WorldWideScience

Sample records for bunkers

  1. BUNKER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Diaz, Pauline; Aagaard, Tine

    2011-01-01

    This book demonstrates how the WWII bunkers can serve as an important study object for students of Architecture. The presented assignment is for 1. year students at the Aarhus school of Architecture. The overall scheme of the book falls in two categories. One being the documentations of the bunkers...

  2. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    constraints such as capacity limits, reserve requirements and sulphur content. Contracts are often used for bunker purchasing, ensuring supply and often giving a discounted price. A contract can supply any vessel in a period and port, and is thus a shared resource between vessels, which must be distributed...

  3. 49 CFR 176.154 - Fueling (bunkering).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fueling (bunkering). 176.154 Section 176.154... (bunkering). (a) Class 1 (explosive) materials, except those in compatibility group S, may not be loaded or unloaded when fueling (bunkering) is in progress except with the prior authorization of the COTP, and...

  4. Monitoring of bunker fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.

    2013-03-15

    Monitoring of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping is currently under discussion at the EU level as well as at the IMO (International Maritime Organization). There are several approaches to monitoring, each with different characteristics. Based on a survey of the literature and information from equipment suppliers, this report analyses the four main methods for monitoring emissions: (1) Bunker delivery notes (i.e. a note provided by the bunker fuel supplier specifying, inter alia, the amount of fuel bunkered); (2) Tank sounding (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel in the fuel tanks); (3) Fuel flow meters (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel supplied to the engines, generators or boilers); and (4) Direct emissions monitoring (i.e. measuring the exhaust emissions in the stack). The report finds that bunker delivery notes and tank soundings have the lowest investment cost. However, unless tank sounding is automated, these systems have higher operational costs than fuel flow meters or direct emissions monitoring because manual readings have to be entered in monitoring systems. Fuel flow meters have the highest potential accuracy. Depending on the technology selected, their accuracy can be an order of magnitude better than the other systems, which typically have errors of a few percent. By providing real-time feed-back on fuel use or emissions, fuel flow meters and direct emissions monitoring provide ship operators with the means to train their crew to adopt fuel-efficient sailing methods and to optimise their maintenance and hull cleaning schedules. Except for bunker delivery notes, all systems allow for both time-based and route-based (or otherwise geographically delineated) systems.

  5. RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT OF SPIRAL BUNKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董正筑; 曹璎珞; 王启广

    1996-01-01

    A great attention has been paid to slowing the degradation of coal nowadays. The spiral bunker is the main measure to lower the degradation. In this paper the application and research of spiral bunker are introduced. And two non-normal spiral chutes are discussed. One is in the tangential direction of the inner wall of the bunker, another is in the direction of the diameter of the bunker. Mathematical models of the non-normal spiral chutes are set up to optimize the geometrical parameters of the spiral curved surface, which would ensure that coal travels smoothly to the bottom of the bunker. The results would be useful for designing and retrofitting the spiral bunker.

  6. 31 CFR 560.529 - Bunkering and emergency repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bunkering and emergency repairs. 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.529 Bunkering and emergency repairs. Goods or services... permissible if they are: (a) Bunkers or bunkering services; (b) Supplied or performed in the course...

  7. LNG Bunkering Operations: Establish probabilistic safety distances for LNG bunkering operations.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The environmental and economical advantages of using LNG as marine fuel have been recognized by the industry. In response to increasing demand, construction of LNG bunkering infrastructure is under rapid development. Several ports are preparing to supply LNG, but uncertainties concerning the bunkering process and operational safety still exist. Recently, much work has been done to standardize LNG bunkering solutions, including a launch of an ISO guideline and a Recommended Practice (RP) by DN...

  8. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    , route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...... and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed and bunker consumption...

  9. Tramp ship routing and scheduling with integrated bunker optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    , route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...... and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed and bunker consumption...

  10. Bunker C. fuel oil reduces mallard egg hatchability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaro, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Assessment of the effect of Bunker C fuel oil on artificially-incubated mallard eggs. Eggshell applications of 5-50 ul of Bunker C fuel oil were made on day 8 of incubation; measured hatching success.

  11. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  12. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    operations. Therefore, route and schedule decisions a_ect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning...... in the routing and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed...

  13. Aerated bunker discharge of fine dilating powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, C.E.D.; Molenaar, H.J.; Frank, M.J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The discharge rate of coarse powders (mean particle size 500 ¿m) from bunkers without aeration can be described by both empirical relations and theoretical models. In the case of small particles the discharge rate is largely overestimated. As the powder dilates during flow a negative pressure gradie

  14. Impact resistance cryogenic bunker fuel tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormeeren, L.O.; Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as bunker fuel in ships, calls for an elaborate study regarding the risks involved. One particular issue is the vulnerability of cryogenic LNG storage tanks with respect to impact loadings, such as ship collisions and dropped objects. This requires a

  15. 19 CFR 10.62 - Bunker fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bunker fuel oil. 10.62 Section 10.62 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.62 Bunker fuel oil. (a) Withdrawal under section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as... section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1309), when all the bunker fuel oil in a...

  16. Oil Bunkering Activities in the Niger Delta "The Way Forward"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orijialurechi Boniface

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bunkeringis the practice and business whereby duly licensed operators stores petroleum products in tanks and subsequently provide fuels, water and lubricants (bunkering services for marine services on request. It could be likened to establishing a floating fuel service station on the high seas or at coastal jetties to supply fuel and provisions of water to ships. The Niger Delta is a host to Nigeria’s proved Oil and Gas reserves. In this study, the history of Bunker oïl and the various types of bunkers were examined; Bunker trade, transportation of bunker fuel and the various types of vessels used were also analyzed. The study provides accurate information on how the bunkering business could be managed using world best practices for the economic benefit of the Nigerian economy thereby creating jobs for citizens and income for the gouvernement. Also, this research gives a guide line on how to re-orient Nigerian citizens on the legitimacy and the economic potential for the bunkering business in Niger Delta. The results showed that an organized bunker trade would add positively to the GDP of Nigeria

  17. Beating the Bunker: The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Golf Bunker Shot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dave; Wright, Caroline J.; Cantwell, Cara

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physical practice with PETTLEP-based (Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspective; Holmes & Collins, 2001) imagery and PETTLEP + physical practice interventions on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two male county- or international-level golfers were assigned to one…

  18. The Tilt of the Elevator Shaft of Bunker Skutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel KALENDA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of deformations of the elevator shaft in the Skutina fortress between the 2nd floor and the depth of 33 m below the surface took place in 2009. These measurements showed that, in addition to the tides, the diurnal thermoelastic wave deforms the body of the bunker, particularly in the NS direction. The amplitude of this deformation depends mainly on the cloudiness (opposite to the irradiance. Morning and evening deformation curves depend mainly on the time of sunrise and the geometry of the body of the bunker (irradiance of the bunker walls and less of the outside temperature.

  19. A study the degree of concentration of the Spanish bunkering

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the Gini Coefficient of the Spanish bunkering, for the Spanish Port System 1960 to the year 2010 with the aim to describe the Spanish bunkering in these periods and propose future strategies. The stage of bunkering must change due to new regulations of marine fuels but to predict the future you must know the past On December 17 came into force on community standard marine fuels. After a complicated negotiation with the industry moves forward a project that is fully compliant ...

  20. Development of coal store and transportation technology using horizontal coal bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jian-sheng; CHEN Qing-shu

    2005-01-01

    Discussed the necessity of setting up the coal bunker in mining, introduced the development of coal bunker technology, combining the mining characteristic of the high yield and high-efficient working face in China at present, and point out that the type of horizontal coal bunker, is a kind of security, high-efficient coal store and transportation technology of suiting the modern production need of the colliery, is the developing direction of technology of store and transportation of coal bunker.

  1. A Lagrangian heuristic for determining the speed and bunkering port of a ship

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the problem of determining the ship speed and bunkering ports in a ship route. All of the previous research has investigated the ship speed optimization issues by assuming that the ship navigates at constant speed or by ignoring the bunkering port decision. In this study, the problem of determining the variable speed and bunkering port is formulated mathematically with a nonlinear program in order to minimize the bunker fuel, ship time costs, and carbon tax imposed on gre...

  2. THE STUDY OF ALLOCATION OF SURGE BUNKER IN MINE HAULAGE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜富; 张幼蒂; 张达贤

    1997-01-01

    Based on the function analysis of surge bunker in mine haulage system, the authors raise the calculation methods of the total output of a mine haulage system. Taking the maximum of system's total throughput as a objective, the method of determining the surge bunker's rational size is put forward. Also, the problems of rational position of surge bunker are analysesed.

  3. RADIATION PROTECTION OF LINAC BUNKERS. A USER-FRIENDLY APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Sørensen, Thyge; Olsen, Kjeld Jørgen; Behrens, Claus Flensted

    2015-01-01

    A well-known but complex formalism for the calculation of the leakage dose at the entrance of the linac maze was considered and simplified. These simplifications were based partly on the literature and partly on the authors' own measurements. The authors have included photon scatter originating f...... from the irradiated patient in the formalism. A formalism for two different types of bunkers was developed, and the authors have obtained simple formulas to calculate the dose at the maze entrance for both bunker types....

  4. Oil Bunkering Activities in the Niger Delta "The Way Forward"

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Bunkeringis the practice and business whereby duly licensed operators stores petroleum products in tanks and subsequently provide fuels, water and lubricants (bunkering services) for marine services on request. It could be likened to establishing a floating fuel service station on the high seas or at coastal jetties to supply fuel and provisions of water to ships. The Niger Delta is a host to Nigeria’s proved Oil and Gas reserves. In this study, the history of Bunker oïl and the v...

  5. Integrated hedging and network planning for container shipping's bunker fuel management

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyu Wang; Chee-Chong Teo

    2013-01-01

    Bunker fuel costs could account for 50–60 per cent of a ship's total operating cost in times of high fuel prices. The volatility of the bunker market over recent years has contributed to significant instability of cash flows for shipping lines. In this study, we consider two of the bunker fuel risk management measures employed by container shipping companies to reduce bunker fuel price risk – re-planning of network configuration and financial hedging of bunker fuel prices. The current industr...

  6. Erfaringerne fra OW Bunkers bestyrelsessammensætning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Det er helt forståeligt, at en sag om en tidligere ukendt olievirksomhed med en enorm omsætning, der føres på børsen, og som krakker efter et halvt år, trækker overskrifter. I OW Bunkers tilfælde, ville det således have været relevant, hvis et bestyrelsesmedlem havde haft en specifik CFO-baggrund...

  7. FUZZY CONTROLLED AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR THE MAIN COAL BUNKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵良杉; 叶景楼; 付华

    1997-01-01

    A fuzzy control scheme is presented according to the coal quantity in the main coal bunker, this method has a good dynamic response characteristic and is suited for complex nonlinear systems. The designation of self-adopting fuzzy controller, the working principle and functions of this system are also proposed, with the hardware and the main flow diagram of this system introduced in this paper.

  8. The Utility of Silos and Bunkers in the Evolution of Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Silos and bunkers have been allies in the development of kinesiology for nearly 50 years. Silos of specialization allow us to go toe-to-toe with researchers in parent disciplines, compete for grants, and otherwise spread our academic wings. The bunkers of utility and generic movement provide an important degree of legitimacy for a subject matter…

  9. Earth-mounded concrete bunker PLAP technical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, R.

    1989-11-01

    Under the US DOE Prototype License Application Project (PLAP), Ebasco Services Incorporated was commissioned to develop a preliminary design of the Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker (EMCB) concept for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. The EMCB disposal concept is of great interest because it represents the only engineered LLW disposal technology currently in use in the commercial sector. By definition, the EMCB disposal structure is located partially below grade and partially above grade. The concrete bunker is an engineered structure designed to be structurally stable for the prerequisite time horizon. The basic design parameters of the disposal facility were stipulated by US DOE, a northeast site location, representative waste, 30 year operational life, and a 250,000 ft{sup 3}/year disposal capacity. The design was developed to satisfy only US NRC Part 61 disposal requirements, not individual state requirements that may go beyond Part 61 requirements. The technical safety analysis of the preliminary design was documented according to the format specifications of NUREG-1199, to the extent practicable with quite limited resources.

  10. Victims, villains or heroes? : the local community perception of oil bunkering in the Niger delta

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Grounded on a political ecology approach, this study sheds light on oil bunkering activity that is done by local militants in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Such oil bunkering is used as a euphemism for oil theft in Nigeria. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the perception of oil bunkering that is done by groups (militants) of the local communities of the Niger Delta. By collecting and comparing the narratives of the three actors linked to so-called illegal oil b...

  11. Bunker Conversion and the Overcoming of Siege Mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Morgan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bunkers are concrete responses to threats, whether these be real or imagined. They are indicators of a defensive attitude and a siege mentality. My paper wishes to analyse specific sites of historical reinscription, where such constructions have undergone a process of cultural transformation which has converted them into places of creative experimentation, ludic activity and everyday use. Such initiatives in translation are important ways of reworking the past, addressing presents needs and projecting different- less reactive, and maybe more pacific- prospects for the future. A similar undertaking was proposed by Henri de Saint-Simon when he diverted the term “avant-garde” away from its military implementation towards more a progressive usage. The “avant-garde” became an experimental association of artists working together for the benefit of society as an evolving whole.In On Social Organisation Saint-Simon described the “avant-garde” as follows:They [the artists, the men of imagination] will lead the way in that great undertaking; they will proclaim the future of mankind; they will bring back the golden age from the past to enrich future generations; they will inspire society with enthusiasm for the increase of its well-being by laying before it a tempting picture of a new prosperity.Economic “prosperity” might well be an appealing prospect for “us”, especially in these times of “crisis” when “we” are made to feel that our day-to-day existence is precarious. However, when Saint-Simon employs the term “new prosperity”, he is envisaging social values that are largely incompatible with capitalist consumer “culture” and competitive “market forces”. His suggestion that new technologies should serve to nationalize “luxury” and internationalise peace would require a radically different approach to social organisation from that prevalent today. Likewise, the demilitarized bunkers I wish to analyse also figure

  12. Temporal evolution of the environmental dose remaining in a clinical irradiation bunker after the cessation of irradiation; Evolucion temporal de la Dosis ambiental remanente en un bunker de irradiacion clinica tras el cese de la irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we try to quantify the dose emitted by different radioactive processes that occur in the head of a clinical linear accelerator and the patient is irradiated, or walls of the bunker, converted into tertiary sources of radiation trying to establish the origin of the came in different parts of the bunker.

  13. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bunkering of Cuban vessels and... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or... in transactions ordinarily incident to the bunkering of vessels and to the fueling of aircraft...

  14. Construction Method of Bunker Rapid Repair%快速修复区段煤仓的施工方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷林林

    2011-01-01

    本文通过朱仙庄煤矿煤仓修复的实例.给类似该条件下煤仓的修复提供切实可行的方案。%Through the instance of Zhuxianzhuang coal mine bunker repair, provide feasible scheme for bunker repair in the similar condition.

  15. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: fernandofernandes@biofarmaco.com.br [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  16. Overview of the earth mounded concrete bunker prototype license application project: Objectives and approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1989-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the objectives and approach taken in developing the Earth-mounded Concrete Bunker Prototype License Application Project. The Prototype License Application Project was initiated by the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program in early 1987 and completed in November 1988. As part of this project a prototype safety analysis report was developed. The safety analysis report evaluates the licensibility of an earth-mounded concrete bunker for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility located on a hypothetical site in the northeastern United States. The project required approximately five person-years and twenty months to develop.

  17. Temporal and spatial assessment of microbial communities in commercial silages from bunker silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut-Cohen, J; Tripathi, V; Chen, Y; Gatica, J; Volchinski, V; Sela, S; Weinberg, Z; Cytryn, E

    2016-08-01

    Ensiling is a feed preservation method of moist forage crops that generally depends on naturally developing lactic acid bacteria to convert water-soluble carbohydrates into organic acids. While bacterial community dynamics have been previously assessed in bench-scale and pilot ensiling facilities, almost no studies have assessed the microbiomes of large-scale silage facilities. This study analyzed bacterial community composition in mature silage from bunker silos in three commercial production centers as related to pH, organic matter, volatile fatty acid composition, and spatial distribution within the ensiling bunker. It revealed significant physicochemical differences between "preserved" regions situated in the center and along the walls of the silage bunkers that were characterized by high concentrations of lactic acid and other volatiles and pH values below 5, and "spoiled" regions in the corners (shoulders) of the bunkers that had low lactic acid concentrations and high pH values. Preserved silage was dominated (>90 %) by lactic acid bacteria and characterized by high similarity and low taxonomic diversity, whereas spoiled silage had highly diverse microbiomes with low abundances of lactic acid bacteria (<5 %) that were sometimes characterized by high levels of Enterobacteriaceae. Spatial position had a much stronger impact on the microbial community composition than feedstock type, sampling date, or production center location supporting previous studies demonstrating that ecology and not geography is a major driver of environmental microbiomes.

  18. 75 FR 8395 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and.../EIR for the proposed Riverside-Corona Feeder Project. The public and agencies are invited to comment..., and construction of the Riverside-Corona Feeder Project including: (i) 20 groundwater wells;...

  19. 76 FR 3655 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and.../DEIS) for the proposed Riverside-Corona Feeder (RCF) Project. Interested parties are invited to comment..., 555 West 6th Street, San Bernardino, California 92410 Corona Public Library, 650 South Main...

  20. 浅谈煤矿地面煤仓管理%Discussion on the management of ground coal bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金波

    2014-01-01

    如果地面煤仓储量大,地面煤仓内的煤炭可能会释放瓦斯,造成煤仓内瓦斯积聚,且煤仓的空间相对封闭,该空间内的煤尘达到一定浓度也容易引发安全事故,本文就如何做好煤仓管理,消除安全隐患,进行探讨。%If the reserves of the ground coal bunker is large, the coal stored in the ground coal bunker may release a large amount of gas, and result the gas accumulation in the coal bunker, at the same time as the bunker is a relatively closed space. When coal dust concentration reaches a certain degree in the space , it is also easy to cause safety accidents.

  1. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline following the grounding of the tanker `Arrow`. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  2. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline following the grounding of the tanker 'Arrow'. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  3. Integrated maritime bunker management with stochastic fuel prices and new emission regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yewen; Stein W. Wallace; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Maritime bunker management (MBM) controls the procurement and consumption of the fuels used on board and therefore manages one of the most important cost drivers in the shipping industry. At the operational level, a shipping company needs to manage its fuel consumption by making optimal routing and speed decisions for each voyage. But since fuel prices are highly volatile, a shipping company sometimes also needs to do tactical fuel hedging in the forward market to control risk and cost volati...

  4. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Incardona

    Full Text Available Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network.

  5. A study on leakage radiation dose at ELV-4 electron accelerator bunker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulan, Mohd Rizal Md; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Ghazali, Abu BakarMhd

    2014-09-01

    Shielding is an important aspect in the safety of an accelerator and the most important aspects of a bunker shielding is the door. The bunker's door should be designed properly to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5μSv/hr. In determining the leakage radiation dose that passed through the door and gaps between the door and the wall, 2-dimensional manual calculations are often used. This method is hard to perform because visual 2-dimensional is limited and is also very difficult in the real situation. Therefore estimation values are normally performed. In doing so, the construction cost would be higher because of overestimate or underestimate which require costly modification to the bunker. Therefore in this study, two methods are introduced to overcome the problem such as simulation using MCNPX Version 2.6.0 software and manual calculation using 3-dimensional model from Autodesk Inventor 2010 software. The values from the two methods were eventually compared to the real values from direct measurements using Ludlum Model 3 with Model 44-9 probe survey meter.

  6. Construction Method of Coal Bunker in Vertical Shaft%立井煤仓施工法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乐平

    2014-01-01

    Coal bunker construction is difficult in the cavern of a project ,in which raised -shaft method-concrete support is frequently applied under the conditions of stable strata at workface without gas and water gushing . Taking the 300-meter coal bunker with No .2 belt in Xianting Colliery as an example ,the author expounds the application of general raised -shaft method in the construction of coal bunker in vertical shaft under certain con-ditions ,which provides the reference for similar roadway construction .%煤仓是煤矿硐室中施工难度较大的一项工程,在工作面岩层稳定、无瓦斯和涌水的情况下,施工直立式煤仓多采用普通反井法---混凝土支护。本文以仙亭煤矿2#皮带+300 m煤仓为例阐述了普通反井法在特定条件下立井煤仓中的应用,为该类巷道施工提供经验借鉴。

  7. 阻旋式料位计在电石料仓上的应用%Application of damped rotation material level meter in calcium carbide bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天鹏

    2012-01-01

    Thc requirements of type of matcrial level meter for calcium carbide bunker were intro- duced as well as the application of damped rotation material level meter in calcium carbide bunker.%介绍了电石料仓料位计的选型要求及阻旋式料位计在电石料仓的应用情况。

  8. Bunker Cave stalagmites: an archive for central European Holocene climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fohlmeister

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Holocene climate was characterised by variability on multi-centennial to multi-decadal time scales. In central Europe, these fluctuations were most pronounced during winter. Here we present a record of past winter climate variability for the last 10.8 ka based on four speleothems from Bunker Cave, western Germany. Due to its central European location, the cave site is particularly well suited to record changes in precipitation and temperature in response to changes in the North Atlantic realm. We present high-resolution records of δ18O, δ13C values and Mg/Ca ratios. Changes in the Mg/Ca ratio are attributed to past meteoric precipitation variability. The stable C isotope composition of the speleothems most likely reflects changes in vegetation and precipitation, and variations in the δ18O signal are interpreted as variations in meteoric precipitation and temperature. We found cold and dry periods between 8 and 7 ka, 6.5 and 5.5 ka, 4 and 3 ka as well as between 0.7 and 0.2 ka. The proxy signals in the Bunker Cave stalagmites compare well with other isotope records and, thus, seem representative for central European Holocene climate variability. The prominent 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age cold events are both recorded in the Bunker Cave record. However, these events show a contrasting relationship between climate and δ18O, which is explained by different causes underlying the two climate anomalies. Whereas the Little Ice Age is attributed to a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the 8.2 ka event was triggered by cooler conditions in the North Atlantic due to a slowdown of the thermohaline circulation.

  9. Appraisal of ground-water quality in the Bunker Hill Basin of San Bernardino Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, L.F.; Schroeder, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 47 wells and analyzed for concentration of major inorganic ions, nitrogen species, and volatile (purgeable) organic priority pollutants to assess groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin, California. Data were supplemented with additional analysis of nitrate, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene made by other agencies. The organic quality of groundwater in the basin generally is suitable for most uses, although fluoride concentration exceeded the California public drinking water standard of 1.4 mg/L in water from 5 of 47 wells. Nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration equaled or exceeded the public drinking water standard of 10 mg/L in water from 13 of 47 wells sampled for this study and in an additional 19 of 120 samples analyzed by other agencies. Concentration generally decreased with increasing depth below land surface. Twenty-four of the 33 volatile organic priority pollutants were detected in water from wells sampled during this study. When supplemental data from other agencies are included, tetrachloroethylene concentration exceeded the standard of 5 micrograms/L in water from 49 of 128 wells. No basinwide relation between contamination by these two chemicals and well depth or land use was discerned. A network of 11 observation wells that could be sampled twice a year would enhance the monitoring of changes groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin. (USGS)

  10. Marine fuel bunkering : environmental and economic consequences of low sulfur fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J.B.; Vossoughi, S. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The marine fuel bunkering industry sells fuel to ships. The 3 most common products purchased by the industry include heavy fuel oil (HFO); marine diesel oil (MDO) and marine gas oil (MGO). Use of the petroleum products drives the global economy (GNP) while emitting millions of tonnes of air pollution. This paper discussed a recent initiative involving 164 nations that has been formed to control emissions related to shipping. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has mandated that shipping not be allowed to operate within specified sulphur emission control areas (SECA) unless the sulphur content of marine fuels is less than 1.5 per cent. Deadlines have also been set for all member states to meet and maintain sulphur limits of 4.5 per cent on marine fuel bunkers. It is hoped that the restrictions will cause the world's fleets to demand an increased availability of lower sulphur fuels. It was concluded that the restrictions will reduce sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions by over 500,000 tonnes per year. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. A study on leakage radiation dose at ELV-4 electron accelerator bunker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulan, Mohd Rizal Md, E-mail: rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my, E-mail: redzuwan@ukm.my; Yahaya, Redzuwan, E-mail: rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my, E-mail: redzuwan@ukm.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Ghazali, Abu BakarMhd [Department of Electronic and Communication, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Shielding is an important aspect in the safety of an accelerator and the most important aspects of a bunker shielding is the door. The bunker’s door should be designed properly to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5μSv/hr. In determining the leakage radiation dose that passed through the door and gaps between the door and the wall, 2-dimensional manual calculations are often used. This method is hard to perform because visual 2-dimensional is limited and is also very difficult in the real situation. Therefore estimation values are normally performed. In doing so, the construction cost would be higher because of overestimate or underestimate which require costly modification to the bunker. Therefore in this study, two methods are introduced to overcome the problem such as simulation using MCNPX Version 2.6.0 software and manual calculation using 3-dimensional model from Autodesk Inventor 2010 software. The values from the two methods were eventually compared to the real values from direct measurements using Ludlum Model 3 with Model 44-9 probe survey meter.

  12. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H.; Sun, Yurui; Cheng, Qiang; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Lin, Jianhui; Zhou, Haiyang; Wang, Zhongyi

    2016-01-01

    For silage production, high bulk density (BD) is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC) out of the penetration resistance (PR), transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc) to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m). The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m−3) demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos. PMID:27399703

  13. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghua Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For silage production, high bulk density (BD is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC out of the penetration resistance (PR, transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m. The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m−3 demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos.

  14. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H; Sun, Yurui; Cheng, Qiang; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Lin, Jianhui; Zhou, Haiyang; Wang, Zhongyi

    2016-07-05

    For silage production, high bulk density (BD) is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC) out of the penetration resistance (PR), transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc) to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m). The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m(-3)) demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos.

  15. Drivers, Options and Approaches for Two Seaport Authorities on the Joint Reduction of Bunker Oil Related Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelman, R.M.; Minnée, M.G.; Prinssen, M.M.W.J.; Correljé, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    The international agreements, made by International Maritime Organization in 2008 are an encouraging start to reduce the SO2 emissions caused by the use of bunker oil. Port authorities are confronted with a dilemma. From an environmental point of view, a proactive attitude is preferred. However, a u

  16. 天然气燃料动力船燃料加注模式研究%Research on Bunkering Mode of Natural Gas-fuelled Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石国政; 张晖; 范洪军

    2013-01-01

    针对天然气燃料加注方案,分析国内外船舶天然气燃料加注的现状、主要加注模式及其特点。结合我国内河水域的特点,提出适合我国天然气燃料动力船加注模式的建议。%The bunkering modes for natural gas fuel were taken as the research object .The bunkering situation on the do-mestic and international ships was analyzed , as well as the current principal bunkering modes and their features .Some sugges-tions on the bunkering modes applying to Chinese natural gas fuelled ships were put forward in light of the special features of Chi -nese inland waterways .

  17. World War I chemical weapons bunker engineering evaluation and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, C.A.; Crotteau, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the US Army Corps of Engineers development and execution of a CERCLA chemical weapons and soil removal from two World War 1 underground test bunkers. The non-time critical removal action was completed from October 1994 to January 1995 in conjunction with Operation Safe Removal, Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. On January 5, 1993, a startled backhoe operator unearthed three 75mm artillery shells, exposing the legacy of a World War 1 (WWI) chemical weapons test facility in the midst of the nation`s capitol. That discovery, made in an exclusive residential neighborhood, prompted an intensive two year environmental cleanup. The Army immediately responded to the chemical ordnance threat, initiating Operation Safe Removal, a $20 million emergency response action and remedial investigation.

  18. Bunker Cave stalagmites: an archive for central European Holocene climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fohlmeister

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Holocene climate was characterised by variability on multi-centennial to multi-decadal time scales. In central Europe, these fluctuations were most pronounced during winter. Here we present a new record of past winter climate variability for the last 10.8 ka based on four speleothems from Bunker Cave, Western Germany. Due to its central European location, the cave site is particularly well suited to record changes in precipitation and temperature in response to changes in the North Atlantic realm. We present high resolution records of δ18O, δ13C values and Mg/Ca ratios. We attribute changes in the Mg/Ca ratio to variations in the meteoric precipitation. The stable C isotope composition of the speleothems most likely reflects changes in vegetation and precipitation and variations in the δ18O signal are interpreted as variations in meteoric precipitation and temperature. We found cold and dry periods between 9 and 7 ka, 6.5 and 5.5 ka, 4 and 3 ka as well as between 0.7 to 0.2 ka. The proxy signals in our stalagmites compare well with other isotope records and, thus, seem representative for central European Holocene climate variability. The prominent 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age cold events are both recorded in the Bunker cave record. However, these events show a contrasting relationship between climate and δ18O, which is explained by different causes underlying the two climate anomalies. Whereas the Little Ice Age is attributed to a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the 8.2 ka event was triggered by cooler conditions in the North Atlantic due to a slowdown of the Thermohaline Circulation.

  19. Analysis and Research of Ocean LNG Bunkering Ship%远洋LNG燃料加注船分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于成龙; 田东方; 于婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Compare a variety of LNG fuel bunkering ways, thinking the LNG bunker ship is optimum for large ocean LNG powered ship. According to fuel value calculation and heating value analysis of several cur-rent typical ships, determine the capacity of the LNG bunkering ship. Referencing the experience of fuel bunkering, LNG bunkering requirements are put forward. Finally, analyzing the type of bunkering ship and connection methods.%比较多种LNG燃料加注方式,提出加注船为大型远洋LNG动力船舶最佳加注形式.选取当前典型船舶进行燃料计算与热值分析,确定加注船的容量,并借鉴燃油加注经验,提出相关LNG加注要求.最后,针对加注船的类型和连接方式,进行选择性分析.

  20. 利用反井钻机施工组合煤仓%Application of Raise Boring Machine to Construction of Combined Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国申

    2014-01-01

    A middle coal bunker in Ji4 Mining Block of No.5 Mine in Pingdingshan Tian’an Coal Com pany Limited was a combined coal bunker with a vertical bunker and a high inclined bunker. A de signed depth of the vertical bunker was 42.5m. The vertical bunker was a round cross section. The net diameter of the vertical bunker was 4m and the excavation diameter was 4.8m. A designed length of the inclined bunker was 23.1m with an inclination of 65° and the bunker was a round cross section with a net diameter of 3m and excavation diameter of 3.8m. In the constructions of the vertical bunker and the inclined bunker,a raise boring machine was first applied to the pilot drilling and to the pilot borehole reaming. Then a conventional drilling and blasting method was applied to the reaming of the bunker. A bolt and steel mesh was applied to the temporary support of the bunker,a reinforced con crete was applied to the permanent support of the bunker and the short section excavation and lining method was applied. A total construction period of the combined coal bunker was 85 days,the con struction mission was completed on schedule,the project quality was excellent and a good evaluation was made by the project owner.%平顶山天安煤业股份有限公司五矿己四采区中部煤仓,是由立仓和大倾角斜仓构成的组合煤仓。立仓设计深度42•5m ,圆形断面,净直径4m ,荒径4•8m。斜仓设计长度23•1m ,倾角65°,仓身亦为圆形断面,净直径3m ,荒径3•8m。立仓和斜仓施工中,均先利用反井钻机进行导孔和扩孔钻进,形成反井井孔;再用普通钻爆法刷大,锚网临时支护,钢筋混凝土永久支护,短段掘砌。该组合煤仓实际总工期为85d ,按期完成了施工任务,工程质量优良,受到了业主好评。

  1. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. 双出口新型煤斗设计探讨%Design of Double Outlets New Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎大胜; 沈鸿彪

    2013-01-01

    双出口的新型煤斗整体呈“裤型”,外形变化复杂,结构设计的难度相当大,该煤斗设计的关键是要处理好“裆”部的应力和变形问题,设置中间竖向钢板能很好的起到控制应力和变形的作用。%the Double Outlets New Bunker looks like a trousers with a complex shape. It is hard to design such a bunker. The key point in designing is to control the stress and deformation in the crotch area, setting a vertical steel plate is a good way to solve the problem.

  3. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  4. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  5. A Novel Boil-Off Gas Re-Liquefaction Using a Spray Recondenser for Liquefied Natural-Gas Bunkering Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiheon Ryu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design of a novel boil-off gas (BOG re-liquefaction technology using a BOG recondenser system. The BOG recondenser system targets the liquefied natural gas (LNG bunkering operation, in which the BOG phase transition occurs in a pressure vessel instead of a heat exchanger. The BOG that is generated during LNG bunkering operation is characterized as an intermittent flow with various peak loads. The system was designed to temporarily store the transient BOG inflow, condense it with subcooled LNG and store the condensed liquid. The superiority of the system was verified by comparing it with the most extensively employed conventional re-liquefaction system in terms of consumption energy and via an exergy analysis. Static simulations were conducted for three compositions; the results indicated that the proposed system provided 0 to 6.9% higher efficiencies. The exergy analysis indicates that the useful work of the conventional system is 24.9%, and the useful work of the proposed system is 26.0%. Process dynamic simulations of six cases were also performed to verify the behaviour of the BOG recondenser system. The results show that the pressure of the holdup in the recondenser vessel increased during the BOG inflow mode and decreased during the initialization mode. The maximum pressure of one of the bunkering cases was 3.45 bar. The system encountered a challenge during repetitive operations due to overpressurizing of the BOG recondenser vessel.

  6. Effects of an experimental oil spill (bunker on seedling survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Nardes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bunker oil on survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa were tested using 60 seedlings planted in small plastic bags (experimental unit. One of the six treatments was randomly assigned to each bag: 0 mL (control, 10 mL, 20 mL, 30 mL, 40 mL e 50 mL of bunker oil spilled in each bag. The experiment was monitored weekly for 20 weeks. The results were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and linear regression. In the first seven weeks, we observed chlorosis, loss of leafs and death rate significantly superior to plants of all treatments compared to the control group. Persistent effects like reduction of stem growth and leaf production was proportional to the initial oil concentration. The plants from control and 10 mL treatments were significantly superior to all remaining treatments in height, leaf number and healthy level. Results indicated that L. racemosa seedlings suffer both lethal and sublethal effects from exposition to bunker oil exposure.

  7. Sub-storage type coal bunker in coal mine%分储式煤仓在煤矿的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 李晓波; 杨春杰

    2014-01-01

    分储式煤仓主要适用于薄煤层及地质条件复杂的中厚煤层,比传统的单仓或双仓(煤仓和矸石仓)更具灵活性和实用性,解决了单仓煤矸混存和双仓运输环节复杂的弊端,从根本上实现煤矸分离,增加经济效益,%Sub-storage type coal bunker is mainly suitable for the thin coal seam and medium-thickness coal seam with complicated geological conditions, than the traditional single bunker or double bunker (bunker and gangue warehouse) more lfexible and practical, solved the defects of the single mixed coal with gangue and the double bunker with complex transport link, realized the separation of coal with gangue from the root, and increased the economic beneift.

  8. Application of Moving Bunker in Mining in Steeply-inclined Seam%移动煤仓在急倾斜煤层开采中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹相证; 王守安; 张迎新

    2011-01-01

    简要阐述了移动式煤仓的设计,分析了原有急倾斜煤层走向长壁后退式分带仰斜采煤工作面在煤仓设计中的不足,结合生产实际,提出移动煤仓在实际生产中与原有设计相比的长处及具体的施工操作步骤。%By analysis of the disadvantages of original bunker design in retreating longwall rise mining face with steeply-inclined seam,the paper elaborates the design of moving bunker,and introduces the advantages of moving bunker compared with the old design and its concrete construction operating steps in actual production.

  9. RELATIONS OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE LOW SULPHUR SHIPPING FUELS IN REGION OF THE BALTIC SEA IN THE BUNKERING BOAT-SHIP SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Matejski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents relations of distribution of the low sulphur marine fuels as result of being in force the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78, especially the record establishing the region of the Baltic Sea and the North See as sulphur emission control areas (SECA. There are presented obligatory regulations and their influence on sale of the particular kinds of fuels in this region. There are also presented chosen procedures of care about cargo in relation bunker boat – harbour – ship, the delivery fuel procedures in relation bunker boat–ship and the quantitative analysis of distributed fuels on an example of chosen bunker boat.

  10. Experience of Electrical Design of Super Bunker of Coal Preparation Plant%选煤厂特大型煤仓电气设计经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丰伟

    2011-01-01

    In view of problem of hidden danger of coal bunker, taking super products bunker of one coal preparation plant as example, the paper introduced design methods in term of electrical safety prevention, electrical energy-saving and modular design of the bunker. The actual application showed that the design methods ensure safe and continuous production of coal preparation plant.%针对煤仓安全隐患问题,以某选煤厂特大型产品仓为例,介绍了其在电气安全防范、电气节能和模块化设计等方面的设计方法.实际应用表明,该设计方法确保了选煤厂的安全持续生产.

  11. 煤仓快速修复技术实例分析%Case Analysis of Bunker Rapid Restoration Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜喜林

    2014-01-01

    Coal bunker plays a particularly important role in the process of storage and transportation to maintain the continuous production in collieries ,but it is often damaged by the formation pressure .Aiming at the difficul-ty in restoration due to the geological mechanical conditions and special excavating form ,the author discusses the construction technology and technical measures of shotcrete -and -wholly -grouted -anchor support to in-crease the stability of the surrounding rock and achieve the bunker restoration ,w hich provides a reference for other coal bunker restoration project .%矿井煤仓作为煤炭储运过程中一个重要的环节,在煤矿生产建设过程中起着特别重要的作用,对矿井连续生产意义重大,但井下煤仓往往由于地层压力的作用出现破坏,由于地质力学环境及煤仓开凿形式特殊,修复困难。通过采用锚网喷+全长注浆锚索支护技术控制围岩,增强围岩稳定性,来实现煤仓的修复,确保了煤仓的安全使用。本文对施工工艺及技术措施进行了总结性论述,为其它煤仓修复工程提供借鉴经验。

  12. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada - Revision 0 - March 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit 214, Bunkers and Storage Areas, is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site. The Nevada Test Site is located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. Corrective Action Unit 214 was previously characterized in 2004, and results were presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for 214. Site characterization indicated that soil and/or debris exceeded clean-up criteria for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, pesticides, metals, and radiological contamination.

  13. STS-103 crew instructed about bunker equipment at Pad 39B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Inside a bunker at Launch Pad 39B, the STS-103 crew are instructed about use of the equipment. From left (in their astronaut uniforms) are Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Steven L. Smith, John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Pilot Steven J. Kelly. Not shown in the photo is Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are both with the European Space Agency. As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  14. 基于Petri网的井下煤仓可靠性分析%Analysis of Bunker Reliability Based on Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 刘志河; 李剑刚

    2001-01-01

    采用Petri网原理,针对矿井运输系统中柔性部件——煤仓,建立其Petri网模型,并通过随机过程理论计算了煤仓的有效度,从而给出了计算煤仓有效度的一个新的方法。%Petri nets is a new way in calculating bunker availability. The author designs petri nets model and analyses reliability of flexible units (i.e bunker) of mining transport system.Petri nets model with reliability theory model is presented.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  16. 新型壁挂式煤仓设计及施工技术%Design and construction technology of a new wall-mounted bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴开; 霍小泉; 谢文兵; 臧龙; 张乾龙

    2016-01-01

    为解决下石节煤矿214煤仓装载硐室底板遇水强烈膨胀而多次失稳破坏的难题,设计了新型壁挂式煤仓。该煤仓采用工字钢托梁、工字钢仓体托架及其固定锚索、自锁承重锚索等构建煤仓自承载系统,利用煤仓围岩承担煤仓的全部重量,去掉了煤仓下口给煤硐室承载结构。同时,采用了电渣压力焊、高强抗冲击耐磨材料等先进工艺和新材料,提高了壁挂式煤仓整体工艺水平,缩短了煤仓的建设时间,减少了给煤硐室的建设与维护费用。现场实践表明,新型煤仓稳定可靠,技术经济效益良好,在类似的地质条件下具有很好的推广应用价值。%Aiming at the intense expansion of coal feeding chamber floor for 214 coal bunker affected by water in Xiashijie Coal Mine, the wall-mounted bunker was designed. The self-bearing system of wall-mounted bunker that was composed by I-beam joists, steel joist bracket of bunker body with fixed anchors and self-locking bearing anchors, bearing the full weight of coal bunker on the surrounding rock and dislodging the bearing structure at the bottom of coal feeding chamber. While using electroslag pressure welding, high-strength impact resistant materials and other advanced technology and new materials, the overall process of bunker wall-mounted was improved, the construction time of bunker was shorten, and the cost of construction and maintenance for coal feeding chamber also was reduced. Field test proved the reliability, obviously technical and economical benefits.

  17. Design and construction technology of coal bunker at the intersection%交岔点处煤仓设计与施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传振; 公维宽; 王伟强

    2015-01-01

    -1100m level transfer bunker is located in the intersection of-1100m belt blind incline shaft and-1100m transshipment roadway, upper opening began-1100m belt blind incline shaft, the below is located in-1100m transshipment roadway. If using incline coal bunker, the distance between the below opening and-1100m transshipment roadway is 2m, the space to install reproduced belt is insufficient, if taken using vertical coal bunker, the below opening is located in the intersection of-1100m belt blind incline shaft and-1100m transshipment roadway, to reduce-1100m level transfer bunker construction difficulty, improve the construction strength of the intersection, by constructed the integrated load-bearing walls in the intersection, strengthen the supporting of the below opening, which ensure the bearing ability and service life of large section of vertical coal bunker.%-1100 m水平转载仓位于-1100 m皮带暗斜井及-1100 m转载巷交岔处,上缩口始于-1100 m皮带暗斜井,下口位于-1100 m转载巷,若采用倾斜煤仓,下缩口将距-1100 m转载巷端头2 m,转载皮带安装空间不足,若采用垂直煤仓,下缩口将位于转载巷与通道的交岔点处.为降低-1100 m转载仓施工难度、提高交岔点处施工强度,在交岔点处构筑一体化承重墙,强化煤仓下缩口处支护设计,保证了大断面垂直煤仓的承载能力和服务年限.

  18. Cylinder coal bunker loading and leveling coal device%圆筒煤仓装车平煤装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩顺佳

    2016-01-01

    by the analysis of the loading process of the cylinder bunker, put forward the existing in the traditional loading way that the loading process is cumbersome, the control is not accurate, the requirements on the operation of the workers is higher, through the research and design of coal leveling device, to achieve the precise control of the loading process, improve the process and the efifciency.%通过对圆筒煤仓下口装车过程的分析,提出传统装车方式存在的过程繁琐、控制不准确、对操作工人要求高等问题,通过研究设计平煤装置,实现对装车过程精准控制,改进工艺,提高效率。

  19. Bunker glocal: configuração majoritária sutil do imaginário mediático contemporâneo e militarização imperceptível da vida cotidiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Trivinho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunker glocal – esta expressão heterodoxa – é o fundamento mediático do processo civilizatório contemporâneo. Sua análise no âmbito da teoria social e da comunicação apreende o principal aspecto de sua múltipla significação social-histórica: a militarização velada da existência humana no contexto civil da era digital. Ao materializar essa injunção teórica, o presente artigo detalha os vínculos inextricáveis entre processo de bunkerização ampliada, imaginário social e fenômeno glocal (além do global e do local, para, em conclusão, qualificar o bunker glocal como linguagem matricial de equivalência generalizada na cibercultura. Palavras-chave: Comunicação; cibercultura; bunker glocal; processo de bunkerização; militarização velada da vida social. ABSTRACT Glocal bunker – this heterodox expression – is the mediatic fundament of the contemporary civilizing process. Its analysis within the ambit of social and communication theory apprehends the principal aspects of its multiple social and historical meaning: the covert militarization of human existence in the civil context of the digital era. By materializing this theoretical injunction, this article details the inextricable links between the expanded bunkering process, the social imaginary and the glocal phenomenon (beyond the global and local, and concludes by qualifying the glocal bunker as a matricial language of generalized equivalence in cyberculture. Keywords: Communication; cyberculture; glocal bunker; bunkering process; covert militarization of social life.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels

  1. 土堤仓储藏小麦的品质变化研究%Research on quality variation of wheat stored in bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧

    2014-01-01

    为了研究土堤仓的储粮性能,探讨土堤仓储粮是否在国家规定的粮油正常储存年限内适宜储存,对土堤仓中的小麦在储藏期间的各项品质指标及其变化规律进行了测试分析。结果表明:储存量10000 t 以上的大型土堤仓整仓的小麦各项储存品质指标下降速度与高大平房仓相比差别不大,甚至有些仓的下降速度慢于高大平房仓;储存3~5年后,其色泽和气味正常,品尝评分值在70分以上,面筋吸水量大于180%,小麦适宜继续储存。但小型土堤仓储粮品质下降速度快于高大平房仓,个别指标检测为轻度不宜存,应尽快轮换处理。%Quality indexes and the variations of the wheat in bunker during storage were tested to research the grain storage performance of the bunker,and investigate the suitability of the bunker storage in the grain and oil normal storage age limit regulated by the state.The research showed:there was no signifi-cant difference in the storage quality indexes'decline rate between the bunker with the capacity above 10 000 t and large warehouse,even the decline rate in some bunkers were lower than that in large ware-house;after storage for 3 ~5 years,both of the wheat's color and smell were normal,the tasting score was above 70 points,and the gluten water absorption was higher than 180%,which meant the wheat was suitable for longer storage.However,the grain quality declined faster in small bunker than that in large warehouse.A few indexes were tested to find that it was slightly unsuitable to store any longer and should be delivered as soon as possible.

  2. 煤仓滑模工程施工质量控制%Construction quality control of bunker slip form engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维华

    2012-01-01

    结合马家岩煤矿煤仓项目工程筒壁及附壁的滑模施工实例,对钢筋、预埋件、支撑杆、混凝土、模板的滑升、混凝土的脱模与养护、滑模施工的精度控制等过程进行了质量控制,确保了煤仓滑模的施工质量。%Combining with the slip form construction example of cylinder and attached arm of Majiayan coal mine bunker project engineering, the thesis seriously controls the construction quality of steel, embed members, bearing pile, concrete and formwork slip, concrete demoulding and maintenance and slip form construction accuracy and so on. As a result, it ensures the construction quality of the bunker slip form.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body residues and lysosomal membrane destabilization in mussels exposed to the Dubai Star bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380) spill in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Stanton, Beckye; McBride, Toby; Anderson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Following the spill of bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380, approximately 1500-3000 L) into San Francisco Bay in October 2009, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussels from moderately oiled areas increased up to 87 554 ng/g (dry wt) and, 3 mo later, decreased to concentrations found in mussels collected prior to oiling, with a biological half-life of approximately 16 d. Lysosomal membrane destabilization increased in mussels with higher PAH body burdens.

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  5. 1500 m3立式圆筒形煤仓有限元计算%Finite Element Calculation of 1 500 m3 Vertical Cylindrical Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志福; 陶保林; 孙文红

    2015-01-01

    Large cylindrical bunker is widely used in oil fired steam injection station project.An analysis of stress strength for the design of a 1 500 m3 vertical cylindrical bunker is given.A large general finite element software ANSYS is used to establish a actual size of the finite element nu-merical model,which connected with a coal bunker tank top,tank walls,bearing,cone bottom, consistent with steel support columns,using powerful border simulation and all kinds of applied load function,in a state filled with water + wind + snow + load cases,to calculate and check the various structural parts of coal bunker.The calculated results show that it has sufficient safe-ty margin and reliability.%大型圆筒式煤仓在油田燃煤注汽站工程中应用广泛,对某1500 m3立式圆筒形煤仓进行了应力强度分析。运用有限元软件 ANSYS 建立了与煤仓罐顶、罐壁、支座连接、锥底、支撑钢架以及立柱实际尺寸相一致的有限元数值计算模型,利用软件的边界模拟和各种荷载施加功能,针对煤仓各结构部分,在充水状态+风载荷+雪载荷+地震载荷工况下进行了应力计算和校核,结果表明,此煤仓具有足够的安全裕度及可靠性。

  6. The Round Coal Bunker Underground Corridor Design of Thermal Power Plants%浅谈火电厂圆煤仓地下廊道的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红漫

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author takes a power plant as an example, overview the design methods and main points of the round coal bunker underground corridor structure of the large thermal power plant.%  本文以某电厂为例,概述大型火力发电厂圆煤仓地下廊道结构设计方法及要点。

  7. Study on the coal bunker design with large diameter%大直径井底煤仓设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封金权

    2015-01-01

    针对河南省赵家寨煤矿井底煤仓直径大、煤仓高度比较高,且煤质黏性大,易堵仓等特点,为掌握仓内装煤情况,解决堵仓问题,设计在煤仓两侧分别设置一个观察立眼和观察孔,同时结合布置的空气炮[1],成功地解决了大直径、高煤仓堵仓问题。观察立眼、观察孔与空气炮的联合使用,在国内甚至在国际上尚属首次,该设计为以后煤仓堵仓问题的解决提供了一定的参考意义。%aiming at the character of large diameter and height of the bottom coal bunker in Zhaojiazhai coal mine in Henan Province, and the viscosity of coal is big, and easy to block warehouse etc., to grasp the situation of coal bin, solve the problems of the blocking coal bunker designed a vertical eye observation and observation hole in two sides of coal bunker, combined with the layout of the air cannon, the successful solution of the problem of blocking coal bunker with large diameter, and large height, the combined using of observe vertical eye, observation hole and air guns, even in the world for the ifrst time, provide some reference for the design to solve the problem after the coal warehouse stopping.

  8. Dependence of the thermal neutron fluence at the size installations radiotherapy bunker; Dependencia de la fluencia termica de neutrones en el tamano del bunquer en instalaciones de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Soto, X.; Amgarou, K.; Langares, J. L.; Exposito, M. R.; Gomez, F.; Domingo, C.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.

    2011-07-01

    The project aims to infer the dose deposited by neutrons in the patient treated by radiation therapy, from a measurement of the thermal neutron fluence at a selected point within the treatment room. These thermal neutrons are created when fast neutrons produced in the linac head are moderate, mainly in the walls of the bunker, and its yield depends on both the volume of the room and its geometry.

  9. 鲁阳发电厂原煤仓下煤不畅的治理%Treatment of Bunker Blocking in Luyang Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世伟; 刁润丽; 刘嘉; 许飞

    2016-01-01

    燃煤发电厂原煤仓下煤不畅会造成给煤机断煤,使锅炉燃烧情况恶化,甚至灭火。根据鲁阳发电厂的实际情况,采取了改造原煤仓、加装旋转清堵机、合理使用空气炮等多项应对措施,取得了良好的效果,基本解决了因原煤仓下煤不畅造成的给煤机频繁断煤问题。%In coal-fired power plants, supply cut of coal feeder due to bunker blocking may result in combustion deterioration or even extinguish. According to the practical situation of Luyang Power Plant, sev-eral solutions such as coal bunker transformation, equipping rotary blocking cleaner and reasonable adoption of air cannon are adopted and satisfying effect is achieved; frequent supply cut of coal feeder due to bunker blocking is basically handled.

