DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;
2013-01-01
AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included in...... men vs. 0.5%/2.3% in women, P <0.001). Significant predictors of newly acquired RBBB were male gender, increasing age, high systolic blood pressure, and presence of IRBBB, whereas predictors of newly acquired IRBBB were male gender, increasing age, and low BMI. Right bundle branch block was associated...... with significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;
2013-01-01
The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...
Effect of left bundle branch block on TIMI frame count
Hatice Tolunay; Ahmet Kasapkara; İsa Öner Yüksel; Nurcan Başar; Ayşe Saatcı Yaşar; Mehmet Bilge
2010-01-01
Aim: Left bundle branch block is an independent risk factorfor cardiac mortality. In this study we aimed to evaluatecoronary blood flow with TIMI frame count in patients with left bundle branch block and angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Materials and methods: We retrospectively studied 17 patients with left bundle branch block and as a control group 16 patients without left bundle branch block. All patientshad angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Left bundle branch...
MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK
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E. N. Pavlyukova
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.
Isolated Left Bundle Branch Block in a Toddler
Hitesh Agrawal; Frank Zimmerman; Zahra Naheed
2014-01-01
Left bundle branch block (LBBB) usually occurs as a postoperative complication from surgical correction of congenital heart disease and can be associated with hypertensive heart disease, coronary artery disease, myocarditis, and aortic valvular disease. Although isolated LBBB is a conduction abnormality found in some healthy adults, it has not been reported in pediatric population. We report a 2-year-old, healthy African American female who was incidentally discovered to have isolated LBBB th...
Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Particle Swarm Optimization for detecting Bundle Branch Block
Kora, Padmavathi; Kalva, Sri Ramakrishna
2015-01-01
Abnormal cardiac beat identification is a key process in the detection of heart diseases. Our present study describes a procedure for the detection of left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) Electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns. The electrical impulses that control the cardiac beat face difficulty in moving inside the heart. This problem is termed as bundle branch block (BBB). BBB makes it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively through the heart circulatory system. ECG feature ...
New strict left bundle branch block criteria reflect left ventricular activation differences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emerek, Kasper Janus Grønn; Risum, Niels; Hjortshøj, Søren Pihlkjær;
2015-01-01
AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left...
Importance of electrode positioning in the diagnosis of right bundle branch block.
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Andrés Ramírez C.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The correct positioning of precordial electrodes of an electrocardiogram (ECG was agreed upon and formalized in 1938 by the American Heart Association (AHA and the Cardiac Society of Great Britain (CSGB , establishing the gold standard for the correct ECG procedure. The correct positioning of the electrodes is extremely important, with incorrect placement being related to right bundle branch block overdiagnosis and the subsequent social, psychological and economical effects of implying a pathological condition in a normal person. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the diagnosis of right bundle branch block in high right parasternal accessory leads (diagnostic test compared to classic precordial leads (gold standard. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A number of 100 consecutive patients were evaluated with resting 12-lead-electrocardiogram and high right parasternal accessory leads, after proper consent from patients. RESULTS: A 7% of patients presented right bundle branch block in classical precordial leads, compared with 29% in high right parasternal accessory leads. QRS complexes were all less than 120 milliseconds. DISCUSSION: There are not national available references analyzing electrode placement in the study of electrocardiographic abnormalities. There was an overdiagnosis of right bundle branch block in high right parasternal accessory leads. The association and relevance in the diagnosis of serious diseases, such as myocardial infarction and Brugada syndrome, makes the necessity of a solid foundation on electrocardiogram technique, of uttermost importance.
Dam, P.M. van; Proniewska, K.; Maugenest, A.M.; Mieghem, N.M. van; Maan, A.C.; Jaegere, P.P. de; Bruining, N.
2014-01-01
AIMS: Conventional electrocardiogram (ECG)-based diagnosis of left bundle branch block (LBBB) in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is ambiguous. Left ventricular hypertrophy is often seen in patients with severe aortic stenosis in which a transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)
Coexistence of a bradycardia- and tachycardia-dependent bundle branch block
Al Hashimi, H.M.M.; van Es, A.J.J.; Szili-Torok, T; Gardien, M.; Molhoek, G.P.; Verhorst, P. M. J.
2004-01-01
Aberrant ventricular conduction is a rare phenomenon as compared with the more frequently occurring antrioventricular conduction disturbances. It leads to widening of the QRS complex, which is either due to a complete or functional block in one of the bundle branches or a block within the intramyocardial conduction system itself. Mechanisms that are potentially involved in the genesis of aberrant ventricular conduction are sudden shortening of cycle length (tachycardia-dependent phase III), a...
Huang, Huifang; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Ruiping; Hu, Guangshu
2014-01-01
Background Left bundle branch block (LBBB) and right bundle branch block (RBBB) not only mask electrocardiogram (ECG) changes that reflect diseases but also indicate important underlying pathology. The timely detection of LBBB and RBBB is critical in the treatment of cardiac diseases. Inter-patient heartbeat classification is based on independent training and testing sets to construct and evaluate a heartbeat classification system. Therefore, a heartbeat classification system with a high perf...
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK IN DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄秀惠; 沈卫峰; 龚兰生
1995-01-01
Clinical,electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings in 64 patients with dilated cardiomyopa-thy were retrospectively studied.Compared with 51 patients without complete left bundle branch block (CLBBB) ,13 patients with CLBBB had higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (P<0.05),increased left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters (P<0.002) and myocardial mass (P<0.02),severe mitral regurgitation (P<0.01) and higher mortality rate (P<0.04).Multivari-ate stepwise regrassion analysis revealed that the presence of CLBBB was an independent prognostic factor for patients with dilated cardinomyopathy.
Septal perfusion in left bundle branch block: case report and review of the literature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myocardial scintigraphy was performed three times in a 55-year-old woman with left bundle branch block (LBBB). A significant LAD stenosis had been excluded by coronary angiography. The first scintigraphy was performed with Tc-99m sestamibi after submaximal bicycle exercise and revealed a septal perfusion deficit. This deficit could not be reproduced in the following examinations after pharmacological stress testing with dipyridamole using both Tl-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi. Perfusion at rest assessed with Tl-201 was normal in all studies. It is concluded that pharmacological stress testing with dipyridamole is to be preferred in patients with LBBB. With respect to the accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging the choice of the radiopharmaceutical plays a less important role. (orig.)
Comparison of the calculation QRS angle for bundle branch block detection
Goeirmanto, L.; Mengko, R.; Rajab, T. L.
2016-04-01
QRS angle represent condition of blood circulation in the heart. Normally QRS angle is between -30 until 90 degree. Left Axis Defiation (LAD) and Right Axis Defiation (RAD) are abnormality conditions that lead to Bundle Branch Block. QRS angle is calculated using common method from physicians and compared to mathematical method using difference amplitudos and difference areas. We analyzed the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram data from MITBIH physiobank database. All methods using lead I and lead avF produce similar QRS angle and right QRS axis quadrant. QRS angle from mathematical method using difference areas is close to common method from physician. Mathematical method using difference areas can be used as a trigger for detecting heart condition.
Significance of an isolated new right bundle branch block in a patient with chest pain.
Gilliot, Geraldine; Monney, Pierre; Muller, Olivier; Hugli, Olivier
2015-01-01
Chest pain is a common presenting symptom in emergency departments, and a typical manifestation of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Recognition of ECG changes in AMI is essential for timely diagnosis and treatment. Right bundle branch block (RBBB) may be an isolated sign of AMI, and was previously considered as a criterion for fibrinolytic therapy. Since the most recent European Society of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines in 2013, RBBB alone is no longer considered a diagnostic criterion of AMI, even if it occurs in the context of acute chest pain, as RBBB does not usually interfere with the interpretation of ST-segment alteration. Our case illustrates an acute septal myocardial infarction with an isolated RBBB, and thus the importance of recognising this pattern in order to permit timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26055601
Left Bundle Branch Block in Acute Cardiac Events: Insights From a 23-Year Registry.
Alkindi, Fahad; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Suwaidi, Jassim; Patel, Ashfaq; Gehani, Abdurrazzak A; Singh, Rajvir; Albinali, Hajar; Arabi, Abdulrahman
2015-10-01
Between 1991 and 2013, we evaluated the demographics, presentations, and final diagnosis of patients hospitalized with acute cardiac events and left bundle branch block (LBBB). Of 50 992 patients, 768 (1.5%) had LBBB. Compared with non-LBBB patients, patients with LBBB were mostly older, female, diabetic, and had hypertension and chronic kidney failure (CKF; P < .001 for all). Dyspnea (P < .001) and dizziness (P = .037) were more frequent in patients with LBBB. The most frequent cause of admission with LBBB was congestive heart failure (CHF; 54.2%), followed by ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI; 13.3%), valvular heart disease (9.4%), unstable angina (8.3%) and Non-STEMI (7.7%). On multivariate analysis, CKF (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-3.70) and LBBB (OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 2.01-4.42) were predictors of in-hospital mortality in the entire study population. Further analysis of patients with LBBB showed that CKF (OR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.40-6.12) was the only predictor of in-hospital mortality. Regardless the presenting symptoms, CHF was the final diagnosis in most cases with LBBB. PMID:25477500
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iwasaki,Jun
2009-02-01
Full Text Available
There is little information available concerning the influence of right bundle branch block (RBBB on the prognosis of patients with inferior myocardial infarction (MI. In this study we evaluated the influence of RBBB on the short-term prognosis of patients with inferior MI. Our study subjects were 1,265 hospitalized patients with Q wave MI. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on the presence or absence of RBBB and on the location of the infarction. RBBB was classified into 4 categories according to the timing of its appearance and its duration as new permanent, transient, old and age indeterminate. In-hospital death and pulmonary congestion were observed more frequently in patients with RBBB than in those without RBBB. Moreover, in inferior MI as in anterior MI, in-hospital death and pulmonary congestion occurred more frequently in new permanent RBBB patients than in patients with other types of RBBB. Multivariate regression analysis reveals that new permanent RBBB was a strong independent predictor for an adverse short-term prognosis in patients with inferior MI, as well as in patients with anterior MI. New permanent RBBB during inferior MI is a strong independent predictor for increased in-hospital mortality, regardless of the infarction location.
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Falcao, Andrea; Chalela, William; Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Imada, Rodrigo; Soares Junior, Jose; Do Val, Renata; Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Izaki, Marisa; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Meneghetti, Jose C., E-mail: andrea.falcao@incor.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InCor/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto do Coracao
2015-11-15
Objectives: Perfusion abnormalities are frequently seen in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) when a left bundle branch block is present. A few studies have shown decreased coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending territory, regardless of the presence of coronary artery disease. Objective: we sought to investigate rubidium-82 ({sup 82}Rb) positron emission tomography imaging in the assessment of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve in patients with left bundle branch block. Methods: thirty-eight patients with left bundle branch block (GI), median age 63.5 years, 22 (58%) female, 12 with coronary artery disease (≥70%; GI-A) and 26 with no evidence of significant coronary artery disease (GI-B), underwent rest-dipyridamole stress {sup 82}Rb-positron emission tomography with absolute quantitative flow measurements using Cedars-Sinai software (mL/min/g). The relative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction were assessed in 17 segments. These parameters were compared with those obtained from 30 patients with normal {sup 82}Rb-positron emission tomography studies and without left bundle branch block (GII). Results: stress myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve were significantly lower in GI than in GII (p>0.05). The comparison of coronary flow reserve between GI-A and GI-B showed that it was different from the global coronary flow reserve (p<0.05) and the stress flow was significantly lower in the anterior than in the septal wall for both groups. Perfusion abnormalities were more prevalent in GI-A (p=0.06) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between GI-A and GI-B, whereas it was lower in GI than in GII (p<0.001). Conclusion: the data confirm that patients with left bundle branch block had decreased myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve and coronary flow reserve assessed by {sup 82}Rb-positron emission tomography imaging may be useful in identifying coronary artery
Xiao, H B; Faiek, A H; Gibson, D G
1994-07-01
To study the mechanism of normal splitting of the second heart sound in patients with classical left bundle branch block, we investigated 43 such patients and 15 normal controls, using electro-, phono- and echo-cardiography and comparing the relative timing of mechanical activity in the two ventricles. The splitting of the second heart sound is reversed in only two-thirds of the patients and normal in remaining one-third. Comparing patients with and without reversed splitting, there are no significant differences in left ventricular cavity size, heart rate, pre-ejection period and the distribution of age, gender, or aetiology. QRS duration is longer (P < 0.01) in patients with reversed splitting. Diastolic events of the left ventricle do not differ between groups. The onset of the left ventricular free wall motion is delayed compared with normal by a similar extent in the two groups. In patients with normal splitting, the onset of the right ventricular wall motion is also delayed, both with respect to normal and to those with reversed splitting to an extent similar to that seen in classical right bundle branch block. Normal splitting of the second heart sound associated with an electrocardiographic pattern of left bundle branch block therefore suggests bilateral block. This combination can be documented from the precise timing of the movement of the two ventricles by M-mode echocardiography and identified by simple auscultation. PMID:7960260
Lange, Matthias; Di Marco, Luigi Yuri; Lekadir, Karim; Lassila, Toni; Frangi, Alejandro F
2016-01-01
False tendons (FTs) are fibrous or fibromuscular bands that can be found in both the normal and abnormal human heart in various anatomical forms depending on their attachment points, tissue types, and geometrical properties. While FTs are widely considered to affect the function of the heart, their specific roles remain largely unclear and unexplored. In this paper, we present an in silico study of the ventricular activation time of the human heart in the presence of FTs. This study presents the first computational model of the human heart that includes a FT, Purkinje network, and papillary muscles. Based on this model, we perform simulations to investigate the effect of different types of FTs on hearts with the electrical conduction abnormality of a left bundle branch block (LBBB). We employ a virtual population of 70 human hearts derived from a statistical atlas, and run a total of 560 simulations to assess ventricular activation time with different FT configurations. The obtained results indicate that, in the presence of a LBBB, the FT reduces the total activation time that is abnormally augmented due to a branch block, to such an extent that surgical implant of cardiac resynchronisation devices might not be recommended by international guidelines. Specifically, the simulation results show that FTs reduce the QRS duration at least 10 ms in 80% of hearts, and up to 45 ms for FTs connecting to the ventricular free wall, suggesting a significant reduction of cardiovascular mortality risk. In further simulation studies we show the reduction in the QRS duration is more sensitive to the shape of the heart then the size of the heart or the exact location of the FT. Finally, the model suggests that FTs may contribute to reducing the activation time difference between the left and right ventricles from 12 ms to 4 ms. We conclude that FTs may provide an alternative conduction pathway that compensates for the propagation delay caused by the LBBB. Further investigation is
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Estêvan Vieira Cabeda
2015-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Functional tests have limited accuracy for identifying myocardial ischemia in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB.Objective:To assess the diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole-stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP by 320-detector CT in patients with LBBB using invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA (stenosis ≥ 70% as reference; to investigate the advantage of adding CTP to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA and compare the results with those of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.Methods:Thirty patients with LBBB who had undergone SPECT for the investigation of coronary artery disease were referred for stress tomography. Independent examiners performed per-patient and per-coronary territory assessments. All patients gave written informed consent to participate in the study that was approved by the institution’s ethics committee.Results:The patients’ mean age was 62 ± 10 years. The mean dose of radiation for the tomography protocol was 9.3 ± 4.6 mSv. With regard to CTP, the per-patient values for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 86%, 81%, 80%, 87%, and 83%, respectively (p = 0.001. The per-territory values were 63%, 86%, 65%, 84%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.001. In both analyses, the addition of CTP to CTA achieved higher diagnostic accuracy for detecting myocardial ischemia than SPECT (p < 0.001.Conclusion:The use of the stress tomography protocol is feasible and has good diagnostic accuracy for assessing myocardial ischemia in patients with LBBB.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Background: Functional tests have limited accuracy for identifying myocardial ischemia in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole-stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) by 320-detector CT in patients with LBBB using invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) (stenosis ≥ 70%) as reference; to investigate the advantage of adding CTP to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and compare the results with those of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Methods: Thirty patients with LBBB who had undergone SPECT for the investigation of coronary artery disease were referred for stress tomography. Independent examiners performed per-patient and per-coronary territory assessments. All patients gave written informed consent to participate in the study that was approved by the institution's ethics committee. Results: The patients' mean age was 62 ± 10 years. The mean dose of radiation for the tomography protocol was 9.3 ± 4.6 mSv. With regard to CTP, the per-patient values for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 86%, 81%, 80%, 87%, and 83%, respectively (p = 0.001). The per-territory values were 63%, 86%, 65%, 84%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.001). In both analyses, the addition of CTP to CTA achieved higher diagnostic accuracy for detecting myocardial ischemia than SPECT (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of the stress tomography protocol is feasible and has good diagnostic accuracy for assessing myocardial ischemia in patients with LBBB. (author)
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Dou Jianhong; Xia Ling; Zhang Yu; Shou Guofa [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wei Qing; Liu Feng; Crozier, Stuart [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: xialing@zju.edu.cn
2009-01-21
Asynchronous electrical activation, induced by bundle branch block (BBB), can cause reduced ventricular function. However, the effects of BBB on the mechanical function of heart are difficult to assess experimentally. Many heart models have been developed to investigate cardiac properties during BBB but have mainly focused on the electrophysiological properties. To date, the mechanical function of BBB has not been well investigated. Based on a three-dimensional electromechanical canine heart model, the mechanical properties of complete left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) were simulated. The anatomical model as well as the fiber orientations of a dog heart was reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI). Using the solutions of reaction-diffusion equations and with a strategy of parallel computation, the asynchronous excitation propagation and intraventricular conduction in BBB was simulated. The mechanics of myocardial tissues were computed with time-, sarcomere length-dependent uniaxial active stress initiated at the time of depolarization. The quantification of mechanical intra- and interventricular asynchrony of BBB was then investigated using the finite-element method with an eight-node isoparametric element. The simulation results show that (1) there exists inter- and intraventricular systolic dyssynchrony during BBB; (2) RBBB may have more mechanical synchrony and better systolic function of the left ventricle (LV) than LBBB; (3) the ventricles always move toward the early-activated ventricle; and (4) the septum experiences higher stress than left and right ventricular free walls in BBB. The simulation results validate clinical and experimental recordings of heart deformation and provide regional quantitative estimates of ventricular wall strain and stress. The present work suggests that an electromechanical heart model, incorporating real geometry and fiber orientations, may be helpful for better
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asynchronous electrical activation, induced by bundle branch block (BBB), can cause reduced ventricular function. However, the effects of BBB on the mechanical function of heart are difficult to assess experimentally. Many heart models have been developed to investigate cardiac properties during BBB but have mainly focused on the electrophysiological properties. To date, the mechanical function of BBB has not been well investigated. Based on a three-dimensional electromechanical canine heart model, the mechanical properties of complete left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) were simulated. The anatomical model as well as the fiber orientations of a dog heart was reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI). Using the solutions of reaction-diffusion equations and with a strategy of parallel computation, the asynchronous excitation propagation and intraventricular conduction in BBB was simulated. The mechanics of myocardial tissues were computed with time-, sarcomere length-dependent uniaxial active stress initiated at the time of depolarization. The quantification of mechanical intra- and interventricular asynchrony of BBB was then investigated using the finite-element method with an eight-node isoparametric element. The simulation results show that (1) there exists inter- and intraventricular systolic dyssynchrony during BBB; (2) RBBB may have more mechanical synchrony and better systolic function of the left ventricle (LV) than LBBB; (3) the ventricles always move toward the early-activated ventricle; and (4) the septum experiences higher stress than left and right ventricular free walls in BBB. The simulation results validate clinical and experimental recordings of heart deformation and provide regional quantitative estimates of ventricular wall strain and stress. The present work suggests that an electromechanical heart model, incorporating real geometry and fiber orientations, may be helpful for better
Rodrigues, Bruno; Correia, Emanuel; Ferreira Santos, Luís; Moreira, Davide; Delgado, Anne; Gama, Pedro; Costa, António; Pipa, João; Santos, Oliveira
2013-05-01
Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is now recognized as a distinct form of cardiomyopathy with a clinical presentation and natural history of its own. Common manifestations of LVNC include heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and embolic events, but serious atrioventricular conduction disturbances are rarely reported in the literature. The authors describe the case of a 40-year-old woman who went to the emergency department due to syncope. The ECG revealed left bundle branch block (LBBB) and 2:1 atrioventricular block (AVB) and the patient was admitted for pacemaker implantation. During hospitalization she developed torsade de pointes and complete AVB with increased QTc. The echocardiogram showed images compatible with LVNC. This case provides additional evidence that LVNC may be complicated by 2:1 (or complete) AVB, intraventricular conduction disturbances (LBBB) and repolarization abnormalities (long QT). This combination of electrocardiographic changes has rarely been reported in the literature. We describe a series of affected patients, focusing on electrocardiographic characteristics. PMID:23618687
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, <30 % = severely-reduced). The mean time difference between maximal systolic contraction of the septum and RV free wall was 90.7 ms ± 42.6. Consequently, RV end-systolic volume was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.001). Accordingly, RV stroke volume and RV EF were significantly higher in group II (p < 0.001). There was also a significant change in the assessment of RV function (p < 0.02). RBBB induced delayed RV contraction can be detected at CMR. Ignoring the RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to a statistically significant underscoring of RV performance parameters. (orig.)
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Marterer, Robert; Tschauner, Sebastian; Sorantin, Erich [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Zeng, Hongchun [First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Department of Ultrasonography, Urumqi (China); Koestenberger, Martin [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Graz (Austria)
2015-12-15
Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, <30 % = severely-reduced). The mean time difference between maximal systolic contraction of the septum and RV free wall was 90.7 ms ± 42.6. Consequently, RV end-systolic volume was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.001). Accordingly, RV stroke volume and RV EF were significantly higher in group II (p < 0.001). There was also a significant change in the assessment of RV function (p < 0.02). RBBB induced delayed RV contraction can be detected at CMR. Ignoring the RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to a statistically significant underscoring of RV performance parameters. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biton, Yitschak; Kutyifa, Valentina; Cygankiewicz, Iwona;
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting data regarding the efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with heart failure (HF) and without left bundle branch block. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes of 537 non-left bundle branch block patients with mild...... HF enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT) study by QRS duration or morphology further stratified by PR interval. At 7 years of follow-up, the cumulative probability of HF hospitalization or death was 45% versus 56......% among patients randomized to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and CRT with defibrillator (CRT-D), respectively (P=0.209). Multivariable-adjusted subgroup analysis by QRS duration showed that patients from the lower quartile QRS duration group (≤ 134 ms) experienced 2.4-fold (P=0.015) increased...
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Bockeria L. A.
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Patients with severe chronic heart failure (CHF often have such intraventricular conduction disturbances as left bundle branch block which show morphological and QRS-duration changes on ECG and result in evident intra- and interventricular dyssinchrony. Delayed left ventricular activation via interventricular septum results in evident asynchrony at the beginning of left and right ventricular contration. Diagnostic significance of ECG data increases in presence of CHF clinical signs, especially echocardiographic signs of myocardial dysfunction. EVEREST study analyzed the influence of QRS duration on number of hospital admissions and mortality in patients with CHF. The study included 2962 patients, 1614 of them had normal QRS duration – less than 120 ms, 1321 patients had increased QRS duration – more than 120 ms. 678 deaths occurred during followup period, 307 (18.7% of them were from group with normal QRS duration and 371 (28.1% – from group with increased QRS interval. Mortality rate due to cardiovascular causes was more significant in patients with increased QRS. In 3 months of follow-up the mortality rate was 21.1% in patients with increased QRS and 14.6% in patients with normal QRS. In 9.9 months of follow-up the rates were 41.6% and 32.4%, respectively. Different international studies showed that isolated right ventricular pacing resulted in prolongation of QRS complex and contributed to CHF progression. 2010 patients were randomized in MOST-study which aimed to compare dual chamber pacing and right ventricular pacing. Reduction of CHF symptoms was noted in the course of study in patients who underwent dual chamber pacing, while M.O. Sweeney et al. analyzed the results of treatment of 1339 patients with initially normal QRS duration. However the authors revealed a higher rate in group of right ventricular pacing which proved the higher rates of hospital admission for CHF and more frequent rates for atrial fibrillation occurrence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risum, Niels; Tayal, Bhupendar; Hansen, Thomas F;
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines suggest that patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) be treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT); however, one-third do not have a significant activation delay, which can result in nonresponse. By identifying characteristic opposing wall contraction...... whether typical LBBB contraction was present. The pre-defined outcome was freedom from death, left ventricular assist device, or heart transplantation over 4 years. RESULTS: Two-thirds of patients (63%) had a typical LBBB contraction pattern. During 4 years, 48 patients (23%) reached the primary endpoint...
Carrabba, Nazario; Valenti, Renato; Migliorini, Angela; Marrani, Marco; Cantini, Giulia; Parodi, Guido; Dovellini, Emilio Vincenzo; Antoniucci, David
2015-07-01
Conflicting results have been reported about the prognostic impact of left bundle branch block (LBBB) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of LBBB after TAVI on left ventricular (LV) function and remodeling and on 1-year outcomes. Of 101 TAVI patients, 9 were excluded. All complications were evaluated according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 definition. Of 92 patients, 34 developed LBBB without more advanced myocardial damage or inflammation biomarkers in comparison with patients without LBBB. The only predictor of new LBBB was larger baseline LV end-diastolic volume. LBBB plus advanced atrioventricular block was strongly correlated with permanent pacemaker implantation (p reverse remodeling at 1 year. The development of acute kidney injury and the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score were associated with poor outcomes (all-cause mortality and heart failure) (hazard ratio 6.86, 95% confidence interval 2.51 to 18.74, p <0.0001, and hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.08, p = 0.021, respectively), but not LBBB. In conclusion, after TAVI, 37% of patients developed new LBBB without more advanced myocardial damage or inflammation biomarkers. LBBB was associated with a higher rate of permanent pacemaker implantation, which negatively affected the recovery of LV systolic function. The development of acute kidney injury, rather than LBBB, increases the 1-year risk for mortality and hospitalization for heart failure. PMID:25937352
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aim: Intraventricular conduction disturbances are associated with asynchrony of ventricular function and uncoordinated ventricular wall motion. Specifically, patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB), who have been studied the most, have revealed left ventricular dyssynergy, asymmetry of left ventricular thickness, abnormalities in glucose uptake and in myocardial perfusion even in the absence of coronary disease. The aim of the study was to investigate myocardial perfusion and adrenergic innervation in patients with intraventricular conduction disturbances and to detect any changes caused by alteration of the ventricular activation sequence as a result of right ventricular apical pacing. Materials-methods: We studied 20 patients (11 men, 9 women, age 65.16 ± 5.79 years) with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB), while 15 healthy individuals served as controls. All patients underwent planar and myocardial tomography (SPECT) imaging after intravenous infusion of 5mCi 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) and a SPECT Thallium201 myocardial perfusion study before and 3 months after pacemaker implantation. Results: The heart to mediastinum ratio was calculated during the 123I-MIBG study in order to assess the global cardiac sympathetic activity and was significantly lower in patients than in controls (p 123I-MIBG study was performed in order to investigate the regional distribution of Adrenergic innervation. Patients with RBBB and LAFB revealed regional adrenergic innervation defects, mostly in the inferior and posterior walls. After a medium-term pacing period, a redistribution of 123I-MIBG uptake was detected, with aggravation of adrenergic innervation defects in the apical and posterior walls and amelioration in septal and anterior walls. Five patients showed perfusion defects that remained unchanged after pacing. Two others displayed mild myocardial perfusion defects that did not exist before pacing. Conclusions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The partial results of the administration of endovenous dipyridamole are compared with physical effort in 7 patients with complete left bundle branch block (CLBB) during myocardial scintigraphy with Tetrofosmin-TC99m. Exercise was undertaken according to the habitual protocol of our laboratory. The following segments were analyzed: septum, apex, inferoapical, posterolateral, anterolateral, anterior, inferior, postero-inferior and postero-basal. The highest heart rate (HR) on exertion was 90 n8 % and the maximum load was 61n 24 W. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure under basal conditions had no significant changes, but when the stresses were compared they did (p<0.05). The global concordance for the reversibility or not of the uptake defect of the radiopharmaceutical was 96 %, k=0.83, whereas for identifying the type of defect it was 92 %, k=0.84. The worst concordance was for the septum 85 %, k=0.80; however, it was not significant in relation to other analyzed segments. Congruency was 71 % in the diagnostic result. Due probably to the unsuitability of the sample of studied patients, our results show a good concordance between the use of dipyridamole and physical effort with stress methods when only the images obtained are evaluated
Javadi, Hamid; Jallalat, Sara; Semnani, Shahriar; Mogharrabi, Mehdi; Nabipour, Iraj; Abbaszadeh, Moloud; Assadi, Majid
2013-01-01
False-positive findings with myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) have frequently been identified in the presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB) and tend to lower the accuracy of MPI in individuals with normal coronary angiographs. Pharmacologic stress is recognized as the preferred method for MPI in patients with LBBB. In contrast, very few studies have evaluated the effect of right bundle branch block (RBBB) on MPI, and there is no consensus regarding the selection of pharmacologic versus exercise stress during MPI for the RBBB patient. In this study, we present a 45-year-old man with RBBB, who has a normal coronary artery angiography, but who showed abnormal myocardial perfusion with exercise MPI, and normal perfusion on dipyridamole MPI. The aim of the study is to stimulate awareness that the stress method selected for patients with RBBB can potentially interfere with the accuracy of the data. PMID:23677764
Archer, Stephen Lawrence
2008-01-01
A case of left bundle branch block and a dilated, nonhypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with ingestion of colloidal gold and silver as an ‘energy tonic’ is described. The cardiac disease was reversed within two months by a course of dimercaprol (Akorn Inc, USA) (British antiLewisite) and vitamin E. This is the first case of gold and silver cardiomyopathy in humans, and highlights the risks of these colloidal metal ‘health supplements’.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Non-invasive evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) has limitations inherent to different tests, and the relative merits of these tests are unclear. This meta-analysis assessed the accuracy of the frequently used non-invasive techniques, including exercise electrocardiography (ECG), myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and stress echocardiography (SE), for detection of CAD and prediction of cardiac events in patients with LBBB. A review was conducted of all reports on detection of CAD and prediction of cardiac events in patients with LBBB (published between January 1970 and December 2004), and revealed 55 diagnostic and nine prognostic reports with sufficient details to calculate test accuracy. Weighted (by sample size) sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Summary relative risk ratios (95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Overall sensitivity was higher for exercise ECG and (quantitatively analysed) MPI than for SE (83.4% and 88.5% versus 74.6% respectively, p<0.0001). SE had a higher specificity (88.7%) than MPI (41.2%) and exercise ECG (60.1%) (p<0.0001). Based on analysis of eight reports, the relative risk of cardiac death or myocardial infarction in patients with an abnormal SE and MPI was elevated more than sevenfold, but it did not differ by imaging modality (p=0.9). Meta-analysis of non-invasive CAD assessment in LBBB patients revealed that exercise ECG and MPI had the highest sensitivity, while SE had the highest specificity. The prognostic accuracy of MPI and SE appeared similar. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aim: To evaluate the outcome of patients with left bundle branch block disease (LBBB) relating it to the perfusion and functional findings after Gated-Spect Myocardial Perfusion studies. Materials and Methods: Results of Gated-Spect Myocardial Perfusion studies, performed between March of 1998 and April 2002, were correlated to the clinical outcome of 41 patients with LBBB. The evaluative data were obtained by interview directly with the patients, or their relatives or referral physician. Myocardial perfusion studies were conducted following the one-day protocol, after injection of 296- 370 MBq Sestamibi [Tc-99m] (Cardiolite) for rest studies, and 1110 MBq for stress studies. The images were acquired using a two-head tomographic gamma camera (Varicam - Elscint, Haifa), with low energy and high-resolution collimators, disposed in 'L' mode. The projection data were obtained in 64x64 matrix, for a 180 degrees circular orbit, from right anterior to left posterior oblique, with 3 degree per step. Each step took 30-35 seconds during rest studies and 25-30 seconds during stress studies. Regular EKG signals were registered to obtain Gated-Spect studies. Results: Twenty patients presented normal LVEFs (≥ 50%) and twenty and one, abnormal results. All the twenty patients with normal perfusional studies presented unremarkable outcomes after 1 of the 2 years of the study. The LVEF in this group of patients ranged from 27% to 87%. Twenty-and-one showed abnormalities on their perfusional studies. Of these, eighteen who had LVEFs greater than 30%, had not hard cardiac events (cardiac death or MIs) during the same interval. Conclusion: These preliminary data show that patients with LBBB and a normal myocardial perfusion study have low risk of coronary event, independent of the fraction of ejection. The patients with abnormal perfusional study and significant reduced LVEF (less than 30 %) present higher risk of cardiac event
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王清丽; 金向梅; 张力; 赵激扬
2014-01-01
We have treated 1 case with intermittent left bundle branch block caused by high doses of beta blocker.We briefly reported the treatment experience.%在临床治疗了1例大剂量β受体阻滞剂致间歇性左束支传导阻滞的患者，现将体会简要报告。
Intra-His bundle block: clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiologic characteristics
Andréa Eduardo M.; Atié Jacob; Maciel Washington A.; Oliveira Jr Nilson A. de; Camanho Luiz Eduardo; Belo Luís Gustavo; Carvalho Hecio Affonso de; Siqueira Leonardo; Saad Eduardo; Venancio Ana Claudia
2002-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiologic characteristics of patients (pt) with intra-His bundle block undergoing an electrophysiologic study (EPS). METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics of 16 pt with second-degree atrioventricular block and symptoms of syncope or dyspnea, or both, undergoing conventional EPS. RESULTS: Intra-His bundle block was documented in 16 pt during an EPS. In 15 (94%) pt, the atrioventricular block was recorded in sinus rhythm; ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabeda, Estevan Vieira; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Nomura, Cesar Higa; Parga, Jose Rodrigues; Avila, Luiz Francisco Rodrigues; Falcao, Andrea Maria Gomes; Soares Junior, Jose [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2015-12-15
Background: Functional tests have limited accuracy for identifying myocardial ischemia in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole-stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) by 320-detector CT in patients with LBBB using invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) (stenosis ≥ 70%) as reference; to investigate the advantage of adding CTP to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and compare the results with those of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Methods: Thirty patients with LBBB who had undergone SPECT for the investigation of coronary artery disease were referred for stress tomography. Independent examiners performed per-patient and per-coronary territory assessments. All patients gave written informed consent to participate in the study that was approved by the institution's ethics committee. Results: The patients' mean age was 62 ± 10 years. The mean dose of radiation for the tomography protocol was 9.3 ± 4.6 mSv. With regard to CTP, the per-patient values for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 86%, 81%, 80%, 87%, and 83%, respectively (p = 0.001). The per-territory values were 63%, 86%, 65%, 84%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.001). In both analyses, the addition of CTP to CTA achieved higher diagnostic accuracy for detecting myocardial ischemia than SPECT (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of the stress tomography protocol is feasible and has good diagnostic accuracy for assessing myocardial ischemia in patients with LBBB. (author)
Lesson Eighteen An Unusual Bundle Branch Block
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
鲁端; 王劲
2006-01-01
@@ The electrocardiographic(Fig. 1) has been recorded from an asymptomatic 52-year-old woman free from organic heart disease,who was admitted to the outpatient department beacause a routine ECG had pointed out some abnormalities1: ①The QRS axis is at +90°, ②The QRS duration is 0.14 seconds, ③ The QRS configuration in the limb leads is suggestive of BBB, but it is hard to define, on the basis of these leads only, which type of BBB (right or left) is involved2.The wide S waves in leads I and aVL suggest at first glance an RBBB, whereas the QRS morphology in the inferior leads (monophasic R wave with secondary ST-T changes) is more consistent with an LBBB with relative right axis deviation, ④The chest leads further complicate the problem because lead V1 suggests an RBBB, whereas leads V5 and V6 are perfectly consistent with an LBBB, showing a monophasic R wave3, in addition, lead V5 shows ST-segment depression and negative T wave, typical of LBBB. It is worth noting that when the tracing was recorded, the correct placement of precordial electrodes was accurately checked, ⑤ Placement of precordial electrodes of leads V4,V5,and V6 2 intercostals spaces above restores4,in these leads, a QRS configuration suggestive of RBBB:small and relatively wide s waves appear and the T waves become positive.
MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK
2015-01-01
Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used a...
Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.
2014-11-01
Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.
Seda, P E; McAnulty, J H; Anderson, C J
1980-01-01
A patient presented with orthostatic dizziness and syncope caused by postural heart block. When the patient was supine, atrioventricular conduction was normal and he was asymptomatic; when he was standing he developed second degree type II block and symptoms. The left bundle-branch block on his electrocardiogram and intracardiac electrophysiological study findings suggest that this heart block occurred distal to the His bundle. Orthostatic symptoms are usually presumed to be secondary to an i...
Geometric Quality Assessment of Bundle Block Adjusted Mulit- Sensor Satellite Imageries
Ghosh, S.; Bhawani Kumar, P. S.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Srinivas, V.; Saibaba, J.; Varadan, G.
2014-11-01
The integration of multi-sensor earth observation data belonging to same area has become one of the most important input for resource mapping and management. Geometric error and fidelity between adjacent scenes affects large-area digital mosaic if the images/ scenes are processed independently. A block triangulation approach "Bundle Block Adjustment (BBA)" system has been developed at ADRIN for combined processing of multi-sensor, multi-resolution satellite imagery to achieve better geometric continuity. In this paper we present the evaluation results of BBA software along with performance assessment and operational use of products thus generated. The application evaluation deals with functional aspects of block-adjustment of satellite imagery consisting of data from multiple sources, i.e. AWiFs, LISS-3, LISS-4 and Cartosat-1 in various combinations as single block. It has provision for automatic generation of GCPs and tie-points using image metafile/ Rational Polynomial Coefficient's (RPC's) and ortho/ merged/ mosaicked products generation. The study is carried out with datasets covering different terrain types (ranging from high mountainous area, moderately undulating terrain, coastal plain, agriculture fields, urban area and water-body) across Indian subcontinent with varying block sizes and spatial reference systems. Geometric accuracy assessment is carried out to figure out error propagation at scene based ortho/ merged products as well as block level. The experimental results confirm that pixel tagging, geometric fidelity and feature continuity across adjacent scenes as well as for multiple sensors reduced to a great extent, due to the high redundancy. The results demonstrate that it is one of the most affective geometric corrections for generating large area digital mosaic over High mountainous terrain using high resolution good swath satellite imagery, like Cartosat-1, with minimum human intervention.
Tiling branching multiplicity spaces with GL2 pattern blocks
Kim, Sangjib
2012-01-01
We study branching multiplicity spaces of complex classical groups in terms of GL(2) representations. In particular, we show how combinatorics of GL(2) representations are intertwined to make branching rules under the restriction of GL(n) to GL(n-2). We also discuss analogous results for the symplectic and orthogonal groups.
