WorldWideScience

Sample records for bumps precision extraction

  1. NSRL Extraction Bump Control in the Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to inadequacies in the user interface of the booster orbit control system, a number of new tools were developed. The first priority was an accurate calculation of the winding currents given specific displacements at each extraction septa. Next, the physical limits of the power supplies (±600 amps) needed to be taken into account. In light of this limit, a system is developed that indicates to the user what the allowed values of one bump parameter are once the other two have been specified. Finally, techniques are developed to account for the orbit behavior once power supplies are requested to exceed their ±600 amp limit. This includes a recalculation of bump parameters and a calculation of the amplitude of the residuals. Following this, possible areas for further development are outlined. These techniques were computationally developed in Mathematica and tested in the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) program before they were implemented into the control system. At the end, a description of the implementation of these techniques in a new interface is described. This includes a depiction of the appearance and functionality of the graphical user interface, a description of the input and output flow, and an outline of how each important calculation is performed

  2. Use of Strain-life Models with Wavelet Bump Extraction (WBE) fro Prediction Fatigue Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, John R.; Choi Jae-Chil; Shahrum Abdullah; Joseph A. Giacomin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the use of strain-life fatigue damage models to observe the cycle sequence effects in the wavelet-based fatigue data editing algorithm. This algorithm is called Wavelet Bump Extraction (WBE), which was developed to produce a shortened signal by extracting fatigue damaging events from the original signal with the retention of the original cycle sequences. Current industrial practice uses the Plamgren-Miner linear damage rule to predict the fatigue life or fatigue damage und...

  3. Precision Photometry of Long Period Variable Stars: Flares and Bumps in the Night (Poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, D.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Mira variable stars are a broad class of stars, which encompass spectroscopic classes of type M, S, and C. These stars are closely related in terms of their long term variability, position on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram their intermediate mass (from ~0.8 to ~8 solar mass) and the fact that class M evolves into the S and C type stars as certain stages of shell burning around the core proceeds. Recently, evidence has accumulated to suggest that Mira variables may go through flare up stages which result in brightening on the order of several tenths of a magnitude or more and may last hours to days in length. Very little is known about these events, indeed it is not clear that these events are real. In order to address the reality of these events, we established an automated acquisition/analysis of a group of 108 Mira variables in order to obtain the densest coverage of the periods to better constrain the potential flare-ups. Telescope control scripts were put in place along with real time analysis. This allowed for unattended acquisition of data on every clear night, all night long, in the V, R, and I photometric bands. In addition, during the course of the night multiple determinations are often obtained for a given star. The light curves of many of the program stars show a Cepheid-like bump phenomenon, however these appear on the ascending part of the light curve. In general, these bumps appear in longer period Mira's (>350 days). Bumps are not obvious or easily seen in VISUAL data records, although slope changes during rising phase are seen in some cases. So far, greater than 100,000 magnitude determinations have been obtained, many closely spaced in time. This should help to further constrain the potential occurrences of flare-up events.

  4. Use of Strain-life Models with Wavelet Bump Extraction (WBE fro Prediction Fatigue Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Yates

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of strain-life fatigue damage models to observe the cycle sequence effects in the wavelet-based fatigue data editing algorithm. This algorithm is called Wavelet Bump Extraction (WBE, which was developed to produce a shortened signal by extracting fatigue damaging events from the original signal with the retention of the original cycle sequences. Current industrial practice uses the Plamgren-Miner linear damage rule to predict the fatigue life or fatigue damage under variable amplitude(VA loadings. Using VA loadings, however, this rule does not have load interaction accountability in the analysis. Thus, a more suitable approach has been identified for predicting fatigue damage od VA loadings, i.e. the Effective Strain Damage (ESD model. In this study, the cycle sequence effect observation was implemented in both analytical and experimental works using the WBE extracted VA loadings. The study includes the comparison between the experimental and the anlytical (using four strain-life fatigue damage models: Coffin-Manson, Morrow, Smith-Watson-Topper and ESD fatigue damage. The smallest average in the fatigue damage difference was found when using the ESD strain-life model, suggesting the suitability of the model for analysing VA fatigue technique.

  5. Precise determination of uranium by extraction spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conventional method of potentiometric titration, the concentration of potassium dichromate solution was optimized with selection of different concentrations of the solution. The electrode responded slowly during the titration procedure, thus affected the precision and accuracy of the results. An extraction spectrophotometric method for accurate and precise determination of uranium was presented. The method was based on the extraction of Cr (VI)-diphenylcarbazide purple complex using iso-amyl alcohol as the extractant. The purple complex was directly measured at 546 nm so that the uranium-chromate equivalence point can be determined. A method for precise determining uranium by extraction spectrophotometry was developed. The China national reference material of U3O8 (GBW04205) was determined according to the optimized experimental conditions. The relative standard deviation is 0.025% and accuracy of the method is verified by the value of China national reference material of U3O8. (authors)

  6. Bump time-frequency toolbox: a toolbox for time-frequency oscillatory bursts extraction in electrophysiological signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauwels Justin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background oscillatory activity, which can be separated in background and oscillatory burst pattern activities, is supposed to be representative of local synchronies of neural assemblies. Oscillatory burst events should consequently play a specific functional role, distinct from background EEG activity – especially for cognitive tasks (e.g. working memory tasks, binding mechanisms and perceptual dynamics (e.g. visual binding, or in clinical contexts (e.g. effects of brain disorders. However extracting oscillatory events in single trials, with a reliable and consistent method, is not a simple task. Results in this work we propose a user-friendly stand-alone toolbox, which models in a reasonable time a bump time-frequency model from the wavelet representations of a set of signals. The software is provided with a Matlab toolbox which can compute wavelet representations before calling automatically the stand-alone application. Conclusion The tool is publicly available as a freeware at the address: http://www.bsp.brain.riken.jp/bumptoolbox/toolbox_home.html

  7. Precision pulser for main ring extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulser has been designed to produce a 14 Hz sinusoid current pulse at a 2 s rate with peak amplitudes from 400 amps to 3750 amps, and a long term stability of +/-400 mA. Short term stability is achieved by the use of a precision voltage regulator for the capacitor bank. This voltage regulator uses gate turnoff thyristors to control the charging current to the 13 mF capacitor bank. Load current is monitored with a precision dc current transductor. The peak value is read into a single chip microcomputer programmed to act as a digital regulator. The microcomputer calculates reference values for the capacitor bank charging supply and the capacitor bank voltage regulator

  8. A precision pulser for main ring extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulser has been designed to produce a 14 Hz sinusoid current pulse at a 2 s rate with peak amplitudes from 400 amps to 3750 amps, and a long term stability of + or -400 mA. Short term stability is achieved by the use of a precision voltage regulator for the capacitor bank. This voltage regulator uses gate turnoff thyristors to control the charging current to the 13 mF capacitor bank. Load current is monitored with a precision dc current transductor. The peak value is read into a single chip microcomputer programmed to act as a digital regulator. The microcomputer calculates reference values for the capacitor bank charging supply and the capacitor bank voltage regulator

  9. Weak bump quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, B. J.; McDowell, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estimate of the dispersion in quasar continuum properties. One of the major uncertainties in the measurement of quasar continuum strength is the contribution to the continuum of the quasar host galaxy as a function of wavelength. Continuum templates were constructed for different types of host galaxy and individual estimates made of the decomposed quasar and host continua based on existing observations of the target quasars. The results are that host galaxy contamination is worse than previously suspected, and some apparent weak bump quasars are really normal quasars with strong host galaxies. However, the existence of true weak bump quasars such as PHL 909 was confirmed. The study of the link between the bump strength and other wavebands was continued by comparing with IRAS data. There is evidence that excess far infrared radiation is correlated with weaker ultraviolet bumps. This argues against an orientation effect and implies a probable link with the host galaxy environment, for instance the presence of a luminous starburst. However, the evidence still favors the idea that reddening is not important in those objects with ultraviolet weak bumps. The same work has led to the discovery of a class of infrared weak quasars. Pushing another part of the envelope of quasar continuum parameter space, the IR-weak quasars have implications for understanding the effects of reddening internal to the quasars, the reality of ultraviolet turnovers, and may allow further tests of the Phinney dust model for the IR continuum. They will also be important objects for studying the claimed IR to x-ray continuum correlation.

  10. Optimization of Indium Bump Morphology for Improved Flip Chip Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Todd J.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Blazejewski, Edward; Dickie, Matthew R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Greer, Harold F.

    2011-01-01

    Flip-chip hybridization, also known as bump bonding, is a packaging technique for microelectronic devices that directly connects an active element or detector to a substrate readout face-to-face, eliminating the need for wire bonding. In order to make conductive links between the two parts, a solder material is used between the bond pads on each side. Solder bumps, composed of indium metal, are typically deposited by thermal evaporation onto the active regions of the device and substrate. While indium bump technology has been a part of the electronic interconnect process field for many years and has been extensively employed in the infrared imager industry, obtaining a reliable, high-yield process for high-density patterns of bumps can be quite difficult. Under the right conditions, a moderate hydrogen plasma exposure can raise the temperature of the indium bump to the point where it can flow. This flow can result in a desirable shape where indium will efficiently wet the metal contact pad to provide good electrical contact to the underlying readout or imager circuit. However, it is extremely important to carefully control this process as the intensity of the hydrogen plasma treatment dramatically affects the indium bump morphology. To ensure the fine-tuning of this reflow process, it is necessary to have realtime feedback on the status of the bumps. With an appropriately placed viewport in a plasma chamber, one can image a small field (a square of approximately 5 millimeters on each side) of the bumps (10-20 microns in size) during the hydrogen plasma reflow process. By monitoring the shape of the bumps in real time using a video camera mounted to a telescoping 12 magnifying zoom lens and associated optical elements, an engineer can precisely determine when the reflow of the bumps has occurred, and can shut off the plasma before evaporation or de-wetting takes place.

  11. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; He, Neil; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared...

  12. Fabrication Of Surface Bumps On A Capsule To Simulate Fill Tube Mass Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letts, S; Fearon, E; Buckley, S; King, C; Cook, R

    2005-06-30

    Precision single bumps were deposited on the surface of ICF capsules to simulate the hydrodynamic instability caused by a fill tube. The bump is fabricated by placing an aperture mask on the capsule and coating plasma polymer through the aperture. The apparatus and procedures used to align and hold the shell for coating will be described. Bumps were made having a width of about 50 {micro}m and from 1 to 10 {micro}m in height. The bumps were characterized using interference microscopy and AFM.

  13. Design of Bump Magnet of CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Four bumpers are required for the injection and extraction of CSR. The parameters of the bumpers are shown in table 1. Because of the steep raising and falling time and therefore the inductance of the magnet should be as small as possible, so the material of the magnet cores must be ferrite. And in order to reduce the cost of the bump magnet, the cross-section of the four ferrite cores was designed as the same, as shown in Fig.1.It is very similar to the lamination of the H-type dipole. And Fig.2 is the...

  14. The Effects of Campus Bump on Drivers’ Fixation Dispersion and Speed Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of campus speed bumps on drivers’ speed and fixation distribution, a quasinaturalistic driving test was conducted on a Chinese campus. Seven randomly selected drivers, wearing the Dikablis eye tracking devices, were required to drive an OPEL SUV passing the speed bumps. The area close to the bump was divided into ten subsegments (15 m for each one. The degree of fixation dispersion within each subsegment was defined as the distance from each subcenter to the whole fixation center. All traffic data were recorded using mounted camera, and the trajectories were extracted in Matlab. The speed and trajectory data was divided into two groups: the before group for bump-free case and the after group for a 5 cm bump case. The observational before-after analysis shows statistical significance between the two cases. The individual vehicular speed analysis reveals that bump reduces nearly 60% of vehicles’ speeds to a certain extent within the distance from 30 m upstream to 15 m downstream. The drivers’ fixation points begin to disperse 30–45 m before they see the bump, and it falls back to normal level 15–30 m downstream of the bump. These findings will help engineers install speed bumps at the most appropriate locations.

  15. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach--based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants--that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  16. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach—based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants—that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle’s bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  17. Automated extraction of precise protein expression patterns in lymphoma by text mining abstracts of immunohistochemical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Fu Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In general, surgical pathology reviews report protein expression by tumors in a semi-quantitative manner, that is, -, -/+, +/-, +. At the same time, the experimental pathology literature provides multiple examples of precise expression levels determined by immunohistochemical (IHC tissue examination of populations of tumors. Natural language processing (NLP techniques enable the automated extraction of such information through text mining. We propose establishing a database linking quantitative protein expression levels with specific tumor classifications through NLP. Materials and Methods: Our method takes advantage of typical forms of representing experimental findings in terms of percentages of protein expression manifest by the tumor population under study. Characteristically, percentages are represented straightforwardly with the % symbol or as the number of positive findings of the total population. Such text is readily recognized using regular expressions and templates permitting extraction of sentences containing these forms for further analysis using grammatical structures and rule-based algorithms. Results: Our pilot study is limited to the extraction of such information related to lymphomas. We achieved a satisfactory level of retrieval as reflected in scores of 69.91% precision and 57.25% recall with an F-score of 62.95%. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of a web-based curation tool for confirming and correcting our findings. Conclusions: The experimental pathology literature represents a rich source of pathobiological information, which has been relatively underutilized. There has been a combinatorial explosion of knowledge within the pathology domain as represented by increasing numbers of immunophenotypes and disease subclassifications. NLP techniques support practical text mining techniques for extracting this knowledge and organizing it in forms appropriate for pathology decision support systems.

  18. Wandering bumps in stochastic neural fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of noise on stationary pulse solutions (bumps) in spatially extended neural fields. The dynamics of a neural field is described by an integrodifferential equation whose integral term characterizes synaptic interactions between neurons in different spatial locations of the network. Translationally symmetric neural fields support a continuum of stationary bump solutions, which may be centered at any spatial location. Random fluctuations are introduced by modeling the system as a spatially extended Langevin equation whose noise term we take to be multiplicative or additive. For nonzero noise, these bumps are shown to wander about the domain in a purely diffusive way. We can approximate the effective diffusion coefficient using a small noise expansion. Upon breaking the (continuous) translation symmetry of the system using a spatially heterogeneous inputs or synapses, bumps in the stochastic neural field can become temporarily pinned to a finite number of locations in the network. In the case...

  19. Automated DEM extraction in digital aerial photogrammetry: precisions and validation for mass movement monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pesci

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Automated procedures for photogrammetric image processing and Digital Elevation Models (DEM extraction yield high precision terrain models in a short time, reducing manual editing; their accuracy is strictly related to image quality and terrain features. After an analysis of the performance of the Digital Photogrammetric Workstation (DPW 770 Helava, the paper compares DEMs derived from different surveys and registered in the same reference system. In the case of stable area, the distribution of height residuals, their mean and standard deviation values, indicate that the theoretical accuracy is achievable automatically when terrain is characterized by regular morphology. Steep slopes, corrugated surfaces, vegetation and shadows can degrade results even if manual editing procedures are applied. The comparison of multi-temporal DEMs on unstable areas allows the monitoring of surface deformation and morphological changes.

  20. The 3000 A bump in quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, J. B.; Shields, G. A.; Korycansky, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    New observations of the 3000 A bump in quasars are presented and some simple considerations regarding its physical origin are addressed. Absolute spectrophotometry of 30 quasars with redshifts between 0.53 and 0.70 was obtained with the multichannel spectrometer on the 5 m Hale telescope with a rest wavelength coverage of 2000-5000 A. The continuum observations are well represented by a single power law plus a smooth, broad bump and superposed Fe II multiplets. The strength of the bump correlates fairly well with that of H-beta but poorly with those of the Mg II and Fe II lines. Models consisting of a power law and optically thick hydrogen continua with temperatures of about 12,000 K, and Balmer-edge optical depths equal to three fit the observed energy distributions well. The physical conditions and continuum emission of a dense slab of hydrogen heated by gamma rays are analyzed.

  1. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory and for public events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has been found for both autobiographical memories and memories of public events. However, there have been few comparisons of the bump across each type of event. In the current study, therefore, we compared the bump for autobiographical memories versus the bump for memories...... of public events. We did so between-subjects, through two cueing methods administered within-subjects, the cue word method and the important memories method. For word-cued memories, we found a similar bump from ages 5 to 19 for both types of memories. However, the bump was more pronounced...... for autobiographical memories. For most important memories, we found a bump from ages 20 to 29 in autobiographical memory, but little discernible age pattern for public events. Rather, specific public events (e.g., the Fall of the Berlin Wall) dominated recall, producing a chronological distribution characterised...

  2. Electronic simulation of the supported liquid membrane in electromembrane extraction systems: Improvement of the extraction by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane. • A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction. • An improvement was observed by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity. - Abstract: In order to understand the limitations of electromebrane extraction procedure better, a simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane consisting of a resistor and a low leakage capacitor in series. To verify the equivalent circuit, it was subjected to a simulated periodical polarity changing potential and the resulting time variation of the current was compared with that of a real electromembrane extraction system. The results showed a good agreement between the simulated current patterns and those of the real ones. In order to investigate the impact of various limiting factors, the corresponding values of the equivalent circuit were estimated for a real electromembrane extraction system and were attributed to the physical parameters of the extraction system. A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction by combining general migration equation and fundamental aspects derived from the simulation. Dual mechanism comprises a current dependent contribution of analyte in total current and could support the possibility of an improvement in performance of an electromembrane extraction by application of an asymmetric polarity changing potential. The optimization of frequency and duty cycle of the asymmetric polarity exchanging potential resulted in a higher recovery (2.17 times greater) in comparison with the conventional electromebrane extraction. The simulation also provided more quantitative approaches toward the investigation of the mechanism of extraction and contribution of different limiting factors in electromembrane extraction. Results showed that the buildup of the double layer is the main limiting factor and the Joule heating has

  3. Identifying the Absorption Bump with Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Min; Gaddam, Sudeep; Li, Xiaolin; Zhao, Yinan; Ma, Jingzhe; Ge, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive interstellar dust grains provide significant insights to understand the formation and evolution of the stars, planetary systems, and the galaxies, and may harbor the building blocks of life. One of the most effective way to analyze the dust is via their interaction with the light from background sources. The observed extinction curves and spectral features carry the size and composition information of dust. The broad absorption bump at 2175 Angstrom is the most prominent feature...

