomography (http://www.ugct.ugent.be) in collaboration with X-Ray Engineering (XRE bvba, Ghent, Belgium). It consists of a mechanical setup with nine motorized axes and a modular acquisition software package and combines a microfocus directional target X-ray source up to 240 kV with a large flat-panel detector. Provisions are made to install a line-detector for a maximal operational range. The system can accommodate samples up to 80 kg, 1 m long and 80 cm in diameter while it is also suited for high resolution (down to 4 μm) tomography. The bi-directional detector tiling is suited for large samples while the variable source-detector distance optimizes the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for every type of sample, even with peripheral equipment such as compression stages or climate chambers. The large vertical travel of 1 m can be used for helical scanning and a vertical detector rotation axis allows laminography experiments. The setup is installed in a large concrete bunker to allow accommodation of peripheral equipment such as pumps, chillers, etc., which can be integrated in the modular acquisition software to obtain a maximal correlation between the environmental control and the CT data taken. The acquisition software does not only allow good coupling with the peripheral equipment but its scripting feature is also particularly interesting for testing new and exotic acquisition routines.

  14. HECTOR: A 240kV micro-CT setup optimized for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray micro-CT has become a very powerful and common tool for non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization and analysis of objects. Many systems are commercially available, but they are typically limited in terms of operational freedom both from a mechanical point of view as well as for acquisition routines. HECTOR is the latest system developed by the Ghent University Centre for X-ray Tomography (http://www.ugct.ugent.be) in collaboration with X-Ray Engineering (XRE bvba, Ghent, Belgium). It consists of a mechanical setup with nine motorized axes and a modular acquisition software package and combines a microfocus directional target X-ray source up to 240 kV with a large flat-panel detector. Provisions are made to install a line-detector for a maximal operational range. The system can accommodate samples up to 80 kg, 1 m long and 80 cm in diameter while it is also suited for high resolution (down to 4 μm) tomography. The bi-directional detector tiling is suited for large samples while the variable source-detector distance optimizes the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for every type of sample, even with peripheral equipment such as compression stages or climate chambers. The large vertical travel of 1 m can be used for helical scanning and a vertical detector rotation axis allows laminography experiments. The setup is installed in a large concrete bunker to allow accommodation of peripheral equipment such as pumps, chillers, etc., which can be integrated in the modular acquisition software to obtain a maximal correlation between the environmental control and the CT data taken. The acquisition software does not only allow good coupling with the peripheral equipment but its scripting feature is also particularly interesting for testing new and exotic acquisition routines

  15. Testing of the LORI stiff brush skimmer sweep system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept utilizing a sweep system in conjunction with stiff cylindrical brushes mounted on an endless chain has been developed for recovering heavy oils and emulsions from water surfaces. One such system, the LORI Side Collector system, was quantitatively tested in an indoor wave tank using diesel, crude oil, emulsified crude, and bunker oil. The skimmer was tested in 4 degree C water at current velocities in the 0.15-0.65 m/s range, in calm water conditions, and in waves of 5-7 cm height. The brush speed was varied between 6 and 30 cm/s. The skimmer was evaluated in terms of fluid recovery rate and oil recovery rate. The maximum capacity of the skimmer may not have been reached due to current velocity limitations of the tank. The effect of brush speed and oil encounter rate were determined. Skimmer performance increased with increasing oil viscosity. Higher current speeds and waves also enhanced recovery. Following the tank trials, the system was installed on a 8.5 m sea truck and trials were conducted on the St. Lawrence River. These tests assessed the stability, maneuverability, sea keeping, and operation of the system. Oil was not used in these tests, but the system was evaluated as to its ability to deal with debris and to direct an oil-substitute towards and into the skimmer entrance. In general, the skimmer did not adversely hamper the maneuverability of the sea truck. The oil-substitute was satisfactorily recovered at velocities up to 1.5-2 m/s. 13 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Development of the environmental properties of the fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-sulfur heavy fuel oils reduce the environmental load of oil products most drastically. Due to the utilization of them the sulfur load in 1994 was about 15 000 tons lower than in 1990. The Finnish state has limited the utilization of fuel oils of high-sulfur content at the 1990s. It has been allowed to use only fuel oils of sulfur content 1.0 wt-% or less. The decision does not concern the plants in which the sulfur is bound into the process, e.g. certain wood processing and steel industry processes, the plants equipped with desulfurizers, or the ships. The portion of the low-sulfur heavy fuel oils of the total consumption of heavy fuel oils in Finland, 1.4 million tons per year, excluding the bunker-oil, will be about 90 % in 1994. Neste Oy produces three qualities of low- sulfur heavy fuel oils (sulfur content less than 1.0 wt-%), which are Mastera LS 100, Mastera 180 and Mastera 380. The digits behind the name of the oil corresponds to the viscosity of the oil. The company also produces high-sulfur heavy fuel oils for the plants there they are allowed. Due to the refinery process modifications the sulfur content of the main light fuel oil products also sunk in the beginning of 1994. Neste produces five different light fuel oils, which are Tempera 15, Tempera 5, Tempera 4, and the winter and summer qualities of Tempera Green. The sulfur content of Tempera 5 and 4 is less than 0.05 wt-%, and that of the Tempera Green is lower than 0.005 %

  17. Neutron spectra and H*(10) around and 18 MV Linac by Ann's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuelos F, A.; Valero L, C.; Borja H, C. G.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: alanb535@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent H*(10) were calculated for a radiotherapy room in 16 point-like detectors, 15 located inside the vault room and 1 located outside the bunker. The calculation was carried out using Monte Carlo Methods with the MCNP5 code for a generic radiotherapy room model operating with a 18 MV Linac, obtaining 16 neutron spectra with 47 energy bins, the H*(10) values were calculated from the neutron spectra by the use of the fluence-dose conversion factors. An artificial neural network were designed and trained to determine the neutron H*(10) in 15 different locations inside the vault room from the H*(10) dose calculated for the detector located outside the room, using the calculated dose values as training set, using the scaled conjugated gradient training algorithm. The mean squared error set for the network training was 1E(-14), adjusting the data in 99.992 %. In the treatment hall, as the distance respect to the isocenter is increased, the amount of neutrons and the H*(10) are reduced, neutrons in the high-energy region are shifted to lower region peaking around 0.1 MeV, however the epithermal and thermal neutrons remain constant due to the room-return effect. In the maze the spectra are dominated by epithermal and thermal neutrons that contributes to produce activation and the production of prompt gamma-rays. The results shows the using this artificial intelligence technic as a useful tool for the neutron spectrometry and dosimetry by the simplification on the neutronic fields characterization inside radiotherapy rooms avoiding the use of traditional spectrometric systems. And once the H*(10) doses have been calculated, to take the appropriated actions to reduce or prevent the patient and working staff exposure to this undesirable neutron radiation. (Author)

  18. A study on room design and radiation safety around room for Co-60 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit converted from room for Ir-192 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Gurjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Use of Co-60 source in place of Ir-192 in high dose rate brachytherapy unit (HDR unit has come for discussion in recent publications. Co-60 based system has been advocated for centers which have fewer brachytherapy procedures as it has comparative economically and administrative advantage. This study has direct practical application for such institutions, which are at the cusp of moving from Ir-192 to Co-60 based brachytherapy. Aims: Conversion of Ir-192 HDR room to Co-60 HDR room and to analyze radiation safety around the room. Materials and Methods: Uniform thickness of 15 cm concrete was added to all walls (except one wall adjoining to linear accelerator bunker to convert existing room forIr-192 HDR unit to suitable room for Co-60 HDR unit. Radiation survey around room was done. Actual and calculated wall thicknesses were compared. Results: Radiation survey data indicates that modified room is suitable for Co-60 HDR unit and all values are in full conformity to annual dose limits mentioned in Safety Code for Radiation Therapy Sources (SCRTS, Atomic Energy Regulatory Body (AERB; the regulatory body in India. Also, modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits mentioned in Safety Report Series No. 47 of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. However, console wall thickness (0.45 m is less than the calculated thickness (0.53 m for instantaneous dose rate (IDR design dose limit (7.5 ΅Sv/h as perabove safety report of IAEA. Conclusions: The modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits. However, console wall thickness is less than the required thickness for IDR design dose limit. It has been suggested to add 2.64 cm steel on console wall. It has been found that design dose limits should be considered while making room layout plan and regulatory body should add these constraints inSCRTS.

  19. Bionomics of phlebotomine sandflies at a peacekeeping duty site in the north of Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Hanafi A; Fryauff, David J; Modi, Govind B; Ibrahim, Moustafa O; Main, Andrew J

    2007-02-01

    A longitudinal entomological survey for sandflies was conducted from 1989 to 1991 at a focus of enzootic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northeast Sinai, Egypt, within the border region monitored by multinational peacekeepers. Standardized sampling with CDC light traps, oiled paper "sticky traps", and human landing collection was employed to determine monthly trends in species composition, density, sex ratio, and reproductive status of vector sandflies. Each collection method independently defined sandfly seasonality as the period May-November in 1990, and March-October in 1991. Plebotomus papatasi was the only anthropophagic species found and comprised more than 94% of the sandfly population. Two population peaks (May, July) were observed for this species in both survey years. Density of P. papatasi in underground bunkers was higher than outside but inflated by a greater proportion of male flies. During 1990, the proportion of gravid P. papatasi increased progressively during the 5 months period from May to September and averaged 29.5% and 29.7% for interior and exterior collections, respectively. Density of P. papatasi was greater during 1991, but proportions of gravid flies were significantly lower in each survey month and averaged 14.9% and 12.3% for interior and exterior collections, respectively. Seasonal rates of Leishmania-infected P. papatasi averaged 0.8% and 0.9% in 1989 and 1990, but fell to zero in 1991, suggesting an unstable focus of Leishmania major transmission. Proportions of gravid flies may be a valid indicator of the physiological age and epidemiologic importance of the vector sandfly population at this focus. The strong correlation of sticky trap indices to human-landing/biting rates shows that this is an accurate, inexpensive, and no-risk alternative to human bait collections. PMID:17270138

  20. Swedish Military Bases of the Cold War The Making of a New Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Strömberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union completely transformed the military-political situation in the Nordic countries. The movement from invasion defence to input defence in Sweden has made many of the subter-ranean modern fortresses and permanent defence systems of the Cold War unnec-essary. The current problem is what the administration authorities will do with the superfluous military buildings: let them fall into decay, preserve or reuse them – and for what purpose? The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the cultural as well as spatial foundation of a new genre of heritage industry in Sweden – the cultural heritage of the Cold War – whose value is negotiated through a range of processes by the different stakeholders involved – emotional, social and cultural processes as well as legal and economic processes. The subterranean fortresses of Hemsö and Aspö are used as empirical case studies in the article. They both describe the making of a cultural heritage and illustrate the problems related to the ambitions of convert-ing cultural heritage into tourist attractions. One of the conclusions is that the previous making of the industrial cultural heritage in the 1980s and 1990s has many things in common with the one of the Cold War. The “post-military” landscape of bunkers and rusting barbed wires is regarded with the same romanticism and with similar preservation ideologies and economic interests as the post-industrial landscape was earlier. Similar negotiation issues appear, and these negotiations are carried out by similar stakeholders. The difference is that the military culture heritage of the Cold War was developed through a deeply centralized selection process directed by administration authori-ties, but was also influenced by certain persuasion campaigns and preservation actions made by local stakeholders such as retired officers and municipality ad-ministrations.

  1. Analysis of the results of the Midland PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, G.; Teichmann, T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a limited review of the Midland PRA (MPRA), aimed at facilitating regulatory analyses and at providing insights into safety related plant failures. In particular, stress was laid on the root causes of accident sequences, particularly their failure modes, viz., hardware, human, maintenance, test, and repair. Because this information was difficult to extract in this detailed and sophisticated PRA (and in certain others) a special algorithm was developed to display the leading sequences contributing to core damage and/or to public risk in terms of the above generic failure modes. This was done in a hierarchical fashion to allow tracing the important accident sequences to the systems failures. The weighted core damage frequency (CDF) values of the sequences considered then provided a (quantitative) ranked importance listing of these failure modes, led by hardware failures (in 78%) and human factors (in 37%), etc. Multiple maintenance situations (reflecting on test and maintenance specifications) were also evaluated, but played only a small role (less than or equal to3%). Similar tabulations were also made of the (weighted) importance of the support systems (such as the electric power system, the component cooling water systems, etc.) and of the role of the major systems/functions (e.g., high pressure injection, etc.) contributions to these accident sequences. Finally, the role of certain particular operational and plant features (e.g., loss of offsite power initiators, RCP seal failure, bunkering, etc.) were briefly examined. The methods displayed seem applicable to an important class of extant and projected PRAs.