Wen, Zhenliang; Wang, Zihao; Chen, Jingdi; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Qiqing
2016-06-01
The application of hydroxyapatite (HAP) in different fields depends greatly on its morphology, composition and structure. Besides, the main inorganic building blocks of human bones and teeth are also HAP. Therefore, accurate shape and aggregation control and of hydroxyapatite particles will be of great interest. Herein, oriented bundles of flowerlike HAP nanorods were successfully prepared through hydrothermal treatment without acid-base regulation, with the mono-alkyl phosphate (MAP) and sodium citrate as surfactant and chelating agent, respectively. The prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and zeta potential, the pH value and conductivity value of suspension were characterized by pH meter and conductivity measurement. The results showed that the MAP and citrate play an important role in assembly of HAP nanorods without acid-base regulation. Citrate calcium complex could decompose slowly and release citrate ions at hydrothermal conditions. Besides, the further decomposition of citrate ions could release aconitic acid as the reaction time prolongs. Moreover, the possible scheme for the formation process was discussed in detail. PMID:26930036
Bundle Block Adjustment of Airborne Three-Line Array Imagery Based on Rotation Angles
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Yongjun Zhang
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In the midst of the rapid developments in electronic instruments and remote sensing technologies, airborne three-line array sensors and their applications are being widely promoted and plentiful research related to data processing and high precision geo-referencing technologies is under way. The exterior orientation parameters (EOPs, which are measured by the integrated positioning and orientation system (POS of airborne three-line sensors, however, have inevitable systematic errors, so the level of precision of direct geo-referencing is not sufficiently accurate for surveying and mapping applications. Consequently, a few ground control points are necessary to refine the exterior orientation parameters, and this paper will discuss bundle block adjustment models based on the systematic error compensation and the orientation image, considering the principle of an image sensor and the characteristics of the integrated POS. Unlike the models available in the literature, which mainly use a quaternion to represent the rotation matrix of exterior orientation, three rotation angles are directly used in order to effectively model and eliminate the systematic errors of the POS observations. Very good experimental results have been achieved with several real datasets that verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed adjustment models.
Lange, M.; Di Marco, L.Y.; Lekadir, K.; Lassila, T.; Frangi, A. F.
2016-01-01
False tendons (FTs) are fibrous or fibromuscular bands that can be found in both the normal and abnormal human heart in various anatomical forms depending on their attachment points, tissue types, and geometrical properties. While FTs are widely considered to affect the function of the heart, their specific roles remain largely unclear and unexplored. In this paper, we present an in silico study of the ventricular activation time of the human heart in the presence of FTs. This study presents ...
Zheng, Maoteng; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Shunping; Zhu, Junfeng; Xiong, Xiaodong
2016-07-01
In recent years, new platforms and sensors in photogrammetry, remote sensing and computer vision areas have become available, such as Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAV), oblique camera systems, common digital cameras and even mobile phone cameras. Images collected by all these kinds of sensors could be used as remote sensing data sources. These sensors can obtain large-scale remote sensing data which consist of a great number of images. Bundle block adjustment of large-scale data with conventional algorithm is very time and space (memory) consuming due to the super large normal matrix arising from large-scale data. In this paper, an efficient Block-based Sparse Matrix Compression (BSMC) method combined with the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) algorithm is chosen to develop a stable and efficient bundle block adjustment system in order to deal with the large-scale remote sensing data. The main contribution of this work is the BSMC-based PCG algorithm which is more efficient in time and memory than the traditional algorithm without compromising the accuracy. Totally 8 datasets of real data are used to test our proposed method. Preliminary results have shown that the BSMC method can efficiently decrease the time and memory requirement of large-scale data.
Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
鲁端; 王劲
2005-01-01
@@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.
Wais, Ulrike; Jackson, Alexander W; Zuo, Yanming; Xiang, Yu; He, Tao; Zhang, Haifei
2016-01-28
A large percentage of drug compounds exhibit low water solubility and hence low bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. This may be addressed by preparation of drug nanoparticles, leading to enhanced dissolution rate and direct use for treatment. Various methods have been developed to produce drug nanocrystals, including wet milling, homogenization, solution precipitation, emulsion diffusion, and the recently developed emulsion freeze-drying. The drawback for these methods may include difficult control in particles size, use of surfactants & polymer, and low ratio of drug to stabilizer. Here, biocompatible branched block copolymer nanoparticles with lightly-crosslinked hydrophobic core and hydrophilic surface groups are synthesized by the direct monomer-to-particle methodology, characterized, and then used as scaffold polymer/surfactant to produce drug nanoparticles via the emulsion-freeze-drying approach. This method can be used for model organic dye and different poorly water-soluble drugs. Aqueous drug nanoparticle dispersions can be obtained with high ratio of drug to stabilizer and relatively uniform nanoparticle sizes. PMID:26704935
Fumagalli, Stefano; Boni, Serena; Gabbai, Debbie; Giannini, Ilaria; Tarantini, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò
2016-06-01
We present the case of an elderly woman which demonstrates how AF therapy in aged individuals is particularly challenging for the presence of complex conditions. The rhythm- or the rate control strategy must be carefully chosen based on individual risk profile. Oral anticoagulant therapy must be wisely managed to maximize benefits-in terms of stroke and dementia control-and to reduce complications. PMID:26319529
Chen, Yongmin; Li, Jianpei
2015-01-01
When procuring multiple products from competing firms, a buyer may choose separate purchase, pure bundling, or mixed bundling. We show that pure bundling will generate higher buyer surplus than both separate purchase and mixed bundling, provided that trade for each good is likely to be efficient. Pure bundling is superior because it intensifies the competition between firms by reducing their cost asymmetry. Mixed bundling is inferior because it allows firms to coordinate to ...
Cortiñas-Sáenz, M; Salmerón-Velez, G; Holgado-Macho, I A
2014-01-01
The sensory innervation of the hip joint is complex. The joint and sensory branch block of the obturator and femoral nerves is effective for treating the pain caused due to different hip diseases. This could be an option to be considered in certain circumstances such as, being a surgical-anaesthetic high risk, or if there is significant overweight, It could also be useful on other occasions if the traumatoligist considers that it is better to delay hip replacement for a limited period. PMID:24656423
Tipirneni Naveen; Pham Loc; Jamison Robert N; Wasan Ajay D; Nedeljkovic Srdjan S; Katz Jeffrey N
2009-01-01
Abstract Background Comorbid psychopathology is an important predictor of poor outcome for many types of treatments for back or neck pain. But it is unknown if this applies to the results of medial branch blocks (MBBs) for chronic low back or neck pain, which involves injecting the medial branch of the dorsal ramus nerves that innervate the facet joints. The objective of this study was to determine whether high levels of psychopathology are predictive of pain relief after MBB injections in th...
Terao, Tomio; Nagata, Kenji; Morino, Kazuko; Hirose, Tatsuro
2010-03-01
The quantitative trait locus controlling the number of primary rachis branches (PRBs) in rice was identified using backcrossed inbred lines of Sasanishiki/Habataki//Sasanishiki///Sasanishiki. The resultant gene was ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1 (APO1). Habataki-genotype segregated reciprocal recombinant lines for the APO1 locus increased both the number of PRB (12-13%) and the number of grains per panicle (9-12%), which increased the grain yield per plant (5-7%). Further recombination dividing this region revealed that different alleles regulated the number of PRB and the number of grains per panicle. The PRB1 allele, which includes the APO1 open reading frame (ORF) and the proximal promoter region, controlled only the number of PRB but not the number of grains per panicle. In contrast, the HI1 allele, which includes only the distal promoter region, increased the grain yield and harvest index in Habataki-genotype plants, nevertheless, the ORF expressed was Sasanishiki type. It also increased the number of large vascular bundles in the peduncle. APO1 expression occurred not only in developing panicles but also in the developing vascular bundle systems. In addition, Habataki plants displayed increased APO1 expression in comparison to Sasanishiki plants. It suggests that APO1 enhances the formation of vascular bundle systems which, consequently, promote carbohydrate translocation to panicles. The HI1 allele is suggested to regulate the amount of APO1 expression, and thereby control the development of vascular bundle systems. These findings may be useful to improve grain yield as well as quality through the improvement of translocation efficiency. PMID:20151298
Gravestock, David; Lourens, Anna C. U.; Rousseau, Amanda L.; Hoppe, Heinrich C; Nkabinde, Lindiwe A.; Bode, Moira L.
2012-01-01
Novel branched isocyanides have been prepared from L-serine and used as building blocks in the Passerini- amine deprotection-acyl migration (PADAM) sequence for the preparation of compounds with activity against HIV-1 protease. http://www.journals.elsevier.com/tetrahedron-letters/ The authors wish to thank the Innovation Fund (now the Technology Innovation Agency, South Africa) for financial support
Heal, Geoffrey
2002-01-01
Biodiversity provides essential services to human societies. Many of these services are provided as public goods, so that they will typically be underprovided both by market mechanisms (because of the impossibility of excluding non-payers from using the services) and by government-run systems (because of the free rider problem). I suggest here that in some cases the public goods provided by biodiversity conservation can be bundled with private goods and their value to consumers captured in th...
Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)
1996-12-31
The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stephenson, Kent; Skali, Hicham; McMurray, John J V;
2006-01-01
was to determine if new LBBB is an independent predictor of long-term fatal and nonfatal outcomes in high-risk survivors of MI by reviewing data from the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial. METHODS: In VALIANT, 14,703 patients with LV systolic dysfunction and/or HF were randomized...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrizio Di Stani
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Classical trigeminal neuralgia (CTN is treated predominantly by pharmacotherapy but side effects and unsuccessful occurs. The current study was carried out to evaluate the therapeutic effect of combination of pharmacotherapy and lidocaine block. Thirteen patients with CTN managed with pharmacotherapy were recruited and assigned either to no additional treatment (Group I or to additional analgesic block (Group II. The primary endpoint was the reduction in the frequency of pain episodes in a month assessed at 30 and 90 days. Comparisons of measurements of pain, general health and depression scales were secondary endpoints. The results from the follow-up visits at 30 and 90 days showed the Group II to have larger reduction in the frequency of pain and exhibited a bigger improvement in the scores of the pain, general health and depression scales. The results from this preliminary study suggest a clinical benefit of the combination of pharmacotherapy and lidocaine block.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This patent describes a method of forming a fuel bundle of a nuclear reactor. The method consists of positioning the fuel rods in the bottom plate, positioning the tie rod in the bottom plate with the key passed through the receptacle to the underside of the bottom plate and, after the tie rod is so positioned, turning the tie rod so that the key is in engagement with the underside of the bottom plate. Thereafter mounting the top plate is mounted in engagement with the fuel rods with the upper end of the tie rod extending through the opening in the top plate and extending above the top plate, and the tie rod is secured to the upper side of sid top plate thus simultaneously securing the key to the underside of the bottom plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tipirneni Naveen
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbid psychopathology is an important predictor of poor outcome for many types of treatments for back or neck pain. But it is unknown if this applies to the results of medial branch blocks (MBBs for chronic low back or neck pain, which involves injecting the medial branch of the dorsal ramus nerves that innervate the facet joints. The objective of this study was to determine whether high levels of psychopathology are predictive of pain relief after MBB injections in the lumbar or cervical spine. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. Consecutive patients in a pain medicine practice undergoing MBBs of the lumbar or cervical facets with corticosteroids were recruited to participate. Subjects were selected for a MBB based on operationalized selection criteria and the procedure was performed in a standardized manner. Subjects completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS just prior to the procedure and at one-month follow up. Scores on the HADS classified the subjects into three groups based on psychiatric symptoms, which formed the primary predictor variable: Low, Moderate, or High levels of psychopathology. The primary outcome measure was the percent improvement in average daily pain rating one-month following an injection. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to analyze the analgesia and functional rating differences between groups, and to perform a responder analysis. Results Eighty six (86 subjects completed the study. The Low psychopathology group (n = 37 reported a mean of 23% improvement in pain at one-month while the High psychopathology group (n = 29 reported a mean worsening of -5.8% in pain (p Low group had at least 30% improvement in pain versus 10% in the High group (p Conclusion Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with diminished pain relief after a MBB injection performed with steroid at one-month follow-up. These findings illustrate the importance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The increase of bundle supply has become widespread in several sectors (for instance in telecommunications and energy fields). This paper review relates strategic aspects of bundling. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze profitability of bundling strategies according to the degree of competition and the characteristics of goods. Moreover, bundling can be used as price discrimination tool, screening device or entry barriers. In monopoly case bundling strategy is efficient to sort consumers in different categories in order to capture a maximum of surplus. However, when competition increases, the profitability on bundling strategies depends on correlation of consumers' reservations values. (author)
Murray, Michael K; Stevenson, Danny; Vozzo, Raymond F
2015-01-01
We develop the theory of simplicial extensions for bundle gerbes and their characteristic classes. This formalism is used to study descent problems and equivariance for bundle gerbes. We consider in detail two examples: the basic bundle gerbe on a unitary group and a string structure for a principal bundle. We show that the basic bundle gerbe is equivariant for the conjugation action and calculate its characteristic class and that a string structure gives rise to a bundle gerbe which is equivariant for a natural action of the String 2-group.
Bundling in Telecommunications
Begoña García-Mariñoso; Xavier Martinez-Giralt; Pau Olivella
2008-01-01
The paper offers an overview of the literature on bundling in the telecommunications sector and its application in the Spanish market. We argue that the use of bundling in the provision of services is associated to technological reasons. Therefore, there appears no need to regulate bundling activities. However, this is not to say that other related telecom markets should not be scrutinized and regulated, or that the regulator should not pay attention to other bundling-related anticompetitive ...
Nicholas Economides
2014-01-01
We discuss strategic ways that sellers can use tying and bundling with requirement conditions to extract consumer surplus. We analyze different types of tying and bundling creating (i) intra-product price discrimination; (ii) intra-consumer price discrimination; and (iii) inter-product price discrimination, and assess the antitrust liability that these practices may entail. We also discuss the impact on consumers and competition, as well as potential antitrust liability of bundling “incontest...
Lerman, Eugene
2003-01-01
We define contact fiber bundles and investigate conditions for the existence of contact structures on the total space of such a bundle. The results are analogous to minimal coupling in symplectic geometry. The two applications are construction of K-contact manifolds generalizing Yamazaki's fiber join construction and a cross-section theorem for contact moment maps
Principal noncommutative torus bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Echterhoff, Siegfried; Nest, Ryszard; Oyono-Oyono, Herve
2008-01-01
of bivariant K-theory (denoted RKK-theory) due to Kasparov. Using earlier results of Echterhoff and Williams, we shall give a complete classification of principal non-commutative torus bundles up to equivariant Morita equivalence. We then study these bundles as topological fibrations (forgetting the...
Heterotic String Compactification and New Vector Bundles
Lin, Hai; Wu, Baosen; Yau, Shing-Tung
2016-07-01
We propose a construction of Kähler and non-Kähler Calabi-Yau manifolds by branched double covers of twistor spaces. In this construction we use the twistor spaces of four-manifolds with self-dual conformal structures, with the examples of connected sum of n {mathbb{P}2}s. We also construct K3-fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds from the branched double covers of the blow-ups of the twistor spaces. These manifolds can be used in heterotic string compactifications to four dimensions. We also construct stable and polystable vector bundles. Some classes of these vector bundles can give rise to supersymmetric grand unified models with three generations of quarks and leptons in four dimensions.
Randall, W C; Ardell, J L; Becker, D M
1985-07-01
Electrical excitation of small thoracic vagal branches elicited highly localized responses in the canine heart. Specific pathways to the sinoatrial nodal (SAN) regions were identified from negative chronotropic responses to stimulation (20 Hz, 5.0 ms, 3.0-5.0 V) of these branches. Pathways to the atrioventricular nodal (AVN) region were determined from changes in A-H interval (His bundle electrogram) and incidence of heart block as vagal branches were stimulated during concurrent atrial pacing. A few small branches influenced a single cardiac function (atrial rate, contractile force, or AV conduction). More commonly, activation of such branches elicited simultaneous chronotropic and dromotropic effects. However, many branches failed to elicit any detectable cardiac change. The major outflow from the left vagus to SAN and AVN regions is by way of cardiac branches from the recurrent laryngeal nerve at its reflection around the aorta. Activation of the left recurrent nerve reduced atrial rate by 43% and doubled A-H interval 84 to 167 ms. The right thoracic vagus or its branches induced A-H prolongation from 78 to 131 ms. H-V intervals remained constant at a mean of 35 ms. Outflows from the right thoracic vagus to SAN and/or AVN regions originated just below the middle cervical ganglion and at all levels down to the azygos vein. PMID:4014479
The stages of atrioventricular bundle formation in the human embryonic heart
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silkina Yu.V.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The origin, stages and histogenetic processes in atrioventricular bundle were investigated. We studied the human embryonic heart from 5 to 12 week of development. Antibodies to neurofilaments, Ki-67, MSA, α-SMA and neuregulin were used. Formation of the primordia of the atrioventricular bundle depends on the chamber formation in early heart. The first morphologic reconstruction in the atrioventricular bundle starts from 5 week of gestational age. In this time we studied proximal and distal primordias, which formed general tract at 7 week. The early human heart was characterized by strong connections with atrioventricular fibrous tissue, left and right septal cuspes of mitral and tricuspidal valves. Formation of the atrioventricular bundle branches has two stages: primary and repeated growth. Median fibers are blind-ended. We suppose that atrioventricular bundle and bundle branches have extracardiac origin. Histogenesis of the atrioventricular bundle contin-ues after 12 week of human development.
Restrictions of stable bundles
Balaji, V
2011-01-01
The Mehta-Ramanathan theorem ensures that the restriction of a stable vector bundle to a sufficiently high degree complete intersection curve is again stable. We improve the bounds for the "sufficiently high degree" and propose a possibly optimal conjecture.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes works on CANDU fuel bundle fabrication in the Fuel Fabrication Development and Testing Section (FFDT) of AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. This work does not cover fuel design, pellet manufacturing, Zircaloy material manufacturing, but cover the joining of appendages to sheath tube, endcap preparation and welding, UO2 loading, end plate preparation and welding, and all inspections required in these steps. Materials used in the fabrication of CANDU fuel bundle are: 1)Ceramic UO2 Pellet 2)Zircaloy -4. Fuel Bundle Structural Material 3) Others (Zinc stearate, Colloidal graphite, Beryllium and Heium). Th fabrication of fuel element consist of three process: 1)pellet loading into the sheats, 2) endcap welding, and 3) the element profiling. Endcap welds is tested by metallography and He leak test. The endcaps of the elements are welded to the end plates to form the 37- element bundle assembly
Subtleties Concerning Conformal Tractor Bundles
Graham, C Robin
2012-01-01
The realization of tractor bundles as associated bundles in conformal geometry is studied. It is shown that different natural choices of principal bundle with normal Cartan connection corresponding to a given conformal manifold can give rise to topologically distinct associated tractor bundles for the same inducing representation. Consequences for homogeneous models and conformal holonomy are described. A careful presentation is made of background material concerning standard tractor bundles and equivalence between parabolic geometries and underlying structures.
Principal -bundles on Nodal Curves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Usha N Bhosle
2001-08-01
Let be a connected semisimple affine algebraic group defined over . We study the relation between stable, semistable -bundles on a nodal curve and representations of the fundamental group of . This study is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles to principal -bundles on the desingularization of and using the correspondence between them and principal -bundles on . We give an isomorphism of the stack of generalized parabolic bundles on with a quotient stack associated to loop groups. We show that if is simple and simply connected then the Picard group of the stack of principal -bundles on is isomorphic to ⊕ , being the number of components of .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A hybrid bundle divertor design is presented that produces <0.3% magnetic ripple at the center of the plasma while providing adequate space for the coil shielding and structure for a tokamak fusion test reactor similar to the International Tokamak Reactor and the Engineering Test Facility (with R = 5 m, B = 5 T, and a /SUB wall/ = 1.5 m, in particular). This hybrid divertor consists of a set of quadrupole ''wing'' coils running tangent to the tokamak plasma on either side of a bundle divertor. The wing coils by themselves pull the edge of the plasma out 1.5 m and spread the thickness of the scrape-off layer from 0.1 to 0.7 m at the midplane. The clear aperture of the bundle divertor throat is 1.0 m high and 1.8 m wide. For maintenance or replacement, the hybrid divertor can be disassembled into three parts, with the bundle divertor part pulling straight out between toroidal field coils and the wing coils then sliding out through the same opening
Dynamics of flagellar bundling
Janssen, Pieter; Graham, Michael
2010-11-01
Flagella are long thin appendages of microscopic organisms used for propulsion in low-Reynolds environments. For E. coli the flagella are driven by a molecular motor, which rotates the flagella in a counter-clockwise motion (CCM). When in a forward swimming motion, all flagella bundle up. If a motor reverses rotation direction, the flagella unbundle and the cell makes a tumbling motion. When all motors turn in the same CC direction again, the flagella bundle up, and forward swimming continues. To investigate the bundling, we consider two flexible helices next to each other, as well as several flagella attached to a spherical body. Each helix is modeled as several prolate spheroids connected at the tips by springs. For hydrodynamic interactions, we consider the flagella to made up of point forces, while the finite size of the body is incorporated via Fax'en's laws. We show that synchronization occurs quickly relative to the bundling process. For flagella next to each other, the initial deflection is generated by rotlet interactions generated by the rotating helices. At longer times, simulations show the flagella only wrap once around each other, but only for flagella that are closer than about 4 helix radii. Finally, we show a run-and-tumble motion of the body with attached flagella.
Systematic Bundle Adjustment of HRSC Image Data
Bostelmann, J.; Schmidt, R.; Heipke, C.
2012-07-01
The European Mars Express mission was launched in June 2003 and sent into orbit around Mars. On board the orbiter is the German High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). This multi-line sensor images the Martian surface with a resolution of up to 12m per pixel in three dimensions and provides RGB and infra-red color information. The usage of the stereoscopic image information for the improvement of the observed position and attitude information via bundle adjustment is important to derive high quality 3D surface models, color orthoimages and other data products. In many cases overlapping image strips of different orbits can be used to form photogrammetric blocks, thus allowing the simultaneous adjustment of the exterior orientation data. This reduces not only local, but also regional inconsistencies in the data. With the growing number of HRSC image strips in this ongoing mission, the size and complexity of potential blocks is increasing. Therefore, a workflow has been built up for the systematic improvement of the exterior orientation using single orbit strips and regional blocks. For a successful bundle adjustment of blocks using multiple image strips a sufficient number of tie points in the overlapping area is needed. The number of tie points depends mainly on the geometric and radiometric quality of the images. This is considered by detailed analysis of the tie point accuracy and distribution. The combination of methods for image pre-processing, tie point matching, bundle adjustment and evaluation of the results in an automated workflow allows for all HRSC images a global assessment of the quality and a systematic selection of data for larger blocks.
On framed quantum principal bundles
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
A noncommutative-geometric formalism of framed principal bundles is sketched, in a special case of quantum bundles (over quantum spaces) possessing classical structure groups. Quantum counterparts of torsion operators and Levi-Civita type connections are analyzed. A construction of a natural differential calculus on framed bundles is described. Illustrative examples are presented.
Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.
Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward
2016-06-01
Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. A. Robbins
1994-12-01
Full Text Available We study bundles of Banach algebras ÃÂ€:AÃ¢Â†Â’X, where each fiber Ax=ÃÂ€Ã¢ÂˆÂ’1({x} is a Banach algebra and X is a compact Hausdorff space. In the case where all fibers are commutative, we investigate how the Gelfand representation of the section space algebra ÃŽÂ“(ÃÂ€ relates to the Gelfand representation of the fibers. In the general case, we investigate how adjoining an identity to the bundle ÃÂ€:AÃ¢Â†Â’X relates to the standard adjunction of identities to the fibers.
Rudakov, A N
1990-01-01
This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).
Hirsch, Gregory
2002-01-01
A plurality of glass or metal wires are precisely etched to form the desired shape of the individual channels of the final polycapillary optic. This shape is created by carefully controlling the withdrawal speed of a group of wires from an etchant bath. The etched wires undergo a subsequent operation to create an extremely smooth surface. This surface is coated with a layer of material which is selected to maximize the reflectivity of the radiation being used. This reflective surface may be a single layer of material, or a multilayer coating for optimizing the reflectivity in a narrower wavelength interval. The collection of individual wires is assembled into a close-packed multi-wire bundle, and the wires are bonded together in a manner which preserves the close-pack configuration, irrespective of the local wire diameter. The initial wires are then removed by either a chemical etching procedure or mechanical force. In the case of chemical etching, the bundle is generally segmented by cutting a series of etching slots. Prior to removing the wire, the capillary array is typically bonded to a support substrate. The result of the process is a bundle of precisely oriented radiation-reflecting hollow channels. The capillary optic is used for efficiently collecting and redirecting the radiation from a source of radiation which could be the anode of an x-ray tube, a plasma source, the fluorescent radiation from an electron microprobe, a synchrotron radiation source, a reactor or spallation source of neutrons, or some other source.
Bundling harvester; Harvennuspuun automaattisen nippukorjausharvesterin kehittaeminen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)
1997-12-01
The starting point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automating of the harvester, and automated loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilisation of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilised without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilisation of wood-energy. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sommer, Stefan Horst; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads; Pennec, Xavier
information to be automatically incorporated in registrations and promises to improve the standard framework in several aspects. We present the mathematical foundations of LDDKBM and derive the KB-EPDiff evolution equations, which provide optimal warps in this new framework. To illustrate the resulting......In the LDDMM framework, optimal warps for image registration are found as end-points of critical paths for an energy functional, and the EPDiff equations describe the evolution along such paths. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Kernel Bundle Mapping (LDDKBM) extension of LDDMM allows scale space...... diffeomorphism paths, we give examples showing the decoupled evolution across scales and how the method automatically incorporates deforma- tion at appropriate scales....
Cassou-Nogues, Ph.; Erez, B.; Taylor, M. J.
2004-01-01
We establish comparison results between the Hasse-Witt invariants w_t(E) of a symmetric bundle E over a scheme and the invariants of one of its twists E_{\\alpha}. For general twists we describe the difference between w_t(E) and w_t(E_{\\alpha}) up to terms of degree 3. Next we consider a special kind of twist, which has been studied by A. Fr\\"ohlich. This arises from twisting by a cocycle obtained from an orthogonal representation. We show how to explicitly describe the twist for representatio...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report is a summary of experimental investigations describing the fuel rod behavior in the refilling and reflooding phase of a loss-of-coolant accident of a PWR. The experiments were performed with 5x5 and 7x7 rod bundles, using indirectly electrically heated fuel rod simulators of full length with original PWR-KWU-geometry, original grid spacers and Zircaloy-4-claddings (Type Biblis B). The fuel rod simulators showed a cosine shaped axial power profile in 7 steps and continuous, respectively. The results describe the influence of the different parameters such as bundle size on the maximum coolant channel blockage, that of the cooling on the size of the circumferential strain of the cladding (azimuthal temperature distribution) a cold control rod guide thimble and the flow direction (axial temperature distribution) on the resulting coolant channel blockage. The rewetting behavior of different fuel rod simulators including ballooned and burst Zircaloy claddings is discussed as well as the influence of thermocouples on the cladding temperature history and the rewetting behavior. All results prove the coolability of a PWR in the case of a LOCA. Therefore, it can be concluded that the ECC-criteria established by licensing authorities can be fulfilled. (orig./HP)
Method of fabricating high-density hermetic electrical feedthroughs using insulated wire bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shah, Kedar G.; Benett, William J.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.
2016-05-10
A method of fabricating electrical feedthroughs coats of a plurality of electrically conductive wires with an electrically insulating material and bundles the coated wires together in a substantially parallel arrangement. The bundled coated wires are secured to each other by joining the electrically insulating material of adjacent wires together to form a monolithic block which is then cut transverse to the wires to produce a block section having opposing first and second sides with a plurality of electrically conductive feedthroughs extending between them.
Biggins, J D
2010-01-01
Results on the behaviour of the rightmost particle in the $n$th generation in the branching random walk are reviewed and the phenomenon of anomalous spreading speeds, noticed recently in related deterministic models, is considered. The relationship between such results and certain coupled reaction-diffusion equations is indicated.
Bundle Security Protocol for ION
Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher
2011-01-01
This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.
CANFLEX fuel bundle impact test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This document outlines the test results for the impact test of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Impact test is performed to determine and verify the amount of general bundle shape distortion and defect of the pressure tube that may occur during refuelling. The test specification requires that the fuel bundles and the pressure tube retain their integrities after the impact test under the conservative conditions (10 stationary bundles with 31kg/s flow rate) considering the pressure tube creep. The refuelling simulator operating with pneumatic force and simulated shield plug were fabricated and the velocity/displacement transducer and the high speed camera were also used in this test. The characteristics of the moving bundle (velocity, displacement, impacting force) were measured and analyzed with the impact sensor and the high speed camera system. The important test procedures and measurement results were discussed as follows. 1) Test bundle measurements and the pressure tube inspections 2) Simulated shield plug, outlet flange installation and bundle loading 3) refuelling simulator, inlet flange installation and sensors, high speed camera installation 4) Perform the impact test with operating the refuelling simulator and measure the dynamic characteristics 5) Inspections of the fuel bundles and the pressure tube. (author). 8 refs., 23 tabs., 13 figs
CANFLEX fuel bundle impact test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Park, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, B. D.
1997-08-01
This document outlines the test results for the impact test of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Impact test is performed to determine and verify the amount of general bundle shape distortion and defect of the pressure tube that may occur during refuelling. The test specification requires that the fuel bundles and the pressure tube retain their integrities after the impact test under the conservative conditions (10 stationary bundles with 31kg/s flow rate) considering the pressure tube creep. The refuelling simulator operating with pneumatic force and simulated shield plug were fabricated and the velocity/displacement transducer and the high speed camera were also used in this test. The characteristics of the moving bundle (velocity, displacement, impacting force) were measured and analyzed with the impact sensor and the high speed camera system. The important test procedures and measurement results were discussed as follows. 1) Test bundle measurements and the pressure tube inspections 2) Simulated shield plug, outlet flange installation and bundle loading 3) refuelling simulator, inlet flange installation and sensors, high speed camera installation 4) Perform the impact test with operating the refuelling simulator and measure the dynamic characteristics 5) Inspections of the fuel bundles and the pressure tube. (author). 8 refs., 23 tabs., 13 figs.
Fiber Bundles and Parseval Frames
Agrawal, Devanshu; Knisley, Jeff
2015-01-01
Continuous frames over a Hilbert space have a rich and sophisticated structure that can be represented in the form of a fiber bundle. The fiber bundle structure reveals the central importance of Parseval frames and the extent to which Parseval frames generalize the notion of an orthonormal basis.
Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror
Ward, Benjamin G.
2012-05-01
An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.
Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ivan Kausz
2005-05-01
Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich’s and Vistoli’s twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.
The Atiyah Bundle and Connections on a Principal Bundle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indranil Biswas
2010-06-01
Let be a ∞ manifold and a Lie a group. Let $E_G$ be a ∞ principal -bundle over . There is a fiber bundle $\\mathcal{C}(E_G)$ over whose smooth sections correspond to the connections on $E_G$. The pull back of $E_G$ to $\\mathcal{C}(E_G)$ has a tautological connection. We investigate the curvature of this tautological connection.
Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Dalgaard, Tommy; Svenning, J.-C.
2014-01-01
We made a spatial analysis of 11 ecosystem services at a 10 km × 10 km grid scale covering most of Denmark. Our objective was to describe their spatial distribution and interactions and also to analyze whether they formed specific bundle types on a regional scale in the Danish cultural landscape....... We found clustered distribution patterns of ecosystem services across the country. There was a significant tendency for trade-offs between on the one hand cultural and regulating services and on the other provisioning services, and we also found the potential of regulating and cultural services to...... form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...
Structure of the acrosomal bundle.
Schmid, Michael F; Sherman, Michael B; Matsudaira, Paul; Chiu, Wah
2004-09-01
In the unactivated Limulus sperm, a 60- micro m-long bundle of actin filaments crosslinked by the protein scruin is bent and twisted into a coil around the base of the nucleus. At fertilization, the bundle uncoils and fully extends in five seconds to support a finger of membrane known as the acrosomal process. This biological spring is powered by stored elastic energy and does not require the action of motor proteins or actin polymerization. In a 9.5-A electron cryomicroscopic structure of the extended bundle, we show that twist, tilt and rotation of actin-scruin subunits deviate widely from a 'standard' F-actin filament. This variability in structural organization allows filaments to pack into a highly ordered and rigid bundle in the extended state and suggests a mechanism for storing and releasing energy between coiled and extended states without disassembly. PMID:15343340
Locking means for fuels bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A nuclear power reactor fuel bundle is described which has a plurality of fuel rods disposed between two end plates positioned by tie rods extending therebetween. The assembled bundle is secured by one or more locking forks which pass through slots in the tie rod ends. Springs mounted on the fuel rods and tie rods are compressed by assembling the bundle and forcing one end plate against the locking fork to maintain the fuel rods and tie rods in position between the end plates. Downward pressure on the end plate permits removal of the locking fork so that the end plates may be removed, thus giving access to the fuel rods. This construction facilitates disassembly of an irradiated fuel bundle under water
Kun, Ferenc; Zapperi, Stefano; Herrmann, Hans J.
1999-01-01
We introduce a continuous damage fiber bundle model that gives rise to macroscopic plasticity and compare its behavior with that of dry fiber bundles. Several interesting constitutive behaviors are found in this model depending on the value of the damage parameter and on the form of the disorder distribution. In addition, we compare the behavior of global load transfer models with local load transfer models and study in detail the damage evolution before failure. We emphasize the analogies be...
Holomorphic bundles over elliptic manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this lecture we shall examine holomorphic bundles over compact elliptically fibered manifolds. We shall examine constructions of such bundles as well as (duality) relations between such bundles and other geometric objects, namely K3-surfaces and del Pezzo surfaces. We shall be dealing throughout with holomorphic principal bundles with structure group GC where G is a compact, simple (usually simply connected) Lie group and GC is the associated complex simple algebraic group. Of course, in the special case G = SU(n) and hence GC = SLn(C), we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant. In the other cases of classical groups, G SO(n) or G = Sympl(2n) we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant equipped with a non-degenerate symmetric, or skew symmetric pairing. In addition to these classical cases there are the finite number of exceptional groups. Amazingly enough, motivated by questions in physics, much interest centres around the group E8 and its subgroups. For these applications it does not suffice to consider only the classical groups. Thus, while often first doing the case of SU(n) or more generally of the classical groups, we shall extend our discussions to the general semi-simple group. Also, we shall spend a good deal of time considering elliptically fibered manifolds of the simplest type, namely, elliptic curves
Does size matter? : disentangling consumers' bundling preferences
Manoj K. Agarwal; Frambach, Ruud T.; Stremersch, Stefan
2000-01-01
Previous marketing literature has focused to a large extent on the effect of bundle characteristics on a consumer’s decision to buy a (fixed) bundle in a non-competitive setting. This study extends this narrow focus in four major ways. First, the authors address bundles that are customizable. Second, they distinguish between a consumer’s decision of whether to bundle (bundle choice) and the decision of how many goods or services to include in a bundle (bundle size). Third, they extend the foc...
Advanced Fuel Bundles for PHWRS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The fuel used by NPCIL presently is natural uranium dioxide in the form of 19- element fuel bundles for 220 MWe PHWRs and 37-element fuel bundles for the TAPP-3&4 540 MWe units. The new 700 MWe PHWRs also use 37-element fuel bundles. These bundles are of short 0.5 m length of circular geometry. The cladding is of collapsible type made of Zircaloy-4 material. PHWRs containing a string of short length fuel bundles and the on-power refueling permit flexibility in using different advanced fuel designs and in core fuel management schemes. Using this flexibility, alternative fuel concepts are tried in Indian PHWRs. The advances in PHWR fuel designs are governed by the desire to use resources other than uranium, improve fuel economics by increasing fuel burnup and reduce overall spent nuclear fuel waste and improve reactor safety. The rising uranium prices are leading to a relook into the Thorium based fuel designs and reprocessed Uranium based and Plutonium based MOX designs and are expected to play a major role in future. The requirement of synergism between different type of reactors also plays a role. Increase in fuel burnup beyond 15 000 MW∙d/TeU in PHWRs, using higher fissile content materials like slightly enriched uranium, Mixed Oxide and Thorium Oxide in place of natural uranium in fuel elements, was studied many PHWR operating countries. The work includes reactor physics studies and test irradiation in research reactors and power reactors. Due to higher fissile content these bundles will be capable of delivering higher burnup than the natural uranium bundles. In India the fuel cycle flexibility of PHWRs is demonstrated by converting this type of technical flexibility to the real economy by irradiating these different types of advanced fuel materials namely Thorium, MOX, SEU, etc. The paper gives a review of the different advanced fuel design concepts studied for Indian PHWRs. (author)
Heat transfer in rod bundles with severe clad deformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The content of the paper is focused on heat transfer conditions during the reflood phase of a LOCA in slightly to severely deformed PWR fuel rod bundle geometries. The status of analytical and, especially, of experimental work is described as far as it is possible within this frame. Emphasis is placed on the presentation of the results of ''Flooding Experiments with Blocked Arrays'' (FEBA), a program performed at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the frame of the Project Nuclear Safety (PNS). (orig./WL)
Cohomology of line bundles: Applications
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Jurke, Benjamin; Rahn, Thorsten; Roschy, Helmut
2012-01-01
Massless modes of both heterotic and Type II string compactifications on compact manifolds are determined by vector bundle valued cohomology classes. Various applications of our recent algorithm for the computation of line bundle valued cohomology classes over toric varieties are presented. For the heterotic string, the prime examples are so-called monad constructions on Calabi-Yau manifolds. In the context of Type II orientifolds, one often needs to compute cohomology for line bundles on finite group action coset spaces, necessitating us to generalize our algorithm to this case. Moreover, we exemplify that the different terms in Batyrev's formula and its generalizations can be given a one-to-one cohomological interpretation. Furthermore, we derive a combinatorial closed form expression for two Hodge numbers of a codimension two Calabi-Yau fourfold.
Principal bundles the classical case
Sontz, Stephen Bruce
2015-01-01
This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles. While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.
Exploring Bundling Theory with Geometry
Eckalbar, John C.
2006-01-01
The author shows how instructors might successfully introduce students in principles and intermediate microeconomic theory classes to the topic of bundling (i.e., the selling of two or more goods as a package, rather than separately). It is surprising how much students can learn using only the tools of high school geometry. To be specific, one can…
Bundled Discounts and EC Judicial Review
Christian Roques
2008-01-01
The Community Courts' case law is rich with cases relating to tying or bundling practices in their classical economic form. However, the same cannot be said for the second acceptance of bundled discounts.
Dendritic bundles, minicolumns, columns, and cortical output units
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giorgio Innocenti
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The search for the fundamental building block of the cerebral cortex has highlighted three structures, perpendicular to the cortical surface: i columns of neurons with radially invariant response properties, e.g., receptive field position, sensory modality, stimulus orientation or direction, frequency tuning etc. ii minicolumns of radially aligned cell bodies and iii bundles, constituted by the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons with cell bodies in different layers. The latter were described in detail, and sometimes quantitatively, in several species and areas. It was recently suggested that the dendritic bundles consist of apical dendrites belonging to neurons projecting their axons to specific targets. We review the concept above and suggest that another structural and computational unit of cerebral cortex is the cortical output unit (COU, i.e. an assembly of bundles of apical dendrites and their parent cell bodies including each of the outputs to distant cortical or subcortical structures, of a given cortical locus (area or part of an area. This somato-dendritic assembly receives inputs some of which are common to the whole assembly and determine its radially invariant response properties, others are specific to one or more dendritic bundles, and determine the specific response signature of neurons in the different cortical layers and projecting to different targets.