  4. A precise study on effects that trigger alkaline hemicellulose extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Schild, Gabriele; Potthast, Antje

    2016-08-01

    The conversion of paper-grade pulps into dissolving pulps requires efficient strategies and process steps to remove low-molecular noncellulosic macromolecules generally known as hemicelluloses. Current strategies include alkaline extractions and enzymatic treatments. This study focused on the evaluation of extraction efficiencies in alkaline extractions of three economically interesting hardwood species: beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula papyrifera), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). Substrate pulps were subjected to alkaline treatments at different temperatures and alkalinities using white liquor as the alkali source, followed by analyses of both pulps and hemicellulose-containing extraction lyes. The extracted hardwood xylans have strong potential as an ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subsequent analyses revealed strong dependencies of the extraction efficiencies and molar mass distributions of hemicelluloses on the process variables of temperature and effective alkalinity. The hemicellulose content of the initial pulps, the hardwood species, and the type of applied base played minor roles. PMID:27163434

  5. Bump formation in the runaway electron tail

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, J; Fülöp, T

    2015-01-01

    Runaway electrons are generated in a magnetized plasma when the parallel electric field exceeds a critical value. For such electrons with energies typically reaching tens of MeV, the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac (ALD) radiation force, in reaction to the synchrotron emission, is significant and can be the dominant process limiting the electron acceleration. The effect of the ALD-force on runaway electron dynamics in a homogeneous plasma is investigated using the relativistic finite-difference Fokker-Planck codes LUKE [Decker & Peysson, Report EUR-CEA-FC-1736, Euratom-CEA, (2004)] and CODE [Landreman et al, Comp. Phys. Comm. 185, 847 (2014)]. Under the action of the ALD force, we find that a bump is formed in the tail of the electron distribution function if the electric field is sufficiently large. We also observe that the energy of runaway electrons in the bump increases with the electric field amplitude, while the population increases with the bulk electron temperature. The presence of the bump divides the elec...

  6. A Technique for Extracting Highly Precise Photometry for the Two-Wheeled Kepler Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderburg, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The original Kepler mission achieved high photometric precision thanks to ultra-stable pointing enabled by use of four reaction wheels. The loss of two of these reaction wheels reduced the telescope's ability to point precisely for extended periods of time, and as a result, the photometric precision has suffered. We present a technique for generating photometric light curves from pixel-level data obtained with the two-wheeled extended Kepler mission, K2. Our photometric technique accounts for the non-uniform pixel response function of the Kepler detectors by correlating flux measurements with the spacecraft's pointing and removing the dependence. When we apply our technique to the ensemble of stars observed during the Kepler Two-Wheel Concept Engineering Test, we find improvements over raw K2 photometry by factors of 2-5, with noise properties qualitatively similar to Kepler targets at the same magnitudes. We find evidence that the improvement in photometric precision depends on each target's position in the ...

  7. Lattice Hamiltonian approach to the massless Schwinger model. Precise extraction of the mass gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Kujawa-Cichy, Agnieszka [Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Szyniszewski, Marcin [Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). NOWNano DTC

    2012-12-15

    We present results of applying the Hamiltonian approach to the massless Schwinger model. A finite basis is constructed using the strong coupling expansion to a very high order. Using exact diagonalization, the continuum limit can be reliably approached. This allows to reproduce the analytical results for the ground state energy, as well as the vector and scalar mass gaps to an outstanding precision better than 10{sup -6} %.

  8. Lattice Hamiltonian approach to the massless Schwinger model. Precise extraction of the mass gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of applying the Hamiltonian approach to the massless Schwinger model. A finite basis is constructed using the strong coupling expansion to a very high order. Using exact diagonalization, the continuum limit can be reliably approached. This allows to reproduce the analytical results for the ground state energy, as well as the vector and scalar mass gaps to an outstanding precision better than 10-6 %.

  9. A novel method for direct solder bump pull testing using lead-free solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory Alan

    This thesis focuses on the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a new method for testing the adhesion strength of lead-free solders, named the Isotraction Bump Pull method (IBP). In order to develop a direct solder joint-strength testing method that did not require customization for different solder types, bump sizes, specific equipment, or trial-and-error, a combination of two widely used and accepted standards was created. First, solder bumps were made from three types of lead free solder were generated on untreated copper PCB substrates using an in-house fabricated solder bump-on-demand generator, Following this, the newly developed method made use of a polymer epoxy to encapsulate the solder bumps that could then be tested under tension using a high precision universal vertical load machine. The tests produced repeatable and predictable results for each of the three alloys tested that were in agreement with the relative behavior of the same alloys using other testing methods in the literature. The median peak stress at failure for the three solders tested were 2020.52 psi, 940.57 psi, and 2781.0 psi, and were within one standard deviation of the of all data collected for each solder. The assumptions in this work that brittle fracture occurred through the Intermetallic Compound layer (IMC) were validated with the use of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and high magnification of the fractured surface of both newly exposed sides of the test specimens. Following this, an examination of the process to apply the results from the tensile tests into standard material science equations for the fracture of the systems was performed..

  10. ICHEP 2016: to b(ump) or not to b(ump)

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    This week I’m in Chicago for the 38th International Conference on High Energy Physics, ICHEP 2016, hosted this year by the US particle physics community. While it became clear at the conference that the famous 750 GeV bump has flatlined, there’s been a wealth of physics from CERN and around the world.   Everyone in their heart felt that the bump would turn out to be no more than a statistical fluctuation, while secretly hoping that it would be something new. Even the designer of the ICHEP 2016 logo cleverly hid a bump with a subtle question mark in the Chicago skyline – appropriately enough in Anish Kapoor’s mysterious ‘Cloud Gate’ sculpture. That question mark has now been resolved. Kapoor’s sculpture returns to being just that, and the search for new physics goes on albeit further constrained as theorists revealed in the 400+ papers in the wake of the bump discussion. The highlight from CERN was undoubtedly the spectacular pe...

  11. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps. PMID:24006129

  12. Towards Evidence-based Precision Medicine: Extracting Population Information from Biomedical Text using Binary Classifiers and Syntactic Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Kalpana; Dasot, Naman; Goyal, Pawan; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Precision Medicine is an emerging approach for prevention and treatment of disease that considers individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. The dissemination of individualized evidence by automatically identifying population information in literature is a key for evidence-based precision medicine at the point-of-care. We propose a hybrid approach using natural language processing techniques to automatically extract the population information from biomedical literature. Our approach first implements a binary classifier to classify sentences with or without population information. A rule-based system based on syntactic-tree regular expressions is then applied to sentences containing population information to extract the population named entities. The proposed two-stage approach achieved an F-score of 0.81 using a MaxEnt classifier and the rule- based system, and an F-score of 0.87 using a Nai've-Bayes classifier and the rule-based system, and performed relatively well compared to many existing systems. The system and evaluation dataset is being released as open source. PMID:27570671

  13. AstroImageJ: Image Processing and Photometric Extraction for Ultra-Precise Astronomical Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Karen A; Stassun, Keivan G

    2016-01-01

    ImageJ is a graphical user interface (GUI) driven, public domain, Java-based, software package for general image processing traditionally used mainly in life sciences fields. The image processing capabilities of ImageJ are useful and extendable to other scientific fields. Here we present AstroImageJ (AIJ), which provides an astronomy specific image display environment and tools for astronomy specific image calibration and data reduction. Although AIJ maintains the general purpose image processing capabilities of ImageJ, AIJ is streamlined for time-series differential photometry, light curve detrending and fitting, and light curve plotting, especially for applications requiring ultra-precise light curves (e.g., exoplanet transits). AIJ reads and writes standard FITS files, as well as other common image formats, provides FITS header viewing and editing, and is World Coordinate System (WCS) aware, including an automated interface to the astrometry.net web portal for plate solving images. Although AIJ provides re...

  14. The Physics of Bump Drafting in Car Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Amor dos Santos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The technique of bump drafting, also known as two-car drafting in motorsports, is analysed in the framework of Newtonian mechanics and simple aerodynamic drag forces. As an apparent unnatural effect that often pleases the enthusiasts of car racing, bump drafting provides a unique pedagogical opportunity for students to gain insights into the…

  15. Bump Bonding Using Metal-Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, James L.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Kowalczyk, Robert S.; Liao, Anna; Bronikowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Bump bonding hybridization techniques use arrays of indium bumps to electrically and mechanically join two chips together. Surface-tension issues limit bump sizes to roughly as wide as they are high. Pitches are limited to 50 microns with bumps only 8-14 microns high on each wafer. A new process uses oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a metal (indium) in a wicking process using capillary actions to increase the aspect ratio and pitch density of the connections for bump bonding hybridizations. It merges the properties of the CNTs and the metal bumps, providing enhanced material performance parameters. By merging the bumps with narrow and long CNTs oriented in the vertical direction, higher aspect ratios can be obtained if the metal can be made to wick. Possible aspect ratios increase from 1:1 to 20:1 for most applications, and to 100:1 for some applications. Possible pitch density increases of a factor of 10 are possible. Standard capillary theory would not normally allow indium or most other metals to be drawn into the oriented CNTs, because they are non-wetting. However, capillary action can be induced through the ability to fabricate oriented CNT bundles to desired spacings, and the use of deposition techniques and temperature to control the size and mobility of the liquid metal streams and associated reservoirs. This hybridization of two technologies (indium bumps and CNTs) may also provide for some additional benefits such as improved thermal management and possible current density increases.

  16. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory and for public events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    spikes in citations according to the years these events occurred. Follow-up analyses suggested that the bump in most important autobiographical memories was a function of the cultural life script. Our findings did not yield support for any of the dominant existing accounts of the bump as underlying the...

  17. Tank Bump Accident Potential and Consequences During Waste Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-09-27

    This report provides an evaluation of Hanford tank bump accident potential and consequences during waste retrieval operations. The purpose of this report is to consider the best available new information to support recommendations for safety controls. A new tank bump accident analysis for safe storage (Epstein et al. 2000) is extended for this purpose. A tank bump is a postulated event in which gases, consisting mostly of water vapor, are suddenly emitted from the waste and cause tank headspace pressurization. Tank bump scenarios, physical models, and frequency and consequence methods are fully described in Epstein et al. (2000). The analysis scope is waste retrieval from double-shell tanks (DSTs) including operation of equipment such as mixer pumps and air lift circulators. The analysis considers physical mechanisms for tank bump to formulate criteria for bump potential during retrieval, application of the criteria to the DSTs, evaluation of bump frequency, and consequence analysis of a bump. The result of the consequence analysis is the mass of waste released from tanks; radiological dose is calculated using standard methods (Cowley et al. 2000).

  18. Precision targeting for retinal motion extraction using cross-correlation with a high speed line scanning ophthalmoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluations to quantify the precise targeting of template features and to select template sizes for retinal motion extraction were carried out using cross-correlation with a high speed line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) capable of 160 frames per second. The optimal template targeting was located on a retinal vessel pattern with vessel bifurcation or vessel features occupying approximately eighty percent of the template area preferred. The optimal template size for this LSO system was 80 × 80 pixels and it was able to extract retinal motion up to 300 deg s−1 at a speed of 30 Hz. Although the optimized template size was a compromise between having enough image data on the retinal features to make matches reliably and have good temporal resolution, the optimal targeting of the template location and size described here was appropriate and effective in extracting retinal motion. In addition, the determination of cross-correlation templates could be applied to other images having similar properties; i.e., relatively small features of distinct gray levels on an otherwise fairly uniform background. (paper)

  19. Wideband Precision Current Transformer for the Magnet Current of the Beam Extraction Kicker Magnet of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gräwer, G

    2004-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction system is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn of the collider and to safely dispose them on external absorbers. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The generator produces a magnet current pulse with 3 us rise time, 20 kA amplitude and 1.8 ms fall time, of which 90 us are needed to dump the beam. The beam extraction system requires a high level of reliability. To detect any change in the magnet current characteristics, which might indicate a slow degradation of the pulse generator, a high precision wideband current transformer will be installed. For redundancy reasons, the results obtained with this device will be cross-checked with a Rogowski coil, installed adjacent to the transformer. A prototype transformer has been successfully tested at nominal current levels and showed satisfactory results compared with the output of a high frequency resistive coaxial shunt. The annular core of the ring type transformer is composed of...

  20. Modeling interseismic deformation field of North Tehran Fault extracted from precise leveling observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amighpey, Masoome; Voosoghi, Behzad; Arabi, Siyavash

    2016-06-01

    The North Tehran Fault (NTF) stands out as a major active thrust fault running for approximately 110 km north of Tehran, the capital province of Iran. It has been the source of several major historical earthquakes in the past, including those in 958, 1665, and 1830. In this paper, interseismic strain accumulation on the NFT was investigated using precise leveling measurements obtained over the time frame 1997-2005. The relationship between surface deformation field and interseismic deformation models was evaluated using simulated annealing optimization in a Bayesian framework. The results show that the NTF fault follows an elastic dislocation model creep at a rate of 2.5 ± 0.06 mm/year in the eastern part and 6.2 ± 0.04 mm/year in the western part. Moreover, the locking depth of the fault was evaluated to be ± 1.1 km in the eastern part and 1.3 ± 0.2 km in the western part.

  1. Extracting Accurate and Precise Topography from Lroc Narrow Angle Camera Stereo Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, M. R.; Manheim, M. R.; Speyerer, E. J.; Robinson, M. S.; LROC Team

    2016-06-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) includes two identical Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC) that acquire meter scale imaging. Stereo observations are acquired by imaging from two or more orbits, including at least one off-nadir slew. Digital terrain models (DTMs) generated from the stereo observations are controlled to Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) elevation profiles. With current processing methods, digital terrain models (DTM) have absolute accuracies commensurate than the uncertainties of the LOLA profiles (~10 m horizontally and ~1 m vertically) and relative horizontal and vertical precisions better than the pixel scale of the DTMs (2 to 5 m). The NAC stereo pairs and derived DTMs represent an invaluable tool for science and exploration purposes. We computed slope statistics from 81 highland and 31 mare DTMs across a range of baselines. Overlapping DTMs of single stereo sets were also combined to form larger area DTM mosaics, enabling detailed characterization of large geomorphic features and providing a key resource for future exploration planning. Currently, two percent of the lunar surface is imaged in NAC stereo and continued acquisition of stereo observations will serve to strengthen our knowledge of the Moon and geologic processes that occur on all the terrestrial planets.

  2. Studies of beam injection with a compensated bump and uncompensated bump in a synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation sources Indus-1 and Indus-2 have a synchrotron as the common injector. A three kicker compensated bump injection scheme was employed for beam injection into this synchrotron. The stored beam current in the synchrotron is higher, when all the three kickers are operated at the same current than when kickers are operated at currents required to generate compensated bump. Beam dynamics studies have been done to understand why this happens. Theoretical studies indicate that higher stored current in the later case is attributed to smaller residual oscillations of injected beam. These studies also reveal that if the angle of the injected beam during beam injection is kept varying, the performance could be further improved. This is experimentally confirmed by injecting the beam on rising part of the injection septum magnet current pulse

  3. Studies of beam injection with a compensated bump and uncompensated bump in a synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar Fakhri, Ali; Prajapati, S. K.; Ghodke, A. D.; Singh, Gurnam [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-08-15

    Synchrotron radiation sources Indus-1 and Indus-2 have a synchrotron as the common injector. A three kicker compensated bump injection scheme was employed for beam injection into this synchrotron. The stored beam current in the synchrotron is higher, when all the three kickers are operated at the same current than when kickers are operated at currents required to generate compensated bump. Beam dynamics studies have been done to understand why this happens. Theoretical studies indicate that higher stored current in the later case is attributed to smaller residual oscillations of injected beam. These studies also reveal that if the angle of the injected beam during beam injection is kept varying, the performance could be further improved. This is experimentally confirmed by injecting the beam on rising part of the injection septum magnet current pulse.

  4. Bump-hunting in LHC ttbar events

    CERN Document Server

    Czakon, Michal; Mitov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a purposefully normalised NNLO top pair invariant mass differential spectrum can have very small theoretical uncertainty and, in particular, a small sensitivity to the top quark mass. Such observable can thus be a very effective bump-hunting tool for resonances decaying to top pair events during LHC Run II and beyond. To illustrate how the approach works, we concentrate on one specific example of current interest, namely, the possible 750 GeV di-gamma excess resonance Phi. Considering only theoretical uncertainties, we demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish pp -> Phi -> tt signals studied in the recent literature [Hespel, Maltoni and Vryonidou, arXiv:1606.04149] from the pure SM background with very high significance. Alternatively, in case of non-observation, a strong upper limit on the decay rate Phi -> tt can be placed.

  5. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Batra, P.; /Columbia U.; Bugel, Leonard G.; /Columbia U.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; /Columbia U.; Conrad, Janet Marie; /MIT; de Gouvea, A.; /Northwestern U.; Fisher, Peter H.; /MIT; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; /MIT; Jenkins, J.; /Northwestern U.; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; /MIT; Kobilarcik, T.R.; /Fermilab /Texas U.

    2009-06-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics.