  2. Educational applications on particle accelerators in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    's bunker and the radionuclide capture on the filters of the air conditioning system in the factories. (author)

  3. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine

  4. Radionuclides in shallow groundwater at Solid Waste Storage Area 5 North, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a compilation of groundwater monitoring data from Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) between November 1989 and September 1993. Monitoring data were collected as part of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program that was implemented in 1989 in response to DOE Order 5820.2A. SWSA 5 North was established for the retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in 1970. Four types of storage have been used within SWSA 5 North: bunkers, vaults, wells, and trenches. The fenced portion of SWSA 5 North covers about 3.7 ha (9 acres) in the White Oak Creek watershed south of ORNL. The area is bounded by White Oak Creek and two ephemeral tributaries of White Oak Creek. Since 1989, groundwater has been monitored in wells around SWSA 5 North. During that time, elevated gross alpha contamination (reaching as high as 210 Bq/L) has consistently been detected in well 516. This well is adjacent to burial trenches in the southwest corner of the area. Water level measurements in wells 516 and 518 suggest that water periodically inundates the bottom of some of those trenches. Virtually all of the gross alpha contamination is generated by Curium 244 and Americium 241. A special geochemical investigation of well 516 suggests that nearly all of the Curium 44 and Americium 241 is dissolved or associated with dissolved organic matter. These are being transported at the rate of about 2 m/year from the burial trenches, through well 516, to White Oak Creek, where Curium 244 has been detected in a few bank seeps. Concentrations at these seeps are near detection levels (<1 Bq/L)

  5. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985-86 an inquiry into the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom was conducted. In 1985, the low-level waste [LLW] site at Drigg which is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc [BNFL] was visited. A series of trenches dug into glacial clay about eight metres deep into which a miscellany of rubbish-some in drums, some raw-was tipped, with a rough and ready check on total daily radioactivity of the material and no attempt at analysis of content was seen. When filled, the trench was covered over with soil; and water accumulating in it was allowed to run off into the Drigg stream and eventually into the Irish Sea. If the monitoring of the stream one day revealed a high level of radioactivity nothing could have been done about it, since pinpointing the offending waste would be impossible. Recommendations as set out in Appendix I to the present Report, were made. The recommendations were accepted virtually in their entirety. Drigg was re-visited in June 1989. In place of the open clay trenches, carefully-engineered concrete bunkers to receive metal containers were found. Sampling equipment has been installed on-site and all waste arriving at Drigg from non-Sellafield sources is placed in an approved container, which is carefully labelled and its ultimate destination carefully recorded. Insofar as the old trenches are concerned, these have been isolated by the construction of a groundwater cut-off wall designed to prevent lateral movement of contaminants from the trenches. Significant reductions had been achieved by BNFL for radioactive emissions from the site as a whole. Large sums have been spent on achieving this. Discharges of alpha and beta radiation are now around one per cent of the peak discharges of the 1970s and monitoring of shellfish has confirmed that this has been carried forward into a reduced exposure for the public. (author)

  6. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985-86 an inquiry was conducted into the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. In April 1985, during that inquiry, the low-level waste (LLW) site at Drigg which is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was visited. A series of trenches dug into glacial clay about eight metres deep contained a miscellany of rubbish - some in drums, some raw - with but a rough and ready check on total daily radioactivity of the material and no attempt at analysis of content. When filled, the trench was covered over with soil; and water accumulating in it was allowed to run off into the Drigg stream and eventually into the Irish Sea. If the monitoring of the stream one day revealed a high level of radioactivity nothing could have been done about it, since pinpointing the offending waste would be impossible. Recommendations as set out in Appendix I to the present Report, were made. Recommendations were accepted virtually in their entirety; measures would be taken to meet criticisms of what was seen. Drigg was revisited in June 1989. The solid waste encapsulation plant (EP1) which is currently nearing completion at Sellafield was also seen. Carefully-engineered concrete bunkers to receive metal containers replaced open clay trenches. Sampling equipment has been installed on-site and all waste arriving at Drigg from non-Sellefield sources is placed in an approved container, which is carefully labelled and its ultimate destination carefully recorded. Insofar as the old trenches are concerned, these have been isolated by the construction of a groundwater cut-off wall designed to prevent lateral movement of contaminants from the trenches. Significant reductions have been achieved by BNFL for radioactive emissions from the site as a whole. Large sums have been spent on achieving this. (author)

  7. Group-based social skills interventions for adolescents with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a review and looking to the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon CM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Camilla M McMahon,1 Matthew D Lerner,2,3 Noah Britton41Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 4Behavorial Sciences Department, Bunker Hill Community College, Charleston, MA, USAAbstract: In this paper, we synthesize the current literature on group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs for adolescents (ages 10–20 years with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder and identify key concepts that should be addressed in future research on GSSIs. We consider the research participants, the intervention, the assessment of the intervention, and the research methodology and results to be integral and interconnected components of the GSSI literature, and we review each of these components respectively. Participant characteristics (eg, age, IQ, sex and intervention characteristics (eg, targeted social skills, teaching strategies, duration and intensity vary considerably across GSSIs; future research should evaluate whether participant and intervention characteristics mediate/moderate intervention efficacy. Multiple assessments (eg, parent-report, child-report, social cognitive assessments are used to evaluate the efficacy of GSSIs; future research should be aware of the limitations of current measurement approaches and employ more accurate, sensitive, and comprehensive measurement approaches. Results of GSSIs are largely inconclusive, with few consistent findings across studies (eg, high parent and child satisfaction with the intervention; future research should employ more rigorous methodological standards for evaluating efficacy. A better understanding of these components in the current GSSI literature and a more sophisticated and rigorous analysis of these components in future research will lend clarity to key questions

  8. Radionuclides in shallow groundwater at Solid Waste Storage Area 5 North, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a compilation of groundwater monitoring data from Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) between November 1989 and September 1993. Monitoring data were collected as part of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program that was implemented in 1989 in response to DOE Order 5820.2A. SWSA 5 North was established for the retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in 1970. Four types of storage have been used within SWSA 5 North: bunkers, vaults, wells, and trenches. The fenced portion of SWSA 5 North covers about 3.7 ha (9 acres) in the White Oak Creek watershed south of ORNL. The area is bounded by White Oak Creek and two ephemeral tributaries of White Oak Creek. Since 1989, groundwater has been monitored in wells around SWSA 5 North. During that time, elevated gross alpha contamination (reaching as high as 210 Bq/L) has consistently been detected in well 516. This well is adjacent to burial trenches in the southwest corner of the area. Water level measurements in wells 516 and 518 suggest that water periodically inundates the bottom of some of those trenches. Virtually all of the gross alpha contamination is generated by Curium 244 and Americium 241. A special geochemical investigation of well 516 suggests that nearly all of the Curium 44 and Americium 241 is dissolved or associated with dissolved organic matter. These are being transported at the rate of about 2 m/year from the burial trenches, through well 516, to White Oak Creek, where Curium 244 has been detected in a few bank seeps. Concentrations at these seeps are near detection levels (<1 Bq/L).

  9. Hydrogeologic role of geologic structures. Part 2: analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Russell L.; Williams, Roy E.; Ralston, Dale R.

    1994-04-01

    This paper is the second of two papers that address the influence of geologic structures on ground water flow at various scales in fractured rocks. The ultimate purpose of this research is to investigate the feasibility of grouting preferentially permeable zones as a strategy to minimize the production of acid mine drainage in underground hard rock mines in which the major permeability is structure and fracture controlled. The aim of grouting is to reduce permeability around mined-out openings, to minimize the rate of inflow of ground water into such openings via the structurally controlled preferentially permeable pathways. A series of hydraulic stress tests were conducted to help characterize the role of geologic structures in controlling the ground water flow system in the vicinity of the Bunker Hill Mine in north Idaho. The results of these tests indicate that most of the ground water that flows from the underground drillholes used for hydraulic stress testing is derived from a few discrete, structurally produced fracture zones that are more or less connected through smaller-scale fractures. Four types of analytical models are considered as a means of analyzing the results of multiple drillhole hydraulic stress tests, as follows: cross-hole equivalent porous media; double-porosity equivalent porous media; a solution to flow in and around a single vertical fracture; leaky equivalent porous media, partial penetration. The estimation of hydraulic coefficients in complex fractured rock environments involves the combined application of a number of deterministic analytical models. The models to be used are selected dependent on the location of the drawdown observations relative to the water-producing zone and the length of the test. The result of the tests can be related to the permeability hierarchy discussed in our first paper.

  10. National emissions from tourism: An overlooked policy challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourism has been recognized as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sector on a global scale. Yet, only few studies assess tourism's share in national emissions. This paper compares and analyses existing inventories of national emissions from tourism. Studies are difficult to compare, because they use different system boundaries and allocation principles, omitting or including lifecycle emissions and GHG other than CO2. By outlining and analysing these differences, the paper estimates the contribution made by tourism to national emissions, and its greenhouse gas intensity in comparison to other economic sectors. Results indicate that while emissions from tourism are significant in all countries studied, they may, in some countries, exceed ‘official' emissions as calculated on the basis of guidelines for national emission inventories under the Kyoto Protocol. This is a result of the fact that bunker fuels are not considered in national GHG inventories, leading to underestimates of the energy- and GHG intensity of tourism economies. While further growth in tourism emissions can be expected in all countries studied, energy-related vulnerabilities are already considerable in many of these. Climate policy for tourism, on the other hand, is largely non-existent, calling for immediate action to consider this sector in national legislation. - Highlights: • Emissions from tourism are equivalent to 5–150% of ’official’ national emissions. • Inconsistent methods are used to calculate national tourism emissions. • Tourism is an energy-intense economic sector compared to other sectors. • Emissions from tourism are growing rapidly. • National policy is not concerned with tourism-related emissions

  11. DSEM, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site Economic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The Disposal Site Economic Model calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development. 2 - Method of solution: The economic models incorporate default cost data from the Conceptual Design Report (DOE/LLW-60T, June 1987), a study by Rodgers Associates Engineering Corporation. Because all costs are in constant 1986 dollars, the figures must be modified to account for inflation. Interest during construction is either capitalized for the private developer or rolled into the loan for the public developer. All capital costs during construction are depreciated over the operation life of the site using straight-line depreciation for the private sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of - 100 years post-operating period, 30 years operating period, 15 years pre-operating period. The model should be used with caution outside the range of 1.8 to 10.5 million cubic feet of total volume. Depreciation is not recognized with public development

  12. DISPOSALSITE, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Cost Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The Disposal Site Economic Model calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development. 2 - Method of solution: The economic models incorporate default cost data from the Conceptual Design Report (DOE/LLW-60T, June 1987), a study by Rodgers Associated Engineering Corporation. Because all costs are in constant 1986 dollars, the figures must be modified to account for inflation. Interest during construction is either capitalized for the private developer or rolled into the loan for the public developer. All capital costs during construction are depreciated over the operating life of the site using straight-line depreciation for the private sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 100 years post-operating period, 30 years operating period, 15 years pre-operating period. The model should be used with caution outside the range of 1.8 to 10.5 million cubic feet of total volume. Depreciation is not recognized with public development

  13. Research and development in oil spill response: The Australian view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant oil spill events in Australia are, fortunately, infrequent events. In recent years, the 33,000 dwt tonne phosphate carrier Sanko Harvest grounded and broke up losing all of its 740 tonnes of fuel oil bunkers off the small south west port of Esperance. Since that incident only one further casualty has occurred, that of the tanker KIRKI which lost some 18,000 tonnes of its crude oil cargo when the fore part of the vessel broke away and sank in heavy seas and subsequently during the tow to quieter waters off the north west coast of Australia. Whilst public interest in oil spills, when they occur, is understandably high, the national government budget for response to ship sourced marine oil spills is in proportion to assessment of the risk and approximates $Aus 2 million annually. The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), is the Federal authority under whose responsibility revenue for the Federal/State arrangement, known as the National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil, is managed. This revenue is obtained directly from the shipping industry in the form of a small tax known as the oil pollution levy. Funds from this source are allocated to the States nationally for purchase of spill response equipment and approved dispersants, production of coastal resource atlases, training programs, maintenance and administration of the National Plan. It will be readily understood that a relatively small budget precludes all but the smallest of R ampersand D programs. Most spills occur in waters over which an Australian state has jurisdiction and are generally managed by state administrations using equipment and decision support resources provided by AMSA

  14. The Debris of Urban Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sgarbi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available “Il Guasto” is an urban context, a place in the heart of the historic city of Bologna which is a mound of debris (resulting from the demolition of an important building, the Bentivoglio Family palace during a popular revolt in the 1506 on top of which a “public garden” was created 40 years ago. The garden is well known in Bologna as “Giardino del Guasto”. Underneath, in between the debris, an underground space (bunker was created to protect the citizen during the bombing of the second world war.The aim of the Design Studio of Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism, Carleton University (Ottawa, Canada, DSA Directed Studies Abroad (January 15th - April 13th, 2012, is to exercise creativity and design skills in an historical context bearing some negative connotations. A spell was cast on the site and the negative effects of this spell are still perceivable today after more than five hundred years. This makes us ponder upon the notions of permanence and durability (of architecture and ideas in the urban fabric and in the meanders of human memory. The site, centered on a garden, has been undergoing many changes in use, purpose and meaning and today still requires to be reimagined in the social context of the city and its famous university. [In the menu on the right, ARTICLE TOOLS, in "Supplementary Files" link you can download the .pdf presentations of Carleton University students, related to the workshop on Giardino del Guasto area, developed in Bologna in 2012].