  10. The 303 District bunker design and construction practice%303盘区煤仓设计与施工实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡方涛; 康德先; 罗建忠

    2014-01-01

    according to Wang Ping production status of coal mine equipment technology, and introduces 303 panel design and construction technology of coal bunker. a stack of disc driving bunker back well, then the smooth blasting technology to make coal bunker brush to the design section, realizing the safe, efficient,fast objective. Provided reference significance for the other panel coal mine design and construction.%根据王坪煤矿设备技术生产现状,介绍了303盘区煤仓的设计与施工工艺。通过垛盘法掘进煤仓反井,然后采用光面爆破技术使煤仓刷大至设计断面,实现了安全、高效、快速的目的,对本矿其他盘区煤仓的设计与施工提供了借鉴意义。

  11. 煤矿集中煤仓维修物料提升系统应用技术%Bunker Maintenance Technology and Practice in Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜强; 童帅

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the present situation of coal mine concentration coal bunker maintenance, expounds the preparation work be-fore construction and maintenance, concrete repair methods and processes, through the south a hoisting system of the concentration of coal material, effectively solve the sloping bunker down, the security of the lifting materials, reduce the homework personnel to sloping bunker down, improve the strength of the material operation and construction of the adverse risk factors, to make full use of tools, increase work effi-ciency and reduce labor intensity.%阐述了煤矿集中煤仓维修概况,施工维修前的准备工作、具体维修方法及流程,通过集中煤仓物料提升系统,有效解决倾斜煤仓下放、提升物料的安全性,减少作业人员对倾斜煤仓下放、提升物料的作业的强度和施工的不利危险因素,达到充分利用设备工具、增加工作效率、降低人员劳动强度的目的。

  12. 大断面煤仓分段掘砌作业法%Sectional Excavation and Masonry in Large Section Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段红民

    2015-01-01

    煤矿井下煤仓通常采用混凝土支护方式,为了保证混凝土体质量,在反井钻机施工导孔并扩孔的基础上,提出了分段掘砌作业法,即将整个煤仓分成上、下两段,上分段由上向下刷扩,由下向上砌筑;下分段由下向上刷扩并砌筑。采用该方法,不仅能够保证混凝土体质量,降低了施工风险,而且可提高施工速度,减轻劳动强度,是一种新型快速煤仓施工组织方式。%Coal bunker in mines usually adopts concrete support. To ensure concrete quality, sectional excavation and masonry working method was used on feeding hole and expanding hole with a raise-boring machine. The whole bunker was divided into two sections:upper and lower. The upper section used downward brush expansion and upward masonry and the lower section used upward brush expansion and masonry. The method could ensure the concrete quality, reduce construction risk, speed up construction process, reduce labor intensity, which is a new and fast construction method for the coal bunker.

  13. Large-scale coal bunker engineering practice in deep shaft%深井大型煤仓工程实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟锋; 陈金锁; 赵金超

    2012-01-01

    以口孜东矿主井井底煤仓工程为例,介绍了深井大型煤仓施工工艺,分别介绍了支护参数,相关材料及施工步骤,着重阐述了防坠保护系统的操作要点,并提出了相应的质量保证措施,以期指导今后同类煤仓工程施工。%Taking the coal bunker engineering at the bottom of major shaft of east coal in Kouzi as an example, this article introduces the construction technology of large-scale coal bunker in deep shaft, respectively describes supporting parameters, relevant materials, and construction procedures, and mainly expounds operation points of anti-dropping protect system, and puts forward corresponding quality guarantee measures, so as to guide similar coal bunker engineering construction in future.

  14. Application of Air Gun in Coal Bunker of Coke Oven%空气炮在焦炉煤仓的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琴; 曹春娟; 王昆鹏

    2011-01-01

    To solve the bad influence caused by the coal blockage in coal bunker of coke oven during coals' falling on coking process, the installation methods and application of air gun in coal bunker was put forward according to aerodynamics principle. It was proposed that air gun was added in the coal bunker of coke oven and made use of potential energy that compressed air (0. 4~0. 8 Mpa) released abruptly to produce the powerful shock-wave. As a result, the arching and the cohering coal materials were recovered gravity flow. These methods made the blockage disappear and achieved a continuous operation for coal loading. Air gun should be designed and installed as spirals in each coal bunker and the specific demand during the operation was introduced as well. The result shows that the application of air gun in coal bunker of coke oven can not only reduce labor intensity,protect equipment, improve coke quality, but also achieve a safe production.%针对焦炉煤仓在下煤时出现的易堵塞现象对焦炉生产造成的诸多不利影响,根据空气动力学原理,提出了在焦炉1煤仓增设空气炮,利用压缩空气(0.4~0.8 MPa)突然释放的势能,产生强烈冲击波,使起拱的或粘着的煤料再次恢复重力流动,使堵塞消除,实现装煤连续作业.介绍了每个煤仓应按螺旋上升布置空气炮的安装要求,以及空气炮在使用过程中的具体要求.结果表明:在焦炉煤仓使用空气炮不仅可以降低操作人员的劳动强度,保护设备,而且可以改善焦炭质量,并实现焦炉安全生产.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  16. Amoebas as mimivirus bunkers: increased resistance to UV light, heat and chemical biocides when viruses are carried by amoeba hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratto, Paulo V M; Dornas, Fábio P; Andrade, Kétyllen R; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Peixoto, Felipe; Silva, Lorena C F; La Scola, Bernard; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; de Almeida, Gabriel Magno Freitas; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-05-01

    Amoebas of the genus Acanthamoeba are protists that are associated with human disease and represent a public health concern. They can harbor pathogenic microorganisms, acting as a platform for pathogen replication. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV), the type species of the genus Mimivirus, family Mimiviridae, represents the largest group of amoeba-associated viruses that has been described to date. Recent studies have demonstrated that APMV and other giant viruses may cause pneumonia. Amoebas can survive in most environments and tolerate various adverse conditions, including UV light irradiation, high concentrations of disinfectants, and a broad range of temperatures. However, it is unknown how the amoebal intracellular environment influences APMV stability and resistance to adverse conditions. Therefore, in this work, we evaluated the stability of APMV, either purified or carried by the amoeba host, under extreme conditions, including UV irradiation, heat and exposure to six different chemical biocides. After each treatment, the virus was titrated in amoebas using the TCID50 method. APMV was more stable in all resistance tests performed when located inside its host. Our results demonstrate that Acanthamoeba acts as a natural bunker for APMV, increasing viral resistance to extreme physical and chemical conditions. The data raise new questions regarding the survival of APMV in nature and in hospital environments.

  17. Well-response model of the confined area, Bunker Hill ground-water basin, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Timothy J.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1978-01-01

    The Bunker Hill ground-water basin, in the vicinity of San Bernardino, Calif., is being artificially recharged with imported water. Current and future artificial recharge of the basin may cause the potentiometric surface in an area of confined ground water to rise above land surface and water to flow from uncapped and unplugged wells. This could cause damage to structures where the soil becomes waterlogged and where buried wells begin to flow beneath the structures. A well-response model was used to generate a series of water-level hydrographs representing the response of the ground-water basin to six possible combinations of conditions for each well; one pumping rate, two artificial-recharge rate, and three natural-recharge rates. Inflow to the ground-water basin exceeds outflow for all tested combinations. According to model predictions, the accumulation of stored ground water resulting from the excess of inflow is sufficient to cause the water level in the selected wells to rise above land surface for all but one of the combinations of conditions tested. Water levels in wells are predicted to rise above the land surface as early as 1981 for the combination with the greatest excess of inflow. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. 新建矿井取消井底煤仓的利与弊%Advantages and Disadvantages of New Mine Cancel Shaft Bottom Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志儒

    2015-01-01

    随着现代化矿井建设的不断推进,优化矿井设计,简化煤炭运输环节是减少煤矿事故的有效方法。本文从采煤工艺、掘进工艺、带式输送机现代化技术装备和安全的角度,分析了取消井底煤仓的原因,在减少煤炭运输环节的基础上,保证了矿井运煤系统的连续性,有利于矿井建设,避免了施工和使用井底煤仓过程中发生的安全事故,同时减少了矿建工程量和投资成本。指出对地质条件复杂和运输环节复杂的小型矿井不建议取消井底煤仓。%With the advancement of modern mine construction, effective methods of reducing coal mine acci-dents are optimizing mine design and simplifying coal transportation links.Analyzes the reasons of cancel shaft bottom coal bunker from coal mining technology, advancing technique, modern technology equipment of conveyor and safety. On the basis of decrease coal transportation links, ensures the continuity of coal mine transportation system.It is in favour of coal mine construction, aviods the accident on construction and using shaft bottom coal bunker, at the same time reduces the quantity and investment cost on construction.Points out that it is not to suggest that cancel shaft bot-tom coal bunker to small coal mine of complicated geological condition and transport links.

  19. Illegal Oil Bunkering, Violence and Criminal Offences in Nigeria’s Territorial Waters and the Niger Delta Environs: Proposing Extension of Informed Policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard INGWE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While it illegal oil bunkering has gone on around the Niger Delta for about 30 years, it escalated more recently (2012 to present thereby poses serious implications on many facets of in Nigeria economy, society, and environment. Government’s plan to eliminate it or drastically curb the crime has been hampered by inadequate knowledge of the scale of its occurrence in terms of the patterns expressed by its varying intensities or magnitude of its aspects over space, time, and structure. To achieve the objective of highlighting the recent escalation of illegal oil bunkering in the Niger Delta, this article examined issues helpful issues. It briefly reflected on recent studies of the phenomenal crime, its attendant geopolitical and geo-economic consequences on multinational economies and societies: Nigeria, UK, nations located close to the foregoing: European countries –on the one hand; Nigeria’s neighbors; Gulf of Guinea region- on the other. Other aspects that are briefly examined are: contextual explanation of Nigeria’s political economy, society, and related histories. Considering and comparing the recent estimation of the history of illegal oil bunkering of over 30 years with a recent study of the phenomenon over less than ten years (2002-2008, it is proposed that a study that extends the temporal scale of the analysis, preferably covering the entire life-span of the phenomenon is necessary. It is concluded that reckoning that the result of the shorter term spatial-temporal analyses study was robust, findings of the longer-term study promises to provide valuable information for strengthening public policy/programs for reducing oil theft in the region. Some aspects of the proposed study are outlined.

  20. Illegal Oil Bunkering, Violence and Criminal Offences in Nigeria’s Territorial Waters and the Niger Delta Environs: Proposing Extension of Informed Policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    While it illegal oil bunkering has gone on around the Niger Delta for about 30 years, it escalated more recently (2012 to present) thereby poses serious implications on many facets of in Nigeria economy, society, and environment. Government’s plan to eliminate it or drastically curb the crime has been hampered by inadequate knowledge of the scale of its occurrence in terms of the patterns expressed by its varying intensities or magnitude of its aspects over space, time, and structure. To ac...

  1. Influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained inside a bunker of a PET cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente C, J. A.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Da Silva, T. A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In a cyclotron facility is strongly advised the use of spectrometry techniques to support workplace neutron dosimetry. Bonner sphere spectrometer (Bss) is the most used for radiation protection applications. Bss data must be unfolded to determine the spectral particle fluence. Some computer codes have been utilized for this purpose. These codes allow unfolding the spectrum from the Bss count rates through different algorithms. Some iterative routines need an initial guess spectrum to start the unfolding. The adequate choice of this initial spectrum is a critical part of the process and can affect the final solution. In this work, we evaluate the influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained in four points inside the bunker of a PET cyclotron. The measurements were done utilizing a modified Bss system with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Codes BUNKIUT and NSDUAZ were utilized to unfold the Bss data. For the NSDUAZ the starting spectrum is automatically obtained from a library initial guess spectra. For the BUNKIUT code were utilized two different initial guess spectra: (a) a Maxwellian spectrum with temperature of 1.4 MeV and shape factor of 0.1, created with the MAXIET algorithm and; (b) the spectra obtained through simulation with the MCNPX code version 2.7. Spectra obtained with both unfold codes and with the different initial guess spectra presented epithermal and thermal neutrons due to room-return effects. However, the contribution of the fast neutron to the total fluence were quite different for the different cases studied. These differences highlight the importance of an appropriate choice of an initial guess spectra for the quality of the results. (Author)

  2. On slope stability evaluation of underground trough and bunker in mountainous areas%山区地下槽仓边坡稳定性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    针对平朔东露天煤矿产品煤槽仓岩土特征,利用极限平衡法对开挖后的边坡按天然、降雨、地震以及地震和降雨同时作用的四种工况进行了模拟,并进行稳定性评价,从而为槽仓边坡的治理及合理监测方案的制定提供了依据。%According to the rock features of the product coal troughs and bunkers of Ping-Shou Eastern Open-pit Coal Mine, the paper under- takes the simulation for the four situations of the slopes affected by natural influence, the rainfall, the earthquake and the common influence of the earthquake and rainfall by adopting the limit equilibrium method, and has the stability evaluation, so as to provide the reference for the treat- ment of slopes with the trough and bunker and the reasonable establishment of the supervision schemes.

  3. 300MW锅炉原煤仓堵煤原因分析及改造%The analysis and reform plan of coal jamming in coal bunker of 300MW thermal generator units's boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆大华; 王翔

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the cause of the frequent, serious coal jamming in boiler's coal bunker of 4 generators (300MW) thermal generator unit of guizhou Yaxi power plant. To solve the serious problem of coal jamming in coal bunker,the power plant adopted different methods at different stages ,such as replaced the ultra- high- molecular- poiyethylene's lining in coal bunker, increased the coal loose machines, increased poking -coal hole for the wokers to poke coal,until reformed the original structure of the coal bunker,which ultimately solved the major knotty problems and obtained significant effects.%针对贵州鸭溪电厂4×300MW火力发电机组锅炉原煤仓存在的频繁、严重的堵煤情况进行了原因分析。针对原煤仓堵煤这一严重问题,电厂在不同阶段采取了更换煤仓内衬的超高分子聚乙烯衬板、增加煤仓疏松机、煤仓增设捅煤孔进行人工捅煤,直至对原煤仓结构进行改造等方法,最终解决了原煤仓堵煤的重大疑难问题,取得了明显的效果。

  4. 望峰岗选煤厂堵仓原因及解决方法探索%Reason for coal bunker jam in Wangfenggang Coal Preparation Plant and relevant solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹道; 刘雨苗; 桂洋洋; 陈立龙

    2016-01-01

    为了解决望峰岗选煤厂原煤挂仓问题,分析了挂仓原因。由于原煤煤泥量大,煤仓结构不合理,根据煤质和煤仓结构研制了新型水力清仓系统,介绍了其工作原理、具体实施方法,分析了水力清仓技术在望峰岗选煤厂的使用情况。结果表明:通过设计和使用新型原煤仓水力清仓装置,2号煤仓挂壁的原煤由7000 t 降低至1000 t,大大提高了煤仓的储存能力,为选煤厂、矿井和铁路运输部门的原煤衔接提供更大的缓冲空间,该水力清仓技术可在矿井、火力发电厂、焦化厂、钢铁厂等推广应用。%To solve the problem of raw coal hanging bunker in Wangfenggang Coal Preparation Plant,the reason for raw coal hanging bunker was analysed.Due to the large amount of slime,coal bunker structure is not reasonable,so according to the coal bunker structure and coal quality,a new type of hydraulic cleaning system was developed.Introduced its working principle,implementation method,the actual usage of the hydraulic cleaning technology in Wangfenggang Coal Preparation Plant was also analysed.The results show that,ac-cording to the design and use of hydraulic device of coal bunker clearance,the quantity of raw coal hanging bunker in No.2 coal bunker was reduced from 7 000 tons to 1 000 tons,the coal storage capacity was also improved greatly,which can provide a buffer for more coal mines and railway transportation of coal rank,and hydraulic cleaning technology can be used in mine and the thermal power plant,co-king plant,steel plant.

  5. 高应力松软围岩煤仓失稳分析及联合支护技术%High Stress Soft Surrounding Rock Coal Bunker Instability Analysis and Combined Support Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the supporting problem of coal bunker instability under high stress soft surrounding rock, studies the mechanism of coal bunker damage under complicated conditions through theory analysis,puts forward the combined supporting technology,which includes first high -strength anchor net spray support and secondary structure reinforcement,and carries out the engineering application and surrounding rock deformation monitoring.The results show that by adopting the recovery technique for support,the surrounding rock deformation of coal bunker is effective-ly controlled,the supporting result is well,and safety and normal use of coal bunker is ensured.It provides an effec-tive support method for coal bunker soft surrounding rock supporting under the similar condition.%针对高应力松软围岩煤仓失稳破坏面临的支护难题,通过理论分析,研究了复杂条件下煤仓破坏的机理,提出了“一次高强锚网喷支护+二次结构补强”的联合支护技术,并进行了工程应用和围岩变形量监测。结果表明,采用该支护修复技术后,煤仓围岩变形得到有效控制,支护效果良好,保障了煤仓正常安全使用。为类似条件下煤仓软弱围岩支护提供了一种有效的支护方法。

  6. The problems existed in bunkering operation control and the relevant maritime control strategies thereof%船舶油料供受作业监管中存在问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱奇; 徐玲江

    2012-01-01

      随着世界航运业的快速发展,我国海域内船舶油料供受业务的不断发展,由于船舶油料供受作业存在较大的污染风险,因此,如何加强船舶油料供受作业监管是海事管理机构必须考虑的问题。文中首先介绍了我国目前船舶油料供受作业监管的法律规定,然后分析了目前船舶油料供受作业监管中存在的主要问题,最后提出了加强船舶油料供受作业海事监管的几点策略。%  With the fast development of world shipping industry,the bunkering operation in China coastal waters is also increasing.Because of the high pollution risk relating to the bunkering operation,how to effectively control and manage such operation is an important issue we must consider.This paper firstly introduces the relevant laws and regulations for the supervision and control of the bunkering operations in China,then analyzes the main problems existed in the control of the bunkering operations,and finally provides some suggestions about the maritime control strategies to strength the supervision over the bunkering operations.

  7. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the SEAPAC BUNKER HILL and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1979-07-29 to 1983-05-23 (NCEI Accession 8600158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from SEAPAC BUNKER HILL and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from July 29, 1979 to...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the SEAPAC BUNKER HILL and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 1981-01-05 to 1982-02-01 (NCEI Accession 8800054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from SEAPAC BUNKER HILL and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from January 5, 1981...

  9. KGU5B矿用超声物位仪在井下煤仓中的应用%Application of KGU5B Mining Ultrasonic Level Instrument in Shaft Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纵文军; 蒋守平; 陈汉凤

    2012-01-01

    Providing raw coal stored material transportation of three blasting mining face,688 coal bunker,684 coal bunker,65 coal bunker and surge coal bunker are raw coal bunker used underground in Baishan Colliery.With the improvement of raw coal transportation automation in China,all kinds of parameters for raw coal transportation have higher requirements in recent years in Baishan Colliery,especially the accuracy of material level of underground stored material coal bunker.After long-term using,the factor such as complex internal structure of shaft stored material coal bunker,different traditional feed-in method of coal bunker,different feed-in method for belt conveyor and scraper conveyor,different measured medium,specific gravity and granularity,etc.,brings great difficulty to measuring.Selected to use in 2009,KGU5B Mining Ultrasonic Level Instrument has been reliably used in the measuring of solid particle and bulk material and has been recognized,which has played an irreplaceable role in coal bunker level and controlling crushed lump coal,etc..%百善煤矿现井下使用的原煤煤仓有688煤仓、684煤仓、65煤仓、缓冲煤仓,提供三个炮采面的原煤运输贮料任务。随着我国原煤运输自动化的不断提高,百善煤矿原煤运输对于各类参数近几年以来有了更高的要求,尤其是井下贮料煤仓料位的准确性,要求比以往更加严格。井下贮料煤仓经过长期使用,内部结构相对复杂,再加上传统的煤仓进料方式又有所不同,其中皮带输送机进料、刮板运输机进料方式的不同,及被测介质也各不相同,比重,颗粒度等给测量带来很大困难。在2009年度选型投入使用的KGU5B矿用超声物位仪在固体颗粒和块状物料的测量中已经被可靠采用,并且得到了认可,在煤仓煤位、控制块煤破碎等方面发挥了不可替代的作用。

  10. Analysis of pulling performance for QCL03 bunker-cleaner%QCL03清仓机牵引性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂梅; 杨富贵; 李士永

    2001-01-01

    以QCL03清仓机为例,论述了以防爆电机为动力装置的全液压驱动车辆的牵引特性定性分析方法,在获得了电机的实际特性曲线后,将有关数据带入公式即可进行牵引特性的定量分析。%By making example of QCL03 bunker-cleaner,this paper proposes thequalitative analysis methods on the pulling performance of full hydraulic-driving vehicles whose power installation is explosion-proof electric motor and gains the practical performance curves of the real electric motor,then makes substitution of the formulas to make a quantitative analysis on the pulling performance.

  11. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. 谈滑模施工在混凝土结构仓体中的应用%On application of slipform construction in bunker of concrete structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石芥欣

    2012-01-01

    The study briefly indicates the definition of slipform construction, sums up the advantages of the climbing form consgtruction, intro- duces the application of the application of slipform construction in bunker of concrete structure, and sums up the process for the slipform construction and its technical points, so as to provide some direction for the spreading of the slipform craft.%简单叙述了滑模施工的含义,归纳了滑升模板施工的优点,详细介绍了滑模施工在混凝土仓体结构中的应用,同时总结了滑模施工过程及技术要点,为滑模工艺的推广应用提供了指导。

  13. Application of Slipform in Coal Bunker in Deshun Mine%滑模技术在德顺煤业煤仓仓体中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聪明

    2015-01-01

    Project features of cylinder structure for coal bunker and selection of slipform construction plan are briefly analyzed in the paper, focused on the presentation of design and assembling of the slipform project. Especially, the article discusses the techniques and emphasizes the construction at tunnel face and of embedded parts.%简要分析了筒体煤仓的工程特点及滑模施工方案的选择情况,重点对滑模施工的设计、组装进行阐述,尤其对工艺措施进行了探讨,强调了对施工洞口及预埋件的施工方法等。

  14. 某储煤仓的理论与实测变形分析%The Analysis of Theory and the Measured Deformation for a Storage Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宇; 孔军

    2012-01-01

      Aimed at the larger settlement phenomenon for co-al product warehouse, the paper make a compare of the theor-etical calculation and the measured data of the set lement of two phase of storage bunker of composite foundation before reinforcement and in store coal, and analysis of the error caus-es of the theoretical calculation and the measured data of the set lement.%  针对某储煤产品仓沉降较大的现象,比较储煤仓加固前施工与储煤两个阶段的理论计算与实测数据的沉降量,分析复合地基的理论计算与实测数据的沉降量误差产生的原因。

  15. Spiral underground bunker bypass design and construction technology%螺旋式井下煤仓绕道设计及施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冰; 崔树彬; 杨瑞

    2015-01-01

    螺旋式井下煤仓绕道设计及施工技术,颠覆传统煤仓通道设计理念,通过研究弧形爆破工艺、大坡度多拐弯连续化高效喷浆技术,实现大坡度巷道安全、高效、快速施工;同时减少传统设计多施工辅助通道产生的无效进尺。%Spiral underground bunker bypass design and construction technology subvert the traditional coal channel design concept, by studying the arc blasting technology, big slope curve continuous efifcient spray technology, realize the large slope roadway safety and efifciency, while reducing invalid penetration caused by traditional design more construction auxiliary channel.

  16. Acute Toxicity of Water-Accommodated Fraction and Chemically Enhanced WAF of Bunker C Oil and Dispersant to a Microalga Tetraselmis tetrathele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-Avanceña, Sheryll S; Sadaba, Resurreccion B; Taberna, Hilario S; Tayo, Gilma T; Koyama, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the toxicity of water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of bunker C oil and dispersant (DISP) to a microalga, Tetraselmis tetrathele. The 72-h median effective concentration (72-h EC50) of CEWAF and DISP were determined at 3.30% and 2.40%, respectively. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of CEWAF to T. tetrathele was at 2.0% and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was at 3.0% while NOEC and LOEC of DISP to T. tetrathele were determined at 1.0% and 2.0%, respectively. The addition of dispersant to oil increased the amount of total PAH present in the CEWAF test solutions. DISP alone was highly toxic, and the toxicity of CEWAF was primarily caused by the presence of dispersant.

  17. Improving corn silage quality in the top layer of farm bunker silos through the use of a next-generation barrier film with high impermeability to oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect on the fermentation, chemical, and microbiological quality of corn silage covered with a new-generation high oxygen barrier film (HOB) made with a special grade of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) compared with a standard polyethylene film (PE). Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that half of the silo would be covered with PE film and the other with HOB film. Plastic net bags with fresh chopped corn were buried in the upper layer (close to and far from the wall) and in the central part of the bunkers. During spring-summer consumption, the bags were unloaded, weighed, and subsampled to analyze the dry matter (DM) content, neutral detergent fiber and starch contents, pH, lactic and monocarboxylic acids, yeast and mold counts, aerobic and anaerobic spore-former counts, and aerobic stability. We also determined the economic benefit of applying the novel covering. The top layer of silage conserved under the HOB film had a higher lactic acid content and lower pH; lower counts of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers; higher aerobic stability; and lower DM losses than the silage conserved under the PE film. The use of the HOB film prevented almost all of the silage in the upper layer from spoiling; only 2 out of 32 samples had a mold count >6log10 cfu/g. This led to a net economic gain when the HOB film was used on both farms due to the increased DM recovery and reduced labor time required to clean the upper layer, even though the HOB film cost about 2.3 times more than the PE film. Furthermore, use of the HOB film, which ensures a longer shelf life of silage during consumption, reduced the detrimental effect of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers on the nutritional and microbiological quality of the unloaded silage.

  18. Strength and stability analysis of surge bunker in skip loading system%箕斗定量装载系统缓冲仓的强度和稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王囡囡; 胡志鹏; 王积永

    2014-01-01

    缓冲仓是箕斗定量装载系统中的关键部件,物料的不同载荷作用将导致缓冲仓发生破坏。文章根据承载能力极限状态和壳体薄膜理论研究缓冲仓的强度和稳定性条件,通过 ANSYS Workbench 研究缓冲仓的应力分布状态,利用 Linear Bucking 模块对缓冲仓进行线性屈曲分析。结果表明:缓冲仓的最大等效应力并不是位于筒仓最底部与环梁相接处,而是距离环梁约1.8 m 处,此处引起仓壁应力的急剧变化,产生“象腿”破坏现象;缓冲仓发生结构屈曲破坏主要由径向大变形引起,随着储料载荷的增大,结构在发生屈曲破坏前已出现强度破坏,缓冲仓的主要破坏形式为强度破坏。%In traditional skip weight-fixed loading system,in order to improve the coal-stagnating and the coal's impact effect on skip,a surge bunker is designed on top of hopper.Surge bunker is a key component in skip loading system,and different loads from materials will lead to structural damage. Therefore,according to limit status of bearing capability and membrane theory of shells,strength calculation and stability analysis of surge bunker is studied.Thereafter,bunker's stress distributing state is conducted with ANSYS Workbench,and based on the results,the linear buckling analysis is carried out by employing the linear bucking module.The results show that the maximum stress of bunker has certain distance from ring beam which is not located in the joint of bottom and ring beam, and the rapidly change of stress leads to the “elephant foot”damage.The yield bending damage is caused by radial deformation,and with the increase of load,the strength destroy has produced before yield bending damage,which identify the major failure of surge bunker is strength failure.

  19. 高尔夫球场沙坑排水系统的改建以及效果%Reconstruction of drainage system and its effect on bunkers of golf course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超; 韩烈保; 信金娜

    2013-01-01

    沙坑是高尔夫球场必不可少的组成元素,其独特的造型和景观给球场带来了活力,但是沙子的污染、流失以及沙坑的排水一直是难以解决的问题。由于受到降水、大风等自然因素的影响,球场每年会损失大量沙子;而沙坑积水又会给打球带来很大不便,也会给球场造成一定的经济损失。美国双鹰高尔夫俱乐部,针对球场所面临的沙坑排水不良的实际情况,球场对沙坑进行了改建。改建之后,沙坑的排水能力得到了充分地改善,可以应对暴雨的冲刷,解决了之前的难题。改建沙坑的费用不高,成效显著,改建之后减少了对沙坑的日常养护成本。%Bunker is the indispensable component of golf course,showing the vigor with its unique formation and scenery.However,some problems including the pollution,loss of sand and the drainage of bunker are still unsolved.The sand in bunkers is losing annually due to the natural factors such as rainfall and gale,and this will result in inconvenience to golfers as well as financial loss to the golf club.The Double Eagle Golf Club is also fa-cing the problem in bunker drainage system.After reconstruction,the drainage ability of the bunker has been dramatically improved,the system can survive from the heavy erosion of storm,and the problem is solved.The budget of reconstruction the bunker is comparatively low but the effect is quite significant.The cost of mainte-nance is decreased after the reconstruction.

  20. Coal bunker level monitoring alarm device in Coal Production%煤仓料位监测报警装置在选煤生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪一

    2012-01-01

    Coal Bunker bit install automatic monitoring devices, timely and accurate material level control bunker in order to better control the location of coal and coal storage materials Falling equipment warehouse, the warehouse situation, and use of monitoring devices of sound and light alarm signals, to avoid expected to take positions in coal accidents and reduce the unnecessary loss of business.%通过煤仓料位自动监测装置安装,及时准确掌握煤仓料位,从而更好掌握仓中落煤位置和煤料装仓、出仓状况,并利用监测装置的声光报警信号,避免了煤料冒仓事故的发生,减少企业的不必要损失。

  1. 山钢集团3200m3高炉矿槽皮带上料最优控制%Optimised Bunker Charging Control for Belt Conveyor of shD Laiwu Steel Group Ltd.3200m3 BF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 王庆光; 闫新宏

    2013-01-01

    Thesy stem adopts optimized type control,successfully realized 400m main charging belt driving,automatically proportioning below bunker,bunker weighing hopper of the mixed control ,feed flow simulating model,FIFO type burden profile control model,image identification,fault self detecting functions etc,Thus it is well worthy of promotion and application.%  本系统采用最优控制,成功实现了上料主皮带驱动、槽下自动配料、矿石称量斗的混装控制、仿真料流模型、FIFO式料型控制模型、图像识别、故障自诊断等功能,具有广泛的推广及应用价值。

  2. Research of pouring the coal bunker quickly with long-distance pumping concrete%远距离泵送混凝土快速浇筑煤仓研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬峰

    2014-01-01

    结合九龙矿北一煤仓的浇筑整修工程,简述了远距离泵送混凝土在浇筑煤仓实例中的施工技术,指出利用该技术节约了成本,缩短了工期,掘进和回采工作面提前恢复了生产,施工效率和经济效益明显。%Based on a repaired Beiyi coal bunker of Jiulong mine, this paper briefly describes the long-distance pumping concrete application in the pouring of coal bunker, points out the technology saving the cost and shorten the time limit for a project, excavation and stoping face resumed production in advance, the construction efficiency and economic benefit is obvious.

  3. 小型常压煤粉仓惰性气体保护系统设计及应用%Design and Application of Inert Gas Protection System to Small-Scale Atmospheric Pressure Pulverized Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐尧; 王乃继; 肖翠微

    2012-01-01

    According to the fuel safety storage requirements of the pulverized coal-fired industrial boiler, in order to solve the coal spon- taneous combustion problems caused by CO content and the temperature increased in the coal bunker, with the related national standards and overseas design handbook, the design calculation method and system control plan of the inert gas protection system was provided for the small-scale atmospheric pressure pulverized coal bunker. According to the two coal bunkers with volume of 40 m^3 , an inert gas pro- tection system of the small-scale atmospheric pressure pulverized coal bunker was designed. When the CO content in the pulverized coal bunker reached at 1 200×10^-6 or the temperature at the any location of the bunker was over 70 ℃, the inert gas protection system would have a protection to the coal bunker with the automatic start, manual start or mechanical emergency start. The project cases were applied to verify the inert gas protection system. The result showed that when the storage value of the protective gas CO2 would be 355 kg, the low pressure CO2 inerting system applied to the protection of the pulverized coal bunker could remarkably reduce the risks of the pulverized coal spontaneous combustion.%为解决煤粉仓CO浓度或温度增高导致的自燃问题,根据煤粉工业锅炉系统燃料安全储存需求,参照相关国家标准和国外设计手册,提出了小型常压煤粉仓惰性气体保护系统设计计算方法和系统控制方案。针对2台容积40m^3的煤粉仓设计了小型常压煤粉仓惰性气体保护系统,当检测到煤粉仓内CO体积分数达1200×10^-6或任意一处温度高于70℃时,系统可通过自动启动、手动启动、机械应急启动3种方式对煤粉仓保护,结合工程实例对该系统予以验证。结果表明:采用低压CO2惰化系统对煤粉仓实施保护,当保护气体CO2的储存量为355kg,可明显降低煤粉自燃的风险。

  4. 锅炉原煤仓自燃预警与惰化防火装置%Device of spontaneous combustion warning and fire protection for boiler coal bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岸然

    2014-01-01

    原煤仓存煤自燃是电站锅炉安全运行的重要隐患,长时间以来缺少有效监测和控制手段。通过PLC模块对原煤仓仓壁敏感区域进行连续测温,辅以CO传感器和烟气感应器信号联合判断自燃趋势,避免了人工测量判断的主观误差的弊端。监测信号达到阈值时,自动控制电磁阀喷CO2灭火,实现全过程自动监测和灭火。对于未发生自燃的原煤仓也可自动定期进行气体惰化防火,降低存煤自燃概率,提高了整个系统的安全性。%Lack of effective monitoring and control ing methods makes coal bunker spontaneous combustion into a big risk facor for the power boiler safety operation in a long time. By continuously measuring coal bunker wal sensitive regions temperature,and assisted with CO sensor and gas sensor signals,the PLC module can accu-rately judge the spontaneous combusiton tendency,which avoids the disadvantages of the human subjective er-ror. Once the monitoring signals reach a threshold,the PLC contorl er automatical y opens the solenoid valve to spray CO2 into coal bunker to extinguish fire,and the whole process realizes the automatic control. For unspon-taneous combustion coal bunker,the device can also set program to conduct CO2 inert at fixed intervals,which reduces the probability of spontaneous combustion and improves the security of the whole system.

  5. 航天炉粉煤贮罐过滤器堵煤原因分析及对策%Analysis of Causes for Coal Blocking in Filter of Pulverized Coal Storage Bunker of Hangtian Gasifier and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童维风; 郭兴建; 黄保才

    2012-01-01

    在航天炉从试车投产至稳定运行期间,多次出现粉煤贮罐过滤器锥部堵煤现象.经过逐一排查分析,发现是由于氮气吹扫管线风量较大、防雨罩结构不合理、贮罐内外温差较大导致粉煤贮罐过滤器锥部的堵煤.采取了有效的预防和整改措施后,解决了堵煤问题,保证了煤粉加压输送系统的长周期稳定运行.%In the period of the Hangtian gasifier from test run and commissioning up to stable running, coal blocks up the cone part of the filter in the bunker several times. After examination and analysis one by one it is found that the volume of nitrogen gas sweeping the pipeline is too large, the structure of the rain-proof cover is irrational, and the temperature difference between the inside and outside of the bunker is great, thus leading to coal blocking in the cone part of the filter in the bunker. Efficient prevention and rectification and reform measures are taken, the blocking is eliminated, thus guaranteeing the stable an long period operation of the pulverized coal conveyer.

  6. Reinforcement and Rectification for the Coal Bunker Foundation by Composite Grouting Method%复合注浆法在煤仓地基加固纠偏中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯旭海; 李生生

    2014-01-01

    大荷载煤仓因为地基土承载力不够而产生不均匀沉降和倾斜,需要进行加固和纠偏处理。复合注浆法综合利用注浆的加固和抬升效应,进行地基加固和构筑物沉降控制。以大荷载煤仓地基加固为例,对注浆设计与施工进行了介绍,实现了提高地基承载力和降低沉降差的目的。%A coal bunker with large loads is easy to appear uneven settlement and tilt because of lack of ground bearing capacity. The foundation needs to be reinforced and the coal bunker needs to be rectified for use. The composite grouting method can reinforce the foundation and control the sedimentation of structures by utilizing the compaction and jacking effects of grouting. Taking a large load bunker foundation’ s reinforcement for example, the paper introduced the design and construction of the composite grouting method to improve the bearing capacity and reduce differential settlement.

  7. 阻旋料位开关在细粉分离器料仓中的应用%The application of a level control by rotary paddle in the fine powder separator bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄毅; 朱建国; 李诗媛; 吕清刚; 包绍麟

    2012-01-01

    描述了阻旋料位开关的工作原理及在细粉分离器料仓中的应用,测试表明,在粉尘浓度大、颗粒粒度细的料仓内,阻旋料位开关可准确监测料仓料位,为料位的控制提供了可靠保障,提高了细粉分离器的分离效率,减少了物料逃逸量,有利于杭州七格100 t/d污泥焚烧工程的连续运行.%A level control by rotary paddle is applied in the fine powder separator bunker to monitor material position. Its principle is also described in this paper. The operation results prove that the material position with high dust concentration and fine particles in the bunker can be rightly monitored by this level control. As a result, the instrument of rotary paddle provides reliable technology for the level control, which is profitable to increase the separation efficiency and lessen the particle escape rate. The application of such kind of level control in the fine powder separator bunker is effective to keep the continuous operation of the sewage sludge incineration project in Qige of Hangzhou.

  8. 采区特大型垂直煤仓高效施工技术%Efifcient construction technique of large vertical coal bunker of mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚刚

    2015-01-01

    aiming at the problem of unsafe factors and mining large vertical coal bunker construction, taking a number of measures of constructing the holes by the raise-boring machine for slipping the gangue and ventilation, and then top-down excavation, the installation of special winch lifting personnel, material and installation of the lock beam, and effectively solve the above problems. The construction technology is safe, efifcient, economic and reasonable, and has higher popularization value.%针对采区特大型垂直煤仓施工存在的不安全因素和难题,采取反井钻机施工溜矸、通风孔再自上而下掘进,安装专用绞车提放人员、物料及安装锁口钢梁等多项措施。此施工技术安全、高效、经济合理,具有较高的推广价值。

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  10. Research and practice of coal pillar storage bunker protection on the loess slope%黄土坡体上储煤仓保护煤柱的留设研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰

    2014-01-01

    在黄土丘陵地区进行煤炭开采,常常会引起山体滑坡、崩塌等次生灾害,本文以位于黄土坡体顶部储煤仓保护煤柱留设的实践为例,针对储煤仓区域地形特征、煤炭开采条件,对坡体地表受煤炭开采影响的移动、变形特征进行了对比分析,提出了储煤仓保安煤柱加坡体防滑煤柱的联合防护方法,采用开采影响移动角法确定了防滑煤柱尺寸,开采实践证明受护坡体未产生滑坡且储煤仓保持了安全正常使用,留设坡体防滑煤柱的方法是有效的。%Coal Mining in loess hilly area ,often can cause secondary disasters ,collapse ,landslide ,based on the practice in the loess slope top coal storage bunker protective coal pillar set as an example ,according to the coal storage area of terrain features ,coal mining conditions ,comparison ,analysis on slope surface characteristics effects of coal mining ,the protection method of storage bunker security coal pillar and pillar slope slip ,slip the size of coal pillar is determined by the mining influence mobile angle method ,mining practice proved by the slope body not produce landslides and storage bunker maintaining safe and normal use ,the method of slope slip of the coal pillar is effective .

  11. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, MIS3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS3: −8.6 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 ka: −9.7 ± 0.2‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.6 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  12. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS 3: −8.5 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 kyr: −9.3 ± 0.1‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.5 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  13. 煤仓上口硐室及锁口施工技术研究与应用%The research and application on the construction technology of the upper chamber and locker of coal bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤占令; 杜习成

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the construction technology of the upper chamber and locker of the coal bunker of the fourth mining area in XingCun coal mine. The construction of the upper chamber’s cross section of the bunker has been done without increasing the span and enlargement.It not only reduced the engineering quantity,speeded up the construction progress and improved the reliability of the process,but also save lots of manpower resources and achieved good results.At the same time it has some promotion and reference value.%该文介绍了星村煤矿四采区煤仓上口硐室及锁口施工工艺。四采区煤仓上口硐室断面不扩刷、不增加跨度的情况下进行煤仓上口的施工,减少了工程量,加快了施工进度,提高了工艺的可靠性,节省了大量的人力物力,取得了良好的效果,具有一定的推广和借鉴价值。

  14. The Method to Improve Pouring Speed of Coal Bunker in the Complex Transportation System%复杂运输系统中提高煤仓浇筑速度的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许光元; 王刚; 卢大政

    2015-01-01

    Guanwen Mine is one of the key projects after disaster in Sichuan Prouince ,the mining area coal bunker is a key project near completion stage ,w hich has large amount of pouring engineering. T he transportation systems and terrain is complex. Labor input using of artificial pouring large and having long construction time.Combined with field experience ,the mine overcomes the complex transporta‐tion system in coal bunker pouring speed slow construction problems by using special casting process.%四川观文煤矿为灾后重点工程,其采区煤仓是工程临近收尾阶段的重节点工程,该煤仓浇筑工程量大,运输系统及地形复杂,采用人工浇筑劳动力投入大,施工时间长,结合现场经验,采用特殊的浇筑工艺,克服了在复杂运输系统下煤仓浇筑速度慢的施工难题。

  15. The practice of closed full pressure exhaust gas equipment under the bunker%煤仓下口封闭式全风压排瓦斯装置实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋隆; 韩剑

    2015-01-01

    成庄矿井下东、西主煤仓给煤机同时给煤时,放煤口及下风侧瓦斯与粉尘浓度往往超限.通过分析现场瓦斯及粉尘参数,结合现场条件,实践了"封闭式全风压排瓦斯装置"方案,成功解决了煤仓下口瓦斯及粉尘超限问题,确保了矿井安全高效生产.%In ChengZhuang Coal Mining,When the east and west main bunkers underground put coal in the same time, gas and dust concentration often over limited in the putting coal port and downwind . By analyzing the gas and dust parameters with the conditions, practice a "closed full pressure exhaust gas equipment",successfully resolved the problems of gas and dust over limited at coal bunker, to ensure the safe and efficient production.

  16. 储煤仓高边坡加筋土数值模拟%Numerical simulation of high slope reinforced earth of coal storage bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶祥令; 常桂芳; 李佳

    2012-01-01

    针对黄土区储煤仓高边坡回填土稳定性较差的情况,利用非限性有限元法建立加筋边坡稳定性计算模型,分析高边坡加筋土土体强度、坡背面板及筋带空间位置与安全系数的关系。结果表明,对高边坡回填土进行加筋带加固显著增大了边坡的承载能力和安全系数;土体强度(土体摩擦角和黏聚力)增加,边坡稳定性明显增大;加筋层数增加边坡的稳定性增大,但存在适当范围;坡背面板的加入增加了边坡的稳定性,但工程造价也随之增加。该研究为高边坡加筋土的有效利用提供了参考。%Aimed at eliminating the less stable backfill in high slope of coal storage bunker in loess area, this paper introduces the development of the stability calculation model of reinforced soil slopes by using nonlinear finite element method and the analysis of the relationship of soil strength by high slope re- inforced soil, back slope, the space position of reinforced band and the safety factor. The results show that the reinforced bands leads to significant increases in the bearing capacity and the safety factor of slope, definite increases in soil strength ( soil friction angle and cohesive force) , and remarkable increase in slope stability. The increasing stability of the slope results from the increasing reinforced layers, but with appropriate range and the greater slope stability due to adding back slope concrete panel is offset by a increasing the project cost. The study could provide a reference for the effective use of the high slope reinforced earth.

  17. Study on safety analysis and evaluation of wet formed sulfur bunker based on FTA and SPA%基于 FTA 与 SPA 方法的湿法成型硫磺料仓安全分析与评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉; 樊建春; 于艳秋; 代濠源; 张恒伟; 范红

    2015-01-01

    In order to control the risk and evaluate the safety state of wet formed sulfur bunker, the method of fault tree analysis was applied to analysis the reasons of fire and explosion accidents in the bunker.By using the least cut-set and the least path-set, the possible ways of accidents were analyzed, and the optimal controlling scheme was determined to be controlling the gathering of combustible dust and gas.Aiming at the characteristics of uncertainty and dynamic in influence factors on safety state of sulfur bunker, the set pair analysis with multivariate connection number was introduced into the hazard assessment of sulfur bunker.An index system for hazard assessment of sulfur bunker was established, and the hazard situation of bunker was judged comprehensively.The evaluation results were comparatively in accord with the field practical situation.It provides an idea for the safety evaluation of wet formed sulfur bunker, as well as a reference for the formulation of risk control measures.%为了控制湿法成型硫磺料仓风险,评估硫磺料仓安全状态,采用事故树方法分析了硫磺料仓发生火灾爆炸事故的原因,并利用最小割集和最小径集分析了事故的可能途径,确定了最佳控制方案为控制可燃粉尘和气体的聚集。针对硫磺料仓安全状态影响因素的不确定性和动态性的特点,将多元联系数集对分析法引入硫磺料仓危险性评价中,建立了料仓危险性评价指标体系,综合判断了料仓危险性态势。评价结果与现场实际情况较符合,为湿法成型硫磺料仓的安全评价工作提供了思路,为其风险控制措施的制定提供了参考。

  18. On the Comparison of the Slip-form and Support-form Construction in Coal Bunker%在煤仓仓体中对比滑模与支模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聪明

    2015-01-01

    The differences of slip-form and support-form construction in coal bunker were described in this paper by contrast, and their respective advantages and disadvantages were pointed out. Advantages and disadvantages of slip-form construction were explained in detail, so as to provide help for future work.%采用对比方式阐述了滑模施工与支模施工在煤仓仓体中的差异,指出各自利弊。对滑模施工优点、缺点进行详细说明,以期为今后工作提供帮助。

  19. The fire protection design on the bunker/hod of the coal disposal system%燃煤处理系统煤仓/煤斗的消防保护设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽萍

    2009-01-01

    综合、和NFPA 850等相关规范的规定,以系统工程应用研究为基础,结合惰性气体灭火系统产品特点,对采用低压二氧化碳灭火系统的火力发电厂燃煤处理系统的煤仓/煤斗消防保护进行了设计思路的研究和探讨.%Refer to the related criterion numbered GB50229-2006, GB50193-1993,NFPA850 and so on, the design method of applying the low voltage carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system to the bunker/hod fire protection for the coal disposal system in the fuel electric plant was studied based on the existing system engineering research results and the characteristics of the inert gases fire-extinguishing system.

  20. 谈煤仓仓顶板混凝土结构模板支撑体系的施工%On construction of support system in bin roof plate concrete structure models of coal bunkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萍

    2011-01-01

    According to the engineering examples,the paper sums up the construction craft of the support system in bin roof plate concrete structure models of coal bunkers,points out the technical requirements,and provides the construction safety measure,so as to improve the construction methods of the bin roof plate support models and enhance the application of the craft.%通过列举工程实例,总结了煤仓仓顶板混凝土结构模板支撑体系的施工工艺,提出了技术要求,并给出施工安全措施,从而完善仓顶高支模施工方法,同时进一步推广该工艺的应用。

  1. 东露天选煤厂槽仓高边坡稳定性与变形分析%Stability and deformation analysis of high slope for tank-type of bunker at Donglutian coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海波; 宫守才; 刘庆雪

    2012-01-01

    平朔东露天槽仓为目前亚洲最大规模的储煤槽仓.采用极限平衡方法和有限元法,开展了边坡在支护前后不同工况下的稳定性计算和应力与变形分析.结果表明,边坡支护前无法达到使用要求,斜壁与直壁转角处和仓底坡脚处为应力集中和变形最大处,是加固的重点部位.边坡采用土钉墙复合结构和灌注桩+钢内撑复合结构支护后,稳定性满足使用要求,变形在正常范围内,该支护方案非常适合该边坡.%The tank-type bunker is the largest coal bunker in Asia currently. In this paper, the stability calculation and deformation analysis of excavation slope under different conditions are made, using the limit equilibrium method and the finite element method. The results indicate that the slope support requirements can not be met before reinforcement, and the place of stress concentration and maximum displacement is located at nook of diagonal corner and straight wall where is the reinforcement of key positions. Reinforcement was applied in the slope, by method of composite soil nail wall and bored piles + entry cupporting complex structures. The stability and deformation are satisfied with operational requirement, and the layout of reinforcement is suitable for the slope.

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Interaction between Steel Coal Bunker and Main Building under Condition of Earthquake%地震作用下火力发电厂钢煤斗与主厂房的动力相互作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄君宁; 刘晶

    2014-01-01

    3D integral ifnite element model building is established to analysis the dynamic interaction between steel coal bunker and main building. Through the time history method to analysis the seismic response of the ifnite element model, the result show that the inlfuence of dynamic interaction between steel coal bunker and main building can’t be neglected.%运用有限元方法建立钢煤斗与主厂房的三维整体模型,采用时程分析的方法对模型进行地震响应分析,分析了不同工况下煤斗对主厂房的影响,结果表明煤斗与主厂房的动力相互作用对结构有显著的影响,在结构设计中要予以考虑。

  3. ANALYSIS ON EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF COLUMN-SUPPORTED CONCRETE COAL BUNKER STRUCTURE BASED ON SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION%基于土-结构相互作用的柱承式混凝土煤仓结构地震响应分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛志成; 姜博文; 张林; 裴强

    2016-01-01

    The modal analysis of a column-supported concrete bunker structure was carried out,the characteristics of the mode shapes and frequencies were obtained. At the same time, based on the soil-structure interaction,the time history analysis of earthquake response of the concrete bunker structure was also done; through the input of three kinds of earthquake waves (El Centro, Taft wave and artificial wave),a time history of the displacement of coal bunker structure node and its maximum displacement were got,and the weak parts of the structure were determined, which provided a reference to the seismic design and identification of such sort of coal bunker structure.%对柱承式混凝土煤仓结构进行模态分析,得到其振型和频率的特点。同时,基于土-结构相互作用,进行柱承式混凝土煤仓结构的地震反应时程分析,通过输入3种地震波( El Centro波、Taft波和人工波),分析得到不同工况下煤仓结构节点的位移时程和最大位移值,确定出结构的薄弱部位,为柱承式混凝土煤仓结构的抗震设计和鉴定提供参考。

  4. Design and Construction of the High Template of the Ring Beam of the Coal Bunker Roof%煤仓顶环梁高支模的设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯潮彬

    2014-01-01

    高大模板是工程实践中的重点和难度,也是工程质量和安全控制的重点。本文主要结合广州某电厂煤仓顶环梁的施工,介绍了高支模的设计和施工管理的措施,确保了高支模结构具有足够的承载力、刚度和稳定性。%Tal template is the focus and difficulty in en- gineering practice and it is also the important point of the quality and safety control in engineering. Combined with the construction of the ring beam of a power plant coal bunker in Guangzhou, this paper mainly introduced the design and co- nstruction management measures of the tal template , ensuring the tal template structure has enough bearing capacity, rigidity and stability.