  6. Geometry-induced quantum dots on surfaces with Gaussian bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kamilla V. R. A.; de Freitas, Cesar F.; Filgueiras, Cleverson

    2013-04-01

    In this work we investigate the two dimensional electron gas on surfaces showing Gaussian bumps. Due to confinement on two dimensional curved space, a geometry-induced potential appears. For surfaces showing single bumps, the geometrical potential gives rise to a geometry-induced quantum ring, as showed in a previous work. For surfaces with multiples bumps, the charge carries may be trapped around the center of these surfaces, which could gives rise to a geometry-induced quantum dot. Our results can be realized on bilayer graphene sheets and we hope that it would lead to new technics of building quantum dots.

  7. Numerical analysis of bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-sheng; XU Huai-jin; ZHANG Guang-hui

    2008-01-01

    Bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance were analyzed. An air film thickness model and a bearing theoretical analytical model were developed accounting for air compressibility and foil deformation. To analyze hydrodynamic characteristics of bump foil beatings with different operating eccentricities, the air film thickness equation and Reynolds equation were coupled through pressure and solved by Newton-Raphson Method(NRM) and Finite Difference Method (FDM). The characteristics of an bump foil bearing model were dis-cussed including load carrying capacity, film thickness and pressure distributions. The results of simulation show that bump foil beating without nominal radial clearance can provide better stability and greater load capaci-ty. This numerical analytical method also reveals a good convergence in numerical calculation.

  8. Dehydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and UV bump

    CERN Document Server

    Malloci, G; Cecchi-Pestellini, C; Joblin, C

    2008-01-01

    Recent calculations have shown that the UV bump at about 217.5 nm in the extinction curve can be explained by a complex mixture of PAHs in several charge states. Other studies proposed that the carriers are a restricted population made of neutral and singly-ionised dehydrogenated coronene molecules (C24Hn, n less than 3), in line with models of the hydrogenation state of interstellar PAHs predicting that medium-sized species are highly dehydrogenated. To assess the observational consequences of the latter hypothesis we have undertaken a systematic study of the electronic spectra of dehydrogenated PAHs. We use our first results to see whether such spectra show strong general trends upon dehydrogenation. We used state-of-the-art techniques in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) to obtain the electronic ground-state geometries, and of the time- dependent DFT to evaluate the electronic excited-state properties. We computed the absorption cross-section of the species C24Hn (n=12,10,8,6,4,2,0) in t...

  9. Decomposing the Sales Promotion Bump with Store Data

    OpenAIRE

    Heerde, Harald J. van; Leeflang, Peter S.H.; Wittink, Dick R.

    2004-01-01

    Sales promotions generate substantial short-term sales increases. To determine whether the sales promotion bump is truly beneficial from a managerial perspective, we propose a system of store-level regression models that decomposes the sales promotion bump into three parts: cross-brand effects (secondary demand), cross-period effects (primary demand borrowed from other time periods), and category-expansion effects (remaining primary demand). Across four store-level scanner datasets, we find t...

  10. Quality of scintillating fibres after hot bump shrinking

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues Cavalcante, Ana Barbara; Joram, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking the diameter of fibre bumps by a hot drawing tool requires to run the fibre through the hot tool over its full length, bearing the risk of a degradation of the fibre performance. In this study we demonstrated that the hot bump shrinking method has no visible effect on the optical attenuation length, the light yield following ionising radiation, the diameter, the mechanical stability and the integrity of the cladding. For the latter, even a small positive impact was observed.

  11. Iterative Schemes for Bump Solutions in a Neural Field Model

    OpenAIRE

    Oleynik, Anna; Ponosov, Arcady; Wyller, John

    2013-01-01

    We develop two iteration schemes for construction of localized stationary solutions (bumps) of a one-population Wilson-Cowan model with a smoothed Heaviside firing rate function. The first scheme is based on the fixed point formulation of the stationary Wilson-Cowan model. The second one is formulated in terms of the excitation width of a bump. Using the theory of monotone operators in ordered Banach spaces we justify convergence of both iteration schemes.

  12. Development and present status of new horizontal shift bump power supply for injection bump at the J-PARC RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new horizontal shift bump (SB) power supply for injection bump has been developed and manufactured according to the energy upgrade of the LINAC (Linear accelerator) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) 3-GeV RCS (Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron). The injection energy was increased from 181MeV to 400MeV, and the power capacity of the new power supply was doubled. The power supply adopted a capacitor commutation method to form the trapezoid waveform pattern (bump waveform) by the IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) switch. The test operation was started in January, 2014. However, the diodes of the DC charger in the FT-unit (Flat top unit) were frequently damaged and then the user operation was started without using the FT-unit. As a result, the flat-top part of the bump waveform had a slight inclination. Both the horizontal paint bump magnets in the ring and the pulse steering magnets at the injection line were used to make up for the inclination and to correct the orbit errors at the injection point. This paper reports characteristic, the trouble and the user operation status about the new shift bump power supply. (author)

  13. The reminiscence bump reconsidered: Children's prospective life stories show a bump in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The reminiscence bump—the reporting of more memories from young adulthood than from other stages of life—is considered a hallmark of autobiographical memory research. The most prevalent explanations for this effect assume that events in young adulthood are favored because of the way they...... are encoded and maintained in long-term memory. Here we show that a similar increase of events in early adulthood is found when children narrate their personal futures. In Study 1, children wrote their future life stories. The events in these life stories were mostly life-script events, and their...... explanations of the reminiscence bump and suggest that the cultural life script forms an overarching organizational principle for autobiographical memories and future representations across the life span....

  14. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories are...... over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... both their most positive and most negative chapter. As predicted, the beginning age of positive but not negative chapters produced a bump and specific memories tended to cluster at chapter beginnings. The results support the idea that chapters guide the search for specific memories and that the...

  15. New Pulsed Orbit Bump Magnets for the Fermilab Booster Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Lackey, James; John, Carson; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Makarov, Alexander; Prebys, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The beam from the Fermilab Linac is injected onto a bump in the closed orbit of the Booster Synchrotron where a carbon foil strips the electrons from the Linac’s negative ion hydrogen beam. Although the Booster itself runs at 15Hz, heat dissipation in the orbit bump magnets has been one limitation to the fraction of the cycles that can be used for beam. New, 0.28T pulsed window frame dipole magnets have been constructed that will fit into the same space as the old ones, run at the full repetition rate of the Booster, and provide a larger bump to allow a cleaner injection orbit. The new magnets use a high saturation flux density Ni-Zn ferrite in the yoke rather than laminated steel. The presented magnetic design includes two and three dimensional magnetic field calculations with eddy currents and ferrite nonlinear effects.

  16. Development of indium bumping technology through AZ9260 resist electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium bumping is very critical technology in the application of high-density interconnection between a FPA (focal plane array) and a Si ROIC (read-out integrated circuit) by flip-chip bonding. In this paper, the indium BGA (ball grid array) chips are prepared with an electroplating method on the Si substrate. With such a method, the first difficulty arises in removing the seed layer. Two ways, including IBE (ion beam etching) and lift-off, are adopted to overcome it. The results show that the lift-off process is effective but not IBE. During the reflow process, many indium bumps fall off the substrate. Two ways are tried to solve this problem: one is to optimize the reflow profile and the other is to thicken the wetting layer. The results show that these two ways can effectively improve such status. The barrier effects of the UBM (under bump metallization) for indium, which are Ti/Pt (300 Å/200 Å) and Ti/Pt/Au/Ep Au (300 Å/200 Å/1000 Å/4 µm), are also investigated. Experimental results indicate that both of them can be used in application of integration of the FPA and ROIC. Reliability of indium bumps with these two kinds of UBM is evaluated by the shear test. The results show that their shear strength has a significant increase after reflow. For the indium bump with UBM of Ti/Pt/Au/Ep Au (300 Å/200 Å/1000 Å/4 µm), IMC (intermetallic compounds) at the interface of Au–In can strengthen the indium bump but may change the plasticity of indium.

  17. Growth Characteristics Downstream of a Shallow Bump: Computation and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Grosch, Chester E.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the velocity field created by a shallow bump on a wall revealed that an energy peak in the spanwise spectrum associated with the driver decays and an initially small-amplitude secondary mode rapidly grows with distance downstream of the bump. Linear theories could not provide an explanation for this growing mode. The present Navier-Stokes simulation replicates and confirms the experimental results. Insight into the structure of the flow was obtained from a study of the results of the calculations and is presented.

  18. Adverse Selection, Speed Bumps and Asset Market Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Alasdair Brown; Fuyu Yang

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the fastest algorithmic traders in financial markets profit at the expense of slower traders. One solution gaining traction is a `speed-bump', which introduces a delay between the time in which an order is submitted, and when it is processed. We conduct an impact evaluation of the speed bump's effectiveness on Betfair, a betting exchange, where this design has been in force for more than a decade. We find that increases in the duration of the delay led to improve...

  19. Do You Hear a Bump or a Hole?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Turchet, Luca; Nordahl, Rolf

    In this paper, we present a preliminary experiment whose goal is to assess the role of temporal aspects in sonically simulating the act of walking on a bump or a hole. In particular, we investigate whether the timing between heel and toe and the timing between footsteps affects the perception of...

  20. Gold-stud bump bonding for HEP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods involved in gold-stud bump bonding of VLSI chips to solid state sensors are described. Applicability and limitations of the techniques are discussed in the context of pad size and pitch of the detection elements on the sensors. Recommendations are made for preferred surface preparation of bonding pads.

  1. Hanford Waste Tank Bump Accident and Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-06-20

    This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis and consequences for incorporation into the Authorization Basis. The analysis scope is for the safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell and double-shell tanks.

  2. On the Existence of Unstable Bumps in Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kostrykin, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    We study the neuronal field equation, a nonlinear integro-differential equation of Hammerstein type. By means of the Amann three fixed point theorem we prove the existence of bump solutions to this equation. Using the Krein-Rutman theorem we show their Lyapunov instability.

  3. Hanford Waste Tank Bump Accident and Consequence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis and consequences for incorporation into the Authorization Basis. The analysis scope is for the safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell and double-shell tanks

  4. Design of main linac emittance tuning bumps for the Compact Linear Collider and the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Eliasson, Peder

    2008-01-01

    The installation of elements in the main linac of future linear colliders can only be done with a limited precision. The inevitable misalignments lead to unacceptable emittance growth. Beam-based alignment, e.g., one-to-one correction, dispersion free steering, or ballistic alignment, is necessary to reduce the emittance growth. In some cases, this is, however, not sufficient. For further reduction of the emittance growth, so-called emittance tuning bumps have to be used. A general strategy for the design of emittance tuning bumps has been developed and tested. Simulations suggest that the method can be conveniently used to understand the weaknesses of existing emittance tuning bumps and to significantly improve their performance in terms of, e.g., emittance reduction capability and convergence speed. An example of an application is the design of ten orthogonal knobs that, according to simulations, can reduce the normalized emittance growth in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) main linac from 23.8 to 0.34 nm...

  5. A new golden bump making method for high power LED flip chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Niu, Pingjuan; Hu, Haiyang; Chen, Hongda; Xia, Zhiwei

    2007-11-01

    Nowadays, high power LED is often packaged with flip chip method. The gold bump is usually made by electroplating or gold evaporation, which cause the environment pollution and material waste. A gold wire bump manufacture technology for high power LED flip chip is described in this paper. The wire bond device is used and different bump making parameters, such as weld temperature, pressure and ultrasonic power, are optimized through experiments. At the same time, a new bump wire tail height managing process is introduced. The gold wire bump with this method height difference keep in 3 micrometers and which is convenient for flip chip. Then, rapid annealing is taken to make sure the gold wire bump has a well adherence to the wafer. At last, the bump weld result is tested and the bump invalidation is analyzed with the SEM. The bonding force between bump and wafer more than 10 grams. The flip chip high power LED with gold wire bump has low forth voltage and heat resistance. All of above proved that the gold wire bump is convenient and reliable for high power flip chip LED.

  6. Study on a robust insert-bump (ISB) bonding technique for a 3D package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Song, J. Y.; Kim, S. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding process, commonly used in bonding technology for the 3D stacking of TSV (through silicon via) formed chips, requires an additional process for the generation of bumps on the face and back-side of the chip, and it has a drawback in that it is structurally vulnerable to mechanical stresses, such as thermal stress. This study proposes an ISB (insert-bump) bonding process to overcome such drawbacks. Compared to the conventional Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding process, the ISB bonding process has advantages in that it is simple and has high mechanical reliability of the package due to the mechanical interlocking. The stress distributions at the joints of the packages produced from Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding and ISB processes were compared and analyzed through FEM analyses, and characteristics analyses of the fracture mode and joint characteristics; process variable optimization with respect to the bonding parameters was also conducted through experiments. The results of the analyses and experiments verified that the ISB bonding process yields a bonding strength of 917.6 mgf/bump, which is approximately twice as much as that of the conventional Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding, and which yields a highly reliable mechanical structure.

  7. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pan, L. S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-11-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 μm was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch.

  8. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Fried, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Palmieri, V G; Pan, L S; Peitz, A; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Steuerer, J; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M; Charles, E; Ciocio, A; Dao, K; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fasching, D; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Richardson, J; Sinervo, P K; Zizka, G

    1999-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98565544f the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 mu m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch. (13 refs).

  9. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W. E-mail: william@physics.utoronto.ca; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G

    1999-11-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 {mu}m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch.

  10. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 μm was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch

  11. The AGB bump: a calibrator for core mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossini Diego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of convection in stars affects many aspects of their evolution and remains one of the key-open questions in stellar modelling. In particular, the size of the mixed core in core-He-burning low-mass stars is still uncertain and impacts the lifetime of this evolutionary phase and, e.g., the C/O profile in white dwarfs. One of the known observables related to the Horizontal Branch (HB and Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB evolution is the AGB bump. Its luminosity depends on the position in mass of the helium-burning shell at its first ignition, that is affected by the extension of the central mixed region. In this preliminary work we show how various assumptions on near-core mixing and on the thermal stratification in the overshooting region affect the luminosity of the AGB bump, as well as the period spacing of gravity modes in core-He-burning models.

  12. The 5 MeV bump - a nuclear whodunit mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We perform a combined analysis of recent NEOS and Daya Bay data on the reactor antineutrino spectrum. This analysis includes approximately 1.5 million antineutrino events, which is the largest neutrino event sample analyzed to date. We use a double ratio which cancels flux model dependence and related uncertainties as well as the effects of the detector response model. We find at 3-4 standard deviation significance level, that plutonium-239 and plutonium-241 are disfavored as the single source for the the so-called 5 MeV bump. This analysis method has general applicability and in particular with higher statistics data sets will be able to shed significant light on the issue of the bump. With some caveat this also should allow to improve the sensitivity for sterile neutrino searches in NEOS.

  13. The blue-bump of 3C 273

    OpenAIRE

    Paltani, S.; Courvoisier, T. J-L.; R. Walter(ISDC)

    1998-01-01

    We present optical and ultraviolet observations of 3C273 covering the whole life of the IUE satellite. We analyze the variability properties of the light curves, and find that two variable components, written B and R respectively, must contribute to the blue-bump emission in this object. The B component produces most of the variability in the ultraviolet domain. A maximum time scale of variability of about 2 yr identical at all wavelengths is found. If discrete events produce this component, ...

  14. Injection Bump Synchronization Study for the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Serluca, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Simone; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project the CERN PS injection kinetic energy will be upgraded from 1.4 to 2 GeV. The present injection bump is made by four bumpers in Straight Section (SS) 40, 42, 43, 44 and it will be converted in a five bumpers system to allow additional flexibility in the bump shape with a reduction of the proton losses during the bump closure. The injection section SS42 has being redesigned to accommodate a new eddy current septum which will host a new bumper magnet in the same vacuum vessel due to reduced longitudinal space availability. The synchronization and amplitude variation of the power converter of the in-vacuum bumper 42 with respect to the remaining outside vacuum bumpers 40, 41, 43, 44 can lead to orbit distortion and consequent losses during injection. In this note we present the experimental results from Machine Development (MD) studies along with simulations for the present system at 1.4 GeV to quantify the acceptable orbit distortion and the performance ...

  15. Current status of the Injection Bump System in J-PARC 3-GeV RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection bump system of the 3-GeV RCS (Rapid Cycling Synchrotron) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) consists of the pulse bending magnets for the injection bump orbit, which are four horizontal bending magnets (shift bump), four horizontal painting magnets (h-paint bump) and two vertical painting magnets (v-paint bump). The power supplies of the magnets are composed of multiple-connections of the IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) assemblies. They excite the current waveform of the trapezoid pattern with the flat top for 500 μs and the flexible decay pattern. The exciting current and magnetic field were measured. The power supplies executed the good accuracy less than 1% deviation to programmed pattern. Furthermore, the continuous long-term with stable has been performed. In this paper, the current status of the operation of the injection bump system is described. (author)

  16. Four orbit bump and injection software for Indus-2 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection into Indus-2 takes place in horizontal plane with two injection septa and four kicker magnets in the injection straight. The symmetric and asymmetric orbit bumps generation is required to accept the injected beam. The bump simulation has been done using accelerator toolbox and a graphical user interface has been developed in MATLAB environment. We describe the injection system and software with graphical user interface (GUI) to generate an orbit bump to inject the beam into Indus-2. (author)

  17. Long live Proust: the odour-cued autobiographical memory bump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S; Downes, J J

    2000-05-15

    The autobiographical memory bump is an increase in the frequency of reported autobiographical memories (AMs) from a particular age range, and has been reported by numerous investigators (for reviews, see Conway, M. A. & Rubin, D. C. (1993). The structure of autobiographical memory. In A. F. Collins, S. E. Gathercole, M. A. Conway & P. E. Morris, Theories of memory. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum; Rubin, D. C., Rahhal, T. A. & Poon, L. W. (1998). Things learned in early adulthood are remembered best. Memory and Cognition, 26, 3-19) to occur in the second and third decades of life. Invariably, word labels have been used as AM cues but, given that a popular interpretation of the anecdotal 'Proust phenomenon' is that odours evoke AMs which are especially aged, we wondered if a different pattern in the AM bump might emerge if AMs were cued by odours rather than labels. Here we report an attempt to substantiate this aspect of the 'Proust phenomenon' by comparing the distributions of memories across the lifespan when cued by odour and label. Data showed that, in line with previous studies, the bump for label cues was found to peak between ages 11 and 25 years and was confirmed to be quadratic in form. In contrast, the odour-cued memory distribution peaked at 6-10 years and decreased linearly thereafter. In the earliest age interval, 6-10 years, the proportion of AMs retrieved in response to odour cues was significantly greater than that for the label cues. These results provide empirical support for the Proust phenomenon, and have more general implications for the structure and age distribution of stored AMs. PMID:10771279

  18. Aqueous-based thick photoresist removal for bumping applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John C.; Brewer, Alex J.; Law, Alman; Pettit, Jared M.