  15. Plutonium explosive dispersal modeling using the MACCS2 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to derive the necessary parameters to be used to establish a defensible methodology to perform explosive dispersal modeling of respirable plutonium using Gaussian methods. A particular code, MACCS2, has been chosen for this modeling effort due to its application of sophisticated meteorological statistical sampling in accordance with the philosophy of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.145, ''Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants''. A second advantage supporting the selection of the MACCS2 code for modeling purposes is that meteorological data sets are readily available at most Department of Energy (DOE) and NRC sites. This particular MACCS2 modeling effort focuses on the calculation of respirable doses and not ground deposition. Once the necessary parameters for the MACCS2 modeling are developed and presented, the model is benchmarked against empirical test data from the Double Tracks shot of project Roller Coaster (Shreve 1965) and applied to a hypothetical plutonium explosive dispersal scenario. Further modeling with the MACCS2 code is performed to determine a defensible method of treating the effects of building structure interaction on the respirable fraction distribution as a function of height. These results are related to the Clean Slate 2 and Clean Slate 3 bunkered shots of Project Roller Coaster. Lastly a method is presented to determine the peak 99.5% sector doses on an irregular site boundary in the manner specified in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145 (1983). Parametric analyses are performed on the major analytic assumptions in the MACCS2 model to define the potential errors that are possible in using this methodology

  16. Source identification of an unknown spilled oil from Quebec (1998) by unique biomarkers and diagnostic ratios of 'source-specific marker' compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a case study in which forensic chemical analyses were conducted to determine the liability for the release of an unknown petroleum product into a river. On June 29th 1998, a fire broke out at a carpet factory in Acton Vale, Quebec. Two months after the fire, there were reports of significant amounts of oil on the surface of the river near the factory. The source of the spilled oil was identified by the standard comparison of the chemical fingerprints of aliphatic, aromatic, biomarker, and total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions, and was further confirmed by determining and comparing the diagnostic ratios of a series of 'source-specific market' compounds, in particular isomers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated series of PAHs within the same alkylation groups. Furthermore, an unusually high abundance of the biomarker compound C30βα hopane was found in both the suspected source and spill samples. This unique feature is rarely seen in crude oils and refined products. Stable carbon isotopic ratio analyses were also performed. From the chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation results were concluded that (1) the residual oil in the spill samples was a Bunker C type fuel; (2) the oil in the samples collected from the river and from a retention basin in the factory all matched with the oil in the heat exchange equipment near the boiler; (3) the oil collected from the river had been heavily weathered; (4) biodegradation of the oil was evident for the river oil-water samples. (Author)

  17. Learning from California and the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy oils are found in 10 of the 14 largest oilfields in Alaska and California. In the US west coast region, petroleum demand is dominated by light transport fuels, and there is a lack of a discrete and conspicuous heavy oil market. The structure and behavior of west coast petroleum markets, and their interactions with crude-oil and petroleum product markets elsewhere on the Pacific Rim are discussed with regard to how the market for growing volumes of western Canadian heavy oils might evolve. An analysis of crude oil prices versus API gravity demonstrates the price penalties on oil of low gravity, high sulfur, and high transport cost. Prices at the high gravity end tend to correlate closely with Asian light crude and unfinished gasoline prices. The heaviest crudes are priced in competition with other chemically similar residual oils for direct fuel use, blending, or refinery feedstock. The biggest component of the west coast heavy oil market is bunker fuel. The market value of heavy crudes in the west coast is thus determined by regional supply and demand for heavy hydrocarbon molecules, whatever the source. The west coast is not a promising market for Canadian heavy crudes, and exports to Asia would have to compete both with residual oils from Asia and the US west coast and with California heavy crudes. US west coast production peaked in 1989 and regional production can be expected to decline further in average gravity. New production from known but undeveloped heavy oil pools near Prudhoe Bay or in the California offshore could be expected to postpone the need for imports to the west coast and to depress prices. A removal of the Alaska crude oil export ban could improve the west coast heavy oil market. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Occupational radiation exposures associated with alternative methods of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments (LLRWPA) Act of 1985 assigns the responsibility for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes to individual states. The Act also mandates that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in consultation with states and other interested parties, identify disposal methods other than shallow land burial (SLB), the method currently used at the three low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites operating in the United States. The NRC contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to compare projected occupational exposures associated with the SLB method and five alternative disposal methods, including below ground vaults (BGV), above ground vaults (AGV), earth mounded concrete bunkers (EMCB), augured holes (AH) and minded cavities (MC). This report is intended to inform state and local governments about these projected exposures in anticipation of their participation in siting new low-level waste disposal facilities. The results of this study suggest that, with the design and operation assumptions made in this study, occupational dose equivalents for the five methods examined in detail would be highest for the EMCB method (1.81 person-mrem/m3 of waste disposed). The lowest occupational dose equivalents would occur for the AH method (1.29 person-mrem/m3). Projected occupational dose equivalents for SLB, BGV, and AGV disposal methods are 1.38, 1.47, and 1.61 person-mrem/m3, respectively. Based on simularities between the reference BGV and MC facilities, it was projected that the occupational dose equivalents for a MC facility would be 40% higher than for the reference BGV facility. 17 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs

  19. A critical review of petroleum product aquatic toxicity values for use in natural resource damage assessments (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Review evaluates the quality and reliability of values used for estimating the acute toxicity of crudes and petroleum products in aquatic environments. These categories of toxicity indicators are often used in models to assess the biological injury component of natural resources damages caused by releases of petroleum substances. The Review investigates the quality and reliability of LC50 values used in ranking the toxicity of crude oil and petroleum products released into the environment, and discusses the roles of product toxicity and persistence in predicting biological injury. The study concludes that the application of the LC50 methodology is questionable. Major deficiencies in the application of the LC50 methodology are highlighted. Lethal loading, a relatively new parameter developed in Europe over the last five years, is suggested as a possible alternative to LC50 for assessing the relative acute toxicity of petroleum substances. This review found that crude oil is consistently the least toxic petroleum substance regardless of the criteria used to rank toxicity. The adjusted LC50 values indicate that crudes, jet fuels, and gasolines are the least toxic groups while distillates (diesel and bunker fuels) are relatively more toxic. Data for the jet fuel, gasoline, and lube oil groups were sparse. The findings of the Review underscore the need for directed and systematic research into crude and petroleum substance acute toxicity and persistence in the aquatic environment. The thrust of this research would be to produce reliable and meaningful values that could be applied in models assessing the biological injury component of natural resource damages

  20. Live testing of the SCAT management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques developed by Environment Canada's Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) have become the world standard for consistency in remedial efforts following an oil spill. This paper presented the results of a workshop that was aimed at testing the management process developed by two different agencies, Environment Canada and Eastern Canada Response Corporation (ECRC), following a spill incident in 1999 in which 150 km of Quebec's north shore near Havre-Saint-Pierre was polluted with 49 tonnes of bunker oil 180 from an ore ship. The issues of specific concern included fishing, mollusc harvesting, tourism, hunting and sites of environmental interest in the Mingan National Park. Both agencies realized they had to use the SCAT approach, but for different reasons. Environment Canada had to identify environmental impacts, while ECRC had to plan methods for shoreline treatment. Both agencies had to document the pollution using the SCAT method, therefore, they joined efforts and pooled their expertise to optimize resources. The newly developed management structure was aimed at determining how the SCAT approach should be planned, how the data quality could be secured, and how the information should be managed. The main benefits of the joint structure was a flow chart and description of the different functions, and a list of deliverables to be produced by those in charge of managing the SCAT approach. It was determined that the new management process is efficient. A SCAT assessment and situation report were both produced within a prescribed time frame. Working in partnership allowed participants to acquire a common understanding of the SCAT approach. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Application of a multimolecular marker approach to fingerprint petroleum pollution in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to investigate the suitability of a multibiological marker approach for defining the origin of petroleum pollution in marine systems, the aliphatic hydrocarbon composition of tar ball samples collected from the beaches of a small island impacted by heavy tar loads were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The tar ball samples, as collected, were at low stages of biodegradation and had diverse physical appearance. The majority of the samples (as many as 7 of the 10) appeared to be heavy fuel oils - possibly Bunker C. The GC traces for the other three tar balls, however, indicated that they were crude oils probably from tanker ballast washings or other non-point sources like the oil entering from the adjacent North Mediterranean. The biomarkers for the sterane and hopane series in these samples, however, had remained unaffected by weathering, and their distributions revealed significant differences among the samples suggesting multiple sources of the tar balls. The tar ball samples could be genetically subdivided into four groups on the basis of their biomarker fingerprints. A marine carbonate or evaporite, hypersaline, anoxic depositional environment of the petroleum source rock for Type I residues could be inferred from the even-carbon-number predominance of n-alkanes, the high relative abundance of gammacerane and the predominance of C35 relative to C34 17α(H)-homohopanes. Higher plant contribution and a deltaic environment of source rock deposition could be concluded for Type II residues from the high concentrations of oleanane and diasteranes. On the other hand, Type III residues possessed geochemical characteristics consistent with a normal marine carbonate or evaporite source depositional environment under normal saline, reducing conditions. Finally, type IV residues had biomarker signatures intermediate between Types II and III. (Author)

  2. Successful oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A freighter in the process of loading rock for the Quebec Iron and Titanium Mining Company near Havre-St. Pierre on the extreme north shore of the St. Lawrence River, was suddenly tossed against the dock by rough waters on the night of March 23, 1999, and spilled 49 tonnes of bunker fuel oil into the river. This article describes how the crew of the ship, trained by Environmental Accident Protection Inc., based in Petrolia, Ontario, averted disaster by responding to the accident quickly and effectively. Their first action was to notify the appropriate environmental and regulatory authorities and to put in place containment booms which corralled about 17 tonnes of oil. The oil contained by the booms were removed by trained personnel under the guidance of Eastern Canada Response Corporation of Corunna, Ontario, and Response Systems Inc. of Neshanic, New Jersey, in approximately three hours with only minimum disruption to the environment. Further cleanup of the area, often hindered by bad weather, freezing rain, ice, and 100 km/hr winds, was done by the cooperative efforts of governments, industry and the local fishermen's association. The work included scrubbing the shore with wire brushes and scrapers and handbathing some 1000 migratory birds. The cleanup job was completed in about three weeks and the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve and other nearby habitats for migrating birds were saved the devastation that would have occurred, except for the quick and knowledgeable intervention of a trained crew and an outstanding example of public-private sector and community cooperation. 2 photos

  3. Application of a multimolecular marker approach to fingerprint petroleum pollution in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barakat, Assem O.; Mostafa, Alaa R. [Alexandria Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Alexandria (Egypt); Rullkoetter, Juergen [Car von Ossietzky Univ., Inst. of Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), Oldenburg (Germany); Hegazi, Abdel Rahman [Alexandria Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Alexandria (Egypt)

    1999-07-01

    In an attempt to investigate the suitability of a multibiological marker approach for defining the origin of petroleum pollution in marine systems, the aliphatic hydrocarbon composition of tar ball samples collected from the beaches of a small island impacted by heavy tar loads were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The tar ball samples, as collected, were at low stages of biodegradation and had diverse physical appearance. The majority of the samples (as many as 7 of the 10) appeared to be heavy fuel oils - possibly Bunker C. The GC traces for the other three tar balls, however, indicated that they were crude oils probably from tanker ballast washings or other non-point sources like the oil entering from the adjacent North Mediterranean. The biomarkers for the sterane and hopane series in these samples, however, had remained unaffected by weathering, and their distributions revealed significant differences among the samples suggesting multiple sources of the tar balls. The tar ball samples could be genetically subdivided into four groups on the basis of their biomarker fingerprints. A marine carbonate or evaporite, hypersaline, anoxic depositional environment of the petroleum source rock for Type I residues could be inferred from the even-carbon-number predominance of n-alkanes, the high relative abundance of gammacerane and the predominance of C{sub 35} relative to C{sub 34} 17{alpha}(H)-homohopanes. Higher plant contribution and a deltaic environment of source rock deposition could be concluded for Type II residues from the high concentrations of oleanane and diasteranes. On the other hand, Type III residues possessed geochemical characteristics consistent with a normal marine carbonate or evaporite source depositional environment under normal saline, reducing conditions. Finally, type IV residues had biomarker signatures intermediate between Types II and III. (Author)

  4. Temperature and air velocity effects on ethanol emission from corn silage with the characteristics of an exposed silo face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Felipe; Hafner, Sasha D.; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank M.

    2010-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from agricultural sources are believed to be an important contributor to tropospheric ozone in some locations. Recent research suggests that silage is a major source of VOCs emitted from agriculture, but only limited data exist on silage emissions. Ethanol is the most abundant VOC emitted from corn silage; therefore, ethanol was used as a representative compound to characterize the pattern of emission over time and to quantify the effect of air velocity and temperature on emission rate. Ethanol emission was measured from corn silage samples removed intact from a bunker silo. Emission rate was monitored over 12 h for a range in air velocity (0.05, 0.5, and 5 m s -1) and temperature (5, 20, and 35 °C) using a wind tunnel system. Ethanol flux ranged from 0.47 to 210 g m -2 h -1 and 12 h cumulative emission ranged from 8.5 to 260 g m -2. Ethanol flux was highly dependent on exposure time, declining rapidly over the first hour and then continuing to decline more slowly over the duration of the 12 h trials. The 12 h cumulative emission increased by a factor of three with a 30 °C increase in temperature and by a factor of nine with a 100-fold increase in air velocity. Effects of air velocity, temperature, and air-filled porosity were generally consistent with a conceptual model of VOC emission from silage. Exposure duration, temperature, and air velocity should be taken into consideration when measuring emission rates of VOCs from silage, so emission rate data obtained from studies that utilize low air flow methods are not likely representative of field conditions.

  5. Inventory and forecasting of maritime emissions in the Belgian sea territory, an activity-based emission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Int Panis, Luc; Styns, Karel; Torfs, Rudi

    Air quality policy has focussed on land-based emissions for decades. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that emissions from sea-going vessels can no longer be ignored. There is a growing need for detailed emission inventories to evaluate the impact of this transport mode on air quality and health. In this paper we present MOPSEA, an activity-based emission model to determine emissions from sea-going vessels. The model considers shipping activities of sea-going vessels on Belgian territory, combined with individual vessel characteristics. We apply this model to study the effects of recent international efforts to reduce emissions from sea-going vessels in Belgian territorial waters for the current fleet and for two scenarios up to 2010. The emission model for Belgium, based on different vessel operating areas, reveals that most maritime emissions from the main engines will increase. CO 2 emissions will increase by 2-9% over the 2004-2010 period due to an increase in shipping activity. NO X emissions are projected to rise between 1% and 8% because the increase in activity offsets the reductions from the international maritime organisation (IMO) and European regulations. In contrast, SO 2 emissions will decrease by at least 50% in 6 years time. The switch of auxiliaries from heavy fuel oil to diesel oil at berth results in a large emission reduction (33%) for PM and small reductions for CO 2, NO X, CO and HC (4-5%). The choice between a bottom-up versus top-down approach can have important implications for the allocation of maritime emissions. The MOPSEA bottom-up model allocates only 0.7 Mton CO 2 to Belgium, compared to 24.2 Mton CO 2 based on bunker fuel inventories.