  5. Research and application of coal bunker rapid construction technology%一采区9煤煤仓快速施工技术研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜炳友; 元庆平

    2015-01-01

    该文介绍了内蒙古沙章图矿井一采区9煤煤仓快速施工技术。施工中采用分层、分段施工法,采用科学合理的爆破新技术,科学先进的支护工艺,人工和耙装机装岩出矸方式,取得良好的施工速度和效果,具有一定的推广和借鉴价值。%This paper introduced the coal bunker rapid construction technology of mining area in Inner Mongolia Shazhangtu mine. in the construction, using layered, segmental construction method, using the scientific and reasonable new blasting technology , scientiifc and advanced support technology, loading gangue by artiifcial and the scraper, made good the construction speed and effect, which has the certain reference and promotion value.

  6. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria. [Alternative methods are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults; earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, augered holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria.

  7. 反井钻机联合钻爆法在大断面煤仓施工中的研究与应用%Study and Application of Raise Boring Machine with Drilling and Blasting Method to Construction of Mine Large Cross Section Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许传峰

    2013-01-01

    According to the large cross section,high difficult construction,low safety coefficient and other features of the coal bunker at the-318m level mine shaft bottom,with the comparison analysis,a raise boring machine combined with the drilling and blasting construction was determined and applied.From the blind shaft construction,reaming of the coal bunker,concrete lining support and others,the paper introduced the rapid construction technology.The results showed that the application of the raise boring machine combined with the drilling and blasting method to the construction of the coal bunker at the mine shaft bottom would have high mechanized degree,low labor intensity,safety,rapid construction speed,high efficiency and series advantages and would be a value to be promoted.%针对-318m水平井底煤仓断面大、施工难度大,安全系数低等特点,通过对比分析,决定采用反井钻机联合钻爆法施工,并从溜矸井施工、煤仓刷大、混凝土砌碹支护等方面介绍了快速施工技术,结果表明,采用反井钻机联合钻爆法施工井底煤仓,具有机械化程度高、劳动强度低、安全、施工速度快、效率高等一系列优点,值得推广应用.

  8. Trends in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids in public supply wells of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins, San Bernardino County, California: influence of legacy land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Landon, Matthew K

    2013-05-01

    Concentrations and temporal changes in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins of the Upper Santa Ana Valley Groundwater Basin were evaluated to identify trends and factors that may be affecting trends. One hundred, thirty-one public-supply wells were selected for analysis based on the availability of data spanning at least 11 years between the late 1980s and the 2000s. Forty-one of the 131 wells (31%) had a significant (pwells (11%) had a significant decrease in nitrate. For TDS, 46 wells (35%) had a significant increase and 8 wells (6%) had a significant decrease. Slopes for the observed significant trends ranged from -0.44 to 0.91 mg/L/yr for nitrate (as N) and -8 to 13 mg/L/yr for TDS. Increasing nitrate trends were associated with greater well depth, higher percentage of agricultural land use, and being closer to the distal end of the flow system. Decreasing nitrate trends were associated with the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); VOC occurrence decreases with increasing depth. The relations of nitrate trends to depth, lateral position, and VOCs imply that increasing nitrate concentrations are associated with nitrate loading from historical agricultural land use and that more recent urban land use is generally associated with lower nitrate concentrations and greater VOC occurrence. Increasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater current nitrate concentrations and relatively greater amounts of urban land. Decreasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater amounts of natural land use. Trends in TDS concentrations were not related to depth, lateral position, or VOC occurrence, reflecting more complex factors affecting TDS than nitrate in the study area.

  9. Trends in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids in public supply wells of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins, San Bernardino County, California: Influence of legacy land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Landon, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and temporal changes in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins of the Upper Santa Ana Valley Groundwater Basin were evaluated to identify trends and factors that may be affecting trends. One hundred, thirty-one public-supply wells were selected for analysis based on the availability of data spanning at least 11 years between the late 1980s and the 2000s. Forty-one of the 131 wells (31%) had a significant (p < 0.10) increase in nitrate and 14 wells (11%) had a significant decrease in nitrate. For TDS, 46 wells (35%) had a significant increase and 8 wells (6%) had a significant decrease. Slopes for the observed significant trends ranged from − 0.44 to 0.91 mg/L/yr for nitrate (as N) and − 8 to 13 mg/L/yr for TDS. Increasing nitrate trends were associated with greater well depth, higher percentage of agricultural land use, and being closer to the distal end of the flow system. Decreasing nitrate trends were associated with the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); VOC occurrence decreases with increasing depth. The relations of nitrate trends to depth, lateral position, and VOCs imply that increasing nitrate concentrations are associated with nitrate loading from historical agricultural land use and that more recent urban land use is generally associated with lower nitrate concentrations and greater VOC occurrence. Increasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater current nitrate concentrations and relatively greater amounts of urban land. Decreasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater amounts of natural land use. Trends in TDS concentrations were not related to depth, lateral position, or VOC occurrence, reflecting more complex factors affecting TDS than nitrate in the study area.

  10. Packing Bunker and Pile Silos to Minimize Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the issue of porosity (i.e., the portion of volume filled with gas) in silages. As porosity increases, the silage is subject to greater losses. Porosity can be reduced by adequately packing the crop at ensiling. To keep porosity below 40% a minimum bulk density of 44 lbs./cu. ...

  11. Influence of Cover Type on Silage Quality in Bunker Silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quality of silage under reduced oxygen-permeability plastic film systems vs. standard white polyethylene film and tires was evaluated. In six trials (four in whole-plant corn, two in alfalfa), the Silostop two-step covering system (oxygen-barrier film on the side walls and top, woven plastic tar...

  12. Design and Validation of Modular, Reinforced Concrete Bunkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    modification. 1. Assessment of the effect of entrance geometry on shielding of fragments generated by near - miss hits, and 2. Assessment of the ERDC...bunker’s response to the effects of an array of indirect fire weapons under direct hit and near miss conditions. 5 Round 1 3.1 Entrance...geometry effects on fragment intrusion The first round was located at an angle to the entrance to simulate a near miss contact detonation. The round

  13. Status Survey of Bunkers 738A and 825A at Spangdahlem AB, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    88ABW-2015-4768, 2 Oct 2015 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14 . ABSTRACT The United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Consultative...USAFSAM/OEC d. Personnel Contacted: (1) Lt Col Scott Steige1wald, Flight Commander, 52 AMDS /SGPB (2) Mr. Craig Refosco, Health Physicist, AFMSA/SG3PB...C’. vf . Duo Date: P\\!·2;s K~Z7 oz-~ar-aa 3217 L.ucnum 500-1 10!𔃻)2 4 IJhC M!4 T c-99 MU658 30-S&.rC4 29751 !\\1~ 111 S11r11t :tf\\1, • n’ klot

  14. Vergeten linies: Antwerpse bunkers en loopgraven door de lens van Leutnant Zimmermann (1918)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Onderzoek van de Universiteit Gent in het Koninklijk Legermuseum (KLM) in Brussel bracht in 2007 een reeks van 46 onbekende luchtfoto’s aan het licht. De foto’s dateren van januari 1918 en zijn van Duitse origine. Ze dragen het opschrift Kaiserliche Fortifikation Antwerpen en werden genomen door de tot dan toe onbekende luitenant Zimmermann. Het was direct duidelijk dat de foto’s een schat aan historische informatie bevatten. Het provinciebestuur van Antwerpen liet ze grondig analyseren om er...

  15. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 10. Mines and Bunkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Corporation, New York. JOHN M. BUTLER, Manager, Organic and Polymer Synthesis, Monsanto Research Corp., Dayton, Ohio. RAYMOND FRIEDMAN, Vice President...1973, Bayer AG, Institut fur Toxikologie, Werk Wup- pertal, Germany. 182 APPENDIX G Most of the mortalities can be related to the combined action

  16. 78 FR 35314 - Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal action will provide funds for a proposed aquifer storage and recovery... reservoir storage tank. The project is intended to improve the reliability of Western's water supply through managed storage, extraction and distribution of local and imported water supplies, using...

  17. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 204: STORAGE BUNKERS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. CAU 330 consists of the following CASs: CAS 06-02-04, Underground Storage Tank (UST) and Piping CAS 22-99-06, Fuel Spill CAS 23-01-02, Large Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Farm CAS 23-25-05, Asphalt Oil Spill/Tar Release

  18. Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (BOMARC) Missile Shelters and Bunkers Scoping Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Burley 1990), as was the case of the BOMARC WGP. PuO2 has a high melting point (2240 oC), a high chemical stability , and is highly insoluble in water...Ridge, plutonium in a holdup pond was released when a dike broke. At Rocky Flats, cutting oil contaminated with metallic plutonium was released from...factor of five. It is a moot issue for shelter 204, which was completely dismantled in 2002, and everything but the concrete floors of shelters 202

  19. From Bunker to Building: Results from the 2010 Chief Human Resource Officer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patrick M.; Stewart, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the researchers, with funding from the Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS), began conducting the annual Chief Human Resource Officers (CHRO) Survey. The 2009 survey was sent to CHROs at the U.S. Fortune 150 companies, as well as to ten other CHROs at CAHRS partner companies. That survey focused on understanding how CHROs…

  20. Measurements of thermal neutron fluence in the bunker of a cyclotron for PET isotope production; Medidas de fluencia de neutrones termicos en el bunker de un ciclotron de produccion de isotopos para PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Villafane, R.; Sansoloni florit, F.; Lagares gonzalez, J. L.; Llop Roig, J.; Guerrero Araque, J. E.; Muniz Gutierrez, J. L.; Perez Morales, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    To measure the neutron spectrum has been used spectrometry system based on Bonner spheres with Au flakes as thermal neutron detector at its center while the results are still pending and will be analyzing another job.

  1. Estimated doses related to {sup 222}Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes; Dosis estimada por concentraciones de {sup 222}Rn en bunker de radioterapia y de almacenamiento de isotopos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, Freddy; Carrizales-Silva, Lila, E-mail: freddymest@gmail.com, E-mail: lcarriza@ivic.gob.ve [Instituto Venezolano de lnvestigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo, E-mail: sajobohus@gmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear; Diaz, Cruz, E-mail: cruzediaZ@gmail.com [Universidad Pedagogica Experimental Libertador, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Instituto Pedagogico

    2013-07-01

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39 Registered-Sign ). The concentration of {sup 222}Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm{sup 2} equivalent to 0,434 Bqm{sup -3} per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10{sup -6} mSv h {sup -1} by Bqm{sup -3}, it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva{sup -1} and 150 micro risk cancer.

  2. 76 FR 58149 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Supplement to allow the use of U.S. Government fuel cards in lieu of a Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher for... of the SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. Additionally, this section is revised to include... permit the use of U.S. Government fuel cards in lieu of an SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice- Voucher,...

  3. 76 FR 21849 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... (DFARS) to allow the use of U.S. Government fuel cards in lieu of a Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher for... Acquisition (SEA) ] Card in lieu of the SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher, up to the simplified... U.S. Government fuel cards in lieu of a Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher for fuel, oil, and...

  4. Adsorption Isotherms: North Caroline Apatite Induced Precipitation of Lead, Zinc, Manganese, and Cadmium from the Bunker Hill 4000 Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Using the MINTEQ -A2 geochemical model, thermodynamic predictions for ^f0™«0™0? pyromorphytes (Pb5(POJ3 (OH, Cl)), hopeite (Zn3(POJ2 4H20...VERIFICATION OF PRECIPITATED METALS USING MINTEQ -A2 13 2.3.1 Experimental 2.3.2 Results ... 19 3.0 CONCLUSIONS 20 4.0...precipitated Pb-P04 complexes will be illustrated as sharp downward deviations from linearity of the adsorption isotherms, as predicted by MINTEQ -A2

  5. A Semiotic Analysis of Visual Elements Particular to the Medium of Comics in Alan Ford by Max Bunker and Magnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Gržina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a semiotic analysis of visual elements characteristic for the medium of comic books applied to the first seventy-five issues of the Croatian edition of Alan Ford. After a description of the cultural and historical framework, it analyzes individual signs in comics and different elements specific for expression in comic books in Western culture with the aim of exploring which of these signs are present in Alan Ford, and to what extent. The results show that the analyzed comic book is deeply rooted in the visual and literary Western tradition, and that it contains virtually all the characteristic elements of representation in comic books. However, the paper also concludes that certain iconic elements of the vocabulary of comics – i.e. onomatopoeic neologisms – are to a certain extent specific and typical only for Alan Ford.

  6. International marine and aviation bunker fuel: trends, ranking of countries and comparison with national CO2 emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; Peters JAHW; LAE

    1999-01-01

    In dit rapport worden het brandstofgebruik en de CO2-emissies van internationaal transport samengevat en geanalyseerd. Deze analyse is gebaseerd op de best-beschikbare gegevens uit internationale energiestatistieken, die verzameld zijn door het International Energy Agency (IEA). Met deze gegeven

  7. El presente como desafío del investigador: Hábitats, trincheras y bunkers ante las emergencias sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Delgado Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo abre una discusión en torno a las disciplinas y sus capacidades para atender las emergencias del presente. El artículo parte del análisis de las temáticas planteadas en diversas reuniones académicas [especialmente congresos de sociología, metodología de la investigación científica, etc.] entre los años 2009 y 2011 en América Latina. Observadas en su conjunto, el trabajo realiza un diagnóstico de la capacidad de las disciplinas y de los campos de estudios más constituidos para acercarse al tratamiento de los problemas de época, proponiendo una redefinición de las ciencias sociales a partir de la lectura de estos indicadores del estado actual y de los desafíos de las ciencias sociales de Latinoamérica

  8. Atlantvolden i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bundgård

    2014-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Lulu Anne Hansen & Martin Rheinheimer (red.): Bunkers. Atlantvoldens perspektiver i Danmark.......Anmeldelse af Lulu Anne Hansen & Martin Rheinheimer (red.): Bunkers. Atlantvoldens perspektiver i Danmark....

  9. Analysis of the radiation shielding of the bunker of a 230MeV proton cyclotron therapy facility; comparison of analytical and Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, C

    2016-04-01

    The neutron ambient dose equivalent outside the radiation shield of a proton therapy cyclotron vault is estimated using the unshielded dose equivalent rates and the attenuation lengths obtained from the literature and by simulations carried out with the FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The source terms derived from the literature and that obtained from the FLUKA calculations differ by a factor of 2-3, while the attenuation lengths obtained from the literature differ by 20-40%. The instantaneous dose equivalent rates outside the shield differ by a few orders of magnitude, not only in comparison with the Monte Carlo simulation results, but also with the results obtained by line of sight attenuation calculations with the different parameters obtained from the literature. The attenuation of neutrons caused by the presence of bulk iron, such as magnet yokes is expected to reduce the dose equivalent by as much as a couple of orders of magnitude outside the shield walls.

  10. Recommendations to the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) for Review Criteria for Alternative Methods of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Task 2B. Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    even . under extremely large hydraulic gradients (Winterkorn and Fang 1975; Bertram 1940; Cedergren 1967; and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1941...Department of the Army Technical Manual TM 5-818-5, "Dewatering and Groundwater Control" (November 1983)and by Cedergren (1967). 2.7-3 e /.~\\ ~J.. . . , ,I I... Cedergren , 1967, Seepage, Drainage and Flow Nets, 2nd Edition,: , John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 3-I Code of Federal Regulations, 1987, Title 10

  11. PHOSPHINE RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION OF WHEAT STORED IN BUNKER%土堤仓储粮磷化氢环流熏蒸工艺与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范磊; 张兴梅

    2008-01-01

    在堆高7 m、容量1858万千克的大型储藏小麦的土堤仓内和土堤仓底设置PVC磷化氢环流管道,采用外设环流风机环流促使仓内磷化氢均匀分布,检测浓度分布情况、杀虫效果和粮食品质变化.结果表明,仓内磷化氢浓度最低保持在300 mL/m3以上的时间可达25 d,浓度在250 mL/m3以上的时间迭34 d,粮堆中发生的书虱、锈赤扁谷盗等害虫均被完全杀死,试验的熏蒸工艺对粮食品质及粮堆内温度影响很小.

  12. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise authorized by the COTP, no vessel to vessel oil transfer operations, excluding bunkering, may be... with COTP permission; (4) Not transfer dangerous cargo while the vessel is at anchor or bunkering;...

  13. 75 FR 22323 - Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... grounds. The Coast Guard proposes to add a requirement that any vessel conducting lightering or bunkering... conducting lightering or bunkering operations shall display by day a red flag (Pub 102; International Code...

  14. 75 FR 76275 - Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... anchored vessel that is conducting bunkering or lightering operations. Anchored vessels conducting bunkering or lightering operations are readily identified as they must display a red flag as required by 46... conducting bunkering or lightering operations. The revised provision is clearer, and preserves...

  15. 77 FR 21359 - MARPOL Annex I Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... recordkeeping requirements prescribing entries in the Oil Record Book for bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating... requirements, to record the bunkering of oil, any failures of oil filtering equipment, and failures of the oil... the bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil. This additional entry would help to track the use...

  16. 从宙斯轮案论燃油清污费用的责任限制问题%On the Limitation of Liability of Clean -up Costs of Bunker based on Zeus Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞凯华

    2015-01-01

    Maritime safety administration of sinking, killed, stranded ship compulsory clean-up measures to produce fuel oil clean-up costs, after the Supreme Court Zeus rounds a case as a nonrestrictive creditor' s rights, it is conform to the law, but also to ensure the maritime safety administration in the practice of sewage disposal cost of pay of full specified amount. For fuel oil clean-up fees shall apply for maritime claims limit judicial interpretation from the supreme people' s court "the 17th paragraph 1 and the oil from the supreme people' s court judicial interpretation" stipulated in article 20 as unrestricted claims. Take effect at the same time soon the Nairobi convention on international debris removal has important significance for China' s leg-islation.%海事局对沉没、遇难、搁浅船舶采取强制清污措施产生的燃油清污费用,最高院在宙斯轮一案中认定为非限制性债权.此举既符合法律规定,同时也保障了实践中海事局清污费用的足额偿付.对于燃油清污费用应适用《最高院海事赔偿限制司法解释》第17条1款和《最高院油污司法解释》第20条规定认定为非限制性债权.同时生效不久的《内罗毕国际残骸清除公约》对于我国立法具有重要借鉴意义.

  17. The use of fuel oil by the shipping sector; Zeevaart verbruikt meer stookolie door wereldhandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The supply of fuel oil for the international shipping sector (bunkering) increased considerably since 1990 (9 million ton). Between 2003 and 2006 bunkering increased to 16 million ton, mainly due to the increased world trade. [Dutch] De levering van stookolie voor de internationale scheepvaart (bunkering) blijft sterk toenemen (1990: 9 miljoen ton; 2000: bijna 12 miljoen ton). Tussen 2003 en 2006 is de bunkering toegenomen naar een recordwaarde van ruim 16 miljoen ton. De stijging hangt nauw samen met de sterke toename van de wereldhandel.

  18. 33 CFR 158.120 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in this part: Bunker oil means oil loaded into bunker tanks for use as fuel. Captain of the Port... facilities required under the Act and MARPOL 73/78, and has Form A, Form B, or Form C attached. Clean ballast... liquid form from cargo tanks and cargo pump room bilges, including but not limited to,...

  19. Uddannnelsesboom. Kina går sine egne veje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Kina uddanner bunker af innovative medarbejdere i disse år. Men de er kreative og innovative på en anden måde en danske medarbejdere.......Kina uddanner bunker af innovative medarbejdere i disse år. Men de er kreative og innovative på en anden måde en danske medarbejdere....

  20. Kollapset under præstationspresset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes

    2014-01-01

    OW Bunkers konkurs afspejler nogle af vor tids største problemer: Medarbejderstress og organisatorisk overbelastning. KRONIK - Det spektakulære kollaps i OW Bunker skriver sig direkte ind blandt dansk erhvervshistories største skandaler. Når presset for vækst bliver for hårdt springer...

  1. Combustion of refuse-derived fuels in the GAVI-VAM system at Wijster; Verbrennung von RDF - Ersterfahrungen aus der GAVI-VAM (Wijster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandschneider, J.; Warnek, J.; Klitzbe, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    The GAVI-VAM system consists of a sorting stage followed by a RDF combustion plant. The two parts are directly connected by an RDF bunker (24 h). The contribution presents a detailed description of the plant. (orig./AKF)

  2. Report of findings: Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge contaminants study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During World War II, the Kodiak Naval Reservation (Figures 1 and 2) was rapidly expanded to thwart threats of a Japanese invasion. Bunkers, fuel tanks, and...

  3. Installation of the Gbar LINAC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Installation of the GBAR linac in its shielding bunker. The electrons accelerated to 10 MeV toward a target will produce the positrons that are necessary to form anti hydrogen with the antiprotons coming from the ELENA decelerator.

  4. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Program for Ruggedized Tactical Fiber Optic Cable. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    14830 Seicor optical Cables 631 Miracle Mile Horseheads, NY 14845 Bunker-Ramo Amphenol Div 33 East Franklin Street Danbury, Connecticut 06810 Attn: Mr. J. Makuch 21708a H-..5 ____~~ - - -*- - *-x . .- .- --. - - - -FILMED

  5. Paldiski sadama omanikud ostavad laevade tankija / Kadrin Karner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karner, Kadrin

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 16. apr. lk. 9. OÜ Baltic Sea Bunkering juhatuse liige Toomas Virro kinnitab, et omanikku vahetab enamik OÜ Baltic Sea Bunkeringi aktsiatest, viies ettevõtte Tintrade grupi koosseisu

  6. About the stress biological indicators changes of bunker using awareness to simulate combat-taking Nanjing Forest Police College as an example%掩体利用意识模拟实战训练的应激生物学指标变化--以南京森林警察学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昱欣

    2015-01-01

    In order to make the theoretical police tactical training into practical combat from both the physiological and psychological aspects,the tactical instructors design a training scheme in which the tactical training is conducted under the real situation pressure. This design scheme tries to make the police traineesˊreceive their training with the tactical consciousness of Cover-Using. And,with the testing of the traineesˊphysiological and psychological sensitive indexes that conducted in the laboratory,it aims to explore the biological mechanism that stimulates the generation of stress.The results suggest that compared with the control group ,the saliva cortisol level of the trainees’of the experiment group has a great increase(P<0.05),the average heart rate rises significantly(P<0.01),and the subjective stress levels also elevate greatly(P<0.01). Thus,the tactical instructorsˊinnovation of the training scheme with the Cover-Using tactical consciousness has a real combat stress in physiological and psychological aspects.%从心理和生理方面设计了现实情境压力训练方案进行“掩体利用”战术意识训练,并借助实验室对应激压力下警察战术训练学员的生理心理学敏感指标进行测试,旨在探索应激压力发生的生物学机制。结果表明:实验组与对照组相比,应激压力训练后唾液中皮质醇水平相对训练前显著升高(P<0.05),平均心率显著升高(P<0.01),主观紧张程度显著提高(P<0.01)。可见战术教官创新设计的“掩体利用”战术意识压力训练模式在生理和心理反应层面达到了实战应激。

  7. 港内供油作业船舶“首尾自卷式缆车直接系泊”安全性分析%Safety analyses on “afore and stern automatic rolling winch direct mooring” of bunkers operating in harbour area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋兆国

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the stress of the reeling drum and bitts onboard in-port oil supply vessels, introduces the safety of direct mooring with the self-closing reeling drum, and puts forward suggestions on the usage of such reeling drum.%文中分析了港内供油作业船舶缆车、缆桩受力,介绍了自卷式缆车直接系泊的安全性能,并提出了使用自卷式缆车的相关建议。

  8. CSIR helps prevent spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuuren, M. van (CSIR Energy Technology (South Africa))

    1992-03-01

    Heaps of stockpiled coal could present a fire hazard due to the risk of spontaneous combustion. Regular monitoring of stockpiles and bunker testing of coals help to prevent stockpile fires. This brief article describes the recent upgrading of the CSIR's bunker test facility that enables coal producers, users and exporters to test their products under simulated conditions that duplicate the actual conditions under which coal is stored. 2 photos.

  9. Spatial dependence and origin of the ambient dose due to neutron activation processes in linear accelerators; Dependencia espacial y origen de la dosis ambiental debeda a procesos de activacion neutronica en aceleradores lineales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.

    2011-07-01

    In order to try to determine the high dose in the bunker of a Linear Accelerator clinical use trying to measure the spatial dependence of the same from the isocenter to gateway to the board cheeking to establish the origin of it. This dose measurements performed with an ionization chamber at different locations inside the bunker after an irradiation of 400 Monitor Units verifying the dose rate per minute for an hour, and accumulating the dose received during that period of time.

  10. Minutmillionærer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Klummen. Når jeg hører om sager som OW Bunker, tænker jeg kultur og finansialisering. Den omsiggribende finansialisering er i virkeligheden et resultat af en forandring, der grundlæggende er kulturel.......Klummen. Når jeg hører om sager som OW Bunker, tænker jeg kultur og finansialisering. Den omsiggribende finansialisering er i virkeligheden et resultat af en forandring, der grundlæggende er kulturel....

  11. パソコンによる最近の補油状況を考慮した燃料油管理について

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Recently, there are many troubles at bunkering in the world. This paper presents several samples and measures of them. As world tendency mixing crew's ship is incrbased, so crew's quality becomes graduallybad and it causes miscalculation and slow at figures of Fuel Oil quantity. By using Personal Computers it becomes simple and exact, and to be minimized lose time of ship's departure after bunkering, to be estimated ETA and ETD of next port and to be increased cargo in the hold or tank.

  12. Evaluation of the Kerma at the entrance of the labyrin thin in facilities with Co-60 HDR brachytherapy; Evaluacion del Kerma en la entrada del laberinto en instalaciones de braquiterapia de HDR con Co-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujades, M. C.; Granero, D.; Ballester, F.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Vijande, J.

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the kerma's collision at the entrance of the labyrinth adapting the methodology of the NCRP-151 to a bunker of brachytherapy with Co-60, similar to the one carried out in a previous work with HDR Ir-192. To validate the result is simulated using techniques Monte Carlo (MC) two typical designs of HDR with Co-60 bunker. (Author)

  13. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Göteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during "normal" conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  14. 滑模法与逆作法结合在煤仓施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐敦典

    2011-01-01

    某矿三联原煤仓,采用滑升模板“顺作法”施工仓壁;利用滑升平台“逆作法”施工仓顶及平台。本文详细介绍了滑升模板、仓顶、煤仓平台的施工工艺。采用滑模法与逆作法相结合的方法施工,为煤仓施工开辟了一种新的途径。可为类似工程施工提供参考。%The silo wall of a triple coal bunker was built by "excavation method" using the sliding template, while the roof and platform of the bunker were built by " topdown construction method" using sliding platform. The construction process of the sliding template, bunker rool, coal bunker platform were infroduced in details in this article. It opened up a new way for construction of coal bunker by combining with excavation method and topdown construction method, which could provide a reference for the construction of similar projects.

  15. Simulated European stalagmite record and its relation to a quasi-decadal climate mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic stalagmite δ18O record for the Bunker Cave (51° N, 7° E is constructed using a combined climate–stalagmite modelling approach where we combine an atmospheric circulation model equipped with water isotopes and a model simulating stalagmite calcite δ18O values. Mixing processes in the soil and karst above the cave represent a natural low-pass filter of the speleothem climate archive. Stalagmite δ18O values at Bunker Cave lag the regional surface climate by 3–4 yr. The power spectrum of the simulated speleothem calcite δ18O record has a pronounced peak at quasi-decadal time scale, which is associated with a large-scale climate variability pattern in the North Atlantic. Our modelling study suggests that stalagmite records from Bunker Cave are representative for large-scale teleconnections and can be used to obtain information about the North Atlantic and its decadal variability.

  16. Combustion of high-rank light fraction. First experiences with GAVI/VAM; Verbrennung von heizwertreicher Leichtfraktion. Erste Erfahrungen aus der GAVI-VAM (Wijster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandschneider, J. [Goepfert, Reimer und Partner Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    GAVI/VAM consists of a sorting plant which is topped by an RDF combustion plant. These two plant components are directly linked with each other via an RDF bunker (24 h). The present contribution addresses the main components of the combustion plant individually and points out its special features as compared with crude waste combustion. [Deutsch] Die GAVI/VAM besteht aus einer Sortieranlage mit nachgeschalteter RDF-Verbrennungsanlage, beide Anlagenteile sind durch einen RDF-Bunker (24 h) unmittelbar miteinander verbunden. Nachfolgend werden die wesentlichen Komponenten der Verbrennungsanlage einzeln angesprochen und die Besonderheiten im Vergleich zur Rohmuellverbrennung dargestellt. (orig./SR)

  17. Identification of Process Hazards and Accident Scenarios for Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, H; Johnson, G

    2001-05-04

    This report describes a hazard and accident analysis conducted for Site 300 operations to support update of the ''Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas Safety Analysis Report'' (SAR) [LLNL 1997]. A significant change since the previous SAR is the construction and the new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). Therefore, this hazard and accident analysis focused on the hazards associated with bunker operations to ensure that the hazards at CFF are properly characterized in the updated SAR. Hazard tables were created to cover both the CFF and the existing bunkers with ''open air'' firing tables.

  18. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  19. Isokinetic sampler; Amostrador isocinetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luis Cesar C. de; Santos, Antonio Carlos dos [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barrio, Lara B.A. del [AZ Armaturen do Brasil Ltda., Itatiba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Claudio B. da C. e; Silva, Ricardo R. da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2005-07-01

    The Center of Research Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo - CENPES - in association with AZ Armaturen Company do Brasil and TRANSPETRO developed and tested an Isokinetic sampler. This work presents the sampling principles and the results and performance of the tests realized in the 'Sitio de Testes de Atalaia' and in one of the terminals of bunker transfer of TRANSPETRO - 'Terminal Aquaviario da Baia de Guanabara'. In the 'Sitio de Testes' the products used were oil and water with BSW from 5% to 97% and in the terminal were tested samplings of bunker with ranges viscosities between (MF 180 to 380). (author)

  20. Correcting radiation survey data to account for increased leakage during intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kairn, T. [Premion Cancer Care, Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower Qld 4066, Australia and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia); Crowe, S. B.; Trapp, J. V. [Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments require more beam-on time and produce more linac head leakage to deliver similar doses to conventional, unmodulated, radiotherapy treatments. It is necessary to take this increased leakage into account when evaluating the results of radiation surveys around bunkers that are, or will be, used for IMRT. The recommended procedure of applying a monitor-unit based workload correction factor to secondary barrier survey measurements, to account for this increased leakage when evaluating radiation survey measurements around IMRT bunkers, can lead to potentially costly overestimation of the required barrier thickness. This study aims to provide initial guidance on the validity of reducing the value of the correction factor when applied to different radiation barriers (primary barriers, doors, maze walls, and other walls) by evaluating three different bunker designs.Methods: Radiation survey measurements of primary, scattered, and leakage radiation were obtained at each of five survey points around each of three different radiotherapy bunkers and the contribution of leakage to the total measured radiation dose at each point was evaluated. Measurements at each survey point were made with the linac gantry set to 12 equidistant positions from 0° to 330°, to assess the effects of radiation beam direction on the results.Results: For all three bunker designs, less than 0.5% of dose measured at and alongside the primary barriers, less than 25% of the dose measured outside the bunker doors and up to 100% of the dose measured outside other secondary barriers was found to be caused by linac head leakage.Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that IMRT workload corrections are unnecessary, for survey measurements made at and alongside primary barriers. Use of reduced IMRT workload correction factors is recommended when evaluating survey measurements around a bunker door, provided that a subset of the measurements used in

  1. Sustainability in Inland Shipping: The use of LNG as Marine Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consuegra, S.C.; Paalvast, M.S.M.

    2010-01-01

    LNG has the potential to reduce echaust gas emissions from vessels. The report explains the basics of LNG: what is it, what are the technical challenges of using LNG as marine fuel, which infrastructure is needed to bunker it and what is the impact on the costs. The report concludes with some measur

  2. Concrete Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2015-01-01

    and poetic appropriations and inscriptions of the bunker site are depicted. Ranging between overlooked side presences and an overwhelming visibility, the concrete remains of fascist war architecture are involved in and motivate different sensuous experiences and mnemonic appropriations. The article meets...

  3. A Move to an Innovative Games Teaching Model: Style E Tactical (SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sanmuga; Haynes, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and testing of a hybrid model of teaching games--The Style "E" Tactical (SET) Model. The SET is a combination of two pedagogical approaches: Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles and Bunker and Thorpe's Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU). To test the efficacy of this new model, the…

  4. Get ready to enter a new DIMENSION

    CERN Multimedia

    Graham-Rowe, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    "Deep in an underground bunker, experts have built the world's largest science experiment. It has the potential to open new dimensins, help us look into the past and the future, and explain the mysteries of the space. There's also a chance it could create a black hole that devours the universe..."

  5. 40 CFR 112.8 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore facilities (excluding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cathodic protection compatible with local soil conditions. You must regularly leak test such completely... buried and bunkered tanks from corrosion by coatings or cathodic protection compatible with local soil...-built, field-erected, skid-mounted, elevated, equipped with a liner, double-walled, or partially...

  6. Explotación de 100 vacas para la producción de leche, en régimen de estabulación libre con cubículos, en Villamuriel de Cerrato (Palencia)

    OpenAIRE

    Antón Jiménez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Explotación para 100 vacas de leche y 40 novillas en Villamuriel de Cerrato, con la construcción de una nave ganadera, con cubículos, lecheria, sala de ordeño y espera y oficina , fosas de purines 3 silos tipo bunker , almacén de materías primas y hénil

  7. Overview of NRC review process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokar, M.; Kane, J.D.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes the NRC staff`s review of the Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) for an Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker low-level waste disposal facility. Described are the objectives of the review, the resources (e.g., background guidance documents and staff technical disciplines) used, and the products produced. Evaluation conclusions are summarized.

  8. Looking for 'God'

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2003-01-01

    "Scientists seeking the God particle that is thought to shape the universe, have hollowed out a concrete bunker bigger than the nave of Canterbury Cathedral to study a beam of energy a quarter of the thickness of a human hair" (1 page).

  9. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  10. An evaluation of fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the testing and evaluation of four commercially available fiber optic intrusion detection systems. The systems were tested under carpet-type matting and in a vaulted ceiling application. This report will focus on nuisance alarm data and intrusion detection results. Tests were conducted in a mobile office building and in a bunker.

  11. AD-7/GBAR status report for the 2017 CERN SPSC

    CERN Document Server

    Lunney, D

    2017-01-01

    The first components of the GBAR (Gravitational Behavior of Antimatter at Rest) experiment will arrive at CERN in early 2017 for installation on the ELENA extraction line LNE50 and inside the newly constructed bunker in the AD hall. We report the installation plan and progress of all GBAR components.

  12. ASA (ALT) Design, Develop, Deliver, Dominate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the TDH to counter insurgents in urban environments that have tall buildings or subterranean bunkers and caves, for example. The entire unit can...planning or after action reviews. Responding to this need, PEO STRI fielded the Tactical Digital Hologram ( TDH ), an accurate Success Stories

  13. Sci—Fri PM: Dosimetry—02: A Nested Neutron Spectrometer to Measure Neutron Spectra in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglieri, R; Seuntjens, J; Kildea, J [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Qc (Canada); Licea, A [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission CNSC, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    During high-energy radiotherapy treatments, neutrons are produced in the head of the linac through photonuclear interactions. This has been a concern for many years as photoneutrons contribute to the accepted, yet unwanted, out-of-field doses that pose an iatrogenic risk to patients and an occupational risk to personnel. Presently, in-room neutron measurements are difficult and time-consuming and have traditionally been carried out using Bonner spheres with activation foils and TLDs. In this work, a new detector, the Nested Neutron Spectrometer (NNS) is tested for use in radiotherapy bunkers. The NNS is designed for easy handling and is more practical than the traditional Bonner spheres. The NNS, operated in current mode, was used to measure the dose equivalent, average energy and energy spectrum at several positions in a radiotherapy bunker. The average energy and spectra were compared to Monte Carlo simulations while the dose equivalent was compared to bubble detector measurements. The average energies, as measured by the NNS and Monte Carlo simulations, differed by approximately 30% across the bunker. Measurements of the dose equivalent using the NNS and the bubble detectors agreed within 50% in the maze and less than 10% close to the linac head. Apart from some discrepancies at thermal energies, we also found reasonable agreement between NNS-measured and Monte Carlo-simulated spectra at a number of locations within our radiotherapy bunker. Our results demonstrate that the NNS is a suitable detector to be used in high dose-rate radiotherapy environments.

  14. AngelStow: A Commercial Optimization-Based Decision Support Tool for Stowage Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto; Jensen, Rune Møller; Guilbert, Nicolas

    save port fees, optimize use of vessel capacity, and reduce bunker consumption. Stowage Coordinators (SCs) produce these plans manually with the help of graphical tools, but high-quality SPs are hard to generate with the limited support they provide. In this abstract, we introduce AngelStow which...

  15. 10 CFR 205.12 - Addresses for filing documents with the DOE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning price (see paragraph (a)(6) of this section), those designated as DOE or FEO forms (see paragraph...: Crude oil 10 Naphtha and gas oil 15 Propane, butane and natural gasoline 25 Other products 30 Bunker fuel 40 Residual fuel (nonutility) 50 Motor gasoline 60 Middle distillates 70 Aviation fuels...

  16. 1996 Research Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    physicist Dr. Tom Gladd (Berkeley Research Associates), and electrical engineer Dr. Mark Rader , who managed an OOPIC software repository at historically...identify the exact location of underground bunkers or tunnels "tagged" by ground forces. Wolff’s work also holds promise for improved flight safety

  17. Nuclear Strategy and National Style. Volume 1. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-31

    See John Erickson, The Soviet High Command, 1918-1941 (London: St. J Martin’s, 1962), p.326. But see Ronald R. Rader , "Anglo-French Esti- mates of the...for most of the 1980s, is not and will not be able to strike effectively at the complex of Soviet deep- underground polit- ical command bunkers, or at

  18. Throwing and Catching as Relational Skills in Game Play: Situated Learning in a Modified Game Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Ann; Kirk, David; Griffin, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we were interested in how young people learn to play games within a tactical games model (TGM) approach (Griffin, Oslin, & Mitchell, 1997) in terms of the physical-perceptual and social-interactive dimensions of situativity. Kirk and MacPhail's (2002) development of the Bunker-Thorpe TGfU model was used to conceptualize the nature…

  19. La generación de electricidad a partir de eucalipto y bagazo en ingenios azucareros en Nicaragua: costes, aspectos macroeconómicos y medioambientales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van

    2006-01-01

    Se hace una comparación entre la generación de electricidad a partir de bagazo y eucalipto mediante ingenios azucareros y la generación de electricidad a partir de bunker (fueloil) en Nicaragua. El combustible utilizado por los ingenios es bagazo durante la zafra y eucalipto de plantaciones energéti

  20. La generación de electricidad a partir de eucalipto en ingenios azucareros en Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van

    2006-01-01

    Se hace una comparación entre la generación de electricidad a partir de plantaciones de eucalipto mediante ingenios azucareros durante la no-zafra y la generación de electricidad a partir de bunker (fueloil) en Nicaragua. Se comparan los costes y los efectos socioeconómicos y medioambientales de est

  1. 46 CFR 35.35-30 - “Declaration of Inspection” for tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operation and found to be operating properly? (7) Is each vapor recovery hose free of unrepaired loose... under § 35.35-20, but before a transfer of cargo, fuel oil, or bunkers may commence as described in this..., if a transfer operation includes the collection of cargo vapor from a vessel's cargo tanks through...

  2. Payback Period for Emissions Abatement Alternatives: Role of Regulation and Fuel Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zis, Thalis; Angeloudis, Panagiotis; Bell, Michael G. H.;

    2016-01-01

    of the fuel used. This paper presents a literature review of emissions abatement options and relevant research in the field. A cost–benefit methodology to assess emission reduction investments from ship owners is also presented. A study examined the effects of recent drops in bunker fuel price to the payback...

  3. Bunkerovotshnõi biznes pod davlenijem Tintrade / Artur Tooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooman, Artur, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Laevade punkerdusega tegelevad firmad on kaotanud aastaga kokku üle 100 miljoni krooni, firmade käive on vähenenud ligi kaks korda, turul tegutseb praegu 7 ettevõtet, turuliidriks on OÜ Baltic Sea Bunkering. Tabel: Laevade punkerdusega tegelevate firmade majandusnäitajad

  4. 基于ANSYS实体模型的石灰石粉仓整体结构有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟; 宋志强; 韩旭

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, limestone bunker overall finite element model was established by using ANSYS solid95 elememt. Considering the steel yield conditions, stress and strain distribution of the powder bunker under design-bad were got. Meanwhile, without considering the steel yield condition, the stress and strain distribution of powder bunker based on ANSYS solid model and hybrid model were obtained. By comparison, the necessity of establishing solid model of powder bunker and considering the steel yield conditions were analyzed. Finally, the instruction meaning for engineering design was pointed out.%采用ANSYS SOLID95单元建立石灰石粉仓整体有限元模型,考虑钢材的屈服条件,得到了粉仓在设计荷载作用下的应力应变分布.同时,在不考虑钢材的屈服条件下,得到了粉仓基于ANSYS实体模型和混合模型的应力应变分布,通过对比,分析了建立粉仓实体模型与考虑钢材屈服条件的必要性以及对工程设计的指导意义.

  5. A Move to an Innovative Games Teaching Model: Style E Tactical (SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sanmuga; Haynes, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and testing of a hybrid model of teaching games--The Style "E" Tactical (SET) Model. The SET is a combination of two pedagogical approaches: Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles and Bunker and Thorpe's Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU). To test the efficacy of this new model, the SET was…

  6. Designing Safe Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Randall

    Incorporating the principles and practices of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) in the design and remodeling of schools can contribute to the safety of the school while reducing the target-hardening and fortressing effects of a bunker mentality. The basic CPTED premise is that through the effective use and design of the built…

  7. Cryogenic crashworthiness of LNG fuel storage tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Shipping is gradually embracing natural gas as bunker fuel. The most viable way to store natural gas on board is in its liquid form. Gas needs to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures and in practice moderately pressurized. On board ships, solely double walled pressure tanks are used for this purpose.

  8. Port and Waterways Safety Assessment Workshop Report, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    security zone • Claremont Channel – barge fleeting /mooring area • PST cruise ship terminal area • Anchorage FA 19 in Hudson used for fleeting...Van Kull o Hess Bayonne terminal o New cruise ship terminal in Bayonne when taking on bunkers • Container terminal soundings are not well

  9. The Tebuconazole-based Protectant of Seeds “Bunker” Induces the Synthesis of Dehydrins During Cold Hardening and Increases the Frost Resistance of Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Triazole derivatives are widely used in agriculture for seed protectant of cereals against seed and soil infection. Triazole derivatives can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of plants. The tebuconazole-based protectant of seeds «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L is a systemic fungicide of preventive and therapeutic action. The effect of the seed treatment by «Bunker» preparation on the shoot growth and cell viability coleoptile, synthesis of dehydrins in shoots and frost resistance etiolated winter and spring wheat seedlings has been studied. It has been shown that treatment of winter and spring wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation induces similar concentration-dependent inhibition of the coleoptiles length. At the recommended dose (0,5 liter per tonne of seeds, L/t growth inhibition was 28 - 30%, at a concentration of 1 L/t – 33 - 36%, at a concentration of 1,5 L/t – 40 - 42%, at a concentration of 3 L/t – 43 - 47%, at a concentration of 4 L/t – 48 - 51% and at 5 L/t – 53 - 56%. The treatment of wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation had no phytotoxic effect on coleoptile cells in any of the studied concentrations, on the contrary, with increasing concentration of preparation observed the increase in cell viability, as measured by recovery of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. We can assume that having retardant properties, tebuconazole not only inhibits the growth of plants, but also delays their aging. The treatment of seed protectant at a concentration of 1.5 L/t induced synthesis of the dehydrins with molecular masses about 19, 21, 22, 25 and 27 kD in winter wheat shoots and 18,6, 27 and 28,5 kD in spring wheat shoots during cold hardening. Among identified dehydrins the dehydrin of 27 kD is most significantly induced both in winter and spring wheat. The treatment of seed protectant «Bunker» in the same concentration increased the frost resistance of winter and spring wheat

  10. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ``A through K`` evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site.

  11. 圆筒框架稳定分析%Stability analysis of cylindrical frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严峰

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces the components of the large-scale bunker framework,adopts the regular methods,member buckling analysis,ei-genvalue lexture analysis,and accuracy analysis,calculates the stability of the bunker framework,and compares their calculation results and a-chieves some valuable conclusion.%介绍了某大型料仓框架的组成要素,采用规范方法、压杆屈曲分析法、特征值屈曲分析法以及精度分析法,计算研究了该料仓圆筒框架的稳定性,并对比了各方法的计算结果,得出了一些有价值的结论。

  12. Application of Fracturing Technology in Coal Bin Vapor Blocking%气相压裂技术在煤仓清堵中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩世勇

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the gas fracturing technology ,the main technical features and the specific implementation steps in the application to eliminate the blockage of coal bunker .And the blockage of Changcun Coal Mine coal bunker experiment by eliminating , it proved that the method has many advantages of fast ,efficient,safe in the treatment of coal blockage ,the application of gas fracturing technology provides reference .%介绍了煤仓清堵中气相压裂技术工艺、主要技术特点和具体实施步骤,并通过常村煤矿煤仓清堵实验,证明了该方法在处理煤仓堵塞中具有快速、高效、安全等众多优点,为气相压裂技术的应用研究提供了借鉴。

  13. Hans sidste ønske var et pas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Selv med svære sygdomme, bunker af lægeerklæringer, ekspertvurderinger og værdig stædighed opnår flygtninge ikke at få et dansk pas. Justitsministeriet bagatelliserer lægernes oplysninger og holder ansøgere hen med ligegyldigheder, indtil de dør åndeligt eller fysisk......Selv med svære sygdomme, bunker af lægeerklæringer, ekspertvurderinger og værdig stædighed opnår flygtninge ikke at få et dansk pas. Justitsministeriet bagatelliserer lægernes oplysninger og holder ansøgere hen med ligegyldigheder, indtil de dør åndeligt eller fysisk...

  14. The LHC goes in for an X-ray

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    For the past two years, a radiography laboratory has been operating in a "bunker" where it can X-ray materials in complete safety. The primary function of the radiography laboratory, run by Jean-Michel Dalin and Aline Piguiet, is to inspect welds and LHC components.   Technicians Jean-Michel Dalin and Aline Piguiet, from the EN department,  with the scanner used for digital radiography. In the basement of Building 112 lies a bunker heavily protected against radiation leaks and housing a laboratory that employs high-tech apparatus capable of detecting the slightest fault in materials without destroying or damaging them. "It's the principle of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). In our laboratory we essentially use two methods, tomography and digital radiography," explains Jean-Michel Dalin, who is a NDT radiography technician in the EN Department's MM Section. It was he who designed the laboratory in collaboration with CERN's radiation protection service, wh...

  15. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D&D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  16. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  17. Environmental Assessment to Construct a FAMCAMP, Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-05

    Quality-No anticipated significant long tenn environmental impacts from this project as long as construction and waste disposal activities associated with...many of the same problems as the Bunker Hill site in tenns of site ownership. In addition, this site would present access issues as RVs enter and... William A. McWhorter Program Coordinator Military Sites Program History Programs Division Texas Historical Commission P.O. Box 12276 Austin, TX 787

  18. Old and New Insurgency Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    of this type of terrorism is to create religious—predominately Islamic—states and relies heavily upon suicide bombing techniques. 9 Extremist... minority rule, would include the independence wars by anti-colonial na- tionalist groups in the Portuguese colonies of Angola, Guinea-Bissau, and...2015 essay on this insurgency form, Bunker identi- fied such predatory capitalist activities as follows: • Stress profit and equity gain at all costs

  19. Open Ocean Bilging, Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    These dual oil slicks on the ocean surface are the result of tanker ships flushing their tanks (bilging) in the Arabian Sea (18.5N, 62.5E). These two ships flushed out their bilges, apparently contaminated with bunker oil, leaving oily residues on the ocean's surface. One wake, believed to have been done earlier than the other, has been broadened by the effects of surface winds and current.

  20. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  1. Joint Countermobility Capabilities in the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    protect their flanks, they possibly could have delayed if not prevented the enemy infiltration on 22 January. The use of today’s FASCAM systems in...obstacles along main avenues of approach. The second defense was trench systems supported by heavy machine guns. The Viet Cong’s last line of defense was...sharp wooden punji stakes, five foot deep trenches with firing ports, bunkers, and occasionally barbed wire.”87 The Viet Cong were more effective

  2. Effectiveness of Acupressure Treatment for Pain Management and Fatigue Relief in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    National Gulf War Resource Center’s facebook page (thanks to Mr. James Bunker, Executive Director) and placement of online advertisements through Google... advertisement process was initiated and we expect to enroll 2-3 subjects each month going forward. Study Advertisements IRB had previously...approved the text for placing study advertisements in Plain Dealer and other publications. Since these are very expensive, CCF Marketing recommended

  3. Bioremediation Potential of Terrestrial Fuel Spills †

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hong-Gyu; Wang, Xiaoping; Bartha, Richard

    1990-01-01

    A bioremediation treatment that consisted of liming, fertilization, and tilling was evaluated on the laboratory scale for its effectiveness in cleaning up a sand, a loam, and a clay loam contaminated at 50 to 135 mg g of soil−1 by gasoline, jet fuel, heating oil, diesel oil, or bunker C. Experimental variables included incubation temperatures of 17, 27, and 37°C; no treatment; bioremediation treatment; and poisoned evaporation controls. Hydrocarbon residues were determined by quantitative gas...

  4. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Nigeria: Hydrocarbon Curse Fueling Instability in Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    thousand. MEND operates in all areas ofthe mangrove as well as waterways from Warri to Calabar and the urban centers of Warri, Port Harcourt, Yenagoa and...bunkering have enormous negative impacts on local and international economy, on human lives, the ecosystem , and security. For instance~ according to the...the ecosystems . 147 According to Amnesty International, "pollution and environmental impacts from oil create human rights tragedy in which inhabitants

  6. Strategic Challenges in the Regional Environment Facing Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    relationship between criminal groups and drug dealers. Carabineros (Uniformed Police Force) and Investigaciones de Chile (Investigation Police) have...2004; available from <http://www.latercera.cl/ articulo /0,5819,3255_5664_49521165,00.html>; Internet; accessed 02 Feb 2004. 21 Military Studies and... articulo /0,5819,3255_5664_49521165,00.html> Internet. Accessed 02 February 2004. Williams, Phil. “New Contexts, Smart Enemies” in Non-State Threats and Future Wars, ed. Robert Bunker, Portland: Frank Cass & Co., 2003

  7. Smart Functional Nanoenergetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    nanometer-sized inclusions in energetic matrix C.E. Bunker and J.J. Karnes,   μm 10 nm T. Sippel and S.F.  Cryo- Gel /Sol- Gel processing 3rd Generation 3...in rheology and mechanical issues If nanoscale particles are captured Diffusion length scales (encapsulated) WITHIN micron scale crystalline

  8. ПРИВАТНЕ РІШЕННЯ ОПТИМІЗАЦІЇ ГЕОМЕТРИЧНОЇ ФОРМИ БУНКЕРІВ І СИЛОСІВ

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the paper analytical solutions for optimization of external geometrical shape according to criteria of massminimum of bunker and silo capacities for granular materials are presented. The special case of two-parted construction with the vertical upper part was considered. The method of transformation to the problem with one unknown symbol was used. The given solutions are compared with solutions, which were obtained by the author according to the Lagrange method of uncertain multiplies.