    2015-03-01

    Cleaning processes account for over 25% of processing in microelectronic manufacturing [1], suggesting electronics to be one of the most chemical intensive markets in commerce. Industry roadmaps exist to reduce chemical exposure, usage, and waste [2]. Companies are encouraged to create a safer working environment, or green factory, and ultimately become certified similar to LEED in the building industry [3]. A significant step in this direction is the integration of aqueous-based photoresist (PR) strippers which eliminate regulatory risks and cut costs by over 50%. One of the largest organic solvent usages is based upon thick PR removal during bumping processes [4-6]. Using market projections and the benefits of recycling, it is estimated that over 1,000 metric tons (mt) of residuals originating from bumping processes are incinerated or sent to a landfill. Aqueous-based stripping would eliminate this disposal while also reducing the daily risks to workers and added permitting costs. Positive-tone PR dissolves in aqueous strippers while negative-tone systems are lifted-off from the substrate, bumps, pillars, and redistribution layers (RDL). While the wafers are further processed and rinsed, the lifted-off PR is pumped from the tank, collected onto a filter, and periodically back-flushed to the trash. The PR solids become a non-hazardous plastic waste while the liquids are mixed with the developer stream, neutralized, filtered, and in most cases, disposed to the sewer. Regardless of PR thickness, removal processes may be tuned to perform in <15min, performing at rates nearly 10X faster than solvents with higher bath lives. A balanced formula is safe for metals, dielectrics, and may be customized to any fab.

  19. Waves, bumps, and patterns in neural field theories

    OpenAIRE

    Coombes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Neural field models of firing rate activity have had a major impact in helping to develop an understanding of the dynamics seen in brain slice preparations. These models typically take the form of integro-differential equations. Their non-local nature has led to the development of a set of analytical and numerical tools for the study of waves, bumps and patterns, based around natural extensions of those used for local differential equation models. In this paper we present a review of such ...

  20. Precise determination of the deuteron spin structure at low to moderate Q2 with CLAS and extraction of the neutron contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, N.; Fersch, R. G.; Kuhn, S. E.; Bosted, P.; Griffioen, K. A.; Keith, C.; Minehart, R.; Prok, Y.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Mayer, M.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    We present the final results for the deuteron spin structure functions obtained from the full data set collected in 2000-2001 with Jefferson Lab's continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF) using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS). Polarized electrons with energies of 1.6, 2.5, 4.2, and 5.8 GeV were scattered from deuteron (15ND3 ) targets, dynamically polarized along the beam direction, and detected with CLAS. From the measured double-spin asymmetry, the virtual photon absorption asymmetry A1d and the polarized structure function g1d were extracted over a wide kinematic range (0.05 GeV2hadron duality, and more precise values for higher-twist matrix elements in the framework of the operator product expansion.

  1. Analysis and design modifications for upgrade of storage ring bump pulse system driving the injection bump magnets at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast (4.0 ms half period) resonant discharge pulse system, using SCRs, was designed and constructed to drive the injection bump magnet system at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The commissioning process revealed a high frequency resonance (T= 800 NS) superimposed on the driver discharge wave form. In addition, the peak amplitude of the magnet load recovery current exceeded design specifications. A SPICE analysis confirmed the suspected mechanisms for the parasitic ringing and the excessive load current(openquotes)undershoot(closequotes). This paper will address the subsequent analysis, measurements, and modifications carried out during the maintenance shutdown in June 1993

  2. Research of Feature Extraction of Constant Precision Grinding Burn%精密磨削烧伤提取恒值特征技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光玲

    2015-01-01

    文章以MKA1320/H数控外圆磨床为对象,针对严重制约精密磨削加工质量的关键因素之一磨削烧伤开展研究,采用磨削烧伤恒值特征提取法,将声发射传感器技术应用到加工过程监测之中,提取了基于声发射频谱矩心的磨削烧伤恒指特征,频谱矩心值可作为磨削烧伤的恒值特征之一,并指出该恒值特征具有普适性,为精密磨削加工优化磨削工艺参数和过程自动化监测提供技术依据。%In this paper,based on MKA1320/H CNC cylindrical grinder as the object,this paper focuses on one of the key factor restricting the quality of grinding burn of precision grinding, grinding burn constant u-sing feature extraction method,the acoustic emission sensor technology applied to process monitoring,grind-ing burn HSI feature extraction based on acoustic emission spectrum centroid,spectral moment heart value can be regarded as a constant value of one of the characteristics of grinding burn,and points out that the con-stant characteristic of universality,provide the technical basis for the optimization of grinding parameters pre-cision grinding and process automation monitoring.

  3. Sensory feedback in a bump attractor model of path integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Daniel B; Nguyen, Khanh; Kilpatrick, Zachary P

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian spatial navigation systems utilize several different sensory information channels. This information is converted into a neural code that represents the animal's current position in space by engaging place cell, grid cell, and head direction cell networks. In particular, sensory landmark (allothetic) cues can be utilized in concert with an animal's knowledge of its own velocity (idiothetic) cues to generate a more accurate representation of position than path integration provides on its own (Battaglia et al. The Journal of Neuroscience 24(19):4541-4550 (2004)). We develop a computational model that merges path integration with feedback from external sensory cues that provide a reliable representation of spatial position along an annular track. Starting with a continuous bump attractor model, we explore the impact of synaptic spatial asymmetry and heterogeneity, which disrupt the position code of the path integration process. We use asymptotic analysis to reduce the bump attractor model to a single scalar equation whose potential represents the impact of asymmetry and heterogeneity. Such imperfections cause errors to build up when the network performs path integration, but these errors can be corrected by an external control signal representing the effects of sensory cues. We demonstrate that there is an optimal strength and decay rate of the control signal when cues appear either periodically or randomly. A similar analysis is performed when errors in path integration arise from dynamic noise fluctuations. Again, there is an optimal strength and decay of discrete control that minimizes the path integration error. PMID:26754972

  4. Inelastic deuteron scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference region: Procedures for estimating the precision of the extracted B(E2) and B(IS2) values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking 94Mo(d,d')94Mo(21+) at 13.2 MeV incident energy as an example, a discussion is made about the influence of known experimental uncertainties in the primary data on the precision of the B(E2) and B(IS2) values, extracted in Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) measurements in a correlated way. The reflexes of judicious variations of three optical model parameters (around the global prescription) on the extracted values are also examined. The good quality of the data obtained with the S. Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility is shown to allow for a 2 endash 3% statistical uncertainty level for these quantities, within a distorted-wave Born approximation-deformed optical model approach. The accuracy of relative values of the ratio B(E2)/B(IS2), which may be linked to the ratio of proton to neutron quadrupole moments, is argued to be of similar order. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Inelastic deuteron scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference region: Procedures for estimating the precision of the extracted B(E2) and B(IS2) values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, J.L.; Ukita, G.M.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Gomes, L.C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05389-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    Taking {sup 94}Mo(d,d{sup {prime}}){sup 94}Mo(2{sub 1}{sup +}) at 13.2 MeV incident energy as an example, a discussion is made about the influence of known experimental uncertainties in the primary data on the precision of the B(E2) and B(IS2) values, extracted in Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) measurements in a correlated way. The reflexes of judicious variations of three optical model parameters (around the global prescription) on the extracted values are also examined. The good quality of the data obtained with the S. Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility is shown to allow for a 2{endash}3{percent} statistical uncertainty level for these quantities, within a distorted-wave Born approximation-deformed optical model approach. The accuracy of relative values of the ratio B(E2)/B(IS2), which may be linked to the ratio of proton to neutron quadrupole moments, is argued to be of similar order. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Shrinking of bumps by drawing scintillating fibres through a hot conical tool

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues Cavalcante, Ana Barbara; Gavardi, Laura; Joram, Christian; Kristic, Robert; Pierschel, Gerhard; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb SciFi tracker will be based on scintillating fibres with a nominal diameter of 250 $\\mu$m. A small length fraction of these fibres shows millimetre-scale fluctuations of the diameter, also known as bumps and necks. In particular, bumps exceeding a diameter of about 350 $\\mu$m are problematic as they can distort the winding pattern of the fibre mats over more extended regions. We present a method to reduce the diameter of large bumps to a diameter of 350 $\\mu$m by locally heating and pulling the fibre through a conical tool. The method has been proven to work for bumps up to 450 – 500 $\\mu$m diameter. Larger bumps need to be treated manually by a cut-and-glue technique which relies on UV-curing instant glue. The bump shrinking and cut-and-glue processes were integrated in a fibre diameter scanner at CERN. The central scanning and bump shrinking of all fibres is expected to minimise bump related issues at the four mat winding centres of the SciFi project.

  7. Dust and gas density evolution at a radial pressure bump in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Taki, Tetsuo; Ida, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the simultaneous evolution of dust and gas density profiles at a radial pressure bump located in a protoplanetary disk. If dust particles are treated as test particles, a radial pressure bump traps dust particles that drift radially inward. As the dust particles become more concentrated at the gas pressure bump, however, the drag force from dust to gas (back-reaction), which is ignored in a test-particle approach, deforms the pressure bump. We find that the pressure bump is completely deformed by the back-reaction when the dust-to-gas mass ratio reaches $\\sim 1$ for a slower bump restoration. The direct gravitational instability of dust particles is inhibited by the bump destruction. In the dust-enriched region, the radial pressure support becomes $\\sim 10-100$ times lower than the global value set initially. Although the pressure bump is a favorable place for streaming instability (SI), the flattened pressure gradient inhibits SI from forming large particle clumps corresponding to $100-1000$ k...

  8. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  9. Analisis Struktur Speed Bump Dari Bahan Concrete Foam Diperkuat Serat Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (TKKS) Terhadap Beban Impak Jatuh Bebas.

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahutar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Speed bump shape profile that does not match the standard could endanger road users passing. This research focuses on the making of the profile shape of a speed bump foam material fiber reinforced concrete in order to obtain structural design TKKS speed bump better and more secure by default. The purpose of this study is to analyze the mechanical response of materials products Speed Bump Foam Concrete fiber reinforced palm empty fruit bunches (TKKS) were subjected to impact loads and test lin...

  10. Seismic Hazard Prediction Using Seismic Bumps: A Data Mining Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Peker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large number of influencing factors, it is difficult to predict the earthquake which is a natural disaster. Researchers are working intensively on earthquake prediction. Loss of life and property can be minimized with earthquake prediction. In this study, a system is proposed for earthquake prediction with data mining techniques. In the study in which Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM approach has been used as data mining methodology, seismic bumps data obtained from mines has been analyzed. Extreme learning machine (ELM which is an effective and rapid classification algorithm has been used in the modeling phase. In the evaluation stage, different performance evaluation criteria such as classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and kappa value have been used. The results are promising for earthquake prediction.

  11. Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump

    CERN Document Server

    Steglich, M; Rouillé, G; Huisken, F; Mutschke, H; Henning, Th

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50 to 60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  12. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, M.; Blank, T.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Husemann, U.; Kudella, S.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15 μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30 μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The short setup time for the bumping process makes gold-stud bump-bonding highly attractive (and affordable) for the flip-chipping of single prototype ICs, which is the main limitation of the current photolithography processes.

  13. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The short setup time for the bumping process makes gold-stud bump-bonding highly attractive (and affordable) for the flip-chipping of single prototype ICs, which is the main limitation of the current photolithography processes

  14. Maximal loads acting on legs of powered roof support unit in longwalls with bumping hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    StanislawSzweda

    2001-01-01

    during blasting. The majority of recorded force changes in the legs has been caused by a dynamic interaction of the roof. They are characterized by a load increase coefficient Kd, satisfying the inequality i .06 < Kd = Fm/Fst.p < 1.24. A much smeller number of cases, when the external load acted on the bases, was recorded. Individual, recorded results of measurements indicate that changes of the force in the legs, caused by external loads of this type, run more intensively due to roof loads (1.08 < Kd< l. 80), particularly in these cases when the nearthe-roof layer of the seam Is under mining. A determination of more precise relations among the changes of forces in the legs, caused by a dynamic interaction of the floor and the bases and the mining and geological conditions requires a performance of additional underground tests. Keywords longwall, bumping hazard, powered roof support unit

  15. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra;

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  16. Indium bump array fabrication on small CMOS circuit for flip-chip bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a novel method for indium bump fabrication on a small CMOS circuit chip that is to be flip-chip bonded with a GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well spatial light modulator. A chip holder with a via hole is used to coat the photoresist for indium bump lift-off. The 1000 μm-wide photoresist edge bead around the circuit chip can be reduced to less than 500 μm, which ensures the integrity of the indium bump array. 64 × 64 indium arrays with 20 μm-high, 30 μm-diameter bumps are successfully formed on a 5 × 6.5 mm2 CMOS chip. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Indium bump array fabrication on small CMOS circuit for flip-chip bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yuyang; Zhang Yuxiang; Yin Zhizhen; Cui Guoxin; Liu H C; Bian Lifeng; Yang Hui; Zhang Yaohui

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel method for indium bump fabrication on a small CMOS circuit chip that is to be flip-chip bonded with a GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well spatial light modulator.A chip holder with a via hole is used to coat the photoresist for indium bump lift-off.The 1000 μm-wide photoresist edge bead around the circuit chip can be reduced to less than 500μm,which ensures the integrity of the indium bump array.64 × 64 indium arrays with 20 μm-high,30 μm-diameter bumps are successfully formed on a 5 × 6.5 mm2 CMOS chip.

  18. Comparison of Off-Line IR Bump and Action-Angle Kick Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yun; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Trbojevic, Dejan; Wei, Jie

    2005-01-01

    The interaction region bump (IR bump) nonlinear correction method has been used for the sextupole and octupole field error on-line corrections in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Some differences were found for the sextupole and octupole corrector strengths between the on-line IR bump correction and the predictions from the action-angle kick minimization. In this report we compare the corrector strengths from these two methods based on the RHIC Blue ring lattice with the IR nonlinear modeling. The comparison confirms the differences between resulting corrector strengths. And the reason for the differences is found and discussed. It is followed by a further discussion of the operational IR bump applications to the octupole, and skew sextupole and skew quadrupole field error corrections.

  19. Block the Buzzing, Bites, and Bumps: Preventing Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe Block the Buzzing, Bites, and Bumps Preventing Mosquito-Borne Illnesses Summer can be a bummer if ... find better ways to diagnose, treat, and prevent mosquito-borne illnesses. And we can all take simple ...

  20. Ship Track for Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  1. Two-Dimensional Bumps in Piecewise Smooth Neural Fields with Synaptic Depression

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze radially symmetric bumps in a two-dimensional piecewise-smooth neural field model with synaptic depression. The continuum dynamics is described in terms of a nonlocal integrodifferential equation, in which the integral kernel represents the spatial distribution of synaptic weights between populations of neurons whose mean firing rate is taken to be a Heaviside function of local activity. Synaptic depression dynamically reduces the strength of synaptic weights in response to increases in activity. We show that in the case of a Mexican hat weight distribution, sufficiently strong synaptic depression can destabilize a stationary bump solution that would be stable in the absence of depression. Numerically it is found that the resulting instability leads to the formation of a traveling spot. The local stability of a bump is determined by solutions to a system of pseudolinear equations that take into account the sign of perturbations around the circular bump boundary. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. Fluidic Self-Assembly Using Molten Ga Bumps and Its Application to Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Jun; Shibata, Tomoaki; Morita, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Mori, Masayuki; Maezawa, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    Fluidic self-assembly (FSA) using molten metal bumps is one of the most promising heterogeneous integration (HI) technologies, which enable us to integrate devices made of various materials on various substrates. We can fabricate the metal bumps using Ga having diameters of 24, 18, 12, and 8 µm with good yield. Using Ga has significant advantages; especially, it includes no toxic metals. These bumps were used for the FSA process of the metal dummy blocks having a diameter of 18 µm, and a good yield of 84% was obtained all over the substrate of about 1×1 cm2. Finally, we applied this method to the resonant tunneling diode (RTD) to verify good electrical, mechanical, and thermal contacts. The RTD device blocks having a diameter of 24 µm have been successfully assembled using the molten Ga bumps. This method is promising for high-performance RTD integration.

  3. On some results of Bump-Choie and Choie-Kim

    CERN Document Server

    Hundley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper is motivated by a 2001 paper of Choie and Kim and a 2006 paper of Bump and Choie. The paper of Choie and Kim extends an earlier result of Bol for elliptic modular forms to the setting of Siegel and Jacobi forms. The paper of Bump and Choie provides a representation theoretic interpretation of the phenomenon, and shows how a natural generalization of Choie and Kim's result on Siegel modular forms follows from a natural conjecture regarding (g,K)-modules. In this paper, it is shown that the conjecture of Bump and Choie follows from work of Boe. A second proof which is along the lines of the proof given by Bump and Choie in the genus 2 case is also included, as is a similar treatment of the result of Choie and Kim on Jacobi forms.