  6. Effects of dating errors on nonparametric trend analyses of speleothem time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mudelsee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in paleoclimatology is to take fully into account the various error sources when examining proxy records with quantitative methods of statistical time series analysis. Records from dated climate archives such as speleothems add extra uncertainty from the age determination to the other sources that consist in measurement and proxy errors. This paper examines three stalagmite time series of oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O from two caves in western Germany, the series AH-1 from the Atta Cave and the series Bu1 and Bu4 from the Bunker Cave. These records carry regional information about past changes in winter precipitation and temperature. U/Th and radiocarbon dating reveals that they cover the later part of the Holocene, the past 8.6 thousand years (ka. We analyse centennial- to millennial-scale climate trends by means of nonparametric Gasser–Müller kernel regression. Error bands around fitted trend curves are determined by combining (1 block bootstrap resampling to preserve noise properties (shape, autocorrelation of the δ18O residuals and (2 timescale simulations (models StalAge and iscam. The timescale error influences on centennial- to millennial-scale trend estimation are not excessively large. We find a "mid-Holocene climate double-swing", from warm to cold to warm winter conditions (6.5 ka to 6.0 ka to 5.1 ka, with warm–cold amplitudes of around 0.5‰ δ18O; this finding is documented by all three records with high confidence. We also quantify the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, the Little Ice Age (LIA and the current warmth. Our analyses cannot unequivocally support the conclusion that current regional winter climate is warmer than that during the MWP.

  7. Optimizing hydraulic cleaning techniques for oiled coarse sediment beaches: immediate and one year post-treatment results of the meso-scale field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project objectives were to determine the biological effects on inter-tidal biota associated with hydraulic cleaning techniques, and to develop data on the environmentally optimum combination of hydraulic parameters. Initial field operations of the meso-scale field trials were completed in June 1997, and a post-treatment biological recovery assessment was made in June 1998, results of which are presented in this paper. The field trial included collection of groups of colonized cobbles from a donor beach in British Columbia, doused with Bunker C oil and treated at various combinations of water pressure and temperature. Various species of algae, barnacles, limpets and snails were monitored. Hydraulic cleaning parameters examined were various water pressures and temperatures. Biological observations of abundance and mortality were made prior to treatment, immediately after treatment and one year after treatment. Increasing mortalities were observed immediately after treatment among the barnacles with higher water pressures and temperatures. Mortality was also greater in barnacle and algae species at all treatment levels one year after treatment. In the case of barnacles, there was no significant difference between mortality rates after one year due to differences in pressure or temperature, oiled control or untreated oiled control. Based on these results it was concluded that after one year, there was no detectable benefit or detrimental effects to barnacles or algae from performing hydraulic washing apart from the effects of oiling alone and/or natural variations in environmental conditions. Some evidence was found that hydraulic washing of oiled cobbles at high temperatures may have negative effect on recruitment of barnacles. The relative effects of the various treatment levels appeared to be more severe one year after treatment for most species examined.15 refs., 9 figs

  8. Ballistic impact response of a coarse-aggregate barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical understanding of the damage inflicted to a protective barrier resulting from impact with a projectile is paramount to the intelligent design of advanced protective systems. The configuration of the protective barrier used for ballistic impact studies depends upon the overall protective device that the barrier is to represent. Although many barriers are homogeneous in configuration, a much broader class of barriers involves a non-uniform agglomeration of components. Such barriers can conceivably represent the means of protection for ammunition bunkers, nuclear reactors, armored military vehicles, or any asset for which protection against projectile impact is desired. Here, an experiment-oriented investigation aimed at gaining insight and understanding of the physical phenomena that occur when a projectile impacts a thin barrier consisting of a uniform, coarse aggregate was performed at the US Army Research Laboratory. The thin barrier target was an assembly of solid steel cylinders oriented in a 15-by-15 rod square-packed array. The projectile consisted of a solid aluminum cylinder with a diameter of approximately 2.5 aggregate diameters and a length of 1.25 aggregate element lengths. The impact velocity was 2 km/s. The data collected consisted of the crater size in the barrier, plastic deformation of individual cylinders, a lateral damage wave velocity from the strain gage signals, and the residual penetrator length. A detailed analysis of the damage inflicted on the aggregate elements of the barrier was performed. The analysis focused primarily on the steel cylinders that resided outside of the eroded crater zone. Iso-strain contours were mapped on the face of the barrier to shed insight into the contact mechanics of the individual aggregate elements. A semi-empirical aggregate deformation model was created to predict the magnitude of deformation that occurs to cylinders located outside the physical crater

  9. Application of PLC Centralized Control System of Coal Mine Belt Conveyor%PLC集中控制系统在煤矿胶带输送机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦永康; 黄和平

    2011-01-01

    针对某矿胶带运输系统线路长、岗位多、联络环节多的特点,提出了一种采用PLC集中控制系统控制煤矿胶带输送机的方案,介绍了PLC集中控制系统的构成、工作原理和系统功能.该系统通过集中控制和工业电视相结合,对井下主煤流强力胶带输送机和振动给煤机及煤仓煤位计等相关设施进行监测,实现了主煤流系统的集中控制.实际应用表明,该系统运行良好,实现了胶带输送机的安全高效运行.%In view of characteristics of long lines, multi posts and multi links of transport system of belt converyor of a mine, the paper proposed a scheme which adopts PLC centralized control system to control coal mine belt conveyor.It introduced composition, working principle and functions of PLC centralized control system.The system combines industrial television with centralized control to monitor related devices such as underground powerful belt conveyor, vibration coal feeder and coal level sensor of coal bunker, which realizes centralized control of main coal flow system.The practical application showed that the system runs well, and achieves safe and efficient running of conveyor belt.

  10. Evaluation of the Biological Shields of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Ghana Using MCNP5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deatanyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective with radiation sources and facilities is the protection of both radiation workers and the general public. The biological shields of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Radiation Protection Institute (RPI Ghana had been evaluated for a collimated isotropic cesium-137 source for calibration purpose using MCNP5 code. The dose rate at supervised areas ranged from 0.57 to 8.35 :Sv/h and 0.26 to 10.22 :Sv/h at control areas when the source was panoramic. When the source was collimated, the dose rate ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 :Sv/h at supervised areas and 0.23 to 8.88 :Sv/h at control areas for 22.2 GBq of the cesium-137 source. The scatter contribution from the surfaces of the walls and roofs were also accounted for. The scatter radiation in the room decreased to 400 :Sv/h when the source was first collimated and to 3.5 :Sv/h when the source was further collimated. These results agreed quite well with experimental measurement. To effectively protect the staff, a narrow beam of 1.2 cm diameter which was defined at 1.0 m by the total surface of the ISO slab phantom was recommended to reduce the dose rate to less than 1.5 :Sv/h outside the calibration bunker even when the current activity is doubled. It was concluded that the 4.7 cm diameter of the existing narrow beam should be decreased to 1.2 cm by further collimation of the beam.

  11. Erika oil spill : some innovations in the French shoreline response and beach cleanup methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the main phases of the Erika shoreline cleaning operation. The Erika tanker sank off the southern coast of France on December 12, 1999, spilling an estimated 20,000 tons of Bunker C fuel that was left to drift and weather at sea for more than 10 days through severe sea conditions. More than 400 km of shoreline was affected by the oil. This included sandy and rocky shores, dunes, cliffs, marshes, muddy flats as well as highly anthropogenic shoreline. Most of the oil was removed between December 24, 1999 and the end of January 2000, although cleaning operations continued. There were many innovations in the French oil spill organization in the area of shoreline response. The polluter, TotalFinaElf, accepted a moral obligation to succeed and to use whatever means needed to do so. The company was instrumental in developing collaboration between response workers from private companies and POLMAR (state) workers, consisting of non-specialized and frequently relieved personnel from the military and fire fighting units. TotalFinaElf used environmental expertise to define the cleaning procedures and to decide when beaches could be opened for recreational use. Call for tenders were put out for beach and cleaning operations. The major innovation in this response was the hiring of professional climbers to work at sites that were difficult to access. Specific botanical work sites were delineated and quads and specific geotextile sheets were used to limit the degradation of terrestrial vegetation. Rocks were cleaned with hot water without pressure and anchored fishing nets were used to catch drifting oil. 1 ref

  12. Optimization of radiation protection in gamma radiography facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine optimized dose limits for workers, a study of optimization of radiation protection was undertaken in gamma radiography facilities closed, using the Technique Multiple Attributes Utility Analysis. A total of 217 protection options, distributed in 34 irradiation scenarios for tree facility types ( fixed open, moveable and closed (bunker) were analyzed. In the determination of the optimized limit dose, the following attributes were considered; costs of the protection barriers, costs attributed to the biological detriment for different alpha (the reference value of unit collective dose), size of the isolation area, constrained limits dose of annual individual equivalent doses and collective dose. The variables studied in the evaluation included: effective work load, type and activity of the sources of radiation (192Ir and 60Co), source-operator distance related to the characteristic of the length of the command cable and the guide tube, type and thickness of the materials used in the protection barriers (concrete, barite, ceramic, lead, steel alloy and tungsten). The optimal analytic solutions obtained in the optimization process that resulted in the indication of the optimized dose limit were determined by means of a sensitivity analysis and by direct and logic evaluations, thus, independent of the values of the monetary coefficient attributed to the biological detriment, of the annual interest rate applied to the protection cost and of the type of installation studied, it was concluded that the primary limit of annual equivalent dose for workers (now 50 mSv) can be easily reduced to an optimized annual dose limit of 5 mSv. (author)

  13. Wood pellets in a power plant - mixed combustion of coal and wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews in his presentation the development of Turku Energia, the organization of the company, the key figures of the company in 2000, as well as the purchase of energy in 2000. He also presents the purchase of basic heat load, the energy production plants of the company, the sales of heat in 2000, the emissions of the plants, and the fuel consumption of the plants in 2000. The operating experiences of the plants are also presented. The experiences gained in Turku Energia on mixed combustion of coal and wood pellets show that the mixing ratios, used at the plants, have no effect on the burning properties of the boiler, and the use of wood pellets with coal reduce the SO2 and NOx emissions slightly. Simultaneously the CO2 share of the wood pellets is removed from the emissions calculations. Several positive effects were observed, including the disappearance of the coal smell of the bunker, positive publicity of the utilization of wood pellets, and the subsidies for utilization of indigenous fuels in power generation. The problems seen include the tendency of wood pellets to arc the silos, especially when the pellets include high quantities of dust, and the loading of the trucks and the pneumatic unloading of the trucks break the pellets. Additionally the wood pellets bounce on the conveyor so they drop easily from the conveyor, the screw conveyors designed for conveying grain are too weak and they get stuck easily, and static electricity is easily generated in the plastic pipe used as the discharge pipe for wood pellet (sparkling tendency). This disadvantage has been overcome by using metal net and grounding

  14. Development and testing of an ignition physics test facility and an oxygen/methane swirl torch igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jesus Roberto

    There are many advantages to LOX/methane propulsion, such as in-situ resource utilization from Mars and the Moon, and simplicity of ground operations due to its non-toxic nature. There exists a lack of fundamental understanding of the ignition physics, and flame characteristics of these propellants when related to rocket propulsion, which has created undesirably long design cycles and flight hardware that is not optimized. Motivated by these issues, a study of the ignition physics of a shear coaxial injector is proposed, in which the flow field dynamics and ignition transients will be observed through a visually accessible combustion chamber. The main goal of this work is to study the effects of geometric differences of the injector, such as recess in the liquid oxygen post and thickness of the LOX post, on the jet breakup downstream of the injector, and the flame anchoring mechanism and location. A facility was developed to support this endeavor in a safe and efficient way, including a cryogenic delivery system, a Multipurpose Optically Accessible Combustor (MOAC) with torch igniter, and a bunker with a Data Acquisition and Remote Controls system (DARCS). A swirl coflow premixed torch igniter was designed, manufactured and developed with the intent of using it as the MOAC's main ignition source. It was designed to use oxygen and methane as the propellants in an incremental step towards the goal of a LOX/methane rocket engine. Extensive testing was done on the igniter in the development phase to prove that it will reliable ignite and sustain combustion under a variety of propellant inlet conditions of which include: warm gas, cold gas, and liquid cryogenic conditions. The testing phase also provided data for component reliability and proof of concept for the testing facilities designed, especially for the cryogenic delivery system, and methane condensing unit. Future injector testing parameters of the hardware produced is included along with recommendations to

  15. Limited microbial degradation of pyrene metabolites from the estuarine polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessing, Anders M B; Johnsen, Anders R

    2005-12-01

    We compared microbial mineralization of [4,5,9,10-14C]pyrene and its eukaryotic [4,5,9,10-14C]pyrene metabolites in estuarine sediments. Metabolites were obtained by exposing the estuarine deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor to sediment-associated 14C-pyrene, followed by homogenization of the worms and extraction of the pyrene-metabolites. In sediment from a pristine Danish Fjord only 2.6% of the added metabolite-label and 1.7% of the pyrene-label were mineralized to 14CO2 during 175 days incubation. Pre-exposure of the pristine sediment to unlabelled pyrene for 60 days increased the mineralization potential for 14C-pyrene substantially, as 81.2% was mineralized to 14CO2 during 95 days incubation, whereas 14C-pyrene metabolite label was unaffected by pre-exposure to pyrene. In comparison, naturally aged bunker-oil contaminated sediment did not show elevated potentials for mineralization of neither 14C-pyrene nor 14C-metabolites. Six bacterial strains of known pyrene degraders were tested for growth on crystalline 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-Hydroxypyrene is the only intermediate eucaryotic metabolite of pyrene. The results indicate that 1-hydroxypyrene was not utilized as a sole source of carbon and energy by any of them. In addition, respiration was depressed in all six strains when exposed to crystalline 1-Hydroxypyrene, demonstrating an acute toxic effect of 1-hydroxypyrene. The results presented here suggest that microbial degradation of pyrene is not enhanced by release of aqueous and polar metabolites by marine invertebrates. PMID:15922404

  16. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying previously unknown locations of waste

  17. Estimations of the maximum tangential velocity V θm in the vortex core region and also the mean rotational velocity V oi near the concave wall surface in the returned flow type cyclone dust collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akira

    2010-12-01

    There are many types of cyclone dust collectors for separating the fine solid and dust particles from gases in the various industries and also in the home used purposes. For estimating the power loss and the collection efficiency, one of the most important factors is the maximum tangential velocity V θm in the vortex core region in the cyclone body. In order to determine V θm by the simple method, it is useful to apply the mechanical balance of the angular momentum fluxes under the assumption of Ogawa combined vortex model which is composed of the quasi-forced vortex in the vortex core region and also the quasi-free vortex surrounded the vortex core region and also under the assumption of the introduction of equivalent length Heq corresponding to the cone spaces of the cyclone body and the dust bunker. On the other hand, the mean rotational velocity V oi near the concave wall surface is also estimated by the mechanical balance of angular momentum fluxes with the moment of viscous friction force. For confirming the general applications of the obtained equations, the returned flow types cyclones changed the throat diameter D3 are designed. The material of the cyclone is the transparent acrylic resin. Therefore the inner surface of the cyclone body can be regarded as smooth surface. The comparisons of the measured velocities V θm and V oi by a cylindrical Pitot tube are shown in good agreement with those of the proposed equations. The above stated results are described in detail.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark; Gallo, Patricia

    2016-04-21

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 413 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. CAU 413 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-02CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 413 are the result of the atmospheric deposition of contamination from the 1963 CSII test. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 413 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 17, 2015, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 413. The CAI will include radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, collection and analyses of soil samples, and assessment of investigation results. The collection of soil samples will be accomplished using both probabilistic and judgmental sampling approaches. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of DQO decisions, the releases at CAU 413 have been divided into seven study groups.