  9. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in the year 1994; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per l`anno 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P.; Manzo, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-11-01

    The gross domestic energy consumption in 1994 (including bunkers) decreased to 165.8 Mtoe from the 1993 figure of 166.6 Mtoe. At the same time the overall electricity demand reached 253.6 TWh from 246.6 TWh, closely reflecting the 2 contribution of renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, biomasses, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption has been 9 1994. It represented more than 34% of the domestic energy production.

  10. Neutron dosimetry in solid water phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites-Rengifo, Jorge Luis, E-mail: jlbenitesr@prodigy.net.mx [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Calzada de la Cruz 118 Sur, Tepic Nayarit, Mexico and Instituto Tecnico Superior de Radiologia, ITEC, Calle Leon 129, Tepic Nayarit (Mexico); Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene, E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. postal 336, 98000, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The neutron spectra, the Kerma and the absorbed dose due to neutrons were estimated along the incoming beam in a solid water phantom. Calculations were carried out with the MCNP5 code, where the bunker, the phantom and the model of the15 MV LINAC head were modeled. As the incoming beam goes into the phantom the neutron spectrum is modified and the dosimetric values are reduced.

  11. Convergence: Illicit Networks and National Security in the Age of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Organized crime: a growing threat to security,” SIPRI.org, February 10, 2010, available at <www.sipri.org/media/ newsletter /essay/feb10>. 75 Chapter 5...noncriminal, but rather on elaborating on the degree of criminalization in the state. Some authors have focused on the morphology of criminal states. Bunker...basket of states referred to as criminal states, based not on their motivations or morphology but on their degree of criminalization. We have argued

  12. Shrapnel protection testing in support of the proposed Site 300 Contained Firing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrnak, J W; Baker, C F; Simmons, L F

    1992-08-04

    In preparation for the planned Contained Firing Facility at LLNL's Site 300, various multi-layered shrapnel protection schemes were investigated with the intent of minimizing the amount of material used in the shielding. As a result of testing, it was found that two pieces of 1-in.-thick mild steel plate provide adequate general-purpose protection from shrapnel generated by normal hydrodynamic and cylinder shots at Bunker 801. 8 refs.

  13. Significance of Circadian Rhythms in Aerospace Operations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    studies in deep caves, underground bunkers and isolation chambers (34, 66, 94, 110, 214, 215, 285). The advantages of these facilities are evident...isolation unit than in underground caves. Summarizing the results, obtained from controlled environment facilities with constant conditions, it can be...209. MCGANN, B.: Psychological Aspects of Transmeridian Flying. Dublin: Institute of Psychology, 1971. 210. MEEHAN, J.P., and R.D. RADER

  14. Calibration of Trust and Distrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    entrenched beliefs and behaviours, regardless of whether they are positive or negative ( Deutsch , 1973). Any proclivity toward either an exaggerated...Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research (pp. 246-260). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. DEUTSCH , M. (1973). The...Bunker, B., & Rubin, J. (Eds.). Conflict, cooperation, and justice: Essays inspired by the work of Morton Deutsch . (pp.133-173). San Francisco, CA, US

  15. Developing an Adaptability Training Strategy and Policy for the DoD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Application Training Course. William M. Darwin , Asymmetric Warfare Group Three briefings addressed specific venues where the Army believes training...Florida; Dr. David Horth , Dr. Bob Rosenfeld, Dr. Gregory B. Laskow, Dr. Kerry Bunker, Dr. Mary Lynne Pulley and Dr. Talula Cartwright from the...Thinking within the Context of Adaptability. Dr. Richard Meinhart, Army War College • Adaptability Learning Symposium. William M. Darwin , Asymmetric Warfare

  16. Bedrock Prime: How Can the United States Best Address the Need to Achieve Dominance within the Subterranean Domain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    platforms. This will be no small effort. The hardest and deepest buried targets on the planet must be serviceable on an industrial scale. Rock, soil...effort. The hardest and deepest buried targets on the planet must be serviceable on an industrial scale. Rock, soil and concrete must be penetrated by... inhabitants and internal mechanisms from the walls and floors. In order to provide protection from the effects of nuclear weapons, bunkers must also cope with

  17. PetroChina and COSCO Signed Agreement to Jointly Develop Ship Fuels Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina signed a cooperation framework agreement with China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company (“COSCO”) in Beijing on March 8. It is preliminarily agreed that PetroChina will become a shareholder of China Marine Bunker Supply Company (“CMBSC”), a subsidiary of COSCO, by injecting capital into the company and CMBSC will be restructured to become a company with limited liability.

  18. 国际新品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bunker Malta CAV和CAV-W花园安全防护灯防破坏聚碳酸酯外罩;背面含有插槽用于接线;安装设备时可在任何高度下拧紧螺丝;低压灯管(12-24V);加固的铝制腰架。

  19. Environmental Monitoring of a Titan 34D 5 1/2 Segment Solid Rocket Motor Static Firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    at Thrust Stand 1-E 16 6. HC1 Measurements at Building 8814 16 7. Wind Corridor for the Titan 34D Firing 17 8. AFAL Automatic Weather System 18 9...at a photo bunker (Building 8814 ); this second Geomet, 0. intended to provide reference data for the LLNL experimental unit, was connected via modem to... 8814 and was transmitted to Operations over the LLNL modem hookup. Because the concentration outside the Control Center dropped off rapidly, tcrit

  20. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in years 1992 and 1993; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per gli anni 1992 e 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche, Portici (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-11-01

    In 1992, the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy was 167.5 MTOE (including bunkers) while in 1993 it decreased to 165.9 MTOE. The overall electricity demand passed from 244.8 TWh in 1992 to 246.6 TWh in 1993. In the same period, the overall contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) kept almost constant at 5.y consumption. The RES contribution represented a share larger than gross National production of energy in 1992.

  1. State of the Art in Dust Suppression in Mining and Tunnel Construction; Stand der Technik bei der Staubbekaempfung im Berg- und Tunnelbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikki, P. [CFT GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany)

    2005-03-10

    Conventional fields of application of dust suppression systems are the suppression of dust on full-face and selective-cut machines as well as in headings by blasting. However, dust suppression on crushing plants, at transfer points and in bunker systems is also included. The modern plants improve health and safety protection and permit continuous operating cycles, create better working conditions and thus also increase the readiness of the work force to achieve a high performance. (orig.)

  2. Vasketøjssortering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    teknologiske løsning er udviklet af Bunker43 og består af chips med RFID (radio Frequency Identification), en scanner der kører på UHF-frekvenser (Ultra High Frequences) og en tablet med android Linux styresystem, som styrer processen med identifikation af vasketøj. Projektet har haft til formål at undersøge...

  3. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 01-1-020 Tropical Regions Environmental Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ammunition bunker, an unventilated sheet metal building, a general purpose tent, and a transportation container (CONEX). Mean maximum temperatures...injected by the bite (or sting) of a venomous animal. The banana spider of South and Central America, the funnel-web spiders of Australia, and several...displays. Containers constructed of sheet materials, and particularly certain plastics, deteriorate and fail under long-term exposure to high

  4. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-06

    all, to thermic expansion.5 Serious scientists may have some doubts about the speed and extent of the change in climate, but not its inevita- bility...investigation. The emissaries from the largest publications and televi- sion companies looked over the reinforced concrete bunkers filled from floor to ceiling...There were two earthquakes in a few seconds. Furniture and floors were shaken in some homes. However, no casualties or destruction of build- ings

  5. Sensor test facilities and capabilities at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, W.B.; Burke, L.J.; Gomez, B.J.; Livingston, L.; Nelson, D.S.; Smathers, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently developed two major field test capabilities for unattended ground sensor systems at the Department of energy`s Nevada Test Site (NTS). The first capability utilizes the NTS large area, varied terrain, and intrasite communications systems for testing sensors for detecting and tracking vehicular traffic. Sensor and ground truth data can be collected at either of two secure control centers. This system also includes an automated ground truth capability that consists of differential Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receivers on test vehicles and live TV coverage of critical road sections. Finally there is a high-speed, secure computer network link between the control centers and the Air Force`s Theater Air Command and Control Simulation Facility in Albuquerque NM. The second capability is Bunker 2-300. It is a facility for evaluating advanced sensor systems for monitoring activities in underground cut-and-cover facilities. The main part of the facility consists of an underground bunker with three large rooms for operating various types of equipment. This equipment includes simulated chemical production machinery and controlled seismic and acoustic signal sources. There has been a thorough geologic and electromagnetic characterization of the region around the bunker. Since the facility is in a remote location, it is well-isolated from seismic, acoustic, and electromagnetic interference.

  6. Radiation protection in large linear accelerators; Seguranca radiologica de aceleradores lineares de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Jose de Jesus Rivero, E-mail: rivero@con.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Sousa, Fernando Nuno Carneiro de, E-mail: fernandonunosousa@gmail.com [Aceletron Irradiacao lndustrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The electron linear accelerators can be used in industrial applications that require powerful sources of ionizing radiation. They have the important characteristic of not representing a radiation hazard when the accelerators remain electrically disconnected. With the plant in operation, a high reliability defense in depth reduces the risk of radiological accidents to extremely small levels. It is practically impossible that a person could enter into the radiation bunker with the accelerators connected. Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, located in Rio de Janeiro, offers services of irradiation by means of two powerful electron linear accelerators, with 15 kW power and 10 MeV electron energy. Despite the high level of existing radiation safety, a simplified risk study is underway to identify possible sequences of radiological accidents. The study is based on the combined application of the event and fault trees techniques. Preliminary results confirm that there is a very small risk of entering into the irradiation bunker with the accelerators in operation, but the risk of an operator entering into the bunker during a process interruption and remaining there without notice after the accelerators were restarted may be considerably larger. Based on these results the Company is considering alternatives to reduce the likelihood of human error of this type that could lead to a radiological accident. The paper describes the defense in depth of the irradiation process in Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, as well as the models and preliminary results of the ongoing risk analysis, including the additional safety measures which are being evaluated. (author)

  7. Buddy Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Projekt ’BuddyBoard’ er kommet i stand via et samarbejde mellem Frederikshavn kommune, Bunker43 og Lab. X. Afdeling en ’Havly’ på Sæby Ældrecenter fungerer som living lab, hvilket betyder, at det udgør et levende laboratorium for udvikling og afprøvning af teknologi (Schultz, 2013). Projektet er....... Bunker43 har udviklet en teknologi (BuddyBoard) til hurtig formidling af billeder fra pårørende og personale til beboere på institutioner. Pårørende og personale uploader billeder via en APP eller en hjemmeside og har mulighed for at tilføje en kort forklarende tekst til hvert billede. Beboeren ser...... billederne via en tablet. Systemet bygger på et simpelt og brugervenligt design, så ældre med kognitive og/eller fysiske funktionsnedsættelser kan anvende teknologien. BuddyBoard fungerer via internettet, og billederne gemmes på en sikret server hos udbyderen, som er Bunker43. Intentionerne med BuddyBoard er...

  8. An improvement method of pulverized coal caking problem and its application%一种有效改善煤粉结块问题的方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪林杰; 贾明生

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the common phenomenon of coal caking in pulverized coal bunker, analyzed the factors of the factors of pulverized coal caking and put forward an effective solution to the problem of coal caking. In combination with the practical problem encountered in engineering practice, double - layer bunker made by ourselves can preheat the inside of the bunker and preserve the heat of it by means of roots blower , thus solving the problem of coal caking successfully.%针对煤粉仓普遍存在的结块搭桥的现象,分析了造成煤粉结块的主要因素,提出了一种有效改善煤粉结块问题的方法.结合工程实践中遇到的实际问题,自制研究了双层罐结构,并充分利用罗茨风机排气对双层罐内筒进行预热和保温,成功解决了粉仓结块的问题.

  9. Sensor Based Effective Monitoring of Coal Handling System (CHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttalakkani.M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal level detection is an important aspect to assess the performance of a coal-fired power plant. Coal has to be transported, via a coal handling system. The fuel in a coal-fired power plant is stored in silos, bunkers or stock piles. Coal is stored in silos in a small plant, Bunkers for handling a day’s operation and Stock piling methods for large plants. So, fuel handling had to done efficiently. To accurately sense the coal height, Real-time feedback is deployed within the bunker or stock pile. The real time range information is then fedback to the control system. Of the different types of ranging sensors, radar based system is used. Also a real-time temperature monitoring system is developed to protect the coal. The range and temperature data from sensors are sent to the main system through GSM modem by means of SMS. The range information is used to start the conveyor belt to draw the coal from coal yard. If the temperature exceeds the limit, the SMS will be sent through the software or it will call the respective person to monitor the process. A fire sensor is also used to extinguish the fire by initiating the water spraying system. A PIC Microcontroller is interfaced all the sensors for effective handling of thermal power plant.

  10. Quick Scan of the Economic Consequences of Prohibiting Residual Fuels in Shipping; Quick Scan economische gevolgen van een verbod op residuale brandstof in de zeevaart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, H.P.J. de; Kroon, P.; Mozaffarian, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Sterker, Th.

    2007-07-15

    A 'Quick Scan' has been carried out on the impact on the Netherlands economy, resulting from a potential prohibition of residual fuels in international shipping. The Dutch refinery industry annually produces about 8 million tons of refinery residues, the main component of the presently used shipping fuel. It is technically possible to convert all residues into lighter products, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 3.5 million tons. A fast introduction would lead to market disruptions and peak prices. These effects could be limited by a gradual introduction over about six years, preceded by a preparation phase for the refineries of approximately six years. The investment costs for the Netherlands are estimated at about .5 tot 2 billion euros. The Rotterdam bunker market processes both domestic and imported refinery residues. The residues are used to blend shipping bunker fuels, which are both sold to ships and exported to other harbours. Rotterdam will not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of distilled shipping fuels. On balance, there is a reasonable chance that the bunker sector, where about 1500 people are employed, would decrease. [Dutch] Een 'Quick Scan' is uitgevoerd naar de economische gevolgen van een mogelijk verbod op het gebruik van residuale brandstof in de zeevaart. Het is technisch mogelijk om de Nederlandse raffinage-industrie zodanig aan te passen dat de jaarlijkse productie van ca. 8 miljoen ton residuen, die nu worden afgezet als scheepsbrandstof, geheel wordt geconverteerd in lichtere producten. Deze conversie resulteert wel in een extra energiegebruik van circa 1 miljoen ton ruwe olie en een extra CO2-uitstoot van circa 3,5 miljoen ton. Een snelle invoering leidt tot marktverstoringen en prijspieken. Deze effecten kunnen beperkt worden door een geleidelijke invoering over circa 6 jaar

  11. Liner ship refueled strategy considering ship speed%考虑船舶航速的集装箱班轮燃油补给策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶明君; 杨斌; 朱小林; 许波桅

    2015-01-01

    针对集装箱班轮运输中船舶燃油补给问题,分析船舶航速变化对燃油消耗产生的非线性影响,推导出船舶航速与船舶往返时间及船舶油耗之间的关系式,以连续多航次船舶燃油补给总成本最低为目标,加油港与加油量为决策变量,建立周计划内考虑航速的集装箱班轮燃油补给混合整数非线性规划模型。根据模型特点,利用分段线性逼近函数对模型进行等价转换。以某航运公司的亚欧单航线为仿真实验,依次分析港口时间窗、船舶类型、燃油价格及船舶油舱容量等因素对船舶燃油补给策略的影响。结果表明:该模型可以同时决策船舶加油港的选择、加油量的大小及航速的调整,比传统模式更能节省油耗和成本。%In view of the problems of ship′s refueling strategy in container liner transportation network , analysis of the non-linear influence of ship speed on fuel consumption is done and the mathematical functions are deduced to describe the relationships between the ship speed , fuel consumption and the round voyage time .To minimize the ship refueling cost , a mixed integer non-linear programming model considering ship speed is formulated to solve the optimal refueling strategy problem of where to refuel and how much to fuel .According to the characteristics of the model , we utilize piecewise linear approximation function for equivalent model .The single shipping liner service of Asia-Europe is taken as an example for the simulation experiment , the sequence analysis is made of port arrival time windows , and ship type , bunker fuel price , and ship bunker fuel capacity on bunker fuel supply strategy .The results indicate that the proposed model , compared with the conventional model , can simultaneously solve the problems of bunkering port , bunkering amounts and ship speeds adjustment , save fuel consumption and cost .

  12. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGenovese

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs in coastal sediments. Approximately 1,000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6,500 ppm. The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after three months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS allowing the containment of sediments and their physical-chemical treatment, e.g. aeration. Aeration for three months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB, and after one month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus- and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB.

  13. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Maria; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Cappello, Simone; Russo, Daniela; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Modica, Alfonso; Smedile, Francesco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura; Yakimov, Michail M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) in coastal sediments. Approximately 1000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6500 ppm). The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after 3 months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS) allowing the containment of sediments and their physical-chemical treatment, e.g., aeration. Aeration for 3 months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR, and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB), and after 1 month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus-, and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB.

  14. The odontological identification of Eva Braun Hitler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser-Nielsen, S; Strøm, F

    1983-01-01

    On May 7th-9th, 1945, a team of Russian pathologists autopsied several bodies found in and near the Fuehrer Bunker in Berlin; among them, a female body (No. 13) was later identified as that of Eva Braun Hitler (EBH), mainly by means of a gold bridge from the lower right jaw. A postmortem photograph of this bridge also shows a separate gold filling. Data now available on the dental treatment of EBH have permitted the present authors to substantiate that this gold filling also came from the mouth of EBH. Further speculation about the fate of EBH would henceforth seem professionally unfounded.

  15. Single Naval Fuel At-Sea Feasibility Study - Phase One

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    ship propulsion , electrical power generation systems, and USMC ground force equipment. JP-5 was chosen as the single fuel because the aircraft requirements are the most stringent of all the naval fuel user requirements. As an approved alternate to both F-76 and JP-8, JP-5 is the only fuel that can be used by all services for all bulk fuel requirements. It is anticipated that if JP-5 is not available for shipboard propulsion, then limited quantities of commercial marine middle distillate (diesel) fuel, purchased under local bunker contracts, may still be

  16. U. S. Naval Forces, Vietnam Monthly Historical Summary for March 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-10-02

    34 wounded and 22 cAptirvd, There wore also 50 persona detained arnd six Hol Chariha who turned themeslvvs in to naval units. A total of 49 structures/bunkers... Bien Zpccial Zone the 2nd Battalion continued security patrols in the area approxinatoly five kilo- meters east of Bien Hoa (XT 075 125), experiencing...under the control of the 18th ARVN Division. These continued until 23 March when the 2nd Bat- talion moved to Long Bien (XT 010 005) and becarm the III

  17. Rich nature, poor people? : conceptual and analytical questions on the role of natural resources for contemporary prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Este artigo questionaa tendência atual de se igualar a riqueza de recursos naturais de uma região à prosperidade e ao bem-estar dos seus habitantes. Discute formulações clássicas da "sociologia do desenvolvimento" de Prebisch e Hirschman e os seus desdobramentos nas obras mais recentes de Bunker e Freudenburg. Todos esses autores ressaltam que regiões e atividades intensivas em recursos naturais têm sérias desvantagens desenvolvimentistas quando comparadas a regiões e atividades transformador...

  18. U. S. Naval Forces, Vietnam Monthly Historical Summary for September 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-11-01

    On the morning of 16 September, eight SEALs of SEAL Team S One, Det GOLF, HOTEL Platoon under the command of LT Todd were inserted by two U.S. Army...September, At 1030H personnel of UDT 13 Det HOTEL and an RF company were inserted for a bunker destruction • mission about four kilometers east of Hoi An (BT...213 CAPT C. R. Quanstrom SA CTG 213.1 CDR R. C. Kuchera LCDR T. J. Berger SA CTG 213. 2 CDR J. L. Marriot LCDR C. E. Holcomb SA CTU 213.2.1 LCDR C. E

  19. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo;

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved....

  20. More Capable Warfighting Through Reduced Fuel Burden. The Defense Science Board Task Force on Improving Fuel Efficiency of Weapons Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    with the approach recommended by the IPCC for national GHG inventories (IPCC/UNEP/OECD/IEA, 1997) and used by the United States to develop the Inventory...pursuant to the UN Charter are not to be included in emission totals in national GHG inventories , but are to be reported separately. Bunker fuels are...can be selected, the 100-year GWPs are required for use in national GHG inventories and are used in this report. D- 12 CF is the factor used to

  1. Hydrogeological evaluation of a prototype in-situ leach cell in unsaturated lead-zinc mine and mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roy E.; Kirschner, Frederick E.

    1992-12-01

    An abandoned waste impoundment located within a portion of the Bunker Hill Superfund Site constitutes a field research area for studying the feasibility of recovering heavy metals in-situ from unsaturated mine and mill wastes. A prototype in-situ leaching cell has been evaluated using liquid-phase tracer tests and other hydrogeologic tests prior to introducing a lixiviant. The results of the tests suggest that: 1) the cell can be operated excursion-free with a low-density lixiviant at an injection/withdrawal rate of approximately 0.32 Vs; and (2) each hydrogeologic unit is highly heterogeneous at the different scales studied.

  2. Influence of physical properties of solid biomass fuels on the design and cost of storage installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Roberto; Pizarro García, Consuelo; Gutiérrez Lavín, Antonio; Bueno de Las Heras, Julio L; Pis, José Juan

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work consists on determining biomass fuels properties and studying their relation with fixed and variable costs of stores and handling systems. To do that, dimensions (length and diameter), bulk density, particle density and durability of several brands and batches of wood pellets and briquettes were tested, according to international standards. Obtained results were compared with those in literature. Bulk density tests were applied for several other biomass fuels too, and later used to determinate which ones of all the biomass-fuels tested are economically more profitable for a typical transport/store system made of a screw conveyor and a concrete bunker silo.

  3. The economic speed of an oceangoing vessel in a dynamic setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magirou, Evangelos F.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Bouritas, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    has become of increased importance due to the combined effect of low freight rates and volatile bunker prices. We examine the problem for vessels operating in the spot market in a tramp mode. In the case of known freight rates between origin destination combinations, a dynamic programming formulation...... can be applied to determine both the optimal speed and the optimal voyage sequence. Analogous results are derived for random freight rates of known distributions. In the case of independent rates the economic speed depends on fuel price and the expected freight rate, but is independent of the revenue...

  4. Development of a system for passive spectrometry characterization neutron of a cyclotron; Desarrollo de un sistema de espectrometria pasivo para la caracterizacion neutronica de un ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, R.; Guerrero, J. E.; Lagares, J. I.; Sansaloni, F.; Perez, J. M.; Llop, J.; Kralik, M.

    2013-07-01

    The most widely used for Neutron spectrometry system is formed by the Bonner spheres with an active sensor sensitive to thermal neutrons in its Center. But, the presence of strong electromagnetic fields and the hold character around a cyclotron radiation detectors active employment make unviable so it is necessary to replace it with other liabilities. In this case it has resorted to the use of Au foils such as thermal neutron detectors, found the matrix the new spectrometer response and has been validated with a source of {sup 2}52Cf for later measurements in the interior of the bunker of a cyclotron production of radioisotopes for PET. (Author)

  5. Development of explosive event scale model testing capability at Sandia`s large scale centrifuge facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Davie, N.T.; Calderone, J.J. [and others

    1998-02-01

    Geotechnical structures such as underground bunkers, tunnels, and building foundations are subjected to stress fields produced by the gravity load on the structure and/or any overlying strata. These stress fields may be reproduced on a scaled model of the structure by proportionally increasing the gravity field through the use of a centrifuge. This technology can then be used to assess the vulnerability of various geotechnical structures to explosive loading. Applications of this technology include assessing the effectiveness of earth penetrating weapons, evaluating the vulnerability of various structures, counter-terrorism, and model validation. This document describes the development of expertise in scale model explosive testing on geotechnical structures using Sandia`s large scale centrifuge facility. This study focused on buried structures such as hardened storage bunkers or tunnels. Data from this study was used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of existing hydrocodes and structural dynamics codes developed at Sandia National Laboratories (such as Pronto/SPH, Pronto/CTH, and ALEGRA). 7 refs., 50 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Comparison between steel and lead shieldings for radiotherapy rooms regarding neutron doses to patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.G.; Rebello, W.F.; Andrade, E.R.; Medeiros, M.P.C.; Mendes, R.M.S.; Braga, K.L.; Gomes, R.G., E-mail: eng.cavaliere@gmail.com, E-mail: ggrprojetos@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva, A.X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The NCRP Report No. 151, Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities, considers, in shielding calculations for radiotherapy rooms, the use of lead and/or steel to be applied on bunker walls. The NCRP Report calculations were performed foreseeing a better protection of people outside the radiotherapy room. However, contribution of lead and steel to patient dose should be taken into account for radioprotection purposes. This work presents calculations performed by MCNPX code in analyzing the Ambient Dose Equivalent due to neutron, H *(10){sub n}, within a radiotherapy room, in the patients area, considering the use of additional shielding of 1 TVL of lead or 1 TVL of steel, positioned at the inner faces of walls and ceiling of a bunker. The head of the linear accelerator Varian 2100/2300 C/D was modeled working at 18MeV, with 5 x 5 cm{sup 2}, 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}, 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}, 30 x 30 cm{sup 2} and 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} openings for jaws and MLC and operating in eight gantry's angles. This study shows that the use of lead generates an average value of H *(10){sub n} at patients area, 8.02% higher than the expected when using steel. Further studies should be performed based on experimental data for comparison with those from MCNPX simulation. (author)

  7. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  8. Absence of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) in three marine bivalves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermeulen, J.H. (Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia); Penrose, W.R.

    1978-05-01

    Bivalves exposed to short-term (4 d) and long-term (6 yr) oil pollution were assayed for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and N-demethylase activity. Short-term induction studies were carried out on Mya arenaria, Mytilus edulis, and Ostrea edulis incubated in aqueous extracts of Kuwait crude oil or Bunker C (fuel) oil. For the chronic-induction studies Mya arenaria and Mytilus edulis were collected from oiled clam beds (Arrow Bunker C) in Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia. None of the bivalves showed any basal or petroleum-hydrocarbon-induced aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase or N-demethylase activity, as shown by their inability to metabolize benzopyrene or imipramine. In contrast, oil-free control trout and trout taken from a polluted lake readily metabolized both these compounds. The inability of these bivalves to degrade petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons and the tendency of these compounds to accumulate in their tissues present an opportunity for transfer of unaltered hydrocarbons into the food chain.

  9. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel

  10. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L, and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings frost resistance (–8°C, 24 h. The most pronounced decrease in the content of saturated palmitic acid and increase in the content of unsaturated α-linolenic acid were observed during cold hardening of winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated by tebuconazole-based protectant. It is concluded that the seeds treatment with tebuconazole-based protectant causes changes of fatty acid composition of winter wheat seedlings to increase their frost resistance.

  11. The use of steel and lead shieldings in radiotherapy rooms and its comparison with respect to neutrons doses at patients; Comparacao de blindagens de aco e de chumbo usadas em salas de radioterapia quanto a dose devido a neutrons depositada em pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.G.; Rebello, W.F.; Andrade, E.R.; Medeiros, M.P.C.; Mendes, R.M.S.; Braga, K.L.; Gomes, R.G., E-mail: maglosilva15@gmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: eng.cavaliere@gmail.com, E-mail: raphaelmsm@gmail.com, E-mail: kelmo.lins@gmail.com, E-mail: ggrprojetos@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, R.F.G., E-mail: raphaelfgsantos@gmail.com [Centro Universitario Anhanguera, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The NCRP Report No. 151, Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities, considers, in shielding calculations for radiotherapy rooms, the use of lead and/or steel to be applied on bunker walls. The NCRP Report calculations were performed foreseeing a better protection of people outside the radiotherapy room. However, contribution of lead and steel to patient dose should be taken into account for radioprotection purposes. This work presents calculations performed by MCNPX code in analyzing the Ambient Dose Equivalent due to neutron, H*(10){sub n}, within a radiotherapy room, in the patients area, considering the use of additional shielding of 1 TVL of lead or 1 TVL of steel, positioned at the inner faces of walls and ceiling of a bunker. The head of the linear accelerator Varian 2100/2300 C/D was modeled working at 18MeV, with 5x5cm{sup 2}, 10x10cm{sup 2}, 20x20cm{sup 2}, 30x30cm{sup 2} and 40x40cm{sup 2} openings for jaws and MLC and operating in eight gantry's angles. This study shows that the use of lead generates an average value of H*(10){sub n} at patients area, 8.02% higher than the expected when using steel. Further studies should be performed based on experimental data for comparison with those from MCNPX simulation.

  12. Fuel Surcharge Practices of Container Shipping Lines and Comparison with Fuel Cost%集装箱运输燃油附加费与燃油成本比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦石

    2012-01-01

    Shipping lines' practices of levying a fuel surcharges on shippers, also known as the Bunker Adjustment Factor or BAF are deals with. Shipping lines have argued BAF is only partially compensated the freight rates. In contrast, shippers have always objected that the way BAFs are determined is opaque, and involves a significant element of revenue-making. The relationship between fuel costs fluctuations and fuel surcharging practices is contributed to in focusing on. A cost model is applied to various routes and compares estimates on fuel costs with the observed BAFs on a set of port-to-port liner services.%研究集装箱最常见的附加费用——燃油附加费(Bunker Adjustment Factor,简称BAF).班轮公司认为燃油费只是部分补偿运输成本的剧增,而货主认为此费用由班轮公司单方面制定,有盈利效应.随着班轮公会力量减弱,各家班轮公司采用的新的BAF计算方法.建立以航线为基础燃油成本估算模型,比较研究燃油附加费和燃油成本的关系,结合实例,验证燃油附加费是否具有盈利效应.

  13. Flexible production and logistics of wood chips; Joustava hakkeen valmistus ja logistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, M.; Pankakari, P. [Metsaeenergia Meter Ky, Louhi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The target of the project was to develop a multi-purpose chipper-lorry (MOHA), which could be used both as chipping and transportation unit. MOHA is capable of chipping trees directly from the lot, so the size of the storage plays no role. Even though the MOHA-unit can be used as an individual transportation unit, it can also be used for feeding any further dispatch unit equipped with interchangeable container system e.g. when the transportation distances are long and the ordered volumes of wood chips are large. Previous projects concerning chipping-logistics are based on various intermediate storage models, but the MOHA delivers the chips strait from the lot to the site of utilization. The raw material short-distance haulage is reduced from previous 150 - 250 m to 1 - 50 m. In this new delivery model chips are bunkered only at largest heating plants. At smaller heating plants no bunker storages are needed. MOHA collects self the load, delivers it, brings, if controlled properly, back-haul, and delivers it to another site of utilization

  14. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Zhongxian Cheng; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2006-09-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2006 through September 30, 2006. The following activities have been completed: the steel floor grating around the riser in all levels and the three-phase power supply for CFBC System was installed. Erection of downcomers, loop seals, ash bunker, thermal expansion joints, fuel and bed material bunkers with load cells, rotary air-lock valves and fuel flow monitors is underway. Pilot-scale slipstream tests conducted with bromine compound addition were performed for two typical types of coal. The purposes of the tests were to study the effect of bromine addition on mercury oxidization. From the test results, it was observed that there was a strong oxidization effect for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The proposed work for next quarter and project schedule are also described.

  15. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  16. Traceable assembly of microparts using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Dae; Hwang, Sun-Uk; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2012-10-01

    Assembly of components with a size in the order of tens of micrometers or less is difficult because the gravitational forces become smaller than weak forces such as capillary, electrostatic and van der Waals forces. As such, the picked-up components commonly adhere to the manipulator, making the release operation troublesome, and the repeatable supply of components cannot be guaranteed because the magazining and bunkering scheme available in conventional scale assembly cannot be extended to these small objects. Moreover, there are also no effective ways known to deliver the finalized assembly externally. In this paper, we present the manipulation and assembly of microparts using optical tweezers, which by nature do not have stiction problems. Techniques allowing bunkering and finalizing the assembly for exporting are also presented. Finally, we demonstrate an exemplary microassembly formed by assembling two microparts: a movable microring and a microrod fixed on a glass substrate. We believe this traceable microassembly to be an important step forward for micro- and nano-manufacturing.

  17. Propensity of coal to self-heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandian, H. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    This report reviews the propensity of coal to self-heat and in some cases, self-ignite. It includes the methods of evaluating the propensity for coal to self-heat and it covers aspects including self-heating in stockpiles, during transit, storage in bunkers as well as in the mill itself. Methods for determining the conditions at which the coal pile could undergo spontaneous combustion in order to predict the safe storage time under set conditions and the influence of the factors contributing to the spontaneous heating are reviewed. The significance of the greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the oxidation during transport and/or storage, especially CO{sub 2} are investigated. However there appears to be no emphasis in research work or published material specifically quantifying these emissions. Thus, the potential for future regulation to control these emissions by introducing cooler stockpiling environments or specific transport and bunkering modes remains unexplored. Methods currently used in safety management to avoid spontaneous combustion and/or to deal with fires due to self-heating are presented. 86 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. 海运运费de计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    班轮运价有关名词: 1.基本费率(BASIC RATE),是指每一记费单位(如一运费吨)货物收取的基本运费。基本费率有等级费率, 货种费率,从价费率,特殊费率和均一费率之分。班轮运费是由基本运费和附加费两部分组成。 2.附加费(SURCHARGES):为了保持在一定时期内基本费率的稳定, 又能正确反映出各港的各种货物的航运成本,班轮公司在基本费率之外,又规定了各种费用。主要有: (1)燃油附加费(BUNKER SUR- CHARGE OR BUNKER ADJUST-

  19. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  20. Natureza rica, povos pobres? - questões conceituais e analíticas sobre o papel dos recursos naturais na prosperidade contemporânea Rich nature, poor people? Conceptual and analytical questions on the role of natural resources for contemporary prosperity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Drummond

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo questionaa tendência atual de se igualar a riqueza de recursos naturais de uma região à prosperidade e ao bem-estar dos seus habitantes. Discute formulações clássicas da "sociologia do desenvolvimento" de Prebisch e Hirschman e os seus desdobramentos nas obras mais recentes de Bunker e Freudenburg. Todos esses autores ressaltam que regiões e atividades intensivas em recursos naturais têm sérias desvantagens desenvolvimentistas quando comparadas a regiões e atividades transformadoras de recursos naturais ou intensivas em tecnologia e informação.This article questions the current trend which supposes that the rich natural resource endowment of a region leads to the prosperity or weel-being of its inhabitants. It discusses classic statements by Prebisch and Hirschman as well as more contemporary ones by Bunker and Freudenburg. These authors stress the idea that regions and activities intensive in natural resources have serious developmental handicaps when compared to regions and activities intensive in industrial transformation of natural resources or in technology and information.

  1. Case study of Canada's 2. advanced anaerobic digester : driven by pure energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riepma, C. [PlanET Biogas Solutions Inc., St. Catharines, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed a biogas project conducted by a Canadian and a German company. PlanET Biogas is based in St. Catherine's, Ontario and is comprised of a group of experienced electrical and concrete subcontractors. The company partnered with a German firm that has built over 150 anaerobic digesters in both Germany and Holland. The biogas plant provided heat and electricity to a 6-acre greenhouse and exported electricity to the grid using 2 biogas vessels with a capacity of 1200 m{sup 3} and a 250 kW engine. Two anaerobic digesters were supplied with grape pomace and chicken manure. Bunkers at the plant stored up to 6900 m{sup 3} of material. A drainage system was used to pump seepage into the input tanks. The pilot plant has shown that grape pomace ensiles well, and has a carbon-nitrogen ratio of 82 and a pH of 4.5. It was concluded that bunkers must be constructed before other components. tabs., figs.

  2. Measuring neutron spectra in radiotherapy using the nested neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglieri, Robert, E-mail: robert.maglieri@mail.mcgill.ca; Evans, Michael; Seuntjens, Jan; Kildea, John [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H4A 3J1 (Canada); Licea, Angel [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Out-of-field neutron doses resulting from photonuclear interactions in the head of a linear accelerator pose an iatrogenic risk to patients and an occupational risk to personnel during radiotherapy. To quantify neutron production, in-room measurements have traditionally been carried out using Bonner sphere systems (BSS) with activation foils and TLDs. In this work, a recently developed active detector, the nested neutron spectrometer (NNS), was tested in radiotherapy bunkers. Methods: The NNS is designed for easy handling and is more practical than the traditional BSS. Operated in current-mode, the problem of pulse pileup due to high dose-rates is overcome by measuring current, similar to an ionization chamber. In a bunker housing a Varian Clinac 21EX, the performance of the NNS was evaluated in terms of reproducibility, linearity, and dose-rate effects. Using a custom maximum-likelihood expectation–maximization algorithm, measured neutron spectra at various locations inside the bunker were then compared to Monte Carlo simulations of an identical setup. In terms of dose, neutron ambient dose equivalents were calculated from the measured spectra and compared to bubble detector neutron dose equivalent measurements. Results: The NNS-measured spectra for neutrons at various locations in a treatment room were found to be consistent with expectations for both relative shape and absolute magnitude. Neutron fluence-rate decreased with distance from the source and the shape of the spectrum changed from a dominant fast neutron peak near the Linac head to a dominant thermal neutron peak in the moderating conditions of the maze. Monte Carlo data and NNS-measured spectra agreed within 30% at all locations except in the maze where the deviation was a maximum of 40%. Neutron ambient dose equivalents calculated from the authors’ measured spectra were consistent (one standard deviation) with bubble detector measurements in the treatment room. Conclusions: The NNS may

  3. Timing and duration of climate variability during the 8.2 ka event reconstructed from four speleothems from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Sarah; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph; Plessen, Birgit; Mischel, Simon; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Fohlmeister, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The most prominent climate anomaly of the Holocene is the 8.2 ka event, which reflects the impact of a dramatic freshwater influx into the North Atlantic during an interglacial climate state. Thus, it can be considered as a possible analogue for future climate change. Due to the short-lived nature of the event (160.5 ± 5.5 years; Thomas et al., 2007), a detailed investigation requires archives of both high temporal resolution and accurate chronology. We present high-resolution stable oxygen and carbon isotope (ca. 3-4 years) as well as sub-annually resolved trace element records of the 8.2 ka event from stalagmites (BB-3, Bu4, HLK2 and TV1) from three cave systems in Germany (Blessberg Cave, Bunker Cave and Herbstlabyrinth). The location of these caves in central European is well suited in order to detect changes in temperature and precipitation in relation to changes in the North Atlantic region (Fohlmeister et al., 2012). The 8.2 ka event is clearly recorded as a pronounced negative excursion in the δ18O values of all four speleothems. While stalagmites BB-3 from Blessberg Cave and Bu4 from Bunker Cave also show a negative excursion in the δ13C values during the event, the two speleothems from Herbstlabyrinth show no distinctive features in their δ13C values. The timing, duration and structure of the event differ between the individual records. In BB-3, the event occurs earlier (ca. 8.4 ka) and has a relatively short duration of ca. 90 years. In Bu4, the event occurs later (ca. 8.1 ka) and shows a relatively long duration of more than 200 years. In the two speleothems from the Herbstlabyrinth, the event is replicated and has a timing between 8.3 and 8.1 ka and a duration of ca. 150 years. These differences may at least in part be related to the dating uncertainties of 100-200 years (95 % confidence limits). References: Fohlmeister, J., Schroder-Ritzrau, A., Scholz, D., Spötl, C., Riechelmann, D.F.C., Mudelsee, M., Wackerbarth, A., Gerdes, A., Riechelmann, S

  4. Characterization of the neutron spectra at the final of the installations labyrinth with medical accelerators; Caracterizacion del espectro de neutrones al final del laberinto de instalaciones con aceleradores medicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, J.; Cruzate, J.A.; Gregori, B.; Papadopulos, S.; Discacciatti, A. [Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: jcarelli@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    A linear electron accelerator for medical use is an equipment dedicated to the production of collimated beams of electrons and/or photons. In an accelerator of a bigger potential or equal to 6 MV, are produced neutrons starting from the reaction (gamma, n) due to the interaction of the photons with the materials that compose the headset and the target. In this work the theoretical and experimental studies carried out to characterize the neutron spectra to the exit of the labyrinth of three bunkers of different geometry with accelerators of 15 MV, with the purpose of evaluating the effective dose of the occupationally exposure personnel are presented. It was carried out the simulation of the neutron transport with the MCNPX code and the ENDF/B - VI library. With the objective of analyzing the variables that affect the spectral distribution the bunkers of two existent facilities in Argentina were modeled. It was considered a isotropic punctual source located in the supposed position of the target. The spectra of {sup 252} Cf and of Watt of 1.8 MeV of half energy were simulated. The election of the sources was based on published works that suppose initial neutron sources with half energy between 1.8 and 2.3 MeV for accelerators of 15 at 25 MV. Its were considered headsets of different dimensions, with and without phantom of water disperser in the patient's position and several field dimensions in the isocenter. The spectral distribution doesn't present significant differences in the different modeling situations. Its were carried out measurements, with the multisphere spectrometric system based on twelve polyethylene spheres and a spherical detector of {sup 3} He, to the exit of each one of the bunkers. It was carried out the convolution of the spectrum using the MXD{sub F}C33 code (of the UMG33 set), considering as initial spectrum that of the fission type (inverse of the energy). The obtained spectra and the environmental equivalent dose rate in each case

  5. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.lima@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F., E-mail: samuelfisica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabriel.alo@aceletron.com.br [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Aceletrica Comercio e Representacoes Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Francisco C.A. Da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Warren B.; Howitt, Oliver J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Smith, Inga J., E-mail: inga@physics.otago.ac.n [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2011-03-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international maritime transport are exempt from liabilities under the Kyoto Protocol. Research into quantifying these emissions is ongoing, and influences policy proposals to reduce emissions. This paper presents a cargo-based analysis of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. Maritime transport moves 99.5% (by mass) of New Zealand's internationally traded products. It is estimated that 73% of visiting vessels' activity can be directly attributed to the movement of goods in and out of New Zealand. A cargo-based methodology was used to estimate that the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports consumed 2.5 million tonnes (Mt; 2.6 billion litres) of fuel during the year 2007, which generated 7.7 Mt of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Double-counting of emissions would occur if a similar method was applied to all New Zealand's trading partners. In contrast, since few large vessels refuel in New Zealand, the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory listed 2007 international maritime transportation emissions as 0.98 Mt of CO{sub 2}, calculated from fuel bunkered for international transport. The results, therefore, show a significant difference between activity-based and bunker-fuel methodologies in quantifying New Zealand's emissions. International policy implications are discussed. - Research highlights: {yields} Cargo-based analysis of GHG emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. {yields} 7.7 Mt of CO{sub 2} estimated from international maritime transport of NZ's 2007 imports and exports. {yields} 73% of visiting vessels' 2007 activity attributed to the movement of goods in and out of NZ. {yields} The results were significantly different from NZ's GHG Inventory bunker-fuel derived emissions figure. {yields} Detailed approach for international transport emissions

  7. Low Cost Optical Sensing Device for Fuel Detection in Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Papadopoulou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the development of a new, very low cost, simple to manufacture and use, optical sensing device for remote, on line detection of the type of fuels used in ships, is presented. The main goal of this optical sensing device is the on line detection of the fuel optical absorption that is used by the ship. The basic operating principle of the proposed sensor is based on different absorption in the range of visible spectrum between bunker diesel and fuel oil. Experimental measurements, using monochromatic laser light or white led light, have shown that the proposed sensor can distinguish very accurately the difference between the two types of oil, giving the advantage to detect the type of fuel.

  8. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  9. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  10. Social Network formed by Researchers in Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Machado Junior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study establishes the goal of identifying the existence of a social collaboration network, and the centrality of the main actors in environmental sustainability Stricto Sensu, the original composition of advisors and guests from Examining Board of theses and dissertations members. To develop this research analyzed 13959 theses and dissertations, which identified 543 titles that deal with environmental sustainability. Developed in the wake of the lifting members involved in Bunkers Examining who identified a volume of 947 actors to which they applied the Analysis of Social Networks supported by the use of specific software for this activity. A collaborative framework, generated from the bonds of participation in Examining Board proved fragmented into three main social arrangements and the occurrence of some isolated stands, not allowing the characterization of this invisible college as a small world.

  11. Combustion of oil on water: an experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    This study determined how well crude and fuel oils burn on water. Objectives were: (1) to measure the burning rates for several oils; (2) to determine whether adding heat improves the oils' combustibility; (3) to identify the conditions necessary to ignite fuels known to be difficult to ignite on ocean waters (e.g., diesel and Bunker C fuel oils); and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of an oil-burning model proposed by Thompson, Dawson, and Goodier (1979). Observations were made about how weathering and the thickness of the oil layer affect the combustion of crude and fuel oils. Nine oils commonly transported on the world's major waterways were tested. Burns were first conducted in Oklahoma under warm-weather conditions (approx. 30/sup 0/C) and later in Ohio under cold-weather conditions (approx. 0/sup 0/C to 10/sup 0/C).

  12. Total body irradiation with a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Olivares, Marina; Léger, Pierre; Larkin, Joe; Freeman, Carolyn R; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-01-01

    While the current trend in radiotherapy is to replace cobalt teletherapy units with more versatile and technologically advanced linear accelerators, there remain some useful applications for older cobalt units. The expansion of our radiotherapy department involved the decommissioning of an isocentric cobalt teletherapy unit and the replacement of a column-mounted 4-MV LINAC that has been used for total body irradiation (TBI). To continue offering TBI treatments, we converted the decommissioned cobalt unit into a dedicated fixed-field total body irradiator and installed it in an existing medium-energy LINAC bunker. This article describes the logistical and dosimetric aspects of bringing a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit into clinical service as a total body irradiator.

  13. Stopping the haemorrhage

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The cryogenic line, which has been supplying liquid helium to the SM18 Hall area dedicated for tests on radiofrequency cavities and cryomodules for the past 20 years, is currently being dismantled. It will soon be replaced with a state-of-the-art infrastructure with an up to 10 times enhanced performance.   Performing preliminary assembly works on the new cryogenic infrastructure in SM18. Part of the SM18 Hall is devoted to tests on radiofrequency (RF) cavities and cryomodules used for beam acceleration in various CERN experiments and accelerators. Inserted into cryostats and cooled to cryogenic temperatures, these cavities are tested at extreme conditions, which reflect their operating environment. The existing cryogenic infrastructure supplying liquid helium to the six RF tests stations – four vertical cryostats and two bunkers for the horizontal cryomodules – hasn’t quite been delivering the goods. Of the 25 g/s of liquid helium that the cryogenic tank was a...

  14. The new bern PET cyclotron, its research beam line, and the development of an innovative beam monitor detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, Saverio

    2013-04-01

    The new Bern cyclotron laboratory aims at industrial radioisotope production for PET diagnostics and multidisciplinary research by means of a specifically conceived beam transfer line, terminated in a separate bunker. In this framework, an innovative beam monitor detector based on doped silica and optical fibres has been designed, constructed, and tested. Scintillation light produced by Ce and Sb doped silica fibres moving across the beam is measured, giving information on beam position, shape, and intensity. The doped fibres are coupled to commercial optical fibres, allowing the read-out of the signal far away from the radiation source. This general-purpose device can be easily adapted for any accelerator used in medical applications and is suitable either for low currents used in hadrontherapy or for currents up to a few μA for radioisotope production, as well as for both pulsed and continuous beams.

  15. The new bern PET cyclotron, its research beam line, and the development of an innovative beam monitor detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccini, Saverio [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-04-19

    The new Bern cyclotron laboratory aims at industrial radioisotope production for PET diagnostics and multidisciplinary research by means of a specifically conceived beam transfer line, terminated in a separate bunker. In this framework, an innovative beam monitor detector based on doped silica and optical fibres has been designed, constructed, and tested. Scintillation light produced by Ce and Sb doped silica fibres moving across the beam is measured, giving information on beam position, shape, and intensity. The doped fibres are coupled to commercial optical fibres, allowing the read-out of the signal far away from the radiation source. This general-purpose device can be easily adapted for any accelerator used in medical applications and is suitable either for low currents used in hadrontherapy or for currents up to a few {mu}A for radioisotope production, as well as for both pulsed and continuous beams.

  16. La Chute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gárate

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos días del III Reich, Hitler y sus lugartenientes se encuentran refugiados en un bunker de Berlín. Los soviéticos están a las puertas de la ciudad y el régimen agoniza. Adolfo Hitler prefiere sacrificar a su pueblo antes de enfrentar una nueva capitulación. Los recuerdos de la derrota de 1918 lo obsesionan mientras niños, mujeres y ancianos luchan por sobrevivir a la guerra total desatada por su líder.  El relato está construido partir del testimonio real de una joven que trabaj...

  17. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive...... for the bunker consumption in the network as well as the transit time of cargo. Speed optimization has been considered for tramp shipping showing significant reductions in fuel consumption. However, variable speeds has not been considered for post optimization of the LSNDP, where speed optimization could result...... in changes to the cargo flow due to transit time restrictions as well as significant savings in fuel consumption and required vessel deployment due to a weekly frequency requirement. We present a heuristic method to calculate variable speed on a service and present computational results for improving...

  18. Reason for the black smoke discharged from the chimney of stamp-charging battery and improvement%捣固焦炉烟囱冒黑烟的原因及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞民

    2014-01-01

    分析了捣固焦炉烟囱冒黑烟的原因和主要影响因素,通过优化捣固操作、缩小煤箱宽度和改进配煤结构等措施,推焦电流由150~170A 降低到105~120A,杜绝了焦炉烟囱冒黑烟现象。%The reasons and main influencing factors for the black smoke discharged from the chimney of stamp-charging battery,and corresponding measures such as optimizing operation,narrow the coal bunker and adjusting coal blending structure and so on are taken. As a result,the pushing current is reduced to 105 ~ 120A from 150 ~ 170A,and no black smoke is discharged from the chimney any more.