  4. The blue-bump of 3C 273

    CERN Document Server

    Paltani, S; Walter, R

    1998-01-01

    We present optical and ultraviolet observations of 3C273 covering the whole life of the IUE satellite. We analyze the variability properties of the light curves, and find that two variable components, written B and R respectively, must contribute to the blue-bump emission in this object. The B component produces most of the variability in the ultraviolet domain. A maximum time scale of variability of about 2 yr identical at all wavelengths is found. If discrete events produce this component, the event rate is ~3-30 yr^-1. Assuming an isotropic emission, each event must liberate about 10^51 erg in the form of optical-to-ultraviolet radiation. The spectral properties of the B component suggest that reprocessing on a truncated disk, or partially- thick bremsstrahlung may be the emission mechanism. We find evidence of a lag of a few days between the light curves of the B component at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. Neither the variability properties, nor the spectral properties of the R component can be accu...

  5. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking. PMID:25684283

  6. The effect of dilution and the use of a post-extraction nucleic acid purification column on the accuracy, precision, and inhibition of environmental DNA samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, Anna M.; Spear, Stephen F.; Pierson, Todd W.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of environmental DNA (eDNA) is an increasingly common method for detecting presence and assessing relative abundance of rare or elusive species in aquatic systems via the isolation of DNA from environmental samples and the amplification of species-specific sequences using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Co-extracted substances that inhibit qPCR can lead to inaccurate results and subsequent misinterpretation about a species’ status in the tested system. We tested three treatments (5-fold and 10-fold dilutions, and spin-column purification) for reducing qPCR inhibition from 21 partially and fully inhibited eDNA samples collected from coastal plain wetlands and mountain headwater streams in the southeastern USA. All treatments reduced the concentration of DNA in the samples. However, column purified samples retained the greatest sensitivity. For stream samples, all three treatments effectively reduced qPCR inhibition. However, for wetland samples, the 5-fold dilution was less effective than other treatments. Quantitative PCR results for column purified samples were more precise than the 5-fold and 10-fold dilutions by 2.2× and 3.7×, respectively. Column purified samples consistently underestimated qPCR-based DNA concentrations by approximately 25%, whereas the directional bias in qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed between stream and wetland samples for both dilution treatments. While the directional bias of qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed among treatments and locations, the magnitude of inaccuracy did not. Our results suggest that 10-fold dilution and column purification effectively reduce qPCR inhibition in mountain headwater stream and coastal plain wetland eDNA samples, and if applied to all samples in a study, column purification may provide the most accurate relative qPCR-based DNA concentrations estimates while retaining the greatest assay sensitivity.

  7. Multi-bump solutions in a neural field model with external inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Flora; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Bicho, Estela

    2016-07-01

    We study the conditions for the formation of multiple regions of high activity or "bumps" in a one-dimensional, homogeneous neural field with localized inputs. Stable multi-bump solutions of the integro-differential equation have been proposed as a model of a neural population representation of remembered external stimuli. We apply a class of oscillatory coupling functions and first derive criteria to the input width and distance, which relate to the synaptic couplings that guarantee the existence and stability of one and two regions of high activity. These input-induced patterns are attracted by the corresponding stable one-bump and two-bump solutions when the input is removed. We then extend our analytical and numerical investigation to N-bump solutions showing that the constraints on the input shape derived for the two-bump case can be exploited to generate a memory of N > 2 localized inputs. We discuss the pattern formation process when either the conditions on the input shape are violated or when the spatial ranges of the excitatory and inhibitory connections are changed. An important aspect for applications is that the theoretical findings allow us to determine for a given coupling function the maximum number of localized inputs that can be stored in a given finite interval.

  8. Stability of bumps in piecewise smooth neural fields with nonlinear adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2010-06-01

    We study the linear stability of stationary bumps in piecewise smooth neural fields with local negative feedback in the form of synaptic depression or spike frequency adaptation. The continuum dynamics is described in terms of a nonlocal integrodifferential equation, in which the integral kernel represents the spatial distribution of synaptic weights between populations of neurons whose mean firing rate is taken to be a Heaviside function of local activity. Discontinuities in the adaptation variable associated with a bump solution means that bump stability cannot be analyzed by constructing the Evans function for a network with a sigmoidal gain function and then taking the high-gain limit. In the case of synaptic depression, we show that linear stability can be formulated in terms of solutions to a system of pseudo-linear equations. We thus establish that sufficiently strong synaptic depression can destabilize a bump that is stable in the absence of depression. These instabilities are dominated by shift perturbations that evolve into traveling pulses. In the case of spike frequency adaptation, we show that for a wide class of perturbations the activity and adaptation variables decouple in the linear regime, thus allowing us to explicitly determine stability in terms of the spectrum of a smooth linear operator. We find that bumps are always unstable with respect to this class of perturbations, and destabilization of a bump can result in either a traveling pulse or a spatially localized breather. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. RED GIANT BRANCH BUMP BRIGHTNESS AND NUMBER COUNTS IN 72 GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OBSERVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the broadest and most precise empirical investigation of red giant branch bump (RGBB) brightness and number counts ever conducted. We implement a new method and use data from two Hubble Space Telescope globular cluster (GC) surveys to measure the brightness and star counts of the RGBB in 72 GCs. The median measurement precision is 0.018 mag in the brightness and 31% in the number counts, respectively, reaching peak precision values of 0.005 mag and 10%. The position of the main-sequence turnoff and the number of horizontal branch stars are used as comparisons where appropriate. Several independent scientific conclusions are newly possible with our parameterization of the RGBB. Both brightness and number counts are shown to have second parameters in addition to their strong dependence on metallicity. The RGBBs are found to be anomalous in the GCs NGC 2808, 5286, 6388, and 6441, likely due to the presence of multiple populations. Finally, we use our empirical calibration to predict the properties of the Galactic bulge RGBB. The updated RGBB properties for the bulge are shown to differ from the GC-calibrated prediction, with the former having lower number counts, a lower brightness dispersion, and a brighter peak luminosity than would be expected from the latter. This discrepancy is well explained by the Galactic bulge having a higher helium abundance than expected from GCs, ΔY ∼ +0.06 at the median metallicity.

  10. Why precision?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-15

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  11. Why precision?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  12. Development of an Indium bump bond process for silicon pixel detectors at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high-energy physics experiments currently under construction use a vertical connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100μm, required in these applications, cannot be fulfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflowed indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R and D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflowed afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a second reflow is performed for self-alignment and obtaining high mechanical strength. For the placement of the chips a manual and an automatic machine were constructed. The former is very flexible in handling different chip and module geometries but has a limited throughput while the latter features a much higher grade of automatization and is therefore much more suited for producing hundreds of modules with a well-defined geometry. The reliability of this process was proven by the successful construction of the PILATUS detector. The construction of PILATUS 6M (60 modules) and the CMS pixel barrel (roughly 800 modules) has started in early 2006

  13. Stress investigation on the rolling tires across the speed bump using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Royan; Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between road surface and tire on a vehicle may strongly determine the vehicle's stability. This study was conducted to find out the stress distribution as a result of pressure on the tires rolling across the speed bumps. This study used Abaqus software to simulate the movement of the tire, which rolls across the speed bump to determine the stress distribution that may occur. The tire component material used was a full path rubber on a speed bump. For the boundary conditions of the study, it was assumed that the tires had load variations as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN, as well as pressure variations as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi. The tires were then rolled 8 km/h crossing the speed bump. Modeling speed bumps also varied i.e. the first variation of speed bumps that have a height of 50 mm with a width of 250 mm, the second variation of height 75 mm with a width of 300 mm, and a third variation of height 100 mm with a width of 400 mm. The simulation was done by giving the tire pressures as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi and loads as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN. Further, the tires were rolled three times. It was rolled crossing the first speed bump, the second, and the third, respectively. Results showed stress distribution's fig and graphs. From the analysis results and simulation, it was shown that the greater the load received by the tires, the higher stress they produced.

  14. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Akiba; M. Artuso; V. van Beveren; M. van Beuzekom; H. Boterenbrood; J. Buytaert; P. Collins; R. Dumps; B. van der Heijden; C. Hombach; D. Hynds; D. Hsu; M. John; E. Koffeman; A. Leflat; Y. Li; I. Longstaff; A. Morton; E. PérezTrigo; R. Plackett; M.M. Reid; P. Rodríguez Perez; H. Schindler; P. Tsopelas; C. Vázquez Sierra; M. Wysokiński

    2015-01-01

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100-200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assemble

  15. Status of the horizontal paint bump power supply of the J-PARC RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 3-GeV RCS (Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron) of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex), the beam commissioning test with 400 MeV beam injection energy from LINAC (Linear Accelerator) was started in January, 2014, and the J-PARC user operation was started in February of the year. The performance of the paint bump power supply was upgraded, which is 1.6 times output current and 2 times output voltage. The new power supply operation was started without a trouble on schedule. However, after the test operation of the new shift bump (SB) power supply, the trouble of the circuit part was frequent. Therefore the excitation wave pattern of the horizontal paint bump (PBH) power supply, which was combined the function of the horizontal shift bump power supply pattern and the painting injection pattern, was demanded. In this paper, the contents of the upgraded power supply of the horizontal paint bump and the method of the any output wave pattern formation is reported. (author)

  16. DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SOURCE PROPERTIES OF A TYPE II RADIO BURST WITH SPECTRAL BUMPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent studies, we proposed that source properties of type II radio bursts can be inferred through a causal relationship between the special shape of the type II dynamic spectrum (e.g., bump or break) and simultaneous extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white light imaging observations (e.g., CME-shock crossing streamer structures). As a further extension of these studies, in this paper we examine the coronal mass ejection (CME) event on 2007 December 31 associated with a multiple type II radio burst. We identify the presence of two spectral bump features on the observed dynamic spectrum. By combining observational analyses of the radio spectral observations and the EUV-white light imaging data, we conclude that the two spectral bumps result from a CME-shock propagating across dense streamers on the southern and northern sides of the CME. It is inferred that the corresponding two type II emissions originate separately from the two CME-shock flanks where the shock geometries are likely quasi-perpendicular or oblique. Since the emission lanes are bumped as a whole within a relatively short time, it suggests that the type II radio bursts with bumps of this study are emitted from spatially confined sources (with a projected lateral dimension smaller than 0.05-0.1 R☉ at a fundamental frequency level of 20-30 MHz).

  17. Maximal loads acting on legs of powered roof support unit in longwalls with bumping hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw Szweda

    2001-01-01

    In the article the results of measurements of the resultant force in th e legs of a powered roof support unit, caused by a dynamic interaction of the ro ck mass, are discussed. The measurements have been taken in the longwalls mined with a roof fall, characterized by the highest degree of bumping hazard. It has been stated that the maximal force in the legs Fm, recorded during a dynam ic interaction of the rock mass, is proportional to the initial static force in the legs Fst,p. Th erefore a need for a careful selection of the initial load of the powered roof s upport, according to the local mining and geological conditions, results from su ch a statement. Setting the legs with the supporting load exceeding the indispen sable value for keeping the direct roof solids in balance, deteriorating the ope rational parameters of a longwall system also has a disadvantageous influence on the value of the force in the legs and the rate of its increase, caused by a dy namic interaction of the rock mass. A correct selection of the initial load caus es a decrease in the intensity of a dynamic interaction of the rock mass on powe red roof supports, which also has an advantageous influence on their life.   Simultaneously with the measurements of the resultant force in the legs, the vertical acceleration of the canopy was also recorded. It has enabled to prove that the exte rnal dynamic forces may act on the unit both from the roof as well as from the f loor. The changes of the force in the legs caused by dynamic phenomena intrinsic ally created in the roof and changes of the force in the legs caused by blasting explosives in the roof of the working, have been analyzed separately. It has been stated that an increase in the loads of legs, caused by intrinsi c phenomena is significantly higher than a force increase in the legs caused by blasting. It means that powered roof supports, to be operated in the workings, w here the bumping hazard occurs, will also transmit the loads

  18. Variability of the giant X-ray bump in GRB 121027A and possible origin

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Shu-Jin; Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min; Lin, Da-Bin; Li, Ya-Ping; Men, Yun-Peng; Wu, Xue-Feng; Lei, Wei-Hua; Lu, Ju-Fu

    2014-01-01

    The particular giant X-ray bump of GRB 121027A triggered by \\emph{Swift} is quite different from the typical X-ray flares in gamma-ray bursts. There exhibit four parts of the observed structural variabilities in the rise and decay phase of the bump. Considering the quality of four parts of the data, we can only analyze the data from about 5300 s to about 6100 s in the bump using the stepwise filter correlation method (Gao et al. 2012), and find that the $86^{+5.9}_{-9.4}~\\rm s$ periodic oscillation may exist, which is confirmed by the Lomb-Scargle method (Scargle 1982). Furthermore, a jet precession model (Liu et al. 2010) is proposed to account for such a variability.

  19. A 90 GHz Amplifier Assembled Using a Bump-Bonded InP-Based HEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsukanjana, Paul R.; Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Smith, R. Peter; Ksendzov, Alexander; Fitzsimmons, Michael J.; Martin, Suzanne C.

    1998-01-01

    We report on the performance of a novel W-band amplifier fabricated utilizing very compact bump bonds. We bump-bonded a high-speed, low-noise InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) onto a separately fabricated passive circuit having a GaAs substrate. The compact bumps and small chip size were used for efficient coupling and maximum circuit design flexibility. This new quasi-monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (Q-MMIC) amplifier exhibits a peak gain of 5.8 dB at approx. 90 GHz and a 3 dB bandwidth of greater than 25%. To our knowledge, this is the highest frequency amplifier assembled using bump-bonded technology. Our bump-bonding technique is a useful alternative to the high cost of monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMIC's). Effects of the bumps on the circuit appear to be minimal. We used the simple matching circuit for demonstrating the technology - future circuits would have all of the elements (resistors, via holes, bias lines, etc.) included 'in conventional MMIC's. Our design in different from other investigators' efforts in that the bumps are only 8 microns thick by 15 microns wide. The bump sizes were sufficiently small that the devices, originally designed for W-band hybrid circuits, could be bonded without alteration. Figure 3 shows the measured and simulated magnitude of S-parameters from 85-120 GHz, of the InP HEMT bump-bonded to the low noise amplifier (LNA) passive. The maximum gain is 5.8 dB at approx. 90 GHz, and gain extends to 117 GHz. Measurement of a single device (without matching networks) shows approx. 1 dB of gain at 90 GHz. The measured gain of the amplifier agrees well with the design in the center of the measurement band, and the agreement falls off at the band edges. Since no accommodation for the bump-bonding parasitics was made in the design, the result implies that the parasitic elements associated with the bonding itself do not dominate the performance of the LNA circuit. It should be noted that this

  20. Numerical simulation of bump-on-tail instability with source and sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, H.L.; Pekker, M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Breizman, B.N. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies]|[Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents results of the simulations of the bump-on-tail instability with a weak source and sink. This problem has been posed as a paradigm for the important problem in controlled fusion, that of the unstable excitation of Alfven waves in a tokamak by resonant energetic alpha particles. The source of alpha particles is the controlled fusion reaction produced by the background plasma and the sink is the collisional transport processes that slow down or scatter the energetic particles. The mathematical techniques that are needed to address this applied problem can be demonstrated in the much simpler bump-on-tail problem, which is explained in this paper.

  1. Density bump formation in a collisionless electrostatic shock wave in a laser-ablated plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Garasev, M A; Kocharovsky, V V; Malkov, Yu A; Murzanev, A A; Nechaev, A A; Stepanov, A N

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of a density bump at the front of a collisionless electrostatic shock wave have been observed experimentally during the ablation of an aluminium foil by a femtosecond laser pulse. We have performed numerical simulations of the dynamics of this phenomena developing alongside the generation of a package of ion-acoustic waves, exposed to a continual flow of energetic electrons, in a collisionless plasma. We present the physical interpretation of the observed effects and show that the bump consists of transit particles, namely, the accelerated ions from the dense plasma layer, and the ions from the diluted background plasma, formed by a nanosecond laser prepulse during the ablation.

  2. The reminiscence bump for public events: A review of its prevalence and taxonomy of alternative age distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark

    2013-01-01

    the bump, with a number of alternative age distributions seen in the literature. Therefore, I present a taxonomy of these alternative age distributions. Lastly, I discuss the implications of the existing literature regarding the mechanisms underlying the bump and offer suggestions for future research....

  3. Failure mechanisms and assembly-process-based solution of FCBGA high lead C4 bump non-wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the typical failure modes and failure mechanisms of non-wetting in an FCBGA (flip chip ball grid array) assembly. We have identified that the residual lead and tin oxide layer on the surface of the die bumps as the primary contributor to non-wetting between die bumps and substrate bumps during the chip-attach reflow process. Experiments with bump reflow parameters revealed that an optimized reflow dwell time and H2 flow rate in the reflow oven can significantly reduce the amount of lead and tin oxides on the surface of the die bumps, thereby reducing the non-wetting failure rate by about 90%. Both failure analysis results and mass production data validate the non-wetting failure mechanisms identified by this study. As a result of the reflow process optimization, the failure rate associated with non-wetting is significantly reduced, which further saves manufacturing cost and increases capacity utilization. (semiconductor technology)

  4. CO2laser-induced bump formation and growth on polystyrene for multi-depth soft lithography molds

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2012-10-19

    This paper reports the process of creating bumps on the surface of polystyrene (PS) induced by a CO2laser at low powers. The paper also outlines the procedure for growing bumps induced by multiple laser scans on the aforementioned bumps. These bumps result from the net volume gain of the laser heat-affected zone on the PS rather than from a deposition process, and the expansion of the heat-affected zone on PS was verified by measuring the hardness change using nanoindentation. The bumps have a much smoother surface than microchannels fabricated with laser cutting; depending on the laser power, they have heights ranging from hundreds of nanometers to 42m. The laser scanning speed and scan times along with this technique offer a fast and low-cost alternative for fabricating molds for multi-depth PDMS microfluidic devices. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. \\title{Low-Cost Bump-Bonding Processes for High Energy Physics Pixel Detectors}

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Colombo, Fabio; Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann; Husemann, Ulrich; Kudella, Simon; Weber, M

    2015-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area at reasonable costs are required. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of the production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin ($15\\,\\rm{\\mu m}$) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to $30\\,\\rm{\\mu m}$ without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bu...