  19. Saving oiled mangroves using a new non-dispersing shoreline cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangroves are ranked as one of the most sensitive marine environments. If mangroves are oiled and no further action is taken, the probability of mortality to the trees is high. One of the ways that viscous spilled oil can kill mangroves is by covering the breathing ports, called lenticels (red mangroves) and pneumatophores (black mangroves), and asphyxiating them by preventing flow of oxygen from the atmosphere into the roots. Mangroves can also be killed by continuous inundation of their prop roots or pneumatophores for a period of ten days to two weeks, but they can survive lenticel covering by water for a few hours at high tide - so there appears to be some grace period during which lenticels can be nonfunctional and the plant can still survive once lenticel function is restored. This suggests that if oil is removed from the breathing ports during the early days after a spill, the lenticels may be able to restore oxygen delivery to the roots and spare the mangroves. Such oils are poorly removed by the washing of tidal waters or by water sprays alone. So a new shoreline cleaner (Corexit 9580), which was specially developed during the cleanup of the Valdez spill in Alaska, was tested to determine its ability to help loosen the oil so it can be washed away with water. Laboratory experiments using excised prop roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were initially conducted to determine the feasibility of the approach. Subsequently experiments were carried out using about a hundred potted red mangroves at a test site in Florida. The prop roots, including the lenticels, were coated with a heavy oil (bunker C). After various periods of time, groups of oiled trees were treated with the shoreline cleaner to loosen and remove the oil deposit and then washed with seawater. The results showed that oiled trees could be saved by cleaning within seven days after oiling, indicating that the grace period after oiling extends for about one week

  20. Interpreting the mortality of seabirds following the Nestucca oil spill of 1988-1989: Factors affecting seabirds off southwestern British Columbia and northern Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 23 December 1988, the barge Nestucca was damaged off Gray's Harbour, Washington, spilling 875,000 liters of bunker C oil, resulting in high mortality of seabirds. Both the body count (12,535 carcasses) and the estimated overall mortality (56,000 birds) were exceptionally high relative to the amount of oil spilled and in comparison to other spills. This high mortality is explained, through the review of general processes applying to seabirds, the importance of temporal and spatial scales, large ocean processes in the northeast Pacific, meso- and coarse-scale processes on the continental shelf, fine scale ocean processes affecting sea birds, distribution of prey of seabirds, distribution of seabirds, and implications for assessing the Nestucca oil spill impacts. Seabirds have high energy demands, and large populations exist only in productive seas. The upwelling domain in which the spill occurred is among the most productive in the north Pacific, with seabird densities ranking 4th out of 20 in the entire Pacific. Coarse- and fine-scale oceanic processes such as temperature and salinity fronts, Langmuir cells, and tidal upwelling have profound effects on the distribution of zooplankton and small schooling fish. Seabird population is highly clumped off Washington and Vancouver Island in response to physical processes affecting prey distribution. The Nestucca spill passed through dense flocks of birds over the shelf. Small-scale physical processes cause aggregation of drifting debris, epipelagic zooplankton and fish, and probably also concentrate drifting oil. Seabirds attracted to such zones have a greater chance of becoming oiled, and this accounts in part for the high rate of oiling in the Nestucca spill. 68 refs., 10 figs

  1. The management of heat stress for the firefighter: a review of work conducted on behalf of the Toronto Fire Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Selkirk, Glen A

    2006-07-01

    This report provides a summary of research conducted through a grant provided by the Workplace Safety Insurance Board of Ontario. The research was divided into two phases; first, to define safe work limits for firefighters wearing their protective clothing and working in warm environments; and, the second, to examine strategies to reduce the thermal burden and extend the operational effectiveness of the firefighter. For the first phase, subjects wore their protective ensemble and carried their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and performed very light, light, moderate or heavy work at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C or 35 degrees C. Thermal and evaporative resistance coefficients were obtained from thermal manikin testing that allowed the human physiological responses to be compared with modeled data. Predicted continuous work times were then generated using a heat strain model that established limits for increases in body temperature to 38.0 degrees C, 38.5 degrees C and 39.0 degrees C. Three experiments were conducted for the second phase of the project. The first study revealed that replacing the duty uniform pants that are worn under the bunker pants with shorts reduced the thermal strain for activities that lasted longer than 60 min. The second study examined the importance of fluid replacement. The data revealed that fluid replacement equivalent to at least 65% of the sweat lost increased exposure time by 15% compared with no fluid replacement. The last experiment compared active and passive cooling. Both the use of a mister or forearm and hand submersion in cool water significantly increased exposure time compared with passive cooling that involved only removing most of the protective clothing. Forearm and hand submersion proved to be most effective and produced dramatic increases in exposure time that approximated 65% compared with the passive cooling procedure. When the condition of no fluid replacement and passive cooling was compared with fluid

  2. Redox activity and chemical speciation of size fractioned PM in the communities of the Los Angeles-Long Beach harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.; Polidori, A.; Arhami, M.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Cho, A.; Sioutas, C.

    2008-11-01

    In this study, two different types of assays were used to quantitatively measure the redox activity of PM and to examine its intrinsic toxicity: 1) in vitro exposure to rat alveolar macrophage (AM) cells using dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) as the fluorescent probe (macrophage ROS assay), and: 2) consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT) in a cell-free system (DTT assay). Coarse (PM10-2.5), accumulation (PM2.5-0.25), and quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UF, PM0.25) mode particles were collected weekly at five sampling sites in the Los Angeles-Long Beach harbor and at one site near the University of Southern California campus (urban site). All PM samples were analyzed for organic (total and water-soluble) and elemental carbon, organic species, inorganic ions, and total and water-soluble elements. Quasi-UF mode particles showed the highest redox activity at all Long Beach sites (on both a per-mass and per-air volume basis). A significant association (R2=0.61) was observed between the two assays, indicating that macrophage ROS and DTT levels are affected at least partially by similar PM species. Relatively small variation was observed for the DTT measurements across all size fractions and sites, whereas macrophage ROS levels showed more significant ranges across the three different particle size modes and throughout the sites (coefficients of variation, or CVs, were 0.35, 0.24 and 0.53 for quasi-UF, accumulation, and coarse mode particles, respectively). Association between the PM constituents and the redox activity was further investigated using multiple linear regression models. The results showed that OC was the most important component influencing the DTT activity of PM samples. The variability of macrophage ROS was explained by changes in OC concentrations and water-soluble vanadium (probably originating from ship emissions bunker oil combustion). The multiple regression models were used to predict the average diurnal DTT levels as a function of the OC concentration at

  3. Redox activity and chemical speciation of size fractioned PM in the communities of the Los Angeles – Long Beach Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different types of assays were used to quantitatively measure the redox activity of PM and to examine its intrinsic toxicity: 1 in vitro exposure to rat alveolar macrophage (AM cells using dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA as the fluorescent probe (macrophage ROS assay, and: 2 consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT in a cell-free system (DTT assay. Coarse (PM10–2.5, accumulation (PM2.5–0.25, and quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UF, PM0.25 mode particles were collected weekly at five sampling sites in the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor and at one site near the University of Southern California campus (urban site. All PM samples were analyzed for organic (total and water-soluble and elemental carbon, organic species, inorganic ions, and total and water-soluble elements. Quasi-UF mode particles showed the highest redox activity at all Long Beach sites (on both a per-mass and per-air volume basis. A significant association (R2=0.61 was observed between the two assays, indicating that macrophage ROS and DTT levels are affected at least partially by similar PM species. Relatively small variation was observed for the DTT measurements across all size fractions and sites, whereas macrophage ROS levels showed more significant ranges across the three different particle size modes and throughout the sites (coefficients of variation, or CVs, were 0.35, 0.24 and 0.53 for quasi-UF, accumulation, and coarse mode particles, respectively. Association between the PM constituents and the redox activity was further investigated using multiple linear regression models. The results showed that OC was the most important component influencing the DTT activity of PM samples. The variability of macrophage ROS was explained by changes in OC concentrations and water-soluble vanadium (probably originating from ship emissions – bunker oil combustion. The multiple regression models were used to predict the average diurnal macrophage ROS and DTT levels as a

  4. Combustion behaviour of RDF-BO fuel by using gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia, like most of the developing countries, is facing an increase of waste generation and accompanying problems with the disposal of this waste. On average, municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Malaysia is about 0.5 - 0.8 kg/person/day and has increased 1.7 kg/person/day in major cities. This has forced the local authorities to look at numerous options available for the treatment and processing of MSW. A local private company, Recycle Energy Sdn Bhd (RESB), took the initiative to develop Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) from Malaysia MSW. A pilot plant was set up to serve as the research ground for converting MSW into RDF. However, the calorific value of RDF developed, which is in the range of about 3,500 to 4,000 kcal/kg, is still far off to be a premium fuel even though it is twice over the calorific value of the original MSW. The targeted RDF calorific value to be developed is in the range of 4,000 kcal/kg to 5,000 kcal/kg. As to develop the high quality fuel, numerous studies have been performed to establish the relationship of RDF and various waste materials. Considering the prospective, a research on the project entitles Development of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Fuel Pellets for Industrial and Commercial Usage from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) In Malaysia has been carried out. The research has been conducted through collaboration with the company. From the study, it was accomplished that the blend of bunker oil and RDF in the ratio of 1:9 is able to produce new RDF or so called as RDF-BO fuel with calorific value higher than 4000 kcal/kg. Considerable the environmental pollution problems, the characteristics of the RDF combustion gasses demanded to be established. This paper will look at the findings and recommendations for work carried out on establishing the combustion behavior of RDF, either in its blended condition or when added with a few additives to reduce or arrest the pollution emission, by using gasification process. (Author)

  5. LNG shipping at 50, SIGTTO at 35 and GIIGNL at 43. A commemorative SIGTTO/GIIGNL publication 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    production vessels, re-gasification units, Arctic LNG, small-scale LNG and LNG bunkering. These pages show that the LNG industry is not only innovating at a faster pace than ever before but also beginning a major new era of expansion that will encompass a range of players, places and applications undreamt of 50 years ago

  6. Power station coal stockyards with scraper reclaimers: 25 years operational experience; Kraftwerkskohlenlagerplaetze mit Entspeicherungskratzern: 25 Jahre Betriebserfahrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.