  19. Residual hydrocarbon toxicity in sediments impacted by the 1970 Arrow spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.D.; Tremblay, G.H. [Fisheries and Oceans. Inst. Maurice Lamontagne, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, J.H.; Mossman, D.C. [Fisheries and Oceans. Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M. [Environment Canada. Environmental Science Centre, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R.C.; Garrett, R.M.; Haith, C.E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    An assessment of the biological effects associated with a marine oil spill that occurred more than twenty years ago was presented. In 1970, 2,045 m{sup 3} of Bunker C crude oil impacted 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline when the tanker Arrow ran aground. Only 10 per cent of the contaminated shoreline was subjected to cleanup. The other 90 per cent was left to degrade naturally. In 1993 and 1997, samples of sediment and interstitial water were collected in areas where residual oil from the spill was still evident. Chemical analysis has shown that the oil has undergone substantial biodegradation. As a result of natural attenuation process for more than a 20 year period, the toxicity of the residual oil has been reduced. Substantial evidence of habitat recovery was also found. 43 res., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Verification of the shielding built for a Cyclotron accelerator; Verificacao da blindagem construida para um acelerador do tipo Ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videira, Heber S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com [CYCLOPET Radiofarmacos LTDA., Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Passaro, Bruno M.; Gonzalez, Julia A.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C.; Buchpigue, Carlos A. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear (CMN) do InRad HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    According to the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) resolution 112/2011, administrative controls must be applied during the construction of a cyclotron and documents must be created showing that the facility can operate without radiological risks, referring even to the shielding efficiency. This study aimed to perform the analysis of the construction and efficiency of the bunker built for shielding, in the cyclotron of University of Sao Paulo Medical School Health System. This was possible through the measurements of a radiometric survey in normal working conditions, and testing related to compression resistance and density. The results showed that the compression resistance of the concrete used is higher than the expected value and the average density value obtained is within the tolerated limits. The radiometric survey results showed that the levels of ionizing radiation are well below the established limits. (author)

  1. Department of Defense Base Structure Report (A Summary of DoD’s Real Property Inventory). Fiscal Year 2002 Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Natl Guard Grissom AFB Bunker Hill 46971 114 1,414,089 2,880 2,421 349.2 1 1765-688-5211AF Active Hulman Regional Airport Terre Haute 47803 52 341,935...821 5,923,311 62,929 62,928 2,293.3 194 3,216 3,410Navy Active Newport Chem Depot Terre Haute 47802 229 828,749 1 3,000 8,498 7,098 246.0 1 49 343...Brunssum Pomms Brunssum 60 752,589 121.3 5 1 249 255Army Active Eygelshoven Reserve Strge Area Eygelshoven 37 600,357 93.0 7 17 116 140Army Active

  2. Evidence for Proterozoic and late Cretaceous-early Tertiary ore-forming events in the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, D.L.; Hofstra, A.H.; Church, S.E.; Snee, L.W.; Vaughn, R.B.; Zartman, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar age spectra on sericite and lead isotope data on tetrahedrite, siderite, galena, bournonite, and stibnite, together with previously published isotopic, geochemical, and geologic studies provide evidence for two major vein-forming events in the Coeur d'Alene district and surrounding area of the Belt basin. The data suggest that the zinc- and lead-rich veins (e.g., Bunker Hill and Star-Morning mines) formed in the Proterozoic (1.0 Ga), whereas the silver-rich veins (e.g., Silver belt mines), antimony veins (e.g., US Antimony mine), and gold-bearing quartz veins (Murry subdistrict) formed in Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time.

  3. Simulating Afterburn with LLNL Hydrocodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, L D

    2004-06-11

    Presented here is a working methodology for adapting a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed hydrocode, ALE3D, to simulate weapon damage effects when afterburn is a consideration in the blast propagation. Experiments have shown that afterburn is of great consequence in enclosed environments (i.e. bomb in tunnel scenario, penetrating conventional munition in a bunker, or satchel charge placed in a deep underground facility). This empirical energy deposition methodology simulates the anticipated addition of kinetic energy that has been demonstrated by experiment (Kuhl, et. al. 1998), without explicitly solving the chemistry, or resolving the mesh to capture small-scale vorticity. This effort is intended to complement the existing capability of either coupling ALE3D blast simulations with DYNA3D or performing fully coupled ALE3D simulations to predict building or component failure, for applications in National Security offensive strike planning as well as Homeland Defense infrastructure protection.

  4. Radiation shielding for neutron guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersez, T.; Braoudakis, G.; Osborn, J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Models of the neutron guide shielding for the out of bunker guides on the thermal and cold neutron beam lines of the OPAL Reactor (ANSTO) were constructed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP 4B. The neutrons that were not reflected inside the guides but were absorbed by the supermirror (SM) layers were noted to be a significant source of gammas. Gammas also arise from neutrons absorbed by the B, Si, Na and K contained in the glass. The proposed shielding design has produced compact shielding assemblies. These arrangements are consistent with safety requirements, floor load limits, and cost constraints. To verify the design a prototype was assembled consisting of 120 mm thick Pb(96%)Sb(4%) walls resting on a concrete block. There was good agreement between experimental measurements and calculated dose rates for bulk shield regions.

  5. Optical spectroscopy to study confined and semi-closed explosions of homogeneous and composite charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiz, Lotfi; Trzciński, Waldemar A.; Paszula, Józef

    2017-01-01

    Confined and semi-closed explosions of new class of energetic composites as well as TNT and RDX charges were investigated using optical spectroscopy. These composites are considered as thermobarics when used in layered charges or enhanced blast explosives when pressed. Two methods to estimate fireball temperature histories of both homogeneous and metallized explosives from the spectroscopic data are also presented, compared and analyzed. Fireball temperature results of the charges detonated in a small explosion chamber under air and argon atmospheres, and detonated in a semi-closed bunker are presented and compared with theoretical ones calculated by a thermochemical code. Important conclusions about the fireball temperatures and the physical and chemical phenomena occurring after the detonation of homogeneous explosives and composite formulations are deduced.

  6. Simulator for bucket wheel excavators in brown coal open mining of RWE Power AG; Simulator fuer Schaufelradbagger in Braunkohlentagebauen der RWE Power AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittmann, Robert; Niess, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Frechen-Habbelrath (Germany). Technikzentrum Tagebaue / Abt. PCZ-E Betriebsfuehrungssysteme; Rosenberg, Heinrich [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Tagebauplanung und -genehmigung

    2011-05-15

    In the three large open pits Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) uses bucket wheel excavators, conveyor systems and spreaders that provide a continuous mass flow of the production side to the damping site of the opencast mine or the coal bunker respectively. On the world market there hardly exist paragons of solutions for the construction and commissioning of technical innovations of this conveyor technology. Consequently, the eligible technical and technological solutions have to be newly created. Therefore RWE Power AG developed an innovative simulator for bucket wheel excavators. The implementation takes place in a phased approach in which each stage has its own benefits for the company.

  7. Challenges and opportunities in image guided particle therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, M; Baroni, G

    2015-01-01

    The application of biomedical imaging and image processing to radiation therapy with accelerated particles has unique challenges. The potential of particle therapy to precisely tailor the dose distribution around the target volume needs to account for the intrinsic sensitivity to uncertainties in dose deposition. These peculiar features motivate the use of image guided methods to consistently verify the accuracy in dose delivery. Dedicated imaging and image processing methods are required, from treatment planning to treatment verification phases, in order to reduce the effects of uncertainties. The scenario is also complicated by the lack of standardized layouts of treatment bunkers, which implies the relatively increased use of custom solutions. Conversely, imaging can be applied to verify the actual delivered dose, representing a valuable opportunity to validate specific protocols and visualize the efficacy of the intended treatment. In this contribution, challenges and opportunities in image guided particle therapy are overviewed, with a clear focus on research perspectives in biomedical imaging and image processing.

  8. Digital measurement system for the LHC klystron high voltage modulator.

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkelsen, Anders

    Accelerating voltage in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is created by a means of 16 superconducting standing wave RF cavities, each fed by a 400MHz/300kW continuous wave klystron amplifier. Part of the upgrade program for the LHC long shutdown one is to replace the obsolete analogue current and voltage measurement circuitry located in the high voltage bunkers by a new, digital system, using ADCs and optical fibres. A digital measurement card is implemented and integrated into the current HV modulator oil tank (floating at -58kV) and interfaced to the existing digital VME boards collecting the data for several klystrons at the ground potential. Measured signals are stored for the logging, diagnostics and post-mortem analysis purposes.

  9. Aktivt ejerskab - kapitalfondenes rolle i fremtidens shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Sornn-Friese, Henrik; Kjærulff, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Der går nærmest ikke en dag, uden at medierne kan rapportere om, at endnu en pengestærk udenlandsk kapitalfond har opkøbt en velfungerende dansk virksomhed". Adfærdsrelaterede risiciopstår, når virksomhedens forskellige interessenter forsøger at forfølge kortsigtede mål og egne snævre interesser........ Det kan eksempelvis være investorer, der søger den hurtige fortjeneste, bestyrelsesmedlemmer, der handler opportunistisk eller øvrige interessenter, der lobbyer for særinteresser. OW Bunker-skandalen er et godt eksempel på, hvor galt det kan gå i den sammenhæng....

  10. [An experimental study of the possibility for the preservation of the causative agent of plague in the nest substrate of the long-tailed suslik].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, L P; Maevskiĭ, M P; Khabarov, A V

    1997-01-01

    How long Yersinia pestis can preserve in the nest substrate of Spermophililus undulatus and whether it can infect the animals contacting with the substrate infected with flea feces and carcasses were studied in a Tuva natural focus. The infected material was kept in special niches of a bunkering laboratory, which imitated a souslik nest. Biological, serological, and bacteriological studies were conducted after different storage periods. The experiment used 25 sousliks, 56 albino mice, and 3256 fleas. Two hundred and ninety flea carcasses were individually explored. Y.pestis was ascertained to survive in the nest substrate infected with flea feces and carcasses. The pathogen may be preserved as a mutant in the flea carcasses, as evidenced by the isolation of 6 Y. pestis cultures from flea carcasses as a L-form. There is evidence for the fact that healthy animals may be infected on their contact with the contaminated substrate.

  11. Commissioning of the 400 MHz LHC RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapala, Edmond; Baudrenghien, P; Brunner, O; Butterworth, A; Linnecar, T; Maesen, P; Molendijk, J; Montesinos, E; Valuch, D; Weierud, F

    2008-01-01

    The installation of the 400 MHz superconducting RF system in LHC is finished and commissioning is under way. The final RF system comprises four cryo-modules each with four cavities in the LHC tunnel straight section round IP4. Also underground in an adjacent cavern shielded from the main tunnel are the sixteen 300 kW klystron RF power sources with their high voltage bunkers, two Faraday cages containing RF feedback and beam control electronics, and racks containing all the slow controls. The system and the experience gained during commissioning will be described. In particular, results from conditioning the cavities and their movable main power couplers and the setting up of the low level RF feedbacks will be presented.

  12. “碉堡”住宅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Spaceshift; Studio; 张小千

    2010-01-01

    项目名称:Bunker House竣工时间:2009年项目地点:泰国,华富里场地面积:800平方米项目面积:293平方米设计公司:VaSLab Co.,Ltd.摄影:Spaceshift Studio文字翻译:张小千本项目位于泰国华富里。这里是泰国最大的军队营区,因此大部分的本地居民都是军队成员。华富里的标志性建筑之一是泰国最大的水库——Pasak

  13. 通往自由之潞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查妮

    2011-01-01

    翻开任何一张波士顿地图,都会看到一条起于波士顿公园(The Boston Common)、终于邦克山纪念碑(Bunker Hill Monument)的蜿蜒红线,这便是著名的“自由之路”(The Freedom Trai1)。这条全长2.5英里、由红砖铺砌的导航线贯穿了波士顿16个美国殖民地时期与独立战争时期的历史遗迹。别看里程不长,曲曲折折间却囊括了波士顿大部分地标建筑。

  14. Commissioning of the First Klystron-Based X-Band Power Source at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kovermann, J; Curt, S; Doebert, S; Naon, M; McMonagle, G; Paju, E; Rey, S; Riddone, G; Schirm, K; Syratchev, I; Timeo, L; Wuensch, W; Hamdi, A; Peauger, FF; Eichner, J; Haase, A; Sprehn, D

    2012-01-01

    A new klystron based X-band rf power source operating at 11.994 GHz has been installed and started to be commissioned at CERN in collaboration with CEA Saclay and SLAC for CLIC accelerating structure tests. The system comprises a solid state high voltage modulator, an XL5 klystron developed by SLAC, a cavity based SLED type pulse compressor, the necessary low level rf system including rf diagnostics and interlocks and the surrounding vacuum, cooling and controls infrastructure. The system is designed to produce up to 50 MW rf pulses of 1500 ns pulse width and 50 Hz repetition rate. After pulse compression, up to 100 MW of rf power at 250 ns pulse width will be available in the structure test bunker. This paper describes in more detail this setup and the process of commissioning which is necessary to arrive at the design performance.

  15. The use of high-density concretes in radiotherapy treatment room design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facure, A; Silva, A X

    2007-09-01

    With the modernization of radiotherapic centers, medical linear accelerators are largely replacing (60)Co teletherapy units. In many cases, the same vault housing the (60)Co teletherapy unit is reused for the linear accelerator and, when space is at a premium, high-density concrete (3.0-5.0 g/cm(3)) is employed to provide shielding against the primary, scatter and leakage radiation. This work presents a study based on Monte Carlo simulations of transmission of some clinical photon spectra (of 4-10 MV accelerators) through some types of high-density concretes, normally used in the construction of radiotherapy bunkers. From the simulations, the initial and subsequent tenth-value layers (TVL) for these materials, taking into account realistic clinical photon spectra, are presented, for primary radiation.

  16. 输煤系统雨季潮湿煤上仓风险优化控制%Optimal Control of Wet Coal Conveying Risk in Rainy Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宏彬

    2013-01-01

    Combined with technical process and coal quality in certain coal conveying system,the negative effect of conveying wet coal is presented.The optimal risk control policy is put forward for reducing the plugging probability of coal drop pipe and warehouse,controlling the effect of wet coal upon stable combustion for the avoidance of boiler stop resulted from bunker plugging.%结合某发电公司输煤系统工艺流程及来煤煤质状况,阐述雨季潮湿煤上仓的负面影响及风险控制优化策略,以降低落煤管、原煤仓堵仓几率,控制潮湿煤对锅炉稳定燃烧的影响,避免锅炉因堵仓导致停炉事故.

  17. Séminaire de physique corpusculaire | 27 February

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

      The new Bern cyclotron laboratory for PET radioisotope production and its beam line for multi-disciplinary research, by Dr Saverio Braccini, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern. Wednesday 27 February 2013 at 11:15 Science III, Auditoire 1S081 30, quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 Abstract: The new Bern cyclotron laboratory is based on a 18 MeV proton cyclotron equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long research beam line, terminated in a separate bunker. This particular configuration is designed for industrial Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radiation protection, materials science, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy scientific activities. This project is the result of the successful collaboration among the University Hospital in Bern (Inselspital), the University of Bern, private investors and industrial partners. This new facility is now operational and open to nation...

  18. Verification of effectiveness of borated water shield for a cyclotron type self-shielded; Verificacao da eficacia da blindagem de agua borada construida para um acelerador ciclotron do tipo autoblindado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videira, Heber S.; Burkhardt, Guilherme M.; Santos, Ronielly S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com.br [Cyclopet Radiofarmacos Ltda., Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Passaro, Bruno M.; Gonzalez, Julia A.; Santos, Josefina; Guimaraes, Maria I.C.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Lenzi, Marcelo K. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitina (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica

    2013-04-15

    The technological advances in positron emission tomography (PET) in conventional clinic imaging have led to a steady increase in the number of cyclotrons worldwide. Most of these cyclotrons are being used to produce {sup 18}F-FDG, either for themselves as for the distribution to other centers that have PET. For there to be safety in radiological facilities, the cyclotron intended for medical purposes can be classified in category I and category II, ie, self-shielded or non-shielded (bunker). Therefore, the aim of this work is to verify the effectiveness of borated water shield built for a cyclotron accelerator-type Self-shielded PETtrace 860. Mixtures of water borated occurred in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications, as well as the results of the radiometric survey in the vicinity of the self-shielding of the cyclotron in the conditions established by the manufacturer showed that radiation levels were below the limits. (author)

  19. The impact of military activities on the concentration of mercury in soils of military training grounds and marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gębka, Karolina; Bełdowski, Jacek; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2016-11-01

    Military activities have been conducted on land and at sea. Both during conflicts and in peace time, some regions served as a military training ground which included firing positions and bunkers. Mercury fulminate has been used in ammunition primers and detonators. Certain amount of ammunition was dumped into the Baltic Sea after the Second World War. Because of corroded containers, mercury can be released into the marine environment. The soil and sediment samples were taken from military training grounds, southern Baltic in 2014 and 2015. The concentration of mercury was determined by AMA-254 analyzer. Hg concentration was higher in the places of military activities, as compared to other areas. Ten times increased concentration of Hg was determined in soil sample collected in area of active gun range compared to the reference station. The significant higher concentration of mercury was detected in stations where chemical warfare agents were found.

  20. The second Ariane launch complex (ELA-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, C.

    1985-05-01

    ELA-2 will, in 1986, become the primary Ariane launch complex, with ELA-1 being relegated to back-up roles. Both Ariane 3 and Ariane 4 vehicles can lift-off from ELA 2, but not ELA-1. In the Preparation Zone, spacecraft, launch vehicles and propellant are unloaded from shipment, stored and assembled in a one month process. The assembly building is equipped with stored ice to ensure continued air conditioning and cooling of electronic equipment and stored fuels in case of power outage. The launch gantry to which the Ariane is transported by rail is equipped with blast channels to redirect the rocket exhausts. The control center has remote cameras and sensors for monitoring launch pad activities and an underground, concrete bunker for the safety of up to 200 personnel.

  1. Viability of LPG use in low-power outboard engines for reduction in consumption and pollutant emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, S.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J. [Universidad de Vigo, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Vigo (Spain); Hernandez, J.J. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Ciudad Real (Spain); Lopez-Gonzalez, L.M. [Universidad de La Rioja, Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica, Logrono (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    This study presents the viability of the use of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) dosage systems in order to solve the fuel supply in four-stroke outboard engines in compliance with regulations concerning emissions of immediate application pollutants. Results obtained show an important decrease in specific fuel consumption (nearly 20%) provoking a small power loss (about 5%), with an extra saving when making use of bottled fuel, which does not suffer spills in the bunkers and maintenance operations. Laboratory tests have been carried out on 8 and 15 HP Yamaha outboard engines, obtaining reductions in pollutants (CO, HC and NO{sub x}) of 60% and of 95% for each power, respectively. These trials have been contrasted with tests carried out in the Vigo estuary and the river Milno waterways, both located in the South of Galicia (Spain). (Author)

  2. Linking CO{sub 2} emissions from international shipping to the EU emissions trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaageson, Per [Nature Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    The objective of the report is to analyse the feasibility of a cap-and-trade system for CO{sub 2} emissions from international shipping linked to the European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). The idea presented in the paper is to tie the permission for a ship to call at a port of a participating country to the vessels participation in a scheme for emissions trading under a common cap. The ship would be liable for emissions from fuel bunkered during, say, six months prior to a call at a participating port. With this design, emissions from the return voyages of ships involved in intercontinental traffic would automatically be covered, and shipowners and operators would gain nothing by calling at ports just outside the European Union. The geographical scope would thus be global, albeit limited to ships that call at ports of the European Union (and other participating states). The fuel consumption, that the surrendered CO{sub 2} allowances would have to match, could be declared by using the existing mandatory bunker delivery notes that all ships above 400 GT need to keep according to Regulation 18 of MARPOL Annex VI. The report discusses various ways for initial allocation of allowances and concludes that the least distorting method would be to sell them on auction and recycle all or most of the revenues to the shipping sector in a way that does not interfere with the objective of the trading scheme. In the case where Maritime Emissions Trading Scheme (METS) is initially limited to the ports of the European Union, at least 6 200 million ton less CO{sub 2} would be emitted over the 23 years between 2012 and 2035 compared to a business-as-usual scenario. However, a great part of this would be reductions in land-based sources paid indirectly by the shipping sector. (orig.)

  3. Automatic validation of phosphopeptide identifications from tandem mass spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bingwen; Ruse, Cristian; Xu, Tao; Park, Sung Kyu; Yates, John

    2007-02-15

    We developed and compared two approaches for automated validation of phosphopeptide tandem mass spectra identified using database searching algorithms. Phosphopeptide identifications were obtained through SEQUEST searches of a protein database appended with its decoy (reversed sequences). Statistical evaluation and iterative searches were employed to create a high-quality data set of phosphopeptides. Automation of postsearch validation was approached by two different strategies. By using statistical multiple testing, we calculate a p value for each tentative peptide phosphorylation. In a second method, we use a support vector machine (SVM; a machine learning algorithm) binary classifier to predict whether a tentative peptide phosphorylation is true. We show good agreement (85%) between postsearch validation of phosphopeptide/spectrum matches by multiple testing and that from support vector machines. Automatic methods conform very well with manual expert validation in a blinded test. Additionally, the algorithms were tested on the identification of synthetic phosphopeptides. We show that phosphate neutral losses in tandem mass spectra can be used to assess the correctness of phosphopeptide/spectrum matches. An SVM classifier with a radial basis function provided classification accuracy from 95.7% to 96.8% of the positive data set, depending on search algorithm used. Establishing the efficacy of an identification is a necessary step for further postsearch interrogation of the spectra for complete localization of phosphorylation sites. Our current implementation performs validation of phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-containing peptides having one or two phosphorylation sites from data gathered on an ion trap mass spectrometer. The SVM-based algorithm has been implemented in the software package DeBunker. We illustrate the application of the SVM-based software DeBunker on a large phosphorylation data set.

  4. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  5. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing.

  6. Η πετρέλευση των πλοίων και οι νέοι κανονισμοί για τις εκπομπές θείου

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Η λειτουργία του bunkering των πλοίων θεωρείται τέχνη αν σκεφτούμε ότι στην ελεύθερη φορτηγό ναυτιλία κανένα ταξίδι δεν ακριβώς ίδιο με ένα άλλο. Σε αυτή τη εργασία γίνεται αναφορά στις έννοιες «bunkers» και «bunkering». Γίνεται παρουσίαση της τωρινής κατάστασης της αγοράς και των εμπλεκόμενων μερών μετά την εφαρμογή των νέων κανονισμών για τις εκπομπές θείου. Η ανάλυση εστιάζεται σε δύο κατευθύνσεις. Στο πρώτο μέρος αναλύονται οι διαδικασίες παραγγελίας καυσίμων από το ναυτιλιακό γραφείο και...

  7. Estudo comparativo de diferentes tipos de silos sobre a composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de milho Comparative studies on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Melotti

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes tipos de silos de laboratório, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos, sacos plásticos e manilhas de concreto com revestimento plástico, em dois diferentes graus de compactação (400 ou 600 kg de silagem/m3, foram comparados com o silo comercial tipo trincheira amostrado a 0, 50 e 100 cm da sua superfície. A planta de milho (27,3% de MS e 8,4% de PB foi picada, homogeneizada e utilizada para encher quatro silos por tratamento. Depois de abertos, estes foram amostrados para análise da composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo. Os teores de MS e PB variaram entre os diferentes extratos do silo comercial e foram intermediários nos silos laboratoriais, indicando maior translocação de água e nutrientes naquele do que nestes. Os silos laboratoriais representaram bem os comerciais, quanto aos componentes da parede celular, amido, carboidratos solúveis e DIVMS. O pH foi menor na silagem obtida no extrato médio, intermediário no profundo e maior na superfície do silo comercial. Silagens obtidas no extrato médio também apresentaram maiores teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido lático, enquanto que as obtidas no extrato profundo apresentaram as concentrações mais elevadas de ácido acético. De forma geral, os silos laboratoriais representaram bem o perfil de fermentação dos silos comerciais (pH, concentração de etanol, acético, propiônico, butírico, lático e N amoniacal, já que a maior variabilidade de resposta foi observada entre os extratos do silo comercialA commercial bunker silo and three types of experimental silos were used for determination of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage (27.3% DM and 8.4% CP ensiled in two different densities (400 or 600kg of silage/m3: 1 commercial bunker silo sampled at 0, 50 and 100 cm from the top; 2 plastic silo with bulsen valve; 3 plastic bag; and 4 concrete pipe. Dry matter and CP concentration showed larger variation

  8. 碳排放权交易下的班轮船队配置优化研究%Optimization of Liner Ship Fleet Mix Strategy under Emission Trading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱墨; 真虹; 甘爱平

    2016-01-01

    With the trend of imposing market-based mechanisms in shipping industry, this paper proposes an optimization model for liner ship fleet mix strategy under carbon emission trading system, which minimizes the total expected operational costs in multiple periods. The uncertain carbon emission allowance price is described by Geometric Brownian Motion. A numerical experiment with real industrial data is carried out to analyze optimized fleet mix strategy and carbon emission volume. Result shows that by involving liner companies into emission trading system, fleet carbon emissions can be reduced significantly, while companies need to pay for the allowances purchase. Another conclusion that based on sensitivity analysis of bunker prices shows:the impact of emission trading system on motivation to use energy-efficient ships and fleet carbon mitigation increases along with the rising of bunker price.%针对集装箱班轮运输企业建立考虑碳排放权交易机制的船队配置优化模型,以期实现船队营运成本最小化。采用几何布朗运动描述欧洲碳排放权交易价格的波动路径,以使决策根据变化的碳交易价格做出。收集班轮业营运数据设计案例,验证了模型能够应用于实例分析。算例结果显示,即使在近期较低的欧洲碳交易价格水平下,在集装箱班轮行业中实施碳交易机制仍能取得明显的减排效果,但企业也需付出一定的费用;针对燃油价格做敏感性分析得出,随着燃油价格的上升,碳交易机制对促进减排的效果也越加显著。

  9. Relationships among ensiling, nutritional, fermentative, microbiological traits and contamination in corn silages addressed with partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, A; Bassi, D; Esposito, R; Moschini, M; Cocconcelli, P S; Masoero, F

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this work was to reduce the predictor dimensionality and to develop a model able to forecast contamination in corn silages. A survey on 33 dairy farms was performed, and samples from core, lateral, and apical parts of the feed-out face of corn silage bunkers were analyzed for chemical, biological (digestible and indigestible NDF), fermentative (pH, ammonia nitrogen, lactic acid, VFA, and ethanol), and microbiological (yeasts and molds) traits. Corn silage samples were analyzed for cell and spore counts by adoption of a molecular DNA-based method. A partial least squares (PLS) regression with a leave-one-out cross-validation method was used to reduce the dimensionality of the original predictors ( = 30) by projecting the independent variables into latent constructs. In a first step of the model development, the importance of independent variables in predicting contamination was assessed by plotting factor loadings of both dependent and independent variables on the first 2 components and by verifying for each predictor the variable influence on projection values adopting the Wold's criterion as well as the entity of standardized regression coefficients. Three ensiling characteristics (bunker type, presence of lateral wrap plastic film, and penetration resistance as a measurement of the ensiled mass density), a chemical trait (DM), 9 characterizations of the fermentative profile (pH, ammonia nitrogen, acetic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, ethanol, and lactic acid), and 2 microbiological traits (yeasts and molds) were retained as important terms in the PLS model. Three reduced-variable PLS (rPLS) regressions-the first based on ensiling, chemical, fermentative, and microbiological retained important variables (rPLSecfm); the second based on chemical, fermentative, and microbiological retained important traits (rPLScfm); and the last based on only chemical and fermentative retained important variables (r

  10. España ante la II Guerra Mundial. El sistema defensivo contemporáneo del Campo de Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel J. Sáez Rodríguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El sistema defensivo contemporáneo del Campo de Gibraltar es un plan de elaborado por el Estado Mayor de Franco antes del estallido de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Se basa en más de quinientos fortines de hormigón, construidos desde mayo de 1939 y durante el conflicto mundial, a partir del temor a una invasión anglo-francesa procedente de Gibraltar. Ciertas informaciones del espionaje militar, con escasa base, condujeron al inicio de la fortificación del istmo de Gibraltar, extendiendo sus flancos desde la desembocadura del río Guadiaro hasta las playas de Conil. Es un proyecto diferente del plan de artillado del Estrecho que aborda, inmediatamente después, la Comisión de Fortificación de la Frontera Sur del general Jevenois. Aunque el sistema presenta claras influencias formales europeas, continúa principios tácticos ensayados ampliamente en la Guerra Civil Española.Palabras clave: Campo de Gibraltar, Fortín, General Jevenois, Sistema defensivo contemporáneo, Segunda Guerra Mundial, Comisión de Fortificación de la Frontera Sur___________________________Abstract:The contemporary defensive system in the Campo de Gibraltar was planned by General Franco before the Second World War outbreak. It consists of over five thousand bunkers which were built between May 1939 and the end of the war, due to the fear of a British-French attack from Gibraltar. This unfounded information, provided by the military intelligence services, led to the building of the aforementioned defensive system, starting in the isthmus of Gibraltar and occupying the area between River Guadiaro and the beaches of Conil. This plan is different from the Strait artillery plan which was developed just after the aforementioned one by General Jenevois' Comisión de Fortificación de la Frontera Sur (South Border Fortification Comission. Although this defence system is clearly influenced by the European trend, it is based on the tactics developed during the Spanish Civil War

  11. Impact of oil spill and posterior clean-up activities on wrack-living talitrid amphipods on estuarine beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Borzone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A geomorphological and faunistic seasonal study of six estuarine beaches on Paranaguá Bay, Brazil, was abruptly interrupted when the Chilean ship "Vicuña" exploded and sank, spilling 291 tons of bunker fuel oil. The beaches sampled twice before the accident were affected by the oil spill deposition and the posterior clean-up activities. Neither drastic reduction in abundances nor occurrences of oil-covered individuals were registered. Significant variation in both amount of debris and talitrid amphipod densities was directly related to beach clean-up activities. A short (1-3 month manual clean-up of polluted wrack resulted in an increase in talitrid abundances, with the local distribution expansion of one species, Platorchestia monodi, from three to six of the beaches sampled. The active migration and concentration of organisms at sites without wrack during cleaning activities and a massive and continuous recovery of new debris, characteristic of estuarine beaches, may contribute to the findings.Um estudo sazonal da geomorfologia e fauna de seis praias estuarinas na baia de Paranaguá, Brasil, foi interrompido bruscamente pela explosão e posterior afundamento do navio chileno Vicuña, que derramou 291 toneladas de óleo bunker. As praias que foram afetadas pela deposição de óleo e pelas posteriores atividades de limpeza, tinham sido amostradas duas vezes antes do acidente. Nas coletas posteriores ao acidente não foram registradas nem reduções drásticas das abundâncias nem indivíduos impregnados por óleo. As significativas variações tanto da quantidade de detrito quanto nas densidades de anfipodes talitrídeos foram relacionadas às atividades de limpeza. Uma limpeza manual e de curta duração (1 a 3 meses resultou num aumento das abundâncias dos talitrídeos, juntamente com o aumento da distribuição de uma das espécies, Platorchestia monodi, que de três passou a ser encontrada em seis praias amostradas.Os fatores que

  12. Characterisation, repackaging and incineration of NaK and Na used for heat transfer experiences on LMFBR at the JRC-Ispra site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzuccato, M.; D' Alberti, F.; D' Amati, F. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Nuclear Decommissioning Unit, Via Fermi 210207 Ispra VA (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is a service of the European Commission and its mission is to provide scientific and technical support to the EU policies. At the Italian JRC Ispra site is currently ongoing a nuclear decommissioning program aimed at dismantling and disposing facilities and materials no longer used for nuclear research purposes, e.g. alkali metals, whose radioactive content has to be checked prior the disposal as radioactive or conventional waste. This paper describes the project phases consisting in characterising, repackaging and disposing of {approx}607 kg of alkali metals, composed by {approx}397 kg of NaK liquid alloy and {approx}210 kg of Na metal. The material was used in the past for scientific experiences on heat transfer for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. The alkali metals are very reactive in presence of water leading to the formation of hydrogen; moreover the NaK had been stored for several years in a bunker inside drums unable to guarantee the needed confinement, with the consequent formation of oxygenated compounds in the outer layer of the alloy crust, as Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}, NaO{sub 2}, K{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KO{sub 2}, unstable if moved in presence of the liquid substrate. To perform the characterization and repackaging operations in a safe manner, avoiding any possible reaction between the liquid alloy and the solid surface of oxides, the alloy has been solidified reducing bunker temperature down to the alloy melting point (-15 deg. C). The sampling has been carried out by means of glove bag sealed on the top of each drum and filled in with inert gas to reduce the presence of humidity. Having characterization campaign proved that the alkali metals could not be classified as radioactive material, the NaK and Na containers were shipped to UK in a refrigerated truck. In order to allow a safe thermal destruction in a conventional incineration plant, additional repackaging has been performed in a UK plant to reduce the amount of alkali

  13. Biocontained carcass composting for control of infectious disease outbreak in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tim; Xu, Weiping; Alexander, Trevor W; Gilroyed, Brandon H; Inglis, G Douglas; Larney, Francis J; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2010-05-06

    Intensive livestock production systems are particularly vulnerable to natural or intentional (bioterrorist) infectious disease outbreaks. Large numbers of animals housed within a confined area enables rapid dissemination of most infectious agents throughout a herd. Rapid containment is key to controlling any infectious disease outbreak, thus depopulation is often undertaken to prevent spread of a pathogen to the larger livestock population. In that circumstance, a large number of livestock carcasses and contaminated manure are generated that require rapid disposal. Composting lends itself as a rapid-response disposal method for infected carcasses as well as manure and soil that may harbor infectious agents. We designed a bio-contained mortality composting procedure and tested its efficacy for bovine tissue degradation and microbial deactivation. We used materials available on-farm or purchasable from local farm supply stores in order that the system can be implemented at the site of a disease outbreak. In this study, temperatures exceeded 55 degrees C for more than one month and infectious agents implanted in beef cattle carcasses and manure were inactivated within 14 days of composting. After 147 days, carcasses were almost completely degraded. The few long bones remaining were further degraded with an additional composting cycle in open windrows and the final mature compost was suitable for land application. Duplicate compost structures (final dimensions 25 m x 5 m x 2.4 m; L x W x H) were constructed using barley straw bales and lined with heavy black silage plastic sheeting. Each was loaded with loose straw, carcasses and manure totaling approximately 95,000 kg. A 40-cm base layer of loose barley straw was placed in each bunker, onto which were placed 16 feedlot cattle mortalities (average weight 343 kg) aligned transversely at a spacing of approximately 0.5 m. For passive aeration, lengths of flexible, perforated plastic drainage tubing (15 cm diameter) were

  14. Isomer-specific biodegradation of methylphenanthrenes by soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Rasmus F; Christensen, Jan H; Mayer, Philipp; Andersen, Ole; Johnsen, Anders R

    2008-07-01

    It is assumed that bacteria generally degrade 2-methylphenanthrene (2MPhe) in preference to 1-methylphenanthrene (1MPhe), and that environmental biodegradation of methylated PAHs therefore can be described qualitatively by changes in relative concentrations of these isomers. Our objective was to investigate whether microbial phenanthrene degraders (Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium) show such isomer-specific PAH degradation. Eleven out of twenty-nine phenanthrene degraders could grow on methylphenanthrene. The mycobacteria grew only on 2MPhe, the sphingomonads grew mostly on 1MPhe, and one sphingomonad could utilize both substrates. Seven strains were tested in a two-phase system where 1MPhe and 2MPhe were supplied in heptamethylnonane. For these strains, a consistent description of biodegradation based on the 2MPhe/1MPhe diagnostic ratio would not be possible because three Mycobacterium and one Sphingomonas degraded 2MPhe faster than 1MPhe, another Sphingomonas degraded 1MPhe and 2MPhe at almost equal rates, and two Sphingomonas degraded 1MPhe faster than 2MPhe. Thus, environmental biodegradation of phenanthrenes may theoretically proceed with only minor changes in 2MPhe/1MPhe ratios if individual members of the degrader community have different isomer preferences. However, two soil microcosms polluted with bunker oil confirmed the general decline in 2MPhe/1MPhe ratio during oil biodegradation.

  15. Oil spill simulation system : structure and verification for the Sea of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlamov, S.M. [RISSHO Univ., Kumagaya, Saitama (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The oil spill from the Nakhodka tanker in the Sea of Japan in January 1997 caused extensive damage to the coastal environment of Japan and provided the impetus to develop an oil spill simulation system. The newly developed system presented here consists of a meteorological data processing subsystem, an ocean circulation model, and an oil spill model. The spill model makes use of the particles tracking method and includes the simulation of the physical properties of oil, allowing the particle properties of the oil (such as density, size, viscosity and water content) to be modified as the spill evolves. The system was tested with the sea currents information provided by the three-dimensional modular ocean model and with a more simplified nonlinear model of sea currents. This paper also presented a test of the simulation system using information from the oil spill incident in the Sea of Japan in April 1997 involving the Osung No 3 Korean tanker. This incident involved about 229 kilolitres of heavy Bunker C type oil spilled into an area characterized by strong Tsushima currents and by strong tidal currents. The oil spill simulation system was found to be in good agreement with the actual observations of the oil spill. 31 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  16. How to prioritize numerous environmental issues? Case study of the Havre-Saint-Pierre spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenon, S. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Environmental Emergencies Div

    2000-07-01

    While docking at the QIT facility at Havre St. Pierre, Quebec, on March 23, 1999, the cargo ship M/V Gordon C. Leitch collided with the dock, ruptured a fuel tank, and spilled 49 metric tons of light bunker oil (IFO-180) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The situation seemed under control at the beginning since the ice cover contained the migration of oil, but it quickly degenerated when the whole picture became clear. The spill occurred in a remote location where wildlife is abundant and diversified. The economy was largely dependant on ecotourism and several environmental and social factors had to be considered when devising the clean up procedure. Oil was found on 120 km of shoreline in the vicinity of the Mingan Archipelago National Park, a wildlife sanctuary protected by the government of Canada. There were oil-covered birds, a native hunting ground, several fishing zones and the National Park. The spill was cleaned up in two months. The authors described the different factors to be considered and the appropriateness and effectiveness of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team in setting priorities and choosing the best course of action to deal with each set of circumstances. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  17. Indications for solar influence on radon signal in the subsurface of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, G.; Martin-Luis, M. C.; Piatibratova, O.

    2015-05-01

    Radon at two locations in Tenerife is investigated. The MM-0 site is located in a bunker near Teide volcano. Daily radon (DR) signals are dominated by a 12-hour (S2) periodicity. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of day-time and night-time series results in a day-night differentiation, which does not occur in the coeval temperature and pressure. This indicates that the radon system is directly affected by rotation of Earth around its axis, and not via the pressure and/or temperature pattern. San Fernando sites are in an underground gallery, located at 2.1 and 3 km from the entrance. Alpha and gamma time series show DR signals having an S1 and a strong S2 periodicity. Sidebands occur around the S1 periodicity. The lower sideband is close to 0.9972696 cycles per day (CPD; = sidereal frequency) and the upper sideband at a symmetric frequency above. They reflect a driver containing two waveforms having periodicities of rotation of Earth around its axis and around the Sun that influences radon in a non-linear fashion, leading to the sidebands around the S1 periodicity. Observation in Tenerife of sidebands and day-night phenomena substantiates the notion that the periodic components in the diurnal and annual frequency band of radon time series are due to the influence of a component in solar radiation.

  18. Dust removal and filter technology. Entstaubungs- und Filtertechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmann, H.W. (DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). DMT-Institut fuer Staubbekaempfung, Gefahrstoffe und Ergonomie); Henke, B. (DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). DMT-Institut fuer Staubbekaempfung, Gefahrstoffe und Ergonomie)

    1991-01-01

    New approaches were adopted in filter technology to respond to technological changes in mechanized mining and to allow perfect dust removal in keeping with occupational hygiene requirements. Self-supporting filter materials based on ceramic fibres and synthetic granulates were taken to develop filter elements allowing lamination to enhance their separation-active surface area. Filter materials made from thermally fixed fibre nonwovens were processed to form plicated filter bags of the same structural volume but with a surface area increased by a factor of 2.5. Integrated inlet nozzles were developed to allow these elements to be cleaned of dust deposits. These nozzles were also studied in basic filter-technology tests. A test rig supplied design findings which were included in a study to develop new generations of dedusters. A reduction of design volume and an increase of through-put rate greater than 20% could be predicted. Service tests with modified filter materials were run for ventilation-air dust dust removal both for whole faces and for face segments. The benefits of filter technology for face, face opening and drifting were highlighted. New methods for wetting and transport of the dust removed from the dedusters were developed. New concepts of exhaust-air filter separators allow flat storage bunkers to be used in pneumatic conveyance of building materials at the face. (orig.)

  19. Flotation tailings in West Germany: Treatment and utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, D. (Steinkohlenbergbauverein, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Dezernat fuer Aufbereitung); Wilczynski, P. (Bergbau A.G. Lippe, Herne (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Aufbereitung); Koehling, R. (Ruhrkohle A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.)); Erdmann, W.; Schieder, T. (Bergbau-Forschung G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.))

    1979-05-01

    Each year, about 2,5 million tonnes of flotation tailings are produced in Federal Germany and this will rise in the future. With the methods which have predominated until now for eliminating these tailings, notably dumping in ponds, total operation costs including the water losses amount to 9.26 DM/t (wf) when the tailings are thickened beforehand, and 18.67 DM/t (wf) without this thickening. Dewatering flotation tailings in filter frame presses is now an accepted technique. Residual moisture is lower than in all other methods but the costs are very high, 17.91 DM/t (wf). Solid-bowl centrifuges have also proved extremely useful for dewatering flotation tailings. In this case, costs amount to 10.19 DM/t (wf). The high retained moisture, however, can cause difficulties in transport and bunkering. The first attempts at dewatering flotation tailings in screen-belt presses have been promising. The press cale is easy to transport and handles well; costs here work out at 12.49 DM/t (wf). A new method of treating and utilising flotation tailings is fluidised bed combustion. Though costs here reach 34.09 DM/t (wf), the residual energy can be utilized, to give proceeds of as much as 36.74 DM/t (wf) and thus make an overall profit of 2.65 DM/t (wf). Moreover, the combustion waste has been used in the building materials industry.

  20. Photo neutron dose equivalent rate in 15 MV X-ray beam from a Siemens Primus Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, A; Pourfallah, T Allahverdi; Akbari, M R; Babapour, H; Shahidi, M

    2015-01-01

    Fast and thermal neutron fluence rates from a 15 MV X-ray beams of a Siemens Primus Linac were measured using bare and moderated BF3 proportional counter inside the treatment room at different locations. Fluence rate values were converted to dose equivalent rate (DER) utilizing conversion factors of American Association of Physicist in Medicine's (AAPM) report number 19. For thermal neutrons, maximum and minimum DERs were 3.46 × 10(-6) (3 m from isocenter in +Y direction, 0 × 0 field size) and 8.36 × 10(-8) Sv/min (in maze, 40 × 40 field size), respectively. For fast neutrons, maximum DERs using 9" and 3" moderators were 1.6 × 10(-5) and 1.74 × 10(-5) Sv/min (2 m from isocenter in +Y direction, 0 × 0 field size), respectively. By changing the field size, the variation in thermal neutron DER was more than the fast neutron DER and the changes in fast neutron DER were not significant in the bunker except inside the radiation field. This study showed that at all points and distances, by decreasing field size of the beam, thermal and fast neutron DER increases and the number of thermal neutrons is more than fast neutrons.

  1. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Scampoli, P.; von Bremen, K.; Weber, M.

    2013-07-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  2. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Scampoli, P. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Department of Physical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Cintia, I-60126 Napoli (Italy); Bremen, K. von [SWAN Isotopen AG, Inselspital, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  3. The Steel and Shipbuilding Industries of South Korea: Rising East Asia and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-ho Shin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the roles of the steel and shipbuilding industries as generative sectors in Korea’s rapid economic ascent. We argue that a world-systems analysis focusing on these generative sectors provides a more complete understanding of Korea’s rapid economic ascent than do other theoretical models. We outline the similarities between this case and those analyzed by Bunker and Ciccantell (2005, 2007 both in terms of the central role of generative sectors in raw materials and transport industries and how the creation and growth of these two industrial sectors shaped institutional patterns and the broader economic ascent of South Korea and East Asia. Even though South Korea has not and may never become a challenger for global hegemony, its rapid ascent has helped reshape East Asia and the capitalist world-economy. We use the model of generative sectors to analyze the critical industries that underlay and shaped South Korea’s ascent from a low wage, light industry base to a world leader in electronics, automobiles, and other advanced industries.

  4. The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine to protect the human cochlea from subclinical hearing loss caused by impulse noise: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Cathrine Lindblad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In military outdoor shooting training, with safety measures enforced, the risk of a permanent, noise-induced hearing loss is very small. But urban warfare training performed indoors, with reflections from walls, might increase the risk. A question is whether antioxidants can reduce the negative effects of noise on human hearing as it does on research animals. Hearing tests were performed on a control group of 23 military officers before and after a shooting session in a bunker-like room. The experiments were repeated on another group of 11 officers with peroral adminstration of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, directly after the shooting. The measurements performed were tone thresholds; transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, with and without contralateral noise; and psycho-acoustical modulation transfer function (PMTF, thresholds for brief tones in modulated noise. Effects from shooting on hearing thresholds were small, but threshold behavior supports use of NAC treatment. On the PMTF, shooting without NAC gave strong effects. Those effects were like those from continuous noise, which means that strict safety measures should be enforced. The most striking finding was that the non-linearity of the cochlea, that was strongly reduced in the group without NAC, as manifested by the PMTF-results, was practically unchanged in the NAC-group throughout the study. NAC treatment directly after shooting in a bunkerlike room seems to give some protection of the cochlea.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 414: Clean Slate III Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 414 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 414 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate III (CSIII) storage–transportation test conducted on June 9, 1963. CAU 414 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-03CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 414 are the result of the atmospheric dispersal of contamination from the 1963 CSIII test. The CSIII test was a nonnuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 8 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily uranium and plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 414 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 7, 2016, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action alternatives for CAU 414.

  6. A 12 GHz RF Power Source for the CLIC Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirm, Karl; /CERN; Curt, Stephane; /CERN; Dobert, Steffen; /CERN; McMonagle, Gerard; /CERN; Rossat, Ghislain; /CERN; Syratchev, Igor; /CERN; Timeo, Luca; /CERN; Haase, Andrew /SLAC; Jensen, Aaron; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Nantista, Christopher; /SLAC; Sprehn, Daryl; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC; Hamdi, Abdallah; /Saclay; Peauger, Franck; /Saclay; Kuzikov, Sergey; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP; Vikharev, Alexandr; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP

    2012-07-03

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  7. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

  8. Nonlinear Oscillations in Biology and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting entitled 'Nonlinear Oscillations in Biology and Chemistry', which was held at the University of Utah May 9-11,1985. The papers fall into four major categories: (i) those that deal with biological problems, particularly problems arising in cell biology, (ii) those that deal with chemical systems, (iii) those that treat problems which arise in neurophysiology, and (iv), those whose primary emphasis is on more general models and the mathematical techniques involved in their analysis. Except for the paper by Auchmuty, all are based on talks given at the meeting. The diversity of papers gives some indication of the scope of the meeting, but the printed word conveys neither the degree of interaction between the participants nor the intellectual sparks generated by that interaction. The meeting was made possible by the financial support of the Department of Mathe­ matics of the University of Utah. I am indebted to Ms. Toni Bunker of the Department of Mathematics for...

  9. High-power rf pulse compression with SLED-II at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nantista, C. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Kroll, N.M. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Farkas, Z.D.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Ruth, R.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Increasing the peak rf power available from X-band microwave tubes by means of rf pulse compression is envisioned as a way of achieving the few-hundred-megawatt power levels needed to drive a next-generation linear collider with 50--100 MW klystrons. SLED-II is a method of pulse compression similar in principal to the SLED method currently in use on the SLC and the LEP injector linac. It utilizes low-los resonant delay lines in place of the storage cavities of the latter. This produces the added benefit of a flat-topped output pulse. At SLAC, we have designed and constructed a prototype SLED-II pulse-compression system which operates in the circular TE{sub 01} mode. It includes a circular-guide 3-dB coupler and other novel components. Low-power and initial high-power tests have been made, yielding a peak power multiplication of 4.8 at an efficiency of 40%. The system will be used in providing power for structure tests in the ASTA (Accelerator Structures Test Area) bunker. An upgraded second prototype will have improved efficiency and will serve as a model for the pulse compression system of the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator).

  10. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Adriano; Scafetta, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius. The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during daytime. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice, with external geomagnetic field and with magnetostriction, which stress the rocks. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasing since 2008. Finally, we propose a seismic activity index to monitor the 24-hour oscillation that could be used to complement other methodologies currently adopted to determine the seismic status of the volcano to prevent the relative hazard.

  11. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzarella, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius. The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M > 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M > 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during day-time. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice, with external geomagnetic field and with magnetostriction that should also stress the rocks. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasin...

  12. Nuclear weapon race does not stop; Le nucleaire ne desarme pas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahe Ter, Minassian

    2005-04-01

    60 years after Hiroshima, the race for nuclear weaponry keeps on. The comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), signed in 1996 by the 5 official nuclear-weapon-owning states (Usa, Russia, China, U.K. and France), has not yet been implemented because its implementation requires the ratification of 44 states that harbour on their territories industrial or research nuclear reactors. Till now only 33 such states have ratified CTBT. CTBT aims at prohibiting any nuclear test whatever the amount of energy released in it. Countries like Usa, North-Korea, Russia, soon Iran... are suspected to develop new types of nuclear warfare. For 2005 the American Congress have decided to freeze the funding of programmes dedicated to the development of 'mini-nukes' like the bunker-burster. The international network of monitoring stations will soon cover all the world and will be able to detect and locate, in an almost automated way, any test involving an energy greater than 1 kiloton. 321 stations have been settled and their efficient detection systems are based on seismic or infra-sound or radioactivity or hydro-acoustic analysis. (A.C.)

  13. Experience of coal mine operation in the Ukraine in the field of reducing ash content of run-of-mine coal in the tenth five year plan. Opyt raboty shakht minugleproma USSR po snizheniyu zol'nosti dobyvaemykh uglei v desyutoi pyutiletke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.I.; Krivchenko, A.A.; Kuznetsov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    In the period from 1975 to 1979 ash content of coal extracted from Ukrainian coal mines increased from 21.2 to 21.9% or by 0.7%, and ash content of run-of-mine coal from 29.1% to 31.7% or by 2.6%. Causes of increasing ash content in coal are analyzed. Investigations carried out in the Ukraine indicate that increasing proportion of coal mined by narrow web coal cutters causes an average increase in ash content in coal of 0.1%. Introducing powered supports causes ash content increase in coal by about 3.3% in comparison to coal mined at faces with hydraulic props. Influence of introducing high capacity heading machines as well as using various types of coal haulage is also analyzed. The results are given in 5 tables. The following measures aimed at reducing ash content in coal are discussed: use of KD-80, KSD, M-88 and M-103 powered supports, K-103, MK-67 and BKT face systems, KSU support systems for face ends, mobile bunker used for selective belt conveyor haulage of rock and coal from development workings, using AZUK, ZAZ, and VSKZ measuring instruments for continuous determination of ash content in coal, selective coal mining, roof bolting combined with chemical methods of reinforcing roofs of coal seams by means of resin injections, leaving a 0.05 to 0.1 m thick protective coal bench in the roof.

  14. Electric-Arc Plasma Installation for Preparing Nanodispersed Carbon Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. STEFANOV; D. GARLANOV; G. VISSOKOV

    2008-01-01

    An electric-arc plasma installation operated in the hidden anode arrangement is constructed and used for the preparation of carbon nanostructures. A contracted plasma arc gen-erated by a plasma torch using an inert gas is used as heat source. The average mass temperature of arc is higher than 104 K, while its power density, which is directly transferred onto the electrode (anode), is ~ 2 kW/mm2. The anode contact area formed on the electrode moves against the arc by way of shifting the electrode and is hidden completely in the interior of plasma gas stream moving towards it. As a result of both the direct plasma attack and the opposite movement of streams in the hidden anode contact area, a temperature higher than 6000 K is reached. Thus, intensive vaporization takes place, which forms a saturated plasma-gas-aerosol phase of the initial material of electrode (anode). This gas phase is mixed in and carried by the plasma stream. Over that mixed plasma stream, a controlled process of quenching (fixation) is carried out by twisted turbulent fluid streams. After the fixation, the resultant carbon nano-structures are caught by a filter and collected in a bunker.