  6. A depression before a bump in the highest energy cosmic ray spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Anchordoqui, L. A.; Dova, M. T.; Epele, L. N.; Swain, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    We re-examine the interaction of ultra high energy nuclei with the microwave background radiation. We find that the giant dipole resonance leaves a new signature in the differential energy spectrum of iron sources located around 3 Mpc: A depression before the bump which is followed by the expected cutoff.

  7. Thermohydrodynamics analysis on the mechanism of bump formation in laser texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Etsuji; Murayama, Rina; Miyamoto, Isamu

    2000-11-01

    Laser texturing on a hard disk for a computer has been already used practically, but the mechanism of bump formation has not been elucidated yet. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of bump formation in laser texturing by thermohydrodynamics analysis. Latent heat of evaporation, movement of gas and liquid interface, evaporation recoil pressure, Marangoni force that depends on temperature gradient and the surface tension are considered. The VOF (Volume of Fluid) method is used for the analysis of behavior of the free surface. Obtained results are as follows : (1) The downward flow is generated in the molten pool by the evaporation recoil pressure, and then it induces the outward flow in the radial direction. (2) After laser irradiation is stopped, the downward flow at the center of the molten pool and the outward flow in the radial direction are kept. Therefore, the center of the molten pool is lowered and the surface rises around the hole, that is, a bump is formed. (3) When the temperature coefficient of surface tension is negative, Marangoni force is most effective to the surface rise when the resolidification starts outside of the bump.

  8. Photogrammetric 3d Acquisition and Analysis of Medicamentous Induced Pilomotor Reflex ("goose Bumps")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D.; Hecht, A.

    2016-06-01

    In a current study at the University Hospital Dresden, Department of Neurology, the autonomous function of nerve fibres of the human skin is investigated. For this purpose, a specific medicament is applied on a small area of the skin of a test person which results in a local reaction (goose bumps). Based on the extent of the area, where the stimulation of the nerve fibres is visible, it can be concluded how the nerve function of the skin works. The aim of the investigation described in the paper is to generate 3D data of these goose bumps. Therefore, the paper analyses and compares different photogrammetric surface measurement techniques in regard to their suitability for the 3D acquisition of silicone imprints of the human skin. Furthermore, an appropriate processing procedure for analysing the recorded point cloud data is developed and presented. It was experimentally proven that by using (low-cost) photogrammetric techniques medicamentous induced goose bumps can be acquired in three dimensions and can be analysed almost fully automatically from the perspective of medical research questions. The relative accuracy was determined with 1% (RMSE) of the area resp. the volume of an individual goose bump.

  9. High precision spectroscopy of pionic and muonic X-rays to extract an upper limit of the muon-neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new experiment for a high precision measurement of the pion mass is presented. It combines the cyclotron trap to produce pionic atoms in a small volume, with a doubly focussing crystal spectrometer to measure pionic and muonic X-ray transitions with high accuracy. The muonic X-rays will serve as new high precision standards. The first test experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the project. It yielded a preliminary value for the pion mass of (139570.71±0.53)keV/c2. In combination with a recent muon momentum result a new value for the muon neutrino was obtained: Mνμ2 (0.02898±0.03267) MeV2/c4. With some improvements which are being prepared, the next measurement can be expected to yield an accuracy of better than 1 ppm for the pion mass and hence a limit smaller than 70 keV/c2 for neutrino mass. (author)

  10. Fluphenazine hydrochloride radical cation assay: A new, rapid and precise method to determine in vitro total antioxidant capacity of fruit extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Nadeem Asghar; Qadeer Alam; Sharoon Augusten

    2012-01-01

    A new procedure based on generation and subsequent reduction of orange-colored fluphenazine hydrochloride radical (FPH·+)is presented for the screening of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of various fruit matrices.The FPH·+ was obtained by mixing fluphenazine hydrochloride with persulfate (final concentration 2 mmol/L and 0.05 mmmol/L,respectively) in 3 mol/L H2SO4 with constant shaking for 5 min.The solution formed showed maximum absorption as 0.8 ± 0.02 at 500 nm in first-order derivative spectrum.The percent inhibition of the solution increased linearly on addition of increasing mounts of standard antioxidants i.e.,ascorbic acid etc.The TACs of sample citrus juices were calculated in terms of ascorbic acid equivalents (AAEs) by comparing their inhibition curves with that of ascorbic acid.Comparison of AAE values of different commercial orange juices using the newly developed FPH·+ assay and the well-known ABTS/K2S2O8 and DMPD/FeCl3 assays indicated the precision and comparable sensitivity of the method.The proposed procedure is quick,economical,and more precise and gives results comparable to contemporary assays.

  11. Precise Extraction of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor from Quasi-elastic 3He(pol)(e(pol),e') at Q^2 = 0.1-0.6 (GeV/c)^2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jens-ole Hansen; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jiang-Ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G Corrado; Christopher Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Dipangkar Dutta; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; Jacek Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Piotr Zolnierczuk; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; Cathleen Jones; Mark Jones; R Kahl; H Kamada; A Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John LeRose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; Jeffery Martin; Kathy McCormick; Robert McKeown; Kevin McIlhany; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; Greg Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; Emanuele Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; David Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Giovanni Salme; Michael Schnee; Charles Seely; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; M Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; John Watson; Claude Williamson; H Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Feng Xiong; Wang Xu; Jen-chuan Yeh

    2006-05-05

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry A{sub T'} in the quasi-elastic {sup 3}/rvec He/(/rvec e/,e') process with high precision at Q{sup 2}-values from 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} was extracted at Q{sup 2}-values of 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} using a non-relativistic Faddeev calculation which includes both final-state interactions (FSI) and meson-exchange currents (MEC). Theoretical uncertainties due to the FSI and MEC effects were constrained with a precision measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in the threshold region of {sup 3}/rvec He/(/rvec e/,e'). We also extracted the neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} at Q{sup 2}-values of 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} based on Plane Wave Impulse Approximation calculations.

  12. Analisis Struktur Speed Bump Dengan Campuran Concrete Foam Dengan Menggunakan Perangkat Lunak Ansys APDL 14.5

    OpenAIRE

    Muttaqin, Maraghi

    2015-01-01

    Speed bump (speed bump), also known as speed delimiter tool is part of the elevated road, additional asphalt or cement that is placed across the road to slow the pace of sign/speed kendaraan.desain speed bump with the geometry of the solid structure of foam concrete is reinforced with fibers empty fruit bunches of oil palm, has a long dimension of 400 mm, width 200 mm and height of 150 mm. From static simulation results using Ansys APDL 14.5 program, with the pressure exerted by 80,000 MPa ob...

  13. Precise Determination of the Deuteron Spin Structure at Low to Moderate $Q^2$ with CLAS and Extraction of the Neutron Contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Guler, N; Kuhn, S E; Bosted, P; Griffioen, K A; Keith, C; Minehart, R; Prok, Y; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Amaryan, M J; Anderson, M D; Pereira, S Anefalos; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Bultmann, S; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crabb, D; Crede, V; Angelo, A D; Dashyan, N; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Dupre, R; Alaoui, A El; Fassi, L El; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Filippi, A; Fleming, J A; Forest, T A; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Ho, D; Holtrop, M; Hughes, S M; Hyde, C E; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Joosten, S; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; McKinnon, B; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Movsisyan, A; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Net, L A; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Ripani, M; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Simonyan, A; Skorodumina, Iu; Sokhan, D; Sparveris, N; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I

    2015-01-01

    We present the final results for the deuteron spin structure functions obtained from the full data set collected with Jefferson Lab's CLAS in 2000-2001. Polarized electrons with energies of 1.6, 2.5, 4.2 and 5.8 GeV were scattered from deuteron ($^{15}$ND$_3$) targets, dynamically polarized along the beam direction, and detected with CLAS. From the measured double spin asymmetry, the virtual photon absorption asymmetry $A_1^d$ and the polarized structure function $g_1^d$ were extracted over a wide kinematic range (0.05 GeV$^2 < Q^2 <$ 5 GeV$^2$ and 0.9 GeV $< W <$ 3 GeV). We use an unfolding procedure and a parametrization of the corresponding proton results to extract from these data the polarized structure functions $A_1^n$ and $g_1^n$ of the (bound) neutron, which are so far unknown in the resonance region, $W < 2$ GeV. We compare our final results, including several moments of the deuteron and neutron spin structure functions, with various theoretical models and expectations as well as para...

  14. First Measurement of the Ratio sigma_(t-tbar) / sigma_(Z/\\gamma*->ll) and Precise Extraction of the t-tbar Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T

    2010-01-01

    We report a measurement of the ratio of the top-antitop to Z/gamma* production cross sections in sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 4.6 fb-1, collected by the CDF II detector. The top-antitop cross section ratio is measured using two complementary methods, a b-jet tagging measurement and a topological approach. By multiplying the ratios by the well-known theoretical Z/gamma*->ll cross section, the extracted top-antitop cross sections are effectively insensitive to the uncertainty on luminosity. A best linear unbiased estimate is used to combine both measurements with the result sigma_(top-antitop) = 7.70 +/- 0.52 pb, for a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c^2.

  15. Bumps, breathers, and waves in a neural network with spike frequency adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a continuum model of neural tissue that includes the effects of spike frequency adaptation (SFA). The basic model is an integral equation for synaptic activity that depends upon nonlocal network connectivity, synaptic response, and the firing rate of a single neuron. We consider a phenomenological model of SFA via a simple state-dependent threshold firing rate function. As without SFA, Mexican-hat connectivity allows for the existence of spatially localized states (bumps). Importantly recent Evans function techniques are used to show that bumps may destabilize leading to the emergence of breathers and traveling waves. Moreover, a similar analysis for traveling pulses leads to the conditions necessary to observe a stable traveling breather. Simulations confirm our theoretical predictions and illustrate the rich behavior of this model

  16. Iron Opacity Bump Changes the Stability and Structure of Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James

    2016-01-01

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes have regions where the Rosseland mean opacity can be much larger than the electron scattering opacity primarily due to the large number of bound-bound transitions in iron. We study the effects of this iron opacity "bump" on the thermal stability and vertical structure of radiation pressure dominated accretion disks, utilizing three dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamic simulations in the local shearing box approximation. The simulations self-consistently calculate the heating due to MHD turbulence caused by magneto-rotational instability and radiative cooling by using the radiative transfer module based on a variable Eddington tensor in Athena. For a $5\\times 10^8$ solar mass black hole with $\\sim 3\\%$ of the Eddington luminosity, a model including the iron opacity bump maintains its structure for more than $10$ thermal times without showing significant signs of thermal runaway. In contrast, if only electron scattering and free-free opacity are included as ...

  17. Design, modeling and test of a novel speed bump energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaria, Prakhar; Wang, Lirong; Pandey, Abhishek; O'Connor, James; McAvoy, David; Harrigan, Terence; Chernow, Barbara; Zuo, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Speed bumps are commonly used to control the traffic speed and to ensure the safety of pedestrians. This paper proposes a novel speed bump energy harvester (SBEH), which can generate large-scale electrical energy up to several hundred watts when the vehicle drives on it. A unique design of the motion mechanism allows the up-and-down pulse motion to drive the generator into unidirectional rotation, yielding time times more energy than the traditional design. Along with the validation of energy harvesting, this paper also addresses the advantages of this motion mechanism over the traditional design, using physical modeling and simulation. Up to 200 watts electrical peak power in one phase of three-phase generator during in-field test can be regenerated when a sedan passage car passes through the SBEH prototype at 2 km/h.

  18. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Thomas Jefferson - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  19. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Multibeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Whiting - (2001), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 50x50 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  20. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Backscatter, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Nancy Foster - (2006), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  1. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Nancy Foster - (2006), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of the 2006 multibeam bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off...

  2. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Slope, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Nancy Foster - (2006), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of the 2006 multibeam bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off...

  3. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Little Hales - (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  4. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Slope, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Little Hales- (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of themultibeam bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the...

  5. Book review: Making ‘postmodern’ mothers: pregnant embodiment, baby bumps and body image

    OpenAIRE

    O'Branski, Megan

    2013-01-01

    "Making Postmodern Mothers: Pregnant Embodiment, Baby Bumps and Body Image." Meredith Nash. Palgrave Macmillan. November 2012. --- This book aims to provide a multi-disciplinary, empirical account of pregnant embodiment and how it fits into wider sociological and feminist discourses about gender, bodies, ‘fat’, feminism, and motherhood. The study draws on original qualitative data based on interviews with pregnant women, their partners, and maternity industry professionals. ‘Postmodern’ p...

  6. Electronic states in a graphene flake strained by a Gaussian bump

    OpenAIRE

    Moldovan, D.; Masir, M. Ramezani; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strain in graphene is usually modeled by a pseudo-magnetic vector potential which is, however, derived in the limit of small strain. In realistic cases deviations are expected in view of graphene's very high strain tolerance, which can be up to 25%. Here we investigate the pseudo-magnetic field generated by a Gaussian bump and we show that it exhibits significant differences with numerical tight-binding results. Furthermore, we calculate the electronic states in the strained reg...

  7. Bumps and rings in a two-dimensional neural field: splitting and rotational instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we consider instabilities of localized solutions in planar neural field firing rate models of Wilson-Cowan or Amari type. Importantly we show that angular perturbations can destabilize spatially localized solutions. For a scalar model with Heaviside firing rate function, we calculate symmetric one-bump and ring solutions explicitly and use an Evans function approach to predict the point of instability and the shapes of the dominant growing modes. Our predictions are shown to be in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulations. Moreover, beyond the instability our simulations demonstrate the emergence of multi-bump and labyrinthine patterns. With the addition of spike-frequency adaptation, numerical simulations of the resulting vector model show that it is possible for structures without rotational symmetry, and in particular multi-bumps, to undergo an instability to a rotating wave. We use a general argument, valid for smooth firing rate functions, to establish the conditions necessary to generate such a rotational instability. Numerical continuation of the rotating wave is used to quantify the emergent angular velocity as a bifurcation parameter is varied. Wave stability is found via the numerical evaluation of an associated eigenvalue problem

  8. Built-in reliability design of highly integrated solid-state power switches with metal bump interconnects

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianfeng; Castellazzi, Alberto; Dai, Tianxiang; Corfield, Martin; Solomon, Adane Kassa; Johnson, Christopher Mark

    2015-01-01

    A stacked substrate-chip-bump-chip-substrate assembly has been demonstrated in the construction of power switch modules with high power density and good electrical performance. In the present work, special effort has been devoted to material selection and geometric shape of the bumps in the design for improving the thermo-mechanical reliability of a highly integrated bi-directional switch. Results from Three-dimensional finite element simulation indicate that for all design cases the maximum ...

  9. Development of a reliable analytical method for the precise extractive spectrophotometric determination of osmium(VIII) with 2-nitrobenzaldehydethiocarbohydrazone: Analysis of alloys and real sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanje, Sunil B; Kokare, Arjun N; Suryavanshi, Vishal J; Waghmode, Duryodhan P; Joshi, Sunil S; Anuse, Mansing A

    2016-12-01

    The proposed method demonstrates that the osmium(VIII) forms complex with 2-NBATCH from 0.8molL(-1) HCl at room temperature. The complex formed was extracted in 10mL of chloroform with a 5min equilibration time. The absorbance of the red colored complex was measured at 440nm against the reagent blank. The Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 5-25μgmL(-1), the optimum concentration range was 10-20μgmL(-1) of osmium(VIII) as evaluated by Ringbom's plot. Molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex in chloroform is 8.94×10(3)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.021μgcm(-2), respectively. The composition of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex was 1:2 investigated from Job's method of continuous variation, Mole ratio method and slope ratio method. The interference of diverse ions was studied and masking agents were used wherever necessary. The present method was successfully applied for determination of osmium(VIII) from binary, ternary and synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloys and real samples. The validity of the method was confirmed by finding the relative standard deviation for five determinations which was 0.29%. PMID:27380306

  10. Radiographic Markers of Femoroacetabular Impingement: Correlation of Herniation Pit and Femoral Bump with a Positive Cross-Over Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max J. Scheyerer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The goal of this study was to research the association of femoral bumps and herniation pits with the overlap-ratio of the cross-over sign. Methods. Pelvic X-rays and CT-scans of 2925 patients with good assessment of the anterior and the posterior acetabular wall and absence of neutral pelvic tilt were enrolled in the investigation. Finally pelvic X-rays were assessed for the presence of a positive cross-over sign, and CT-scans for a femoral bump or a herniation pit. Additionally, if a positive cross-over sign was discovered, the overlap-ratio was calculated. Results. A femoral bump was found in 53.3% (n=1559, and a herniation pit in 27.2% (n=796 of all hips. The overlap-ratio correlated positively with the presence of a femoral bump, while a negative correlation between the overlap-ratio and the presence of a herniation pit was found. The latter was significantly more often combined with a femoral bump than without. Conclusions. We detected an increased prevalence of femoral bump with increasing overlap-ratios of the cross-over sign indicating a relation to biomechanical stress. The observed decreased prevalence of herniation pits with increasing overlap-ratios could be explained by reduced mechanical stress due to nontightened iliofemoral ligament in the presence of retroversion of the acetabulum.