Failure properties of fiber bundle models
Pradhan, Srutarshi; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.
2003-01-01
We study the failure properties of fiber bundles when continuous rupture goes on due to the application of external load on the bundles. We take the two extreme models: equal load sharing model (democratic fiber bundles) and local load sharing model. The strength of the fibers are assumed to be distributed randomly within a finite interval. The democratic fiber bundles show a solvable phase transition at a critical stress (load per fiber). The dynamic critical behavior is obtained analyticall...
Bundling Information Goods: Pricing, Profits, and Efficiency
Yannis Bakos; Erik Brynjolfsson
1999-01-01
We study the strategy of bundling a large number of information goods, such as those increasingly available on the Internet, and selling them for a fixed price. We analyze the optimal bundling strategies for a multiproduct monopolist, and we find that bundling very large numbers of unrelated information goods can be surprisingly profitable. The reason is that the law of large numbers makes it much easier to predict consumers' valuations for a bundle of goods than their valuations for the indi...
Quantum principal bundles and corresponding gauge theories
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
A generalization of classical gauge theory is presented, in the framework of a noncommutative-geometric formalism of quantum principal bundles over smooth manifolds. Quantum counterparts of classical gauge bundles, and classical gauge transformations, are introduced and investigated. A natural differential calculus on quantum gauge bundles is constructed and analyzed. Kinematical and dynamical properties of corresponding gauge theories are discussed.
Strategic and welfare implications of bundling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martin, Stephen
1999-01-01
A standard oligopoly model of bundling shows that bundling by a firm with a monopoly over one product has a strategic effect because it changes the substitution relationships between the goods among which consumers choose. Bundling in appropriate proportions is privately profitable, reduces rivals...
On Volumes of Arithmetic Line Bundles
Yuan, Xinyi
2008-01-01
We show an arithmetic generalization of the recent work of Lazarsfeld-Mustata which uses Okounkov bodies to study linear series of line bundles. As applications, we derive a log-concavity inequality on volumes of arithmetic line bundles and an arithmetic Fujita approximation theorem for big line bundles.
Simplicial principal bundles in parametrized spaces
Roberts, David M
2012-01-01
In this paper, motivated by recent interest in higher gauge theory, we prove that the fiberwise geometric realization functor takes a certain class of simplicial principal bundles in a suitable category of spaces over a fixed space $B$ to fiberwise principal bundles. As an application we show that the fiberwise geometric realization of the universal simplicial principal bundle for a simplicial group $G$ in the category of spaces over $B$ gives rise to a fiberwise principal bundle with structure group $|G|$. An application to classifying theory for fiberwise principal bundles is described.
Multipath packet switch using packet bundling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berger, Michael Stubert
The basic concept of packet bundling is to group smaller packets into larger packets based on, e.g., quality of service or destination within the packet switch. This paper presents novel applications of bundling in packet switching. The larger packets created by bundling are utilized to extend...... switching capacity by use of parallel switch planes. During the bundling operation, packets will experience a delay that depends on the actual implementation of the bundling and scheduling scheme. Analytical results for delay bounds and buffer size requirements are presented for a specific scheduling...
Model of turbine blades bundles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk
Prague : Institute of Thermomechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 2013 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 467-477 ISBN 978-80-87012-47-5. ISSN 1805-8256. [Engineering Mechanics 2013 /19./. Svratka (CZ), 13.05.2013-16.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : free and forced vibrations * eigenmodes * mathematical model * bundle of blades Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Model of turbine blades bundles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk
Praha : Insitute of Thermomechanics ASCR, v. v. i., 2013 - (Zolotarev, I.). s. 125-126 ISBN 978-80-87012-46-8. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering Mechanics 2013 /19./. 13.05.2013-16.05.2013, Svratka] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : free and forced vibrations * eigenmodes * bundle of blades Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Competitive nonlinear pricing and bundling
Armstrong, Mark; Vickers, John
2006-01-01
We examine the impact of multiproduct nonlinear pricing on profit, consumer surplus and welfare in a duopoly. When consumers buy all their products from one firm (the one-stop shopping model), nonlinear pricing leads to higher profit and welfare, but often lower consumer surplus, than linear pricing. By contrast, in a unit-demand model where consumers may buy one product from one firm and another product from another firm, bundling generally acts to reduce profit and welfare and to boost cons...
Quantum bundles and their symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wave functions in the domain of observables such as the Hamiltonian are not always smooth functions on the classical configuration space Q. Rather, they are often best regarded as functions on a G bundle EG over Q or as sections of an associated bundle. If H is a classical group which acts on Q, its quantum version HG, which acts on EG, is not always H, but an extension of H by G. A powerful and physically transparent construction of EG and HG, where G = U(1) and H1(Q,Z) = 0, has been developed using the path space P. (P consists of paths on Q from a fixed point). In this paper the authors show how to construct EG and HG when G is U(1) or U(1) x π1(Q) and there is no restriction on H1(Q,Z). The method is illustrated with concrete examples, such as a system of charges and monopoles. The method is illustrated with concrete examples, such as a system of charges and monopoles. The authors argue also that P is a sort of superbundle from which a large variety of bundles can be obtained by imposing suitable equivalence relations
Photonic bandgap fiber bundle spectrometer
Hang, Qu; Syed, Imran; Guo, Ning; Skorobogatiy, Maksim
2010-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber spectrometer consisting of a photonic bandgap fiber bundle and a black and white CCD camera. Photonic crystal fibers used in this work are the large solid core all-plastic Bragg fibers designed for operation in the visible spectral range and featuring bandgaps of 60nm - 180nm-wide. 100 Bragg fibers were chosen to have complimentary and partially overlapping bandgaps covering a 400nm-840nm spectral range. The fiber bundle used in our work is equivalent in its function to a set of 100 optical filters densely packed in the area of ~1cm2. Black and white CCD camera is then used to capture spectrally "binned" image of the incoming light at the output facet of a fiber bundle. To reconstruct the test spectrum from a single CCD image we developed an algorithm based on pseudo-inversion of the spectrometer transmission matrix. We then study resolution limit of this spectroscopic system by testing its performance using spectrally narrow test peaks (FWHM 5nm-25nm) centered at va...
Toward a Global Bundle Adjustment of SPOT 5 - HRS Images
Massera, S.; Favé, P.; Gachet, R.; Orsoni, A.
2012-07-01
The HRS (High Resolution Stereoscopic) instrument carried on SPOT 5 enables quasi-simultaneous acquisition of stereoscopic images on wide segments - 120 km wide - with two forward and backward-looking telescopes observing the Earth with an angle of 20° ahead and behind the vertical. For 8 years IGN (Institut Géographique National) has been developing techniques to achieve spatiotriangulation of these images. During this time the capacities of bundle adjustment of SPOT 5 - HRS spatial images have largely improved. Today a global single block composed of about 20,000 images can be computed in reasonable calculation time. The progression was achieved step by step: first computed blocks were only composed of 40 images, then bigger blocks were computed. Finally only one global block is now computed. In the same time calculation tools have improved: for example the adjustment of 2,000 images of North Africa takes about 2 minutes whereas 8 hours were needed two years ago. To reach such a result a new independent software was developed to compute fast and efficient bundle adjustments. In the same time equipment - GCPs (Ground Control Points) and tie points - and techniques have also evolved over the last 10 years. Studies were made to get recommendations about the equipment in order to make an accurate single block. Tie points can now be quickly and automatically computed with SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features) techniques. Today the updated equipment is composed of about 500 GCPs and studies show that the ideal configuration is around 100 tie points by square degree. With such an equipment, the location of the global HRS block becomes a few meters accurate whereas non adjusted images are only 15 m accurate. This paper will describe the methods used in IGN Espace to compute a global single block composed of almost 20,000 HRS images, 500 GCPs and several million of tie points in reasonable calculation time. Many advantages can be found to use such a block. Because the
Quadratic bundle and nonlinear equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper is aimed at giving an exhaustive description of the nonlinear evolution equations (NLEE), connected with the quadratic bundle (the spectral parameter lambda, which enters quadratically into the equations) and at describing Hamiltonian structure of these equations. The equations are solved through the inverse scattering method (ISM). The basic formulae for the scattering problem are given. The spectral expansion of the integrodifferential operator is used so that its eigenfunctions are the squared solutions of the equation. By using the notions of Hamiltonian structure hierarchy and gauge transformations it is shown how to single out physically interesting NLEE
Static stress analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The static stress analysis of CANFLEX bundles is performed to evaluate the fuel structural integrity during the refuelling service. The structure analysis is carried out by predicting the drag force, stress and displacements of the fuel bundle. By the comparison of strength tests and analysis results, the displacement values are well agreed within 15%. The analysis shows that the CANFLEX fuel bundle keep its structural integrity. 24 figs., 6 tabs., 12 refs. (Author) .new
Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle
Baumgart, Johannes; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. James
2015-01-01
The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps b...
Tying, Bundling, and Loyalty/Requirement Rebates
Nicholas Economides
2011-01-01
I discuss the impact of tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates on consumer surplus in the affected markets. I show that the Chicago School Theory of a single monopoly surplus that justifies tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates on the basis of efficiency typically fails. Thus, tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates can be used to extract consumer surplus and enhance profit of firms with market power. I discuss the various setups when this occurs.
Bundling and Competition on the Internet
Yannis Bakos; Erik Brynjolfsson
2000-01-01
The Internet has signi.cantly reduced the marginal cost of producing and distributing digital information goods. It also coincides with the emergence of new competitive strategies such as large-scale bundling. In this paper, we show that bundling can create “economies of aggregation” for information goods if their marginal costs are very low, even in the absence of network externalities or economies of scale or scope. We extend the Bakos-Brynjolfsson bundling model (1999) to settings with sev...
Bundling and joint marketing by rival firms
Jeitschko, Thomas D.; Jung, Yeonjei; Kim, Jaesoo
2014-01-01
We study joint marketing arrangements by competing firms who engage in price discrimination between consumers who patronize only one firm (single purchasing) and those who purchase from both competitors (bundle purchasers). Two types of joint marketing are considered. Firms either commit to a component-price that applies to bundle-purchasers and then firms set stand-alone prices for single purchasers; or firms commit to a rebate off their stand alone price that will be applied to bundle-purch...
Statistical Constitutive Equation of Aramid Fiber Bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
熊杰; 顾伯洪; 王善元
2003-01-01
Tensile impact tests of aramid (Twaron) fiber bundles were carried om under high strain rates with a wide range of 0. 01/s～1000/s by using MTS and bar-bar tensile impact apparatus. Based on the statistical constitutive model of fiber bundles, statistical constitutive equations of aramid fiber bundles are derived from statistical analysis of test data at different strain rates. Comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental data indicates statistical constitutive equations fit well with the experimental data, and statistical constitutive equations of fiber bundles at different strain rates are valid.
Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)
Branched polynomial covering maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard
1999-01-01
A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....
Branched polynomial covering maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard
2002-01-01
A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Extension of holomorphic bundles to the disc (and Serre's Problem on Stein bundles)
Rosay, Jean-Pierre
2006-01-01
We show how to extend some holomorphic bundles with fifer C^2 and base an open set in C, to bundles on the Riemann Sphere, by an extremely simple technique. In particular, it applies to examples of non-Stein bundles constructed by Skoda and Demailly. It gives an example on C, with polynomial transition automorphisms.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王瑜; 闫沫
2015-01-01
The common methods of simplifying the block diagram are block diagram equivalent simplification and Mason formula .As for the block diagram of complex systems ,it is complicated to obtain the transfer function of control system through the Mason formula ,and the result may go wrong easily .Therefore , this paper discusses the moving methods of the exchange summing‐point and branch‐point ,and the applica‐tion steps ,and also uses an example to demonstrate the feasibility ,thus being highly practical .%简化控制系统方框图常用的方法有方框图等效变换法和Mason公式法。对于复杂系统的方框图，用Mason公式法求解控制系统的传递函数，这个过程较为繁琐，易于出错。基于此，探讨了相加点和分支点互换的移动方法以及使用步骤，并通过实例论证其简单可行，具有较强的实用性。
Principal Bundles on the Projective Line
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V B Mehta; S Subramanian
2002-08-01
We classify principal -bundles on the projective line over an arbitrary field of characteristic ≠ 2 or 3, where is a reductive group. If such a bundle is trivial at a -rational point, then the structure group can be reduced to a maximal torus.
The Verlinde formula for Higgs bundles
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Pei, Du
2016-01-01
We propose and prove the Verlinde formula for the quantization of the Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks for any simple and simply-connected group. This generalizes the equivariant Verlinde formula for the case of $SU(n)$ proposed previously by the second and third author. We further establish a Verlinde formula for the quantization of parabolic Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks.
CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Kim, B. D.
1997-08-01
This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs.
CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs
k-Gerbes, Line Bundles and Anomalies
Ekstrand, C
2000-01-01
We use sets of trivial line bundles for the realization of gerbes. For1-gerbes the structure arises naturally for the Weyl fermion vacuum bundle at afixed time. The Schwinger term is an obstruction in the triviality of a1-gerbe.
k-Gerbes, Line Bundles and Anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use sets of trivial line bundles for the realization of gerbes. For 1-gerbes the structure arises naturally for the Weyl fermion vacuum bundle at a fixed time. The Schwinger term is an obstruction in the triviality of a 1-gerbe. (author)
k-Gerbes, Line Bundles and Anomalies
Ekstrand, C.
2000-01-01
We use sets of trivial line bundles for the realization of gerbes. For 1-gerbes the structure arises naturally for the Weyl fermion vacuum bundle at a fixed time. The Schwinger term is an obstruction in the triviality of a 1-gerbe.
Heights for line bundles on arithmetic surfaces
Jahnel, Joerg
1995-01-01
For line bundles on arithmetic varieties we construct height functions using arithmetic intersection theory. In the case of an arithmetic surface, generically of genus g, for line bundles of degree g equivalence is shown to the height on the Jacobian defined by the Theta divisor.
Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle
Baumgart, Johannes; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. J.
2011-11-01
The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps between the individual stereocilia. The investigation revealed that grouping stereocilia in a bundle dramatically reduces the total drag. During hair-bundle deflections, the tip links potentially induce drag by causing small but very dissipative relative motions between stereocilia; this effect is offset by the horizontal top connectors that restrain such relative movements at low frequencies. For higher frequencies the coupling liquid is sufficient to assure that the hair bundle moves as a unit with a low total drag. This work reveals the mechanical characteristics originating from hair-bundle morphology and shows quantitatively how a hair bundle is adapted for sensitive mechanotransduction.
Fock modules and noncommutative line bundles
Landi, Giovanni
2016-09-01
To a line bundle over a noncommutative space there is naturally associated a Fock module. The algebra of corresponding creation and annihilation operators is the total space algebra of a principal U(1) -bundle over the noncommutative space. We describe the general construction and illustrate it with examples.
Dirac structures and Dixmier-Douady bundles
Alekseev, A
2009-01-01
A Dirac structure on a vector bundle V is a maximal isotropic subbundle E of the direct sum of V with its dual. We show how to associate to any Dirac structure a Dixmier-Douady bundle A, that is, a Z/2Z-graded bundle of C*-algebras with typical fiber the compact operators on a Hilbert space. The construction has good functorial properties, relative to Morita morphisms of Dixmier-Douady bundles. As applications, we show that the `spin' Dixmier-Douady bundle over a compact, connected Lie group (as constructed by Atiyah-Segal) is multiplicative, and we obtain a canonical `twisted Spin-c-structure' on spaces with group valued moment maps.
Bringing the CANFLEX fuel bundle to market
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CANFLEX is a 43-element CANDU fuel bundle, under joint development by AECL and KAERI, to facilitate the use of various advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors through the provision of enhanced operating margins. The bundle uses two element diameters (13.5 and 11.5 mm ) to reduce element ratings by 20%, and includes the use of critical-heat-flux (CHF) enhancing appendages to increase the minimum CHF ratio or dryout margin of the bundle. Test programs are underway to demonstrate: the irradiation behaviour, hydraulic characteristics and reactor physics properties of the bundle, along with a test program to demonstrate the ability of the bundle to be handled by CANDU-6 fuelling machines. A fuel design manual and safety analysis reports have been drafted, and both analyses, plus discussions with utilities are underway for a demonstration irradiation in a CANDU-6 reactor. (author)
Line bundle embeddings for heterotic theories
Nibbelin, Stefan Groot; Ruehle, Fabian
2016-04-01
In heterotic string theories consistency requires the introduction of a non-trivial vector bundle. This bundle breaks the original ten-dimensional gauge groups E8 × E8 or SO(32) for the supersymmetric heterotic string theories and SO(16) × SO(16) for the non-supersymmetric tachyon-free theory to smaller subgroups. A vast number of MSSM-like models have been constructed up to now, most of which describe the vector bundle as a sum of line bundles. However, there are several different ways of describing these line bundles and their embedding in the ten-dimensional gauge group. We recall and extend these different descriptions and explain how they can be translated into each other.
CANDU fuel bundle skin friction factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Single-phase, incompressible fluid flow skin friction factor correlations, primarily for CANDU 37-rod fuel bundles, were reviewed. The correlations originated from curve-fits to flow test data, mostly with new fuel bundles in new pressure tubes (flow tubes), without internal heating. Skin friction in tubes containing fuel bundles (noncircular flow geometry) was compared to that in equivalent diameter smooth circular tubes. At Reynolds numbers typical of normal flows in CANDU fuel channels, the skin friction in tubes containing bundles is 8 to 15% higher than in equivalent diameter smooth circular tubes. Since the correlations are based on scattered results from measurements, the skin friction with bundles may be even higher than indicated above. The information permits over- or under-prediction of the skin friction, or choosing an intermediate value of friction, with allowance for surface roughnesses, in thermal-hydraulic analyses of CANDU heat transport systems. (author) 9 refs., 2 figs
Line bundle embeddings for heterotic theories
Nibbelink, Stefan Groot
2016-01-01
In heterotic theories consistency requires the introduction of a non-trivial vector bundle. This bundle breaks the original ten-dimensional gauge groups E_8 x E_8 or SO(32) for the supersymmetric heterotic theories and SO(16) x SO(16) for the non-supersymmetric tachyon-free theory to smaller subgroups. A vast number of MSSM-like models have been constructed up to now, most of which describe the vector bundle as a sum of line bundles. However, there are several different ways of describing these line bundles and their embedding in the ten-dimensional gauge group. We recall and extend these different descriptions and explain how they can be translated into each other.
... the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood. Heart block occurs if the electrical signal is ... degree heart block limits the heart's ability to pump blood to the rest of the body. This type ...
Canonical singular hermitian metrics on relative logcanonical bundles
Tsuji, Hajime
2010-01-01
This supersedes 0704.0566. We prove the invariance of logarithmic plurigenera for a projective family of KLT pairs and the adjoint line bundle of KLT line bundles. The proof uses the canonical singular hermitian metrics on relative logcanonical bundles.
On Harder–Narasimhan Reductions for Higgs Principal Bundles
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arijit Dey; R Parthasarathi
2005-05-01
The existence and uniqueness of – reduction for the Higgs principal bundles over nonsingular projective variety is shown. We also extend the notion of – reduction for (, )-bundles and ramified -bundles over a smooth curve.
Effect of bundle size on BWR fuel bundle critical power performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effect of the bundle size on the BWR fuel bundle critical power performance was studied. For this purpose, critical power tests were conducted with both 6 x 6 (36 heater rods) and 12 x 12 (144 heater rods) size bundles in the GE ATLAS heat transfer test facility located in San Jose, California. All the bundle geometries such as rod diameter, rod pitch and rod space design are the same except size of flow channel. Two types of critical power tests were performed. One is the critical power test with uniform local peaking pattern for direct comparison of the small and large bundle critical power. Other is the critical power test for lattice positions in the bundle. In this test, power of a group of four rods (2 x 2 array) in a lattice region was peaked higher to probe the critical power of that lattice position in the bundle. In addition, the test data were compared to the COBRAG calculations. COBRAG is a detailed subchannel analysis code for BWR fuel bundle developed by GE Nuclear Energy. Based on these comparisons the subchannel model was refined to accurately predict the data obtained in this test program, thus validating the code capability of handling the effects of bundle size on bundle critical power for use in the study of the thermal hydraulic performance of the future advance BWR fuel bundle design. The author describes the experimental portion of the study program
Gauge symmetries and fibre bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The matter is organized as follows. After a brief introduction to the concept of gauge invariance and its relationship to determinism, we introduce in chapters 3 and 4 the notion of fibre bundles in the context of a discussion on spinning point particles and Dirac monopoles. Chapter 3 deals with a non relativistic treatment of the spinning particle. The non trivial extension to relativistic spinning particles is dealt with in Chapter 5. The free particle system as well as interactions with external electromagnetic and gravitational fields are discussed in detail. In chapter 5 we also elaborate on a remarkable relationship between the charge-monopole system and the system of a massless particle with spin. The classical description of Yang-Mills particles with internal degrees of freedom, such as isospin or colour, is given in chapter 6. We apply the above in a discussion of the classical scattering of particles off a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole. In chapter 7 we elaborate on a Kaluza-Klein description of particles with internal degrees of freedom. The canonical formalism and the quantization of most of the preceeding systems are discussed in chapter 8. The dynamical systems given in chapters 3-7 are formulated on group manifolds. The procedure for obtaining the extension to super-group manifolds is briefly discussed in chapter 9. In chapter 10, we show that if a system admits only local Lagrangians for a configuration space Q, then under certain conditions, it admits a global Lagrangian when Q is enlarged to a suitable U(1) bundle over Q. Conditions under which a symplectic form is derivable from a Lagrangian are also found. (orig./HSI)
Smith, Martin H.
1992-01-01
Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…
Fabert, Oliver
2007-01-01
Branched covers of orbit cylinders are the basic examples of holomorphic curves studied in symplectic field theory. Since all curves with Fredholm index one can never be regular for any choice of cylindrical almost complex structure, we generalize the obstruction bundle technique of Taubes for determining multiple cover contributions from Gromov-Witten theory to the case of moduli spaces with boundary. Our result proves that the differential in rational symplectic field theory and contact hom...
Left Septal Fascicular Block: Myth Or Reality?
MacAlpin, Rex N.
2003-01-01
Anatomic studies have shown that the left bundle branch divides into three fascicles in most humans. Changes in the 12 lead ECG (electrocardiogram) due to conduction abnormalities of the left anterior fascicle and left posterior fascicle are now part of the standard repertoire of electrocardiographic interpretation. There are no standard criteria for detecting conduction defects involving the third left fascicle, the septal or median fascicle, and the very existence of such defects is still a...
Preliminary report: NIF laser bundle review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As requested in the guidance memo 1, this committe determined whether there are compelling reasons to recommend a change from the NIF CDR baseline laser. The baseline bundle design based on a tradeoff between cost and technical risk, which is replicated four times to create the required 192 beams. The baseline amplifier design uses bottom loading 1x4 slab and flashlamp cassettes for amplifier maintenance and large vacuum enclosures (2.5m high x 7m wide in cross-section for each of the two spatial filters in each of the four bundles. The laser beams are arranged in two laser bays configured in a u-shape around the target area. The entire bundle review effort was performed in a very short time (six weeks) and with limited resources (15 personnel part-time). This should be compared to the effort that produced the CDR design (12 months, 50 to 100 personnel). This committee considered three alternate bundle configurations (2x2, 4x2, and 4x4 bundles), and evaluated each bundle against the baseline design using the seven requested issues in the guidance memo: Cost; schedule; performance risk; maintainability/operability; hardware failure cost exposure; activation; and design flexibility. The issues were reviewed to identify differences between each alternate bundle configuration and the baseline
Prioritary omalous bundles on Hirzebruch surfaces
Aprodu, Marian; Marchitan, Marius
2016-01-01
An irreducible algebraic stack is called unirational if there exists a surjective morphism, representable by algebraic spaces, from a rational variety to an open substack. We prove unirationality of the stack of prioritary omalous bundles on Hirzebruch surfaces, which implies also the unirationality of the moduli space of omalous H-stable bundles for any ample line bundle H on a Hirzebruch surface (compare with Costa and Miro-Ŕoig, 2002). To this end, we find an explicit description of the duals of omalous rank-two bundles with a vanishing condition in terms of monads. Since these bundles are prioritary, we conclude that the stack of prioritary omalous bundles on a Hirzebruch surface different from P1 ×P1 is dominated by an irreducible section of a Segre variety, and this linear section is rational (Ionescu, 2015). In the case of the space quadric, the stack has been explicitly described by N. Buchdahl. As a main tool we use Buchdahl's Beilinson-type spectral sequence. Monad descriptions of omalous bundles on hypersurfaces in P4, Calabi-Yau complete intersection, blowups of the projective plane and Segre varieties have been recently obtained by A.A. Henni and M. Jardim (Henni and Jardim, 2013), and monads on Hirzebruch surfaces have been applied in a different context in Bartocci et al. (2015).
Singular hermitian metrics on vector bundles
De Cataldo, M A A
1997-01-01
We introduce a notion of singular hermitian metrics (s.h.m.) for holomorphic vector bundles and define positivity in view of $L^2$-estimates. Associated with a suitably positive s.h.m. there is a (coherent) sheaf 0-th kernel of a certain $d''$-complex. We prove a vanishing theorem for the cohomology of this sheaf. All this generalizes to the case of higher rank known results of Nadel for the case of line bundles. We introduce a new semi-positivity notion, $t$-nefness, for vector bundles, establish some of its basic properties and prove that on curves it coincides with ordinary nefness. We particularize the results on s.h.m. to the case of vector bundles of the form $E=F \\otimes L$, where $F$ is a $t$-nef vector bundle and $L$ is a positive (in the sense of currents) line bundle. As applications we generalize to the higher rank case 1) Kawamata-Viehweg Vanishing Theorem, 2) the effective results concerning the global generation of jets for the adjoint to powers of ample line bundles, and 3) Matsusaka Big Theor...
Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow
1996-01-01
The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.
Deformations of the generalised Picard bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Let X be a nonsingular algebraic curve of genus g ≥ 3, and let Mξ denote the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank n ≥ 2 and degree d with fixed determinant ξ over X such that n and d are coprime. We assume that if g = 3 then n ≥ 4 and if g = 4 then n ≥ 3, and suppose further that n0, d0 are integers such that n0 ≥ 1 and nd0 + n0d > nn0(2g - 2). Let E be a semistable vector bundle over X of rank n0 and degree d0. The generalised Picard bundle Wξ(E) is by definition the vector bundle over Mξ defined by the direct image pMξ *(Uξ x pX*E) where Uξ is a universal vector bundle over X x Mξ. We obtain an inversion formula allowing us to recover E from Wξ(E) and show that the space of infinitesimal deformations of Wξ(E) is isomorphic to H1(X, End(E)). This construction gives a locally complete family of vector bundles over Mξ parametrised by the moduli space M(n0,d0) of stable bundles of rank n0 and degree d0 over X. If (n0,d0) = 1 and Wξ(E) is stable for all E is an element of M(n0,d0), the construction determines an isomorphism from M(n0,d0) to a connected component M0 of a moduli space of stable sheaves over Mξ. This applies in particular when n0 = 1, in which case M0 is isomorphic to the Jacobian J of X as a polarised variety. The paper as a whole is a generalisation of results of Kempf and Mukai on Picard bundles over J, and is also related to a paper of Tyurin on the geometry of moduli of vector bundles. (author)
Cortactin Adopts a Globular Conformation and Bundles Actin into Sheets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cowieson, Nathan P.; King, Gordon; Cookson, David; Ross, Ian; Huber, Thomas; Hume, David A.; Kobe, Bostjan; Martin, Jennifer L. (Queensland); (Aust. Synch.)
2008-08-21
Cortactin is a filamentous actin-binding protein that plays a pivotal role in translating environmental signals into coordinated rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. The dynamic reorganization of actin in the cytoskeleton drives processes including changes in cell morphology, cell migration, and phagocytosis. In general, structural proteins of the cytoskeleton bind in the N-terminal region of cortactin and regulatory proteins in the C-terminal region. Previous structural studies have reported an extended conformation for cortactin. It is therefore unclear how cortactin facilitates cross-talk between structural proteins and their regulators. In the study presented here, circular dichroism, chemical cross-linking, and small angle x-ray scattering are used to demonstrate that cortactin adopts a globular conformation, thereby bringing distant parts of the molecule into close proximity. In addition, the actin bundling activity of cortactin is characterized, showing that fully polymerized actin filaments are bundled into sheet-like structures. We present a low resolution structure that suggests how the various domains of cortactin interact to coordinate its array of binding partners at sites of actin branching.
Geometry of quantum principal bundles, 1
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
A theory of principal bundles possessing quantum structure groups and classical base manifolds is presented. Structural analysis of such quantum principal bundles is performed. A differential calculus is constructed, combining differential forms on the base manifold with an appropriate differential calculus on the structure quantum group. Relations between the calculus on the group and the calculus on the bundle are investigated. A concept of (pseudo)tensoriality is formulated. The formalism of connections is developed. In particular, operators of horizontal projection, covariant derivative and curvature are constructed and analyzed. Generalizations of the first structure equation and of the Bianchi identity are found. Illustrative examples are presented.
Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles
Hông-Vân Lê
2006-01-01
For any complex vector bundle Ek of rank k over a manifold Mm with Chern classes ci Î H2i(Mm, Z) and any non-negative integers l1, . . ., lk we show the existence of a positive number p(m, k) and the existence of a complex vector bundle Êk over Mm whose Chern classes are p(m, k) × li × ci Î H2i(Mm, Z). We also discuss a version of this statement for holomorphic vector bundles over projective algebraic manifolds.
Assembly mechanism for nuclear fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A description is given of a nuclear power reactor fuel bundle having tie rods fastened to a lower tie plate and passing through openings in the upper tie plate with the assembled bundle secured by rotatable locking sleeves which engage slots provided in the upper tie plate. Pressure exerted by helical springs mounted around each of the fuel rods urge the upper tie plate against the locking sleeves. The bundle may be disassembled after depressing the upper tie plate and rotating the locking sleeves to the unlocked position
Vector supersymmetry in the universal bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a vector supersymmetry for Witten-type topological gauge theories, and examine its algebra in terms of a superconnection formalism. When covariant constraints on the supercurvature are chosen, a correspondence is established with the universal bundle construction of Atiyah and Singer. The vector supersymmetry represents a certain shift operator in the curvature of the universal bundle, and can be used to generate the hierarchy of observables in these theories. This formalism should lead to the construction of vector supergravity theories, and perhaps to the gravitational analogue of the universal bundle. (orig.)
Bundle duct interaction studies for fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is known that the wire-wrapped rods and duct in an LMFBR are undergoing a gradual structural distortion from the initially uniform geometry under the combined effects of thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling and creep. These deformations have a significant effect on flow characteristics, thus causing changes in thermal behavior such as cladding temperature and temperature distribution within a bundle. The temperature distribution may further enhance or retard irradiation induced deformation of the bundle. This report summarizes the results of the continuing effort in investigating the bundle-duct interaction, focusing on the need for the large development plant
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Wei-dong; YAN Hao-jing; Ron Postle; Yang Shouren
2002-01-01
Due to the effects of samples and testing conditions on fibre-bundle tensile behaviour, it is necessary to investigate the relationships between experimental factors and tensile properties for the fibre-bumdle tensile tester (TENSOR). The effects of bundle sample preparation, fibre bundle mass and fibre alignment have been tested. The experimental results indicated that (1) the low damage in combing and no free-end fibres in the cut bundle are most important for the sample preparation; (2) the reasonable bundle mass is 400- 700tex, but the tensile properties measured should bemodified with the bundle mass because a small amount of bundle mass causes the scatter results, while the larger is the bundle mass, the more difficult to comb fibres parallel and to clamp fibre evenly; and (3) the fibre irregular arrangement forms a slack bundle resulting in interaction between fibres, which will affect the reproducibility and accuracy of the tensile testing.
Self-mapping degrees of torus bundles and torus semi-bundles
Sun, Hongbin; Wang, Shicheng; Wu, Jianchun
2010-01-01
Each closed oriented 3-manifold $M$ is naturally associated with a set of integers $D(M)$, the degrees of all self-maps on $M$. $D(M)$ is determined for each torus bundle and torus semi-bundle $M$. The structure of torus semi-bundle is studied in detail. The paper is a part of a project to determine $D(M)$ for all 3-manifolds in Thurston's picture.
In-pool damaged fuel bundle recovery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
While preparing to rerack the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, GPU Nuclear had need to move a damaged fuel bundle. This bundle had no upper tie plate and could not be moved in the normal manner. GPU Nuclear formed a small, dedicated project team to disassemble, package, and move this damaged bundle. The team was composed of key personnel from GPU Nuclear Fuels Projects, OCNGS Operations and Proto-Power/Bisco, a specialty contractor who has fuel bundle reconstitution and rod consolidation experience, remote tooling, underwater video systems and experienced technicians. Proven tooling, clear procedures and a simple approach were important, but the key element was the spirit of teamwork and leadership exhibited by the people involved. In spite of several emergent problems which a task of this nature presents, this small, close knit utility/vendor team completed the work on schedule and within the exposure and cost budgets
In-pool damaged fuel bundle recovery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
While preparing to rerack the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, GPU Nuclear had need to move a damaged fuel bundle. This bundle had no upper tie plate and could not be moved in the normal manner. GPU Nuclear formed a small, dedicated project team to disassemble, package and move this damaged bundle. The team was composed of key personnel from GPU Nuclear Fuels Projects, OCNGS Operations and Proto-Power / Bisco, a specialty contractor who has fuel bundle reconstitution and rod consolidation experience, remote tooling, underwater video systems and experienced technicians. Proven tooling, clear procedures and a simple approach were important, but the key element was the spirit of teamwork and leadership exhibited by the people involved
Nuclear fuel bundle disassembly and assembly tool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A nuclear power reactor fuel bundle is described which has a plurality of tubular fuel rods disposed in parallel array between two transverse tie plates. It is secured against disassembly by one or more locking forks which engage slots in tie rods which position the transverse plates. Springs mounted on the fuel and tie rods are compressed when the bundle is assembled thereby maintaining a continual pressure against the locking forks. Force applied in opposition to the springs permits withdrawal of the locking forks so that one tie plate may be removed, giving access to the fuel rods. An assembly and disassembly tool facilitates removal of the locking forks when the bundle is to be disassembled and the placing of the forks during assembly of the bundle. (U.S.)
Quantum Bundle Description of Quantum Projective Spaces
Ó Buachalla, Réamonn
2012-12-01
We realise Heckenberger and Kolb's canonical calculus on quantum projective ( N - 1)-space C q [ C p N-1] as the restriction of a distinguished quotient of the standard bicovariant calculus for the quantum special unitary group C q [ SU N ]. We introduce a calculus on the quantum sphere C q [ S 2 N-1] in the same way. With respect to these choices of calculi, we present C q [ C p N-1] as the base space of two different quantum principal bundles, one with total space C q [ SU N ], and the other with total space C q [ S 2 N-1]. We go on to give C q [ C p N-1] the structure of a quantum framed manifold. More specifically, we describe the module of one-forms of Heckenberger and Kolb's calculus as an associated vector bundle to the principal bundle with total space C q [ SU N ]. Finally, we construct strong connections for both bundles.
Twin tori for a new bundle divertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new bundle divertor system using the straight stagnation axis in toroidal field together with the uniform field along the axis is discussed in detail. We call this type of divertor as the ''muffler divertor'' because of its shape. (author)
Noncommutative principal bundles through twist deformation
Aschieri, Paolo; Pagani, Chiara; Schenkel, Alexander
2016-01-01
We construct noncommutative principal bundles deforming principal bundles with a Drinfeld twist (2-cocycle). If the twist is associated with the structure group then we have a deformation of the fibers. If the twist is associated with the automorphism group of the principal bundle, then we obtain noncommutative deformations of the base space as well. Combining the two twist deformations we obtain noncommutative principal bundles with both noncommutative fibers and base space. More in general, the natural isomorphisms proving the equivalence of a closed monoidal category of modules and its twist related one are used to obtain new Hopf-Galois extensions as twists of Hopf-Galois extensions. A sheaf approach is also considered, and examples presented.
Crosstalk analysis of carbon nanotube bundle interconnects
Zhang, Kailiang; Tian, Bo; Zhu, Xiaosong; WANG, FANG; Wei, Jun
2012-01-01
Carbon nanotube (CNT) has been considered as an ideal interconnect material for replacing copper for future nanoscale IC technology due to its outstanding current carrying capability, thermal conductivity, and mechanical robustness. In this paper, crosstalk problems for single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundle interconnects are investigated; the interconnect parameters for SWCNT bundle are calculated first, and then the equivalent circuit has been developed to perform the crosstalk analys...
A Geometric Approach to Noncommutative Principal Bundles
Wagner, Stefan
2011-01-01
From a geometrical point of view it is, so far, not sufficiently well understood what should be a "noncommutative principal bundle". Still, there is a well-developed abstract algebraic approach using the theory of Hopf algebras. An important handicap of this approach is the ignorance of topological and geometrical aspects. The aim of this thesis is to develop a geometrically oriented approach to the noncommutative geometry of principal bundles based on dynamical systems and the representation theory of the corresponding transformation group.
Parahoric bundles on a compact Riemann surface
Balaji, V
2010-01-01
Let $X$ be a compact Riemann surface of genus $g \\geq 2$. The aim of this paper is to study homomorphisms of certain discrete subgroups of $PSL(2, {\\mathbb R})$ into maximal compact subgroups of semisimple simply connected algebraic groups and relate them to torsors under a Bruhat-Tits group scheme. We also construct the moduli spaces of semistable parahoric bundles. These results generalize the theorem of Mehta and Seshadri on parabolic vector bundles.