    1996-12-31

    The first ever coal scraper reclaimer was built at the Scholven power station in 1968. The engineers of Hibernia AG (now VKR) had successfully laid the foundations for a new generation of coal handling plants. Further developments produced reliable automated stockpile systems, the economics of which proved extremely favourable when compared with the traditional method of utilising large scale bunker storage. The new technology produced other benefits for the user since it was now possible to carry out blending and homogenisation as part of the process. The scraper reclaimer has therefore been central to the economic and technical advances that have been achieved at power station coaling plants. There are a variety of machines in service; cantilever, portal and bridge type scraper reclaimers, deployed in both longitudinal and circular systems. The paper includes details of current developments, relevant operational experience and appropriate selection criterions which are extremely pertinent when new power station coaling plants are being considered. Thus with 25 years of experience in the design, supply and operation of all types of automated coal scraper reclaimers information is available to ensure the optimum machine is selected to suit the operators` particular requirements. Therefore for anyone planning a new power station coaling plant there is now a wealth of operational experience available to assist in reaching a correct decision. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit der Inbetriebnahme des ersten je gebauten Kohle-Entspeicherungskratzers auf dem Kraftwerk Scholven (1968) begruendeten die Planungsingenieure der damaligen Hibernia AG (heute VKR) eine neue Generation von Kraftwerksbekohlungsanlagen. Unter weitgehendem Verzicht auf relativ teure Kohlenbunker wurden zuverlaessige, automatisch arbeitende Haldensysteme entwickelt. Diese Technik erlaubt nicht nur das aktive Lagern grosser Kohlenmengen, sondern auch deren Mischen und Homogenisieren. An dieser wirtschaftlich und

  7. Calculation of the structural shielding of the radiotherapy treatment room equipped with a linear accelerator type Tomo therapy Hi-Art in the Oncology Center of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The helicoid tomo therapy is an external radiotherapy system of modulated intensity, guided by image, in which the radiation is imparted to the patient using a narrow radiation beam in helicoid form, in a similar way to the scanning process with a computerized tomography. The tomo therapy equipment (Tomo Therapy Hi-Art) consists in an electrons linear accelerator with acceleration voltages of 6 MV for treatment and 3.5 MV for image, coupled to a ring that turn around the patient as this is transferred through this ring in perpendicular sense to the radiation beam. The radiation beam is narrow because has the maximum size of 5 x 40 cm2 in the isocenter. The intensity modulation of the beam is carried out with a binary dynamic collimator of 64 crisscross sheets, and the guide by image though a system of megavoltage computerized tomography. Opposed to the radiation beam, also coupled to the rotational ring, a group of lead plates exists with a total thickness of 13 cm that acts as barrier of the primary radiation beam. The special configuration of the tomography equipment makes to have the following characteristics: 1) the presence of the lead barrier of the equipment reduces the intensity of the primary beam that reaches the bunker walls in considerable way, 2) the disperse and leakage radiations are increased with regard to a conventional accelerator due to the increase in the necessary irradiation time to produce modulated intensity fields by means of the narrow radiation beam. These special characteristics of the tomo therapy equipment make that particularities exist in the application of the formulations for structural shielding calculations that appears in the NCRP reports 49, NCRP 151 and IAEA-SRS-47. For this reason, several researches have development analytic models based on geometric considerations of continuous rotation of the equipment ring to determine the shielding requirements for the primary beam, the dispersed and leakage radiation in tomo therapy

  8. 2005 Climate Policy Progress Report of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    : Summary Table Policies and measures in the Netherlands; Annex 2: Policies which have expired or been repealed since previous report to the European Commission; Annex 3: Mandatory parameters on projections pursuant to Annex IV, Implementing Provisions; Annex 4: IPCC source categories related to sectoral definitions; Annex 5: Policies and measures in the three policy variants; Annex 6: Emissions projections by scenario, policy variant and year; Annex 7: Mandatory indicators for projections pursuant to Annex III, Implementing Provisions; Annex 8: Emissions projections for international bunkers; Annex 9: Implementation of Common and Coordinated Policies and Measures in the Netherlands. The submission closes with a list of references

  9. Impact of inlet fogging and fuels on power and efficiency of gas turbine plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basha Mehaboob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational study to assess the performance of different gas turbine power plant configurations is presented in this paper. The work includes the effect of humidity, ambient inlet air temperature and types of fuels on gas turbine plant configurations with and without fogger unit. Investigation also covers economic analysis and effect of fuels on emissions. GT frames of various sizes/ratings are being used in gas turbine power plants in Saudi Arabia. 20 MWe GE 5271RA, 40 MWe GE-6561B and 70 MWe GE-6101FA frames are selected for the present study. Fogger units with maximum mass flow rate of 2 kg/s are considered for the present analysis. Reverse Osmosis unit of capacity 4 kg/s supplies required water to the fogger units. GT PRO software has been used for carrying out the analysis including; net plant output and net efficiency, break even electricity price and break even fuel LHV price etc., for a given location of Saudi Arabia. The relative humidity and temperature have been varied from 30 to 45 % and from 80 to 100° F, respectively. Fuels considered in the study are natural gas, diesel and heavy bunker oil. Simulated gas turbine plant output from GT PRO has been validated against an existing gas turbine plant output. It has been observed that the simulated plant output is less than the existing gas turbine plant output by 5%. Results show that variation of humidity does not affect the gas turbine performance appreciably for all types of fuels. For a decrease of inlet air temperature by 10 °F, net plant output and efficiency have been found to increase by 5 and 2 %, respectively for all fuels, for GT only situation. However, for GT with Fogger scenario, for a decrease of inlet air temperature by 10 °F, net plant output and efficiency have been found to further increase by 3.2 and 1.2 %, respectively for all fuels. For all GT frames with fogger, the net plant output and efficiency are relatively higher as compared to GT only case for all

  10. Calculation of the structural shielding of the radiotherapy treatment room equipped with a linear accelerator type Tomo therapy Hi-Art in the Oncology Center of Chihuahua, Mexico; Calculo del blindaje estructural de la sala de tratamiento de radioterapia equipada con un acelerador lineal del tipo Tomotherapy Hi-Art en el Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero G, C. A. [Southwest Oncology Centers, North Civic Center Plaza No. 2926, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Plascencia, J. C. [Centro Oncologico Louis and Lucille Grado, Republica del Peru No. 102-5, Col. Americas, Aguascalientes (Mexico); Vargas V, M. X.; Toledo J, P., E-mail: cabshm@msn.co [Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua, Hacienda de la Esperanza No. 6304, Fracc. Cima Comercial, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The helicoid tomo therapy is an external radiotherapy system of modulated intensity, guided by image, in which the radiation is imparted to the patient using a narrow radiation beam in helicoid form, in a similar way to the scanning process with a computerized tomography. The tomo therapy equipment (Tomo Therapy Hi-Art) consists in an electrons linear accelerator with acceleration voltages of 6 MV for treatment and 3.5 MV for image, coupled to a ring that turn around the patient as this is transferred through this ring in perpendicular sense to the radiation beam. The radiation beam is narrow because has the maximum size of 5 x 40 cm{sup 2} in the isocenter. The intensity modulation of the beam is carried out with a binary dynamic collimator of 64 crisscross sheets, and the guide by image though a system of megavoltage computerized tomography. Opposed to the radiation beam, also coupled to the rotational ring, a group of lead plates exists with a total thickness of 13 cm that acts as barrier of the primary radiation beam. The special configuration of the tomography equipment makes to have the following characteristics: 1) the presence of the lead barrier of the equipment reduces the intensity of the primary beam that reaches the bunker walls in considerable way, 2) the disperse and leakage radiations are increased with regard to a conventional accelerator due to the increase in the necessary irradiation time to produce modulated intensity fields by means of the narrow radiation beam. These special characteristics of the tomo therapy equipment make that particularities exist in the application of the formulations for structural shielding calculations that appears in the NCRP reports 49, NCRP 151 and IAEA-SRS-47. For this reason, several researches have development analytic models based on geometric considerations of continuous rotation of the equipment ring to determine the shielding requirements for the primary beam, the dispersed and leakage radiation in tomo

  11. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We outline the differences of Chinese MSW characteristics from Western MSW. ► We model the requirements of four clusters of plant owner/operators in China. ► We examine the best technology fit for these requirements via a matrix. ► Variance in waste input affects result more than training and costs. ► For China technology adaptation and localisation could become push, not pull factors. - Abstract: Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don’t sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no ‘best’ plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four

  12. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 409 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1; TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2; and RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site. The Septic Sludge Disposal Pits are located near Bunker Two, close to Area 3, on the Tonopah Test Range. The Battery Dump Site is located at the abandoned Cactus Repeater Station on Cactus Peak. The Cactus Repeater Station was a remote, battery-powered, signal repeater station. The two Septic Sludge Disposal Pits were suspected to be used through the late 1980s as disposal sites for sludge from septic tanks located in Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern are the same for the disposal pits and include: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and radionuclides (including plutonium and depleted uranium). The Battery Dump Site consists of discarded lead-acid batteries and associated construction debris, placing the site in a Housekeeping Category and, consequently, no contaminants are expected to be encountered during the cleanup process. The corrective action the at this CAU will include collection of discarded batteries and construction debris at the Battery Dump Site for proper disposal and recycling, along with photographic documentation as the process progresses. The corrective action for the remaining CASs involves the collection of background radiological data through borings drilled at

  14. The Legal Application about Limitation of Liability of Bulk Oil Pollution on the Northern Sea Route%我国船舶燃油污染损害民事责任限制法律制度反思--从北方海航道船舶燃油污染损害民事责任限制法律适用谈起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白佳玉; 杨占波

    2014-01-01

    Northern Sea Route constitutes a main part of the Arctic Northeast Passage .In the future , in China's shipping industry bulk cargo vessels and container vessels will be the substantial transportation type on the Northern Sea Route .Bulk oil pollution will be a kind of severe pollution resulting from the large scale transportation on the Northern Sea Route .The relevant regulations about the limitation of lia-bility about bulk oil pollution are quite different among International Convention on Civ il L iability f or Bunker Oil Pollution Damage ,Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims ,1976 and its 1996 Protocol ,and The Merchant Shipping Code of the USSR .It may cause legal application issue when Chinese vessels cause bulk oil pollution on the Northern Sea Route .Besides ,the limitation of liability un-der the Maritime Code of China is much lower than that of the Merchant Shipping Code of the USSR , which is disadvantageous for China's damage compensation for bulk oil pollution .The ratification of rele-vant convention or learning from the legislation experience of USSR ,and enhancing the limitation of liabil-ity standard under Maritime Code of China will benefit China's marine environment when we are confront-ed with huge environment claims by other maritime powers .%未来我国航运业利用北方海航道将以散货船和集装箱船为主,船舶燃油污染损害民事责任限制乃北方海航道大规模通航后必然引发的问题,相关国际公约和《俄罗斯联邦商船航运法典》的不同规定,使我国船舶在该航道中的燃油污染损害赔偿责任限制的法律适用不明晰。我国《海商法》规定的责任限制数额远低于俄罗斯国内法和国际法律规则之规定,不利于我国沿海燃油污染损害赔偿问题的解决。可尝试通过参加相关公约,或借鉴俄国内法规定,针对国际航线船舶在我国沿海的燃油污染问题提高我国法律中的赔偿责任限制数额。

  15. LNG - Status in Denmark. Technology and potential. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2012-05-15

    The interest for LNG both on a small and a large scale is increasing worldwide. The experiences and knowledge on LNG is limited in Denmark. The Danish gas companies' Technical Management Group (TCG) has asked for a status report including a technology description and an evaluation of the potential in Denmark. A survey of primarily small-scale LNG technology is done in the report. The focus is motivated by the new areas of gas utilisation that become possible with small-scale LNG. Small-scale LNG in this study is defined as LNG stored and used at the application or in an isolated gas grid. The small-scale use of LNG has today an almost negligible share of the total LNG trade but offers interesting new applications for gas utilisation. LNG on a small scale can be used primarily as: 1) Ship fuel. 2) Truck fuel (heavy duty long distance). 3) Individual users not connected to the natural gas grid. 4) Backup for upgraded biogas to individual users and vehicle fleets. 5) Security of supply or supply enhancement of heavily loaded parts of the gas grid. 6) Small-scale storage and/or peak shaving. All but the first topics are natural uses for the current Danish gas distributors. LNG as ship fuel may engage other specialized LNG companies. The report contains a technical description of the parts in primarily small-scale LNG handling and operation. Liquefaction, transport, storage, engine technologies, gas quality and safety aspects related to LNG are covered. There seem to be two more or less separate paths for LNG in Denmark, onshore and off-shore use. These are not, apparently, sharing their experiences and knowledge. Rules and regulations are also different which may create some problems in the interface, for example ship bunkering. Further studies are suggested in the area of gas quality and engine technologies and adaptation of foreign guidelines for small-scale installations to Danish conditions. These guidelines ought to be based on international standards and

  16. Peculiarity of radioactivity pollution of manufacturing environment gas and oil producing firms of the apsheron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Present time protection of the biosphere from technogene pollution is the important problem, having common to all mankind value. In circuits of the technogene pollution of the environment the soil is a carrying on link for through soil the contaminants freely go to air environment, in underground waters in plants and in foodstuff of a vegetative and animal genesis. In subsequent these contaminants on the indicated chains by penetrating in an organism of the people render an ill effect on their health. In this plane the radiological contamination of soil introduces still large dangerous. As the radionuclides of soil can render as external radiation, and by getting in an organism with air, water and foodstuff can cause internal radiation. In this plane, for detection of a role of gas and oil producing firms in radiological contamination soil as object of an environment, we conduct researches by a hygienic estimation of radiological contamination of soil of territory of oil-fields OOGE 'Gum adasi' of the Apsheron region. By spectrometric method were studied a natural background radiation and radioactivity of soil of different territories of shop of complex opening-up of oil. Established, that for the raw tank the specific activity reaches 4438-9967 Bk/kg, close of the product repair shop the radioactivity reached 650- 700 micro R/hour. In territory of the region 'Gum adasi', where the waste from cleaning chisel tubes were accumulated, the radioactivity made 600 micro R/hour. These indexes the superior background level is significant. The analysis of power spectrums a gamma of radiations is model from the indicated sites has shown, that the radioactivity is conditioned by isotopes of a radium. The researches have allowed to demonstrate a radioactivity technogene of impurity of rocks to recommend urgent dumping of above-stated waste in bunkers on sites, retracted by it. Thus, was established, that gas and oil producing firms contributing to radiological

  17. Constraints on ship NOx emissions in Europe using OMI NO2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, G. C. M.; Boersma, K. F.