  15. Lead isotopes in soils near five historic American lead smelters and refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Michael B

    2005-06-15

    This survey of soil lead in the vicinity of old industrial sites examines how the stable isotope patterns vary among the sites according to the sources of the lead ore processed at each site. Lead smelters and refineries, which closed down decades ago, are the basis of this investigation. Samples were taken from near five old factory sites in Collinsville and Alton (Illinois), Ponderay (Idaho), East Chicago (Indiana) and Omaha (Nebraska). Historical records were searched for accounts of the sources of the lead. Lead concentrations were measured by atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry, and stable isotopic analysis was done by plasma ionization mass spectrometry. At every site visited, remnants of the old factories, in terms of soil lead pollution, could be found. In spite of potential complications of varying smelter feedstock sourced from mines of different geological age, it was possible to match the isotopic patterns in the soils with the documented sources of the ores. The Collinsville and Alton sites resembled Missouri lead. The Ponderay value was higher than major Bunker Hill, Idaho deposits, but closer to the minor, nearby Oreille County, Washington ores. Mostly Utah ore was used in East Chicago. The Omaha soil reflects lead from Mexico, Colorado and Montana.

  16. Spin Dynamics simulations of the dynamic properties of classical models for magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Alex; Landau, D. P.

    1998-03-01

    The Spin Dynamics simulation technique, which has had considerable success for the study of critical properties of classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets(A. Bunker, K. Chen, and D. P. Landau Phys. Rev. B) \\underline54, 9259 (1996), has been used to determine more general properties for a wider range of materials. A general spin dynamics program has been developed which can determine the dynamic structure factor, S(q,ω), in the [100], [110], and [111] directions for a wide range of classical magnetic models at any temperature desired. We have simulated the magnetic dynamics in the ordered phase of the isotropic Heisenberg model with both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling on L×L×L BCC and SC lattices. Outside of the critical regime relatively small lattice sizes of L = 12, 24 could be used. From our simulation we have determined the stiffness coefficient and the spin relaxation rate which were compared to both experimental(J. Als-Nielsen in Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena), ed. C. Domb, M. S. Green, Academic Press, (1976) and theoretical results. We have performed the same simulation with anisotropy appropriate for MnF2 and FeF_2. Research supported in part by the NSF

  17. S.A.C.I.: Incident Combat Support System; S.A.C.I.: Sistema de Apoio ao Combate de Incidentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Antonio R.L. [ARMTEC Tecnologia em Robotica, Fotrtaleza, CE (Brazil); Macedo, Antonio R.M. [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The incidents that occur in the petrochemical industry are extremely dangerous, because of the range of temperature that it reaches and the radius of the explosion. For this reason the S.A.C.I. that is an Incident's Combat Support System was developed. The purpose of this paper is to present the complete operational capability of this machine, and also some of the construction design calculations. It is a controlled-by-distance robot that carries one water cannon that generates fog, stream or foam with a limit pressure of 125 psi. It works within 90 m from the operator, has 3 degrees of freedom and a minimum autonomy of 3 hours. Before this prototype was made, only the United Kingdom by Qinetiq and the Japan by the Tokyo Fire Department had this technology. This prototype is around 70% of the investment of the ones in the market. The tests shown in the paper were made in the training bunker of Ceara's Military Fire Corp. Headquarters and in an arena in the Gloria Marine in Rio de Janeiro. The results of this project is a national product that improves the incident's combat response time, saving the most important resource, that is the human been. (author)

  18. Application of just-in-time manufacturing techniques in radioactive source in well logging industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atma Yudha Prawira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear logging is one of major areas of logging development. This paper presents an empirical investigation to bring the drilling and completion of wells from an ill-defined art to a refined sci-ence by using radioactive source to “look and measure” such as formation type, formation dip, porosity, fluid type and numerous other important factors. The initial nuclear logging tools rec-ords the radiation emitted by formation as they were crossed by boreholes. Gamma radiation is used in well logging as it is powerful enough to penetrate the formation and steel casing. The ra-dioactive source is reusable so that after engineer finished the job the radioactive source is sent back to bunker. In this case inventory level of radioactive source is relatively high compared with monthly movement and the company must spend large amount of cost just for inventory. After calculating and averaging the monthly movement in 2014 and 2015, we detected a big pos-sibility to cut the inventory level to reduce the inventory cost.

  19. New guidelines for oil spill identification of waterborne petroleum and petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faksness, L.G.; Daling, P.S. [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Hansen, A.B. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Kienhuis, P. [RIZA, (Netherlands); Duus, R. [Norwegian Standard Association (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Advances in interpretive and analytical methods have opened the possibility to improve the existing Nordtest methodology for oil spill identification which was developed in 1991 under the Nordic Council of Ministers. In 2002, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) established 2 working groups to revise the Nordtest Methodology into the following 2 CEN guidelines: (1) oil spill identification which includes waterborne and petroleum products, and (2) oil spill identification which in addition to including waterborne petroleum and petroleum products, includes analytical methodology and interpretation of results. The revised methodology includes a protocol/decision chart that has 3 tiered levels of analyses and data treatment. The methodology relies on the characterization of diagnostic ratios. The CEN working group intends to use the guidelines as a basis for a national oil spill identification protocol in each European country and for further international use. The methodology can be applied to oil samples of petrogenic origin with boiling points above 200 degrees C, such as crude oils, diesel fuel oils, residual bunker oils, lubricants, and mixtures of oily bilge and sludge samples. It is not intended for automotive gasolines or other light petroleum products. The method has been implemented in most forensic laboratories in Europe and has successfully differentiated between oils from a spill and possible pollution sources. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. Radiation shielding analysis for 50 kVp x-ray intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) device using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The present study performed Monte Carlo simulations for the 50 kVp X-ray intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) device for detailed radiation shielding analysis. The INTRABEAM system (Carl Zeiss Surgical, Oberkochen, Germany) is a compact 50 kVp X-ray device used for intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) especially for breast cancer. The IORT system has the advantages of very rapid dose gradient and, due to the on/off switching system, no risk of contamination when compared to nuclear medicine procedure. In contrast to megavoltage radiotherapy system requiring a dedicated shielding bunker, the IORT system is generally performed in standard operating theatres and simply uses a thin shield on the treated area and lead screens for protection of staffs who stay in the theatre during treatment. For detailed radiation shielding analysis of the IORT system, the present study performed Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNPX code to calculate dose rate distributions and investigated effects of several shielding components generally considered in this system. It was shown that shielding with flat cover and lead screen generally used is sufficient to reduce occupational doses to a negligible level. The analysis results of this study can be referred to estimate shielding requirements for other IORT systems.

  1. Measuring air core characteristics of a pressure-swirl atomizer via a transparent acrylic nozzle at various Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun J.; Oh, Sang Youp; Kim, Ho Y.; Yoon, Sam S. [Dept. of Mechanical, Korea University Anamdong, 5-Ga, Sungbukgu, 136-713 Seoul (Korea); James, Scott C. [Thermal/Fluid Science and Engineering, Sandia National Labs, PO Box 969, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Because of thermal fluid-property dependence, atomization stability (or flow regime) can change even at fixed operating conditions when subject to temperature change. Particularly at low temperatures, fuel's high viscosity can prevent a pressure-swirl (or simplex) atomizer from sustaining a centrifugal-driven air core within the fuel injector. During disruption of the air core inside an injector, spray characteristics outside the nozzle reflect a highly unstable, nonlinear mode where air core length, Sauter mean diameter (SMD), cone angle, and discharge coefficient variability. To better understand injector performance, these characteristics of the pressure-swirl atomizer were experimentally investigated and data were correlated to Reynolds numbers (Re). Using a transparent acrylic nozzle, the air core length, SMD, cone angle, and discharge coefficient are observed as a function of Re. The critical Reynolds numbers that distinguish the transition from unstable mode to transitional mode and eventually to a stable mode are reported. The working fluids are diesel and a kerosene-based fuel, referred to as bunker-A. (author)

  2. Activation products in a treatment room of a 15 MV linear accelerator for medical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon M, H. A.; Soto B, T. G.; Rivera P, E.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: asa_15@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Linacs working above 8 MV produce an undesirable neutron field mainly through ({gamma}, n) nuclear reactions. Due to room-return effect inside the vault there is a thermal neutron flux that is constant regarded the distance to the isocenter. When thermal neutrons collide with the bunker walls and the Linac head some radioisotopes are induced in the concrete, wedges and collimators due to neutron and photon activation. The aim of this work is to study the induced radioisotopes in concrete samples and a wedge, which emits gamma-ray during its decay, the presence of this protons will represent a radiological risk for the patient. Induced radioisotopes were studied with a 15 MV Linac, and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a Nal(Tl) scintillator where 846.8, 1368.6 and 1778.8 keV gamma-rays were observed, these photons are produced during the decay of {sup 54}Mn, {sup 24}Na and {sup 28}Al respectively, being in agreement with radionuclides reported in the literature. (Author)

  3. Mesmerism, Sexuality, and Medicine:"Karezza" and the Sexual Reform Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heinz Schott

    2015-01-01

    Within the scope of certain social and religious movements, mesmerism had a considerable impact on the Americanway of life during the last decades of 19th century. A famous example is the Christian Science of Mary Baker EddyBut also less known groups adopted mesmeric ideas and practices. The paper focuses on the concept of"Karezza".It combined a specific sexual practice with religious ideas of divine love, birth control, social reform, women'semancipation and health education. It was created by Alice Bunker Stockham (1833-1912), an obstetrician andgynecologist from Chicago. Among other authorities, the writer Leo Tolstoy and medical psychologist HavelockEllis appreciated her approach. She was a pioneer of the sexual and marriage reform promoting practical advice foreveryday life. As a doctor, she stressed especially the disastrous consequences of a brutal sexual life destroyingbody and mind (not only of the women). As an antidote, she propagated the "Karezza love" avoiding ejaculation ada punctual orgasm (climax) during intercourse. The leading idea was the imagery of a mesmeric "fluidum" unitingindividuals spiritually. Bunker's publications were translated into German. They corresponded to the Lebensreformmovement, but never became popular. Also the early sexology about 1900 ignored Bunker's concept as well as thesexual medicine later on. It is worthwhile to reconsider it within the context of the history of medicine, culture, andanthropology.

  4. THE LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION OF STIFFENERS FOR PLATE-SHELL STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Suhuan; Yang Zhijun

    2005-01-01

    The plate-shell structures with stiffeners are widely used in a broad range of engineering structures. This study presents the layout optimization of stiffeners. The minimum weight of stiffeners is taken as the objective function with the global stiffness constraint. In the layout optimization, the stiffeners should be placed at the locations with high strain energy/or stress.Conversely, elements of stiffeners with a small strain energy/or stress are considered to be used inefficiently and can be removed. Thus, to identify the element efficiency so that most inefficiently used elements of stiffeners can be removed, the element sensitivity of the strain energy of stiffeners is introduced, and a search criterion for locations of stiffeners is presented. The layout optimization approach is given for determining which elements of the stiffeners need to be kept or removed. In each iterative design, a high efficiency reanalysis approach is used to reduce the computational effort. The present approach is implemented for the layout optimization of stiffeners for a bunker loaded by the hydrostatic pressure. The numerical results show that the present approach is effective for dealing with layout optimization of stiffeners for plate-shell structures.

  5. Autonomous robot for detecting subsurface voids and tunnels using microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stacy S.; Crawford, Nicholas C.; Croft, Leigh Ann; Howard, Michael; Miller, Stephen; Rippy, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Tunnels have been used to evade security of defensive positions both during times of war and peace for hundreds of years. Tunnels are presently being built under the Mexican Border by drug smugglers and possibly terrorists. Several have been discovered at the border crossing at Nogales near Tucson, Arizona, along with others at other border towns. During this war on terror, tunnels under the Mexican Border pose a significant threat for the security of the United States. It is also possible that terrorists will attempt to tunnel under strategic buildings and possibly discharge explosives. The Center for Cave and Karst Study (CCKS) at Western Kentucky University has a long and successful history of determining the location of caves and subsurface voids using microgravity technology. Currently, the CCKS is developing a remotely controlled robot which will be used to locate voids underground. The robot will be a remotely controlled vehicle that will use microgravity and GPS to accurately detect and measure voids below the surface. It is hoped that this robot will also be used in military applications to locate other types of voids underground such as tunnels and bunkers. It is anticipated that the robot will be able to function up to a mile from the operator. This paper will describe the construction of the robot and the use of microgravity technology to locate subsurface voids with the robot.

  6. RTOD-photo operations and procedures manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-15

    This document presents a survey of the EG&G NRDS photographic operation in four major sections and includes the work scope, procedures, some technical backgrounding and operational information. Two sections, Instrumentation and Photo Systems, include the areas of direct responsibilities while a section on Film Handling and Coordination and a section covering special information, pertinent to the project, are included to adequately complete this survey. The photographic group is housed in two trailers within the control point area at NRDS and from these trailers provides photographic support at a number of locations. Four camera bunkers, three camera towers, a kinescope system, a microfilm system and remote camera controls comprise the facilities that the group maintains and operates outside these trailers. The work load includes major items such as: motion picture coverage of the nuclear rocket engine tests, data record microfilming, kinescope recording, and documentary coverage of the company related operational responsibilities. In addition, a number of minor photographic services are extended, when required. The nature of the work, because of its importance within the research and development efforts at NRDS, requires optimum quality and efficiency throughout. The many procedures outlined here have been designed to satisfy these requirements.

  7. Critical analysis of the positioning of monitoring system of the cyclotron accelerator; Analise critica do posicionamento de um sistema de monitoramento de acelerador Ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Julia A.; Passaro, Bruno M.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C.; Buchpigue, Carlos A. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear (CMN) do InRad HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com [CYCLOPET Radiofarmacos LTDA., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Ever since the first concerns arose about the possibility that the ionizing radiation induced detriment to human health, were created the methods of production, characterization and measurement of radiation, as well as definition of quantities that realistically express its interaction with human tissue. From this point, the monitoring program of the installation of a cyclotron must be continuously performed and contain the critical points of contamination according to the CNEN standard N.E. 3.02 - Radioprotection Service to avoid contamination and maintain radioactive exposure rates as low as reasonably achievable. The results obtained during the analysis showed that the positioning of monitors is suitable, except for the physico-chemical control laboratory monitors, which were installed next to the chapel of manipulation and below the dose calibrator. The answer obtained from the monitoring system in the position that the ionization chamber is in the door of the bunker should be taken into account, because the intensity of radiation emitted by the activation of the targets is slightly attenuated by the cyclotron. (author)

  8. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Warsaw, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process, the IEA is making available for free download the ''Highlights'' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion now for sale on IEA Bookshop. This annual publication contains, for more than 140 countries and regions: estimates of CO2 emissions from 1971 to 2011; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; a decomposition of CO2 emissions into driving factors; and CO2emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, key sources, and other relevant information. The nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP-19), in conjunction with the ninth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 9), met in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 22 November 2013. This volume of ''Highlights'', drawn from the full-scale study, was specially designed for delegations and observers of the meeting in Warsaw.

  9. Comprehensive Technical Support for High-Quality Anthracite Production: A Case Study in the Xinqiao Coal Mine, Yongxia Mining Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective production of high-quality anthracite has attracted increasing global attention. Based on the coal occurrence in Yongxia Mining Area and mining conditions of a coalface in Xinqiao Coal Mine, we proposed a systematic study on the technical support for the production of high-quality anthracite. Six key steps were explored, including coal falling at the coalface, transport, underground bunker storage, main shaft hoisting, coal preparation on the ground, and railway wagon loading. The study resulted in optimized running parameters for the shearers, and the rotating patterns of the shearer drums was altered (one-way cutting was employed. Mining height and roof supporting intensity were reduced. Besides, loose presplitting millisecond blasting and mechanized mining were applied to upgrade the coal quantity and the lump coal production rate. Additionally, the coalface end transloading, coalface crush, transport systems, underground storage, and main shaft skip unloading processes were improved, and fragmentation-prevention techniques were used in the washing and railway wagon loading processes. As a result, the lump coal production rate was maintained at a high level and fragmentation was significantly reduced. Because of using the parameters and techniques determined in this research, high-quality coal production and increased profits were achieved. The research results could provide theoretical guidance and methodology for other anthracite production bases.

  10. Smashing physics. Inside the world's biggest experiment; Der Kosmos im Crashtest. So haben wir das Higgs gejagt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterworth, Jon [University College, London (United Kingdom). Fachbereich Physik und Astronomie

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working knowledge of the new physics and what the discovery of the Higgs particle means for how we define the laws of nature. It will take you to the cutting edge of modern scientific thinking.

  11. In-situ corrosion measurements of WWII shipwrecks in Chuuk Lagoon, quantification of decay mechanisms and rates of deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Donald Macleod

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a series of measurements taken on WWII historic shipwrecks that resulted from the effects of Operation Hailstone in February 1944 on the Japanese merchant fleet which was assembled in Chuuk lagoon, Federated States of Micronesia. More than 65 shipwrecks and 250 aircraft were sunk during two main bombing raids. The vessels lost covered a wide range of underwater orientation and water depths and so provided a perfect suite of corrosion experiments. Since the fuel on board the aircraft was either readily burnt at the time or was lost through volatilisation, the wrecked planes present no pollution problems today. However the bunker fuel kept inside on-board storage tanks does present a real conservation management crisis. In-situ measurements on many vessels have determined how water depth, the localised wreck topography, dissolved oxygen levels, temperature and salinity affects the corrosion rate of cast iron and mild steel. Thus corrosion rates can be calculated with confidence.

  12. Natural attenuation of heavy oil on a coarse sediment beach : results from Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia, Canada over 35 years following the Arrow oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, E.H. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); Prince, R.C. [ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc., Annandale, NJ (United States); Taylor, R.B. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2008-07-01

    In 1970, the tanker Arrow spilled bunker C oil into Black Duck Cove on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. The coarse sediment beaches provided an accessible natural laboratory for the study of the long-term fate and persistence of stranded oil in a coastal marine environment. Although the site is well known to the oil spill scientific community, it has not been studied systematically and much remains to be learned regarding the physical and chemical processes that have been ongoing. More information is needed pertaining to the character of the oil residues and the reasons for their persistence. This paper summarized the knowledge that has been acquired collectively over the last 35 years. The focus was primarily on coarse sediments, including cobbles and boulders. All tidal zones at the site have both surface and subsurface oil deposits. The sediments whose pore spaces remain filled with oil are examples of stable oil-sediment deposits. Wave action is slowly eroding these asphalt pavements. Intertidal pore-filled sediments are resistant to physical processes, and sequestered subsurface residues coat the cobble-boulder sediments below the zone of sediment redistribution. The subsurface oils will probably remain until the sediment is disturbed by major storms or by landward barrier migration. Although the surface oil is highly biodegraded, the subsurface oil remains similar to that of the spilled material. It was concluded that subsurface residues will likely remain sequestered and unaltered for the foreseeable future. 26 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. VLT/XSHOOTER & Subaru/MOIRCS Spectroscopy of HUDF-YD3: No Evidence for Lyman-alpha Emission at z=8.55

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Andrew J; Wilkins, Stephen M; Stanway, Elizabeth R; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Lacy, Mark; Jarvis, Matt J; Hickey, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations with VLT/XSHOOTER and Subaru/MOIRCS of a relatively bright Y-band drop-out galaxy in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, first selected by Bunker et al. (2010), McLure et al. (2010) and Bouwens et al. (2010) to be a likely z~8-9 galaxy on the basis of its colours in the HST ACS and WFC3 images. This galaxy, HUDF.YD3 (also known as UDFy-38135539) has been targetted for VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy by Lehnert et al. (2010), who published a candidate Lyman-alpha emission line at z=8.55 from this source. In our independent spectroscopy using two different infrared spectrographs (5 hours with VLT/XSHOOTER and 11 hours with Subaru/MOIRCS) we are unable to reproduce this line. We do not detect any emission line at the spectral and spatial location reported in Lehnert et al. (2010), despite the expected signal in our combined MOIRCS & XSHOOTER data being 5-sigma. The line emission also seems to be ruled out by the faintness of this object in recently extremely deep F105W ...

  14. Mercury reduction by coal blending : effects of boiler configuration and blending on mercury speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyng, R. [Ontario Power Generation Nanticoke Generating Station, Nanticoke, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation has explored the potential of reducing mercury emissions through fuel blending on full-scale operating units at its 8 x 500 MW Nanticoke coal-fired generating station. This presentation addressed the issue of unit configuration on mercury speciation. It outlined full scale testing of mercury emissions in 2004 and the potential for mercury control suggested by the test data. Mercury emissions were measured for the firing of various eastern US bituminous and western US sub-bituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blends. Three blends of up to 84 per cent sub-bituminous coal were tested. Two methods of coal blending, selective bunkering and silo or field blending were also tested. Mercury emissions under boiler configurations with and without selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and over-fire air were compared. This paper included the results from semi-continuous monitoring (SCM) data collected during the test period. A high mercury oxidation was observed over chlorine concentration ranges of 0.3 to 0.1 per cent. It was noted that feeding dedicated fuels to mills, rather than yard blends of bituminous PRB, results in higher levels of mercury capture, particularly at higher than 16:84 blend. A consistently high level of oxidation was noted across the SCR demonstrated for all blends tested. It was noted that Over Fire Air (OFA) advanced combustion technology systems appeared to increase mercury oxidation. tabs., figs.

  15. Smashing physics inside the world's biggest experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working...

  16. Traumatic death from rival gang violence in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleye-Fubara, D; Bob-Yellowe, E

    2005-10-01

    A prospective autopsy study in Rivers State, Nigeria, was undertaken to evaluate the patterns of death as a result of rival gang clashes and to highlight the menace of rival gang violence. Between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2003 medico-legally autopsied bodies in Rivers State, where death was the result of gang violence, were studied after being served with the coroner's form. In all cases, standard autopsy procedures were adopted and reports were issued. A total of 58 bodies were autopsied for the study. Three (5.2%) were females and 55 (94.8%) were males, giving a female to male ratio of 1:18.3. The age group of 10-29 years recorded the highest frequency of death (65.6%) with a peak in the age group 20-29 years (39.7%). Gang violence and politically motivated mob action were the most common precipitating factors (60.3% and 20.7% respectively). Firearms (41.4%) was the most common method applied for the killing. Death was more common in the rural areas of Rivers State. Gang clashes, volatile political rallies, illegal drug peddling and illegal oil bunkering should be banned and stringent laws be passed. Such laws should also cover gun handling and should be enforced.

  17. Capacity Analysis of Ro-Ro Terminals by Using Simulation Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Deniz Özkan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Ro-Ro terminals, terminal capacity is more needed than other types of marine terminals since Ro-Ro cargoes cannot be stacked. In this sense, the variables affecting capacity of a Ro-Ro terminal can be listed as follows; number of vehicles arrived to a terminal, distance between terminals, ship capacity, terminal gates, customs control units, terminal traffic and local traffic, security check, bunkering services etc. In this study, a model generated intended for making capacity analysis in Ro-Ro terminals by using simulation modeling method. Effect of three variables to terminal capacity was investigated while generating the scenarios; ‘number of trucks arriving to terminals’, ‘distance between terminals’ and ‘Ro-Ro ship capacity’. The results show that the variable which affect terminal capacity mostly is ‘number of trucks arriving to terminals’. As a consequence of this situation, it is thought that a Ro-Ro terminal operator must prioritize the demand factor and make an effective demand forecasting in determination of the terminal area.

  18. Uppsala High Power Test Stand for ESS Spoke Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Yogi, RA; Dancila, D; Gajewski, K; Hermansson, L; Noor, M; Wedberg, R; Santiago-Kern, R; Ekelöf, T; Lofnes, T; Ziemann, V; Goryashko, V; Ruber, R

    2013-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is one of the world’s most powerful neutron source. The ESS linac will accelerate 50mA pulse current of protons to 2.5GeV in 2.86 ms long pulses at a repetition rate of 14 Hz. It produces a beam with 5MW average power and 125MW peak power. ESS Spoke Linac consist of 28 superconducting spoke cavities, which will be developed by IPN Orsay, France. These Spoke Cavities will be tested at low power at IPN Orsay and high power testing will be performed in a high power test stand at Uppsala University. The test stand consists of tetrode based RF amplifier chain (352MHz, 350 kW) power and related RF distribution. Outputs of two tetrodes shall be combined with the hybrid coupler to produce 350 kW power. Preamplifier for a tetrode shall be solid state amplifier. As the spoke cavities are superconducting, the test stand also includes horizontal cryostat, Helium liquefier, test bunker etc. The paper describes features of the test stand in details.

  19. Addressing dual agency: getting specific about the expectations of professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    Professionalism requires that physicians uphold the best interests of patients while simultaneously insuring just use of health care resources. Current articulations of these obligations like the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation's Physician Charter do not reconcile how these obligations fit together when they conflict. This is the problem of dual agency. The most common ways of dealing with dual agency: "bunkering"--physicians act as though societal cost issues are not their problem; "bailing"--physicians assume that they are merely agents of society and deliver care typically based on a strongly consequentialist public health ethic; or "balancing"--a vaguely specified attempt to uphold both patient welfare and societal need for judicious resource use simultaneously--all fail. Here I propose how the problem of dual agency might begin to be addressed with rigor and consistency. Without dealing with the dual agency problem and getting more specific about how to reconcile its norms when they conflict, the expectations of professionalism risk being written off as cute, nonbinding aphorisms from the medical profession.

  20. A 12 GHZ RF Power source for the CLIC study

    CERN Document Server

    Peauger, F; Curt, S; Doebert, S; McMonagle, G; Rossat, G; Schirm, KM; Syratchev, I; Timeo, L; Kuzikhov, S; Vikharev, AA; Haase, A; Sprehn, D; Jensen, A; Jongewaard, EN; Nantista, CD; Vlieks, A

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  1. Investigation of photon shielding property changes in curing high density concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Matthew B; Peters, Christopher; Rawluk, Nicholas; Schreiner, L John

    2013-10-01

    High density concrete is usually used for radiation shielding around radiotherapy treatment rooms. Because the concrete is specified differently at the design, construction, and verification stages, the relationship between the intended performance and the actual performance of the shielding material might not be entirely clear. In this study, cylindrical samples of high density shielding concrete were taken as each section of a new radiotherapy bunker was poured. The shielding performance of each sample [measured by beam attenuation and tenth-value layers (TVL)] was evaluated for 15 MV and 6 MV x-ray beams and for the 1.25 MeV monoenergetic gamma beam from a Co source. Transmission curves to 3 TVL were mapped for a representative sample. The samples were also imaged and analyzed using Co Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CoCBCT). Results indicate no significant change in the TVL of high density concrete samples as they cure. The minor fluctuations in shielding properties observed are explained by the heterogeneous structure of the samples as indicated in the CoCBCT images.

  2. Project of an integrated calibration laboratory of instruments at IPEN; Projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo Adolfo San Jose

    2009-07-01

    The Calibration Laboratory of Instruments of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares offers calibration services of radiation detectors used in radioprotection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, for IPEN and for external facilities (public and private). One part of its facilities is located in the main building, along with other laboratories and study rooms, and another part in an isolated building called Bunker. For the optimization, modernization and specially the safety, the laboratories in the main building shall be transferred to an isolated place. In this work, a project of an integrated laboratory for calibration of instruments was developed, and it will be an expansion of the current Calibration Laboratory of Instruments of IPEN. Therefore, a series of radiometric monitoring of the chosen localization of the future laboratory was realized, and all staff needs (dimensions and disposition of the study rooms and laboratories) were defined. In this project, the laboratories with X ray equipment, alpha and beta radiation sources were located at an isolated part of the building, and the wall shielding was determined, depending on the use of each laboratory. (author)

  3. Consequences of Market-Based Measures CO2-emission Reduction Maritime Transport for the Netherlands; Gevolgen Market Based Measures CO2-emissiereductie zeevaart voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortelboer-van Donselaar, P.; Kansen, M.; Moorman, S. [Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid KiM, Den Haag (Netherlands); Faber, J.; Koopman, M.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    The introduction of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce the CO2 emissions of international sea shipping will have relatively limited economic effects for the Netherlands. Moreover, these effects are largely in line with those in other countries. For the Netherlands, however, the manner in which MBMS are organised and enforced is likely to be particularly important, given the importance of ports to the Dutch economy, the country's relatively large bunker sector, and the fact that Dutch shipowners operate relatively small vessels and on a relatively small scale. MBMs include pricing measures in the form of tax or trade systems, as well as other market-related proposals. In this research study, the consequences are analysed of four international MBM proposals for the Netherlands [Dutch] Om de CO2-uitstoot van de internationale zeevaartsector terug te dringen worden momenteel zogeheten Market Based Measures (MBMs), zoals bijvoorbeeld het veilen van emissierechten of het invoeren van een heffing, overwogen. De invoering van de MBMs zal voor Nederland relatief beperkte economische effecten hebben. Deze effecten wijken bovendien niet bijzonder af van die voor andere landen. De wijze waarop de MBMs worden georganiseerd en gehandhaafd, is voor Nederland mogelijk wel van onderscheidend belang. Dit gezien het belang van de havens voor de Nederlandse economie, de relatief grote bunkersector, en de relatief kleine schepen en kleinschaligheid van de Nederlandse reders.

  4. Influence of orbital forcing and solar activity on water isotopes in precipitation during the mid- and late Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the impact of mid- and late Holocene orbital forcing and solar activity on variations of the oxygen isotopic composition in precipitation. The investigation is motivated by a recently published speleothem δ18O record from the well-monitored Bunker Cave in Germany. The record reveals some high variability on multi-centennial to millennial scales that does not linearly correspond to orbital forcing. Our model study is based on a set of novel climate simulations performed with the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso enhanced by explicit water isotope diagnostics. From the performed model experiments, we derive the following major results: (1 the response of both orbital and solar forcing lead to changes in surface temperatures and δ18O in precipitation with similar magnitudes during the mid- and late Holocene. (2 Past δ18O anomalies correspond to changing temperatures in the orbital driven simulations. This does not hold true if an additional solar forcing is added. (3 Two orbital driven mid-Holocene experiments, simulating the mean climate state approximately 5000 and 6000 yr ago, yield very similar results. However, if an identical additional solar activity-induced forcing is added, the simulated changes of surface temperatures as well as δ18O between both periods differ. We conclude from our simulation results that non-linear effects and feedbacks of the orbital and solar activity forcing substantially alter the δ18O in precipitation pattern and its relation to temperature change.

  5. Converter-controlled belt conveyor systems under the difficult conditions; Umrichtergesteuerte Bandanlagen unter schwierigen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horz, Michael-Josef [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle, Herne (Germany). Abt. Elektrotechnik unter Tage; Mueller, Uwe [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik- und Logistikdienste

    2010-05-15

    Panel 572 is located at a depth of 1,200 m in the Girondelle seam at the West mine. The panel has a mean thickness of 2.5 m and is designed as a shearer loader face with a length of 460 m. Coal is conveyed to the shaft by six belts with a total length of about 6 km and a total lifting height of 396 m. The main conveyor belt 1 with an installed power of 3 MW links the panel to a bunker. Conveyor belts 2 to 4 each with 500 kW drive power have operated in a stable manner since the start of working of the panel. Due to in-seam drivage with a selective-cut machine of type AM 85 an area with a marked trough was produced in the coal conveyor road. This area is traversed by belt 5. The planning and control of the conveyor belt in this difficult geological environment impose high demands on drive and control technology. To ensure stable operation under different loads a raft of measures was resolved and implemented. The contribution examines the problem and describes the implemented measures in detail. (orig.)

  6. 新型环保节能矿焦槽系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马铭

    2014-01-01

    Ore (coke) storage bunker system generate amounts of dust in ironmaking.Dust do serious damage to health and environment.We reduced volume and running costs of dedusting system by Strengthening the seal of Dust region and using eco-friendly Mobile discharge car when the design.Technology application of drying coke by recovering waste heat of circular cooler can reduce water content of coke and the iron&steel enterprise production cost. It also can be better on regular blast furnace performance.%在炼铁生产中,矿焦槽系统产生了大量粉尘,对环境及工人健康造成严重危害,为此我们在矿焦槽系统设计中,通过改进除尘点的密封性、采用环保卸料车等措施,降低了矿焦槽系统除尘风量和除尘设备运行成本,减少了环境污染;同时采用较低温度的烧结环冷热气烘干焦炭技术,降低了焦炭含水量,有利于高炉的顺行及降低生产成本。

  7. Photo neutron dose equivalent rate in 15 MV X-ray beam from a Siemens Primus Linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghasemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and thermal neutron fluence rates from a 15 MV X-ray beams of a Siemens Primus Linac were measured using bare and moderated BF 3 proportional counter inside the treatment room at different locations. Fluence rate values were converted to dose equivalent rate (DER utilizing conversion factors of American Association of Physicist in Medicine′s (AAPM report number 19. For thermal neutrons, maximum and minimum DERs were 3.46 × 10 -6 (3 m from isocenter in +Y direction, 0 × 0 field size and 8.36 × 10 -8 Sv/min (in maze, 40 × 40 field size, respectively. For fast neutrons, maximum DERs using 9" and 3" moderators were 1.6 × 10 -5 and 1.74 × 10 -5 Sv/min (2 m from isocenter in +Y direction, 0 × 0 field size, respectively. By changing the field size, the variation in thermal neutron DER was more than the fast neutron DER and the changes in fast neutron DER were not significant in the bunker except inside the radiation field. This study showed that at all points and distances, by decreasing field size of the beam, thermal and fast neutron DER increases and the number of thermal neutrons is more than fast neutrons.

  8. Monte-Carlo investigation of radiation beam quality of the CRNA neutron irradiator for calibration purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazrou, Hakim, E-mail: mazrou_h@crna.d [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz, Fanon, B.P. 399, Alger-RP 16000 (Algeria); Sidahmed, Tassadit [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz, Fanon, B.P. 399, Alger-RP 16000 (Algeria); Allab, Malika [Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie de Houari-Boumediene (USTHB), 16111, Alger (Algeria)

    2010-10-15

    An irradiation system has been acquired by the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (CRNA) to provide neutron references for metrology and dosimetry purposes. It consists of an {sup 241}Am-Be radionuclide source of 185 GBq (5 Ci) activity inside a cylindrical steel-enveloped polyethylene container with radially positioned beam channel. Because of its composition, filled with hydrogenous material, which is not recommended by ISO standards, we expect large changes in the physical quantities of primary importance of the source compared to a free-field situation. Thus, the main goal of the present work is to fully characterize neutron field of such special delivered set-up. This was conducted by both extensive Monte-Carlo calculations and experimental measurements obtained by using BF{sub 3} and {sup 3}He based neutron area dosimeters. Effects of each component present in the bunker facility of the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) on the energy neutron spectrum have been investigated by simulating four irradiation configurations and comparison to the ISO spectrum has been performed. The ambient dose equivalent rate was determined based upon a correct estimate of the mean fluence to ambient dose equivalent conversion factors at different irradiations positions by means of a 3-D transport code MCNP5. Finally, according to practical requirements established for calibration purposes an optimal irradiation position has been suggested to the SSDL staff to perform, in appropriate manner, their routine calibrations.

  9. Generic guide concepts for the European Spallation Source

    CERN Document Server

    Zendler, C; Bentley, P M

    2015-01-01

    The construction of the European Spallation Source (ESS) faces many challenges from the neutron beam transport point of view: The spallation source is specified as being driven by a 5 MW beam of protons, each with 2 GeV energy, and yet the requirements in instrument background suppression relative to measured signal vary between 10$^{-6}$ and 10$^{-8}$. The energetic particles, particularly above 20 MeV, which are expected to be produced in abundance in the target, have to be filtered in order to make the beamlines safe, operational and provide good quality measurements with low background. We present generic neutron guides of short and medium length instruments which are optimized for good performance at minimal cost. Direct line of sight to the source is avoided twice, with either the first point out of line of sight or both being inside the bunker (20\\,m) to minimize shielding costs. These guide geometries are regarded as a baseline to define standards for instruments to be constructed at ESS. They are use...

  10. Microwave Measurements of the Tropolone-Formic Acid Doubly Hydrogen Bonded DIMER*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejlovas, Aaron M.; Serrato, Agapito, III; Lin, Wei; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2016-06-01

    The microwave spectrum was measured for the tropolone-formic acid doubly hydrogen bonded dimer using a pulsed-beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer in order to search for the concerted double proton tunneling motion. The tunneling motion was expected for the dimer, as the transition state of this motion exhibits C_2_V symmetry, which has been thought to be a requirement to observe the concerted double proton tunneling. The tunneling motion was not observed for this dimer, as the transitions measured did not show observable splittings into doublets. The barrier height calculated of the dimer using B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ was about 15000 cm^-^1, significantly larger than the value determined for the propiolic acid-formic acid dimer (3800 cm^-^1),^a which showed the tunneling motion. The estimated separation of the minima in the potential energy surface is estimated to be very similar to that of propiolic acid-formic acid (about 0.8 Å),^a so the large barrier height may be why the tunneling process was not observed. ^aDaly, A. M.; Bunker, P. R.; Kukolich, S. G. Communications: Evidence for Proton Tunneling from the Microwave Spectrum of the Formic Acid-Propiolic Acid Dimer. J. Chem. Phys. 132, 2010, 201101/1. *Supported by the NSF CHE-1057796

  11. STS-103 Pilot Scott Kelly and MS John Grunsfeld try on oxygen masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the bunker at Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly (left) and Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) (right) try on oxygen masks during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members taking part are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  12. STS-103 MS Clervoy tries on oxygen mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the bunker at Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), tries on an oxygen mask during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members taking part are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), plus Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  13. Sainte-Bernardette du Banlay, Nevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Joly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Construite par Claude Parent et Paul Virilio en 1964-1965, l’église Sainte-Bernadette du Banlay témoigne de leurs travaux sur la fonction oblique. L’édifice fut édifié à l’issue d’un concours d’architecture lancé en 1963 par Mgr Vial et l’Abbé Bourgoin, curé de la paroisse. L’église est inspirée de l’architecture des bunkers. Deux coques de béton s’imbriquent l’une dans l’autre en se décalant par rapport à l’axe longitudinal. L’apparence générale est un édifice monolithique, qui évoque un rocher. Á l’intérieur, deux grands plans obliques paraissent exhumés pour constituer la nef et le chœur. En relation étroite avec la grotte des apparitions de Lourdes, l’église est construite comme une crypte suspendue dont la coupe adopte la forme d’un cœur. Par le choix de matériaux bruts et d’un éclairage zénithal, les architectes confèrent à l’ensemble une étonnante intimité. C’est par l’opposition entre le volume extérieur austère et fermé et l’espace intérieur accueillant et protecteur que les concepteurs expriment la nouvelle fonction d’une église conçue dans une période d’incertitude et de tensions.The Sainte-Bernadette du Banlay church at Nevers was built from 1964 to 1965 to the designs of the architects Claude Parent and Paul Virilio, working on their theme of the oblique function. It was the fruit of an architectural competition organised in 1963 by Monseigneur Vial and the Abbé Bourgoin, the parish priest. The church’s architecture is inspired by that of defensive bunkers. Two reinforced concrete shells are joined the one into the other but out of true on a longitudinal axis. The overall appearance of the church is that of a monolithic block, something like a rock. Inside, two large oblique planes seem to emerge to create the nave and the chancel. Closely related to the Lourdes grotto of the Virgin’s appearances, the church is designed as a suspended crypt

  14. Ocean Pollution as a Result of Onshore Offshore Petroleum Activities in the African Gulf of Guinea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    The Gulf of Guinea region is located on the Atlantic side of Africa; the sub region has a total population of approximately 190million people. It comprises of five different countries and their territorial waters, which are as follows: Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Cameroon. The sub region is blessed with so many types of natural resources ranging from petroleum, Natural gas, Bitumen, Uranium Diamond and Gold to mention but a few. However the region since the last two decades started attracting the World's attention as a result of the continuous increasing discoveries of new oil fields on both its on shores and off shores. In view of this extra ordinary increasing discoveries of new oil fields in the region, the Gulf of Guinea has become a "Gold rush" to the oil companies and it has so far attracted almost all the top oil firms in the world including; Exxon Mobil, Shell, Total, Texaco, Agip, Chevron, Slumberger, Stat Oil and Conoco Phillips among many other oil giants. In the more recent time even the U.S. Marine Corp have stationed their War Ship in the territorial waters of the Gulf in the name of providing protection to the "Liquid Gold" (Petroleum) underlying the beneath of the region. OIL ACTIVITIES AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS IN THE GULF OF GUINEA As a result of the geometrically increasing oil activities in the region ranging from Drilling, Gas flaring, Bunkering and Exploration activities, there was increase in the general pollution of the region. For example recent reports released in June, 2005 by the internationally renown nongovernmental organization on environmental pollution the Netherlands based Climate Justice programme and the Nigeria's Environmental Rights Action, Under the aegis of friends of the Earth, had it that the region is ranked top on the world's total flare with Nigeria along accounting for 16 percent of the world's total flare. Another example is the increasing cases of oil spillages leading to the

  15. Big emitting nations and the 2°C target:beyond integrated assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bows-Larkin, Alice; Sharmina, Maria; Kuriakose, Jaise; Anderson, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    within and between the energy and climate systems, a more transparent and dynamic framing based on highly constrained cumulative carbon budgets is proposed. Building on previous assessments that use a similar approach by authors Anderson and Bows, this analysis looks beyond the contested 'Annex 1' and 'non-Annex 1' division to backcast what the remaining CO2 budget implies for the world's top emitting nations. The analysis takes the top 25 nations, responsible for 85% of global CO2, and groups these nations on the basis of similarities within their energy systems. Using a range of explicit variables a suite of scenarios for these groups, as well as the 'rest of the world', 'deforestation' and 'bunker fuel CO2' are then developed, all constrained within a range of 2°C carbon budgets. By varying the levels of near-term emissions from each group's energy system, under a highly constrained CO2 budget, important sensitivities are revealed. Results demonstrate the significance of the coming 1-5 years' levels of emissions of the highest emitting groups and the importance of bunker-fuel emissions in shaping our collective futures. They also illustrate that only non-marginal futures with radical transitions across all energy systems can now be reconciled with the 2°C policy objective.

  16. Discovering Teenage Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Staring for the equivalent of every night for two weeks at the same little patch of sky with ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers has found the extremely faint light from teenage galaxies billions of light years away. These galaxies, which the research team believes are the building blocks of normal galaxies like our Milky Way, had eluded detection for three decades, despite intensive searches. ESO PR Photo 52/07 ESO PR Photo 52/07 A 92-hour long spectrum Two-dimensional spectrum obtained in 92 hours of exposure time, showing the line emitter candidates. The quasar absorption lines are visible close to the centre of the image. The team, led by Martin Haehnelt of the University of Cambridge, UK, Michael Rauch and George Becker of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, USA, and Andy Bunker of the Anglo-Australian Observatory, reports their results in the 1 March 2008 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. "This is the first time that the sky has been searched to this depth and the unrivalled sensitivity of the picture taken with the VLT was key to succeeding," says Haehnelt. Experts have long speculated that galaxies like ours were created by the amalgamation of proto-galaxies early in the history of the Universe, but the light from these fragments was so faint that astronomers had struggled to prove they were there at all. Astronomers thought that the teenage galaxies must be out there because they were blocking part of the light from objects even further away in space. "Previous attempts have usually been frustrated by the difficulty of detecting extremely faint objects: the amount of time required even with an 8-metre class telescope like the VLT considerably exceeds typical observing time awards. We have thus exploited the periods of less good weather with the FORS2 spectrograph at the VLT, taking advantage of the service observing mode," says Becker. In service mode, ESO staff astronomers at Paranal are responsible for carrying

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 8/28/2002), Record of Technical Change No. 2 (dated 9/23/2002), and Record of Technical Change No. 3 (dated 6/2/2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

    2001-11-21

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 168 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 168 consists of a group of twelve relatively diverse Corrective Action Sites (CASs 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; 25-99-16, USW G3; 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2). These CASs vary in terms of the sources and nature of potential contamination. The CASs are located and/or associated wit h the following Nevada Test Site (NTS) facilities within three areas. The first eight CASs were in operation between 1958 to 1984 in Area 25 include the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Missile Experiment Salvage Yard; the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Radioactive Materials Storage Facility; and the Treatment Test Facility Building at Test Cell A. Secondly, the three CASs located in Area 26 include the Project Pluto testing area that operated from 1961 to 1964. Lastly, the Underground Southern Nevada Well (USW) G3 (CAS 25-99-16), a groundwater monitoring well located west of the NTS on the ridgeline of Yucca Mountain, was in operation during the 1980s. Based on site history and existing characterization data obtained to support the data quality objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for CAU 168 are primarily radionuclide; however, the COPCs for several CASs were not defined. To address COPC

  18. EU-stress test: Swiss national action plan. Follow-up of peer review 2012 year-end status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    of the events at Fukushima, are being processed according to their importance and urgency in a Swiss action plan. There was a lack of consistency identified with respect to natural hazards assessments where significant differences exist in national approaches and where difficulties were encountered with beyond design margins and cliff-edge effects assessments. The peer review Board recommends that the Western European Nuclear Safety Regulators Association (WENRA) develop guidance on natural hazards assessments, including earthquake, flooding and extreme weather conditions, as well as on the assessment of margins beyond the design basis and cliff-edge effects. In Switzerland, the periodic safety review is mandatory every 10 years; the risk from external hazards is re-evaluated. ENSI required a re-evaluation of severe weather conditions. A comprehensive research project on external flooding was initiated. The Fukushima disaster highlighted the importance of the containment function as the last barrier to protect the people and the environment against radioactive releases resulting from a nuclear accident. All Swiss NPPs are equipped with special bunkered safety systems designed against extreme external events. ENSI requested a new safety case to demonstrate that the Swiss NPPs have adequate protection against the 10,000-year earthquake and the combination of this earthquake and a 10,000-year flooding. The necessary analyses were submitted by the licence holders. A flood-proof and earthquake-resistant external storage facility is in place at Reitnau since June 2011, in order to strengthen the provision for accident mitigation. It contains various operational resources, in particular mobile motor-driven pumps, mobile emergency power generators, hoses and cables, radiation protection suits, tools, diesel fuel and boration agents. This storage facility is located on top of a hill and is accessible by road or by helicopter. The three independent storage buildings are

  19. Prediction of potential mushroom yield by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy using fresh phase II compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H S S; Kilpatrick, M; Lyons, G

    2005-08-01

    Potential mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) yield of phase II compost is determined by interactions of key quality parameters including dry matter, nitrogen dry matter, ammonia, pH, conductivity, thermophilic microorganisms, C : N ratio, fiber fractions, ash, and certain minerals. This study was aimed at generating robust visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) calibrations for predicting potential yield, using spectra from fresh phase II compost. Four compost comparative trials were carried out during the winter and summer months of 2001-2003, under controlled experimental conditions employing six commercially prepared composts, with eight replicate (8 bag) plots per treatment (48 x 8 = 384). The substrates were prepared by windrow or bunker phase I, followed by phase II production. The fresh samples were scanned for Vis-NIR (400-2498 nm) spectra, averaged, transformed, and regressed against the recorded yield by employing a modified partial least squares algorithm. The best calibration model generated from the database explained 84% of yield variation within the data set with a standard error of calibration of 13.75 kg/tonne of fresh compost. The model was successfully tested for robustness with yield results obtained from a validation trial, carried out under similar experimental conditions in early 2004, and the standard error of prediction was 18.21 kg/tonne, which was slightly higher than the mean experimental error (17.94 kg/tonne) of the trial. The accuracy of the model is acceptable for estimating potential yield by classifying phase II substrate as poor (180-220 kg), medium (220-260 kg), and high (260-300 kg) yielding compost. The yield prediction model is being transferred to a new instrument based at Loughgall for routine evaluation of commercial phase II samples.

  20. Idea of Identification of Copper Ore with the Use of Process Analyser Technology Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdziak, Leszek; Kaszuba, Damian; Kawalec, Witold; Król, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The Polish resources of the copper ore exploited by the KGHM S.A. underground mines are considered as one of the most complex in the world and - consequently - the most difficult to be processed. The ore consists of three lithology forms: dolomites, shales and sandstones but in different proportions which has a significant impact on the effectiveness of the grinding and flotation processes. The lithological composition of the ore is generally recognised in-situ but after being mined it is blended on its long way from various mining fields to the processing plant by the complex transportation system consisting of belt conveyors with numerous switching points, ore bunkers and shafts. Identification of the lithological composition of the ore being supplied to the processing plant should improve the adjustments of the ore processing machinery equipment aiming to decrease the specific processing (mainly grinding) energy consumption as well as increase the metal recovery. The novel idea of Process Analyser Technology (PAT) sensors - information carrying pellets, dropped into the transported or processed bulk material which can be read directly when needed - is investigated for various applications within the DISIRE project (a part of the SPIRE initiative, acting under the Horizon2020 framework program) and here is adopted for implementing the annotation the transported copper ore for the needs of ore processing plants control. The identification of the lithological composition of ore blended on its way to the processing plant can be achieved by an information system consisting of pellets that keep the information about the original location of the portions of conveyed ore, the digital, geological database keeping the data of in-situ lithology and the simulation models of the transportation system, necessary to evaluate the composition of the blended ore. The assumptions of the proposed solution and the plan of necessary in-situ tests (with the special respect to harsh

  1. Application of a multimolecular marker approach to fingerprint petroleum pollution in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barakat, Assem O.; Mostafa, Alaa R. [Alexandria Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Alexandria (Egypt); Rullkoetter, Juergen [Car von Ossietzky Univ., Inst. of Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), Oldenburg (Germany); Hegazi, Abdel Rahman [Alexandria Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Alexandria (Egypt)

    1999-07-01

    In an attempt to investigate the suitability of a multibiological marker approach for defining the origin of petroleum pollution in marine systems, the aliphatic hydrocarbon composition of tar ball samples collected from the beaches of a small island impacted by heavy tar loads were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The tar ball samples, as collected, were at low stages of biodegradation and had diverse physical appearance. The majority of the samples (as many as 7 of the 10) appeared to be heavy fuel oils - possibly Bunker C. The GC traces for the other three tar balls, however, indicated that they were crude oils probably from tanker ballast washings or other non-point sources like the oil entering from the adjacent North Mediterranean. The biomarkers for the sterane and hopane series in these samples, however, had remained unaffected by weathering, and their distributions revealed significant differences among the samples suggesting multiple sources of the tar balls. The tar ball samples could be genetically subdivided into four groups on the basis of their biomarker fingerprints. A marine carbonate or evaporite, hypersaline, anoxic depositional environment of the petroleum source rock for Type I residues could be inferred from the even-carbon-number predominance of n-alkanes, the high relative abundance of gammacerane and the predominance of C{sub 35} relative to C{sub 34} 17{alpha}(H)-homohopanes. Higher plant contribution and a deltaic environment of source rock deposition could be concluded for Type II residues from the high concentrations of oleanane and diasteranes. On the other hand, Type III residues possessed geochemical characteristics consistent with a normal marine carbonate or evaporite source depositional environment under normal saline, reducing conditions. Finally, type IV residues had biomarker signatures intermediate between Types II and III. (Author)

  2. Inventory and forecasting of maritime emissions in the Belgian sea territory, an activity-based emission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Int Panis, Luc; Styns, Karel; Torfs, Rudi

    Air quality policy has focussed on land-based emissions for decades. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that emissions from sea-going vessels can no longer be ignored. There is a growing need for detailed emission inventories to evaluate the impact of this transport mode on air quality and health. In this paper we present MOPSEA, an activity-based emission model to determine emissions from sea-going vessels. The model considers shipping activities of sea-going vessels on Belgian territory, combined with individual vessel characteristics. We apply this model to study the effects of recent international efforts to reduce emissions from sea-going vessels in Belgian territorial waters for the current fleet and for two scenarios up to 2010. The emission model for Belgium, based on different vessel operating areas, reveals that most maritime emissions from the main engines will increase. CO 2 emissions will increase by 2-9% over the 2004-2010 period due to an increase in shipping activity. NO X emissions are projected to rise between 1% and 8% because the increase in activity offsets the reductions from the international maritime organisation (IMO) and European regulations. In contrast, SO 2 emissions will decrease by at least 50% in 6 years time. The switch of auxiliaries from heavy fuel oil to diesel oil at berth results in a large emission reduction (33%) for PM and small reductions for CO 2, NO X, CO and HC (4-5%). The choice between a bottom-up versus top-down approach can have important implications for the allocation of maritime emissions. The MOPSEA bottom-up model allocates only 0.7 Mton CO 2 to Belgium, compared to 24.2 Mton CO 2 based on bunker fuel inventories.