Evaluation on BDI of large diameter pin bundles by out-of-pile bundle compression test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bundle-duct interaction (BDI) in core fuel subassemblies in fast reactors (FRs) is a limiting factor for fuel burnup. Since the large diameter fuel pin is generally believed to be a measure to improve FR fuel performance, the out-of-pile bundle compression test with large diameter pins (φ8.5mm and (φ 10.4mm) was performed to evaluate BDI in these bundles. In the compression test, bundle cross-sectional images (CT images) under BDI condition were obtained by using the X-ray computer tomography. In the main study, the CT images were numerically analyzed to evaluate deformation of the large diameter pin bundle due to BDI. The CT image analysis results revealed that pin-to-duct contact did not occur when the flat-to-flat bundle compression level reached one wire diameter (BDI level of 1dw), which indicates that BDI in large diameter pin bundles was mitigated similarly to the currently used small diameter pin bundles. In addition, the mitigation mechanism for BDI, which delays initiation of pin-to-duct contact, was investigated by using the computer code analysis. The code analysis results showed that cladding oval-distortion acted as a major mitigation mechanism for BDI as in the case of small pin diameter bundles. (author)
Annular burnout data from rod bundle experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnout data for annular flow in a rod bundle are presented for both transient and steady-state conditions. Tests were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a pressurized-water loop containing an electrically heated 64-rod bundle. The bundle configuration is typical of later generation pressurized-water reactors with 17 x 17 fuel arrays. Both axial and radial power profiles are flat. All experiments were carried out in upflow with subcooled inlet conditions, insuring accurate flow measurement. Conditions within the bundle were typical of those which could be encountered during a nuclear reactor loss-of-coolant accident. Level average fluid conditions within the test section were calculated using steady-state mass and energy conservation considerations for the steady-state tests and a transient, homogeneous, equilibrium computer code for the transient tests. Unlike tube dryout, burnout within a rod bundle does not necessarily occur at one distinct axial level. The location of individual rod dryout was determined by scanning rods axially and locating the position where rod superheat increased from approx. =0 to 30 K or greater. Thermocouple instrumentation within the bundle allows the location of dryout to be determined to within approximately +.5 cm for many of the tests
K-Theories for Certain Infinite Rank Bundles
Larrain-Hubach, Andres
2011-01-01
Several authors have recently constructed characteristic classes for classes of infinite rank vector bundles appearing in topology and physics. These include the tangent bundle to the space of maps between closed manifolds, the infinite rank bundles in the families index theorem, and bundles with pseudodifferential operators as structure group. In this paper, we construct the corresponding K-theories for these types of bundles. We develop the formalism of these theories and use their Chern ch...
Product-bundling and Incentives for Merger and Strategic Alliance
Sue Mialon
2009-01-01
This paper analyzes firms' choice between a merger and a strategic alliance in bundling their product with other complementary products. We consider a framework in which firms can improve profits only from product-bundling. While mixed bundling is not profitable, pure bundling is because pure bundling reduces consumers' choices, and thus softens competition among firms. Firms benefit the most from this reduced competition if they form an alliance. Firms do not gain as much from a merger becau...
Gordon, Gail
2012-01-01
The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.
Mechanism of Actin Filament Bundling by Fascin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansen, Silvia; Collins, Agnieszka; Yang, Changsong; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Svitkina, Tatyana; Dominguez, Roberto (UPENN); (UPENN-MED)
2013-03-07
Fascin is the main actin filament bundling protein in filopodia. Because of the important role filopodia play in cell migration, fascin is emerging as a major target for cancer drug discovery. However, an understanding of the mechanism of bundle formation by fascin is critically lacking. Fascin consists of four {beta}-trefoil domains. Here, we show that fascin contains two major actin-binding sites, coinciding with regions of high sequence conservation in {beta}-trefoil domains 1 and 3. The site in {beta}-trefoil-1 is located near the binding site of the fascin inhibitor macroketone and comprises residue Ser-39, whose phosphorylation by protein kinase C down-regulates actin bundling and formation of filopodia. The site in {beta}-trefoil-3 is related by pseudo-2-fold symmetry to that in {beta}-trefoil-1. The two sites are {approx}5 nm apart, resulting in a distance between actin filaments in the bundle of {approx}8.1 nm. Residue mutations in both sites disrupt bundle formation in vitro as assessed by co-sedimentation with actin and electron microscopy and severely impair formation of filopodia in cells as determined by rescue experiments in fascin-depleted cells. Mutations of other areas of the fascin surface also affect actin bundling and formation of filopodia albeit to a lesser extent, suggesting that, in addition to the two major actin-binding sites, fascin makes secondary contacts with other filaments in the bundle. In a high resolution crystal structure of fascin, molecules of glycerol and polyethylene glycol are bound in pockets located within the two major actin-binding sites. These molecules could guide the rational design of new anticancer fascin inhibitors.
Branching processes in biology
Kimmel, Marek
2015-01-01
This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...
Harnack, William
1984-01-01
The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)
Reflood Phenomena in a 5 x 5 Ballooned Rod Bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Byoung Jae; Kim, Jong Rok; Kim, Kihwan; Moon, S. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
Various experimental programs were carried out for the coolability of an assembly containing a partial blockage in a group of ballooned fuel rods under LOCA conditions. A review on these experimental programs is well documented in. One key distinguished feature of KAERI research activities is the consideration of local power increase owing to fuel relocation, whereas the past experimental program did not consider the effect of fuel relocation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reflood phenomena in the partial blocked 5 x 5 rod bundle. A series of the forced reflood tests were performed with/without consideration of local power increase by fuel relocation. The experimental data were evaluated with numerical predictions using MARS code. The flow blockage alone has little effect on the peak wall temperature. However, the local power increase by fuel relocation affects considerably the peak wall temperature and the time period during which high wall temperatures continue.
Reflood Phenomena in a 5 x 5 Ballooned Rod Bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Various experimental programs were carried out for the coolability of an assembly containing a partial blockage in a group of ballooned fuel rods under LOCA conditions. A review on these experimental programs is well documented in. One key distinguished feature of KAERI research activities is the consideration of local power increase owing to fuel relocation, whereas the past experimental program did not consider the effect of fuel relocation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reflood phenomena in the partial blocked 5 x 5 rod bundle. A series of the forced reflood tests were performed with/without consideration of local power increase by fuel relocation. The experimental data were evaluated with numerical predictions using MARS code. The flow blockage alone has little effect on the peak wall temperature. However, the local power increase by fuel relocation affects considerably the peak wall temperature and the time period during which high wall temperatures continue
Koenigs function and branching processes
Tchikilev, O. G.
2001-01-01
An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PNC has been developing a computer code 'BAMBOO' to analyze the wire spaced FBR fuel pin bundle deformation under the BDI (Bundle Duct Interaction) condition by means of the three dimensional F.E.M. This code analyzes fuel pins' bowing and oval deformations which are dominant deformation behaviors of the fuel pin bundle under the BDI condition. In this study the 'BAMBOO' code is validated on the out-of-pile compression test of the FBR bundle (compression test) by comparing the results of the code analysis with the compression test results, and the highly irradiated (≥2.1x1027 n/m2, E > 0.1 MeV) bundle deformation behaviors are investigated from the viewpoint of the similarity to those in the compression test based on the analytical results of the code. (1) The calculated pin-to-duct minimum clearances as a function of the BDI levels in the compression test analysis agree with the experimental values evaluated from the CT image analysis of the bundle cross-section in the compression test within ±0.2 mm. And the calculated values of the fuel pins' oval deformations agree with the experimental values based on the pin diameter measurements done after the compression test within ±0.05 mm. (2) By comparing the irradiation induced bundle deformation with the bundle deformation in the compression test based on the code analysis, it is confirmed that the changes of the pin-to-duct minimum clearances with the BDI levels show equivalent trends between the both bundle deformations. And in this code analysis of the irradiation induced bundle deformation, contact loads between the fuel pins and the pacer wires are extremely small (below 10 kgf) even at about 3 dw of the BDI level compared to those in the compression test analysis. (J.P.N.)
NIF laser bundle review. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We performed additional bundle review effort subsequent to the completion of the preliminary report and are revising our original recommendations. We now recommend that the NIF baseline laser bundle size be changed to the 4x2 bundle configuration. There are several 4x2 bundle configurations that could be constructed at a cost similar to that of the baseline 4x12 (from $11M more to about $11M less than the baseline; unescalated, no contingency) and provide significant system improvements. We recommend that the building cost estimates (particularly for the in-line building options) be verified by an architect/engineer (A/E) firm knowledgeable about building design. If our cost estimates of the in-line building are accurate and therefore result in a change from the baseline U-shaped building layout, the acceptability of the in-line configuration must be reviewed from an operations viewpoint. We recommend that installation, operation, and maintenance of all laser components be reviewed to better determine the necessity of aisles, which add to the building cost significantly. The need for beam expansion must also be determined since it affects the type of bundle packing that can be used and increases the minimum laser bay width. The U-turn laser architecture (if proven viable) offers a reduction in building costs since this laser design is shorter than the baseline switched design and requires a shorter laser bay
Turbulent flow through two asymmetric rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Measurements of the mean velocity, of the wall shear stresses, and of the turbulence have been performed in four wall subchannels of rod bundles of four parallel rods enclosed in a rectangular channel. The pitch-to-diameter ratio was P/D=1.148 and the wall-to-diameter ratios ranged from 1.045 to 1.252. The full Reynolds stress tensor has been determined by hot-wire technique. The results of the turbulences intensities show that the flow through rod bundles differs widely from flow through circular tubes. More sophisticated analytical tools than presently available are required to predict turbulent flow through rod bundles with sufficient accuracy
Assembly mechanism for nuclear fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a nuclear power reactor fuel bundle having tie rods fastened to a lower tie plate and passing through openings in the upper tie plate, the assembled bundle is secured by locking lugs fixed to rotatable locking sleeves which engage the upper tie plate. Pressure exerted by helical springs mounted around each of the tie rods urge retaining lugs fixed to a retaining sleeve associated with respective tie rods into a position with respect to the locking sleeve to prevent accidental disengagement of the upper plate from the locking lugs. The bundle may be disassembled by depressing the retaining sleeves and rotating the locking lugs to the disengaged position, and then removing the upper tie plate
Porous Silicon and Denim Fiber Bundle Characterization
Deuro, Randi Ellen
My thesis research aims to characterize and exploit materials in an efficient, rapid, non-destructive manner. Part I of this document summarizes my research on porous silicon (pSi) design, fabrication, and surface modification for use as a novel chemical sensor. The optimization of fabrication process parameters (etching time, etching solution, electrode shape, and the fixing process) on pSi photoluminescence (PL) is presented. I have also investigated the effects of analyte vapors (acetonitrile, toluene, methanol, acetone) on the pSi PL and surface chemistry using luminescence and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and microscopy methods. The mechanism and benefits of one method of pSi surface modification and protection (ultraviolet (UV) hydrosilylation) will also be presented. Finally, high thorough-put methods of pSi sensor production are described. In Part II of this document, I introduce a novel technique for analyzing and discriminating among denim fiber bundles. An investigation into the benefits of luminescence-based multispectral imaging (LMSI) for denim fiber bundle identification has been conducted. I explore the power of nitromethane (CH 3NO2) based quenching in fiber bundle classification and identify the quenching mechanism. The luminescence spectra (450 - 850 nm) and images from the denim fiber bundles were obtained while exciting at 325 nm or 405 nm. Here, LMSI data were recorded in < 10 s and subsequently assessed by principal component analysis (PCA) and rendered red, green, blue (RGB) component histograms. The results show that LMSI data can be used to rapidly and uniquely classify all the fiber bundle types studied in this research. These non-destructive techniques eliminate extensive sample preparation and allow for rapid multispectral image collection, analysis, and assessment. The quenching data also revealed that the dye molecules within the individual fiber bundles exhibited dramatically different accessibilities to CH 3NO2.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz Roberto Leite
2005-02-01
Full Text Available Paciente de 26 anos, sem cardiopatia estrutural, apresentando palpitações e pré-síncopes devido à taquicardia ventricular não sustentada, foi submetida a estudo eletrofisiológico para tentativa de ablação do foco arritmogênico, usando-se como local, os critérios de mapeamento. Sem obter êxito com o mapeamento da via de saída do ventrículo direito, posicionou-se o cateter dentro da artéria pulmonar com mapeamento de foco satisfatório, eliminando a taquicardia tão logo iniciada a radiofreqüência. Durante seguimento de 14 meses, a paciente permanece assintomática, sem arritmia ao Holter e não nessecitando de drogas antiarrítmicas.We report the case of a 26-year-old female patient with palpitations and presyncopes due to nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, who had no structural heart disease. The patient underwent electrophysiological study in an attempt to ablate the arrhythmogenic focus, whose location was determined by using mapping criteria. Because mapping of the right ventricular outflow tract was not successful, the catheter was placed inside the pulmonary artery with satisfactory mapping of the arrhythmogenic focus, and tachycardia was eliminated as soon as radiofrequency was initiated. The patient has remained asymptomatic for 14 months, with no treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs, and no arrhythmias on serial 24-hour Holter.
Elibet Chávez González; Alain Alonso Herrera; Raimundo Carmona Puerta; Damián Pérez Cabrera; Ramiro R Ramos Ramírez; Walker Gómez Paima; Francisco L Moreno-Martínez
2015-01-01
Introducción: En pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca, el bloqueo de rama izquierda del haz de His constituye un importante marcador de mal pronóstico, en ellos la tera-pia de resincronización puede mejorar la función del ventrículo izquierdo. Objetivo: Describir variables electrocardiográficas asociadas a una mejor respuesta de la resincronización cardíaca. Método: Se estudiaron 19 pacientes, 7 mujeres y 12 hombres con bloqueo de rama izquierda y fracción de eyección ≤ 35 %. Se realizó elect...
Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching
Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja
2013-01-01
An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtai
Bundling in semiflexible polymers: A theoretical overview.
Benetatos, Panayotis; Jho, YongSeok
2016-06-01
Supramolecular assemblies of polymers are key modules to sustain the structure of cells and their function. The main elements of these assemblies are charged semiflexible polymers (polyelectrolytes) generally interacting via a long(er)-range repulsion and a short(er)-range attraction. The most common supramolecular structure formed by these polymers is the bundle. In the present paper, we critically review some recent theoretical and computational advances on the problem of bundle formation, and point a few promising directions for future work. PMID:26813628
A bundle of sticks in my garden
Farran, Sue
2012-01-01
The English law of property is often described as a ‘bundle of sticks’ in which each ‘stick’ represents a particular right. Gardens challenge these rights and wreak havoc on the ‘bundle of sticks’. This paper looks at the twenty-first century manifestations of community engagement with ground and explores how ‘gardening’ is undermining concepts of ownership, possession and management of land and how the fence between what is private and what is public is being encroached and challenged by com...
Characteristic classes of quantum principal bundles
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
A noncommutative-geometric generalization of classical Weil theory of characteristic classes is presented, in the conceptual framework of quantum principal bundles. A particular care is given to the case when the bundle does not admit regular connections. A cohomological description of the domain of the Weil homomorphism is given. Relations between universal characteristic classes for the regular and the general case are analyzed. In analogy with classical geometry, a natural spectral sequence is introduced and investigated. The appropriate counterpart of the Chern character is constructed, for structures admitting regular connections. Illustrative examples and constructions are presented.
TRIGA spent fuel bundles safe storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Negut, G.; Covaci, St. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Research Reactor Dept., Pitesti (Romania); Prisecaru, I.; Dupleac, D. [Bucharest Univ. Politehnica, Power and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Bucharest (Romania)
2007-07-01
TRIGA-SSR is a steady state research and material test reactor that has been in operation since 1980. The original TRIGA fuel was HEU (highly enriched uranium) with a U{sup 235} enrichment of 93 per cent. Almost all TRIGA HEU fuel bundles are now burned-up. Part of the spent fuel was loaded and transferred to US, in a Romania - DOE arrangement. The rest of the TRIGA fuel bundles have to be temporarily stored in the TRIGA facility. As the storage conditions had to be established with caution, neutron and thermal hydraulic evaluations of the storage conditions were required. Some criticality evaluations were made based on the SAR (Safety Analysis Report) data. Fuel constant axial temperature approximation effect is usual for criticality computations. TRIGA-SSR fuel bundle geometry and materials model for SCALE5-CSAS module allows the introduction of a fuel temperature dependency for the entire fuel active height, using different materials for each fuel bundle region. Previous RELAP5 thermal hydraulic computations for an axial and radial power distribution in the TRIGA fuel pin were done. Fuel constant temperature approximation overestimates pin factors for every core operating at high temperatures. From the thermal hydraulic point of view the worst condition of the storage grid occurs when the transfer channel is accidentally emptied of water from the pool, or the bundle is handled accidentally to remain in air. All the residual heat from the bundles has to be removed without fuel overheating and clad failure. RELAP5 computer code for residual heat removal was used in the assessment of residual heat removal. We made a couple of evaluations of TRIGA bundle clad temperatures in air cooling conditions, with different residual heat levels. The criticality computations have shown that the spent TRIGA fuel bundles storage grid is strongly sub-critical with k(eff) = 0.5951. So, there is no danger for a criticality accident for this storage grid type. The assessment is done
Scaling Shift in Multicracked Fiber Bundles
Manca, Fabio; Giordano, Stefano; Palla, Pier Luca; Cleri, Fabrizio
2014-12-01
Bundles of fibers, wires, or filaments are ubiquitous structures in both natural and artificial materials. We investigate the bundle degradation induced by an external damaging action through a theoretical model describing an assembly of parallel fibers, progressively damaged by a random population of cracks. Fibers in our model interact by means of a lateral linear coupling, thus retaining structural integrity even after substantial damage. Monte Carlo simulations of the Young's modulus degradation for increasing crack density demonstrate a remarkable scaling shift between an exponential and a power-law regime. Analytical solutions of the model confirm this behavior, and provide a thorough understanding of the underlying physics.
Safe Harbors for Quantity Discounts and Bundling
Dennis W. Carlton; Michael Waldman
2008-01-01
The courts and analysts continue to struggle to articulate safe harbors for a wide variety of common business pricing practices in which either a single product is sold at a discount if purchased in bulk or in which multiple products are bundled together at prices different from the ones that would emerge if the products were purchased separately. The phenomenon of tying in which the sale of one product is conditioned on the purchase of another is closely related to bundling. Its analysis rel...
TRIGA spent fuel bundles safe storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TRIGA-SSR is a steady state research and material test reactor that has been in operation since 1980. The original TRIGA fuel was HEU (highly enriched uranium) with a U235 enrichment of 93 per cent. Almost all TRIGA HEU fuel bundles are now burned-up. Part of the spent fuel was loaded and transferred to US, in a Romania - DOE arrangement. The rest of the TRIGA fuel bundles have to be temporarily stored in the TRIGA facility. As the storage conditions had to be established with caution, neutron and thermal hydraulic evaluations of the storage conditions were required. Some criticality evaluations were made based on the SAR (Safety Analysis Report) data. Fuel constant axial temperature approximation effect is usual for criticality computations. TRIGA-SSR fuel bundle geometry and materials model for SCALE5-CSAS module allows the introduction of a fuel temperature dependency for the entire fuel active height, using different materials for each fuel bundle region. Previous RELAP5 thermal hydraulic computations for an axial and radial power distribution in the TRIGA fuel pin were done. Fuel constant temperature approximation overestimates pin factors for every core operating at high temperatures. From the thermal hydraulic point of view the worst condition of the storage grid occurs when the transfer channel is accidentally emptied of water from the pool, or the bundle is handled accidentally to remain in air. All the residual heat from the bundles has to be removed without fuel overheating and clad failure. RELAP5 computer code for residual heat removal was used in the assessment of residual heat removal. We made a couple of evaluations of TRIGA bundle clad temperatures in air cooling conditions, with different residual heat levels. The criticality computations have shown that the spent TRIGA fuel bundles storage grid is strongly sub-critical with k(eff) = 0.5951. So, there is no danger for a criticality accident for this storage grid type. The assessment is done for
Modeling of HDD Head Positioning Systems Regarded as Robot Manipulators Using Block Matrices
Trawinski, Tomasz; Witula, Roman
2010-01-01
The formulated dynamics block matrix of multilayer head positioning system consist of submatrixes which are related directly with structure of his kinematic chain. The dynamic block matrix consists of: bough self inertial matrix, self inertial matrix of branches, branch-bough inertial coupling matrix. The bough self inertial matrix is always one by one dimensional. But this matrix is very sensitive for increase of numbers of branches, adding one new branch into kinematic chains it result in t...
Webb, Neil
2011-01-01
Filmed on the English south coast 'Ghost Block' depicts the uncanny and eerie atmosphere at the site of a WW2 coastal defence line. The concrete cubes were used as an anti-invasion blockade against potential landing forces. This protection line now slowly decaying and becoming enmeshed into the environment still acts as a defence to repel unwanted visitors. The area is a natural reserve to nesting birds that often lay eggs directly onto the beach surface. The blocks act as a final barrier ...
Impact of bundle deformation on CHF: ASSERT-PV assessment of extended burnup Bruce B bundle G85159W
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a subchannel thermalhydraulic analysis of the effect on critical heat flux (CHF) of bundle deformation such as element bow and diametral creep. The bundle geometry is based on the post-irradiation examination (PIE) data of a single bundle from the Bruce B Nuclear Generating Station, Bruce B bundle G85159W, which was irradiated for more than two years in the core during reactor commissioning. The subchannel code ASSERT-PV IST is used to assess changes in CHF and dryout power due to bundle deformation, compared to the reference, undeformed bundle. (author)
Abelian conformal field theory and determinant bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, K.
2007-01-01
Following [10], we study a so-called bc-ghost system of zero conformal dimension from the viewpoint of [14, 16]. We show that the ghost vacua construction results in holomorphic line bundles with connections over holomorphic families of curves. We prove that the curvature of these connections are...
Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations
Capacity efficiency of recovery request bundling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Lagakos, Stephen; Perlovsky, Leonid; Jha, Manoi; Covaci, Brindusa; Zaharim, Azarni; Mastorakis, Nikos
2010-01-01
This paper presents a comparison of recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated against traditional recovery methods. Our simulation results show that Shortcut Span Pr...... Protection uses more capacity than the unbundled related methods, but this is compensated by easier control and management of the recovery actions....
Line bundles on moduli and related spaces
Huebschmann, Johannes
2009-01-01
Let G be a Lie goup, let M and N be smooth connected G-manifolds, let f be a smooth G-map from M to N, and let P denote the fiber of f. Given a closed and equivariantly closed relative 2-form for f with integral periods, we construct the principal G-circle bundles with connection on P having the given relative 2-form as curvature. Given a compact Lie group K, a biinvariant Riemannian metric on K, and a closed Riemann surface S of genus s, when we apply the construction to the particular case where f is the familiar relator map from a product of 2s copies of K to K we obtain the principal K-circle bundles on the associated extended moduli spaces which, via reduction, then yield the corresponding line bundles on possibly twisted moduli spaces of representations of the fundamental group of S in K, in particular, on moduli spaces of semistable holomorphic vector bundles or, more precisely, on a smooth open stratum when the moduli space is not smooth. The construction also yields an alternative geometric object, d...
Bundle Gerbes Applied to Quantum Field Theory
Carey, A L; Murray, M; Carey, Alan; Mickelsson, Jouko; Murray, Michael
2000-01-01
This paper reviews recent work on a new geometric object called a bundle gerbe and discusses some new examples arising in quantum field theory. One application is to an Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theory construction of the bundle of fermionic Fock spaces parametrized by vector potentials in odd space dimensions and a proof that this leads in a simple manner to the known Schwinger terms (Mickelsson-Faddeev cocycle) for the gauge group action. This gives an explicit computation of the Dixmier-Douady class of the associated bundle gerbe. The method works also in other cases of fermions in external fields (external gravitational field, for example) provided that the APS theorem can be applied; however, we have worked out the details only in the case of vector potentials. Another example, in which the bundle gerbe curvature plays a role, arises from the WZW model on Riemann surfaces. A further example is the `existence of string structures' question. We conclude by showing how global Hamiltonian anomalies fit with...
Quantum field theories on Hilbert bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate whether it is possible to maintain the computational features of QED while avoiding some of its mathematical difficulties by formulating QFTs on Hilber bundles. This encounters two problems: 1) Haag's theorem persists, and 2) admissible fields do not generate motions on the base space. To do the latter, the coupling constant has to be a vector field upon the base space. (orig.)
Assembly mechanism for nuclear fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This invention relates to an assembly mechanism for nuclear power reactor fuel bundles using a novel, simple and inexpensive means. The mechanism is readily operable remotely, avoids separable parts and is applicable to fuel assemblies in which the upper tie plate is rigidly mounted on the tie rods which hold it in place. (UK)
Capacity efficiency of recovery request bundling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Lagakos, Stephen; Perlovsky, Leonid; Jha, Manoi; Covaci, Brindusa; Zaharim, Azarni; Mastorakis, Nikos
2010-01-01
This paper presents a comparison of recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated against traditional recovery methods. Our simulation results show that Shortcut Span...
Riemann Surfaces: Vector Bundles, Physics, and Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sikander, Shehryar
the monodromy with respect to the pulled back connection. The formula for the representation includes a series with coefficients as iterated integrals. This series is closely related to the cyclotomic version of the Drinfel'd associator. The geodesic flow in the unit the tangent bundle of this Teichmueller...
... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home ... It numbs or causes a loss of feeling in the lower half your body. This lessens the pain of contractions during childbirth. An epidural block may also be used to ...
In-pile test of Qinshan PWR fuel bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In-pile test of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant PWR fuel bundle has been conducted in HWRR HTHP Test loop at CIAE. The test fuel bundle was irradiated to an average burnup of 25000 Mwd/tU. The authors describe the structure of (3 x 3-2) test fuel bundle, structure of irradiation rig, fuel fabrication, irradiation conditions, power and fuel burnup. Some comments on the in-pile performance for fuel bundle, fuel rod and irradiation rig were made
Holomorphic Vector Bundle on Hopf Manifolds with Abelian Fundamental Groups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiang Yu ZHOU; Wei Ming LIU
2004-01-01
Let X be a Hopf manifolds with an Abelian fundamental group. E is a holomorphic vector bundle of rank r with trivial pull-back to W = Cn - {0}. We prove the existence of a non-vanishing section of L(×) E for some line bundle on X and study the vector bundles filtration structure of E. These generalize the results of D. Mall about structure theorem of such a vector bundle E.
Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S.; Moulton, Samuel G.; LaPrade, Robert F.
2016-01-01
The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the n...
Existence of vector bundles and global resolutions for singular surfaces
Vezzosi, G; S. SCHROER
2002-01-01
Abstract- We prove two results about vector bundles on singular algebraic surfaces. First, on proper surfaces there are vector bundles of rank two with arbitrarily large second Chern number and fixed determinant. Second, on separated normal surfaces any coherent sheaf is the quotient of a vector bundle. As a consequence, for such surfaces the Quillen K-theory of vector bundles coincides with the Waldhausen K-theory of perfect complexes. Examples show that, on non-separated schemes, usually...
CANFLEX - an advanced fuel bundle for CANDU
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The performance of CANDU pressurized heavy-water reactors, in terms of lifetime load factors, is excellent. More than 600 000 bundles containing natural-uranium fuel have been irradiated, with a low defect rate; reactor unavailability due to fuel incidents is typically zero. To maintain and improve CANDU's competitive position, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has an ongoing program comprising design, safety and availability improvements, advanced fuel concepts and schemes to reduce construction time. One key finding is that the introduction of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU, less than 1.5 wt% U-235 in U) offers immediate benefits for CANDU, in terms of fuelling and back-end disposal costs. The use of SEU places more demands on the fuel because of extended burnup, and an anticipated capability to load-follow also adds to the performance requirements. To ensure that the duty-cycle targets for SEU and load-following are achieved, AECL is developing a new fuel bundle, termed CANFLEX (CANdu FLEXible), where flexible refers to the versatility of the bundle with respect to operational and fuel-cycle options. Though the initial purpose of the new 43-element bundle is to introduce SEU into CANDU, CANFLEX is extremely versatile in its application, and is compatible with other fuel cycles of interest: natural uranium in existing CANDU reactors, recycled uranium and mixed-oxides from light-water reactors, and thoria-based fuels. Capability with a variety of fuel cycles is the key to future CANDU success in the international market. The improved performance of CANFLEX, particularly at high burnups, will ensure that the full economic benefits of advanced fuels cycles are achieved. A proof-tested CANFLEX bundle design will be available in 1993 for large-scale commercial-reactor demonstration
Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation
Burleigh, Scott C.
2011-01-01
The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.
Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)
2010-04-15
There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex
Schwarz, Massimiliano; Cohen, Dedis; Or, Dani
2010-05-01
The quantification of soil root reinforcement is relevant for many aspects of hillslope stability and forest management. The abundance and distribution of roots in upper soil layers determines slope stability and is considered a mitigating factor reducing shallow landslide hazard. Motivated by advances in modeling approaches that account for soil-root mechanical interactions at single root and bundle of roots of different geometries (the root bundle model - RBM), we set up a series of root pull out experiments in the laboratory and in the field to study the mechanical behavior of pulled roots. We focused on the role of displacement and root failure mechanisms in determining global tensile strength and failure dynamics in a root bundle. Strain controlled pull out tests of up to 13 roots in parallel each with its own force measurements provided insights into the detailed soil-root and bundle interactions . The results enabled systematic evaluation of factors such as root tortuosity and branching patterns for the prediction of single root pull out behavior, and demonstrated the importance of root diameter distribution for realistic prediction of global pullout behavior of a root bundle. Analyses of root-soil interface friction shows that force-displacement behavior varies for different combinations of soil types and water content. The maximal pull out interfacial friction ranges between 1 for wet sand (under 2 kPa confining pressure) and 17 kPa for dry sand (under 4.5 kPa confining pressure). These experiments were instrumental for calibration of the RBM which was later validated with six field experiments on natural root bundles of spruce (Picea abies L.). The tests demonstrated the progressive nature of failure of a bundle of roots under strain controlled conditions (such as formation of tension crack on a vegetated hillslope), and provide important insights regarding stress-strain behavior of natural root reinforcement.
Arai, Masaru; Nagashima, Koichi; Kato, Mahoto; Akutsu, Naotaka; Hayase, Misa; Ogura, Kanako; Iwasawa, Yukino; Aizawa, Yoshihiro; Saito, Yuki; Okumura, Yasuo; Nishimaki, Haruna; Masuda, Shinobu; Hirayama, Astushi
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND Infective endocarditis (IE) involving the mitral valve can but rarely lead to complete atrioventricular block (CAVB). CASE REPORT A 74-year-old man with a history of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii) presented to our emergency room with fever and loss of appetite, which had lasted for 5 days. On admission, results of serologic tests pointed to severe infection. Electrocardiography showed normal sinus rhythm with first-degree atrioventricular block and incomplete right bundle branch block, and transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography revealed severe mitral regurgitation caused by posterior leaflet perforation and 2 vegetations (5 mm and 6 mm) on the tricuspid valve. The patient was initially treated with ceftriaxone and gentamycin because blood and cutaneous ulcer cultures yielded S. agalactiae. On hospital day 2, however, sudden CAVB requiring transvenous pacing occurred, and the patient's heart failure and infection worsened. Although an emergent surgery is strongly recommended, even in patients with uncontrolled heart failure or infection, surgery was not performed because of the Child-Pugh class B liver cirrhosis. Despite intensive therapy, the patient's condition further deteriorated, and he died on hospital day 16. On postmortem examination, a 2×1-cm vegetation was seen on the perforated posterior mitral leaflet, and the infection had extended to the interventricular septum. Histologic examination revealed extensive necrosis of the AV node. CONCLUSIONS This rare case of CAVB resulting from S. agalactiae IE points to the fact that in monitoring patients with IE involving the mitral valve, clinicians should be aware of the potential for perivalvular extension of the infection, which can lead to fatal heart block. PMID:27604147
Compactifications of reductive groups as moduli stacks of bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael
Let G be a reductive group. We introduce the moduli problem of "bundle chains" parametrizing framed principal G-bundles on chains of lines. Any fan supported in a Weyl chamber determines a stability condition on bundle chains. Its moduli stack provides an equivariant toroidal compactification of ...
VECTOR BUNDLE, KILLING VECTOR FIELD AND PONTRYAGIN NUMBERS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周建伟
1991-01-01
Let E be a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold M. We construct a natural metric on the bundle space E and discuss the relationship between the killing vector fields of E and M. Then we give a proof of the Bott-Baum-Cheeger Theorem for vector bundle E.
Noncommutative principal torus bundles via parametrised strict deformation quantization
Hannabuss, Keith; Mathai, Varghese
2009-01-01
In this paper, we initiate the study of a parametrised version of Rieffel's strict deformation quantization. We apply it to give a classification of noncommutative principal torus bundles, in terms of parametrised strict deformation quantization of ordinary principal torus bundles. The paper also contains a putative definition of noncommutative non-principal torus bundles.
Laser cutting for dismantling of PHWR fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Detailed investigation was carried out on laser cutting of zircaloy-2 PHWR fuel pin bundles. Initially, trials were done to standardize ten parameters for cutting of tie plates to which individual fuel pins are welded in a bundle. Using these parameters, the tie plates were cut into several pieces so that each fuel pin is individually separated out from the bundle. (author)
Geometry of torus bundles in integrable Hamiltonian systems
Lukina, Olga
2008-01-01
Thesis is concerned with global properties of Lagrangian bundles, i.e. symplectic n-torus bundles, as these occur in integrable Hamiltonian systems. It treats obstructions to triviality and concerns with classification of such bundles, as well as with manifestations of global invariants in real-worl
Stability of Picard Bundle Over Moduli Space of Stable Vector Bundles of Rank Two Over a Curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indranil Biswas; Tomás L Gómez
2001-08-01
Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.
Productivity and costs of slash bundling in Nordic conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaerhae, K.; Vartiamaeki, T. [Metsaeteho Oy, P.O. Box 101, FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland)
2006-12-15
The number of slash bundlers and the volume of slash bundling have been rapidly increasing during the last few years in Finland. However, no comprehensive time or follow-up studies have been carried out on slash bundling technology in Finland or in any other country. Metsateho Oy carried out studies on the productivity and costs of slash bundling in different Nordic recovering conditions. The study methods included both time and follow-up studies. Data were collected during the summer and winter period primarily in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) dominated clear cutting sites. The bundling techniques performed by different types of bundler (Fiberpac 370, Timberjack 1490D, Pika RS 2000, Valmet WoodPac) were studied. The average productivity of slash bundling was 18.1 bundles per operating (E{sub 15}, including delays shorter than 15min) hour with the Timberjack 1490D and Fiberpac 370 bundlers in the follow-up study. The operator of the slash bundler had the greatest effect on the productivity of bundling. The prerequisite for increased bundling volumes is a reduction in the costs of the most expensive sub-stage of the bundling supply chain, i.e. bundling itself. This requires improved recovery conditions at bundling sites, increased bundling productivity, larger sized bundles, and the execution of bundling operations in two work shifts using an efficient bundler and effective operator working methods. Implementation of these development measures will bring the bundling supply chain up to a speed that makes it the most competitive supply chain for forest chips in terms of total supply costs for long-distance transportation distances of more than 60km. (author)
Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)
Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)
2012-07-15
This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.; Rinne, S.
1996-12-31
The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable
Comparison of ASSERT subchannel code with Marviken bundle data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper ASSERT predictions are compared with the Marviken 6-rod bundle and 36+1 rod bundle. The predictions are presented for two experiments in the 6-rod bundle and four experiments in the 36+1 rod bundle. For low inlet subcooling, the void predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data. For high inlet subcooling, however, the agreement is not as good. This is attributed to the fact that in the high inlet subcooling experiments, single phase turbulent mixing plays a more important role in determining flow conditions in the bundle
Multiwalled carbon nanotube reinforced biomimetic bundled gel fibres.
Kim, Young-Jin; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Haruko; Sasaki, Naruo; Matsunaga, Yukiko T
2016-08-19
This work describes the fabrication and characterization of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-based biomimetic bundled gel fibres. The bundled gel fibres were reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). A phase-separated aqueous solution with MWCNT and HPC was transformed into a bundled fibrous structure after being injected into a co-flow microfluidic device and applying the sheath flow. The resulting MWCNT-bundled gel fibres consist of multiple parallel microfibres. The mechanical and electrical properties of MWCNT-bundled gel fibres were improved and their potential for tissue engineering applications as a cell scaffold was demonstrated. PMID:27200527
Effectiveness of Hair Bundle Motility as the Cochlear Amplifier
Sul, Bora; Iwasa, Kuni H.
2009-01-01
The effectiveness of hair bundle motility in mammalian and avian ears is studied by examining energy balance for a small sinusoidal displacement of the hair bundle. The condition that the energy generated by a hair bundle must be greater than energy loss due to the shear in the subtectorial gap per hair bundle leads to a limiting frequency that can be supported by hair-bundle motility. Limiting frequencies are obtained for two motile mechanisms for fast adaptation, the channel re-closure mode...
Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.
Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S; Moulton, Samuel G; LaPrade, Robert F
2016-02-01
The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the native PCL footprint more closely and to restore normal knee kinematics. We detail our technique for an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction using Achilles and anterior tibialis tendon allografts. PMID:27284530
Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1996-01-01
A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.
Holographic Coulomb branch vevs
Skenderis, K; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika
2006-01-01
We compute holographically the vevs of all chiral primary operators for supergravity solutions corresponding to the Coulomb branch of N=4 SYM and find exact agreement with the corresponding field theory computation. Using the dictionary between 10d geometries and field theory developed to extract these vevs, we propose a gravity dual of a half supersymmetric deformation of N=4 SYM by certain irrelevant operators.
Jochem B. Evers; Vos, Jan
2013-01-01
Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level....
The turbulent flow in rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental studies have shown that the axial and azimuthal turbulence intensities in the gap regions of rod bundles increase strongly with decreasing rod spacing; the fluctuating velocities in the axial and azimuthal directions have a quasi-periodic behaviour. To determine the origin of this phenomenon, an its characteristics as a function of the geometry and the Reynolds number, an experimental investigation was performed on the turbulent in several rod bundles with different aspect ratios (P/D, W/D). Hot-wires and microsphones were used for the measurements of velocity and wall pressure fluctuations. The data were evaluated to obtain spectra as well as auto and cross correlations. Based on the results, a phenomenological model is presented to explain this phenomenon. By means of the model, the mass exchange between neighbouring subchannels is explained
Reactor application of an improved bundle divertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Bundle Divertor was chosen as the impurity control and plasma exhaust system for the beam driven Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor - DTHR. In the context of a preconceptual design study of the reactor and associated facility a bundle divertor concept was developed and integrated into the reactor system. The overall system was found feasible and scalable for reactors with intermediate torodial field strengths on axis. The important design characteristics are: the overall average current density of the divertor coils is 0.73 kA for each tesla of toroidal field on axis; the divertor windings are made from super-conducting cables supported by steel structures and are designed to be maintainable; the particle collection assembly and auxiliary cryosorption vacuum pump are dual systems designed such that they can be reactivated alterntively to allow for continuous reactor operation; and the power requirement for energizing and operating the divertor is about 5 MW
Venereau polynomials and related fiber bundles
Kaliman, Shulim; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL
2003-01-01
The Venereau polynomials v-n:=y+x^n(xz+y(yu+z^2)), n>= 1, on A4 have all fibers isomorphic to the affine space A3. Moreover, for all n>= 1 the map (v-n, x) : A4 -> A2 yields a flat family of affine planes over A2. In the present note we show that over the punctured plane A2\\0, this family is a fiber bundle. This bundle is trivial if and only if v-n is a variable of the ring C[x][y,z,u] over C[x]. It is an open question whether v1 and v2 are variables of the polynomial ring C[x,y,z,u]. S. Vene...