    2012-04-01

    About 90% of world trade is transported by oceangoing ships, and seaborne trade has been shown to have increased by about 5% per year in the past decade. Global ship traffic is currently not regulated under international treaties (e.g. Kyoto protocol) and ships are still allowed to burn low-grade bunker fuel. As a result, ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Previous studies indicated that the global NOx emissions from shipping are in the range 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total global NOx emissions). Because most ships sail within 400 km of the coast, it is important to understand the contribution of ship emissions to atmospheric composition in the densely populated coastal regions. Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs), in combination with emission inventories, are used to simulate atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants to assess the impact of ship emissions. However, these bottom-up inventories, based on extrapolation of a few engine measurements and strong assumptions, suffer from large uncertainties. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in Europe using satellite observations of NO2 columns. We use the nested version of the GEOS-Chem model (0.5°-0.667°) to simulate tropospheric NO2 columns over Europe for the years 2005-2006, using our plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions. We improve the NO2 retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI v2.0) by replacing the coarse a priori (TM4) vertical NO2 profiles (2°-3°) with the high-resolution GEOS-Chem profiles. This ensures consistency between the retrievals and model simulations. GEOS-Chem simulations of tropospheric NO2 columns show remarkable quantitative agreement with the observed OMI columns over Europe (R2=0.89, RMS difference < 0.2-1015 molec. cm-2), providing confidence in the ability of the model to simulate NO2 pollution over the European mainland. We

  18. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, robert C [DRI; Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2013-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  19. Simultaneous removal of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NOx from flue gas by liquid phase dehumidification at cryogenic temperatures and low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlashan, N.R.; Marquis, A.I. [University of London Imperial College for Science & Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    The current paper presents a new process for postcombustion carbon capture. An historical survey of the cryogenic techniques used in the chemical industry for the removal of acid vapours is given, with particular emphasis on two Ryan-Holmes-based processes. The paper suggests that these two processes have the potential to achieve CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas with high second law efficiency. A further variation on these processes is then proposed enabling the simultaneous capture of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO., from flue gas produced in conventional or combined cycle power stations, burning pulverized coal or heavy bunker fuels. The proposed process absorbs these vapours, by dehumidification using a cooled liquid absorbent, at low pressure (close to atmospheric) and cryogenic temperatures. A feature of the process is the use of direct contact heat transfer to perform the major cooling and heating operations thus reducing the plant size and cost while improving efficiency. The paper starts with a discussion of the most suitable absorbent for the process; liquid SO{sub 2} is suggested and a simplified analysis of an absorption column is conducted using the technique developed by Souders and Brown. The final section of the paper describes the use of dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as a precooling stream to reduce the temperature of the flue gas prior to it entering the CO{sub 2} scrubbing section. It is proposed to produce the necessary H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from the constituents of the flue gas using similar reactions to those of the 'lead-chamber process'. The H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} stream is also used to reheat the flue gas before it is passed to the chimney. It is shown that an important attribute of the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} stream is its role as a 'lean-oil', reducing SO{sub 2} emissions from the power station to well below the levels required by future legislation.

  20. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Roberrt C [DRI; Drollinger, Harold [DRI

    2013-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  1. Procedures for the verification of the self-shielding of Cyclotron PET trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the literature, shielding can be defined as a physical entity interposed between the ionizing radiation source and an object to be protected so that the level of radiation is reduced in the position where the object is (C hilton et al., 1984). Regarding shielding, cyclotrons can be self-shielded or not. The first type has a heavy armor built around it, while the bunker-type cyclotron must have additional structural shields. Those are required to reduce the radiation levels within safety limits, according to regulatory agencies. Therefore, it is important that the shielding is properly designed and installed, since corrections or additions are generally expensive after the installation is complete. For the same reason, planning should also take into account possible future modifications. For instance, use of higher radiation energies, the increasing of the beam intensity, use of different types of accelerated particles, and an increase in work load (NCRP No. 144, 2005). The objective of this study consists of verifying the effectiveness of shielding of borated water built for a self-shielded cyclotron accelerator PET trace 860.The self-shielding of PET trace cyclotron is composed of eight tanks. Each tank was filled with a mixture of water with 3.5% of boron and locally coated with lead plates and bricks. In the end of the preparation of each mixture the indication of the solution ph was measured to ensure that it was a neutral ph. Shielding verification was performed by using the radiometric survey provided with the condition of an irradiation of 40 uA of protons in a target of H2O18 (98% purity), with a neutron and gamma detector. Measurements were taken at different points around the shielding and through the radiometric survey around the installation. Due to sky shine phenomenon, verification was also performed with gamma and neutron monitors in the condition of simultaneous irradiation of two targets of H2O18 (98% purity) with 50 uA of protons on

  2. Hydrology, description of computer models, and evaluation of selected water-management alternatives in the San Bernardino area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, Wesley R.; McPherson, Kelly R.; Woolfenden, Linda R.

    2006-01-01

    The San Bernardino area of southern California has complex water-management issues. As an aid to local water managers, this report provides an integrated analysis of the surface-water and ground-water systems, documents ground-water flow and constrained optimization models, and provides seven examples using the models to better understand and manage water resources of the area. As an aid to investigators and water managers in other areas, this report provides an expanded description of constrained optimization techniques and how to use them to better understand the local hydrogeology and to evaluate inter-related water-management problems. In this report, the hydrology of the San Bernardino area, defined as the Bunker Hill and Lytle Creek basins, is described and quantified for calendar years 1945-98. The major components of the surface-water system are identified, and a routing diagram of flow through these components is provided. Annual surface-water inflow and outflow for the area are tabulated using gaged measurements and estimated values derived from linear-regression equations. Average inflow for the 54-year period (1945-98) was 146,452 acre-feet per year; average outflow was 67,931 acre-feet per year. The probability of exceedance for annual surface-water inflow is calculated using a Log Pearson Type III analysis. Cumulative surface-water inflow and outflow and ground-water-level measurements indicate that the relation between the surface-water system and the ground-water system changed in about 1951, in about 1979, and again in about 1992. Higher ground-water levels prior to 1951 and between 1979 and 1992 induced ground-water discharge to Warm Creek. This discharge was quantified using streamflow measurements and can be estimated for other time periods using ground-water levels from a monitoring well (1S/4W-3Q1) and a logarithmic-regression equation. Annual wastewater discharge from the area is tabulated for the major sewage and power-plant facilities. More...

  3. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsons, D.K.; Street, P.J.; Lodha, G.S

    1999-07-01

    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying

  4. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.dorn@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department Waste Management, Justus-v.-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Nelles, Michael, E-mail: michael.nelles@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department Waste Management, Justus-v.-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Flamme, Sabine, E-mail: flamme@fh-muenster.de [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Corrensstrasse 25, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Jinming, Cai [Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, 230009 Hefei (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We outline the differences of Chinese MSW characteristics from Western MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the requirements of four clusters of plant owner/operators in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the best technology fit for these requirements via a matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variance in waste input affects result more than training and costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For China technology adaptation and localisation could become push, not pull factors. - Abstract: Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two

  6. Doubly contracted CI method and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yubin; HAN; Huixian; ZHAI; Gaohong; SUO; Bin; WEN; Zh

    2004-01-01

    algebras, Physica Scripta, 1980, 21: 295.[15]Shavitt, Ⅰ., Unitary group approach to configuration interaction calculations of the electronic structure of atoms and molecules,Unitary Group Approach to Configuration Interaction Calculations of the Electronic Structure of Atoms and Molecules Mathematical Frontiers in Computational Chemical Physic (ed. Trnhlar,D. G), Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1988, 299.[16]Siegbahn, P. S. M., Generalizations of the CI method, Ⅱ, J. Chem.Phys., 1980, 72: 1647.[17]Wang Yubin, Wen Zhenyi, Dou Qishi et al, New realization of loop driven direct CI, J. Comput. Chem., 1992, 13: 187.[18]Wen Zhenyi, WangYubin, Theory and Application of Unitary Group Approach (in Chinese), Shanghai: Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1994.[19]Wang Yubin, Zhai Gaohong, Suo Binbin et al., Hole-particle correspondence in CI calculations, Chem. Phys. Letters, 2003, 375:134- 140.[20]Frisch, M. J., Trucks, G. W., Schlegel, H. B. et al., Gaussian 03,Revision A.l, Pittsburgh PA: Gaussian, Inc., 2003.[21]Dupuis, M., Farazdel, A., Karna, S. P. et al., HONDO: A general atomic and molecular electronic structure system, HONDO,Modern Techniques in Computational Chemistry (ed. Clementi,E.), Leiden: ESCOM, 1990, 277.[22]Bunker, P. R., Jensen, P., Kraemer, W. P. et al., The potential surface of x3 B1 methylene (CH2) and the singlet-triplet splitting, J.Chem. Phys, 1986, 85: 3724-3731.[23]Berkwitz, J., Greene, J. P., Cho, H. et al., Photoionization mass spectrometric studies of SiHn (n=1-4), J. Chem. Phys., 1987, 86:1235.[24]Bruna, P., Peyerimhoff, S. D., Structure and electronic spectra of small radicals by quantum mechanical methods, Bull. Soc. Chim.(Belgium), 1983, 92: 525.[25]Phillips, R. A., Bunker, R. J., Beardsworth, R. et al., An ab initio study of the rotation-vibration energy levels of germylene (GeH2)in the a3 B1 state, Chem. Phys. Letters, 1985, 118: 60.[26]Herzberg, G., Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure Ⅲ, New

  7. Annual Energy Balance Sheets 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    stocks; 1.6 Statistical differences (supply-level) 1 Gross consumption of primary energy and equivalents; 2 Bunkering for foreign shipping; 3 Input for conversion into derivative energy forms (sources); 1.2 Gross production by energy conversion industries; 4 Consumption by energy producing industries; 5 Losses in transport and distribution; 6 Consumption for non-energy purposes; 7 Final inland consumption; 7.1 Agriculture, fishing; 7.2 Forestry; 7.3 Mining and manufacturing; 7.3.1 Industry statistics' level; 7.3.2 Small establishment's consumption (calculated); 7.3.3 Other (non specified); 7.4 Construction; 7.5 Government services; 7.6 Transport; 7.7 Other services; 7.8 Households (housing and other); 8 Statistical differences (non-specified consumption)

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and allocation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annex I shall pursue limitation or reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol from international aviation and marine bunker fuels, working through the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), respectively' (UNFCCC 1997). As yet, the ICAO Assembly has not agreed upon new initiatives specifically aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but ICAOs Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) is investigating several options. Some of these options may have implications for the airlines' reporting requirements as well as the allocation issue. For example, CAEP is currently discussing the possibility of negotiating with the airline industry on options to set up a voluntary scheme for improving the fuel efficiency of airlines. Such a scheme may involve the need for airlines to engage in a reporting scheme for fuel consumption and emissions. CAEP is furthermore discussing the possibility of setting up an emissions trading scheme based on a system where airlines are allowed to buy emission quotas in other sectors included under the Kyoto Protocol. Such a framework may involve the setting of a cap for aviation emissions and allocation of emission permits to airlines and probably also the allocation of the emissions of CO2 from international aviation to Parties as well as the need for airlines to engage in a reporting scheme for fuel consumption and emissions. Therefore, the discussion on data availability and requirements seems to be closely connected to the issues of options for allocation and control. This explains why this report focuses broadly on all these issues. (au)

  9. Closed-loop biomass co-firing in a laboratory reactor and in a full-scale boiler.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Bryan M. (University of California, Davis, CA); Williams, Robert B. (University of California, Davis, CA); Turn, Scott Q. (Hawaii Natural Energy Institute.); Jakeway, Lee A. (Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company); Blevins, Linda Gail

    2004-05-01

    Co-firing tests were conducted in a pilot-scale reactor at Sandia National Laboratories and in a boiler at the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar factory at Puunene, Hawaii. Combustion tests were performed in the Sandia Multi-Fuel Combustor using Australian coal, whole fiber cane including tops and leaves processed at three different levels (milled only, milled and leached, and milled followed by leaching and subsequent milling), and fiber cane stripped of its tops and leaves and heavily processed through subsequent milling, leaching, and milling cycles. Testing was performed for pure fuels and for biomass co-firing with the coal at levels of 30% and 70% by mass. The laboratory tests revealed the following information: (1) The biomass fuels convert their native nitrogen into NO more efficiently than coal because of higher volatile content and more reactive nitrogen complexes. (2) Adding coal to whole fiber cane to reduce its tendency to form deposits should not adversely affect NO emissions. ( 3 ) Stripped cane does not offer a NO advantage over whole cane when co-fired with coal. During the field test, Sandia measured 0 2 , C02, CO, SO2, and NO concentrations in the stack and gas velocities near the superheater. Gas concentrations and velocities fluctuated more during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The mean 0 2 concentration was lower and the mean C02 concentration was higher during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. When normalized to a constant exhaust 0 2 concentration, mean CO concentration was higher and mean NO concentration was lower for biomass co-firing than for coal. The SO2 concentration tracked the use of Bunker C fuel oil. When normalized by the amount of boiler energy input, the amounts of NO and SO2 formed were lower during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The difference between NOx trends in the lab and in the field are most likely a result of less effective heat and mass transfer in the boiler. Particles were

  10. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    of a mobile juice harvester is not economically viable due to low sugar recovery. The addition of front-end stalk processing/pressing equipment into existing ethanol facilities was found to be economically viable when combined with the plants' use of residuals as a natural gas fuel replacement. Because of high loss of fermentable carbohydrates during ensilage, storage of sweet sorghum in bunkers was not found to be economically viable. The fourth section looks at double cropping winter triticale with late-planted summer corn and compares these scenarios to traditional single cropped corn. Double cropping systems show particular promise for co-production of grain and biomass feedstocks and potentially can allow for greater utilization of grain crop residues. However, additional costs and risks associated with producing two crops instead of one could make biomass-double crops less attractive for producers despite productivity advantages. Detailed evaluation and comparisons show double cropped triticale-corn to be at a significant economic disadvantage relative to single crop corn. The cost benefits associated with using less equipment combined with availability of risk mitigating crop insurance and government subsidies will likely limit farmer interest and clearly indicate that traditional single-crop corn will provide greater financial returns to management. To evaluate the various sweet sorghum, single crop corn and double cropped triticale-corn production scenarios, a detailed but generic model was developed. The primary goal of this generic approach was to develop a modeling foundation that can be rapidly adapted, by an experienced user, to describe new and existing biomass and crop production scenarios that may be of interest to researchers. The foundation model allows input of management practices, crop production characteristics and utilizes standardized machinery performance and cost information, including farm-owned machinery and implements, and machinery and

  11. AIRIX: an induction accelerator facility developed at CEA for flash radiography in detonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavailler, Claude

    1999-06-01

    built by THOMSON CSF Company in CEA Moronvilliers near Reims. It is housed in a reinforced concrete bunker and has an overall length of 60 meters. The 20 MeV electron beam will be focused on a 1.5 mm thick Tantalum target to produce an X-ray fluence (flux) of more than 500 Rads one meter from the target. The result is a single radiograph of the device explosion under test with the high stopping power detector located in a blast protection set behind the device. In this communication we will present all these techniques which correspond to a significant effort of CEA begun in 1992. AIRIX facility will be available to run detonics experiments before end of 2000.