  3. Emissions from international shipping: 1. The last 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, V.; KöHler, H. W.; van Aardenne, J.; Lauer, A.

    2005-09-01

    Seagoing ships emit exhaust gases and particles into the marine boundary layer and significantly contribute to the total budget of anthropogenic emissions. We present an emission inventory for international shipping for the past five decades to be used in global modeling studies with detailed tropospheric chemistry. The inventory is a bottom-up analysis using fuel consumption and fleet numbers for the total civilian and military fleet including auxiliary engines at the end of 2001. Trend estimates for fuel mass, CO2, NOx, and other emissions for the time between 1950 and 2001 have been calculated using ship number statistics and average engine statistics. Our estimate for total fuel consumption and global emissions for the year 2001 is similar to previous activity-based studies. However, compared to earlier studies, a detailed speciation of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulate matter is given, and carbon monoxide emissions are calculated explicitly. Our results suggest a fuel consumption of approximately 280 million metric tons (Mt) for the year 2001 and 64.5 Mt in 1950. This corresponds to 187 (5.4) Tg CO2 (NOx) in 1950, and 813 (21.4) Tg CO2 (NOx) in 2001. From 1970 to 2001 the world-merchant fleet increased rapidly in terms of ship numbers, with a corresponding increase in total fuel consumption. The fuel consumption estimates are compared against historical marine bunker fuel statistics, and our emission estimates are related to emission budgets of other transport modes. Global ship emissions are distributed geographically according to global vessel traffic densities of the AMVER (Automated Mutual-assistance Vessel Rescue system) data set for the year 2000. This work also sets the basis to develop future emission scenarios based on average-fleet emission indices in part 2 of this study.

  4. Evaluation of the Biological Shields of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Ghana Using MCNP5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deatanyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective with radiation sources and facilities is the protection of both radiation workers and the general public. The biological shields of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Radiation Protection Institute (RPI Ghana had been evaluated for a collimated isotropic cesium-137 source for calibration purpose using MCNP5 code. The dose rate at supervised areas ranged from 0.57 to 8.35 :Sv/h and 0.26 to 10.22 :Sv/h at control areas when the source was panoramic. When the source was collimated, the dose rate ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 :Sv/h at supervised areas and 0.23 to 8.88 :Sv/h at control areas for 22.2 GBq of the cesium-137 source. The scatter contribution from the surfaces of the walls and roofs were also accounted for. The scatter radiation in the room decreased to 400 :Sv/h when the source was first collimated and to 3.5 :Sv/h when the source was further collimated. These results agreed quite well with experimental measurement. To effectively protect the staff, a narrow beam of 1.2 cm diameter which was defined at 1.0 m by the total surface of the ISO slab phantom was recommended to reduce the dose rate to less than 1.5 :Sv/h outside the calibration bunker even when the current activity is doubled. It was concluded that the 4.7 cm diameter of the existing narrow beam should be decreased to 1.2 cm by further collimation of the beam.

  5. Mapping man-made CO2 emissions using satellite-observed nighttime lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Andres, R. J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F. C.; Roman, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Open-Data Inventory for Anthropogenic Carbon dioxide (ODIAC) is a global high spatial resolution (1x1km) emission dataset for CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The original version of ODIAC was developed at the Japanese Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT) project to prescribe their inverse model. ODIAC first introduced the combined use of satellite-observed nighttime light data and individual power plant emission/geolocation information to estimate the spatial extent of fossil fuel CO2. The ODIAC emission data has been widely used by the international carbon cycle research community and appeared in a number of publications in the literature. Since its original publication in 2011, we have made numerous modifications to the ODIAC emission model and the emission data have been updated on annual basis. We are switching from BP statistical data based emission estimates to estimates made by Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In recent versions of ODIAC data, the emission seasonality has been adopted from the CDIAC monthly emission dataset. The emissions from international bunkers, which are not included in the CDIAC gridded emission data, are estimated using the UN Energy Database and included with the spatial distributions. In the next version of ODIAC emission model, we will explore the use of satellite data collected by the NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. We will estimate emission spatial distributions using global 500x500m nighttime lights data created from VIIRS data. We will also utilize a combustion detection algorithm Nightfire developed at NOAA National Geophysical Data Center to map gas flaring emissions. We also plan to expand our two emission sector emission distributing approach (power plant emission and non-point source emissions) by introducing a transportation emission sector which should improve emission distributions in urban and rural areas.

  6. Production, transportation and milling costs of sweet sorghum as a feedstock for centralized bioethanol production in the upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert S; Anex, Robert P

    2009-02-01

    Sweet sorghum has been identified as a possible ethanol feedstock because of its biomass yield and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. It has found limited use, however, because of poor post-harvest storage characteristics and short harvest window in cooler climates. Previous research (Bennett, A.S., Anex, R.P., 2008. Farm-gate production costs of sweet sorghum as a bioethanol feedstock. Transactions of the ASABE 51(2), 603-613) indicates that fermentable carbohydrates (FC) can be produced at less expense from sweet sorghum than from corn grain. Previous research, however, did not include costs associated with off-farm transportation, storage, or capital costs associated with milling and energy recovery equipment that are required to provide FC suitable for biological conversion. This study includes these additional costs and reevaluates sweet sorghum as a biocommodity feedstock. A total of eight harvest-transport-processing options are modeled, including 4-row self-propelled and 2-row tractor-pulled forage harvesters, two different modes of in-field transport, fresh processing, on-farm ensilage and at-plant ensilage. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis are used to account for system variability and compare scenarios. Transportation costs are found to be significant ranging from $33 to $71 Mg (-1) FC, with highest costs associated with at-plant ensilage scenarios. Economies of scale benefit larger milling equipment and boiler systems reducing FC costs by more than 50% when increasing annual plant capacity from 37.9 to 379 million liters. Ensiled storage of high moisture sweet sorghum in bunkers can lead to significant losses of FC (>20%) and result in systems with net FC costs well above those of corn-derived FC. Despite relatively high transport costs, seasonal, fresh processed sweet sorghum is found to produce FC at costs competitive with corn grain derived FC.

  7. A study on room design and radiation safety around room for Co-60 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit converted from room for Ir-192 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Gurjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Use of Co-60 source in place of Ir-192 in high dose rate brachytherapy unit (HDR unit has come for discussion in recent publications. Co-60 based system has been advocated for centers which have fewer brachytherapy procedures as it has comparative economically and administrative advantage. This study has direct practical application for such institutions, which are at the cusp of moving from Ir-192 to Co-60 based brachytherapy. Aims: Conversion of Ir-192 HDR room to Co-60 HDR room and to analyze radiation safety around the room. Materials and Methods: Uniform thickness of 15 cm concrete was added to all walls (except one wall adjoining to linear accelerator bunker to convert existing room forIr-192 HDR unit to suitable room for Co-60 HDR unit. Radiation survey around room was done. Actual and calculated wall thicknesses were compared. Results: Radiation survey data indicates that modified room is suitable for Co-60 HDR unit and all values are in full conformity to annual dose limits mentioned in Safety Code for Radiation Therapy Sources (SCRTS, Atomic Energy Regulatory Body (AERB; the regulatory body in India. Also, modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits mentioned in Safety Report Series No. 47 of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. However, console wall thickness (0.45 m is less than the calculated thickness (0.53 m for instantaneous dose rate (IDR design dose limit (7.5 ΅Sv/h as perabove safety report of IAEA. Conclusions: The modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits. However, console wall thickness is less than the required thickness for IDR design dose limit. It has been suggested to add 2.64 cm steel on console wall. It has been found that design dose limits should be considered while making room layout plan and regulatory body should add these constraints inSCRTS.

  8. Fuel oil-induced adrenal hypertrophy in ranch mink (Mustela vison): effects of sex, fuel oil weathering, and response to adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, F C; Lasley, B; Bursian, S

    2010-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources can be a cause of stress for free-ranging wildlife. The response of wildlife to chemical contaminants requires that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis be precisely regulated to allow for proper glucocorticoid-mediated adaptive responses. Chronic oral exposure to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil causes the development of adrenal hypertrophy in male ranch mink (Mustela vison) without increasing serum or fecal glucocorticoid concentrations. This hypertrophy is an adaptive response to fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To determine if the same phenomenon occurs in female mink or male mink exposed to artificially weathered fuel oil, female mink were fed 0 ppm (mineral oil) or 420 ppm fuel oil and male mink were exposed to 0 ppm, 420 ppm fuel oil, or 480 ppm artificially weathered fuel oil in the diet for 60-62 days. At the end of the exposure, serum glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed along with body and organ weight measurements. Fecal glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed at time points throughout the exposure. Male mink fed fuel oil or weathered fuel oil and female mink fed fuel oil had adrenal enlargement without any significant increases in the serum or fecal concentration of glucocorticoids, which is consistent with fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To address the physiological consequences of adrenal insufficiency, fuel oil-exposed male mink were administered an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Fuel oil-exposed animals had a smaller incremental increase in serum glucocorticoid concentration after ACTH challenge compared to control animals. Our findings provide further evidence that the HPA axis of fuel oil-exposed animals is compromised and, therefore, not able to respond appropriately to the diverse stressors found in the environment.

  9. Comparison of Two Surface Contamination Sampling Techniques Conducted for the Characterization of Two Pajarito Site Manhattan Project National Historic Park Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Technical Area-18 (TA-18), also known as Pajarito Site, is located on Los Alamos National Laboratory property and has historic buildings that will be included in the Manhattan Project National Historic Park. Characterization studies of metal contamination were needed in two of the four buildings that are on the historic registry in this area, a “battleship” bunker building (TA-18-0002) and the Pond cabin (TA-18-0029). However, these two buildings have been exposed to the elements, are decades old, and have porous and rough surfaces (wood and concrete). Due to these conditions, it was questioned whether standard wipe sampling would be adequate to detect surface dust metal contamination in these buildings. Thus, micro-vacuum and surface wet wipe sampling techniques were performed side-by-side at both buildings and results were compared statistically. A two-tail paired t-test revealed that the micro-vacuum and wet wipe techniques were statistically different for both buildings. Further mathematical analysis revealed that the wet wipe technique picked up more metals from the surface than the microvacuum technique. Wet wipes revealed concentrations of beryllium and lead above internal housekeeping limits; however, using an yttrium normalization method with linear regression analysis between beryllium and yttrium revealed a correlation indicating that the beryllium levels were likely due to background and not operational contamination. PPE and administrative controls were implemented for National Park Service (NPS) and Department of Energy (DOE) tours as a result of this study. Overall, this study indicates that the micro-vacuum technique may not be an efficient technique to sample for metal dust contamination.

  10. Rome: sinkhole events and network of underground cavities (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisio, Stefania; Ciotoli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic sinkholes in the city of Rome are closely linked to the network of underground cavities produced by human activities in more than two thousand years of history. Over the past fifteen years the increased frequency of intense rainfall events, favors sinkhole formation. The risk assessment induced by anthropogenic sinkhole is really difficult. However, a susceptibility of the territory to sinkholes can be more easily determined as the probability that an event may occur in a given space, with unique geological-morphological characteristics, and in an infinite time. A sinkhole susceptibility map of the Rome territory, up to the ring road, has been constructed by using Geographically Weighted Regression technique and geostatistics. The spatial regression model includes the analysis of more than 2700 anthropogenic sinkholes (recorded from 1875 to 2015), as well as geological, morphological, hydrological and predisposing anthropogenic characteristics of the study area. The numerous available data (underground cavities, the ancient entrances to the quarry, bunkers, etc.) facilitate the creation of a series of maps. The density map of the cavity, updated to 2015, showed that more than 20 km2 of the Roman territory are affected by underground cavities. The census of sinkholes (over 2700) shows that over 30 km2 has been affected by sinkholes. The final susceptibility map highlights that inside the Ring Road about 40 km2 of the territory (about 11%) have a very high probability of triggering a sinkhole event. The susceptibility map was also compared with the data of ground subsidence (InSAR) to obtain a predictive model.

  11. Evaluation of potential embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of 42 herbicides, insecticides, and petroleum contaminants to mallard eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Albers, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    Results are reported for the embryotoxicity of 42 environmental contaminants applied externally to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs including crude and refined petroleum, and commercial formulations of herbicides and insecticides. Many of the petroleum pollutants were embryotoxic and moderately teratogenic and had LD50s of 0.3 to 5 ?l per egg (~6?90 ?g/g egg). The most toxic was a commercial oil used for control of road dust followed by South Louisiana crude oil, Kuwait crude, no. 2 fuel oil, bunker C fuel oil, and industrial and automotive waste oil. Prudhoe Bay crude, unused crankcase oil, aviation kerosene, and aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures were less toxic ( LD50s of 18 to over 75 ? l) and less teratogenic. The LD50s of herbicides and insecticides in aqueous emulsion were measured by egg immersion; the most toxic were paraquat and trifluralin (LD50s of about 1.5 Ibs/A; 1.7 kg/ha). Propanil, bromoxynil with MCPA, methyl diclofop, prometon, endrin, sulprofos, and parathion were toxic (LD50s of 7 to 40 Ibs/A; 7.8?44.8 kg/ha), whereas 2,4-D, glyphosate, atrazine, carbaryl, dalapon, dicamba, methomyl, and phosmet were only slightly toxic or not toxic (LD50s of 178 to over 500 Ibs/A; 199?560 kg/ha). Pesticides in nontoxic oil vehicle applied by microliter pipet were up to 18 times more toxic than when applied in water vehicle, which was probably due to better penetration of the pesticide past the eggshell and its membranes. Teratogenic effects and impaired embryonic growth are reported and results discussed in terms of potential hazard at field levels of application. A discussion is provided on the effects of pollutants on the eggs of other species of birds under laboratory and field conditions.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark; Gallo, Patricia

    2016-04-21

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 413 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. CAU 413 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-02CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 413 are the result of the atmospheric deposition of contamination from the 1963 CSII test. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 413 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 17, 2015, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 413. The CAI will include radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, collection and analyses of soil samples, and assessment of investigation results. The collection of soil samples will be accomplished using both probabilistic and judgmental sampling approaches. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of DQO decisions, the releases at CAU 413 have been divided into seven study groups.

  13. Effects of dating errors on nonparametric trend analyses of speleothem time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mudelsee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in paleoclimatology is to take fully into account the various error sources when examining proxy records with quantitative methods of statistical time series analysis. Records from dated climate archives such as speleothems add extra uncertainty from the age determination to the other sources that consist in measurement and proxy errors. This paper examines three stalagmite time series of oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O from two caves in western Germany, the series AH-1 from the Atta Cave and the series Bu1 and Bu4 from the Bunker Cave. These records carry regional information about past changes in winter precipitation and temperature. U/Th and radiocarbon dating reveals that they cover the later part of the Holocene, the past 8.6 thousand years (ka. We analyse centennial- to millennial-scale climate trends by means of nonparametric Gasser–Müller kernel regression. Error bands around fitted trend curves are determined by combining (1 block bootstrap resampling to preserve noise properties (shape, autocorrelation of the δ18O residuals and (2 timescale simulations (models StalAge and iscam. The timescale error influences on centennial- to millennial-scale trend estimation are not excessively large. We find a "mid-Holocene climate double-swing", from warm to cold to warm winter conditions (6.5 ka to 6.0 ka to 5.1 ka, with warm–cold amplitudes of around 0.5‰ δ18O; this finding is documented by all three records with high confidence. We also quantify the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, the Little Ice Age (LIA and the current warmth. Our analyses cannot unequivocally support the conclusion that current regional winter climate is warmer than that during the MWP.

  14. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Oblak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  15. Design of Intelligent Feeding Device of Calves%犊牛智能化饲喂装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚江涛; 李成松; 李亚萍; 坎杂; 林海; 何苗

    2014-01-01

    Calves are the reserve forces and foundation of the cattle .Not only can breeding technology affect the survival rate, but also directly affect the calves adult production performance after the production .Therefore, an intelligent feeding device is designed , which is mainly composed of bunker , spiral feeding devices , stirring device , ordinary milk supplied system and automatic control system , and so on , and solves the problem of artificial feeding labor intensity and low feeding efficiency , realizing the scientific , automatic and accurate , providing guarantee for the healthy growth of the calves.%犊牛是牛场的后备力量,是牛群的基础。犊牛饲养技术水平不仅影响犊牛存活率,还直接关系到犊牛成年投产后的生产性能是否能够得到正常发挥。为此,设计了一种犊牛智能化饲喂装置,该装置主要由料仓、螺旋给料装置、搅拌装置、常乳精确供给系统及自动控制系统等组成,解决了人工饲喂劳动强度大、饲喂效率低等问题,实现了犊牛饲喂的科学化、自动化、精确化,为犊牛的健康成长提供了保障。

  16. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine

  17. Plutonium explosive dispersal modeling using the MACCS2 computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, C.M.; Wald, T.L.; Chanin, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive the necessary parameters to be used to establish a defensible methodology to perform explosive dispersal modeling of respirable plutonium using Gaussian methods. A particular code, MACCS2, has been chosen for this modeling effort due to its application of sophisticated meteorological statistical sampling in accordance with the philosophy of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.145, ``Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants``. A second advantage supporting the selection of the MACCS2 code for modeling purposes is that meteorological data sets are readily available at most Department of Energy (DOE) and NRC sites. This particular MACCS2 modeling effort focuses on the calculation of respirable doses and not ground deposition. Once the necessary parameters for the MACCS2 modeling are developed and presented, the model is benchmarked against empirical test data from the Double Tracks shot of project Roller Coaster (Shreve 1965) and applied to a hypothetical plutonium explosive dispersal scenario. Further modeling with the MACCS2 code is performed to determine a defensible method of treating the effects of building structure interaction on the respirable fraction distribution as a function of height. These results are related to the Clean Slate 2 and Clean Slate 3 bunkered shots of Project Roller Coaster. Lastly a method is presented to determine the peak 99.5% sector doses on an irregular site boundary in the manner specified in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145 (1983). Parametric analyses are performed on the major analytic assumptions in the MACCS2 model to define the potential errors that are possible in using this methodology.

  18. Thermal neutron capture cross-section and resonance integral measurements of 139La(n, γ)140La and 140Ce(n, γ)141Ce using a Am-Be neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkath, Priyada; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal neutron capture cross-sections and resonance integrals of 139La(n, γ)140La and 140Ce (n, γ)141Ce are measured with respect to reference reactions 197Au(n, γ)198Au and 55Mn(n, γ)56Mn using the neutron activation technique. Measurements are carried out using neutrons from an Am-Be source located inside a concrete bunker. Two different methods are used for determining self-shielding factors of activation foils as well as for finding the epithermal neutron spectrum shape factor. For 139 La with reference to 197 Au and 55 Mn the measured thermal cross sections are 9.24 ± 0.25 b and 9.28 ± 0.37 b, respectively, while the measured resonance integrals are 12.18 ± 0.67 b and 11.81 ± 0.94 b, respectively. For 140 Ce with reference to 197 Au and 55 Mn the measured thermal cross sections are 0.44 ± 0.01 b and 0.44 ± 0.02 b, respectively, while the measured resonance integrals are 0.55 ± 0.03 b and 0.54 ± 0.04 b, respectively. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements and evaluations. Presently estimated values confirm the established 139La(n, γ)140La cross-sections. The presently measured thermal capture cross-section 140Ce(n, γ)141Ce , though lower than the evaluated data, is having higher accuracy compared to previous measurements with large uncertainties. The resonance integral measured is higher (like most previous measurements) than most evaluations requiring a revision of the evaluated data.

  19. Neutron spectra and H*(10) around and 18 MV Linac by Ann's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuelos F, A.; Valero L, C.; Borja H, C. G.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: alanb535@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent H*(10) were calculated for a radiotherapy room in 16 point-like detectors, 15 located inside the vault room and 1 located outside the bunker. The calculation was carried out using Monte Carlo Methods with the MCNP5 code for a generic radiotherapy room model operating with a 18 MV Linac, obtaining 16 neutron spectra with 47 energy bins, the H*(10) values were calculated from the neutron spectra by the use of the fluence-dose conversion factors. An artificial neural network were designed and trained to determine the neutron H*(10) in 15 different locations inside the vault room from the H*(10) dose calculated for the detector located outside the room, using the calculated dose values as training set, using the scaled conjugated gradient training algorithm. The mean squared error set for the network training was 1E(-14), adjusting the data in 99.992 %. In the treatment hall, as the distance respect to the isocenter is increased, the amount of neutrons and the H*(10) are reduced, neutrons in the high-energy region are shifted to lower region peaking around 0.1 MeV, however the epithermal and thermal neutrons remain constant due to the room-return effect. In the maze the spectra are dominated by epithermal and thermal neutrons that contributes to produce activation and the production of prompt gamma-rays. The results shows the using this artificial intelligence technic as a useful tool for the neutron spectrometry and dosimetry by the simplification on the neutronic fields characterization inside radiotherapy rooms avoiding the use of traditional spectrometric systems. And once the H*(10) doses have been calculated, to take the appropriated actions to reduce or prevent the patient and working staff exposure to this undesirable neutron radiation. (Author)

  20. Réhabilitation, gestion et mise en valeur touristique de l’enceinte urbaine d’Ibiza (Espagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cobos-Guerra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Les premiers travaux de restauration programmés dans le cadre du Plan Directeur de la Muraille d’Ibiza récupèrent certains des éléments les plus importants de cet ensemble déclaré Patrimoine Mondial en 1999, suivant les critères du Plan dont l’objectif était de documenter, préserver et réhabiliter le tracé de la Renaissance. Les interventions initiales ont consisté à réhabiliter les casemates et les espaces intérieurs des bastions, à consolider les parapets de la muraille en respectant les différents types existants et à restaurer les deux portes de la Renaissance. De plus, au Portal Nou, on a retiré le revêtement du XIXe siècle, mettant ainsi au jour l’agencement d’origine et les dimensions de l’arc Renaissance projeté par J.B. Calvi en 1554.The earliest restoration work carried out the Ibiza city wall, under the terms of an overall restoration plan, saved some of the most important elements of this ensemble, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1999. The objectives of the restoration plan were to document, preserve and rehabilitate the Renaissance vestiges. The first steps involved the rehabilitation of the bunkers and the interior spaces of the bastions, the reinforcement of the wall's parapets, all respecting the different types to be found, and the restoration of two Renaissance gates. At the Portal Nou, the nineteenth-century rendering was removed to reveal the original surfaces and the dimensions of the Renaissance arch designed by J. B. Calvi in 1554.

  1. Development and testing of an ignition physics test facility and an oxygen/methane swirl torch igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jesus Roberto

    There are many advantages to LOX/methane propulsion, such as in-situ resource utilization from Mars and the Moon, and simplicity of ground operations due to its non-toxic nature. There exists a lack of fundamental understanding of the ignition physics, and flame characteristics of these propellants when related to rocket propulsion, which has created undesirably long design cycles and flight hardware that is not optimized. Motivated by these issues, a study of the ignition physics of a shear coaxial injector is proposed, in which the flow field dynamics and ignition transients will be observed through a visually accessible combustion chamber. The main goal of this work is to study the effects of geometric differences of the injector, such as recess in the liquid oxygen post and thickness of the LOX post, on the jet breakup downstream of the injector, and the flame anchoring mechanism and location. A facility was developed to support this endeavor in a safe and efficient way, including a cryogenic delivery system, a Multipurpose Optically Accessible Combustor (MOAC) with torch igniter, and a bunker with a Data Acquisition and Remote Controls system (DARCS). A swirl coflow premixed torch igniter was designed, manufactured and developed with the intent of using it as the MOAC's main ignition source. It was designed to use oxygen and methane as the propellants in an incremental step towards the goal of a LOX/methane rocket engine. Extensive testing was done on the igniter in the development phase to prove that it will reliable ignite and sustain combustion under a variety of propellant inlet conditions of which include: warm gas, cold gas, and liquid cryogenic conditions. The testing phase also provided data for component reliability and proof of concept for the testing facilities designed, especially for the cryogenic delivery system, and methane condensing unit. Future injector testing parameters of the hardware produced is included along with recommendations to

  2. 'Shrink' losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; Swanepoel, N; Heguy, J M; Price, T; Meyer, D M

    2016-01-15

    Silage 'shrink' (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term 'shrink' is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90±17, 68±18 and 28±21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses ('older' silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face.

  3. Dietary effects of metals-contaminated invertebrates from the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, on cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Woodward, D.F.; Brumbaugh, W.; Goldstein, J.N.; MacConnell, E.; Hogstrand, C.; Barrows, F.T.

    1999-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates with elevated concentrations of metals were collected from the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River, Idaho, pasteurized, and fed to cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki in the laboratory from start of feeding until 90 d posthatch. Invertebrates were collected from two sites known to contain elevated concentrations of metals: near Pinehurst in the South Fork of the CDA River and at Cataldo, approximately 5 km below the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork. Invertebrates collected from a relatively clean site in the North Fork were used as a reference diet. We performed measurements of fish health that indicate reduced fitness of fish fed the South Fork and Cataldo diets. Effects measured were reduced feeding activity, increased number of macrophage aggregates and hyperplasia of cells in the kidney, degeneration of mucosal epithelium in the pyloric caecae, and metallothionein induction. These effects would likely reduce growth and survival of fish in the wild. Vacuolization of glial cells were also observed in fish fed the Cataldo diet. Metals in the water often exacerbated the histological effects observed. Although the invertebrates collected near Cataldo had lower concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) than the invertebrates from the South Fork, fish fed the Cataldo diet had equally high or higher concentrations of all metals except as by day 44. The Cataldo diet also caused the most deleterious effects on survival and growth. These findings are especially important for early life stage fish, whose diet consists wholly of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, fish feeding on invertebrates in the CDA River below the Bunker Hill smelting complex are at risk of reduced fitness.

  4. Optimization of radiation protection in gamma radiography facilities; Otimizacao do sistema de radioprotecao nas instalacoes radiograficas de gamagrafia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    1999-07-01

    To determine optimized dose limits for workers, a study of optimization of radiation protection was undertaken in gamma radiography facilities closed, using the Technique Multiple Attributes Utility Analysis. A total of 217 protection options, distributed in 34 irradiation scenarios for tree facility types ( fixed open, moveable and closed (bunker) were analyzed. In the determination of the optimized limit dose, the following attributes were considered; costs of the protection barriers, costs attributed to the biological detriment for different alpha (the reference value of unit collective dose), size of the isolation area, constrained limits dose of annual individual equivalent doses and collective dose. The variables studied in the evaluation included: effective work load, type and activity of the sources of radiation ({sup 192}Ir and {sup 60}Co), source-operator distance related to the characteristic of the length of the command cable and the guide tube, type and thickness of the materials used in the protection barriers (concrete, barite, ceramic, lead, steel alloy and tungsten). The optimal analytic solutions obtained in the optimization process that resulted in the indication of the optimized dose limit were determined by means of a sensitivity analysis and by direct and logic evaluations, thus, independent of the values of the monetary coefficient attributed to the biological detriment, of the annual interest rate applied to the protection cost and of the type of installation studied, it was concluded that the primary limit of annual equivalent dose for workers (now 50 mSv) can be easily reduced to an optimized annual dose limit of 5 mSv. (author)

  5. Swedish Military Bases of the Cold War The Making of a New Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Strömberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union completely transformed the military-political situation in the Nordic countries. The movement from invasion defence to input defence in Sweden has made many of the subter-ranean modern fortresses and permanent defence systems of the Cold War unnec-essary. The current problem is what the administration authorities will do with the superfluous military buildings: let them fall into decay, preserve or reuse them – and for what purpose? The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the cultural as well as spatial foundation of a new genre of heritage industry in Sweden – the cultural heritage of the Cold War – whose value is negotiated through a range of processes by the different stakeholders involved – emotional, social and cultural processes as well as legal and economic processes. The subterranean fortresses of Hemsö and Aspö are used as empirical case studies in the article. They both describe the making of a cultural heritage and illustrate the problems related to the ambitions of convert-ing cultural heritage into tourist attractions. One of the conclusions is that the previous making of the industrial cultural heritage in the 1980s and 1990s has many things in common with the one of the Cold War. The “post-military” landscape of bunkers and rusting barbed wires is regarded with the same romanticism and with similar preservation ideologies and economic interests as the post-industrial landscape was earlier. Similar negotiation issues appear, and these negotiations are carried out by similar stakeholders. The difference is that the military culture heritage of the Cold War was developed through a deeply centralized selection process directed by administration authori-ties, but was also influenced by certain persuasion campaigns and preservation actions made by local stakeholders such as retired officers and municipality ad-ministrations.

  6. OW Bunker破产引发的法律困境评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 李垒

    2016-01-01

    丹麦宝运石油(OW Bunker)曾是世界上最大的船用燃油供应商,其破产事件导致诸多通过OW Bunker作为中间商订购燃油的船东和租船人面临着OW Bunker和实际供油商的双重索赔风险.针对此类纠纷,目前英美法系主要国家法院均受理了相关案件,但各国做法并非完全相同,尚没有完善的处理方案.在中国法视角下,燃油款支付义务依法应根据合同相对性原则予以确定及履行,并且不属于具有海事优先权的海事请求,因此,非燃油供给合同签署方的实际加油商无法根据船舶优先权在中国申请扣船.为避免双重支付的风险,船东和租船人可直接与实际加油商订立合同;而作为实际供油商,也可以通过改变标准合同条款来保护自己的权益.

  7. Determination of the exposure speed of radiation emitted by the linear accelerator, using the code MCNP5 to evaluate the radiotherapy room shields of ABC Hospital; Determinacion de la rapidez de exposicion de la radiacion emitida por el acelerador lineal, utilizando el codigo MCNP5, para evaluar los blindajes de la sala de radioterapia del Hospital ABC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corral B, J. R.

    2015-07-01

    Humans should avoid exposure to radiation, because the consequences are harmful to health. Although there are different emission sources of radiation, generated by medical devices they are usually of great interest, since people who attend hospitals are exposed in one way or another to ionizing radiation. Therefore, is important to conduct studies on radioactive levels that are generated in hospitals, as a result of the use of medical equipment. To determine levels of exposure speed of a radioactive facility there are different methods, including the radiation detector and computational method. This thesis uses the computational method. With the program MCNP5 was determined the speed of the radiation exposure in the radiotherapy room of Cancer Center of ABC Hospital in Mexico City. In the application of computational method, first the thicknesses of the shields were calculated, using variables as: 1) distance from the shield to the source; 2) desired weekly equivalent dose; 3) weekly total dose equivalent emitted by the equipment; 4) occupation and use factors. Once obtained thicknesses, we proceeded to model the bunker using the mentioned program. The program uses the Monte Carlo code to probabilistic ally determine the phenomena of interaction of radiation with the shield, which will be held during the X-ray emission from the linear accelerator. The results of computational analysis were compared with those obtained experimentally with the detection method, for which was required the use of a Geiger-Muller counter and the linear accelerator was programmed with an energy of 19 MV with 500 units monitor positioning the detector in the corresponding boundary. (Author)

  8. Endoscopic Treatment of Gluteus Medius Tears: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerebours, Frantz R; Cohn, Randy; Youm, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a term used to describe disorders of the peritrochanteric region. This constellation of conditions includes greater trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius (GM) tears, and external coxa saltans or snapping hip syndrome. Tears of the abductor mechanism, more specifically gluteus medius tears, have recently gained a considerable amount of interest in the orthopaedic literature. Abductor tears were first described by Bunker and Kagan in the late 1990s. They used the rotator cuff as an analogous structure to describe the pathological process associated with gluteus medius tears. Tears of the gluteus medius tendon can often be difficult to recognize. The clinical presentation is often attributed to trochanteric bursal inflammation, without any further workup. Provocative hip physical examination findings are an important key to proper diagnosis of abductor injuries. Depending on the size of the tear, patients with abductor tendon pathology may present with a Trendelenburg gait and reduced resisted abduction strength accompanied by pain. Initial noninvasive management of greater trochanteric pain syndrome includes oral or topical anti-inflammatory medication and activity modification. Physical therapy or other treatment modalities can be considered, with a focus on core strengthening, truncal alignment, and iliotibial band stretching. Gluteus medius tears have historically been repaired in an open fashion; however, the advent of new endoscopic surgery techniques has allowed for a less invasive approach. Access to the peritrochanteric space affords the surgeon with access to pathology associated with the greater trochanter, iliotibial band, trochanteric bursa, sciatic nerve, short external-rota tors, iliopsoas tendon, and the gluteus medius and minimus tendon attachments. Over the last decade, we have seen rapid technological advances in hip arthroscopy, improved diagnostic imaging and interpretation, and an improved

  9. Differential gene expression induced by exposure of captive mink to fuel oil: A model for the sea otter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L.; Riva, F.; Mohr, C.; Aldridge, B.; Schwartz, J.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Free-ranging sea otters are subject to hydrocarbon exposure from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Effects of direct exposure to unrefined crude oil, such as that associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, are readily apparent. However, the impact of subtle but pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of crude oil on sea otters is difficult to assess. The present study was directed at developing a model for assessing the impact of low concentrations of fuel oil on sea otters. Quantitative PCR was used to identify differential gene expression in American mink that were exposed to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil. A total of 23 genes, representing 10 different physiological systems, were analyzed for perturbation. Six genes with immunological relevance were differentially expressed in oil-fed mink. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and complement cytolysis inhibitor (CLI) were down-regulated while IL-2 was up-regulated. Expression of two additional genes was affected; heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was up-regulated and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) was down-regulated. While the significance of each perturbation is not immediately evident, we identified differential expression of genes that would be consistent with the presence of immune system-modifying and endocrine-disrupting compounds in fuel oil. Application of this approach to identify effects of petroleum contamination on sea otters should be possible following expansion of this mink model to identify a greater number of affected genes in peripheral blood leukocytes. ?? 2007 Ecohealth Journal Consortium.

  10. Temperature and air velocity effects on ethanol emission from corn silage with the characteristics of an exposed silo face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Felipe; Hafner, Sasha D.; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank M.

    2010-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from agricultural sources are believed to be an important contributor to tropospheric ozone in some locations. Recent research suggests that silage is a major source of VOCs emitted from agriculture, but only limited data exist on silage emissions. Ethanol is the most abundant VOC emitted from corn silage; therefore, ethanol was used as a representative compound to characterize the pattern of emission over time and to quantify the effect of air velocity and temperature on emission rate. Ethanol emission was measured from corn silage samples removed intact from a bunker silo. Emission rate was monitored over 12 h for a range in air velocity (0.05, 0.5, and 5 m s -1) and temperature (5, 20, and 35 °C) using a wind tunnel system. Ethanol flux ranged from 0.47 to 210 g m -2 h -1 and 12 h cumulative emission ranged from 8.5 to 260 g m -2. Ethanol flux was highly dependent on exposure time, declining rapidly over the first hour and then continuing to decline more slowly over the duration of the 12 h trials. The 12 h cumulative emission increased by a factor of three with a 30 °C increase in temperature and by a factor of nine with a 100-fold increase in air velocity. Effects of air velocity, temperature, and air-filled porosity were generally consistent with a conceptual model of VOC emission from silage. Exposure duration, temperature, and air velocity should be taken into consideration when measuring emission rates of VOCs from silage, so emission rate data obtained from studies that utilize low air flow methods are not likely representative of field conditions.

  11. Group-based social skills interventions for adolescents with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a review and looking to the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon CM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Camilla M McMahon,1 Matthew D Lerner,2,3 Noah Britton41Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 4Behavorial Sciences Department, Bunker Hill Community College, Charleston, MA, USAAbstract: In this paper, we synthesize the current literature on group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs for adolescents (ages 10–20 years with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder and identify key concepts that should be addressed in future research on GSSIs. We consider the research participants, the intervention, the assessment of the intervention, and the research methodology and results to be integral and interconnected components of the GSSI literature, and we review each of these components respectively. Participant characteristics (eg, age, IQ, sex and intervention characteristics (eg, targeted social skills, teaching strategies, duration and intensity vary considerably across GSSIs; future research should evaluate whether participant and intervention characteristics mediate/moderate intervention efficacy. Multiple assessments (eg, parent-report, child-report, social cognitive assessments are used to evaluate the efficacy of GSSIs; future research should be aware of the limitations of current measurement approaches and employ more accurate, sensitive, and comprehensive measurement approaches. Results of GSSIs are largely inconclusive, with few consistent findings across studies (eg, high parent and child satisfaction with the intervention; future research should employ more rigorous methodological standards for evaluating efficacy. A better understanding of these components in the current GSSI literature and a more sophisticated and rigorous analysis of these components in future research will lend clarity to key questions

  12. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Graces Quarters area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    Graces Quarters was used for open-air testing of chemical-warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water and surface water. The hydrogeology and water quality were examined at three test areas, four disposal sites, a bunker, and a service area on Graces Quarters. Methods of investigation included surface and borehole geophysics, water-quality sampling, water- level measurement, and hydrologic testing. The hydrogeologic framework is complex and consists of a discontinuous surficial aquifer, one or more upper confining units, and a confined aquifer system. Directions of ground-water flow vary spatially and temporally, and results of site investigations show that ground-water flow is controlled by the geology of the area. The ground water and surface water at Graces Quarters generally are unmineralized; the ground water is mildly acidic (median pH is 5.38) and poorly buffered. Inorganic constituents in excess of certain Federal drinking-water regulations and ambient water-quality criteria were detected at some sites, but they probably were present naturally. Volatile and semivolatile organic com- pounds were detected in the ground water and surface water at seven of the nine sites that were investi- gated. Concentrations of organic compounds at two of the nine sites exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations. Volatile compounds in concentrations as high as 6,000 m/L (micrograms per liter) were detected in the ground water at the site known as the primary test area. Concentrations of volatile compounds detected in the other areas ranged from 0.57 to 17 m/L.

  13. The Debris of Urban Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sgarbi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available “Il Guasto” is an urban context, a place in the heart of the historic city of Bologna which is a mound of debris (resulting from the demolition of an important building, the Bentivoglio Family palace during a popular revolt in the 1506 on top of which a “public garden” was created 40 years ago. The garden is well known in Bologna as “Giardino del Guasto”. Underneath, in between the debris, an underground space (bunker was created to protect the citizen during the bombing of the second world war.The aim of the Design Studio of Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism, Carleton University (Ottawa, Canada, DSA Directed Studies Abroad (January 15th - April 13th, 2012, is to exercise creativity and design skills in an historical context bearing some negative connotations. A spell was cast on the site and the negative effects of this spell are still perceivable today after more than five hundred years. This makes us ponder upon the notions of permanence and durability (of architecture and ideas in the urban fabric and in the meanders of human memory. The site, centered on a garden, has been undergoing many changes in use, purpose and meaning and today still requires to be reimagined in the social context of the city and its famous university. [In the menu on the right, ARTICLE TOOLS, in "Supplementary Files" link you can download the .pdf presentations of Carleton University students, related to the workshop on Giardino del Guasto area, developed in Bologna in 2012].

  14. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  15. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, robert C [DRI; Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2013-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2000-10-05

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 409 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1; TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2; and RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site. The Septic Sludge Disposal Pits are located near Bunker Two, close to Area 3, on the Tonopah Test Range. The Battery Dump Site is located at the abandoned Cactus Repeater Station on Cactus Peak. The Cactus Repeater Station was a remote, battery-powered, signal repeater station. The two Septic Sludge Disposal Pits were suspected to be used through the late 1980s as disposal sites for sludge from septic tanks located in Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern are the same for the disposal pits and include: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and radionuclides (including plutonium and depleted uranium). The Battery Dump Site consists of discarded lead-acid batteries and associated construction debris, placing the site in a Housekeeping Category and, consequently, no contaminants are expected to be encountered during the cleanup process. The corrective action the at this CAU will include collection of discarded batteries and construction debris at the Battery Dump Site for proper disposal and recycling, along with photographic documentation as the process progresses. The corrective action for the remaining CASs involves the collection of background radiological data through borings drilled

  17. LNG - Status in Denmark. Technology and potential. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2012-05-15

    The interest for LNG both on a small and a large scale is increasing worldwide. The experiences and knowledge on LNG is limited in Denmark. The Danish gas companies' Technical Management Group (TCG) has asked for a status report including a technology description and an evaluation of the potential in Denmark. A survey of primarily small-scale LNG technology is done in the report. The focus is motivated by the new areas of gas utilisation that become possible with small-scale LNG. Small-scale LNG in this study is defined as LNG stored and used at the application or in an isolated gas grid. The small-scale use of LNG has today an almost negligible share of the total LNG trade but offers interesting new applications for gas utilisation. LNG on a small scale can be used primarily as: 1) Ship fuel. 2) Truck fuel (heavy duty long distance). 3) Individual users not connected to the natural gas grid. 4) Backup for upgraded biogas to individual users and vehicle fleets. 5) Security of supply or supply enhancement of heavily loaded parts of the gas grid. 6) Small-scale storage and/or peak shaving. All but the first topics are natural uses for the current Danish gas distributors. LNG as ship fuel may engage other specialized LNG companies. The report contains a technical description of the parts in primarily small-scale LNG handling and operation. Liquefaction, transport, storage, engine technologies, gas quality and safety aspects related to LNG are covered. There seem to be two more or less separate paths for LNG in Denmark, onshore and off-shore use. These are not, apparently, sharing their experiences and knowledge. Rules and regulations are also different which may create some problems in the interface, for example ship bunkering. Further studies are suggested in the area of gas quality and engine technologies and adaptation of foreign guidelines for small-scale installations to Danish conditions. These guidelines ought to be based on international standards and

  18. Emission from international sea transportation and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endresen, Øyvind; Sørgârd, Eirik; Sundet, Jostein K.; Dalsøren, Stig B.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Berglen, Tore F.; Gravir, Gjermund

    2003-09-01

    Emission generated by the international merchant fleet has been suggested to represent a significant contribution to the global anthropogenic emissions. To analyze the impacts of these emissions, we present detailed model studies of the changes in atmospheric composition of pollutants and greenhouse compounds due to emissions from cargo and passenger ships in international trade. Global emission inventories of NOx, SO2, CO, CO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) are developed by a bottom-up approach combining ship-type specific engine emission modeling, oil cargo VOC vapor modeling, alternative global distribution methods, and ship operation data. Calculated bunker fuel consumption is found in agreement with international sales statistics. The Automated Mutual-assistance Vessel Rescue system (AMVER) data set is found to best reflect the distributions of cargo ships in international trade. A method based on the relative reporting frequency weighted by the ship size for each vessel type is recommended. We have exploited this modeled ship emissions inventory to estimate perturbations of the global distribution of ozone, methane, sulfate, and nitrogen compounds using a global 3-D chemical transport model with interactive ozone and sulfate chemistry. Ozone perturbations are highly nonlinear, being most efficient in regions of low background pollution. Different data sets (e.g., AMVER, The Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)) lead to highly different regional perturbations. A maximum ozone perturbation of approximately 12 ppbv is obtained in the North Atlantic and in the North Pacific during summer months. Global average sulfate loading increases with 2.9%, while the increase is significantly larger over parts of western Europe (up to 8%). In contrast to the AMVER data, the COADS data give particularly large enhancements over the North Atlantic. Ship emissions reduce methane lifetime by approximately 5%. CO2 and O3 give positive radiative forcing (RF), and

  19. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Roberrt C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  20. The Legal Application about Limitation of Liability of Bulk Oil Pollution on the Northern Sea Route%我国船舶燃油污染损害民事责任限制法律制度反思--从北方海航道船舶燃油污染损害民事责任限制法律适用谈起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白佳玉; 杨占波

    2014-01-01

    Northern Sea Route constitutes a main part of the Arctic Northeast Passage .In the future , in China's shipping industry bulk cargo vessels and container vessels will be the substantial transportation type on the Northern Sea Route .Bulk oil pollution will be a kind of severe pollution resulting from the large scale transportation on the Northern Sea Route .The relevant regulations about the limitation of lia-bility about bulk oil pollution are quite different among International Convention on Civ il L iability f or Bunker Oil Pollution Damage ,Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims ,1976 and its 1996 Protocol ,and The Merchant Shipping Code of the USSR .It may cause legal application issue when Chinese vessels cause bulk oil pollution on the Northern Sea Route .Besides ,the limitation of liability un-der the Maritime Code of China is much lower than that of the Merchant Shipping Code of the USSR , which is disadvantageous for China's damage compensation for bulk oil pollution .The ratification of rele-vant convention or learning from the legislation experience of USSR ,and enhancing the limitation of liabil-ity standard under Maritime Code of China will benefit China's marine environment when we are confront-ed with huge environment claims by other maritime powers .%未来我国航运业利用北方海航道将以散货船和集装箱船为主,船舶燃油污染损害民事责任限制乃北方海航道大规模通航后必然引发的问题,相关国际公约和《俄罗斯联邦商船航运法典》的不同规定,使我国船舶在该航道中的燃油污染损害赔偿责任限制的法律适用不明晰。我国《海商法》规定的责任限制数额远低于俄罗斯国内法和国际法律规则之规定,不利于我国沿海燃油污染损害赔偿问题的解决。可尝试通过参加相关公约,或借鉴俄国内法规定,针对国际航线船舶在我国沿海的燃油污染问题提高我国法律中的赔偿责任限制数额。

  1. Total skin electron therapy treatment verification: Monte Carlo simulation and beam characteristics of large non-standard electron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavon, Ester Carrasco [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez-Doblado, Francisco [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Leal, Antonio [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Capote, Roberto [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Lagares, Juan Ignacio [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Perucha, Maria [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Arrans, Rafael [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-09-07

    Total skin electron therapy (TSET) is a complex technique which requires non-standard measurements and dosimetric procedures. This paper investigates an essential first step towards TSET Monte Carlo (MC) verification. The non-standard 6 MeV 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} electron beam at a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm as well as its horizontal projection behind a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) screen to SSD = 380 cm were evaluated. The EGS4 OMEGA-BEAM code package running on a Linux home made 47 PCs cluster was used for the MC simulations. Percentage depth-dose curves and profiles were calculated and measured experimentally for the 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} field at both SSD = 100 cm and patient surface SSD = 380 cm. The output factor (OF) between the reference 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} open field and its horizontal projection as TSET beam at SSD = 380 cm was also measured for comparison with MC results. The accuracy of the simulated beam was validated by the good agreement to within 2% between measured relative dose distributions, including the beam characteristic parameters (R{sub 50}, R{sub 80}, R{sub 100}, R{sub p}, E{sub 0}) and the MC calculated results. The energy spectrum, fluence and angular distribution at different stages of the beam (at SSD = 100 cm, at SSD = 364.2 cm, behind the PMMA beam spoiler screen and at treatment surface SSD = 380 cm) were derived from MC simulations. Results showed a final decrease in mean energy of almost 56% from the exit window to the treatment surface. A broader angular distribution (FWHM of the angular distribution increased from 13deg at SSD 100 cm to more than 30deg at the treatment surface) was fully attributable to the PMMA beam spoiler screen. OF calculations and measurements agreed to less than 1%. The effect of changing the electron energy cut-off from 0.7 MeV to 0.521 MeV and air density fluctuations in the bunker which could affect the MC results were shown to have a negligible impact on the beam fluence distributions. Results

  2. Risk Assessment of Ship Oil Spill Based on Bayesian Network%基于贝叶斯网络的船舶溢油风险评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克中; 干伟东; 黄明; 邓健; 杨星

    2012-01-01

    船舶溢油事故已成为导致海洋污染重要的因素之一,采用科学方法对船舶溢油风险进行有效的预测与评估具有重要意义.将船舶溢油风险分为操作性溢油风险与事故性溢油风险两类,通过分析历史数据与借助专家经 验识别风险因素,构建了船舶溢油风险的贝叶斯网络模型和条件概率表CPT,并利用HUGIN软件进行了概率推理和风险因素灵敏度分析,定量评估了船舶溢油风险,找出了影响最突出的风险因素.将贝叶斯网络模型应用于我国沿海港口水域,得出两类船舶溢油风险概率分别为0.013 8和0.000 3,指出了加燃油、装卸油品、人员疏忽和船舶密度等风险因素对船舶溢油风险影响最突出.%The accidents of ship oil spill have been one of the most significant factors causing marine pollution, so appropriate approaches to forecast ship oil spill risk has important significance. A novel Bayesian model for risk assessment of ship oil spill is presented. Ship oil spill is divided into two kinds, I. E. 'operation spill' and 'accident spill'. The Bayesian network model and the statistics CPT are constructed by analyzing historic accident data and expert experience. The software HUGIN is used to compute accident probability of ship oil spill and to analyze sensitivity of risk factors so as to evaluate ship oil spill risks quantitatively and find out main risk factors. The presented Bayesian network model is applied to study the ship oil spill risk in China's coastal harbor waters, which led to the conclusion that probabilities for the two ship oil spill kinds are 0.013 8 and 0. 000 3 respectively and that bunkering, loading or discharging operation, personnel negligence and ship density etc. Are the major factors which influence ship oil spill risks.

  3. Physical, chemical and biological observations and modeling of oil spills in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotti, A.; De Dominicis, M.