A fibre bundle formulation of quantum geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum geometries whose points are stochastic and serve as seats for quantum space-time excitons are formulated as fibre bundles over base spaces of mean values with a Minkowski or general relativistic structure. The fibres contain the proper wave functions of all exciton states in a given model. The notion of covariance and propagation in quantum space-times constituting such fibre bundles is investigated. Maxwell and Yang-Mills gauge degrees of freedom are introduced by appropriately enlarging the structure group, which in all cases contains phase-space representations of the Poincare group corresponding to the exciton wave function sample space specific to a given model. It is shown that these formulations give rise in a natural manner to certain realizations of the relativistic canonical commutation relations in terms of covariant derivatives involving internal as well as external degrees of freedom of space-time excitons
Rod bundle burnout data and correlation comparisons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rod bundle burnout data from 30 steady-state and 3 transient tests were obtained from experiments performed in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The tests covered a parameter range relevant to intact core reactor accidents ranging from large break to small break loss-ofcoolant conditions. Instrumentation within the 64-rod test section indicated that burnout occurred over an axial range within the bundle. The distance from the point where the first dry rod was detected to the point where all rods were dry was up to 60 cm in some of the tests. The burnout data should prove useful in developing new correlations for use in reactor thermalhydraulic codes. Evaluation of several existing critical heat flux correlations using the data show that three correlations, the Barnett, Bowring, and Katto correlations, perform similarly and correlate the data better than the Biasi correlation
Client Provider Collaboration for Service Bundling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LETIA, I. A.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The key requirement for a service industry organization to reach competitive advantages through product diversification is the existence of a well defined method for building service bundles. Based on the idea that the quality of a service or its value is given by the difference between expectations and perceptions, we draw the main components of a frame that aims to support the client and the provider agent in an active collaboration meant to co-create service bundles. Following e3-value model, we structure the supporting knowledge around the relation between needs and satisfying services. We deal with different perspectives about quality through an ontological extension of Value Based Argumentation. The dialog between the client and the provider takes the form of a persuasion whose dynamic object is the current best configuration. Our approach for building service packages is a demand driven approach, allowing progressive disclosure of private knowledge.
Radiological evidence for the triple bundle anterior cruciate ligament.
MacKay, James W; Whitehead, Harry; Toms, Andoni P
2014-10-01
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has traditionally been described as having two bundles--one anteromedial and one posterolateral. This has been challenged by studies proposing the existence of a third, intermediate, bundle with distinct functional significance, an arrangement that has been described in a number of domesticated animal species. No radiological evidence for the triple bundle ACL has previously been described. A prevalence study was carried out on 73 consecutive human knee magnetic resonance (MR) studies to determine the number of visible bundles, excluding individuals with a history of ACL injury or mucoid degeneration. A triple bundle ACL was demonstrated in 15 out of 73 human knees (20.5%, 95% confidence interval 12.9-31.2%). This is the first radiological description of the human triple bundle ACL. There was MR imaging evidence of a triple bundle ACL in approximately one fifth of human knees in this study. PMID:24890455
CHF and flow instability in rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Data for two very different rod bundles have been analyzed using a new CHF correlation and a crude, but simple, subchannel analysis. The CHF correlation was developed for round uniform tubes and has been shown to accurately predict CHF in nonuniform tubes. The first set of data was for a KWU rod bundle (37 rods) with a heated length of 3.00 m and an O.D. (outside diameter) of 12.9 mm over a range of pressure 70 to 150 bar in upflow. The second set of data was for a 5 x 5 TRIGA rod bundle with a heated length of 0.559 m and 13.75 mm O.D. over a range of pressure of 0.945 to 1.372 bar in downflow. In contrast to the KWU data, the correlation greatly over estimates the CHF values for the TRIGA data. The TRIGA CHF data correlate very well with the variable qsat assuming no mixing, qc,exp = 0.955qsat (stdev = 9.87%). This result strongly suggests that these instabilities, which resulted immediately in CHF, are triggered by the Onset of Flow Instability (OFI) rather than CHF. The wide spread in rod power factors, the low pressure, and the downflow condition all contribute to promoting this type of instability (Ledinegg). The crude subchannel analysis has been compared with calculations of exit conditions of the hot channel using COBRA code. The agreement is fair when the homogeneous equilibrium model is used in the COBRA code. This is expected since the exit of the hot channel is always subcooled. Using Zuber's, along with other, void fraction relations in COBRA yields much lower exit velocities and high positive exit qualities, and, in some cases, convergence difficulties arise. The facts indicate that the bundle has already past the OFI point: which is possible since no CHF calculation was made in these COBRA analyses. (J.P.N)
Interstitial He and Ne in Nanotube Bundles
Stan, G.; Crespi, V. H.; Cole, M. W.; Boninsegni, M.
1998-01-01
We explore the properties of atoms confined to the interstitial regions within a carbon nanotube bundle. We find that He and Ne atoms are of ideal size for physisorption interactions, so that their binding energies are much greater there than on planar surfaces of any known material. Hence high density phases exist at even small vapor pressure. There can result extraordinary anisotropic liquids or crystalline phases, depending on the magnitude of the corrugation within the interstitial channels.
Effective freeness of adjoint line bundles
Heier, Gordon
2001-01-01
In this note we establish a new Fujita-type effective bound for the base point freeness of adjoint line bundles on a compact complex projective manifold of complex dimension $n$. The bound we obtain (approximately) differs from the linear bound conjectured by Fujita only by a factor of the cube root of $n$. As an application, a new effective statement for pluricanonical embeddings is derived.
On Complex Supermanifolds with Trivial Canonical Bundle
Groeger, Josua
2016-01-01
We give an algebraic characterisation for the triviality of the canonical bundle of a complex supermanifold in terms of a certain Batalin-Vilkovisky superalgebra structure. As an application, we study the Calabi-Yau case, in which an explicit formula in terms of the Levi-Civita connection is achieved. Our methods include the use of complex integral forms and the recently developed theory of superholonomy.
Telescope sipping - pinpointing leaking fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Given the top priority operators of nuclear power plants assign to safety, even the slightest sign of damage to the fuel assemblies has to be carefully monitored and analyzed. The detection of leaking fuel bundles also plays an important role in ensuring good availability and economy for the plants. ABB Atom has developed a new, highly accurate method, called 'telescope sipping', for identifying defective fuel assemblies. (orig.)
Imperfect Bundling In Public-Private Partnerships
Luciano Greco
2012-01-01
The economic literature on PPPs has generally overlooked agency problems within private consortia. We provide a first contribution in this direction, relying on a simple incomplete contracts framework where a Builder and an Operator set up a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) to carry out a contract with the government. Because of incomplete contracts, the bundling of tasks is imperfect, and the SPV ownership structure is the main tool to regulate the power of private incentives. The scope for wel...
Using Advanced Fuel Bundles in CANDU Reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Improving the exit fuel burnup in CANDU reactors was a long-time challenge for both bundle designers and performance analysts. Therefore, the 43-element design together with several fuel compositions was studied, in the aim of assessing new reliable, economic and proliferation-resistant solutions. Recovered Uranium (RU) fuel is intended to be used in CANDU reactors, given the important amount of slightly enriched Uranium (~0.96% w/o U235) that might be provided by the spent LWR fuel recovery plants. Though this fuel has a far too small U235 enrichment to be used in LWR's, it can be still used to fuel CANDU reactors. Plutonium based mixtures are also considered, with both natural and depleted Uranium, either for peacefully using the military grade dispositioned Plutonium or for better using Plutonium from LWR reprocessing plants. The proposed Thorium-LEU mixtures are intended to reduce the Uranium consumption per produced MW. The positive void reactivity is a major concern of any CANDU safety assessment, therefore reducing it was also a task for the present analysis. Using the 43-element bundle with a certain amount of burnable poison (e.g. Dysprosium) dissolved in the 8 innermost elements may lead to significantly reducing the void reactivity. The expected outcomes of these design improvements are: higher exit burnup, smooth/uniform radial bundle power distribution and reduced void reactivity. Since the improved fuel bundles are intended to be loaded in existing CANDU reactors, we found interesting to estimate the local reactivity effects of a mechanical control absorber (MCA) on the surrounding fuel cells. Cell parameters and neutron flux distributions, as well as macroscopic cross-sections were estimated using the transport code DRAGON and a 172-group updated nuclear data library. (author)
Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berta Martín-López
Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.
Noncommutative line bundle and Morita equivalence
Jurco, Branislav; Schupp, Peter; Wess, Julius
2001-01-01
Global properties of abelian noncommutative gauge theories based on $\\star$-products which are deformation quantizations of arbitrary Poisson structures are studied. The consistency condition for finite noncommutative gauge transformations and its explicit solution in the abelian case are given. It is shown that the local existence of invertible covariantizing maps (which are closely related to the Seiberg-Witten map) leads naturally to the notion of a noncommutative line bundle with noncommu...
Nuclear reactor control bundle guide system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Each bundle is formed by several absorbent rods, which are vertically movable and are connected together by a spider to a common axial operating rod, and guide means for the control bundles in their displacement, out of the core; the said means comprise guide boxes containing horizontal plates for discontinuous guiding, at the upper part of the boxes, of absorbent rods positioned in pairs on a radius and individual peripheral absorbent rods of the control bundle. At the lower part of the boxes in a continuous guiding zone, guiding of the absorbent rods positioned in pairs on a radius is effected by association of the horizontal plates for mechanical guiding of the rods, with housings which minimise hydraulic effects by smoothing the coolant flow in the radial direction around the absorbent rods. The hydraulic housings are mounted between the horizontal plates as discontinuous spacers. Pressure differences around each rod are minimised or eliminated and continuous guiding is achieved without affecting the design of the guide boxes, the internal equipment or the pressure vessel. The invention can be applied to PWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thermal insulation was the cause of the blockages that shut down five BWRs in Sweden. The main culprit was mineral wool installed when the plants started up. Physical degradation of the wool over the lifetime of the plant meant it could easily be washed out of place during a loss of coolant accident and could quickly block strainers in the emergency core cooling systems. The five BWRs are almost all back on line, equipped with larger strainers and faster backwashing capability. But the incident prompted more detailed investigation into how materials in the containment would behave during an accident. One material that caused particular concern is Caposil, a material often used to insulate the reactor vessel. Composed of natural calcium, aluminium silicates and cellulose fibres, in the event of a LOCA Caposil becomes particularly hazardous. Under high pressure, or when brought into contact with high pressure water and steam, Caposil fragments into 1 cm clumps, free fibres, and ''fines''. It is these fines which cause major problems and can block a strainer extremely quickly. The successful testing of a high performance water filter which can handle Caposil is described. (4 figures) (Author)
Thermal Energy Conversion Branch
Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.
2004-01-01
The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.
Combustion Branch Website Development
Bishop, Eric
2004-01-01
The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.
Adsorption of Argon on Carbon nanotube bundles and its influence on the bundle lattice parameter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report experimental studies of the adsorption characteristics and structure of both Ar36 and Ar40 on single-wall carbon nanotube bundles. The structural studies make use of the large difference in coherent neutron scattering cross section for the two Ar isotopes to explore the influence of the adsorbate on the nanotube lattice parameter. We observe no dilation of the nanotube lattice with Ar40, and explain the apparent expansion of this lattice upon Ar36 adsorption by the location of the adsorbed Ar atoms on the outer bundle surface
Amplitude death of coupled hair bundles with stochastic channel noise
Kim, Kyung-Joong
2014-01-01
Hair cells conduct auditory transduction in vertebrates. In lower vertebrates such as frogs and turtles, due to the active mechanism in hair cells, hair bundles(stereocilia) can be spontaneously oscillating or quiescent. Recently, the amplitude death phenomenon has been proposed [K.-H. Ahn, J. R. Soc. Interface, {\\bf 10}, 20130525 (2013)] as a mechanism for auditory transduction in frog hair-cell bundles, where sudden cessation of the oscillations arises due to the coupling between non-identical hair bundles. The gating of the ion channel is intrinsically stochastic due to the stochastic nature of the configuration change of the channel. The strength of the noise due to the channel gating can be comparable to the thermal Brownian noise of hair bundles. Thus, we perform stochastic simulations of the elastically coupled hair bundles. In spite of stray noisy fluctuations due to its stochastic dynamics, our simulation shows the transition from collective oscillation to amplitude death as inter-bundle coupling str...
A Tannakian approach to dimensional reduction of principal bundles
Álvarez-Cónsul, Luis; García-Prada, Oscar
2016-01-01
Let $P$ be a parabolic subgroup of a connected simply connected complex semisimple Lie group $G$. Given a compact K\\"ahler manifold $X$, the dimensional reduction of $G$-equivariant holomorphic vector bundles over $X\\times G/P$ was carried out by the first and third authors. This raises the question of dimensional reduction of holomorphic principal bundles over $X\\times G/P$. The method used for equivariant vector bundles does not generalize to principal bundles. In this paper, we adapt to equivariant principal bundles the Tannakian approach of Nori, to describe the dimensional reduction of $G$-equivariant principal bundles over $X\\times G/P$, and to establish a Hitchin--Kobayashi type correspondence. In order to be able to apply the Tannakian theory, we need to assume that $X$ is a complex projective manifold.
Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers
Historical dynamics in ecosystem service bundles.
Renard, Delphine; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M; Bennett, Elena M
2015-10-27
Managing multiple ecosystem services (ES), including addressing trade-offs between services and preventing ecological surprises, is among the most pressing areas for sustainability research. These challenges require ES research to go beyond the currently common approach of snapshot studies limited to one or two services at a single point in time. We used a spatiotemporal approach to examine changes in nine ES and their relationships from 1971 to 2006 across 131 municipalities in a mixed-use landscape in Quebec, Canada. We show how an approach that incorporates time and space can improve our understanding of ES dynamics. We found an increase in the provision of most services through time; however, provision of ES was not uniformly enhanced at all locations. Instead, each municipality specialized in providing a bundle (set of positively correlated ES) dominated by just a few services. The trajectory of bundle formation was related to changes in agricultural policy and global trends; local biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics explained the bundles' increasing spatial clustering. Relationships between services varied through time, with some provisioning and cultural services shifting from a trade-off or no relationship in 1971 to an apparent synergistic relationship by 2006. By implementing a spatiotemporal perspective on multiple services, we provide clear evidence of the dynamic nature of ES interactions and contribute to identifying processes and drivers behind these changing relationships. Our study raises questions about using snapshots of ES provision at a single point in time to build our understanding of ES relationships in complex and dynamic social-ecological systems. PMID:26460005
Numerical simulations of square arrayed rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► CFD simulations with square arrayed rod bundles. ► Mesh dependency and turbulence model study by comparison with experiments. ► Gibson and Launder Reynolds stress model shows good agreement with experiments. ► Effect of pitch to diameter ratio and Reynolds number is correctly captured. - Abstract: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed with square arrayed rod bundles featuring pitch to diameter (P/D) ratio of 1.194 and 1.326 in order to find an optimal mesh and turbulence model for simulations with more complex geometries in the future. With the tighter lattice a mesh sensitivity and turbulence model study were accomplished and the post processed turbulence quantities, velocity field and wall shear stress were compared with experimental data ( Developed single phase turbulent flow through a square-pitch rod cluster. Nuclear Engineering and Design 60, 365–379.). The comparisons show that Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes method with the Reynolds stress model of Gibson and Launder in conjunction with an appropriate mesh can provide reasonable agreement with the experiment for this lattice. For pure bundle simulations the body fitted structured meshes are suggested, since slightly better agreement can be captured considering all quantities with the same number of cells. Based on the drawn conclusions the procession was repeated for P/D = 1.326, where, due to lack of experiment, just the correct tendencies of the turbulence quantities and velocity field were established. The results show Reynolds number independency correctly and the increase of P/D issues in more similar flow to axisymmetric pipe flow.
Tiling spaces are Cantor set fiber bundles
Sadun, Lorenzo; Williams, R F
2001-01-01
We prove that fairly general spaces of tilings of R^d are fiber bundles over the torus T^d, with totally disconnected fiber. This was conjectured (in a weaker form) in [W3], and proved in certain cases. In fact, we show that each such space is homeomorphic to the d-fold suspension of a Z^d subshift (or equivalently, a tiling space whose tiles are marked unit d-cubes). The only restrictions on our tiling spaces are that 1) the tiles are assumed to be polygons (polyhedra if d>2) that meet full-...
Higher order mechanics on graded bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we develop a geometric approach to higher order mechanics on graded bundles in both, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, via the recently discovered weighted algebroids. We present the corresponding Tulczyjew triple for this higher order situation and derive in this framework the phase equations from an arbitrary (also singular) Lagrangian or Hamiltonian, as well as the Euler–Lagrange equations. As important examples, we geometrically derive the classical higher order Euler–Lagrange equations and analogous reduced equations for invariant higher order Lagrangians on Lie groupoids. (paper)
Assembly mechanism for nuclear fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The invention relates to a nuclear power reactor fuel bundle of the type wherein several rods are mounted in parallel array between two tie plates which secure the fuel rods in place and are maintained in assembled position by means of a number of tie rods secured to both of the end plates. Improved apparatus is provided for attaching the tie rods to the upper tie plate by the use of locking lugs fixed to rotatable sleeves which engage the upper tie plate. (auth)
Compression of a bundle of light rays.
Marcuse, D
1971-03-01
The performance of ray compression devices is discussed on the basis of a phase space treatment using Liouville's theorem. It is concluded that the area in phase space of the input bundle of rays is determined solely by the required compression ratio and possible limitations on the maximum ray angle at the output of the device. The efficiency of tapers and lenses as ray compressors is approximately equal. For linear tapers and lenses the input angle of the useful rays must not exceed the compression ratio. The performance of linear tapers and lenses is compared to a particular ray compressor using a graded refractive index distribution. PMID:20094478
Differential geometry of complex vector bundles
Kobayashi, Shoshichi
2014-01-01
Holomorphic vector bundles have become objects of interest not only to algebraic and differential geometers and complex analysts but also to low dimensional topologists and mathematical physicists working on gauge theory. This book, which grew out of the author's lectures and seminars in Berkeley and Japan, is written for researchers and graduate students in these various fields of mathematics. Originally published in 1987. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeto
A Unified Framework for Quasi-Linear Bundle Adjustment
Bartoli, Adrien
2002-01-01
Obtaining 3D models from long image sequences is a major issue in computer vision. One of the main tools used to obtain accurate structure and motion estimates is bundle adjustment. Bundle adjustment is usually performed using nonlinear Newton-type optimizers such as Levenberg-Marquardt which might be quite slow when handling a large number of points or views. We investigate an algorithm for bundle adjustment based on quasi-linear optimization. The method is straightforward to implement and r...
Non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative schemes
Van den Bergh, Michel
2012-01-01
In this paper we develop the theory of non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative (smooth) schemes. Such non-commutative P-1-bundles occur in the theory of D-modules but our definition is more general. We can show that every non-commutative deformation of a Hirzebruch surface is given by a non-commutative P-1-bundle over P-1 in our sense.
Contacting single bundles of carbon nanotubes with alternating electric fields
Krupke, R.; Hennrich, F.; Weber, H. B.; Beckmann, D.; Hampe, O.; Malik, S.; Kappes, M. M.; Löhneysen, H. v.
2002-01-01
Single bundles of carbon nanotubes have been selectively deposited from suspensions onto sub-micron electrodes with alternating electric fields. We explore the resulting contacts using several solvents and delineate the differences between Au and Ag as electrode materials. Alignment of the bundles between electrodes occurs at frequencies above 1 kHz. Control over the number of trapped bundles is achieved by choosing an electrode material which interacts strongly with the chemical functional g...
Dark-field illuminated reflectance fiber bundle endoscopic microscope
Liu, Xuan; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.
2011-01-01
We propose a reflectance fiber bundle microscope using a dark-field illumination configuration for applications in endoscopic medical imaging and diagnostics. Our experiment results show that dark-field illumination can effectively suppress strong specular reflection from the proximal end of the fiber bundle. We realized a lateral resolution of 4.4 μm using the dark-field illuminated fiber bundle configuration. To demonstrate the feasibility of using the system to study cell morphology, we ob...
Aljunid, Sharifah; AlSiweedi, Saif; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Chai, Wen-Lin; Ngeow, Wei-Cheong
2016-08-01
The mandibular canal is a conduit that allows the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle to transverse the mandible to supply the dentition, jawbone, and soft tissue around the lower lip. It is now acknowledged that the mandibular canal is not a single canal but an anatomical structure with multiple branches and variations. Iatrogenic injury to branches of the mandibular canal that carry a neurovascular bundle has been reported to cause injury to the main canal as severe as if the main canal itself is traumatized. These injuries include bleeding, neurosensory disturbance, or the formation of traumatic neuroma, and so far, they have involved cases with the bifid mandibular canal. This current report presents a case of neurosensory disturbance that resulted from the impingement of a branch of a trifid mandibular canal during implant insertion. Its management included analgesics, reexamination, and reinserting a shorter implant. PMID:27078072
Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses
Li, Zenghu
2012-01-01
A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].
A viscous two-phase model for contractile actomyosin bundles.
Oelz, Dietmar
2014-06-01
A mathematical model in one dimension for a non-sarcomeric actomyosin bundle featuring anti-parallel flows of anti-parallel F-actin is introduced. The model is able to relate these flows to the effect of cross-linking and bundling proteins, to the forces due to myosin-II filaments and to external forces at the extreme tips of the bundle. The modeling is based on a coarse graining approach starting with a microscopic model which includes the description of chemical bonds as elastic springs and the force contribution of myosin filaments. In a second step we consider the asymptotic regime where the filament lengths are small compared to the overall bundle length and restrict to the lowest order contributions. There it becomes apparent that myosin filaments generate forces which are partly compensated by drag forces due to cross-linking proteins. The remaining local contractile forces are then propagated to the tips of the bundle by the viscosity effect of bundling proteins in the filament gel. The model is able to explain how a disordered bundle of comparatively short actin filaments interspersed with myosin filaments can effectively contract the two tips of the actomyosin bundle. It gives a quantitative description of these forces and of the anti-parallel flows of the two phases of anti-parallel F-actin. An asymptotic version of the model with infinite viscosity can be solved explicitly and yields an upper bound to the contractile force of the bundle. PMID:23670678
Robust Mapping of Incoherent Fiber-Optic Bundles
Roberts, Harry E.; Deason, Brent E.; DePlachett, Charles P.; Pilgrim, Robert A.; Sanford, Harold S.
2007-01-01
A method and apparatus for mapping between the positions of fibers at opposite ends of incoherent fiber-optic bundles have been invented to enable the use of such bundles to transmit images in visible or infrared light. The method is robust in the sense that it provides useful mapping even for a bundle that contains thousands of narrow, irregularly packed fibers, some of which may be defective. In a coherent fiber-optic bundle, the input and output ends of each fiber lie at identical positions in the input and output planes; therefore, the bundle can be used to transmit images without further modification. Unfortunately, the fabrication of coherent fiber-optic bundles is too labor-intensive and expensive for many applications. An incoherent fiber-optic bundle can be fabricated more easily and at lower cost, but it produces a scrambled image because the position of the end of each fiber in the input plane is generally different from the end of the same fiber in the output plane. However, the image transmitted by an incoherent fiber-optic bundle can be unscrambled (or, from a different perspective, decoded) by digital processing of the output image if the mapping between the input and output fiber-end positions is known. Thus, the present invention enables the use of relatively inexpensive fiber-optic bundles to transmit images.
Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, J. W.; Choi, H.; Rhee, B. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)
Steady-flow characteristics of bundle fluid in drawing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huh, You; Kim, Jong Seong [Kyunghee University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
2006-07-15
Drawing is a mechanical operation attenuating material thickness to an appropriate level for the next processing or end usage. When the input material has a form of bundle or bundles made of very thin and long shaped wires or fibers, this attenuation operation is called 'bundle drawing' or 'drafting'. Bundle drawing is being used widely in manufacturing micro sized wires or staple yarns. However, the bundle processed by this operation has more or less defects in the evenness of linear density. Such irregularities cause many problems not only for the product quality but also for the efficiency of the next successive processes. In this research a mathematical model for the dynamic behavior of the bundle fluid is to be set up on the basis of general physical laws containing physical variables, i.e. linear density and velocity as the dynamic state variables of the bundle fluid. The governing equations resulting from the modeling show that they appear in a slightly different form from what they do in a continuum fluid. Then, the governing equations system is simplified in a steady state and the bundle dynamics is simulated, showing that the shape of the velocity profiles depends on two model parameters. Experiments confirm that the model parameters are to be well adjusted to show a coincidence with the theoretical analysis. The higher the drawing ratio and drawing speed are, the more sensitive becomes the bundle flow to exogenous disturbances.
Bundle formation in parallel aligned polymers with competing interactions
Dutta, Sandipan; Benetatos, P.; Jho, Y. S.
2016-04-01
Aggregation of like-charged polymers is widely observed in biological- and soft-matter systems. In many systems, bundles are formed when a short-range attraction of diverse physical origin like charge bridging, hydrogen bonding or hydrophobic interaction, overcomes the longer-range charge repulsion. In this letter, we present a general mechanism of bundle formation in these systems as the breaking of the translational invariance in parallel aligned polymers with competing interactions of this type. We derive a criterion for finite-sized bundle formation as well as for macroscopic phase separation (formation of infinite bundles).
Annular burnout data from rod-bundle experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnout data for annular flow in a rod bundle are presented for both transient and steady-state conditions. Tests were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a pressurized-water loop containing an electrically heated 64-rod bundle. The bundle configuration is typical of later generation pressurized-water reactors with 17 x 17 fuel arrays. Both axial and radial power profiles are flat. All experiments were carried out in upflow with subcooled inlet conditions, insuring accurate flow measurement. Conditions within the bundle were typical of those which could be encountered during a nuclear reactor loss-of-coolant accident
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Fu-sheng; MA Jian; TANG Kai; HAN Hao; JIA Yu-he; FANG Pi-hua; CHU Jian-min; PU Jie-lin; ZHANG Shu
2006-01-01
Background Verapamil-sensitive, idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT) with right bundle branch block configuration and left-axis deviation is known to be due to re-entry mechanism but the exact nature of reentrant circuit in ILVT is not fully elucidated. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation was applied during ventricular tachycardia (VT) and termination of the VT or abolishing the inducibility of the tachycardia was used as an endpoint for successful RF. In this study, the left posterior fascicular block in surface electrocardiogram (ECG)was used as a new endpoint of ablation to cure ILVT.Methods Electrophysiological studies and radiofrequency ablation were performed in 39 consecutive patients [30 men, 9 women; age ranging from 10 to 64 years, mean (29± 16) years] with verapamil-sensitive ILVT and structurally normal hearts. VT could be terminated by the intravenous administration of verapamil in all patients.The target site was the midseptum of LV where the earliest Purkinje potentials were recorded during VT. RF current was applied to the target site with or without late diastolic potential (LDP) during sinus rhythm in 37patients and during VT in 2 patients to meet the ablation endpoint: the left posterior fascicular block in the surface ECG.Results Thirty-seven patients with ILVT had been treated by RF ablation during sinus rhythm and two had been treated during VT. All of them met the endpoint of the left posterior fascicular block. Thirty-eight cases were symptom-free without medications during the follow-up period (range from 3 to 95 months, median 17months). One patient developed a clinical recurrence and the left posterior fascicular block in surface ECG disappeared. The patient received another treatment. The endpoint was met and the procedure was successful.Conclusions The left posterior fascicular block in surface ECG used as an endpoint of RF ablation to treat ILVT is effective. It is important especially in those patients whose VT can not be induced
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià;
after-sales service and have therefore embarked on business development activities that tightly combine product and service offerings in their portfolios. Closer customer contact, commoditisation of goods, total cost of ownership, and product liability are just some of the reasons for this transition......The vast majority of countries in the developed world are now dependent on their service sectors for between 70-80% of their gross domestic product. Even companies with decades of expertise in producing manufactured products are experiencing an increased need to understand before-, during- and...... and influencing a move towards intensified service integration into business- and product development activities. The workbook has been created by condensing the transcripts and the insights we have gained from a wealth of studies across the maritime branch, and it serves to provide a unique insight...
Quiver Varieties and Branching
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiraku Nakajima
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.
[Experience with ablation of the bundle of His using electrical discharge].
Lukl, J; Cernosek, B; Heinc, P
1990-01-01
Ablation of the bundle of His by an electric discharge was made in 10 patients (average age 64 years, range 48-80) unsuccessfully treated with 3-14 antiarrhythmic drugs or their combinations (average 8.7) on account of supraventricular tachycardia occurring repeatedly for 3-44 years (average 12.5 years). By means of a bipolar electrode inserted into the area of the bundle of His a nonsynchronized defibrillation discharge with a mean energy of 323 J (40-380) was administered. On average 2.9 discharges were used (1-9) per patient, in 1-3 sessions. The patients were followed up for a period of 15.3 months (10-19). Permanent complete a-v block was achieved in 6 patients, the remaining 4 patients are also free from complaints with have antiarrhythmic treatment. To all patients a pacemaker was implanted, four times "physiological" stimulation was used. One month after the operation the authors observed once the development of a transient phatic disorder and once the slow development of cardiac tamponade in conjunction with anticoagulant treatment, resolved by pericardial puncture. Ablation of the bundle of His by a defibrillation discharge is thus in carefully selected patients a highly effective method of treatment of stubborn supraventricular tachycardias. PMID:2327082
Confinement-dependent friction in peptide bundles.
Erbaş, Aykut; Netz, Roland R
2013-03-19
Friction within globular proteins or between adhering macromolecules crucially determines the kinetics of protein folding, the formation, and the relaxation of self-assembled molecular systems. One fundamental question is how these friction effects depend on the local environment and in particular on the presence of water. In this model study, we use fully atomistic MD simulations with explicit water to obtain friction forces as a single polyglycine peptide chain is pulled out of a bundle of k adhering parallel polyglycine peptide chains. The whole system is periodically replicated along the peptide axes, so a stationary state at prescribed mean sliding velocity V is achieved. The aggregation number is varied between k = 2 (two peptide chains adhering to each other with plenty of water present at the adhesion sites) and k = 7 (one peptide chain pulled out from a close-packed cylindrical array of six neighboring peptide chains with no water inside the bundle). The friction coefficient per hydrogen bond, extrapolated to the viscous limit of vanishing pulling velocity V → 0, exhibits an increase by five orders of magnitude when going from k = 2 to k = 7. This dramatic confinement-induced friction enhancement we argue to be due to a combination of water depletion and increased hydrogen-bond cooperativity. PMID:23528088
An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.
Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M
2016-09-01
The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masataka Deie
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL injuries are not rare in acute knee injuries, and several recent anatomical studies of the PCL and reconstructive surgical techniques have generated improved patient results. Now, we have evaluated PCL reconstructions performed by either the single-bundle or double-bundle technique in a patient group followed up retrospectively for more than 10 years. Methods. PCL reconstructions were conducted using the single-bundle (27 cases or double-bundle (13 cases method from 1999 to 2002. The mean age at surgery was 34 years in the single-bundle group and 32 years in the double-bundle group. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 years. Patients were evaluated by Lysholm scoring, the gravity sag view, and knee arthrometry. Results. The Lysholm score after surgery was 89.1±5.6 points for the single-bundle group and 91.9±4.5 points for the double-bundle group. There was no significant difference between the methods in the side-to-side differences by gravity sag view or knee arthrometer evaluation, although several cases in both groups showed a side-to-side difference exceeding 5 mm by the latter evaluation method. Conclusions. We found no significant difference between single- and double-bundle PCL reconstructions during more than 10 years of follow-up.
Unusual Communications between the Cutaneous Branches of Ulnar Nerve in the Palm
Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Jetti, Raghu
2015-01-01
Variations of dorsal and volar digital cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve are of tremendous clinical importance for successful regional nerve blocks, skin flaps, carpal tunnel release and placement of electrodes for electrophysiological studies. With the aforementioned clinical implications it is worth to report the variations of cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve. In the current case, we have encountered a rare variation (Kaplan`s anastomosis) of ulnar nerve, in the right upper limb. We have noticed that the dorsal cutaneous branch of ulnar nerve divided into three branches, the lateral two branches supplied the skin of the medial one and half fingers of the dorsum of hand. The medial branch established communications with the superficial branches of ulnar nerve and distributed to the skin of the one and half fingers of the volar aspect of hand. The possible outcome of this communications is discussed. Course and distribution of ulnar nerve on the contralateral side was found to be normal. PMID:25954612
Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)
The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.
Can the branching exponent reliably relate the branching indexes?
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Netopilík, Miloš
2015-01-01
Roč. 24, č. 2 (2015), s. 80-84. ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching exponent * branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2014
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bes, T. [Szczecin Univ. of Technology (Poland). Dept. of Heat Engineering
2006-07-01
The system consisting of a biomass-furnace and a Stirling engine as an electricity generator is analysed from thermal point of view. The analysis is focused on a selected element of such a system i.e. a block with a bundle of tubes located in the furnace in the way of combustion gases. The working fluid circulates between the cylinders of the Stirling engine and inside the tube bundle, in which the gas flow is arranged as a co-directed cross-flow. For any given number of tubes in the bundle other ways of switching between tubes are also analysed. The tube bundles have also been examined for various proportions of mass flows in the apparatus. Moreover a whole spectrum of NTU is taken into account. Due to low combustion heat of biomass the temperature of combustion gas is relatively low (below {proportional_to}800oC). This is not sufficient to achieve adequate thermal efficiency, which is significantly below the efficiency of a conventional power plant. Therefore by improving the conditions for heat transfer within the tube bundle it is possible to increase the gas temperature as much as possible and also efficiency of the system. Thus, proper operation of the bundle is the critical element for the examined device. (orig.)
Subanalytic Bundles and Tubular Neighbourhoods of Zero-Loci
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vishwambhar Pati
2003-08-01
We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle (with a finite dimensional vector space of sections) on a subanalytic subset of a real analytic manifold , and prove that when is compact, there is a Baire subset of sections in whose zero-loci in have tubular neighbourhoods, homeomorphic to the restriction of the given bundle to these zero-loci.
Quantum principal bundles as Hopf-Galois extensions
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
It is shown that every quantum principal bundle with a compact structure group is a Hopf-Galois extension. This property naturally extends to the level of general differential structures, so that every differential calculus over a quantum principal bundle with a compact structure group is a graded-differential variant of the Hopf-Galois extension.
Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing
Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul
2010-01-01
This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…
On the Classification of Complex Vector Bundles of Stable Rank
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Constantin Bǎnicǎ; Mihai Putinar
2006-08-01
One describes, using a detailed analysis of Atiyah–Hirzebruch spectral sequence, the tuples of cohomology classes on a compact, complex manifold, corresponding to the Chern classes of a complex vector bundle of stable rank. This classification becomes more effective on generalized flag manifolds, where the Lie algebra formalism and concrete integrability conditions describe in constructive terms the Chern classes of a vector bundle.
On the general elephant conjecture for Mori conic bundles
Prokhorov, Yu G
1996-01-01
Let $f:X\\to S$ be an extremal contraction from a threefolds with terminal singularities onto a surface (so called Mori conic bundle). We study some particular cases of such contractions: quotients of usual conic bundles and index two contractions. Assuming Reid's general elephants conjecture we also obtain a rough classification. We present many examples.
CANDU bundle junction. Misalignment probability and pressure-drop correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The pressure drop over the bundle junction is an important component of the pressure drop in a CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) fuel channel. This component can represent from ∼ 15% for aligned bundles to ∼ 26% for rotationally misaligned bundles, and is dependent on the degree of misalignment. The geometry of the junction increases the mixing between subchannels, and hence improves the thermal performance of the bundle immediately downstream. It is therefore important to model the junction's performance adequately. This paper summarizes a study sponsored by COG (CANDU Owners Group) and an NSERC (National Science and Engineering Research Council) Industrial Research Grant, undertaken, at CRL (Chalk River Laboratories) to identify and develop a bundle-junction model for potential implementation in the ASSERT (Advanced Solution of Subchannel Equations in Reactor Thermalhydraulics) subchannel code. The work reported in this paper consists of two components of this project: an examination of the statistics of bundle misalignment, demonstrating that there are no preferred positions for the bundles and therefore all misalignment angles are equally possible; and, an empirical model for the single-phase pressure drop across the junction as a function of the misalignment angle. The second section of this paper includes a brief literature review covering the experimental, analytical and numerical studies concerning the single-phase pressure drop across bundle junctions. 32 refs., 9 figs
Trace extensions, determinant bundles, and gauge group cocycles
Arnlind, J; Arnlind, Joakim; Mickelsson, Jouko
2002-01-01
We study the geometry of determinant line bundles associated to Dirac operators on compact odd dimensional manifolds. Physically, these arise as (local) vacuum line bundles in quantum gauge theory. We give a simplified derivation of the commutator anomaly formula using a construction based on noncyclic trace extensions and associated multiplicative renormalized determinants.
Bundle power history envelope using a theoretical method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper gives a simple theoretical method for calculating a bundle power history envelope which envelopes all possible individual bundle power versus burnup histories. The lattice parameters at different burnups were generated by computer code CLUB. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs
Bundled slaty cleavage in laminated argillite, north-central minnesota
Southwick, D.L.
1987-01-01
Exceptional bundled slaty cleavage (defined herein) has been found in drill cores of laminated, folded, weakly metamorphosed argillite at several localities in the early Proterozoic Animikie basin of north-central Minnesota. The cleavage domains are more closely spaced within the cleavage bundles than outside them, the mean tectosilicate grain size of siltstone layers, measured normal to cleavage, is less in the cleavage bundles than outside them, and the cleavage bundles are enriched in opaque phases and phyllosilicates relative to extra-bundle segments. These facts suggest that pressure solution was a major factor in bundle development. If it is assumed that opaque phases have been conserved during pressure solution, the modal differences in composition between intra-bundle and extra-bundle segments of beds provide a means for estimating bulk material shortening normal to cleavage. Argillite samples from the central part of the Animikie basin have been shortened a minimum of about 22%, as estimated by this method. These estimates are similar to the shortening values derived from other strain markers in other rock types interbedded with the argillite, and are also consistent with the regional pattern of deformation. ?? 1987.
The behaviour of Phenix fuel pin bundle under irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An entire Phenix sub-assembly has been mounted and sectioned after irradiation. The examination of cross-sections revealed the effects of mechanical interaction in the bundle (ovalisations and contacts between clads). According to analysis of the sodium channels, cooling of the pin bundle remained uniform. (author)
Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gurjar, Sudarshan
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically c...
Phase Space Reduction of Star Products on Cotangent Bundles.
N. Kowalzig; N. Neumaier; M. Pflaum
2005-01-01
In this paper we construct star products on Marsden-Weinstein reduced spaces in case both the original phase space and the reduced phase space are (symplectomorphic to) cotangent bundles. Under the assumption that the original cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ carries a symplectic structure of form $\\omega_{B
Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1996-01-01
From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...
Artificial ciliary bundles with nano fiber tip links
Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael
2015-01-01
Mechanosensory ciliary bundles in fishes are the inspiration for carefully engineered artificial flow sensors. We report the development of a new class of ultrasensitive MEMS flow sensors that mimic the intricate morphology of the ciliary bundles, including the stereocilia, tip links, and the cupula, and thereby achieve threshold detection limits that match the biological example. An artificial ciliary bundle is achieved by fabricating closely-spaced arrays of polymer micro-pillars with gradiating heights. Tip links that form the fundamental sensing elements are realized through electrospinning aligned PVDF piezoelectric nano-fibers that link the distal tips of the polymer cilia. An optimized synthesis of hyaluronic acid-methacrylic anhydride hydrogel that results in properties close to the biological cupula, together with drop-casting method are used to form the artificial cupula that encapsulates the ciliary bundle. In testing, fluid drag force causes the ciliary bundle to slide, stretching the flexible nan...