  11. Experiments to measure ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov growth of Gaussian bumps in plastic capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batha, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sorce, Chuck [LLE; Landen, Otto [LLNL; Braun, Dave [LLNL

    2010-06-02

    Growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of inertial confinement fusion capsules (ICF) due to ablator and fuel non-uniformities have been of primary concern to the ICF program since its inception. To achieve thermonuclear ignition at Megajoule class laser systems such as the NIF, targets must be designed for high implosion velocities, which requires higher in-flight aspect ratios (IFAR) and diminished shell stability. Controlling capsule perturbations is thus of the utmost importance. Recent simulations have shown that features on the outer surface of an ICF capsule as small as 10 microns wide and 100's of nanometers tall such as bumps, divots, or even dust particles can profoundly impact capsule performance by leading to material jetting or mix into the hotspot. Recent x-ray images of implosions on the NIF may be evidence of such mixing. Unfortunately, our ability to accurately predict these effects is uncertain due to disagreement between equation of state (EOS) models. In light of this, we have begun a campaign to measure the growth of isolated defects (Gaussian bumps) due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov in CH capsules to validate these models. The platform that has been developed uses halfraums with radiation temperatures near 75 eV (Rev. 4 foot-level) driven by 15-20 beams from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY), which sends a ~2.5 Mbar shock into a planar CH foil. Gaussian-shaped bumps (20 microns wide, 4-7 microns tall) are deposited onto the ablation side of the target. On-axis radiography with a saran (Cl Heα - 2.8 keV) backlighter is used to measure bump evolution prior to shock breakout. Shock speed measurements will also be made with Omega's active shock breakout (ASBO) and streaked optical pyrometery (SOP) diagnostics in conjunction with filtered x-ray photodiode arrays (DANTE) to determine drive conditions in the target. These data will be used to discriminate between EOS

  12. Effects of PCB Pad Metal Finishes on the Cu-Pillar/Sn-Ag Micro Bump Joint Reliability of Chip-on-Board (COB) Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoon; Lee, Seyong; Shin, Ji-won; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2016-03-01

    While solder bumps have been used as the bump structure to form the interconnection during the last few decades, the continuing scaling down of devices has led to a change in the bump structure to Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bumps. Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bump interconnections differ from conventional solder bump interconnections in terms of their assembly processing and reliability. A thermo-compression bonding method with pre-applied b-stage non-conductive films has been adopted to form solder joints between Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps and printed circuit board vehicles, using various pad metal finishes. As a result, various interfacial inter-metallic compounds (IMCs) reactions and stress concentrations occur at the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps joints. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the influence of pad metal finishes on the structural reliability of fine pitch Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps flip chip packaging. In this study, four different pad surface finishes (Thin Ni ENEPIG, OSP, ENEPIG, ENIG) were evaluated in terms of their interconnection reliability by thermal cycle (T/C) test up to 2000 cycles at temperatures ranging from -55°C to 125°C and high-temperature storage test up to 1000 h at 150°C. The contact resistances of the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump showed significant differences after the T/C reliability test in the following order: thin Ni ENEPIG > OSP > ENEPIG where the thin Ni ENEPIG pad metal finish provided the best Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump interconnection in terms of bump joint reliability. Various IMCs formed between the bump joint areas can account for the main failure mechanism.

  13. Effects of PCB Pad Metal Finishes on the Cu-Pillar/Sn-Ag Micro Bump Joint Reliability of Chip-on-Board (COB) Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoon; Lee, Seyong; Shin, Ji-won; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2016-06-01

    While solder bumps have been used as the bump structure to form the interconnection during the last few decades, the continuing scaling down of devices has led to a change in the bump structure to Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bumps. Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bump interconnections differ from conventional solder bump interconnections in terms of their assembly processing and reliability. A thermo-compression bonding method with pre-applied b-stage non-conductive films has been adopted to form solder joints between Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps and printed circuit board vehicles, using various pad metal finishes. As a result, various interfacial inter-metallic compounds (IMCs) reactions and stress concentrations occur at the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps joints. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the influence of pad metal finishes on the structural reliability of fine pitch Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps flip chip packaging. In this study, four different pad surface finishes (Thin Ni ENEPIG, OSP, ENEPIG, ENIG) were evaluated in terms of their interconnection reliability by thermal cycle (T/C) test up to 2000 cycles at temperatures ranging from -55°C to 125°C and high-temperature storage test up to 1000 h at 150°C. The contact resistances of the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump showed significant differences after the T/C reliability test in the following order: thin Ni ENEPIG > OSP > ENEPIG where the thin Ni ENEPIG pad metal finish provided the best Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump interconnection in terms of bump joint reliability. Various IMCs formed between the bump joint areas can account for the main failure mechanism.

  14. Study of mixing enhancement by a bump ring in a combustion chamber. Paper no. IGEC-1-068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engine experiments have shown that simultaneous reductions of NOx and soot emissions can be achieved with the so called as BUMP (Bump-up mixing process) combustion chamber. In order to understand the underlying mechanism of emission reduction, A STAR-CD based multi-dimensional combustion modeling was carried out for a heavy-duty diesel engine with the BUMP combustion chamber. The results from an impingement gas jet experiment were also presented and compared with computer modeling. The results showed that complex air motion with high turbulence was obtained by adoption of the bump ring. The fuel/air mixing rate was promoted greatly. Therefore, for the BUMP combustion chamber, much fuel fell in the optimum equivalence ratio range than that of the baseline chamber. The computations also indicated that the whole combustion process in the BUMP combustion chamber may be classified as premixed combustion and typical spray diffusion combustion, and the premixed combustion may be divided into three stages due to stratification in temperatures of corresponding stratified fuel. The lean mixture above criteria temperature (800k) auto-ignited first and triggered the combustion of mixture of around stoichiometric equivalence ratio, and then the mixture in fuel/air equivalence range of 1.25 to 1.67 burnt, which was originally with the lowest temperature in the stratification. The mechanism for simultaneous reduction of soot and NO emissions with the BUMP combustion chamber was attributed to the increase in fuel proportion in the range of optimum equivalence ratio and lean mixture. (author)

  15. Asteroseismic Analysis of the Internal Structure and Evolution of Red Giant Branch Bump Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke

    2015-05-01

    The “bump” is a prominent feature of the red giant branch (RGB) luminosity function of stellar clusters. Through constructing a grid of models with different masses and metallicities to study the feature of the RGB bump luminosity we find that the luminosity increases almost monotonically with increasing mass for a given metallicity and decreases monotonically with increasing metallicity. Moreover, different stars have different shapes of the RGB bump. It is correlated with the sharpness of the H discontinuity, which is left over by the convection envelope during the first dredge-up. Using the periodicity in the small separations d01, d10 to probe the internal structure, we find that, at about half the acoustic radius, the sound speed has a sharp variation that is caused by a local depression of the first adiabatic exponent {{{Γ }}1} in the second helium ionization zone. It induces an oscillation modulation in d01, d10 with a period of 6.4 μ Hz. Meanwhile, in the same model, the base of the convective envelope is located at a relatively small acoustic radius {{t}envp}/T, which is about 10-1. It is too deep to detect the exact location of the bottom of the outer convective envelope. In order to discriminate the evolutionary status of different stars, we calculate the asymptotic g-mode period spacing {Δ }{{{\\Pi }}1}. We find that {Δ }{{{\\Pi }}1} decreases monotonically with evolution. It is a reliable parameter for distinguishing stars in different positions of the RGB bump.

  16. Investigation of turbulent boundary layer flow over 2D bump using highly resolved large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2011-01-01

    A large eddy simulation (LES) study of turbulent non-equilibrium boundary layer flow over 2 D Bump, at comparatively low Reynolds number Reh = U∞h/ν = 1950, was conducted. A well-known LES issue of obtaining and sustaining turbulent flow inside the computational domain at such low Re, is addressed...... on a local estimate of the subgrid scale turbulent kinetic energy ksgs and implicit damping of turbulent SGS viscosity νt(sgs) in the near-wall region, was selected as a suitable basis for the present LES computations due to the fact that block structured MPI parallelized CFD code used in the current...

  17. An assessment of the potential for a steam bump in Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a preliminary assessment of the potential for a ''steam bump'' in Tank 241-C-106. The assessment is based on currently available data from significant transients which occurred in Tank C-106. Recommendations are made for additional data needs to clarify the current behavior of this tank. General criteria are provided for making decisions on removing or returning to work restrictions on Tank Farm operations. Also provided are additional actions which should be taken on C-106 to manage tank heat removal

  18. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck Using Geometrically Optimized Rear Cabin Bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms by which geometrically optimized bumps, placed on the rear end of the cabin roof of a generic truck, reduce aerodynamic drag. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location, and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, and probabilistic restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.

  19. Failure mechanisms and assembly-process-based solution of FCBGA high lead C4 bump non-wetting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenqi; Qiu Yiming; Jin Xing; Wang Lei; Wu Qidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the typical failure modes and failure mechanisms of non-wetting in an FCBGA (flip chip ball grid array) assembly.We have identified that the residual lead and tin oxide layer on the surface of the die bumps as the primary contributor to non-wetting between die bumps and substrate bumps during the chipattach reflow process.Experiments with bump reflow parameters revealed that an optimized reflow dwell time and H2 flow rate in the reflow oven can significantly reduce the amount of lead and tin oxides on the surface of the die bumps,thereby reducing the non-wetting failure rate by about 90%.Both failure analysis results and mass production data validate the non-wetting failure mechanisms identified by this study.As a result of the reflow process optimization,the failure rate associated with non-wetting is significantly reduced,which further saves manufacturing cost and increases capacity utilization.

  20. An RDL UBM Structural Design for Solving Ultralow- K Delamination Problem of Cu Pillar Bump Flip Chip BGA Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. M.; Wu, C. Y.; Wang, C. H.; Cheng, H. C.; Huang, N. C.

    2014-11-01

    Copper (Cu) pillar bumps tend to induce high thermal-mechanical stress during environmental tests and fabrication processes due to the high hardness of Cu, especially when applied with an ultralow- K (ULK) chip. A previous experiment showed that interfacial delamination was often observed in the ULK layers of conventional Cu pillar bump-type flip chip ball grid array (FCBGA) packages under thermal cycling, where under bump metallurgy (UBM) layers directly sit on the metal pads of silicon chips (herein termed ``direct UBM structure''). In this study, a UBM pad relocation scheme through redistribution layer (RDL) technology (herein termed ``RDL UBM structure'') is proposed to relieve the stress or ULK delamination issue. The proposed technique is tested on Cu pillar bump-type FCBGA packages subjected to thermal loading, the effectiveness of which is demonstrated through finite element stress simulation and experimental reliability tests. Simulation results reveal that the RDL UBM structure can greatly reduce the maximum stress in the ULK layers by as much as about 10% to 44%. Besides, it turns out that the Cu pillar bump-type FCBGA packages with the RDL UBM structure show good interconnect reliability performance in terms of thermal cycling, highly accelerated stress, and high-temperature storage.

  1. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    determination’ based on the relationship between the point clouds on regular objects (e.g. flat top buildings) and the ground truth of the objects used for calibration. In order to extract the footprints on the objects, filtering was implemented before the calibration. Three example tests have been made and......This report presents the results of investigations to determine accurate positions of aircrafts in airborne surveys (airborne gravity and airborne lidar) using precise point positioning, and also introduces a new so called “stepwise geometric misalignment determination” method to retrieve the...... airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  2. Precision Tau Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Precise measurements of the lepton properties provide stringent tests of the Standard Model and accurate determinations of its parameters. We overview the present status of tau physics, highlighting the most recent developments, and discuss the prospects for future improvements. The leptonic decays of the tau lepton probe the structure of the weak currents and the universality of their couplings to the W boson. The universality of the leptonic Z couplings has also been tested through leptonic Z decays. The hadronic tau decay modes constitute an ideal tool for studying low-energy effects of the strong interaction in very clean conditions. Accurate determinations of the QCD coupling and the Cabibbo mixing have been obtained with tau data. The large mass of the tau opens the possibility to study many kinematically-allowed exclusive decay modes and extract relevant dynamical information. Violations of flavour and CP conservation laws can also be searched for with tau decays. Related subjects such as muon decays, ...

  3. Biomimetic Water-Collecting Fabric with Light-Induced Superhydrophilic Bumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Wang, Xiaowen; Lai, Chuilin; Hu, Huawen; Kong, Yeeyee; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2016-02-10

    To develop an efficient water-collecting surface that integrates both fast water-capturing and easy drainage properties is of high current interest for addressing global water issues. In this work, a superhydrophobic surface was fabricated on cotton fabric via manipulation of both the surface roughness and surface energy. This was followed by a subsequent spray coating of TiO2 nanosol that created light-induced superhydrophilic bumps with a unique raised structure as a result of the interfacial tension of the TiO2 nanosol sprayed on the superhydrophobic fiber surface. These raised TiO2 bumps induce both a wettability gradient and a shape gradient, synergistically accelerating water coalescence and water collection. The in-depth study revealed that the quantity and the distribution of the TiO2 had a significant impact on the final water collection efficiency. This inexpensive and facilely fabricated fabric biomimicks the desert beetle's back and spider silk, which are capable of fog harvesting without additional energy consumption. PMID:26652924

  4. High resolution 3D imaging of bump-bonds by means of synchrotron radiation computed laminography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecilia, A.; Hamann, E.; Koenig, T.; Xu, F.; Cheng, Y.; Helfen, L.; Ruat, M.; Scheel, M.; Zuber, M.; Baumbach, T.; Fauler, A.; Fiederle, M.

    2013-12-01

    During the flip-chip bonding process of a semiconductor sensor onto readout electronics, a formation of defects may take place, like solder joint displacements, voids, cracks, pores and bridges. This may result in blind spots on the detector, which are insensitive to photons and thus reduce the detector performance. In this work, the flip-chip interconnections of selected CdTe and GaAs Medipix detectors were investigated by synchrotron radiation computed laminography at a micrometer scale. The analysis of the volume rendering proved the presence of voids in the CdTe sensor flip-chip interconnections, with sizes between 3 μm and 9 μm. These voids can be harmful for the long term use of the device, because their presence weakens the adhesive strength between a contact and the readout electronics. Consequently, their formation needs to be avoided. The GaAs Medipix detectors investigated include two sensors that were produced with different flip-chip methods. The comparison of the 3D renderings of the bump-bond interconnections in the two GaAs sensors demonstrated the presence of a misalignment in the range of 5-12 μm between pixel passivation and bump-bonds in the detector produced with an older technique. In contrast to this, no misalignment was observed for the most recently produced detector. The only remarkable observation is the presence of ``satellites'' of solder that do not compromise the detector operation.

  5. High resolution 3D imaging of bump-bonds by means of synchrotron radiation computed laminography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the flip-chip bonding process of a semiconductor sensor onto readout electronics, a formation of defects may take place, like solder joint displacements, voids, cracks, pores and bridges. This may result in blind spots on the detector, which are insensitive to photons and thus reduce the detector performance. In this work, the flip-chip interconnections of selected CdTe and GaAs Medipix detectors were investigated by synchrotron radiation computed laminography at a micrometer scale. The analysis of the volume rendering proved the presence of voids in the CdTe sensor flip-chip interconnections, with sizes between 3 μm and 9 μm. These voids can be harmful for the long term use of the device, because their presence weakens the adhesive strength between a contact and the readout electronics. Consequently, their formation needs to be avoided. The GaAs Medipix detectors investigated include two sensors that were produced with different flip-chip methods. The comparison of the 3D renderings of the bump-bond interconnections in the two GaAs sensors demonstrated the presence of a misalignment in the range of 5–12 μm between pixel passivation and bump-bonds in the detector produced with an older technique. In contrast to this, no misalignment was observed for the most recently produced detector. The only remarkable observation is the presence of ''satellites'' of solder that do not compromise the detector operation

  6. Miniaturization of Micro-Solder Bumps and Effect of IMC on Stress Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Soud Farhan; Ladani, Leila

    2016-04-01

    As the joints become smaller in more advanced packages and devices, intermetallic (IMCs) volume ratio increases, which significantly impacts the overall mechanical behavior of joints. The existence of only a few grains of Sn (Tin) and IMC materials results in anisotropic elastic and plastic behavior which is not detectable using conventional finite element (FE) simulation with average properties for polycrystalline material. In this study, crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulation is used to model the whole joint including copper, Sn solder and Cu6Sn5 IMC material. Experimental lap-shear test results for solder joints from the literature were used to validate the models. A comparative analysis between traditional FE, CPFE and experiments was conducted. The CPFE model was able to correlate the experiments more closely compared to traditional FE analysis because of its ability to capture micro-mechanical anisotropic behavior. Further analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of IMC thickness on stress distribution in micro-bumps using a systematic numerical experiment with IMC thickness ranging from 0% to 80%. The analysis was conducted on micro-bumps with single crystal Sn and bicrystal Sn. The overall stress distribution and shear deformation changes as the IMC thickness increases. The model with higher IMC thickness shows a stiffer shear response, and provides a higher shear yield strength.

  7. Indium-bump-free antimonide superlattice membrane detectors on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, M.; Klein, B.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Myers, S.; Dahiya, V.; Cavallo, F.; Krishna, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present an approach to realize antimonide superlattices on silicon substrates without using conventional Indium-bump hybridization. In this approach, PIN superlattices are grown on top of a 60 nm Al0.6Ga0.4Sb sacrificial layer on a GaSb host substrate. Following the growth, the individual pixels are transferred using our epitaxial-lift off technique, which consists of a wet-etch to undercut the pixels followed by a dry-stamp process to transfer the pixels to a silicon substrate prepared with a gold layer. Structural and optical characterization of the transferred pixels was done using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. The interface between the transferred pixels and the new substrate was abrupt, and no significant degradation in the optical quality was observed. An Indium-bump-free membrane detector was then fabricated using this approach. Spectral response measurements provided a 100% cut-off wavelength of 4.3 μm at 77 K. The performance of the membrane detector was compared to a control detector on the as-grown substrate. The membrane detector was limited by surface leakage current. The proposed approach could pave the way for wafer-level integration of photonic detectors on silicon substrates, which could dramatically reduce the cost of these detectors.