  12. Optimisation of radiation protection for the new european pressurized water reactor (EPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As part of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) project being deployed at Flamanville, EDF has pro actively made the decision to focus on radiation protection (RP) aspects right from the start of the design phase, as it has done with nuclear safety. The approach adopted for managing RP-significant activities has been to include all involved stake holders -designers, licensee and contractor companies- in the three successive phases, starting with a survey among workers and designers, followed by a proposal review, and finally ending with the decision-making phase entrusted to an ALARA committee. The RP target set by EDF for this new reactor is to engage in an effort of continuous improvement and optimisation, through benchmarking with the best performing plants of the fleet. The collective dose target is currently set at 0.35 man.Sv/year per unit. In addition to other aspects, efforts will focus on shortening the duration of the highest-dose jobs, with a new challenge being set for work performed in the reactor building during normal operations, the aim being to improve plant availability. The plan is for work to be performed 7 days prior to shutting down the reactor and 3 days afterwards, in order to make logistical arrangements for forthcoming jobs. Without this reduction, the estimated drop is currently 4.5% of annual dose. For this purpose, two areas have been set up in the EPR 's reactor building: one no-go area for containing leaks from the primary circuit, and one accessible area for normal operations, separated from the no-go area by purpose-built ventilation equipment and facilities. To offer protection against radioactive flux (neutrons and high energy), RP studies have resulted in the installation of a concrete floor and of nuclear shielding at the outlets of primary circuit pipes. Steam generator bunkers and pumps have also been reinforced. All these measures will ensure that the accessible area can be posted as a green area (dose rate < 25

  13. 19 years of tilt data on Mt. Vesuvius: state of the art and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Ricco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius, located along the SW border of the Campania Plane graben, is one of the most studied volcanoes worldwide, from both the volcanological and the geophysical, geochemical and geodetic point of view. In order to better understand its dynamics, the deformation of the volcano has been already studied since the early ’70s by setting up levelling lines and, since a few years later, through trilateration networks, whereas ground tilt monitoring started in 1993. Tilt variations were recorded by an automatic surface station set up at the Osservatorio Vesuviano (O.V. bunker (OVO and data recorded were transmitted to the O.V. Surveillance Centre in Naples. Afterwards, in 1996 two more identical stations were set up close to Torre del Greco (CMD, and close to Trecase (TRC. In 2002 the data acquisition system was replaced, while at the end of 2011 a Lily borehole sensor was set up at 26 m depth, replacing the old TRC tilt station. The paper describes in details the tilt network of Mt. Vesuvius, its development over time and the data processing procedure; moreover, the ground deformation pattern is discussed, as inferred from the study of 19 years of data and its change during the seismic crises of 1995-1996 and 1999-2000. From the information obtained from the tiltmetric monitoring, a complex deformation pattern can be deduced, strongly dependent on the position of the sites in which the sensors were set up with respect to the morphology of the volcanic edifice and its structural outlines. If we consider the signals as they were recorded, although previously corrected for the influences of the thermo-elastic strain on the sensors, the tilting occurs mainly in the SW direction with rates of about 11 µradians/year on both the western and eastern flanks and of about 13 µradians/year on the southern one. Because tilt vectors point in the long term outward from the summit and towards the subsiding area, this supports the hypothesis of a southern

  14. Records Management: Preserving the Past to Make the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    As an intern in the Records Management Office at NASA, I have learned the importance of records management and teamwork. I work in building 60 with Kevin Coleman, the Records and Forms Manager and History Officer, and Deborah Demaline, the senior records specialist. Prior to my internship, I had never paid attention to records and their role in operating a business. However, after my first assignment of identifying files and filling out a C-277 form, I realized the importance of preserving each file. Since NASA is a government agency, keeping our records in a safe and easily accessible area is a major priority. As the records have accumulated over the years, and the destruction of records has been put on hold due to the fairly recent tobacco litigation; the amount of NASA s records has been quickly accumulating. Currently, our records are stored at Plum Brook in Sandusky, Ohio. Recently, rain has leaked through the bunkers and caused damage to some of our records boxes. Plum Brook has been experiencing difficulty in finding the funds to repair the damage. NASA Glenn is reluctant to give Plum Brook more money because the staff at the Sandusky site has not shown us a detailed summary of what they are doing with the funds we give them annually. Even though storing our records at Plum Brook comes with little cost, there are plenty other companies that offer a records storage area and a special software database for easy record retrieval. My assignment is to do a feasibility study on these companies to see how they compare in providing the appropriate criteria for NASA Glenn's needs. Other research I am doing is on which companies will allow us to convert our physical records into an electronic database for quicker retrieval and to eliminate the cost of storing our records in a facility altogether. The two studies have required me to not only work closely with the Records Management Department, but also the Information Technology staff. It has been important for me to

  15. Radiation protection issues for EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) project being deployed at Flamanville, EDF has pro actively made the decision to focus on radiation protection Radiation Protection aspects right from the start of the design phase, as it has done with nuclear safety. The approach adopted for managing Radiation Protection-significant activities has been to include all involved stakeholders - designers, licensee and contractor companies - in the three successive phases, starting with a survey among workers and designers, followed by a proposal review, and finally ending with the decision-making phase entrusted to an ALARA committee. The Radiation Protection target set by EDF for this new reactor is to engage in an effort of continuous improvement and optimisation, through benchmarking with the best performing plants of the fleet. The collective dose target is currently set at 0.35 Man Sv/year per unit. In addition to other aspects, efforts will focus on shortening the duration of the highest-dose jobs, with a new challenge being set for work performed in the reactor building during normal operations, the aim being to improve plant availability. The plan is for work to be performed 7 days prior to shutting down the reactor and 3 days afterwards, in order to make logistical arrangements for forthcoming jobs. Without this reduction, the estimated drop is currently 4.5% of annual dose. For this purpose, two areas have been set up in the E.P.R.'s reactor building: one no-go area for containing leaks from the primary circuit, and one accessible area for normal operations, separated from the no-go area by purpose-built ventilation equipment and facilities. To offer protection against radioactive flux (neutrons and high energy), Radiation Protection studies have resulted in the installation of a concrete floor and of nuclear shielding at the outlets of primary circuit pipes. Steam generator bunkers and pumps have also been reinforced. All these measures will ensure that the

  16. Numerical simulation and study of the safety of a semi-closed space where liquefied natural gas spilling%半封闭空间 LNG 泄漏安全性数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩力; 刘鑫鹏; 马金晶; 郭开华

    2016-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the risk of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) bunkering vessel with a cold box where LNG spilling ,this study simulated the diffusion and deflagrations occurred at different instants after LNG spillage with or without a forced venting by fluid dynamics software Fluent .The simulation results showed that the flammable area increased first and then decreased with time after LNG spilling in the cold box without a forced venting when ignited at 60 s ,90 s ,120 s and 150 s respectively ,the maximum overpressures could reach 29 kPa ,89 kPa ,76 kPa and 70 kPa correspondingly ,which would cause serious damage to the box and persons .While with a forced venting ,the methane concentration field internal cold box became stable soon after spill and the flammable area increased to a constant level .When the gas mixture was ignited at the same time as above ,the overpressures were much less than those without a forced venting ,as 1 .8 kPa ,1 .9 kPa , 3 .0 kPa ,3 .1 kPa respectively .And a fire was predicted resulting from the deflagration ,which might cause heat radiation damage to the cold box and carried equipment .The method and results of the calculations could be applied in safety design of the cold boxes or other confined spaces to prevent the explosions and fires .%为了定量评价液化天然气(LNG)加注船上“冷箱”内发生泄漏后的风险,利用计算流体力学软件Fluent对“冷箱”在有、无强制通风条件下发生LNG泄漏后扩散和爆燃的过程进行了模拟研究。结果表明,在无强制通风时,“冷箱”内发生连续泄漏后,箱内可燃浓度区域随时间先变大后减小,在泄漏后60 s、90 s、120 s、150 s分别点燃时,达到的最大超压依次为29 kPa、89 kPa、76 kPa、70 kPa ,会对箱体和人员造成严重伤害;在有强制通风时,泄漏后箱内甲烷浓度场在约100 s后达到稳定,在泄漏后60 s、90 s、120 s、150 s分别点燃时,达

  17. The Stochastic Engine Initiative: Improving Prediction of Behavior in Geologic Environments We Cannot Directly Observe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R; Nitao, J; Newmark, R; Carle, S; Ramirez, A; Harris, D; Johnson, J; Johnson, V; Ermak, D; Sugiyama, G; Hanley, W; Sengupta, S; Daily, W; Glaser, R; Dyer, K; Fogg, G; Zhang, Y; Yu, Z; Levine, R

    2002-05-09

    The stochastic engine uses modern computational capabilities to combine simulations with observations. We integrate the general knowledge represented by models with specific knowledge represented by data, using Bayesian inferencing and a highly efficient staged Metropolis-type search algorithm. From this, we obtain a probability distribution characterizing the likely configurations of the system consistent with existing data. The primary use will be optimizing knowledge about the configuration of a system for which sufficient direct observations cannot be made. Programmatic applications include underground systems ranging from environmental contamination to military bunkers, optimization of complex nonlinear systems, and timely decision-making for complex, hostile environments such as battlefields or the detection of secret facilities. We create a stochastic ''base representation'' of system configurations (states) from which the values of measurable parameters can be calculated using forward simulators. Comparison of these predictions to actual measurements drives embedded Bayesian inferencing, updating the distributions of states in the base representation using the Metropolis method. Unlike inversion methods that generate a single bestcase deterministic solution, this method produces all the likely solutions, weighted by their likelihoods. This flexible method is best applied to highly non-linear, multi-dimensional problems. Staging of the Metropolis searches permits us to run the simplest model systems, such as lithology estimators, at the lower stages. The majority of possible configurations are thus eliminated from further consideration by more complex simulators, such as flow and transport models. Because the method is fully automated, large data sets of a variety of types can be used to refine the system configurations. The most important prerequisites for optimal use of this method are well-characterized forward simulators, realistic

  18. Analysis for Passive Safety Injection of IPSS in Various LOCAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sangho; Chang, Soonheung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The Fukushima accident shows US the possibility of accidents that are beyond a designed imagination. Lots of lessons can be shortly summarized into three issues. First of all, the original cause was the occurrence of a Station Black-Out (SBO). Even if engineers considered the possibility of a loss of offsite power enough to be managed, the failure of EDGs seemed to be unnoticed. The second is poor operation and accident management. They could not understand the overall system and did not check the availability of alternating systems. The third is the large release of radioactive materials outside the containment. Even if SBO occurred and the accident was not managed well, all the means must have prevented the large release out of containment. After that, lots of problems were pointed and numerous actions were carried out in each country. The representative proposals are AAC, additional physical barrier, bunker concept and large big tank. Integrated passive safety system (IPSS) was proposed as one of the solutions for enhancing the safety. IPSS can cope with a SBO and accidents with a SBO. IPSS has five functions which are passive decay heat removal, passive safety injection, passive containment cooling, passive in-vessel retention and filtered venting system. The results showed a high performance of removing decay heat through steam generator cooling by forming natural circulation in the primary circuit. The design concept of passive safety injection system (PSIS) consists of the injection line from integrated passive safety tank (IPST) to reactor vessel. The previous works were only focused on a double ended guillotine break LOCA in SBO. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of PSIS in IPSS for various LOCAs by using MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety) code. The simulated accidents were LOCAs which were accompanied with a SBO. The conditions of the LOCAs were varied only for the size of break. It shall show the capability of PSIS

  19. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fifth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Switzerland has signed bilateral agreements on the exchange of information on nuclear safety and radiation protection issues with ENSI counterparts in Germany, France, Italy and Austria. ENSI conducts inspections and technical discussions with the utilities to ensure that operators assume full responsibility for the safety of their installations. All NPPs have implemented programmes to improve their safety culture. ENSI has a team of specialists in human factors, including organisation, training, qualification, human-system interface, safety culture and the investigation of human and organisational factors related to NPP events. The review and assessment procedure includes an evaluation of the safety analysis report, safety-relevant systems, design-basis accident analyses, probabilistic safety analysis and reports on ageing surveillance programmes. An annual systematic assessment of nuclear safety is conducted for each NPP based on event analyses, inspection results, operator licensing reviews, safety-indicator data and information in the periodic licensee reports. An Ageing Surveillance Programme is in place for all NPPs. The low annual individual and collective doses prove the effectiveness of measures taken in response to the most recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). There is an automatic dose rate monitoring and emergency response data system in and around all NPPs in Switzerland. The system provides ENSI with online access to measurement data for approximately 25 important plant parameters. Exercises are conducted regularly to test emergency preparedness and plans. The effectiveness of ENSI's re-evaluation process has been demonstrated by the probabilistic re-assessment of seismic hazards at Swiss NPP sites. All Swiss NPPs have a special independent, bunkered system for shutdown and residual heat removal. The various levels of defence that exist ensure that safety limits and individual dose limits for the public are met

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site; (2) 25-34-06, Test Cell A Bunker; and (3) 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 375 based on the implementation of corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at CAS 25-23-22, no further action at CAS 25-34-06, and closure in place with administrative controls and removal of potential source material (PSM) at CAS 30-45-01. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 28, 2010, through April 4, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 375 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were assumed to be present within the default contamination boundaries at CASs 25-23-22 and 30-45-01. No contaminants were identified at CAS 25-34-06, and no corrective action is necessary. Potential source material in the form of lead plate, lead-acid batteries, and oil within an abandoned transformer were identified at CAS 30-45-01, and corrective actions were undertaken that