Introduction to the theory of fiber bundles and connections I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In lectures 1 and 2 we discuss basic concepts of topology and differential geometry: definition of a topological space and of Hausdorff, compact, connected and paracompact spaces; topological groups and actions of groups on spaces; differentiable manifolds, tangent vectors and 1 forms; partitions of unity and Lie groups. In lecture 3 we present the concept of a fiber bundle and discuss vector bundles and principal bundles. The concept of a connection on a smooth vector bundle is defined in lecture 4, together with the associated concepts of curvature and parallel transport; as an illustration we present the Levi-Civita connection on a Riemannian manifold. Finally, in lecture 5 we define connections on principal bundles and present examples with the Lie groups U(1) and SU(2). For reasons of space the present article only includes lectures 1, 2 and 3. Lectures 4 and 5 will be published in a forthcoming paper. (Author)
HORIZONTAL LAPLACE OPERATOR IN REAL FINSLER VECTOR BUNDLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A vector bundle F over the tangent bundle TM of a manifold M is said to be a Finsler vector bundle if it is isomorphic to the pull-back π*E of a vector bundle E over M([1]). In this article the authors study the h-Laplace operator in Finsler vector bundles.An h-Laplace operator is defined, first for functions and then for horizontal Finsler forms on E. Using the h-Laplace operator, the authors define the h-harmonic function and h-harmonic horizontal Finsler vector fields, and furthermore prove some integral formulas for the h-Laplace operator, horizontal Finsler vector fields, and scalar fields on E.
Development of nuclear fuel. Development of CANDU advanced fuel bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to develop CANDU advanced fuel, the agreement of the joint research between KAERI and AECL was made on February 19, 1991. AECL conceptual design of CANFLEX bundle for Bruce reactors was analyzed and then the reference design and design drawing of the advanced fuel bundle with natural uranium fuel for CANDU-6 reactor were completed. The CANFLEX fuel cladding was preliminarily investigated. The fabricability of the advanced fuel bundle was investigated. The design and purchase of the machinery tools for the bundle fabrication for hydraulic scoping tests were performed. As a result of CANFLEX tube examination, the tubes were found to be meet the criteria proposed in the technical specification. The dummy bundles for hydraulic scoping tests have been fabricated by using the process and tools, where the process parameters and tools have been newly established. (Author)
Composite bundles in Clifford algebras. Gravitation theory. Part I
Sardanashvily, G
2016-01-01
Based on a fact that complex Clifford algebras of even dimension are isomorphic to the matrix ones, we consider bundles in Clifford algebras whose structure group is a general linear group acting on a Clifford algebra by left multiplications, but not a group of its automorphisms. It is essential that such a Clifford algebra bundle contains spinor subbundles, and that it can be associated to a tangent bundle over a smooth manifold. This is just the case of gravitation theory. However, different these bundles need not be isomorphic. To characterize all of them, we follow the technique of composite bundles. In gravitation theory, this technique enables us to describe different types of spinor fields in the presence of general linear connections and under general covariant transformations.
The 2-Hilbert Space of a Prequantum Bundle Gerbe
Bunk, Severin; Szabo, Richard J
2016-01-01
We construct a prequantum 2-Hilbert space for any line bundle gerbe whose Dixmier-Douady class is torsion. Analogously to usual prequantisation, this 2-Hilbert space has the category of sections of the line bundle gerbe as its underlying 2-vector space. These sections are obtained as certain morphism categories in Waldorf's version of the 2-category of line bundle gerbes. We show that these morphism categories carry a monoidal structure under which they are semisimple and abelian. We introduce a dual functor on the sections, which yields a closed structure on the morphisms between bundle gerbes and turns the category of sections into a 2-Hilbert space. We discuss how these 2-Hilbert spaces fit various expectations from higher prequantisation. We then extend the transgression functor to the full 2-category of bundle gerbes and demonstrate its compatibility with the additional structures introduced. We discuss various aspects of Kostant-Souriau prequantisation in this setting, including its dimensional reductio...
Bundles over Quantum RealWeighted Projective Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz Brzeziński
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The algebraic approach to bundles in non-commutative geometry and the definition of quantum real weighted projective spaces are reviewed. Principal U(1-bundles over quantum real weighted projective spaces are constructed. As the spaces in question fall into two separate classes, the negative or odd class that generalises quantum real projective planes and the positive or even class that generalises the quantum disc, so do the constructed principal bundles. In the negative case the principal bundle is proven to be non-trivial and associated projective modules are described. In the positive case the principal bundles turn out to be trivial, and so all the associated modules are free. It is also shown that the circle (coactions on the quantum Seifert manifold that define quantum real weighted projective spaces are almost free.
Geometries and applications of active fiber bundles
Giglmayr, Josef
2001-10-01
Active fiber bundles (FBs) are aimed to model photonic switching and processing in 3-D without the restrictions of the photonic technology. The 2-D photonic architectures are assumed to be implemented by networks of directional couplers (DCs) and Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs), respectively. For the implementation several crucial problems are expected: (1) proper operation of the spatial couplers/switches (nonblocking interconnections) and (2) coupling in the interstage interconnection section mainly caused by parallel and crossing fibers/waveguides (WGs). For the design of proper operating switches (refinement of couplers) the application of decoupling concepts of modern control theory is proposed. The final goal is to translate the refined couplers into integrated photonic architectures rather than into additional lightwave circuits (LWCs) which simply would increase the coupling. The decoupling concepts are reviewed. The paper is an attempt to prepare for applying well-known system engineering concepts to the upcoming technology of photonics.
Extendability of parallel sections in vector bundles
Kirschner, Tim
2016-01-01
I address the following question: Given a differentiable manifold M, what are the open subsets U of M such that, for all vector bundles E over M and all linear connections ∇ on E, any ∇-parallel section in E defined on U extends to a ∇-parallel section in E defined on M? For simply connected manifolds M (among others) I describe the entirety of all such sets U which are, in addition, the complement of a C1 submanifold, boundary allowed, of M. This delivers a partial positive answer to a problem posed by Antonio J. Di Scala and Gianni Manno (2014). Furthermore, in case M is an open submanifold of Rn, n ≥ 2, I prove that the complement of U in M, not required to be a submanifold now, can have arbitrarily large n-dimensional Lebesgue measure.
TRIGA modified bundle thermal hydraulic analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Negut, G.; Mladin, M.; Preda, M. [Inst. for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania)
2001-07-01
TRIGA 14 MW steady state reactor (SSR) has more than 20 years of operation experience. It was used as a material test reactor to accomplish full range of experiments of CANDU type fuel, tests on structure material as Zircaloy and stainless steel. We did, also, isotope production for industrial and medical use, neutronography, gamma prompt, neutron diffractometry and activation analysis. In order to optimize the core for a more homogenous burnup we did some experiments on a modified fuel bundle. The paper is dedicated to the computations done in order to validate the optimized core configuration. The analysis has shown no significant impact on the central fuel temperatures, to affect the core safety. (orig.)
TRIGA modified bundle thermal hydraulic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TRIGA 14 MW steady state reactor (SSR) has more than 20 years of operation experience. It was used as a material test reactor to accomplish full range of experiments of CANDU type fuel, tests on structure material as Zircaloy and stainless steel. We did, also, isotope production for industrial and medical use, neutronography, gamma prompt, neutron diffractometry and activation analysis. In order to optimize the core for a more homogenous burnup we did some experiments on a modified fuel bundle. The paper is dedicated to the computations done in order to validate the optimized core configuration. The analysis has shown no significant impact on the central fuel temperatures, to affect the core safety. (orig.)
Effect of Reynolds number and bundle geometry on the turbulent flow in tight lattice bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The flow structure in tight lattice is still of great interest to nuclear industry. The accurate prediction of flow parameter in subchannels of tight lattice is likable. Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) is a promising approach to achieve this goal. The implementation of URANS (Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) approach will be validated by comparing computational results with the experimental data of Krauss (1998). In this paper, the turbulent flow with different Reynolds number (5000~215000) and different P/D(1.005~1.2) are simulated with CFD code CFX12.The effects of the Reynolds number and the bundle geometry(P/D) on wall shear stress, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent mixing and large scale coherent structure in tight lattice are analyzed in details. It is hoped that the present work will contribute to the understanding of these important flow phenomena and facilitate the prediction and design of rod bundles. (author)
Fiber bundle model under fluid pressure
Amitrano, David; Girard, Lucas
2016-03-01
Internal fluid pressure often plays an important role in the rupture of brittle materials. This is a major concern for many engineering applications and for natural hazards. More specifically, the mechanisms through which fluid pressure, applied at a microscale, can enhance the failure at a macroscale and accelerate damage dynamics leading to failure remains unclear. Here we revisit the fiber bundle model by accounting for the effect of fluid under pressure that contributes to the global load supported by the fiber bundle. Fluid pressure is applied on the broken fibers, following Biot's theory. The statistical properties of damage avalanches and their evolution toward macrofailure are analyzed for a wide range of fluid pressures. The macroscopic strength of the new model appears to be strongly controlled by the action of the fluid, particularly when the fluid pressure becomes comparable with the fiber strength. The behavior remains consistent with continuous transition, i.e., second order, including for large pressure. The main change concerns the damage acceleration toward the failure that is well modeled by the concept of sweeping of an instability. When pressure is increased, the exponent β characterizing the power-law distribution avalanche sizes significantly decreases and the exponent γ characterizing the cutoff divergence when failure is approached significantly increases. This proves that fluid pressure plays a key role in failure process acting as destabilization factor. This indicates that macrofailure occurs more readily under fluid pressure, with a behavior that becomes progressively unstable as fluid pressure increases. This may have considerable consequences on our ability to forecast failure when fluid pressure is acting.
Fiber bundle model under fluid pressure.
Amitrano, David; Girard, Lucas
2016-03-01
Internal fluid pressure often plays an important role in the rupture of brittle materials. This is a major concern for many engineering applications and for natural hazards. More specifically, the mechanisms through which fluid pressure, applied at a microscale, can enhance the failure at a macroscale and accelerate damage dynamics leading to failure remains unclear. Here we revisit the fiber bundle model by accounting for the effect of fluid under pressure that contributes to the global load supported by the fiber bundle. Fluid pressure is applied on the broken fibers, following Biot's theory. The statistical properties of damage avalanches and their evolution toward macrofailure are analyzed for a wide range of fluid pressures. The macroscopic strength of the new model appears to be strongly controlled by the action of the fluid, particularly when the fluid pressure becomes comparable with the fiber strength. The behavior remains consistent with continuous transition, i.e., second order, including for large pressure. The main change concerns the damage acceleration toward the failure that is well modeled by the concept of sweeping of an instability. When pressure is increased, the exponent β characterizing the power-law distribution avalanche sizes significantly decreases and the exponent γ characterizing the cutoff divergence when failure is approached significantly increases. This proves that fluid pressure plays a key role in failure process acting as destabilization factor. This indicates that macrofailure occurs more readily under fluid pressure, with a behavior that becomes progressively unstable as fluid pressure increases. This may have considerable consequences on our ability to forecast failure when fluid pressure is acting. PMID:27078437
Analysis of Capillary Rise in Asymmetric Branch-Like Capillary
Li, Caoxiong; Shen, Yinghao; Ge, Hongkui; Yang, Zhihui; Su, Shuai; Ren, Kai; Huang, Heyu
2016-05-01
Transport in porous media is common in nature, attracting many attentions for a long time. Tree-like network model is often used as a simplification for porous space, expressing the complexity of pore spaces instead of capillary bundle. To investigate spontaneous imbibition characteristics in this network, a dynamic asymmetric branch-like capillary model is used to represent basic network structure, using fractal method to represent tortuosity. This work investigates the influence of parameters on imbibition process in the branch-like capillary model. An analytical equation for the imbibition mass versus time is derived. Parameters from capillary structures to liquid properties are taken into account and analyzed based on the numerical solution of the equation. It is found that the imbibition process in asymmetric branch-like capillary model can be recognized by four sections and brunching tubes are positive for imbibition process. Concomitantly, meniscus arrest event is simulated and discussed. Moreover, the influence of parameters on imbibition process is discussed. These parameters can be classified as static and dynamic. Static parameters mainly change the capillary force, which are related to the ultimate imbibition mass or imbibition ability, while dynamic parameters mainly have influence on resistance of flowing fluid, which are related to the imbibition speed in the imbibition process.
Anatomic double-bundle anterior crucial ligament reconstruction with G-ST
Kuroda, Ryosuke; Matsushita, Takehiko
2011-01-01
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) consists of two primal functional bundles, anteromedial bundle and posterolateral bundles. Those two bundles play different functional roles and contribute differently to knee stability throughout the range of motion. Recent advancement in studies of anatomy and biomechanics of ACL has led surgeons to perform double-bundle ACL reconstruction to obtain better stability and kinematics. Consequently, variable surgical techniques of double-bundle ACL reconstru...
Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Hanumanthaiah, Deepak
2013-09-01
Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.
An experimental assessment of cooling of a 54-rod bundle by in-bundle injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► Rewetting of a 54-rod bundle assembled with a central coolant tube is investigated. ► The coolant tube injects the coolant radially outwards at different axial levels. ► Above a minimum flow rate, coolant quenches all the rods throughout their length. ► Rapid cooling of rods occurs up to around 100 °C of the rod surface temperature. ► Counter current flow of steam–water gets generated which affects cooling adversely. - Abstract: The performance of an in-bundle coolant injection system for the quenching of dry heated rods has been experimentally investigated. The rod bundle contains 54 fuel rods of 11.2 mm diameter, 3700 mm long, arranged in three concentric rings with a central coolant supply tube. The coolant tube supplies the coolant in the form of jets through a series of circumferential holes at different axial levels inside the rod bundle. Visualization during cold state injection tests ensures that the liquid spray can reach different levels of all the rods above a certain flow rate of water through the coolant tube. Extensive cooling experiments were done to assess the suitability of the proposed scheme of in-bundle coolant injection. Time–temperature curves have been derived from rods at different locations, from different heights of the rods, over a range of coolant flow rate as well as for different rod temperatures. The effect of the presence of the spacers on local cooling has also been investigated. The cooling curves follow a general trend of a rapid temperature drop up to almost 100 °C of the rod surface temperature irrespective of the operating parameters and the location of the rod. Thereafter, the temperature falls slowly reaching the coolant temperature almost asymptotically. Moreover, the second phase of cooling is often marked by temperature fluctuations of random nature. It was also observed that a large volume of steam generates during cooling and comes out through the top of the test section expelling a
Continuous-state branching processes
Li, Zenghu
2012-01-01
These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.
Two-categorical bundles and their classifying spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baas, Nils A.; Bökstedt, M.; Kro, T.A.
2012-01-01
For a 2-category 2C we associate a notion of a principal 2C-bundle. In case of the 2-category of 2-vector spaces in the sense of M.M. Kapranov and V.A. Voevodsky this gives the the 2-vector bundles of N.A. Baas, B.I. Dundas and J. Rognes. Our main result says that the geometric nerve of a good 2......-category is a classifying space for the associated principal 2-bundles. In the process of proving this we develop a lot of powerful machinery which may be useful in further studies of 2-categorical topology. As a corollary we get a new proof of the classification of principal bundles. A calculation based...... on the main theorem shows that the principal 2-bundles associated to the 2-category of 2-vector spaces in the sense of J.C. Baez and A.S. Crans split, up to concordance, as two copies of ordinary vector bundles. When 2C is a cobordism type 2-category we get a new notion of cobordism-bundles which turns out...
Coulomb branch Hilbert series and Three Dimensional Sicilian Theories
Cremonesi, Stefano; Mekareeya, Noppadol; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2014-01-01
We evaluate the Coulomb branch Hilbert series of mirrors of three dimensional Sicilian theories, which arise from compactifying the $6d$ $(2,0)$ theory with symmetry $G$ on a circle times a Riemann surface with punctures. We obtain our result by gluing together the Hilbert series for building blocks $T_{\\mathbf{\\rho}}(G)$, where $\\mathbf{\\rho}$ is a certain partition related to the dual group of $G$, which we evaluated in a previous paper. The result is expressed in terms of a class of symmetric functions, the Hall-Littlewood polynomials. As expected from mirror symmetry, our results agree at genus zero with the superconformal index prediction for the Higgs branch Hilbert series of the Sicilian theories and extend it to higher genus. In the $A_1$ case at genus zero, we also evaluate the Coulomb branch Hilbert series of the Sicilian theory itself, showing that it only depends on the number of external legs.
The Geometry of Tangent Bundles: Canonical Vector Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tongzhu Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A canonical vector field on the tangent bundle is a vector field defined by an invariant coordinate construction. In this paper, a complete classification of canonical vector fields on tangent bundles, depending on vector fields defined on their bases, is obtained. It is shown that every canonical vector field is a linear combination with constant coefficients of three vector fields: the variational vector field (canonical lift, the Liouville vector field, and the vertical lift of a vector field on the base of the tangent bundle.
On the existence of n-dimensional indecomposable vector bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Let X be an arbitrary smooth irreducible complex projective curve of genus g with g ≥ 4. In this paper we extend the existence theorem of special divisors to high dimensional indecomposable vector bundles. We give a necessary and sufficient condition on the existence of n-dimensional indecomposable vector bundles E with deg(E) = d, dimH0(X,E) ≥ h. We also determine under what condition the set of all such vector bundles will be finite and how many elements it contains. (author). 9 refs
Line bundles and the Thom construction in noncommutative geometry
Beggs, E. J.; Brzezinski, T.
2010-01-01
The idea of a line bundle in classical geometry is transferred to noncommutative geometry by the idea of a Morita context. From this we can construct Z and N graded algebras, the Z graded algebra being a Hopf-Galois extension. A non-degenerate Hermitian metric gives a star structure on this algebra, and an additional star operation on the line bundle gives a star operation on the N graded algebra. In this case, we can carry out the associated circle bundle and Thom constructions. Starting wit...
On separation axioms of uniform bundles and sheaves
Clara M. Neira U.; Januario Varela
2004-01-01
In the context of the theory of uniform bundles in the sense of J. Dauns and K. H. Hofmann, the topology of the fiber space of a uniform bundle depends on the assumption of upper semicontinuity of its defining set of pseudometrics when composed with local sections. In this paper we show that the additional hypothesis of lower semicontinuity of these functions secures that the fiber space of the uniform bundle is Hausdorff, regular or completely regular provided that the base space has the cor...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Objective: To investigate CT appearances of the normal and abnormal bronchovesicular bundles (BVB) and their corresponding pathologic basis, and to evaluate the role of these findings in diagnosing diffuse lung diseases. Methods: 6 fresh lungs obtained at autopsy and 8 surgical lung lobe specimens were studied. All lung specimens were inflated and fixed by Heitzman's method. HRCT with 10 mm thickness slice soft X-ray radiography was performed and HRCT-pathologic correlation was done. HRCT images of 100 cases with diffuse pulmonary disease were analyzed. Results: Thickened BVB with coarse margin and distorted structure correlated pathologically with peri-bronchovesicular pulmonary parenchyma inflammation and fibrosis, as well as peri-bronchovesicular interstitial disorder. Abnormalities of centrilobular BVB were recognizable by an increase in prominence of centrilobular structure on HRCT. In pathology, there were centrilobular peri-bronchovesicular dust induced granuloma in coal-miner's pneumoconiosis and centrilobular lymphangitis dilatation and filling with tumor cell in lymphangitis carcinomatosis. Increased centrilobular branching structure correlated pathologically with the presence of dilate intra-lobular bronchioles, inflammatory bronchiolar wall thickening, intraluminal secretions, and peri-bronchiolar inflammation. In 80 patients with predominant pulmonary interstitial diseases, thickened BVB with coarse margin or distortion were common in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Nodular bronchovesicular bundle thickening were seen in sarcoidosis, lymphangitis carcinomatosis, and lymphoma. These were demonstrated in 8 of 20 sarcoidosis, 6 of 8 lymphangitis carcinomatosis , 3 of 5 lymphoma, and 2 of 15 coal-miner's pneumoconiosis. Increased centrilobular branching structures were seen in 14 of 20 patients with predominant bronchial diseases. Conclusion: Authors can limit the differential diagnostic range of diffuse lung diseases according to the appearances of BVB
Funck, Reinhard C; Blanc, Jean-Jacques; Mueller, Hans-Helge; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Bailleul, Christophe; Maisch, Bernhard
2006-08-01
Despite the deleterious effects of cardiac dyssynchrony and the positive effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy, patients with high-degree atrioventricular block continue to receive desynchronizing right ventricular (RV) pacing systems. Although it is unclear whether the negative effects of RV pacing and left bundle branch block (LBBB) are comparable, and whether they depend on the presence and the degree of structural heart disease, one may hypothesize that RV pacing may have similar effects to LBBB. In the BioPace trial, the long-term effects of RV pacing vs. biventricular pacing will be prospectively compared in 1200 pacemaker patients with high likelihood of mostly paced ventricular events, regardless of whether in sinus rhythm or in atrial fibrillation (AF). After echocardiographic examination of left ventricular (LV) function, patients will be randomly assigned to the implantation of an RV vs. a biventricular pacing system and followed for up to 5 years. Primary study endpoints are survival, quality of life (QoL), and the distance covered in a 6-min hall walk (6-MHW) at 24 months after implantation. Secondary endpoints are QoL and the 6-MHW result at 12 months after implantation, hospitalization rate, LV dimensions, LV ejection fraction, and the development of chronic AF and other adverse events. PMID:16864616
Seiler, J. M.; Rameau, B.
Bundle sodium boiling in nominal geometry for different accident conditions is reviewed. Voiding of a subassembly is controlled by not only hydrodynamic effects but mainly by thermal effects. There is a strong influence of the thermal inertia of the bundle material compared to the sodium thermal inertia. Flow instability, during a slow transient, can be analyzed with numerical tools and estimated using simplified approximations. Stable boiling operational conditions under bundle mixed convection (natural convection in the reactor) can be predicted. Voiding during a fast transient can be approximated from single channel calculations. The phenomenology of boiling behavior for a subassembly with inlet completely blocked, submitted to decay heat and lateral cooling; two-phase sodium flow pressure drop in a tube of large hydraulic diameter under adiabatic conditions; critical flow phenomena and voiding rate under high power, slow transient conditions; and onset of dry out under local boiling remains problematical.
Assembly mechanism for nuclear fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method of securing a fuel bundle to permit easy remote disassembly is described. Fuel rods are held loosely between end plates, each end of the rods fitting into holes in the end plates. At the upper end of each fuel rod there is a spring pressing against the end plate. Tie rods are used to hold the end plates together securely. The lower end of each tie rod is screwed into the lower end plate; the upper end of each tie rod is attached to the upper end plate by means of a locking assembly described in the patent. In order to remove the upper tie plate during the disassembly process, it is necessary only to depress the tie plate against the pressure of the springs surrounding the fuel rods and then to rotate each locking sleeve on the tie rods from its locked to its unlocked position. It is then possible to remove the tie plate without disassembling the locking assembly. (LL)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The cleaning operation concerns the 'GSS' system (GSS stands for moisture separator reheaters, MSR) which are classified as 'watch quality guarantee', not classified as safety facility and subjected to Pressure Equipment regulations. The follow-up of the operational GSS (steel carbon) of EDF nuclear power plants CP0 group reveals a clog rate due to a relevant magnetite deposits that could result in equipment damage, loss of availability and loss of plant productivity. The pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the heating steam is close to maximum design criterion. The service consisted in designing, developing, qualifying and carrying out a process which removes clog from the inside of GSS U-tubes bundle located in the vapor circuit and which respects the equipment integrity and ensures the process harmlessness. This cleaning has to enable the complete removal of deposits and oxides (magnetite) in order to recover a passage diameter and a surface finish equivalent to the origin, thus avoiding the replacement of the GSS and obtaining a considerable reduction of costs. To do so, LAINSA and SOLARCA designed, developed, qualified and operated on 14 GSS bundles, by carrying out the following operations: - Cartography of the GSS tubes bundles clogging state; - Pre-Mechanical cleaning to un-block the sealed tubes and release the inside tubes passing; - Isolation of the bundle and check of leaks of the system; - Chemical cleaning with the efficiency and harmlessness parameters follow-up: - Acid Phase by means of weak organic acids to eliminate all the deposits; - Passivation phase; - Final Rinsing respecting the customer criteria; - Drying; - Waste management and waste treatment. The implementation of this operation enables the elimination of the whole deposits (magnetite) and oxides located inside the GSS tube bundle and thus to recover a passage diameter inside the tubes, and a pressure drop close to a new system and therefore to enables the
Block clustering with collapsed latent block models
Wyse, Jason; Friel, Nial
2010-01-01
We introduce a Bayesian extension of the latent block model for model-based block clustering of data matrices. Our approach considers a block model where block parameters may be integrated out. The result is a posterior defined over the number of clusters in rows and columns and cluster memberships. The number of row and column clusters need not be known in advance as these are sampled along with cluster memberhips using Markov chain Monte Carlo. This differs from existing work on latent bloc...
Analysis of CHF experiment data for finned fuel bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The HANARO uses finned-element fuel bundles. For thermal-hydraulic safety analysis, used is the MATRA-h code which is a modified version of KAERI's MATRA-α. The subchannel analysis model was determined by using the in-core irradiation test results and hydraulic experiment results for fuel bundle. The validity of the analysis model was investigated by comparing the MATRA-h predictions with the experimental results from several bundle CHF tests. The comparison showed that the code predictions for the CHF power were very close to or less than the experimental results. Thus, it was confirmed that the subchannel analysis using MATRA-h is to be applicable to the prediction of CHF phenomenon in HANARO fuel bundle
Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie
2015-09-01
Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. PMID:25387911
Zeta Functions for Elliptic Curves I. Counting Bundles
Weng, Lin
2012-01-01
To count bundles on curves, we study zetas of elliptic curves and their zeros. There are two types, i.e., the pure non-abelian zetas defined using moduli spaces of semi-stable bundles, and the group zetas defined for special linear groups. In lower ranks, we show that these two types of zetas coincide and satisfy the Riemann Hypothesis. For general cases, exposed is an intrinsic relation on automorphism groups of semi-stable bundles over elliptic curves, the so-called counting miracle. All this, together with Harder-Narasimhan, Desale-Ramanan and Zagier's result, gives an effective way to count semi-stable bundles on elliptic curves not only in terms of automorphism groups but more essentially in terms of their $h^0$'s. Distributions of zeros of high rank zetas are also discussed.
Deformation Quantization of Principal Fibre Bundles and Classical Gauge Theories
Wei\\ss, Stefan
2010-01-01
In this dissertation the notion of deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles is established and investigated in order to find a geometric formulation of classical gauge theories on noncommutative space-times. As a generalization, the notion of deformation quantization of surjective submersions is also discussed. It is shown that deformation quantizations of surjective submersions and principal fibre bundles always exist and are unique up to equivalence. These statements concerning complex-valued functions are moreover formulated and proved for sections of arbitrary vector bundles over the total space, in particular equivariant vector bundles. The commutants of the deformed right module structures within the differential operators, playing an inportant role with regard to the infinitesimal gauge transformations, are computed explicitly in each case. Depending on the choice of specific covariant derivatives and connections the commutants are isomorphic to the formal power series of the respective vert...
T-duality for circle bundles via noncommutative geometry
Mathai, Varghese
2013-01-01
Recently Baraglia showed how topological T-duality can be extended to apply not only to principal circle bundles, but also to non-principal circle bundles. We show that his results can also be recovered via two other methods: the homotopy-theoretic approach of Bunke and Schick, and the noncommutative geometry approach which we previously used for principal torus bundles. This work has several interesting byproducts, including a study of the K-theory of crossed products by Isom(R), the universal cover of O(2), and some interesting facts about equivariant K-theory for Z/2. In the final section of this paper, these results are extended to the case of bundles with singular fibers, or in other words, non-free O(2)-actions.
Steric effects induce geometric remodeling of actin bundles in filopodia
Dobramysl, Ulrich; Erban, Radek
2016-01-01
Filopodia are ubiquitous fingerlike protrusions, spawned by many eukaryotic cells, to probe and interact with their environments. Polymerization dynamics of actin filaments, comprising the structural core of filopodia, largely determine their instantaneous lengths and overall lifetimes. The polymerization reactions at the filopodial tip require transport of G-actin, which enter the filopodial tube from the filopodial base and diffuse toward the filament barbed ends near the tip. Actin filaments are mechanically coupled into a tight bundle by cross-linker proteins. Interestingly, many of these proteins are relatively short, restricting the free diffusion of cytosolic G-actin throughout the bundle and, in particular, its penetration into the bundle core. To investigate the effect of steric restrictions on G-actin diffusion by the porous structure of filopodial actin filament bundle, we used a particle-based stochastic simulation approach. We discovered that excluded volume interactions result in partial and the...
Introductory lectures on fibre bundles and topology for physicists
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These lectures may provide useful background material for understanding gauge theories, particularly the nonperturbative effects such as instantons and monopoles. The mathematical language of topology and fibre bundles is introduced
Mechanical Models of Microtubule Bundle Collapse in Alzheimer's Disease
Sendek, Austin; Singh, Rajiv; Cox, Daniel
2013-03-01
Amyloid-beta aggregates initiate Alzheimer's disease, and downstream trigger degradation of tau proteins that act as microtubule bundle stabilizers and mechanical spacers. Currently it is unclear which of tau cutting by proteases, tau phosphorylation, or tau aggregation are responsible for cytoskeleton degradation., We construct a percolation simulation of the microtubule bundle using a molecular spring model for the taus and including depletion force attraction between microtubules and membrane/actin cytoskeletal surface tension. The simulation uses a fictive molecular dynamics to model the motion of the individual microtubules within the bundle as a result of random tau removal, and calculates the elastic modulus of the bundle as the tau concentration falls. We link the tau removal steps to kinetic tau steps in various models of tau degradation. Supported by US NSF Grant DMR 1207624
National Partnership for Maternal Safety Consensus Bundle on Obstetric Hemorrhage.
Main, Elliott K; Goffman, Dena; Scavone, Barbara M; Low, Lisa Kane; Bingham, Debra; Fontaine, Patricia L; Gorlin, Jed B; Lagrew, David C; Levy, Barbara S
2015-01-01
Hemorrhage is the most frequent cause of severe maternal morbidity and preventable maternal mortality and therefore is an ideal topic for the initial national maternity patient safety bundle. These safety bundles outline critical clinical practices that should be implemented in every maternity unit. They are developed by multidisciplinary work groups of the National Partnership for Maternal Safety under the guidance of the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care. The safety bundle is organized into 4 domains: Readiness, Recognition and Prevention, Response, and Reporting and Systems Learning. Although the bundle components may be adapted to meet the resources available in individual facilities, standardization within an institution is strongly encouraged. References contain sample resources and "Potential Best Practices" to assist with implementation. PMID:26059199
National Partnership for Maternal Safety: consensus bundle on obstetric hemorrhage.
Main, Elliott K; Goffman, Dena; Scavone, Barbara M; Low, Lisa Kane; Bingham, Debra; Fontaine, Patricia L; Gorlin, Jed B; Lagrew, David C; Levy, Barbara S
2015-07-01
Hemorrhage is the most frequent cause of severe maternal morbidity and preventable maternal mortality and therefore is an ideal topic for the initial national maternity patient safety bundle. These safety bundles outline critical clinical practices that should be implemented in every maternity unit. They are developed by multidisciplinary work groups of the National Partnership for Maternal Safety under the guidance of the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care. The safety bundle is organized into four domains: Readiness, Recognition and Prevention, Response, and Reporting and System Learning. Although the bundle components may be adapted to meet the resources available in individual facilities, standardization within an institution is strongly encouraged. References contain sample resources and "Potential Best Practices" to assist with implementation. PMID:26091046
Interactive hypermedia training manual for spent-fuel bundle counters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spent-fuel bundle counters, developed by the Canadian Safeguards Support Program for the International Atomic Energy Agency, provide a secure and independent means of counting the number of irradiated fuel bundles discharged into the fuel storage bays at CANDU nuclear power stations. Paper manuals have been traditionally used to familiarize IAEA inspectors with the operation, maintenance and extensive reporting capabilities of the bundle counters. To further assist inspectors, an interactive training manual has been developed on an Apple Macintosh computer using hypermedia software. The manual uses interactive animation and sound, in conjunction with the traditional text and graphics, to simulate the underlying operation and logic of the bundle counters. This paper presents the key features of the interactive manual and highlights the advantages of this new technology for training
Topological T-duality for torus bundles with monodromy
Baraglia, David
2015-05-01
We give a simplified definition of topological T-duality that applies to arbitrary torus bundles. The new definition does not involve Chern classes or spectral sequences, only gerbes and morphisms between them. All the familiar topological conditions for T-duals are shown to follow. We determine necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of a T-dual in the case of affine torus bundles. This is general enough to include all principal torus bundles as well as torus bundles with arbitrary monodromy representations. We show that isomorphisms in twisted cohomology, twisted K-theory and of Courant algebroids persist in this general setting. We also give an example where twisted K-theory groups can be computed by iterating T-duality.
Infinitely stably extendable vector bundles on projective spaces
Coanda, Iustin
2009-01-01
According to Horrocks (1966), a vector bundle E on the projective n-space extends stably to the projective N-space, N>n, if there exists a vector bundle on the larger space whose restriction to the smaller one is isomorphic to E plus a direct sum of line bundles. We show that E extends stably to the projective N-space for every N>n if and only if E is the cohomology of a free monad (with three terms). The proof uses the method of Coanda and Trautmann (2006). Combining this result with a theorem of Mohan Kumar, Peterson and Rao (2003), we get a new effective version of the Babylonian tower theorem for vector bundles on projective spaces.
SEU43 fuel bundle shielding analysis during spent fuel transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margeanu, C. A.; Ilie, P.; Olteanu, G. [Inst. for Nuclear Research Pitesti, No. 1 Campului Street, Mioveni 115400, Arges County (Romania)
2006-07-01
The basic task accomplished by the shielding calculations in a nuclear safety analysis consist in radiation doses calculation, in order to prevent any risks both for personnel protection and impact on the environment during the spent fuel manipulation, transport and storage. The paper investigates the effects induced by fuel bundle geometry modifications on the CANDU SEU spent fuel shielding analysis during transport. For this study, different CANDU-SEU43 fuel bundle projects, developed in INR Pitesti, have been considered. The spent fuel characteristics will be obtained by means of ORIGEN-S code. In order to estimate the corresponding radiation doses for different measuring points the Monte Carlo MORSE-SGC code will be used. Both codes are included in ORNL's SCALE 5 programs package. A comparison between the considered SEU43 fuel bundle projects will be also provided, with CANDU standard fuel bundle taken as reference. (authors)
Fuel rod bundles proposed for advanced pressure tube nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper aims to be a general presentation for fuel bundles to be used in Advanced Pressure Tube Nuclear Reactors (APTNR). The characteristics of such a nuclear reactor resemble those of known advanced pressure tube nuclear reactors like: Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACRTM-1000, pertaining to AECL) and Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). We have also developed a fuel bundle proposal which will be referred as ASEU-43 (Advanced Slightly Enriched Uranium with 43 rods). The ASEU-43 main design along with a few neutronic and thermalhydraulic characteristics are presented in the paper versus similar ones from INR Pitesti SEU-43 and CANDU-37 standard fuel bundles. General remarks regarding the advantages of each fuel bundle and their suitability to be burned in an APTNR reactor are also revealed. (authors)
Design and synthesis of DNA four-helix bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rangnekar, Abhijit; Gothelf, Kurt V [Department of Chemistry, Centre for DNA Nanotechnology (CDNA) and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); LaBean, Thomas H, E-mail: kvg@chem.au.dk, E-mail: thl@cs.duke.edu [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)
2011-06-10
The field of DNA nanotechnology has evolved significantly in the past decade. Researchers have succeeded in synthesizing tile-based structures and using them to form periodic lattices in one, two and three dimensions. Origami-based structures have also been used to create nanoscale structures in two and three dimensions. Design and construction of DNA bundles with fixed circumference has added a new dimension to the field. Here we report the design and synthesis of a DNA four-helix bundle. It was found to be extremely rigid and stable. When several such bundles were assembled using appropriate sticky-ends, they formed micrometre-long filaments. However, when creation of two-dimensional sheet-like arrays of the four-helix bundles was attempted, nanoscale rings were observed instead. The exact reason behind the nanoring formation is yet to be ascertained, but it provides an exciting prospect for making programmable circular nanostructures using DNA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PWR or LMFBR cores or fuel assemblies, PWR steam generators, tubular heat exchangers, are as many components of a nuclear power plant involving single or two-phase flows in tube bundles. The knowledge of the detailed flow patterns (velocity, pressure, temperature, void fraction) on the shell side is necessary to evaluate DNB in reactor cores during incidental transients, singularity effects (grids, wire spacers, support plates, baffles), corrosion on steam generator tube sheet, bypass effects and vibration risks. For that purpose, the Research and Studies Branch of EDF is now developing a new 3D computer code THYC, at first for PWR's and LFMBR's core thermalydraulic calculations and in a second place, for more general applications of flows in tube bundles, thanks to a general porous medium approach. This paper describes the physical model used in THYC (4 partial differential equations, closure relationships specific of tube bundle geometries) then numerical solution method (space and time discretization, solution algorithm). Examples of numerical tests and incidental operation transients in a french PWR 900 MW core, are given. Finally, 3 validation calculations will be presented concerning a tube and shell heat exchanger, a LMFBR fuel assembly in natural, mixed and forced convection, and a lower part of a PWR steam generator
Spring and stop assembly for nuclear fuel bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A removable spring and stop assembly is described for use with a nuclear fuel bundle in a nuclear reactor core. The assembly includes a bolt threaded through a top section of a stop member by which the assembly (and a flow channel) is secured to the fuel bundle, the adjacent end threads of the bolt. The stop member is upset or deformed by which the bolt is captured in the assembly. (U.S.)
Design and verification of the 'GURI 01' bundle model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work presents a general description of the 'GURI 01' bundle model, designed by INVAP S.E., under international radioactive material transportation regulations, as a B(U) type bundle for international transportation up to a maximum of 350000 Ci of Co60. Moreover, the methodologies used and the results obtained from the structural evaluation of the mechanic essay and from the evaluation of the thermal behaviour under normal or accident conditions are briefly discussed. (Author)
Quantum principal bundles and Tannaka-Krein duality theory
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
The structure of quantum principal bundles is studied, from the viewpoint of Tannaka-Krein duality theory. It is shown that if the structure quantum group is compact, principal G-bundles over a quantum space M are in a natural correspondence with certain contravariant functors defined on the category of finite-dimensional unitary representations of G, with the values in the category of finite projective bimodules over a *-algebra representing the base space.