    2016-11-01

    According to a definition of GESAMP, United Nations advisory body on scientific aspects of marine protection, a marine pollution is: "direct or indirect introduction by man of substances or energy into the marine environment … which results in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of water quality and reduction of marine attractions". The works presented in this Special Issue stem from the need to manage the problem of marine pollution. The categories of pollutants associated with the maritime traffic are mainly hydrocarbons and chemicals. Hydrocarbon is the oil in all its forms, including the crude oil, the fuel oil, the sludges, debris and other refined products (as defined by MARPOL 73/78 Annex I (MARPOL, 1978)). An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the open ocean or coastal waters. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, and heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Oil spills can have devastating effects on the marine environment and can jeopardize the functional integrity of the marine ecosystem (seabirds populations, fish communities, and marine mammals), as reported in Jackson et al. (1989), Piatt and Anderson (1996), Peterson et al. (2003). While being toxic to marine life, the hydrocarbons are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carries can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. In many instances vessels intentionally discharge illegal wastes despite foreign and domestic regulation prohibiting

  4. Calculation of the structural shielding of the radiotherapy treatment room equipped with a linear accelerator type Tomo therapy Hi-Art in the Oncology Center of Chihuahua, Mexico; Calculo del blindaje estructural de la sala de tratamiento de radioterapia equipada con un acelerador lineal del tipo Tomotherapy Hi-Art en el Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero G, C. A. [Southwest Oncology Centers, North Civic Center Plaza No. 2926, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Plascencia, J. C. [Centro Oncologico Louis and Lucille Grado, Republica del Peru No. 102-5, Col. Americas, Aguascalientes (Mexico); Vargas V, M. X.; Toledo J, P., E-mail: cabshm@msn.co [Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua, Hacienda de la Esperanza No. 6304, Fracc. Cima Comercial, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The helicoid tomo therapy is an external radiotherapy system of modulated intensity, guided by image, in which the radiation is imparted to the patient using a narrow radiation beam in helicoid form, in a similar way to the scanning process with a computerized tomography. The tomo therapy equipment (Tomo Therapy Hi-Art) consists in an electrons linear accelerator with acceleration voltages of 6 MV for treatment and 3.5 MV for image, coupled to a ring that turn around the patient as this is transferred through this ring in perpendicular sense to the radiation beam. The radiation beam is narrow because has the maximum size of 5 x 40 cm{sup 2} in the isocenter. The intensity modulation of the beam is carried out with a binary dynamic collimator of 64 crisscross sheets, and the guide by image though a system of megavoltage computerized tomography. Opposed to the radiation beam, also coupled to the rotational ring, a group of lead plates exists with a total thickness of 13 cm that acts as barrier of the primary radiation beam. The special configuration of the tomography equipment makes to have the following characteristics: 1) the presence of the lead barrier of the equipment reduces the intensity of the primary beam that reaches the bunker walls in considerable way, 2) the disperse and leakage radiations are increased with regard to a conventional accelerator due to the increase in the necessary irradiation time to produce modulated intensity fields by means of the narrow radiation beam. These special characteristics of the tomo therapy equipment make that particularities exist in the application of the formulations for structural shielding calculations that appears in the NCRP reports 49, NCRP 151 and IAEA-SRS-47. For this reason, several researches have development analytic models based on geometric considerations of continuous rotation of the equipment ring to determine the shielding requirements for the primary beam, the dispersed and leakage radiation in tomo

  5. Constraints on ship NOx emissions in Europe using OMI NO2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, G. C. M.; Boersma, K. F.

    2012-04-01

    About 90% of world trade is transported by oceangoing ships, and seaborne trade has been shown to have increased by about 5% per year in the past decade. Global ship traffic is currently not regulated under international treaties (e.g. Kyoto protocol) and ships are still allowed to burn low-grade bunker fuel. As a result, ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Previous studies indicated that the global NOx emissions from shipping are in the range 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total global NOx emissions). Because most ships sail within 400 km of the coast, it is important to understand the contribution of ship emissions to atmospheric composition in the densely populated coastal regions. Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs), in combination with emission inventories, are used to simulate atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants to assess the impact of ship emissions. However, these bottom-up inventories, based on extrapolation of a few engine measurements and strong assumptions, suffer from large uncertainties. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in Europe using satellite observations of NO2 columns. We use the nested version of the GEOS-Chem model (0.5°-0.667°) to simulate tropospheric NO2 columns over Europe for the years 2005-2006, using our plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions. We improve the NO2 retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI v2.0) by replacing the coarse a priori (TM4) vertical NO2 profiles (2°-3°) with the high-resolution GEOS-Chem profiles. This ensures consistency between the retrievals and model simulations. GEOS-Chem simulations of tropospheric NO2 columns show remarkable quantitative agreement with the observed OMI columns over Europe (R2=0.89, RMS difference < 0.2-1015 molec. cm-2), providing confidence in the ability of the model to simulate NO2 pollution over the European mainland. We

  6. SU-E-T-365: Estimation of Neutron Ambient Dose Equivalents for Radioprotection Exposed Workers in Radiotherapy Facilities Based On Characterization Patient Risk Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irazola, L; Terron, J; Sanchez-Doblado, F [Departamento de Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain); Domingo, C; Romero-Exposito, M [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Fuste, M [Health and Safety Department, ALBA Synchrotron Light Source, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Sanchez-Nieto, B [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Bedogni, R [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Previous measurements with Bonner spheres{sup 1} showed that normalized neutron spectra are equal for the majority of the existing linacs{sup 2}. This information, in addition to thermal neutron fluences obtained in the characterization procedure{sup 3}3, would allow to estimate neutron doses accidentally received by exposed workers, without the need of an extra experimental measurement. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations demonstrated that the thermal neutron fluence distribution inside the bunker is quite uniform, as a consequence of multiple scatter in the walls{sup 4}. Although inverse square law is approximately valid for the fast component, a more precise calculation could be obtained with a generic fast fluence distribution map around the linac, from MC simulations{sup 4}. Thus, measurements of thermal neutron fluences performed during the characterization procedure{sup 3}, together with a generic unitary spectra{sup 2}, would allow to estimate the total neutron fluences and H*(10) at any point{sup 5}. As an example, we compared estimations with Bonner sphere measurements{sup 1}, for two points in five facilities: 3 Siemens (15–23 MV), Elekta (15 MV) and Varian (15 MV). Results: Thermal neutron fluences obtained from characterization, are within (0.2–1.6×10{sup 6}) cm−{sup 2}•Gy{sup −1} for the five studied facilities. This implies ambient equivalent doses ranging from (0.27–2.01) mSv/Gy 50 cm far from the isocenter and (0.03–0.26) mSv/Gy at detector location with an average deviation of ±12.1% respect to Bonner measurements. Conclusion: The good results obtained demonstrate that neutron fluence and H*(10) can be estimated based on: (a) characterization procedure established for patient risk estimation in each facility, (b) generic unitary neutron spectrum and (c) generic MC map distribution of the fast component. [1] Radiat. Meas (2010) 45: 1391 – 1397; [2] Phys. Med. Biol (2012) 5 7:6167–6191; [3] Med. Phys (2015) 42

  7. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel

  8. Comparison of a beach parametric morphodynamic model results with in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Caroline; Silva, Paulo A.; Baptista, Paulo; Abreu, Tiago

    2014-05-01

    The south coastal stretch of Aveiro inlet in the Northwest coast of Portugal is subject to a highly energetic wave climate and presents generalized erosion. To characterize the morphodynamic behavior of this coastal stretch it is important to establish the relationship between the hydrodynamic forcing and beach topography changes. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop methods which enable to estimate its behavior at a short and medium term. This work presents a model which estimates the cross-shore sediment transport from the shoaling into the swash zone. The transformation of the waves (shoaling and refraction) as they propagate towards the shore are computed from the incident wave field assuming conservation of the wave energy flux and take into account the tidal level and the beach bathymetry and topography. Wave breaking is described according to Battjes & Janssen (1978) and wave dissipation follows Baldock et al.'s (1998) formulation. The cross-shore sediment transport rates in the shoaling, surf and swash zones are computed from Tinker et al.'s (2009) suspended load shape function as a function of the normalized depth, h/ hb, where hb represents the water depth at wave breaking. The performance of the model was assessed by comparing the computed significant wave height and sediment fluxes with water-level measurements and morphological variations at a transept in the coastal stretch. The hydrodynamic measurements were obtained with pressure transducers placed in the inter-tidal zone during one tidal cycle and topographic surveys with the INSHORE system (Baptista et al., 2011a,b). The results show that the computed sediment fluxes are qualitatively in agreement with the topographic observations, meaning that the parameterized sediment flux shape function provide a good basis for prediction of the beach morphodynamic behavior with low computational cost. References: Baldock, TE, Holmes, P, Bunker, S, Van Weert, P, 1998. Cross-shore hydrodynamics within

  9. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsons, D.K.; Street, P.J.; Lodha, G.S

    1999-07-01

    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying

  10. Flow-cytometric determination of genotoxic effects of exposure to petroleum in mink and sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, J.W.; Mazet, J.A.; Blake, J.; Smolen, M.J.; Lou, Y.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the genotoxic effects of crude oil on mink and sea otters, In the first experiment, the effects on mink of chronic exposure to weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil were studied, Female mink were fed a diet that included weathered crude oil for a period of 3 weeks prior to mating, during pregnancy and until weaning. Kits were exposed through lactation and by diet after weaning until 4 months of age. Kidney and liver tissues of the kits were examined using flow cytometry (FCM) and it was found that the genome size was increased in kidney samples from the experimental group compared to the control group. This effect was probably due to some type of DNA amplification and it could have been inherited from the exposed mothers or have been a somatic response to oil exposure in the pups, No evidence of clastogenic effects, as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) of the G(1) peak, was found in kidney or liver tissue. In the second experiment, yearling female mink were exposed either by diet or externally to crude oil or bunker C fuel oil. Evidence for clastogenic damage was found in spleen tissue for the exposure groups, but not in kidney tissue. No evidence of increased genome size was observed. In the third experiment, blood was obtained from wild-caught sea otters in Prince William Sound. The sea otters represented two populations: one from western Prince William Sound that was potentially exposed to oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a reference population from eastern Prince William Sound that did not receive oil from the spill. The spill had occurred 1.5 years prior to obtaining the blood samples. Although the mean CVs did not differ between the populations, the exposed population had a significantly higher variance of CV measurements and five out of 15 animals from the exposed population had CVs higher than the 95% confidence limits of the reference population, It is concluded that FCM is a sensitive indicator

  11. Impact of inlet fogging and fuels on power and efficiency of gas turbine plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basha Mehaboob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational study to assess the performance of different gas turbine power plant configurations is presented in this paper. The work includes the effect of humidity, ambient inlet air temperature and types of fuels on gas turbine plant configurations with and without fogger unit. Investigation also covers economic analysis and effect of fuels on emissions. GT frames of various sizes/ratings are being used in gas turbine power plants in Saudi Arabia. 20 MWe GE 5271RA, 40 MWe GE-6561B and 70 MWe GE-6101FA frames are selected for the present study. Fogger units with maximum mass flow rate of 2 kg/s are considered for the present analysis. Reverse Osmosis unit of capacity 4 kg/s supplies required water to the fogger units. GT PRO software has been used for carrying out the analysis including; net plant output and net efficiency, break even electricity price and break even fuel LHV price etc., for a given location of Saudi Arabia. The relative humidity and temperature have been varied from 30 to 45 % and from 80 to 100° F, respectively. Fuels considered in the study are natural gas, diesel and heavy bunker oil. Simulated gas turbine plant output from GT PRO has been validated against an existing gas turbine plant output. It has been observed that the simulated plant output is less than the existing gas turbine plant output by 5%. Results show that variation of humidity does not affect the gas turbine performance appreciably for all types of fuels. For a decrease of inlet air temperature by 10 °F, net plant output and efficiency have been found to increase by 5 and 2 %, respectively for all fuels, for GT only situation. However, for GT with Fogger scenario, for a decrease of inlet air temperature by 10 °F, net plant output and efficiency have been found to further increase by 3.2 and 1.2 %, respectively for all fuels. For all GT frames with fogger, the net plant output and efficiency are relatively higher as compared to GT only case for all

  12. Symmetry Beyond Perturbation Theory: Floppy Molecules and Rotation-Vibration States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedt, Hanno; Schlemmer, Stephan; Jensen, Per

    2015-06-01

    . Ford, and A. B. McCoy, The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 118, 7206 (2014). P.R. Bunker and P. Jensen, Molecular Symmetry and Spectroscopy (NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Canada, 1988 Being precise, we must include O(3) and SU(2), but our theory can be easily extended to these two groups. H. Longuet-Higgins, Molecular Physics 6, 445 (1963).

  13. Ab Initio Investigations of the Excited Electronic States of CaOCa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Wafaa M.; Heaven, Michael

    2016-06-01

    to a bent equilibrium geometry with a bond angle of 120° (C2v point group, where the electronic symmetry is 1A1). This result suggests that the Ca-O bonds in CaOCa possess covalent character in the 1A1 excited state and ionic character in the 1Σg^+ ground state. The current results, as well as those from ongoing studies will be presented. B. Ostojici, P.R. Bunker, P. Schwerdtfeger, Artur Gertych, and Per Jensen, Journal of Molecular Structure 1023 (2012) 101-107.

  14. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-01

    Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two

  16. Doubly contracted CI method and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yubin; HAN; Huixian; ZHAI; Gaohong; SUO; Bin; WEN; Zh

    2004-01-01

    algebras, Physica Scripta, 1980, 21: 295.[15]Shavitt, Ⅰ., Unitary group approach to configuration interaction calculations of the electronic structure of atoms and molecules,Unitary Group Approach to Configuration Interaction Calculations of the Electronic Structure of Atoms and Molecules Mathematical Frontiers in Computational Chemical Physic (ed. Trnhlar,D. G), Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1988, 299.[16]Siegbahn, P. S. M., Generalizations of the CI method, Ⅱ, J. Chem.Phys., 1980, 72: 1647.[17]Wang Yubin, Wen Zhenyi, Dou Qishi et al, New realization of loop driven direct CI, J. Comput. Chem., 1992, 13: 187.[18]Wen Zhenyi, WangYubin, Theory and Application of Unitary Group Approach (in Chinese), Shanghai: Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1994.[19]Wang Yubin, Zhai Gaohong, Suo Binbin et al., Hole-particle correspondence in CI calculations, Chem. Phys. Letters, 2003, 375:134- 140.[20]Frisch, M. J., Trucks, G. W., Schlegel, H. B. et al., Gaussian 03,Revision A.l, Pittsburgh PA: Gaussian, Inc., 2003.[21]Dupuis, M., Farazdel, A., Karna, S. P. et al., HONDO: A general atomic and molecular electronic structure system, HONDO,Modern Techniques in Computational Chemistry (ed. Clementi,E.), Leiden: ESCOM, 1990, 277.[22]Bunker, P. R., Jensen, P., Kraemer, W. P. et al., The potential surface of x3 B1 methylene (CH2) and the singlet-triplet splitting, J.Chem. Phys, 1986, 85: 3724-3731.[23]Berkwitz, J., Greene, J. P., Cho, H. et al., Photoionization mass spectrometric studies of SiHn (n=1-4), J. Chem. Phys., 1987, 86:1235.[24]Bruna, P., Peyerimhoff, S. D., Structure and electronic spectra of small radicals by quantum mechanical methods, Bull. Soc. Chim.(Belgium), 1983, 92: 525.[25]Phillips, R. A., Bunker, R. J., Beardsworth, R. et al., An ab initio study of the rotation-vibration energy levels of germylene (GeH2)in the a3 B1 state, Chem. Phys. Letters, 1985, 118: 60.[26]Herzberg, G., Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure Ⅲ, New

  17. New national emission inventory for navigation in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Morten

    standards for navigation, in order to gain emission improvements in line with those achieved for other mobile sources. The new fuel consumption estimates for national sea transport are regarded as much more accurate than the DEA fuel sales data used previously, and the recommendation for DEA is to replace their current fuel sales figures by the new estimates calculated in this project. Such updated fuel consumption time series for national sea transport will lead, in turn, to changes in the energy statistics for fisheries (gas oil) and industry (heavy fuel oil), so the national energy balance can remain unchanged. For international transport, fuel sales data as such are regarded as highly accurate for Denmark, since they are compiled from audited information from the Danish oil suppliers, and the inventory approach follows good practice for the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Changes (UNFCCC) and United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) convention, when fleet activity data are missing. However, in order to make inventory upgrades and to support Danish policymakers in bunker emissions allocation, fleet activity-based estimates calculated in a further project would be useful.

  18. Closed-loop biomass co-firing in a laboratory reactor and in a full-scale boiler.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Bryan M. (University of California, Davis, CA); Williams, Robert B. (University of California, Davis, CA); Turn, Scott Q. (Hawaii Natural Energy Institute.); Jakeway, Lee A. (Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company); Blevins, Linda Gail

    2004-05-01

    Co-firing tests were conducted in a pilot-scale reactor at Sandia National Laboratories and in a boiler at the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar factory at Puunene, Hawaii. Combustion tests were performed in the Sandia Multi-Fuel Combustor using Australian coal, whole fiber cane including tops and leaves processed at three different levels (milled only, milled and leached, and milled followed by leaching and subsequent milling), and fiber cane stripped of its tops and leaves and heavily processed through subsequent milling, leaching, and milling cycles. Testing was performed for pure fuels and for biomass co-firing with the coal at levels of 30% and 70% by mass. The laboratory tests revealed the following information: (1) The biomass fuels convert their native nitrogen into NO more efficiently than coal because of higher volatile content and more reactive nitrogen complexes. (2) Adding coal to whole fiber cane to reduce its tendency to form deposits should not adversely affect NO emissions. ( 3 ) Stripped cane does not offer a NO advantage over whole cane when co-fired with coal. During the field test, Sandia measured 0 2 , C02, CO, SO2, and NO concentrations in the stack and gas velocities near the superheater. Gas concentrations and velocities fluctuated more during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The mean 0 2 concentration was lower and the mean C02 concentration was higher during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. When normalized to a constant exhaust 0 2 concentration, mean CO concentration was higher and mean NO concentration was lower for biomass co-firing than for coal. The SO2 concentration tracked the use of Bunker C fuel oil. When normalized by the amount of boiler energy input, the amounts of NO and SO2 formed were lower during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The difference between NOx trends in the lab and in the field are most likely a result of less effective heat and mass transfer in the boiler. Particles were

  19. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    of a mobile juice harvester is not economically viable due to low sugar recovery. The addition of front-end stalk processing/pressing equipment into existing ethanol facilities was found to be economically viable when combined with the plants' use of residuals as a natural gas fuel replacement. Because of high loss of fermentable carbohydrates during ensilage, storage of sweet sorghum in bunkers was not found to be economically viable. The fourth section looks at double cropping winter triticale with late-planted summer corn and compares these scenarios to traditional single cropped corn. Double cropping systems show particular promise for co-production of grain and biomass feedstocks and potentially can allow for greater utilization of grain crop residues. However, additional costs and risks associated with producing two crops instead of one could make biomass-double crops less attractive for producers despite productivity advantages. Detailed evaluation and comparisons show double cropped triticale-corn to be at a significant economic disadvantage relative to single crop corn. The cost benefits associated with using less equipment combined with availability of risk mitigating crop insurance and government subsidies will likely limit farmer interest and clearly indicate that traditional single-crop corn will provide greater financial returns to management. To evaluate the various sweet sorghum, single crop corn and double cropped triticale-corn production scenarios, a detailed but generic model was developed. The primary goal of this generic approach was to develop a modeling foundation that can be rapidly adapted, by an experienced user, to describe new and existing biomass and crop production scenarios that may be of interest to researchers. The foundation model allows input of management practices, crop production characteristics and utilizes standardized machinery performance and cost information, including farm-owned machinery and implements, and machinery and

  20. Inoculants for ensiling low-dry matter corn crop: a midlactation cow perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah, A; Ghaempour, A; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R

    2011-10-01

    In many regions, optimum dry matter (DM) content of corn crop pre-ensilage cannot be ensured for management, agronomical and climatic reasons. Under such conditions, corn crops are harvested at low DM, and are easily exposed to unfavourable fermentation pathways and plant spoilage and wastage. Thus, it is a major question for dairy agriculturists whether certain microbial inoculants application to low-DM corn crop pre-ensilage affects silage quality and cow performance. The objective was to determine effects of adding microbial inoculants to low-DM corn crop at ensiling on silage quality, rumen fermentation and milk production of eight Holstein cows fed the treated silages. Whole corn plant was harvested at milk stage of maturity with 204 g DM/kg of fresh crop, cut to a theoretical particle length of 2 cm, filled in 60 t bunker silos, and treated layer by layer with either no inoculant (control), inoculant 'E' (100 000 cfu/g of fresh crop) containing mainly Lactobacillus plantarum, inoculant 'B' (100 000 cfu) containing mainly Pediococcus pentosanus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacter freudenreichii or a mixture of inoculants 'E' and 'B' (200,000 cfu). Inoculants were mixed with water and sprayed on thin layers of corn chops layer by layer followed by rolling to ensure proper oxygen outage and even microbial distribution throughout the plants. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows at 100 ± 20.5 days in milk were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 20-day periods including 14 days of adaptation and 6 days of sampling. Dietary treatments were mixed rations containing corn silages with or without the inoculants. The basal diet contained 32.9% corn silage, 14.3% alfalfa hay and 52.8% concentrate on a DM basis. Inoculants did not affect silage pH or content of DM, CP, lactate, acetate, ash and total volatile fatty acids (VFA). Applying 'B' to corn crop resulted in higher water soluble carbohydrates (47.7 g/kg vs 29.8 g/kg) and lower

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site; (2) 25-34-06, Test Cell A Bunker; and (3) 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 375 based on the implementation of corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at CAS 25-23-22, no further action at CAS 25-34-06, and closure in place with administrative controls and removal of potential source material (PSM) at CAS 30-45-01. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 28, 2010, through April 4, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 375 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were assumed to be present within the default contamination boundaries at CASs 25-23-22 and 30-45-01. No contaminants were identified at CAS 25-34-06, and no corrective action is necessary. Potential source material in the form of lead plate, lead-acid batteries, and oil within an abandoned transformer were identified at CAS 30-45-01, and corrective actions were undertaken that

  2. Prediction of the Nutritive Value of Pasture Silage by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS Predicción del Valor Nutritivo de Ensilaje de Pasturas Mediante Espectrofotometría en el Infrarrojo Cercano (NIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto A Restaino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of near infrared reflectance (NIRS spectroscopy to predict the nutritive value of silages from pastures and to assess the effect of silage structure type (e.g. bunker and bag silos on the NIRS predictions. Samples (n = 120 were sourced from commercial farms and analyzed in a NIRS monochromator instrument (NIR Systems, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA using wavelengths between 400 and 2500 nm in reflectance. Calibration models were developed between chemical and NIRS spectral data using partial least squares (PLS regression. The coefficients of determination in calibration (R² and the standard error in cross validation (SECV were 0.73 (SECV: 1.2%, 0.81 (SECV: 2.0%, 0.75 (SECV: 6.6%, 0.80 (SECV: 6.7%, 0.80 (SECV: 4.0%, 0.60 (SECV: 3.6% and 0.70 (SECV: 0.34 for ash, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, dry matter (DM, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and pH, respectively. The results showed the potential of NIRS to analyze DM, ADF and CP in silage samples from pastures.El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar el uso de la espectrofotometría de reflectancia en el infrarrojo cercano (NIRS para predecir el valor nutritivo en ensilaje de pasturas y evaluar el tipo de estructura de silo (silo bolsa y trinchera en las predicciones NIRS. Muestras (n = 120 provenientes de granjas comerciales fueron leídas en un equipo monocromador NIRS (NIR Systems, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA en el rango de longitudes de onda de 400 a 2500 nm, en reflectancia. Modelos de calibración entre los datos químicos y los espectros NIRS fueron desarrollados usando el método de los cuadrados mínimos parciales. Los coeficientes de determinación en calibración (R² y el error estándar de la validación cruzada (SEVC fueron 0,73 (SECV: 1,2%, 0,81 (SECV: 2,0%, 0,75 (SECV: 6,6%, 0,80 (SECV: 6,7%, 0,80 (SECV: 4,0%, 0,60 (SECV: 3,6% and 0,70 (SECV: 0,34 para cenizas, proteína cruda

  3. Draft of the EU regulation for the infrastructure for alternate fuels. Impact assessment for the Netherlands; Concept EU Richtlijn Uitrol Infrastructuur voor Alternatieve Brandstoffen. Impact Assessment voor NL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeda, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    On 24 January 2013, the European Commission approved a proposal for a directive on the rollout of infrastructure for alternative fuels for transport. The directive mostly covers the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles; CNG, LNG and hydrogen refuelling stations for road traffic, and LNG bunker facilities for shipping. On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, ECN conducted an impact assessment of the proposal for the directive for the Dutch situation. The overall conclusion is that the estimates for the Netherlands in the framework of the directive with regard to the required infrastructure for alternative fuels and the investment amount reasonably concur with the government's objectives and the expectations of market parties. Given all uncertainties about numbers and exact costs, the conclusion is drawn that, until the end of 2020, an amount of about Meuro 400 will be needed for investments in the infrastructure for alternative fuels. However, this covers only a part of the investments related to the directive. To realise the objectives, applications for alternative fuels will need to be stimulated and the financial gap in exploiting infrastructures also needs to be financed. As it is difficult to determine beforehand which costs are involved, it is important to maintain flexibility in objectives for volume and realisation pace of the infrastructure for alternative fuels. In this respect, a result obligation to realise a certain volume of infrastructure before a set date, as envisaged by the directive, is not beneficial [Dutch] Op 24 januari 2013 heeft de Europese Commissie een voorstel voor een richtlijn goedgekeurd betreffende de uitrol van infrastructuur voor alternatieve brandstoffen voor transport. De richtlijn heeft vooral betrekking op oplaadinfrastructuur voor elektrische auto's; CNG, LNG en waterstoftankstations voor wegverkeer, en LNG bunkerfaciliteiten voor de scheepvaart. ECN heeft in opdracht van het

  4. AUTOMATED TECHNOLOGY FOR CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychev Vyacheslav Petrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors consider the possibility and provide specific solutions to create the automated system of track maintenance on the example of automation of technological operations to restore the equal elasticity of the undersleeper foundation. The relevance of the work stems from the fact that the modern and perspective requirements to the track maintenance in the conditions of the transition to high-speed, high-speed, high-tonnage traffic can be implemented only by switching to a new system of track maintenance based on the performance of work of specialized high-performance machines and on the new system with maximum opportunity for automation technology. More than half of the volume of works on the current maintenance of the tracks are the works on the removal of splashes, straightening and tamping of track, the technology of which can be divided into two components: calculation-evaluation and the generation of control actions on the railway track. Track machines are used extensively at the local bearing places of the occurrence of splashes on track sections or for continuous bearing plot ways to restore the equal elasticity of the undersleeper base and reduce the degree of non-uniformity deviations in rails’ position on level and in plan, as well as track subsidence. The bunker for filling the ballast may be mounted on additional frame or on offset brackets of the machine. The device for measuring the position of a railway track includes the means for measuring the deflections of the road, bending rise the track in the longitudinal profile and the position of the track on level (elevation of one rail in relation to another and the adjacent block determining the actual position of a railway track in plan, in longitudinal profile and on level. The block of determining the amount of ballast consists of interconnected devices for determining the value of shifts and raise of the track and the block of comparing the track raise values

  5. Records Management: Preserving the Past to Make the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    As an intern in the Records Management Office at NASA, I have learned the importance of records management and teamwork. I work in building 60 with Kevin Coleman, the Records and Forms Manager and History Officer, and Deborah Demaline, the senior records specialist. Prior to my internship, I had never paid attention to records and their role in operating a business. However, after my first assignment of identifying files and filling out a C-277 form, I realized the importance of preserving each file. Since NASA is a government agency, keeping our records in a safe and easily accessible area is a major priority. As the records have accumulated over the years, and the destruction of records has been put on hold due to the fairly recent tobacco litigation; the amount of NASA s records has been quickly accumulating. Currently, our records are stored at Plum Brook in Sandusky, Ohio. Recently, rain has leaked through the bunkers and caused damage to some of our records boxes. Plum Brook has been experiencing difficulty in finding the funds to repair the damage. NASA Glenn is reluctant to give Plum Brook more money because the staff at the Sandusky site has not shown us a detailed summary of what they are doing with the funds we give them annually. Even though storing our records at Plum Brook comes with little cost, there are plenty other companies that offer a records storage area and a special software database for easy record retrieval. My assignment is to do a feasibility study on these companies to see how they compare in providing the appropriate criteria for NASA Glenn's needs. Other research I am doing is on which companies will allow us to convert our physical records into an electronic database for quicker retrieval and to eliminate the cost of storing our records in a facility altogether. The two studies have required me to not only work closely with the Records Management Department, but also the Information Technology staff. It has been important for me to

  6. 龙山选煤厂提高块煤产率的方法%Improvement of lump coal yield in Longshan coal preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋景玲

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the lump coal yield in Longshan coal preparation plant,analyze the raw coal properties.The results show that,the raw coal is medium and high ash,extra low sulfur No.2 anthracite.There is less primary slime and the gangue is harder which is difficult to crush and grind.There is obvious degradation phenomenon.When lump coal ash is above 12%,the raw coal is easy to wash.The analysis of the process flow of coal preparation plant show that,low screening efficiency,frequent collision and high drop distance lead to low lump coal yield.To resolve these problems,replace the drum screen with linear vibrating screen,the raw coal bunker or lump coal point install spiral chute and take other measures to reduce coal breakage.After transformation,the lump coal yield increase by 1. 74%,the medi-um-sized lump coal increase by 0.51%,the small lump coal increase by 1.23%,the plant creates benefits 2.3868×106 yuan per year.%为提高龙山选煤厂块煤产率,分析了原煤性质,说明原煤属中高灰、特低硫的2号无烟煤;原生煤泥较少,矸石较硬,不易破碎解离,有明显泥化现象;块精煤灰分大于12%时,原煤可选性为易选。通过分析选煤厂工艺流程,说明滚筒筛筛分效率低,产品运输转载过程中碰撞溜槽,块煤入仓时摔碎,块煤落煤点较高等是造成选煤厂块煤产率低的主要原因。通过将滚筒筛更换为直线振动筛,在胶带机落煤溜槽内增加防破碎装置或缓冲闸板,在原煤仓内或块煤落煤点安装螺旋溜槽等措施减少块煤破碎。改造后选煤厂块煤产率提高了1.74%,其中精中块提高0.51%,精小块提高1.23%,每年增加经济效益238.68万元。

  7. A patient-level meta-analysis of studies evaluating vagus nerve stimulation therapy for treatment-resistant depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry SM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott M Berry,1 Kristine Broglio,1 Mark Bunker,2 Amara Jayewardene,2 Bryan Olin,2 A John Rush31Berry Consultants, Austin, TX, USA; 2Cyberonics, Inc, Houston, TX, USA; 3Duke-NUS, Office of Clinical Sciences, SingaporeObjective: To compare response and remission rates in depressed patients with chronic treatment-resistant depression (TRD treated with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS Therapy® plus treatment as usual (VNS + TAU or TAU alone in a meta-analysis using Bayesian hierarchical models.Data sources and study selection: Six outpatient, multicenter, clinical trials that have evaluated VNS + TAU or TAU in TRD, including two single-arm studies of VNS + TAU (n = 60 and n = 74, a randomized study of VNS + TAU versus TAU (n = 235, a randomized study of VNS + TAU comparing different VNS stimulation intensities (n = 331, a nonrandomized registry of VNS + TAU versus TAU (n = 636, and a single-arm study of TAU (n = 124 to provide longer-term, control data for comparison with VNS-treated patients.Data extraction: A systematic review of individual patient-level data based on the intent-to-treat principle, including all patients who contributed more than one post-baseline visit. Response was based on the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and the Clinical Global Impressions scale's Improvement subscale (CGI-I, as these were the two clinician-rated measures common across all or most studies. Remission was based on the MADRS.Results: Outcomes were compared from baseline up to 96 weeks of treatment with VNS + TAU (n = 1035 versus TAU (n = 425. The MADRS response rate for VNS + TAU at 12, 24, 48, and 96 weeks were 12%, 18%, 28%, and 32% versus 4%, 7%, 12%, and 14% for TAU. The MADRS remission rate for VNS + TAU at 12, 24, 48, and 96 weeks were 3%, 5%, 10%, and 14% versus 1%, 1%, 2%, and 4%, for TAU. Adjunctive VNS Therapy was associated with a greater likelihood of response (odds ratio [OR] = 3.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.12, 4.66 and

  8. Calculating Contained Firing Facility (CFF) explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle, J W.

    1998-10-20

    The University of California awarded LLNL contract No. B345381 for the design of the facility to Parsons Infrastructure Technology, Inc., of Pasadena, California. The Laboratory specified that the firing chamber be able to withstand repeated fxings of 60 Kg of explosive located in the center of the chamber, 4 feet above the floor, and repeated firings of 35 Kg of explosive at the same height and located anywhere within 2 feet of the edge of a region on the floor called the anvil. Other requirements were that the chamber be able to accommodate the penetrations of the existing bullnose of the Bunker 801 flash X-ray machine and the roof of the underground camera room. These requirements and provisions for blast-resistant doors formed the essential basis for the design. The design efforts resulted in a steel-reinforced concrete snucture measuring (on the inside) 55 x 5 1 feet by 30 feet high. The walls and ceiling are to be approximately 6 feet thick. Because the 60-Kg charge is not located in the geometric center of the volume and a 35-K:: charge could be located anywhere in a prescribed area, there will be different dynamic pressures and impulses on the various walls floor, and ceiling, depending upon the weights and locations of the charges. The detailed calculations and specifications to achieve the design criteria were performed by Parsons and are included in Reference 1. Reference 2, Structures to Resist the E xts of Accidental L%plosions (TMS- 1300>, is the primary design manual for structures of this type. It includes an analysis technique for the calculation of blast loadings within a cubicle or containment-type structure. Parsons used the TM5- 1300 methods to calculate the loadings on the various fling chamber surfaces for the design criteria explosive weights and locations. At LLNL the same methods were then used to determine the firing zones for other weights and elevations that would give the same or lesser loadings. Although very laborious, a hand

  9. Simplified assessment method of natural resource damage from oil spill in Washington State of United States and the application of this method in Xiamen Bay of East China%美国华盛顿州溢油自然资源损害简易评估方法及其在厦门湾的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 陆志强; 王翠; 李吉鹏

    2013-01-01

    Marine oil spill incidents are mostly small in size, it is quite necessary to have a sim-plified method to assess the natural resource damage from such small oil spills in a manner of fas-ter, less costly, and less information intensive. Based on the Washington State's simplified oil spill compensation schedule method of the United States, a modification was made in this paper, according to the characteristics of marine environment and the distribution of ecological sensitive targets in Xiamen Bay of China. The oil effects, including acute toxicity, mechanical injury and persistence, as well as the vulnerability of marine and estuarine habitats, birds, Chinese white dolphin, lancelet, shellfish, and recreation were determinate to evaluate the nature resource damages from the simulated small oil spill incident in Xiamen Bay. Suppose there was a spill of 2.4 m3 of Bunker C from a construction ship in eastern area of Xiamen Bay. Of the area covered by the spill, 90% was open water, 8% was marine intertidal exposed sandy beach, and 2% was marine subtidal sand. The calculated monetary damage from the spill was 93500 RMB, based on the oil effects scores and the habitat vulnerability scores.%海洋溢油事故多以小型溢油为主,研究快速高效、耗费较低且所需信息量较少的溢油自然资源损害简易评估方法十分必要.本文以美国华盛顿州自然资源损害简易评估方法为框架,根据厦门湾海洋环境特点和生态敏感目标分布状况,确定溢油的环境效应包括溢油的急性毒性,机械伤害和持久性效应以及海洋与河口不同生境类型、鸟类、中华白海豚、文昌鱼、贝类以及旅游休憩行为对溢油的敏感程度,并据此估算模拟厦门湾小型溢油事故的自然资源损害价值.假设厦门湾东部海域某海洋工程施工船舶泄露船用重质燃料油2.4 m3,预测油膜污染影响面积约3.60 km2,其中开阔水域面积约占90%,海洋潮

  10. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fifth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    in 2005. Switzerland has signed bilateral agreements on the exchange of information on nuclear safety and radiation protection issues with ENSI counterparts in Germany, France, Italy and Austria. ENSI conducts inspections and technical discussions with the utilities to ensure that operators assume full responsibility for the safety of their installations. All NPPs have implemented programmes to improve their safety culture. ENSI has a team of specialists in human factors, including organisation, training, qualification, human-system interface, safety culture and the investigation of human and organisational factors related to NPP events. The review and assessment procedure includes an evaluation of the safety analysis report, safety-relevant systems, design-basis accident analyses, probabilistic safety analysis and reports on ageing surveillance programmes. An annual systematic assessment of nuclear safety is conducted for each NPP based on event analyses, inspection results, operator licensing reviews, safety-indicator data and information in the periodic licensee reports. An Ageing Surveillance Programme is in place for all NPPs. The low annual individual and collective doses prove the effectiveness of measures taken in response to the most recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). There is an automatic dose rate monitoring and emergency response data system in and around all NPPs in Switzerland. The system provides ENSI with online access to measurement data for approximately 25 important plant parameters. Exercises are conducted regularly to test emergency preparedness and plans. The effectiveness of ENSI's re-evaluation process has been demonstrated by the probabilistic re-assessment of seismic hazards at Swiss NPP sites. All Swiss NPPs have a special independent, bunkered system for shutdown and residual heat removal. The various levels of defence that exist ensure that safety limits and individual dose limits

  11. The Stochastic Engine Initiative: Improving Prediction of Behavior in Geologic Environments We Cannot Directly Observe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R; Nitao, J; Newmark, R; Carle, S; Ramirez, A; Harris, D; Johnson, J; Johnson, V; Ermak, D; Sugiyama, G; Hanley, W; Sengupta, S; Daily, W; Glaser, R; Dyer, K; Fogg, G; Zhang, Y; Yu, Z; Levine, R

    2002-05-09

    The stochastic engine uses modern computational capabilities to combine simulations with observations. We integrate the general knowledge represented by models with specific knowledge represented by data, using Bayesian inferencing and a highly efficient staged Metropolis-type search algorithm. From this, we obtain a probability distribution characterizing the likely configurations of the system consistent with existing data. The primary use will be optimizing knowledge about the configuration of a system for which sufficient direct observations cannot be made. Programmatic applications include underground systems ranging from environmental contamination to military bunkers, optimization of complex nonlinear systems, and timely decision-making for complex, hostile environments such as battlefields or the detection of secret facilities. We create a stochastic ''base representation'' of system configurations (states) from which the values of measurable parameters can be calculated using forward simulators. Comparison of these predictions to actual measurements drives embedded Bayesian inferencing, updating the distributions of states in the base representation using the Metropolis method. Unlike inversion methods that generate a single bestcase deterministic solution, this method produces all the likely solutions, weighted by their likelihoods. This flexible method is best applied to highly non-linear, multi-dimensional problems. Staging of the Metropolis searches permits us to run the simplest model systems, such as lithology estimators, at the lower stages. The majority of possible configurations are thus eliminated from further consideration by more complex simulators, such as flow and transport models. Because the method is fully automated, large data sets of a variety of types can be used to refine the system configurations. The most important prerequisites for optimal use of this method are well-characterized forward simulators, realistic

  12. The Energy Supply of Sweden. Short term prognosis 2009-07-08; Energifoersoerjningen i Sverige. Kortsiktsprognos 2009-07-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    The domestic energy use, which includes the use in industry, transport and housing and services, amounted in 2008 to 388 TWh. Year 2011 we forecast the energy use to amount to 384 TWh. The temperature adjusted energy use in residential and services sectors is estimated to be 145.9 TWh in 2009, a reduction of 3 TWh compared to 2008. In the forecast we assume that the rest of 2009 and full years 2010 and 2011 will have normal temperature conditions. Under these conditions the energy use will amount to 146.2 TWh in 2010 and 147.1 TWh in 2011. Energy use in the transport sector, excluding bunkering for foreign shipping and aviation, is expected to increase by about 0.6% during the period 2008-2011. In terms of terawatt hours, this means that energy use will increase from about 95.3 TWh to approximately 95.9 TWh. Foreign maritime and air transport is expected to decrease by 7%, from about 33 TWh to about 31 TWh. The total district heating supply amounted to 55.1 TWh in 2008. For 2011 the forecast district heating supply amounts to 58.6 TWh. Net electricity generation in Sweden amounted to 145.9 TWh in 2008 and preliminary statistics point to an output of 141.0 for the year 2009. Electricity production in the country is projected to increase in both 2010 and 2011, 153.7 TWh for the year 2010 and 156.6 for 2011. Hydroelectric power produced 68.3 TWh of electricity in 2008. For 2009, preliminary statistics indicate to 62.5 TWh net production. Between the years 1985-2007, the average production from hydropower was 67.2 TWh which is what is supposed to be produced years 2010 and 2011. The year 2008 nuclear power produced 61.3 TWh of electricity. Nuclear power is estimated in the forecast to reach a production of 61.5 TWh in 2009. For the years 2010 and 2011 the production is estimated to be 67.0 and 68.4 TWh respectively. Electricity production in district heating cogeneration plants was high in 2008 and continues to increase during the forecast period from 7.7 TWh in 2008

  13. The Energy Supply of Sweden. Short term prognosis 2008-08-15; Energifoersoerjningen i Sverige. Kortsiktsprognos 2008-08-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-15

    The domestic energy use, which includes the use in industry, transport and housing and services, amounted in 2007 to 396 TWh. Year 2010 we forecast the energy use to amount to 410 TWh. Energy use in residential and services sectors is estimated to be 142.8 TWh in 2008, which is at the level of energy use in 2006, but a slight decrease compared with 2007. The first half of 2008 was much warmer than normal. In the forecast we assume that the rest of 2008 and full years 2009 and 2010 will have normal temperature conditions. Under these conditions the energy use will amount to 149 TWh in 2009 and 149.5 TWh in 2010. Oil use for heating will be reduce continuously over the forecasting period. Throughout the forecast period the industry's energy use is expected to increase barely 1% To 158 TWh, equivalent to 1.4 TWh. Energy use in the transport sector, excluding bunkering for foreign shipping and aviation, is expected to increase by about 6% during the period 2007-2010. In terms of terawatt hours, this means that energy use will increase from about 96 TWh to approximately 102 TWh. These figures are comparable with the previous forecast. Foreign maritime and air transport is expected to increase by 14%, from about 34 TWh to about 39 TWh. The total district heating supply amounted to 54.3 TWh in 2007. For 2010 the forecast district heating supply amounts to 58.9 TWh. Net electricity generation in Sweden amounted to 144.9 TWh in 2007 and preliminary statistics point to an output of 147.9 for the year 2008. Electricity production in the country is projected to continue to increase in both 2009 and 2010, 154.4 TWh for the year 2009 and 156.2 for 2010. The capacity increases markedly at present with many new wind and cogeneration plants and power uprates in nuclear power plants. Hydroelectric power produced 65.6 TWh of electricity in 2007. For 2008, preliminary statistics indicate to 65.5 TWh net production. Between the years 1985-2005, the average production from

  14. 19 years of tilt data on Mt. Vesuvius: state of the art and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Ricco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius, located along the SW border of the Campania Plane graben, is one of the most studied volcanoes worldwide, from both the volcanological and the geophysical, geochemical and geodetic point of view. In order to better understand its dynamics, the deformation of the volcano has been already studied since the early ’70s by setting up levelling lines and, since a few years later, through trilateration networks, whereas ground tilt monitoring started in 1993. Tilt variations were recorded by an automatic surface station set up at the Osservatorio Vesuviano (O.V. bunker (OVO and data recorded were transmitted to the O.V. Surveillance Centre in Naples. Afterwards, in 1996 two more identical stations were set up close to Torre del Greco (CMD, and close to Trecase (TRC. In 2002 the data acquisition system was replaced, while at the end of 2011 a Lily borehole sensor was set up at 26 m depth, replacing the old TRC tilt station. The paper describes in details the tilt network of Mt. Vesuvius, its development over time and the data processing procedure; moreover, the ground deformation pattern is discussed, as inferred from the study of 19 years of data and its change during the seismic crises of 1995-1996 and 1999-2000. From the information obtained from the tiltmetric monitoring, a complex deformation pattern can be deduced, strongly dependent on the position of the sites in which the sensors were set up with respect to the morphology of the volcanic edifice and its structural outlines. If we consider the signals as they were recorded, although previously corrected for the influences of the thermo-elastic strain on the sensors, the tilting occurs mainly in the SW direction with rates of about 11 µradians/year on both the western and eastern flanks and of about 13 µradians/year on the southern one. Because tilt vectors point in the long term outward from the summit and towards the subsiding area, this supports the hypothesis of a southern

  15. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fourth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    reasonably achievable and also to keep the generation of radioactive waste associated with the use of nuclear power at the lowest possible level. There is an automatic dose rate monitoring and emergency response data system in and around all NPPs in Switzerland. All Swiss NPPs have a special independent, bunkered system for shutdown and residual heat removal. The various levels of defence that exist ensure that safety limits and individual dose limits for the public are met during normal operation of the NPP and for all design-basis accidents.

  16. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fifth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    in 2005. Switzerland has signed bilateral agreements on the exchange of information on nuclear safety and radiation protection issues with ENSI counterparts in Germany, France, Italy and Austria. ENSI conducts inspections and technical discussions with the utilities to ensure that operators assume full responsibility for the safety of their installations. All NPPs have implemented programmes to improve their safety culture. ENSI has a team of specialists in human factors, including organisation, training, qualification, human-system interface, safety culture and the investigation of human and organisational factors related to NPP events. The review and assessment procedure includes an evaluation of the safety analysis report, safety-relevant systems, design-basis accident analyses, probabilistic safety analysis and reports on ageing surveillance programmes. An annual systematic assessment of nuclear safety is conducted for each NPP based on event analyses, inspection results, operator licensing reviews, safety-indicator data and information in the periodic licensee reports. An Ageing Surveillance Programme is in place for all NPPs. The low annual individual and collective doses prove the effectiveness of measures taken in response to the most recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). There is an automatic dose rate monitoring and emergency response data system in and around all NPPs in Switzerland. The system provides ENSI with online access to measurement data for approximately 25 important plant parameters. Exercises are conducted regularly to test emergency preparedness and plans. The effectiveness of ENSI's re-evaluation process has been demonstrated by the probabilistic re-assessment of seismic hazards at Swiss NPP sites. All Swiss NPPs have a special independent, bunkered system for shutdown and residual heat removal. The various levels of defence that exist ensure that safety limits and individual dose limits

  17. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  18. Aplicação dos sistemas de informação geográfica para definição de estratégias de manejo de bovinos nas pastagens Applying the geografic information systems to define cattle management of pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Gomes Páscoa

    2007-07-01

    the animals, it is difficult, so much in the sampling form, as in the way to analyze the obtained data. In that context the Geographical Information System (GIS it appears as useful tool, capable to make possible ecological and behavior studies associated to the use of the space and of the resources in him allocated. Among the main tools of a GIS with importance for the study of ecology of pastures, we can quote the determination of use areas, trails and overlay, regressions and multi-regressions of maps (for instance: grazing areas, soil stains, resting places, space concentrations of nutrients in the forages, etc.. For being a tool of computerized spatial modeling, allows us to understand and to analyze in a more appropriate way, the phenomena of geographical distribution many times imperceptible in the collections of conventional data. The distribution of the animals in any area results from combined actions of internal forces to the social group (for instance, dominantly hierarchy, leadership and subgroups formation and external to him, as for instance, the water bunker positioning, shadows and fences, that can act as conditioning of grazing. Like this, with the understanding of the compound arrangement of the pasture atmosphere with the use of GIS, including the biotic (vegetation types, for instance and non- biotic factors(relief, it is possible to develop strategies of form handling to modulate the behavior of the animals, reducing the problems that can cause degradation in the resources of this adapts. However, the choice of the best group of analysis techniques inside of GIS and the possibilities of use it is still for coming, mainly in that concerns their applications to the Brazilian conditions and needs.

  19. PREFACE: The 15th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Committees and Staff Chair of the Conference Ziyu Wu International Advisory Committee Adam Hitchcock, Canada Adriano Filipponi, Italy Alain Manceau, France Alexander Soldatov, Russia Andrea Di Cicco, Italy Britt Hedman, USA Bruce Bunker, USA Calogero R. Natoli, Italy Christopher T. Chantler, Australia Frank M. F. De Groot, Netherlands Hiroyuki Oyanagi, Japan Ingolf Lindau, USA J. Mustre de Leon, México James E Penner-Hahn, USA Joaquin Garcia Ruiz, Spain John Evans, UK John J. Rehr, USA Kiyotaka Asakura, Japan Majed Chergui, Switzerland Mark Newton, UK Shiqiang Wei, P. R. China Tsun-Kong Sham, Canada Ziyu Wu, P. R. China International Program Committee Antonio Bianconi, Italy Augusto Marcelli, Italy Emad Flear Aziz, Germany Jinghua Guo, USA Joly Yves, France Masaharu Nomura, Japan Maurizio Benfatto, Italy Pieter Glatzel, France Shiqiang Wei, China Tiandou Hu, China Toshihiko Yokoyama, Japan Way-Faung Pong, Taiwan Xinyi Zhang, China Yi Xie, China Yuying Huang, China Zhonghua Wu, China Ziyu Wu, China Local Organizing Committee Bo He Fengchun Hu Haifeng Zhao Jing Zhang Meijuan Yu Qin Yu Shuo Zhang Wangsheng Chu Wei He Wei Xu Wensheng Yan Xiaomei Gong Xing Chen Yang Zou Yi Xia Zheng Jiang Zhi Xie Zhihu Sun Zhiyun Pan Additional Staff Chengxun Liu

  20. Calculating Contained Firing Facility (CFF) explosive firing zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle, J W

    1998-10-20

    The University of California awarded LLNL contract No. B345381 for the design of the facility to Parsons Infrastructure & Technology, Inc., of Pasadena, California. The Laboratory specified that the firing chamber be able to withstand repeated fxings of 60 Kg of explosive located in the center of the chamber, 4 feet above the floor, and repeated firings of 35 Kg of explosive at the same height and located anywhere within 2 feet of the edge of a region on the floor called the anvil. Other requirements were that the chamber be able to accommodate the penetrations of the existing bullnose of the Bunker 801 flash X-ray machine and the roof of the underground camera room. These requirements and provisions for blast-resistant doors formed the essential basis for the design. The design efforts resulted in a steel-reinforced concrete snucture measuring (on the inside) 55 x 5 1 feet by 30 feet high. The walls and ceiling are to be approximately 6 feet thick. Because the 60-Kg charge is not located in the geometric center of the volume and a 35-K:: charge could be located anywhere in a prescribed area, there will be different dynamic pressures and impulses on the various walls? floor, and ceiling, depending upon the weights and locations of the charges. The detailed calculations and specifications to achieve the design criteria were performed by Parsons and are included in Reference 1. Reference 2, Structures to Resist the E@xts of Accidental L%plosions (TMS- 1300>, is the primary design manual for structures of this type. It includes an analysis technique for the calculation of blast loadings within a cubicle or containment-type structure. Parsons used the TM5- 1300 methods to calculate the loadings on the various fling chamber surfaces for the design criteria explosive weights and locations. At LLNL the same methods were then used to determine the firing zones for other weights and elevations that would give the same or lesser loadings. Although very laborious, a hand