Stable Parabolic Higgs Bundles as Asymptotically Stable Decorated Swamps
Beck, Nikolai
2014-01-01
Parabolic Higgs bundles can be described in terms of decorated swamps, which we studied in a recent paper. This description induces a notion of stability of parabolic Higgs bundles depending on a parameter, and we construct their moduli space inside the moduli space of decorated swamps. We then introduce asymptotic stability of decorated swamps in order to study the behavior of the stability condition as one parameter approaches infinity. The main result is the existence of a constant, such t...
Penurunan Kerugian Head pada Belokan Pipa dengan Peletakan Tube Bundle
Pratikto; Slamet Wahyudi
2010-01-01
Fluid flow flowing through an elbow causes separation. Separation leads to vortex, shake and cavity. As a result, the head loss will increase and the pipe installation is potentially damaged. Thus, separation must be eliminated. The separation is identified by the presence of high pressure decreasing in the downstream of elbow. To minimize the pressure decreasing in elbow, we need flow conditioner like a tube bundle. The aim of this research is to identify the influence of tube bundle placeme...
Quantized gauge-affine gravity in the superfiber bundle approach
Meziane, A.; Tahiri, M
2004-01-01
The quantization of gauge-affine gravity within the superfiber bundle formalism is proposed. By introducing an even pseudotensorial 1-superform over a principal superfibre bundle with superconnection, we obtain the geometrical Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST transformations of the fields occurring in such a theory. Reducing the four-dimensional general affine group double-covering to the Poincare group double-covering we also find the BRST and anti-BRST transformations of the f...
Countercurrent flow limitation experiments with full-scale bundle structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atmospheric air/water experiments for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 fuel bundle structures have been carried out at different liquid heads above the perforated tie plate. Specific attention is given to countercurrent flow limitation across perforated upper tie plates in large channel geometries. The effects of the presence of the unheated fuel rod bundle and the thickness of the perforated plate on the countercurent flow behaviour have been observed. The found non-linear countercurrent flow behavior is discussed. (orig.)
Principal 2-bundles and their gauge 2-groups
Wockel, Christoph
2008-01-01
In this paper we introduce principal 2-bundles and show how they are classified by non-abelian Cech cohomology. Moreover, we show that their gauge 2-groups can be described by 2-group-valued functors, much like in classical bundle theory. Using this, we show that, under some mild requirements, these gauge 2-groups possess a natural smooth structure. In the last section we provide some explicit examples.
A classification of fibre bundles over 2-dimensional spaces
Kubyshin, Yu. A.
1999-01-01
The classification problem for principal fibre bundles over two-dimensional CW-complexes is considered. Using the Postnikov factorization for the base space of a universal bundle a Puppe sequence that gives an implicit solution for the classification problem is constructed. In cases, when the structure group $G$ is path-connected or $\\pi_{1}(G) = 0$, the classification can be given in terms of cohomology groups.
Filler metals for containers holding irradiated fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the procedures being considered for the disposal of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) irradiated fuel bundles is to place the bundles in containers, fill the containers with metal, and place them underground. This investigation deals with the selection of the filler metal with particular reference to the reaction rate with, and bonding of the filler metal to, the fuel sheathing (Zircaloy 4) and potential container materials. Lead, zinc, and aluminium alloys were examined as potential filler metals. (U.K.)
Optimal Bundle of Multimedia Services in Emerging Mobile Markets
Lee, ChanGi; Lee, SeongCheol; Lee, DeockHee; Lee, HyeongJik
2006-01-01
Although various emerging technologies have been launched, they present limitations as far as offering full-scale ubiquitous services independently is concerned. In view of this fact, service providers are likely to provide bundled services among possible combinations of services. Indeed, making a timely decision regarding the value maximization of bundled service is directly related to service providers' future growth and success in the turbulent market environment. This paper aims to find t...
Fuel temperature characteristics of the 37-element and CANFLEX fuel bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report describes the fuel temperature characteristics of CANFLEX fuel bundles and 37-element fuel bundles for a different burnup of fuel. The program was consisted for seeking the fuel temperature of fuel bundles of CANFLEX fuel bundles and 37-element fuel bundles by using the method in NUCIRC. Fuel temperature has an increasing pattern with the burnup of fuel for CANFLEX fuel bundles and 37-element fuel bundles. For all the case of burnup, the fuel temperature of CANFLEX fuel bundles has a lower value than that of 37-element fuel bundles. Especially, for the high power channel, the CANFLEX fuel bundles show a lower fuel temperature as much as about 75 degree, and the core averaged fuel temperature has a lower fuel temperature of about 50 degree than that of 37-element fuel bundles. The lower fuel temperature of CANFLEX fuel bundles is expected to enhance the safety by reducing the fuel temperature coefficient. Finally, for each burnup of CANFLEX fuel bundles and 37-element fuel bundles, the equation was present for predicting the fuel temperature of a bundle in terms of a coolant temperature and bundle power
Bucher, Michelle; Campagnolo, Caterina
2016-01-01
We present three new inequalities tying the signature, the simplicial volume and the Euler characteristic of surface bundles over surfaces. Two of them are true for any surface bundle, while the third holds on a specific family of surface bundles, namely the ones that arise through a ramified covering. These are the main known examples of bundles with non-zero signature.
Plantain fibre bundles isolated from Colombian agro-industrial residues.
Gañán, Piedad; Zuluaga, Robin; Restrepo, Adriana; Labidi, Jalel; Mondragon, Iñaki
2008-02-01
Comestible fruit production from Musaceas plants is an important economical activity in developing countries like Colombia. However, it generates a large amount of agro-industrial residues. Some of them are a potential resource of natural fibres, which can be used as reinforcement for composite materials. In this work, a series of commercial plantain (Musa AAB, cv "Dominico Harton") fibre bundles extracted from pseudostem, leaf sheath and rachis agricultural wastes were analyzed. Mechanical decortication and biological retting processes were used during fiber extraction. No significant differences in composition of vascular bundles were observed for both extraction processes. Gross morphological characteristics and mechanical behavior have been evaluated. Conducting tissues with spiral-like arrangement are observed attached to fibre bundles. This fact suggests a big amount of these tissues in commercial plantain plants. Both used extraction methods are not enough to remove them. Pseudostem fibre bundles have higher specific strength and modulus and lower strain at break than leaf sheath and rachis fibre bundles, having values comparable to other lignocellulosic fibres bundles. PMID:17350832
A Radiologist's Primer on Bundles and Care Episodes.
Seidenwurm, David; Lexa, Frank James
2016-09-01
Bundled or episode payments are among the most heavily emphasized approaches to aligning incentives and promoting care coordination, efficiency, and accountability in health care redesign. Bundled or episode payments price a market basket of services for an entire episode of care with both a clearly defined trigger and termination. Because the radiologist is "ancillary" in many bundles, the specialty is often unaware of the phenomenon. This is likely to change rapidly. Radiology is pivotal in high-prevalence, high-impact care areas such as low back pain and stroke that are focuses of widely used system performance metrics. More important, radiology is central to the diagnosis and management of a wide range of important diagnostic issues in areas such as breast cancer, pulmonary nodules, and incidental findings. Three models of bundled care will probably involve radiology intimately in the near future. Pure radiology bundles might be constructed for breast cancer screening and diagnosis, and these could be priced on the basis of guideline-based best-practice frequencies of care events such as recall and biopsy. Clinical bundles, for example low back pain, could be priced on the basis of optimal imaging frequencies. Finally, pricing of imaging studies might include evidence-based frequencies of follow-up imaging for incidental findings. PMID:27210231
Design and fabrication of a remote fuel bundle welding system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A remote fuel bundle welding system in the hot-cell was designed and fabricated. To achieve this, a preliminary investigation of a hands-on fuel fabrication outside the hot-cell was conducted with a consideration of the constraints caused by welding in the hot-cell. Some basic experiments were also carried out to improve the end-plate welding process for fuel bundle manufacturing. The resistance welding system using the end-plate welding was also improved. It was found that resistance welding was more suitable for joining and end-plate to end caps in the hot-cell. The optimum conditions for end-plate welding for remote operation were also obtained. Preliminary performances to improve the resistance welding process were also examined, and the resistance welding process was determined to be the best in the hot-cell environment for fuel bundle manufacturing. The greatest advantage of fuel bundle welding system would be a qualified process for resistance welding in which there is extensive production experience. This paper presents an outline of the developed welding system for fuel bundle manufacturing and reviews the conceptual design of remote welding system using a master-slave manipulator. The design of a remote welding system using the 3-dimensional modeling method was also designed. Furthermore the mechanical considerations and the mock-up simulation test were described. Finally, its performance test results were presented for a mock-up of a remote fuel bundle welding system. (Author)
Jacobi Matthias; Magnussen Robert A; Villa Vincent; Demey Guillaume; Neyret Philippe
2012-01-01
Abstract Background There is significant interest in the restoration of the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL when performing ACL reconstruction. Possible techniques include those utilizing two separate grafts with independent tunnels and those that attempt to mimic this anatomy with a single graft and fewer tunnels. Many of the latter techniques require specific instrumentation and are technically challenging. We demonstrate that the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL can theoreti...
How Buyers Evaluate Product Bundles: A Model of Anchoring and Adjustment.
Yadav, Manjit S
1994-01-01
Bundling, the joint offering of two or more items, is a common selling strategy, yet little research has been conducted on buyers' evaluation of bundle offers. We developed and tested a model of bundle evaluation in which the buyers anchored their evaluation on the item perceived as most important and then made adjustments on the basis of their evaluations of the remaining bundle items. The results of two computerized laboratory experiments suggested that people tend to examine bundle items i...
Combustor having mixing tube bundle with baffle arrangement for directing fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, Michael John; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin
2016-08-23
A combustor includes a tube bundle that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor. The tube bundle includes an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and a plurality of tubes extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface to provide fluid communication through the tube bundle. A barrier extends radially inside the tube bundle between the upstream and downstream surfaces, and a baffle extends axially inside the tube bundle between the upstream surface and the barrier.
Dey, Aloke
2010-01-01
This book presents a systematic, rigorous and comprehensive account of the theory and applications of incomplete block designs. All major aspects of incomplete block designs are considered by consolidating vast amounts of material from the literature - the classical incomplete block designs, like the balanced incomplete block (BIB) and partially balanced incomplete block (PBIB) designs. Other developments like efficiency-balanced designs, nested designs, robust designs, C-designs and alpha designs are also discussed, along with more recent developments in incomplete block designs for special t
Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catherine eRameau
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saori eOdagiri
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS in the rat has a distinct microcoluimn-type structure. The apical tufts of dendritic bundles at layer I, which are formed by layer II neurons, co-localize with patches of thalamic terminations from anteroventral thalamic nucleus (AV. To further understand this microcolumn-type structure in the GRS, one of remaining questions is whether this structure extends into other layers, such as layers III/IV. Other than layer I, previous tracer injection study showed that AV thalamic nucleus also projects to layer III/IV in the GRS. In this study, we examined the morphology of branches in the GRS from the AV thalamus in single axon branch resolution in order to determine whether AV axon branches in layer III/IV are branches of axons with extensive branch in layer I, and, if so, whether the extent of these arborizations in layer III/IV vertically matches with that in layer I. For this purpose, we used a small volume injection of biotinylated dextran-amine into the AV thalamus and reconstructing labeled single axon branches in the GRS. We found that the AV axons consisted of heterogeneous branching types. Type 1 had extensive arborization occurring only in layer Ia. Type 2 had additional branches in III/IV. Types 1 and 2 had extensive ramifications in layer Ia, with lateral extensions within the previously reported extensions of tufts from single dendritic bundles (i.e., 30-200 µm; mean 78 µm. In type 2 branches, axon arborizations in layer III/IV were just below to layer Ia ramifications, but much wider (148-533 µm: mean, 341 µm than that in layer Ia axon branches and dendritic bundles, suggesting that layer-specific information transmission spacing existed even from the same single axons from the AV to the GRS. Thus, microcolumn-type structure in the upper layer of the GRS was not strictly continuous from layer I to layer IV. How each layer and its components interact each other in different spatial scale should
Computer simulation of long-chain branching and branching indexes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Netopilík, Miloš
Vienna : University of Vienna, 2014. s. 22. [International Conference on Polymer Behaviour /6./. 22.09.2014-26.09.2014, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity * radius of gyration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry
Gluing pseudoholomorphic curves along branched covered cylinders II
Hutchings, Michael
2007-01-01
This paper and its prequel ("Part I") prove a generalization of the usual gluing theorem for two index 1 pseudoholomorphic curves U_+ and U_- in the symplectization of a contact 3-manifold. We assume that for each embedded Reeb orbit gamma, the total multiplicity of the negative ends of U_+ at covers of gamma agrees with the total multiplicity of the positive ends of U_- at covers of gamma. However, unlike in the usual gluing story, here the individual multiplicities are allowed to differ. In this situation, one can often glue U_+ and U_- to an index 2 curve by inserting genus zero branched covers of R-invariant cylinders between them. This paper shows that the signed count of such gluings equals a signed count of zeroes of a certain section of an obstruction bundle over the moduli space of branched covers of the cylinder. Part I obtained a combinatorial formula for the latter count and, assuming the result of the present paper, deduced that the differential d in embedded contact homology satisfies d^2=0. The...
Unusual Communications between the Cutaneous Branches of Ulnar Nerve in the Palm
Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Padavinangady, Abhinitha; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Jetti, Raghu
2015-01-01
Variations of dorsal and volar digital cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve are of tremendous clinical importance for successful regional nerve blocks, skin flaps, carpal tunnel release and placement of electrodes for electrophysiological studies. With the aforementioned clinical implications it is worth to report the variations of cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve. In the current case, we have encountered a rare variation (Kaplan`s anastomosis) of ulnar nerve, in the right upper limb. We have n...
A Branch and Bound Algorithm for Project Scheduling Problem with Spatial Resource Constraints
Shicheng Hu; Song Wang; Yonggui Kao; Takao Ito; Xuedong Sun
2015-01-01
With respect to the block assembly schedule in a shipbuilding enterprise, a spatial resource constrained project scheduling problem (SRCPSP) is proposed, which aims to minimize the makespan of a project under the constraints of the availability of a two-dimensional spatial resource and the precedence relationship between tasks. In order to solve SRCPSP to the optimum, a branch and bound algorithm (BB) is developed. For the BB-SRCPSP, first, an implicitly enumerative branch scheme is presented...
Hagg, Heather (Woodward); El-Harit, Jamie; Vanni, Chris; Scott, Penny
2007-01-01
Within healthcare, clinical practice bundles have been used to implement standardized, nursing driven protocols resulting in standardized patient care and improved patient outcomes. Examples of these types of bundles include clinical practices shown through evidence based medicine to reduce occurrences of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia – VAP bundle; those shown to reduce the occurrences of central line infections – CL bundle; and those shown to significantly improve the outcomes of patients...
Global positioning system (GPS) supported block adjustment with self-calibration parameters
Blankenberg, Leif E.
1994-08-01
Systematic errors in the image coordinates is often a problem when working with high accuracy bundle block adjustment. These errors can be modeled by introducing self calibration parameters in the adjustment. In a traditional block adjustment, a dense network of ground control points are required to ensure a reliable estimate of these parameters. In the case of GPS-supported block adjustment, there is usually very little ground control available, but as shown in this paper, it is still possible to estimate the self calibration parameters. This is because of the stabilizing effect the GPS-determined perspective center coordinates have on the block. In this paper, both simulated data and real block data are used to evaluate the accuracy properties of GPS-supported blocks with additional self calibration parameters. Two different sets of additional parameters are evaluated. In the GPS-supported test blocks, the introduction of self calibration parameters improves the empirical tie point accuracy by 30 - 40%.
FEBA - flooding experiments with blocked arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flooding Experiments with Blocked Arrays (FEBA) were conducted to study the effectiveness of the emergency core cooling of PWR with deformed claddings of some fuel rod clusters. Full length bundles of 1x5 as well as 5x5 electrically heated rods of PWR dimensions were used for a number of separate effect test series with various blockage geometries simulating ballooned fuel rod claddings. The results of the eight test series performed with the 5x5 rod bundle using full decay heat show the effects of grid spacers and coplanar coolant channel blockages with and without bypass on reflood heat transfer. The cooling enhancement downstream of grid spacers as well as within and downstream of blockages of 62% blockage ratio mainly occurs during the early portion of reflood. For the 90% blockage ratio only maximum cladding temperatures downstream of the blockage were slightly higher (max. 50 K) than in the bypass area. The purpose of the investigations was to obtain an insight into the most important heat transfer mechanisms to broaden the data base for the development and assessment of improved thermal-hydraulic models. (orig.)
Location of test bundle instrumentation and anticipated experimental values for the CFTL AG-1 bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The placement of instrumentation within the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) AG-1 test section to meet the following objectives is described. The objectives are threefold: (1) to provide values for the evaluation of the performance of the test section, (2) to compare the experimental data with value determined by pretest calulations to indicate the approach to conditions that can lead to a bundle failure, and (3) to acquire data during testing that will form a data base for subsequent use in the verification of computational procedures used in the licensing of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor. Anticipated values for the various instruments have been determined using the computational procedure SAGAPO modified for the AG-1 geometry. These results are used as the basis for the specification of differential pressure cells and the range of readings anticipated from the thermocouples. Part of the results for the full-flow, full-power case is presented
NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch
The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tesař, Václav
Praha: UTAM AV ČR, 2006 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.), s. 380-381 ISBN 80-86246-27-2. [Engineering mechanics 2006 : national conference with international participation. Svratka (CZ), 15.05.2006-18.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : branching * respiratory system * aortic system * microfluidics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Cash efficiency for bank branches.
Cabello, Julia García
2013-01-01
Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50. PMID:24010026
Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions
Sochi, Taha
2013-01-01
The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.
Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)
The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.
Aerosol retention in the flooded steam generator bundle during SGTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Research highlights: → High retention of aerosol particles in a steam generator bundle flooded with water. → Increasing particle inertia, i.e., particle size and velocity, increases retention. → Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle flooded with water than in a dry bundle. → Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle than in a bare pool. → Bare pool models have to be adapted to be applicable for flooded bundles. - Abstract: A steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor may cause accidental release of radioactive particles into the environment. Its specific significance is in its potential to bypass the containment thereby providing a direct pathway of the radioactivity from the primary circuit to the environment. Under certain severe accident scenarios, the steam generator bundle may be flooded with water. In addition, some severe accident management procedures are designed to minimize the release of radioactivity into the environment by flooding the defective steam generator secondary side with water when the steam generator has dried out. To extend our understanding of the particle retention phenomena in the flooded steam generator bundle, tests were conducted in the ARTIST and ARTIST II programs to determine the effect of different parameters on particle retention. The effects of particle type (spherical or agglomerate), particle size, gas mass flow rate, and the break submergence on particle retention were investigated. Results can be summarized as follows: increasing particle inertia was found to increase retention in the flooded bundle. Particle shape, i.e., agglomerate or spherical structure, did not affect retention significantly. Even with a very low submergence, 0.3 m above the tube break, significant aerosol retention took place underlining the importance of the jet-bundle interactions close to the tube break. Droplets were entrained from the water surface with
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Umeda Sasaki
2008-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are frequent, especially in sports. Surgical reconstruction with autologous grafts is widely employed in the international literature. Controversies remain with respect to technique variations as continuous research for improvement takes place. One of these variations is the anatomical double bundle technique, which is performed instead of the conventional single bundle technique. More recently, there has been a tendency towards positioning the two bundles through double bone tunnels in the femur and tibia (anatomical reconstruction. OBJECTIVES: To compare, through biomechanical tests, the practice of anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a patellar graft to conventional single bundle reconstruction with the same amount of patellar graft in a paired experimental cadaver study. METHODS: Nine pairs of male cadaver knees ranging in age from 44 to 63 years were randomized into two groups: group A (single bundle and group B (anatomical reconstruction. Each knee was biomechanically tested under three conditions: intact anterior cruciate ligament, reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament, and injured anterior cruciate ligament. Maximum anterior dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibia rotation were recorded with knees submitted to a 100 N horizontal anterior dislocation force applied to the tibia with the knees at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of flexion. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two techniques for any of the measurements by ANOVA tests. CONCLUSION: The technique of anatomical double bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft has a similar biomechanical behavior with regard to anterior tibial dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibial rotation.
Modelling of transient dynamic bundle deformation using time integration scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The BOW code has been examined whether its modeling capability can be extended to the simulation of interactions (i.e., fretting) between neighbouring fuel elements in a fuel bundle and between the fuel bundle and the pressure tube in a fuel channel. The current BOW code is specialized in simulating the static problems, such as the deflection of each element and interactions between neighbouring elements in a fuel bundle, and interactions between neighbouring bundles and between a bundle and the pressure tube in a fuel channel. The Wilson θ time integration scheme has been implemented in the BOW code, for the extension of its capability to modelling dynamic contact problems. As part of verification to ensure that the modification in the code functions exactly as designed, the dynamic-modelling capability of the BOW code has been applied to simple support beam cases subjected to a uniform step load at the middle of the beam. The calculation results confirmed that the modified BOW code, where the contact algorithm is implemented in the step-by-step integration manner using the Wilson θ time integration scheme, can solve the dynamic problem with unconditional convergence. This paper describes the theory and models for the new capabilities of the BOW code. (author)
Experimental study for convective heat transfer of staged tube bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The lack of potable water is one of the most serious problems the world is facing at present. SMART which is a 330 MWt advanced integral PWR, was developed by the KAERI for electricity generation and seawater desalination. SMART adopted a passive system to enhance its safety. The passive system can passively remove a decay heat from a reactor core to an emergency cooldown tank through the heat exchanger. Tube bundles of the heat exchanger, which is submerged in an emergency cooldown tank, transfer heat to an emergency cooldown tank by natural circulation. Heat transfer tests for the upward straight tube bundle were performed to confirm the capability of the SMART design under natural circulation conditions. The heat transfer at the tube bundle was affected by the fluid temperature in the emergency cooldown tank and the radial location of tube bundle. However, it had nearly the same value at the inlet region regardless of the tube location. The average heat transfer at the tube bundle was slightly higher than that at the single tube. (author)
Thermal hydraulics of rod bundles: The effect of eccentricity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Present CFD investigation explores, whole bundle eccentricity for the first time. • Fluid flow and thermal characteristics in various subchannels are analyzed. • Mass flux distribution is particularly analyzed to study eccentricity effect. • Higher eccentricity resulted in a shoot up in rod surface temperature distribution. • Both tangential and radial flow in rod bundles has resulted due to eccentricity. -- Abstract: The effect of eccentricity on the fluid flow and heat transfer through a 19-rod bundle is numerically carried out. When the whole bundle shifts downwards with respect to the outer (pressure) tube, flow redistribution happens. This in turn is responsible for changes in mass flux, pressure and differential flow development in various subchannels. The heat flux imposed on the surface of the fuel rods and the mass flux through the subchannels determines the coolant outlet temperatures. The simulations are performed for a coolant flow Reynolds number of 4 × 105. For an eccentricity value of 0.7, the mass flux in the bottom most subchannel (l) was found to decrease by 10%, while the surface temperature of the fuel rod in the vicinity of this subchannel increased by 250% at the outlet section. Parameters of engineering interest including skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, etc., have been systematically explored to study the effect of eccentricity on the rod bundle
Study Of The PWR Fuel Bundle Characteristic With Borated Water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Study of the PWR fuel bundle characteristic with 2,4, 2,6, 2,8, 3,0, 3,2 and 3,4 enrichment also with borated water 150 and 200 ppm has been done. The fuel bundle contained 264 fuel elements and water (no fuel elements) are arranged as 17 x 17 matrix and 30,294 cm. The fuel bundle characteristic can be seen from their group constants and the infinite multiplication factor whether more or less than one. The fuel bundle parameters can be found from cell calculation with WIMS PC version program. From the cell calculation shown that the infinite multiplication factor of the fuel bundle with 2,4% enrichment and 200 ppm borated water is 1, 01672, its shown that infinite multiplication factor will less than one with increasing borated water more than 200 ppm. From these result if we would like to design the reactor core with 2,4% minimum enrichment then the maximum borated water is 200 ppm
Hair-bundle friction from transduction channels' gating forces
Bormuth, Volker; Barral, Jérémie; Joanny, Jean-François; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal
2015-12-01
Hearing starts when sound-evoked mechanical vibrations of the hair-cell bundle activate mechanosensitive ion channels, giving birth to an electrical signal. As for any mechanical system, friction impedes movements of the hair bundle and thus constrains the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of auditory transduction. We have shown recently that the opening and closing of the transduction channels produce internal frictional forces that can dominate viscous drag on the micrometer-sized hair bundle and thus provide a major source of damping [2]. We develop here a physical theory of passive hair-bundle mechanics that explains the origin of channel friction. We show that channel friction can be understood quantitatively by coupling the dynamics of the conformational change associated with channel gating to tip-link tension. As a result, varying channel properties affects friction, with faster channels producing smaller friction. The analysis emphasizes the dual role of transduction channels' gating forces, which affect both hair-bundle stiffness and drag. Friction originating from gating of ion channels is a general concept that is relevant to all mechanosensitive channels.
FEBA - flooding experiments with blocked arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report presents typical data and a limited heat transfer analysis of test series V through VIII from an experimental thermal-hydraulic program of Flooding Experiments with Blocked Arrays (FEBA). The experiments consisted of separate effect tests on a full-length 5x5 rod bundle of PWR fuel rod dimensions utilizing electrically heated rods with a cosine power profile approximated by 7 steps of different specific power. Eight test series were performed under idealized reflood conditions using forced feed and system pressure as parameters without the inclusion of the effects of a reactor cooling system. The individual test series were conducted to study the effect of grid spacers and of coplanar blockages of different blockage ratios with and without bypass on the reflood heat transfer. The purpose of the investigations was to obtain an insight into the most important heat transfer mechanisms and to broaden the data base for the development and assessment of improved thermal-hydraulic models. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, Jeppe
2015-01-01
shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....
Symposium on Singularities, Representation of Algebras, and Vector Bundles
Trautmann, Günther
1987-01-01
It is well known that there are close relations between classes of singularities and representation theory via the McKay correspondence and between representation theory and vector bundles on projective spaces via the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand construction. These relations however cannot be considered to be either completely understood or fully exploited. These proceedings document recent developments in the area. The questions and methods of representation theory have applications to singularities and to vector bundles. Representation theory itself, which had primarily developed its methods for Artinian algebras, starts to investigate algebras of higher dimension partly because of these applications. Future research in representation theory may be spurred by the classification of singularities and the highly developed theory of moduli for vector bundles. The volume contains 3 survey articles on the 3 main topics mentioned, stressing their interrelationships, as well as original research papers.
Real Parabolic Vector Bundles over a Real Curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sanjay Amrutiya
2014-02-01
We define real parabolic structures on real vector bundles over a real curve. Let $(X, _X)$ be a real curve, and let $S\\subset X$ be a non-empty finite subset of such that $_X(S) = S$. Let ≥ 2 be an integer. We construct an -fold cyclic cover : $Y→ X$ in the category of real curves, ramified precisely over each point of , and with the property that for any element of the Galois group , and any $y\\in Y$, one has $_Y(gy) = g^{-1}_Y(y)$. We established an equivalence between the category of real parabolic vector bundles on $(X,_X)$ with real parabolic structure over , all of whose weights are integral multiples of 1/, and the category of real -equivariant vector bundles on $(Y, _Y)$.
β-Peptide bundles: Design. Build. Analyze. Biosynthesize.
Wang, Pam S P; Schepartz, Alanna
2016-06-14
Peptides containing β-amino acids are unique non-natural polymers known to assemble into protein-like tertiary and quaternary structures. When composed solely of β-amino acids, the structures formed, defined assemblies of 14-helices called β-peptide bundles, fold cooperatively in water solvent into unique and discrete quaternary assemblies that are highly thermostable, bind complex substrates and metal ion cofactors, and, in certain cases, catalyze chemical reactions. In this Perspective, we recount the design and elaboration of β-peptide bundles and provide an outlook on recent, unexpected discoveries that could influence research on β-peptides and β-peptide bundles (and β-amino acid-containing proteins) for decades to come. PMID:27146019
Simulation of bundle test Quench-12 with integral code MELCOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The past NRI analyses cover the Quench-01, Quench-03 and Quench-06 with version MELCOR 1.8.5 (including reflood model), and Quench-01 and Quench-11 tests with the latest version MELCOR 1.8.6. The Quench-12 test is specific, because it has different bundle configuration related to the VVER bundle configuration with hexagonal grid of pins and also used E110 cladding material. Specificity of Quench-12 test is also in the used material of fuel rod cladding - E110. The test specificities are a reason for the highest concern, because the VVER reactors are operated in the Czech Republic. The new input model was developed with the taking into account all experience from previous simulations of the Quench bundle tests. The recent version MELCOR 1.8.6 YU2911 was used for the simulation with slightly modified ELHEAT package. Sensitivity studies on input parameters and oxidation kinetics were performed. (author)
Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding
Morgenstern, Amanda
2016-01-01
The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...
Multi-scale strain-stiffening of semiflexible bundle networks
Piechocka, I K; Broedersz, C P; Kurniawan, N A; MacKintosh, F C; Koenderink, G H
2015-01-01
Bundles of polymer filaments are responsible for the rich and unique mechanical behaviors of many biomaterials, including cells and extracellular matrices. In fibrin biopolymers, whose nonlinear elastic properties are crucial for normal blood clotting, protofibrils self-assemble and bundle to form networks of semiflexible fibers. Here we show that the extraordinary strain-stiffening response of fibrin networks is a direct reflection of the hierarchical architecture of the fibrin fibers. We measure the rheology of networks of unbundled protofibrils and find excellent agreement with an affine model of extensible wormlike polymers. By direct comparison with these data, we show that physiological fibrin networks composed of thick fibers can be modeled as networks of tight protofibril bundles. We demonstrate that the tightness of coupling between protofibrils in the fibers can be tuned by the degree of enzymatic intermolecular crosslinking by the coagulation Factor XIII. Furthermore, at high stress, the protofibri...
Evaluation of phenomenological DNB models for rod bundle geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seven phenomenological DNB models based on the liquid sublayer dryout and the bubble crowding mechanisms have been evaluated for the square array rod bundles at PWR conditions. The local thermal hydraulic conditions were calculated by the COBRA-IV-I code, and it was assumed that the enthalpy and mass velocity distribution in the test bundle would not be changed at different power levels. A simplified method, which has been proposed for the prediction of CHF in rod bundles from round tube CHF correlations without detailed subchannel analyses, was also applied with the phenomenological models. In view of the prediction accuracy and the applicable range, Lin model shows the best result among phenomenological DNB models assessed in this study. The parametric trends of phenomenological DNB models, however are somewhat abnormal comparing to experimental data. So it can be argued that the existing phenomenological DNB models are rather empirical than theoretical so far
Magnetic Propulsion of Microswimmers with DNA-Based Flagellar Bundles.
Maier, Alexander M; Weig, Cornelius; Oswald, Peter; Frey, Erwin; Fischer, Peer; Liedl, Tim
2016-02-10
We show that DNA-based self-assembly can serve as a general and flexible tool to construct artificial flagella of several micrometers in length and only tens of nanometers in diameter. By attaching the DNA flagella to biocompatible magnetic microparticles, we provide a proof of concept demonstration of hybrid structures that, when rotated in an external magnetic field, propel by means of a flagellar bundle, similar to self-propelling peritrichous bacteria. Our theoretical analysis predicts that flagellar bundles that possess a length-dependent bending stiffness should exhibit a superior swimming speed compared to swimmers with a single appendage. The DNA self-assembly method permits the realization of these improved flagellar bundles in good agreement with our quantitative model. DNA flagella with well-controlled shape could fundamentally increase the functionality of fully biocompatible nanorobots and extend the scope and complexity of active materials. PMID:26821214
Stable parabolic Higgs bundles as asymptotically stable decorated swamps
Beck, Nikolai
2016-06-01
Parabolic Higgs bundles can be described in terms of decorated swamps, which we studied in a recent paper. This description induces a notion of stability of parabolic Higgs bundles depending on a parameter, and we construct their moduli space inside the moduli space of decorated swamps. We then introduce asymptotic stability of decorated swamps in order to study the behaviour of the stability condition as one parameter approaches infinity. The main result is the existence of a constant, such that stability with respect to parameters greater than this constant is equivalent to asymptotic stability. This implies boundedness of all decorated swamps which are semistable with respect to some parameter. Finally, we recover the usual stability condition of parabolic Higgs bundles as asymptotic stability.
Branching processes in disease epidemics
Singh, Sarabjeet
Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a
Quillen Bundle and Geometric Prequantization of Non-Abelian Vortices on a Riemann Surface
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rukmini Dey; Samir K Paul
2011-02-01
In this paper we prequantize the moduli space of non-abelian vortices. We explicitly calculate the symplectic form arising from 2 metric and we construct a prequantum line bundle whose curvature is proportional to this symplectic form. The prequantum line bundle turns out to be Quillen’s determinant line bundle with a modified Quillen metric. Next, as in the case of abelian vortices, we construct line bundles over the moduli space whose curvatures form a family of symplectic forms which are parametrized by $\\Psi_0$, a section of a certain bundle. The equivalence of these prequantum bundles are discussed.
The Determinant Bundle on the Moduli Space of Stable Triples over a Curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indranil Biswas; N Raghavendra
2002-08-01
We construct a holomorphic Hermitian line bundle over the moduli space of stable triples of the form (1, 2, ), where 1 and 2 are holomorphic vector bundles over a fixed compact Riemann surface , and : 2 → 1 is a holomorphic vector bundle homomorphism. The curvature of the Chern connection of this holomorphic Hermitian line bundle is computed. The curvature is shown to coincide with a constant scalar multiple of the natural Kähler form on the moduli space. The construction is based on a result of Quillen on the determinant line bundle over the space of Dolbeault operators on a fixed ∞ Hermitian vector bundle over a compact Riemann surface.
Liu, Xiaoyan; Dédinaité, Andra; Nylander, Tommy; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Skoda, Maximilian; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per Martin
2015-01-01
Pre-adsorbed branched brush layers were formed on silica surfaces by adsorption of a diblock copolymer consisting of a linear cationic block and an uncharged bottle-brush block. The charge of the silica surface was found to affect the adsorption, with lower amounts of the cationic polyelectrolyte depositing on less charged silica. Cleaning under basic conditions rendered surfaces more negatively charged (more negative zeta-potential) than acid cleaning and was therefore used to increase polye...
BUNDLE ADJUSTMENTS CCD CAMERA CALIBRATION BASED ON COLLINEARITY EQUATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Changying; Yu Zhijing; Che Rensheng; Ye Dong; Huang Qingcheng; Yang Dingning
2004-01-01
The solid template CCD camera calibration method of bundle adjustments based on collinearity equation is presented considering the characteristics of space large-dimension on-line measurement. In the method, a more comprehensive camera model is adopted which is based on the pinhole model extended with distortions corrections. In the process of calibration, calibration precision is improved by imaging at different locations in the whole measurement space, multi-imaging at the same location and bundle adjustments optimization. The calibration experiment proves that the calibration method is able to fulfill calibration requirement of CCD camera applied to vision measurement.
Failure process of a bundle of plastic fibers
F. Raischel; Kun, F; Herrmann, H. J.
2006-01-01
We present an extension of fiber bundle models considering that failed fibers still carry a fraction $0 \\leq \\alpha \\leq 1$ of their failure load. The value of $\\alpha$ interpolates between the perfectly brittle failure $(\\alpha = 0)$ and perfectly plastic behavior $(\\alpha=1)$ of fibers. We show that the finite load bearing capacity of broken fibers has a substantial effect on the failure process of the bundle. In the case of global load sharing it is found that for $\\alpha \\to 1$ the macros...
Capillary Micro-Flow Through a Fiber Bundle(Ⅰ)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Ying-dan; WANG Ji-hui; TAN Hua; GAO Guo-qiang
2004-01-01
The present work considered the capillary micro-flow through a fiber bundle. The resin heights in the fiber bundle as a function of time were used to determine the experimental values of capillary pressure and the permeability by the nonlinear regression fitting method. The fitting curves showed a good agreement with experiments. However, these values of capillary pressure from short- time experiments were much lower than the theoretical results from the Yang-Laplace Equation. More accurate capillary pressure was predicted from the presented long-run experiment.
Stable bundles of rank 2 with 4 sections
Grzegorczyk, I; Newstead, P E
2010-01-01
This paper contains results on stable bundles of rank $2$ with space of sections of dimension $4$ on a smooth irreducible projective algebraic curve $C$. There is a known lower bound on the degree for the existence of such bundles; the main result of the paper is a geometric criterion for this bound to be attained. For a general curve $C$ of genus $10$, we show that the bound cannot be attained, but that there exist Petri curves of this genus for which the bound is sharp. We interpret the main results for various curves and in terms of Clifford indices and coherent systems.
Stable bundles of rank 2 with 4 sections
Grzegorczyk, I.; Mercat, V.; Newstead, P. E.
2010-01-01
This paper contains results on stable bundles of rank 2 with space of sections of dimension 4 on a smooth irreducible projective algebraic curve $C$. There is a known lower bound on the degree for the existence of such bundles; the main result of the paper is a geometric criterion for this bound to be attained. For a general curve $C$ of genus 10, we show that the bound cannot be attained, but that there exist Petri curves of this genus for which the bound is sharp. We interpret the main resu...
ASSERT and COBRA predictions of flow distribution in vertical bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
COBRA and ASSERT are subchannel codes which compute flow and enthalpy distributions in rod bundles. COBRA is a well known code, ASSERT is under development at CRNL. This paper gives a comparison of the two codes with boiling experiments in vertical seven rod bundles. ASSERT predictions of the void distribution are shown to be in good agreement with reported experimental results, while COBRA predictions are unsatisfactory. The mixing models in both COBRA and ASSERT are briefly discussed. The reasons for the failure of COBRA-IV and the success of ASSERT in simulating the experiments are highlighted
Validation of SOCRAT-BN code on rod bundle experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SOCRAT-BN code is developed for the analysis of design and beyond design basis accidents at NPPs with liquid sodium as a coolant. To simulate the behavior of the coolant in the reactor core heat transfer and friction in rod bundle geometry are required to consider. The code SOCRAT-BN uses specialized closing relations to simulate rod bundles. The article describes the validation of the code SOCRAT-BN on experiments with fuel rod imitators in the triangular geometry with a wire-wound. (author)
Reaction–diffusion model of hair-bundle morphogenesis
Jacobo, Adrian; Hudspeth, A. J.
2014-01-01
Our senses of hearing and balance rest upon the activity of hair cells, the ear’s sensory receptors. Each hair cell detects mechanical stimuli with its hair bundle, an organelle comprising 10–300 cylindrical, actin-filled stereocilia. A bundle’s structure is highly stereotyped: the stereocilia stand erect in a regular, hexagonal array and display a monotonic gradient in length along one axis. This precise organization is key to the operation of the hair bundle: mutations that disturb the morp...
Chop-leach fuel bundle residues densification by melting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, R.G.; Griggs, B.
1976-11-01
Two melting processes were investigated for the densification of fuel bundle residues: Industoslag melting and graphite crucible melting. The Industoslag process, with prior decontamination and sorting, can produce ingots of Zircaloy, stainless steel and Inconel of a quality suitable for refabrication and reuse. The process can also melt oxidized mixtures of fuel bundle residues for direct storage. Eutectic mixtures of these materials can be melted in graphite at temperatures of 1300/sup 0/C. Hydrogen absorption experiments with the zirconium-rich alloys show the alloys to be potential tritium reservoirs. 13 figures.
Shear and friction between carbon nanotubes in bundles and yarns.
Paci, Jeffrey T; Furmanchuk, Al'ona; Espinosa, Horacio D; Schatz, George C
2014-11-12
We perform a detailed density functional theory assessment of the factors that determine shear interactions between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within bundles and in related CNT and graphene structures including yarns, providing an explanation for the shear force measured in recent experiments (Filleter, T. etal. Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 73). The potential energy barriers separating AB stacked structures are found to be irrelevant to the shear analysis for bundles and yarns due to turbostratic stacking, and as a result, the tube-tube shear strength for pristine CNTs is estimated to be manufacture of strong yarns composed of CNTs. PMID:25279773
Phase Space Reduction of Star Products on Cotangent Bundles
Kowalzig, Niels; Neumaier, Nikolai; Pflaum, Markus J.
2004-01-01
In this paper we construct star products on Marsden-Weinstein reduced spaces in case both the original phase space and the reduced phase space are (symplectomorphic to) cotangent bundles. Under the assumption that the original cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ carries a symplectique structure of form $\\omega_{B_0}=\\omega_0 + \\pi^*B_0$ with $B_0$ a closed two-form on $Q$, is equipped by the cotangent lift of a proper and free Lie group action on $Q$ and by an invariant star product that admits a $G$-equ...
Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.
Efird, Jimmy
2011-01-01
When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011
Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jimmy Efird
2010-12-01
Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.
BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄廷祝; 黎稳
2002-01-01
The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.
Branching problems of unitary representations
Kobayashi, Toshiyuki
2003-01-01
The irreducible decomposition of a unitary representation often contains continuous spectrum when restricted to a non-compact subgroup. The author singles out a nice class of branching problems where each irreducible summand occurs discretely with finite multiplicity (admissible restrictions). Basic theory and new perspectives of admissible restrictions are presented from both analytic and algebraic view points. We also discuss some applications of admissible restrictions to modular varieties...
Cash efficiency for bank branches
Cabello, Julia García
2013-01-01
Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks’ branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...
Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-09-01
This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.
Creep of welded branched pipes
Rayner, Glen
2004-01-01
Creep failure of welds in high-temperature power plant steam piping systems is known to be a potential cause of plant failure. Creep behaviour of plain pipes with circumferential welds and cross-weld specimens have received fairly extensive attention. However, research into the creep behaviour of welded thick-walled branched steam pipes has received less attention. Consequently, this thesis addresses improving the understanding of the creep behaviour for this type of geometry. Numerical and a...
Interactions between Axillary Branches of Arabidopsis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Veronica Ongaro; Katherine Bainbridge; Lisa Williamson; Ottoline Leyser
2008-01-01
Studies of apical dominance have benefited greatly from two-branch assays in pea and bean,in which the shoot system is trimmed back to leave only two active cotyledonary axillary branches.In these two-branch shoots,a large body of evidence shows that one actively growing branch is able to inhibit the growth of the other,prompting studies on the nature of the inhibitory signals,which are still poorly understood.Here,we describe the establishment of two-branch assays in Arabidopsis,using consecutive branches on the bolting stem.As with the classical studies in pea and bean,these consecutive branches are able to inhibit one another's growth.Not only can the upper branch inhibit the lower branch,but also the lower branch can inhibit the upper branch,illustrating the bi-directional action of the inhibitory signals.Using mutants,we show that the inhibition is partially dependent on the MAX pathway and that while the inhibition is clearly transmitted across the stem from the active to the inhibited branch,the vascular connectivity of the two branches is weak,and the MAX pathway is capable of acting unilaterally in the stem.
Branching processes and neutral evolution
Taïb, Ziad
1992-01-01
The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...
Study on Unigraphics Drawing Modeling Method for 37-Element and CANFLEX Fuel Bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The CANFLEX bundle contains 43 elements of two different diameters. It has two rings of small diameter elements on the outside, and eight elements (with diameter slightly larger than those in the standard 37-Element bundle) in the center. This larger number of small diameter elements on the outside of the CANFLEX bundle enhances thermo-hydraulic capability, resulting in a higher power capability and an improvement in operating safety margins. As a Result of advanced fuel design for CANFLEX fuel bundles, components consisting of fuel bundles are more complicated. Hence, the detailed modeling of components is inevitable in order to analyze the fuel performance by computational fluid dynamics. In this report, the basic design of the advanced fuel for CANDU reactors was carried out and the methodology for the modeling of fuel bundle were described. Firstly, the components consisting of fuel bundles were separately modeled and saved with different file names. The final feature of fuel bundle was accomplished by an assembling process of components. Since this report developed the modeling methodology based on the Unigraphics program, the basic explanations for the software were given first, and the complete modeling of 37-elements and CANFLEX fuel bundles were provided. The components of CANFLEX fuel bundles were also compared with that of 37-elements fuel bundles. Although, in this report, the modeling methodology is applied only to 37-elements and CANFLEX fuel bundles, this methodology may be applicable to the newly designed fuel bundles which are to be developed in the future
The effect of radial power profile of DUPIC bundle on CHF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The axial and ring power profiles of DUPIC bundle are much different from those of reference 37-element fuel bundle since a DUPIC fuel bundle is re-fabricated using spent PWR fuel and 2-bundle shift refuelling scheme is proposed to CANDU-6 reactor. In case that the ring power profile of a fuel bundle is altered, the flow and enthalpy distribution of subchannels and the radial position of CHF occurrence will be changed. Similarly, the axial power profile of a fuel channel affects CHF and axial position of CHF occurrence as well as axial enthalpy, quality and pressure distribution. The ring power profile of the DUPIC bundle as increasing burnup is altered and flattened compared to 37-element bundle and each fuel bundle in a fuel channel has a different ring power profile from the other bundles at different axial position in the same fuel channel. Therefore, how to consider the burnup or ring power effect on CHF is very important to DUPIC thermalhydraulic analysis. At present study, thermalhydraulic analysis of the DUPIC bundle was performed in consideration of ring power profile effect on CHF. The subchannel enthalpy, mass flux and CHF distribution for 0 burnup to discharged burnup (18,000 MWD/THM) of DUPIC bundle were evaluated using ASSERT subchannel code. The results were compared to those of 37-element bundle and the compatability of DUPIC bundle with an existing CANDU-6 was presented in a CHF point of view
Study on Unigraphics Drawing Modeling Method for 37-Element and CANFLEX Fuel Bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeon, Yu Mi; Park, Joo Hwan
2010-03-15
The CANFLEX bundle contains 43 elements of two different diameters. It has two rings of small diameter elements on the outside, and eight elements (with diameter slightly larger than those in the standard 37-Element bundle) in the center. This larger number of small diameter elements on the outside of the CANFLEX bundle enhances thermo-hydraulic capability, resulting in a higher power capability and an improvement in operating safety margins. As a Result of advanced fuel design for CANFLEX fuel bundles, components consisting of fuel bundles are more complicated. Hence, the detailed modeling of components is inevitable in order to analyze the fuel performance by computational fluid dynamics. In this report, the basic design of the advanced fuel for CANDU reactors was carried out and the methodology for the modeling of fuel bundle were described. Firstly, the components consisting of fuel bundles were separately modeled and saved with different file names. The final feature of fuel bundle was accomplished by an assembling process of components. Since this report developed the modeling methodology based on the Unigraphics program, the basic explanations for the software were given first, and the complete modeling of 37-elements and CANFLEX fuel bundles were provided. The components of CANFLEX fuel bundles were also compared with that of 37-elements fuel bundles. Although, in this report, the modeling methodology is applied only to 37-elements and CANFLEX fuel bundles, this methodology may be applicable to the newly designed fuel bundles which are to be developed in the future
Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications
Gonzalez Velasco, Miguel; Martinez, Rodrigo; Molina, Manuel
2010-01-01
Contains papers presented at the Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications (WBPA09), held in Badajoz, Spain, April 20-23, 2009, which deal with theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory
Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments
Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette
2015-01-01
Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...
Nemirovsky, Danil
2015-01-01
Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptocurrency, has attracted a lot of attention from academia, financial service industry and enthusiasts. The trade-off between transaction confirmation throughput and centralization of hash power do not allow Bitcoin to perform at the same level as modern payment systems. Block Advertisement Protocol is proposed as a step to resolve this issue. The protocol allows block mining and block relaying to happen in parallel. The protocol dictates a miner to advertise the ...
Coupling Systems of Five CARA Fuel Bundles for Atucha I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describe the mechanical design of two options for the coupling systems of five CARA fuel bundles, to be used in the Atucha I nuclear power plant. These systems will be hydraulic tested in a low pressure loop to know their hydraulic loss of pressure
Bohr--Sommerfeld Lagrangians of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Logares, Marina
Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components of the n...
Regularity for The CR Vector Bundle Problem I
Gong, Xianghong; Webster, S. M.
2009-01-01
We give a new solution to the local integrability problem for CR vector bundles over strictly pseudoconvex real hypersurfaces of dimension seven or greater. It is based on a KAM rapid convergence argument and avoids the previous more difficult Nash-Moser methods. The solution is sharp as to H\\"older continuity.
Self-adjointness of the Gaffney Laplacian on Vector Bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the Gaffney Laplacian on a vector bundle equipped with a compatible metric and connection over a Riemannian manifold that is possibly geodesically incomplete. Under the hypothesis that the Cauchy boundary is polar, we demonstrate the self-adjointness of this Laplacian. Furthermore, we show that negligible boundary is a necessary and sufficient condition for the self-adjointness of this operator
Elliptic open books on torus bundles over the circle
Etgü, Tolga
2006-01-01
As an application of the construction of open books on plumbed 3-manifolds, we construct elliptic open books on torus bundles over the circle. In certain cases these open books are compatible with Stein fillable contact structures and have minimal genus.
Euler-Lagrange Forms and Cohomology Groups on Jet Bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jing-Bo
2005-01-01
@@ Using the language of jet bundles, we generalize the definitions of Euler-Lagrange one-form and the associated cohomology which were introduced by Guo et al. [Commun. Theor. Phys. 37(2002)1]. Continuous and discreteLagrange mechanics and field theory are presented. Higher order Euler-Lagrange cohomology groups are also introduced.
A Method of Assembling Compact Coherent Fiber-Optic Bundles
Martin, Stefan; Liu, Duncan; Levine, Bruce Martin; Shao, Michael; Wallace, James
2007-01-01
A method of assembling coherent fiber-optic bundles in which all the fibers are packed together as closely as possible is undergoing development. The method is based, straightforwardly, on the established concept of hexagonal close packing; hence, the development efforts are focused on fixtures and techniques for practical implementation of hexagonal close packing of parallel optical fibers.
Signal Integrity Analysis in Single and Bundled Carbon Nanotube Interconnects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carbon nanotube (CN T) can be considered as an emerging interconnect material in current nano scale regime. They are more promising than other interconnect materials such as Al or Cu because of their robustness to electromigration. This research paper aims to address the crosstalk-related issues (signal integrity) in interconnect lines. Different analytical models of single- (SWCNT), double- (DWCNT), and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNT) are studied to analyze the crosstalk delay at global interconnect lengths. A capacitively coupled three-line bus architecture employing CMOS driver is used for accurate estimation of crosstalk delay. Each line in bus architecture is represented with the equivalent RLC models of single and bundled SWCNT, DWCNT, and MWCNT interconnects. Crosstalk delay is observed at middle line (victim) when it switches in opposite direction with respect to the other two lines (aggressors). Using the data predicted by ITRS 2012, a comparative analysis on the basis of crosstalk delay is performed for bundled SWCNT/DWCNT and single MWCNT interconnects. It is observed that the overall crosstalk delay is improved by 40.92% and 21.37% for single MWCNT in comparison to bundled SWCNT and bundled DWCNT interconnects, respectively.
Moduli of Parabolic Higgs Bundles and Atiyah Algebroids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Logares, Marina; Martens, Johan
2010-01-01
. By considering the case of full flags, we get a Grothendieck–Springer resolution for all other flag types, in particular for the moduli spaces of twisted Higgs bundles, as studied by Markman and Bottacin and used in the recent work of Laumon–Ngô. We discuss the Hitchin system, and demonstrate that...
Heat transfer and fluid friction in bundles of twisted tubes
Dzyubenko, B. V.; Dreitser, G. A.
1986-06-01
The results of heat-transfer and friction studies in bundles of twisted tubes and rods with spiral wire-wrap spacers are analyzed, and recommendations are given for calculating the heat-transfer coefficient in heat exchangers using twisted tubes.
AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...
On Liftings of Local Torus Actions to Fiber Bundles
Yoshida, Takahiko
2007-01-01
In this note we define a lifting of a local torus action modeled on the standard representation (we call it a local torus action for simplicity) to a principal torus bundle, and show that there is an obstruction class for the existence of liftings in the first cohomology of the fundamental group of the orbit space with coefficients in a certain module.
Quantum nonsymmetric gravity and the superfiber bundle formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The formalism of the principal super fiber-bundle is applied to quantum Nonsymmetric gravitational theory. It is shown that the metric and Fadeev-Popov fields arise as superfield components of the super connection. Moreover the BRST and anti-BRST transformations are shown to be the gauge transformations of the parameters of the ghost and anti-ghost superfields. (authors)
Quantum Nonsymmetric Gravity and The Superfiber Bundle Formalism
Mebarki, N
1999-01-01
The formalism of the principal superfiber-bundle is applied to quantum Nonsymmetric gravitationl theory. It is shown that the metric and Faddev-Popov fields arise as superfields components of the superconnection. Moreover,the BRST and anti-BRST transformations are shown to be the gauge transformations of parameters the ghost and anti-ghost superfields.
Self-adjointness of the Gaffney Laplacian on Vector Bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandara, Lashi, E-mail: lashi.bandara@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Mathematical Sciences (Sweden); Milatovic, Ognjen, E-mail: omilatov@unf.edu [University of North Florida, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (United States)
2015-12-15
We study the Gaffney Laplacian on a vector bundle equipped with a compatible metric and connection over a Riemannian manifold that is possibly geodesically incomplete. Under the hypothesis that the Cauchy boundary is polar, we demonstrate the self-adjointness of this Laplacian. Furthermore, we show that negligible boundary is a necessary and sufficient condition for the self-adjointness of this operator.
A note on stochastic calculus in vector bundles
Catuogno, Pedro J.; Ledesma, Diego S.; Ruffino, Paulo R.
2011-01-01
The aim of these notes is to relate covariant stochastic integration in a vector bundle $E$ (as in Norris \\cite{Norris}) with the usual Stratonovich calculus via the connector $\\K:TE \\rightarrow E$ (cf. e.g. Paterson \\cite{Paterson} or Poor \\cite{Poor}) which carries the connection dependence.
Vibrations of turbine blades bundles model with rubber damping elements
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk
2014-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 45-52. ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : mathematical model * bundle of five blades * rubber damping elements * eigenmodes Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.engineeringmechanics.cz/obsahy.html?R=21&C=1
Multicell slug flow heat transfer analysis of finite LMFBR bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeung, M.K.; Wolf, L.
1978-12-01
An analytical two-dimensional, multi-region, multi-cell technique has been developed for the thermal analysis of LMFBR rod bundles. Local temperature fields of various unit cells were obtained for 7, 19, and 37-rod bundles of different geometries and power distributions. The validity of the technique has been verified by its excellent agreement with the THTB calculational result. By comparing the calculated fully-developed circumferential clad temperature distribution with those of the experimental measurements, an axial correction factor has been derived to account for the entrance effect for practical considerations. Moreover, the knowledge of the local temperature field of the rod bundle leads to the determination of the effective mixing lengths L/sub ij/ for adjacent subchannels of various geometries. It was shown that the implementation of the accurately determined L/sub ij/ into COBRA-IIIC calculations has fairly significant effects on intersubchannel mixing. In addition, a scheme has been proposed to couple the 2-D distributed and lumped parameter calculation by COBRA-IIIC such that the entrance effect can be implanted into the distributed parameter analysis. The technique has demonstrated its applicability for a 7-rod bundle and the results of calculation were compared to those of three-dimensional analyses and experimental measurements.
The fiber bundle formalism for the quantization in curved spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We set up a geometrical formulation of the canonical quantization of free Klein-Gordon field on a gravitational background. We introduce the notion of the Bogolubov bundle as the principal fiber bundle over the space of all Cauchy surfaces belonging to some fixed foliation of space-time, with the Bogolubov group as the structure group, as a tool in considering local Bogolubov transformations. Sections of the associated complex structure bundle have the meaning of attaching Hilbert spaces to Cauchy surfaces. We single out, as physical, sections defined by the equation of parallel transport on the Bogolubov bundle. The connection is then subjected to a certain nonlinear differential equation. We find a particular solution, which happens to coincide with a formula given by L.Parker for Robertson-Walker space-times. Finally, we adopt the adiabatic hypothesis as the physical input to the formalism and fix in this way a free parameter in the connection. Concluding, we comment on a possible geometrical interpretation of the regularization of stress-energy tensor and on generalizations of the formalism toward quantum gravity. 14 refs. (Author)
Product Bundling and Shared Information Goods: A Pricing Exercise
Morrison, William G.
2016-01-01
In this article, the author describes an exercise in which two pricing problems (product bundling and the sharing of digital information goods) can be understood using the same analytical approach. The exercise allows students to calculate the correct numerical answers with relative ease, while the teaching plan demonstrates the importance of the…
Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds with Flat Normal Bundle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hai-Ping Fu
2010-09-01
Let $M^n(n≥ 3)$ be an -dimensional complete immersed $\\frac{n-2}{n}$-superstable minimal submanifold in an $(n+p)$-dimensional Euclidean space $\\mathbb{R}^{n+p}$ with flat normal bundle. We prove that if the second fundamental form of satisfies some decay conditions, then is an affine plane or a catenoid in some Euclidean subspace.
Fibre bundles, connections, general relativity, and Einstein-Cartan theory
Socolovsky, Miguel
2011-01-01
We present in the most natural way, that is, in the context of the theory of vector and principal bundles and connections in them, fundamental geometrical concepts related to General Relativity and one of its extensions, the Einstein-Cartan theory.
Cohomology of line bundles: Proof of the algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a proof of the algorithm for computing line bundle valued cohomology classes over toric varieties conjectured by Blumenhagen et al. [e-print arXiv:cond-mat/1003.5217] and suggest a kind of Serre duality for combinatorial Betti numbers that we observed when computing examples.
Assembly and operation experience of EVA II steam reforming bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main test component of the experimental facility EVA-II/ADAM-II is a helium heated steam reformer bundle with 30 tubes. The tubes are filled with a catalyst of raschig ring type. The main test of the component were related to the power dependence. A series of experiment dealt with the influence of steam/methane ratio on the carbon deposit formation
A comprehensive comparison on vibration and heat transfer of two elastic heat transfer tube bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闫柯; 葛培琪; 翟强
2015-01-01
Elastic heat transfer tube bundles are widely used in the field of flow-induced vibration heat transfer enhancement. Two types of mainly used tube bundles, the planar elastic tube bundle and the conical spiral tube bundle were comprehensively compared in the condition of the same shell side diameter. The natural mode characteristics, the effect of fluid−structure interaction, the stress distribution, the comprehensive heat transfer performance and the secondary fluid flow of the two elastic tube bundles were all concluded and compared. The results show that the natural frequency and the critical velocity of vibration buckling of the planar elastic tube bundle are larger than those of the conical spiral tube bundle, while the stress distribution and the comprehensive heat transfer performance of the conical spiral tube bundle are relatively better.
2010-02-24
... Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations and Lobbyist Bundling Disclosure Threshold AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of adjustments to expenditure limitations and lobbyist... Commission'') is adjusting certain expenditure limitations and the lobbyist bundling disclosure threshold...
2012-02-21
... Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations and Lobbyist Bundling Disclosure Threshold AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of adjustments to expenditure limitations and lobbyist... Commission'') is adjusting certain expenditure limitations and the lobbyist bundling disclosure threshold...
The Effects of a Branch Campus
Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin
2012-01-01
We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…
Case Study of MATRA-S for PNL 7x7 Rod Bundle Blockage Test - I. Subchannel Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Kyong Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2010-10-15
We validated a subchannel analysis code, MATRAS in comparison with the 7x7 rod bundle blockage test of PNL. MATRA-S has ability to solve equations with variable axial node sizes for complex flow field like flow paths blocked and to model flow blockage by reducing flow area and gap size. The PNL 7x7 rod bundle flow blockage test was conducted to investigate the turbulent flow field at blockage in a fuel assembly. A part of flow areas were blocked or reduced by sleeves installed on center 3x3 rods. The blockages simulate fuel rod swelling or ballooning which may occur during the loss of coolant accident. The test section consists of 57' long, 0.392' outer diameter, 7x7 rods with 0.539' pitch. There were three space grids of pressure loss coefficient of 1.14. Nine sleeves were installed on center nine rods at middle to reduce 17.9 {approx} 70% of subchannel flow areas with respect to their location. Fig.1 (a) shows a cross sectional view of the test section and shapes of sleeves and their locations
Case Study of MATRA-S for PNL 7x7 Rod Bundle Blockage Test - I. Subchannel Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We validated a subchannel analysis code, MATRAS in comparison with the 7x7 rod bundle blockage test of PNL. MATRA-S has ability to solve equations with variable axial node sizes for complex flow field like flow paths blocked and to model flow blockage by reducing flow area and gap size. The PNL 7x7 rod bundle flow blockage test was conducted to investigate the turbulent flow field at blockage in a fuel assembly. A part of flow areas were blocked or reduced by sleeves installed on center 3x3 rods. The blockages simulate fuel rod swelling or ballooning which may occur during the loss of coolant accident. The test section consists of 57' long, 0.392' outer diameter, 7x7 rods with 0.539' pitch. There were three space grids of pressure loss coefficient of 1.14. Nine sleeves were installed on center nine rods at middle to reduce 17.9 ∼ 70% of subchannel flow areas with respect to their location. Fig.1 (a) shows a cross sectional view of the test section and shapes of sleeves and their locations
Thermo-Responsive Hydrogels Based on Branched Poly(L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) Copolymers
Velthoen, Ingrid W.; Tijsma, Edze J.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan
2008-01-01
Branched poly(L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLLA-PEG) block copolymers were synthesized from trifunctional PLLA and amine functionalized methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)s. The copolymers in water formed hydrogels that showed thermo-responsive behavior. The hydrogels underwent a gel to sol transitio
Wagih, Ahmad M.
2013-01-01
A careful review of the literature suggests that a significant number of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have less-than-optimal results. Although overall outcomes of ACL reconstruction are favorable, there remains considerable room for improvement. Anatomically, the ACL consists of 2 major functional bundles, the anteromedial bundle and the posterolateral bundle. Biomechanically, both bundles contribute significantly to the anterior and rotational stability...
Equilibrium Bundle Size of Rodlike Polyelectrolytes with Counterion-Induced Attractive Interactions
Henle, Mark L.; Pincus, Philip A.
2004-01-01
Multivalent counterions can induce an effective attraction between like-charged rodlike polyelectrolytes, leading to the formation of polelectrolyte bundles. In this paper, we calculate the equilibrium bundle size using a simple model in which the attraction between polyelectrolytes (assumed to be pairwise additive) is treated phenomenologically. If the counterions are point-like, they almost completely neutralize the charge of the bundle, and the equilibrium bundle size diverges. When the co...
Twisted Partial Actions, A Classification of Stable C*-Algebraic Bundles (Preliminary Version)
Exel, Ruy
1994-01-01
We introduce the notion of continuous twisted partial actions of a locally compact group on a C*-algebra. With such, we construct an associated C*-algebraic bundle called the semidirect product bundle. Our main theorem shows that, given any C*-algebraic bundle which is second countable and whose unit fiber algebra is stable, there is a continuous twisted partial action of the base group on the unit fiber algebra, whose associated semidirect product bundle is isomorphic to the given one.
Why Bundle Discounts Can Be a Profitable Alternative to Competing on Price Promotions
Subramanian Balachander; Bikram Ghosh; Axel Stock
2010-01-01
Price promotions and bundling have been two of the most widely used marketing tools in industry practice. Past literature has assumed that firms respond to price promotions by promoting a product in the same category. In this paper, we extend this literature as well as the bundling literature by considering the possibility that a firm may respond to a competitor's price promotions by also offering a cross-buying or bundling discount. Using a game-theoretic model, we show that bundle discounts...
An extension theorem of Ohsawa-Takegoshi type for sections of a vector bundle
Raufi, Hossein
2014-01-01
Using $L^2$-methods for the $\\bar\\partial$-equation we prove that the Ohsawa-Takegoshi extension theorem also holds for holomorphic sections of a vector bundle, over compact K\\"ahler manifolds. We then proceed to show that the conditions that are needed are more liberal than the ones one would need if one instead reduced the extension problem to line bundles through the usual algebraic geometric procedure of studying the projective bundle associated with the vector bundle.
On hyperbolicity of SU(2)-equivariant, punctured disc bundles over the complex affine quadric
Iannuzzi, Andrea
2011-01-01
Given a holomorphic line bundle over the complex affine quadric $Q^2$, we investigate its Stein, SU(2)-equivariant disc bundles. Up to equivariant biholomorphism, these are all contained in a maximal one, say $\\Omega_{max}$. By removing the zero section to $\\Omega_{max}$ one obtains the unique Stein, SU(2)-equivariant, punctured disc bundle over $Q^2$ which contains entire curves. All other such punctured disc bundles are shown to be Kobayashi hyperbolic.
Compressive force generation by a bundle of living biofilaments
Ramachandran, Sanoop; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul
2013-08-01
To study the compressional forces exerted by a bundle of living stiff filaments pressing on a surface, akin to the case of an actin bundle in filopodia structures, we have performed particulate molecular dynamics simulations of a grafted bundle of parallel living (self-assembling) filaments, in chemical equilibrium with a solution of their constitutive monomers. Equilibrium is established as these filaments, grafted at one end to a wall of the simulation box, grow at their chemically active free end, and encounter the opposite confining wall of the simulation box. Further growth of filaments requires bending and thus energy, which automatically limit the populations of longer filaments. The resulting filament sizes distribution and the force exerted by the bundle on the obstacle are analyzed for different grafting densities and different sub- or supercritical conditions, these properties being compared with the predictions of the corresponding ideal confined bundle model. In this analysis, non-ideal effects due to interactions between filaments and confinement effects are singled out. For all state points considered at the same temperature and at the same gap width between the two surfaces, the force per filament exerted on the opposite wall appears to be a function of a rescaled free monomer density hat{ρ }_1^eff. This quantity can be estimated directly from the characteristic length of the exponential filament size distribution P observed in the size domain where these grafted filaments are not in direct contact with the wall. We also analyze the dynamics of the filament contour length fluctuations in terms of effective polymerization (U) and depolymerization (W) rates, where again it is possible to disentangle non-ideal and confinement effects.
An evaluation on the cutting technologies for decommissioning of the tube bundles in the RPV of NPPs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • This paper is to evaluate an optimal cutting technology of the tube bundles in the RPV of NPPs. • Characteristics of the tube bundles were analyzed and alternative cutting technologies of the tube bundles were evaluated. • An optimal cutting technology of the tube bundles was suggested. - Abstract: This paper is to evaluate an optimal cutting technology of the tube bundles in the reactor pressure vessel of nuclear power plants. Characteristics of the tube bundles were analyzed and alternative cutting technologies of the tube bundles were evaluated. The optimal cutting technology of the tube bundles was suggested
Queen, J. Allen
2000-01-01
Successful block scheduling depends on provision of initial and ongoing instructional training. Teaching strategies should vary and include cooperative learning, the case method, the socratic seminar, synectics, concept attainment, the inquiry method, and simulations. Recommendations for maximizing block scheduling are outlined. (Contains 52…
Stochastic Transition between Turbulent Branch and Thermodynamic Branch of an Inhomogeneous Plasma
Kawasaki, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka
2002-01-01
Transition phenomena between thermodynamic branch and turbulent branch in submarginal turbulent plasma are analyzed with statistical theory. Time-development of turbulent fluctuation is obtained by numerical simulations of Langevin equation which contains submarginal characteristics. Probability density functions and transition rates between two states are analyzed. Transition from turbulent branch to thermodynamic branch occurs in almost entire region between subcritical bifurcation point an...
On the Topology of Real Bundle Pairs over Nodal Symmetric Surfaces
Georgieva, Penka
2015-01-01
We give an alternative argument for the classification of real bundle pairs over smooth symmetric surfaces and extend this classification to nodal symmetric surfaces. We also classify the homotopy classes of automorphisms of real bundle pairs over symmetric surfaces. The two statements together describe the isomorphisms between real bundle pairs over symmetric surfaces up to deformation.
Fuel bundle loss of cooling inside the fuelling machine at CANDU6 PHWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article describes the that loss of forced circulation cooling flow of induce spent fuel bundle loss of cooling and fission product releasing, analyzes the effect of reactor building and environment due to the fuel bundle rupturing, discusses the countermeasure to deal with the event of loss of cooling of spent fuel bundle. (authors)
Standardization of Type 2 Diabetes Outpatient Expenditure with Bundled Payment Method in China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo-Chao Xu
2016-01-01
Conclusions: We argued that it is feasible to implement bundled payment on type 2 diabetes outpatient services. Bundled payment is effective to control the increase of outpatient expenditure. Further improvements are needed for the implementation of bundled payment reimbursement standards, together with relevant policies and measures.
Semistability of Certain Bundles on Second Symmetric Power of a Curve
Dan, Krishanu; Pal, Sarbeswar
2015-01-01
Let $C$ be a smooth irreducible projective curve and $E$ be a rank 2 stable vector bundle on $C$. Then one can associate a rank 4 vector bundle $\\mathcal{F}_2(E)$ on $S^2(C)$, second symmetric power of $C$. Our goal in this article is to study semistability of this bundle.
Remediation of spent block in Uvanas deposit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In 2007 by 'Kazatomprom' and 'Mining company' board decision, the branch of 'Mining company', 'Steppe ore management body' is reorganized in structure subdivision, the basic activity of which is organization and carrying out remediation works on spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit. In 2002 works are completed on OVOS for operating deposits Uvanas, Kanjugan, Northern Karamurun and Eastern Minkuduk. The results of present work were reported in IAEA conference. The working project 'Remediation of spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit PV-17 polygon of Steppe ore management body' approved in 2005 was developed for carrying out the remediation works. Works funding were carried out from liquidation fund of the current deposit established in accordance with the Republic of Kazakhstan law 'About interior and interior use'. Deposits remediation is the part of deposit operation life cycle which obliges to operate deposits with minimum expenditures for remediation.
Penurunan Kerugian Head pada Belokan Pipa dengan Peletakan Tube Bundle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pratikto
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Fluid flow flowing through an elbow causes separation. Separation leads to vortex, shake and cavity. As a result, the head loss will increase and the pipe installation is potentially damaged. Thus, separation must be eliminated. The separation is identified by the presence of high pressure decreasing in the downstream of elbow. To minimize the pressure decreasing in elbow, we need flow conditioner like a tube bundle. The aim of this research is to identify the influence of tube bundle placement toward the head loss such as pressure drop. The elbow being tested is placed on a pipe installation already equipped by testing aids such as computers and its software, pressure transmitter, and rotameter. The free variable in this study is the distance of the tube bundle from the outlet edge of the pipe turn 2D, 3D, 4D and 5D and fluid flow volume which flows through the installation that are 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900 and 2000 litres/hour. Whereas, the dependent variable is the pressure drop (p measured by pressure transmitter and the head loss of which the value is obtained from the measurement of pressure drop. The test was conducted on 1.25 inch in diameter elbow with 22 holes of tube bundle and 27 mm in length. To know the head loss, so the pressure drop (p of fluid at upstream and downstream of the pipe turn are measured using 2 pressure transmitters connected to the computer through ADC (Analog Digital Converter. The data had already recorded in computer was processed using the LabView software to get the averaged value of the pressure drop. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Aliran Fluida yang mengalir melalui belokan pipa menyebabkan terjadinya separasi. Separasi mengakibatkan terjadinya vortex, getaran, dan kavitasi, dimana kerugian tersebut mengakibatkan kerugian head meningkat dan berpotensi merusak instalasi pipa sehingga separasi perlu dihilangkan. Separasi ini ditandai dengan penurunan tekanan yang besar
PERSONALISED DENTURES WITH BRANCHING TECHNIQUE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Puneet
2012-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: While the basic process of making dentures has chang ed little over the past several decades, new materials and techniques can help labor atories and clinicians provide functional, esthetic restorations that offer exceptional value t o patients. Unlike the conventional “linear” methods which foll ow specific steps in a cookbook fashion, the Branching Technique is a dynamic conce pt which can be adjusted to meet the clinical needs of each patient. This customized tec hnique allows for a “trial” denture to be worn by each patient that is used to pinpoint and solve th e patient’s denture problems before the final denture is made. This individualized approach helps t o eliminate disappointments or surprises. From the preliminary impressions and the “training” d enture (it’s actually a provisional denture to the functional impressions and porcelain teeth to hold the patient’s vertical dimension, the Branching Technique produces the most esthetically pleasing and functionally stable dentures possible.
Radical power profile effect of DUPIC bundle on critical heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The axial and ring power profiles of DUPIC bundle are much different from those of reference 37-element fuel bundle since a DUPIC fuel bundle is -re-fabricated under proliferation resistance using spent PWR fuel and 2-bundle shift refuelling scheme of DUPIC bundle is proposed to CANDU-6 reactor. In case that the ring power porfile of a fuel bundle is altered, the flow and enthalpy distribution of subchannels and the radial position of CHF occurrence will be changed. Similarly, the axial power profile of a fuel channel affects CHF, axial position of CHF occurrence, axial enthalpy, quality and pressure distribution. The ring power profile of the DUPIC bundle as increasing burnup is much altered and flattened at high burnup, compared to 37-element bundle. It caused that one fuel bundle has a different ring power profile from the other fuel bundles at the different axial positions even in the same fuel channel. Therefore, how to consider burnup or ring power effect on CHF is very important to DUPIC thermalhydraulic analysis. At present study, thermalhydraulic analysis of a DUPIC bundles was performed in order to evaluate the ring power profile effect on CHF. The subchannel enthalpy, mass flux and CHF distribution from 0 burnup to discharged burnup (18,000 MWd/tHM) of DUPIC bundle were evaluated using ASSERT-PV subchannel code. The results of DUPIC bundles were compared to those of 37-elemental bundle and the comparability of DUPIC bundle with an existing CANDU-6 was presented in a CHF point of view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø
ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard......(AES).Wedescribe the mostgeneraltypes ofblock cipher cryptanalysis but concentrate on the algebraic attacks. While the algebraic techniques have been successful oncertainstreamcipherstheirapplicationtoblock ciphershasnot shown any significant results so far. This thesis contributes to the field of algebraic attacks on...... algebraic results on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....
Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Seetharaman, Koushik
2013-12-18
Branches in amylopectin are distributed along the backbone. Units of the branches are building blocks (smaller) and clusters (larger) based on the distance between branches. In this study, composition of clusters and building blocks of amylopectins from dull1 maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with a common genetic background (W64A) were characterized and compared with the wild type. Clusters were produced from amylopectins by partial hydrolysis using α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and were subsequently treated with phosphorylase a and β-amylase to produce φ,β-limit dextrins. Clusters were further extensively hydrolyzed with the α-amylase to produce building blocks. Structures of clusters and building blocks were analyzed by diverse chromatographic techniques. The results showed that the dull1 mutation resulted in larger clusters with more singly branched building blocks. The average cluster contained ~5.4 blocks in dull1 mutants and ~4.2 blocks in the wild type. The results are compared with previous results from SSIII-deficient amo1 barley and suggest fundamental differences in the cluster structures. PMID:24229421
Separation and re-adhesion processes of two adhered single-walled carbon nanotube bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carbon nanotubes are desirable components of nanoelectromechanical (NEM) devices due to their excellent mechanical and electrical properties. In this study, dielectrophoresis, a potential high-rate nanomanufacturing process, was used to assemble single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles suspended over a trench. The intent was to assemble a single SWCNT bundle between two electrodes. However, it was observed that when two or more SWCNT bundles assembled across the trench, the bundles were attached together in a portion of the suspended section. This study models the separation and re-adhesion processes of two adhered SWCNT bundles as their internal tensions are varied using an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. Two devices were selected with distinct SWCNT bundles. Observation of the force–distance measurements through applying an AFM tip at the middle of the suspended SWCNT bundles, in conjunction with continuum mechanics modelling, allowed the work of adhesion between the two nanotube bundles to be determined. As the force was applied by the AFM tip, the tension induced in each bundle increases sufficiently to partially overcome the adhesion between the bundles, thereby decreasing the adhesive length. The adhesive length then recovers due to the decrease in the induced tension during the unloading process. The average value of the work of adhesion between two adhered SWCNT bundles was determined to be 0.37 J m−2 according to the experimental data and modelling results. (paper)
Linear duals of graded bundles and higher analogues of (Lie) algebroids
Bruce, Andrew James; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz
2016-03-01
Graded bundles are a class of graded manifolds which represent a natural generalisation of vector bundles and include the higher order tangent bundles as canonical examples. We present and study the concept of the linearisation of graded bundle which allows us to define the notion of the linear dual of a graded bundle. They are examples of double structures, graded-linear (GL) bundles, including double vector bundles as a particular case. On GL-bundles we define what we shall call weighted algebroids, which are to be understood as algebroids in the category of graded bundles. They can be considered as a geometrical framework for higher order Lagrangian mechanics. Canonical examples are reductions of higher tangent bundles of Lie groupoids. Weighted algebroids represent also a generalisation of VB-algebroids as defined by Gracia-Saz & Mehta and the LA-bundles of Mackenzie. The resulting structures are strikingly similar to Voronov's higher Lie algebroids, however our approach does not require the initial structures to be defined on supermanifolds.
Frobenius Pull Backs of Vector Bundles in Higher Dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V Trivedi
2012-11-01
We prove that for a smooth projective variety of arbitrary dimension and for a vector bundle over , the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of and the slope of the destabilizing sheaf of the cotangent bundle of ). We also recall some examples, due to Raynaud and Monsky, to show that some lower bound on is necessary. We also give a bound on the instability degree of the Frobenius pull back of in terms of the instability degree of and well defined invariants of .
Seismic analysis and test of model steam generator tube bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The seismic response analysis and experimental study of a model PWR steam generator tube bundle has been completed. A planar tube mathematical model of linear FEM (finite element method) and simplified model tube bundle on the scale of 1:4.4 are used in the study. White noise sweep test shows that the effect of clearance and contact constraint between tube and anti-vibration bar is insignificant, the global fundamental frequency component is absolutely dominant, and the higher frequency components only affect the local vibration in different locations. The experimental results indicate that fundamental frequency component is dominant in seismic acceleration response spectrum. The second, third and fourth frequency components appear in the kind of frequency bands. The experimental data are in good agreement with the linear FEM results. The effectiveness of simplified mathematical model is verified