  8. Miniaturization of Micro-Solder Bumps and Effect of IMC on Stress Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Soud Farhan; Ladani, Leila

    2016-07-01

    As the joints become smaller in more advanced packages and devices, intermetallic (IMCs) volume ratio increases, which significantly impacts the overall mechanical behavior of joints. The existence of only a few grains of Sn (Tin) and IMC materials results in anisotropic elastic and plastic behavior which is not detectable using conventional finite element (FE) simulation with average properties for polycrystalline material. In this study, crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulation is used to model the whole joint including copper, Sn solder and Cu6Sn5 IMC material. Experimental lap-shear test results for solder joints from the literature were used to validate the models. A comparative analysis between traditional FE, CPFE and experiments was conducted. The CPFE model was able to correlate the experiments more closely compared to traditional FE analysis because of its ability to capture micro-mechanical anisotropic behavior. Further analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of IMC thickness on stress distribution in micro-bumps using a systematic numerical experiment with IMC thickness ranging from 0% to 80%. The analysis was conducted on micro-bumps with single crystal Sn and bicrystal Sn. The overall stress distribution and shear deformation changes as the IMC thickness increases. The model with higher IMC thickness shows a stiffer shear response, and provides a higher shear yield strength.

  9. The effects of phase decorrelation on the dynamics of the bump-on-tail instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of the bump-on-tail instability has been studied. The novelty of the work is the analysis of how the bump-on-tail dynamics is affected by an extrinsic stochastisation of the phase of the wave-particle interaction; here referred to as phase decorrelation. For this purpose, a nonlinear Monte Carlo model has been developed. When the characteristic time scale for macroscopic phase decorrelation becomes shorter than time scales of nonlinear wave-particle dynamics, the system may be described quasilinearly, with the phase decorrelation being replaced by a quasilinear diffusion coefficient in particle energy. A purely quasilinear Monte Carlo model, which is typically less computationally demanding than the fully nonlinear description due to the reduced dimensionality of phase space, has been developed for comparison. In this paper, parameter regimes, where the nonlinear and the quasilinear descriptions quantitatively agree on a macroscopic level, have been investigated, using combined theoretical and numerical analyses. Qualitative effects on the macroscopic dynamics by the presence of phase decorrelation and/or by structures of the energy distribution function in the proximity of the wave-particle resonance are also studied

  10. Initial test results of the Los Alamos proton-storage-ring bump-magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, C.R.; Barlow, D.B.; Redd, D.B.

    1997-09-01

    An upgrade program for increasing the stored beam current in the LANSCE Proton Storage is presently under way. Part of the upgrade effort has been to design, specify, and add four bump-magnet/modulator systems to the ring. This paper describes the initial test results of the first bump-magnet/modulator system. The paper begins with an overview of the pulsed-power system including important specifications of the modulator, magnet, cabling, and control system. In the main portion of the paper, waveforms and test data are included showing the accuracy, repeatability, and stability of the magnet-current pulses. These magnet pulses are programmable both in rise and fall time as well as in amplitude. The amplitude can be set between 50 and 300 A, the rise-time is fixed at 1 ms, and the linear fall-time can be varied between 500 {mu}s and 1500 {mu}s. Other issues such as loading effects and power dissipation in the magnet-bore beamtube are examined and reported.

  11. Stability of some stationary solutions to the forced KdV equation with one or two bumps

    OpenAIRE

    Chardard, Frederic; Dias, Frederic; Nguyen, Hai Yen; Vanden-broeck, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Free-surface flows past submerged obstacles in a channel are considered. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible and the flow to be irrotational. The first-order approximation of long nonlinear surface waves over one or two bumps results in a forced Korteweg-de Vries (fKdV) equation. Solutions of the stationary fKdV equation are constructed and their stability is studied, either analytically or numerically. These various solutions include solitary waves over a single bump, soli...

  12. The magic road to precision

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S; Safronova, U I; Clark, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    We predict a sequence of magic-zero wavelengths for the Sr excited $5s5p~ ^3P_0$ state, and provide a general roadmap for extracting transition matrix elements using precise frequency measurements. We demonstrate that such measurements can serve as a best global benchmark of the spectroscopic accuracy that is required for the development of high-precision predictive methods. These magic-zero wavelengths are also needed for state-selective atom manipulation for implementation of quantum logic operations. We also identify five magic wavelengths of the $5s^2\\ ^1S_0 - 5s5p\\ ^3P_0$ Sr clock transition between 350 nm and 500 nm which can also serve as precision benchmarks.

  13. Solderjet bumping technique used to manufacture a compact and robust green solid-state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, P.; Burkhardt, T.; Hornaff, M.; Kousar, S.; Burkhardt, D.; Beckert, E.; Gilaberte, M.; Guilhot, D.; Montes, D.; Galan, M.; Ferrando, S.; Laudisio, M.; Belenguer, T.; Ibarmia, S.; Gallego, P.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Eberhardt, R.; Tünnermann, A.

    2015-06-01

    Solder-joining using metallic solder alloys is an alternative to adhesive bonding. Laser-based soldering processes are especially well suited for the joining of optical components made of fragile and brittle materials such as glasses, ceramics and optical crystals due to a localized and minimized input of thermal energy. The Solderjet Bumping technique is used to assemble a miniaturized laser resonator in order to obtain higher robustness, wider thermal conductivity performance, higher vacuum and radiation compatibility, and better heat and long term stability compared with identical glued devices. The resulting assembled compact and robust green diode-pumped solid-state laser is part of the future Raman Laser Spectrometer designed for the Exomars European Space Agency (ESA) space mission 2018.

  14. The eddy current induced in the pulsed bump magnet for the CSNS/RCS injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection pulsed bending bump magnets of Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) in China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) consist of four horizontal bending (BH) magnets and four vertical bending (BV) magnets. The BH magnets are operated at a repetition rate of 25 Hz and are excited with a trapezoid rectangle waveform with about 1.6 milliseconds duration. The eddy current is induced in BH magnets and in the end plates it is expected to be large, so the heat generation is of our great concern. In this paper, the eddy current loss of the BH magnet has been investigated and calculated by using a coupling method of 3D electromagnetic and thermal analysis. The accuracy of the analysis is confirmed by testing the prototype BH magnet. The end plate temperature of the BH magnet provided with slit cuts has been decreased obviously and met the requirements. (authors)

  15. Parasitic slow extraction of extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ye [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China); Tang, Jingyu, E-mail: tangjy@ihep.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Zheng; Jing, Hantao [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-02-11

    This paper proposes a novel method to extract extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in the parasitic mode, while maintaining the normal fast extraction. The usual slow extraction method from a synchrotron by employing third-order resonance cannot be applied in a high-intensity RCS due to a very short flat-top at the extraction energy and the strict control on beam loss. The proposed parasitic slow extraction method moves the beam to scrape a scattering foil prior to the fast beam extraction by employing either a local orbit bump or momentum deviation or their combination, so that the halo part of the beam will be scattered. A part of the scattered particles will be extracted from the RCS and guided to the experimental area. The slow extraction process can last about a few milliseconds before the beam is extracted by the fast extraction system. The method has been applied to the RCS of China Spallation Neutron Source. With 1.6 GeV in the extraction energy, 62.5 μA in the average current and 25 Hz in the repetition rate for the RCS, the proton intensity by the slow extraction method can be up to 2×10{sup 4} protons per cycle or 5×10{sup 5} protons per second. The extracted beam has also a good time structure of approximately uniform in a spill which is required for many applications such as detector tests. Detailed studies including the scattering effect in the foil, the local orbit bump by the bump magnets and dispersive orbit bump by modifying the RF pattern, the multi-particle simulations by ORBIT and TURTLE codes, and some technical features for the extraction magnets are presented.

  16. Iron Opacity Bump Changes the Stability and Structure of Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Davis, Shane W.; Stone, James M.

    2016-08-01

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes have regions where the Rosseland mean opacity can be larger than the electron scattering opacity due to the large number of bound–bound transitions in iron. We study the effects of this iron opacity “bump” on the thermal stability and vertical structure of radiation-pressure-dominated accretion disks, utilizing three-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in the local shearing box approximation. The simulations self-consistently calculate the heating due to MHD turbulence caused by magneto-rotational instability and radiative cooling by using the radiative transfer module based on a variable Eddington tensor in Athena. For a 5 × 108 solar mass black hole with ˜3% of the Eddington luminosity, a model including the iron opacity bump maintains its structure for more than 10 thermal times without showing significant signs of thermal runaway. In contrast, if only electron scattering and free–free opacity are included as in the standard thin disk model, the disk collapses on the thermal timescale. The difference is caused by a combination of (1) an anti-correlation between the total optical depth and the midplane pressure, and (2) enhanced vertical advective energy transport. These results suggest that the iron opacity bump may have a strong impact on the stability and structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion disks, and may contribute to a dependence of AGN properties on metallicity. Since this opacity is relevant primarily in UV emitting regions of the flow, it may help to explain discrepancies between observation and theory that are unique to AGNs.

  17. Bump evolution driven by the x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov effect in plastic inertial confinement fusion Ablators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loomis Eric

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of inertial confinement fusion capsules (ICF due to ablator and fuel non-uniformities are a primary concern for the ICF program. Recently, observed jetting and parasitic mix into the fuel were attributed to isolated defects on the outer surface of the capsule. Strategies for mitigation of these defects exist, however, they require reduced uncertainties in Equation of State (EOS models prior to invoking them. In light of this, we have begun a campaign to measure the growth of isolated defects (bumps due to x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov in plastic ablators to validate these models. Experiments used hohlraums with radiation temperatures near 70 eV driven by 15 beams from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY, which sent a ∼1.25Mbar shock into a planar CH target placed over one laser entrance hole. Targets consisted of 2-D arrays of quasi-gaussian bumps (10 microns tall, 34 microns FWHM deposited on the surface facing into the hohlraum. On-axis radiography with a saran (Cl Heα − 2.76keV backlighter was used to measure bump evolution prior to shock breakout. Shock speed measurements were also performed to determine target conditions. Simulations using the LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 models required the simulated laser power be turned down to 80 and 88%, respectively to match observed shock speeds. Both LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 simulations agreed with measured bump areal densities out to 6 ns where ablative RM oscillations were observed in previous laser-driven experiments, but did not occur in the x-ray driven case. The QEOS model, conversely, over predicted shock speeds and under predicted areal density in the bump.

  18. Bump evolution driven by the x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov effect in plastic inertial confinement fusion Ablators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of inertial confinement fusion capsules (ICF) due to ablator and fuel non-uniformities are a primary concern for the ICF program. Recently, observed jetting and parasitic mix into the fuel were attributed to isolated defects on the outer surface of the capsule. Strategies for mitigation of these defects exist, however, they require reduced uncertainties in Equation of State (EOS) models prior to invoking them. In light of this, we have begun a campaign to measure the growth of isolated defects (bumps) due to x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov in plastic ablators to validate these models. Experiments used hohlraums with radiation temperatures near 70 eV driven by 15 beams from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY), which sent a ∼1.25 Mbar shock into a planar CH target placed over one laser entrance hole. Targets consisted of 2-D arrays of quasi-gaussian bumps (10 microns tall, 34 microns FWHM) deposited on the surface facing into the hohlraum. On-axis radiography with a saran (Cl Heα - 2.76 keV) back-lighter was used to measure bump evolution prior to shock breakout. Shock speed measurements were also performed to determine target conditions. Simulations using the LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 models required the simulated laser power be turned down to 80 and 88%, respectively to match observed shock speeds. Both LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 simulations agreed with measured bump areal densities out to 6 ns where ablative RM oscillations were observed in previous laser-driven experiments, but did not occur in the x-ray driven case. The QEOS model, conversely, over predicted shock speeds and under predicted areal density in the bump. (authors)

  19. Stud Bump Bonding Technology of Flip Chip%倒装芯片钉头凸点工艺技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宗杰; 李孝轩; 胡永芳; 严伟

    2012-01-01

    Flip chip bump is made with stud bump bonding technology in this paper, the optimal process pa- rameters of stud bump bonding technology are obtained by using Taguchi method. The results indicate that the factors influencing bump quality are UltraSonic (US) time, US power and welding force in turn, and the opti- mal process parameters are US time about 50 ms, US power about 0.36 W and welding force about 55 gf. Using this bonding of parameters, stud bump with good stability is obtained, which can meet the requirements of flip chip hybrid integrated microwave circuit chip in small batch.%采用钉头凸点工艺进行了倒装芯片上凸点的制备,运用田口试验方法进行设计和试验验证,确定了钉头凸点制备的优化的工艺参数组合。研究结果表明:凸点质量的影响因素依次是超声时间、超声功率和焊接压力,优化的工艺参数组合为超声时间50ms、超声功率0.36w、焊接压力55玎。采用优化后的工艺参数进行凸点制备,获得了稳定性良好的钉头凸点,可满足小批量混合集成微波电路芯片倒装焊接的需要。

  20. Precision agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  1. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - R/V Maurice Ewing - (1997), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  2. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Slope, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - R/V Maurice Ewing - (1997), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  3. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Multibeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Thomas Jefferson - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  4. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Backscatter, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  5. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Multibeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Little Hales - (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  6. Blue supergiant model for ultra-long gamma-ray burst with superluminous-supernova-like bump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) have a typical duration of ∼30 s, and some of them are associated with hypernovae, such as Type Ic SN 1998bw. Wolf-Rayet stars are the most plausible LGRB progenitors, since the free fall time of the envelope is consistent with the duration, and the natural outcome of the progenitor is a Type Ic SN. While a new population of ultra-long GRBs (ULGRBs), GRB 111209A, GRB 101225A, and GRB 121027A, has a duration of ∼104 s, two of them are accompanied by superluminous-supernova-like (SLSN-like) bumps, which are ≲ 10 times brighter than typical hypernovae. Wolf-Rayet progenitors cannot explain ULGRBs because of durations that are too long and SN-like bumps that are too bright. A blue supergiant (BSG) progenitor model, however, can explain the duration of ULGRBs. Moreover, SLSN-like bumps can be attributed to the so-called cocoon fireball photospheric emissions (CFPEs). Since a large cocoon is inevitably produced during the relativistic jet piercing though the BSG envelope, this component can be smoking gun evidence of the BSG model for ULGRBs. In this paper, we examine u-, g-, r-, i-, and J-band light curves of three ULGRBs and demonstrate that they can be fitted quite well by our BSG model with the appropriate choices of the jet opening angle and the number density of the ambient gas. In addition, we predict that for 121027A, SLSN-like bump could have been observed for ∼20-80 days after the burst. We also propose that some SLSNe might be CFPEs of off-axis ULGRBs without visible prompt emissions.

  7. Precision performance lamp technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  8. Using a shock control bump to improve the performance of an axial compressor blade section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, K.; Khatibirad, S.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we use numerical analysis to study the effects of a shock control bump (SCB) on the performance of a transonic axial compressor blade section and to optimize its shape and location to improve the compressor performance. A section of the NASA rotor 67 blade is used for this study. Two Bézier curves, each consisting of seven control points, are used to model the suction and pressure surfaces of the blade section. The SCB is modeled with the Hicks-Henne function and, using five design parameters, is added to the suction side. The total pressure loss through a cascade of blade sections is selected as the cost function. A continuous adjoint optimization method is used along with a RANS solver to find a new blade section shape. A grid independence study is performed, and all optimization and flow solver algorithms are validated. Two single-point optimizations are performed in the design condition and in an off-design condition. It is shown that both optimized shapes have overall better performance for both on-design and off-design conditions. An analysis is given regarding how the SCB has changed the wave structure between blade sections resulting in a more favorable flow pattern.

  9. The influential effect of blending, bump, changing period and eclipsing Cepheids on the Leavitt law

    CERN Document Server

    García-Varela, A; Sabogal, B E; Domínguez, S Vargas; Martínez, J

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the non-linearity of the Leavitt law is a topic that began more than seven decades ago, when some of the studies in this field found that the Leavitt law has a break at about ten days. The goal of this work is to investigate a possible statistical cause of this non-linearity. By applying linear regressions to OGLE-II and OGLE-IV data, we find that, in order to obtain the Leavitt law by using linear regression, robust techniques to deal with influential points and/or outliers are needed instead of the ordinary least-squares regression traditionally used. In particular, by using $M$- and $MM$-regressions we establish firmly and without doubts the linearity of the Leavitt law in the Large Magellanic Cloud, without rejecting or excluding Cepheid data from the analysis. This implies that light curves of Cepheids suggesting blending, bumps, eclipses or period changes, do not affect the Leavitt law for this galaxy. For the SMC, including this kind of Cepheids, it is not possible to find an adequ...

  10. Does recall of a past music event invoke a reminiscence bump in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-08-01

    Many studies of the reminiscence bump (RB) in music invoke memories from different autobiographical times by using stimulus specific prompts (SSPs). This study investigated the utility of a non-SSP paradigm to determine whether the RB would emerge when participants were asked to recall a single memorable musical event from "a time long ago". The presence of a RB in response to music has not been obtained in such a manner for younger participants. Eighty-eight 20-22 year olds reported music episodes that peaked when their autobiographical age was 13-14 years. Self-selected stimuli included a range of musical styles, including classical and non-Western pop forms, such as J-pop and K-pop, as well as generational pop music, such as the Beatles. However, most participants reported pop/rock music that was contemporaneous with encoding age, providing support for the utility of published SSP paradigms using pop music. Implications for and limitations of SSP paradigms are discussed. Participants were also asked to relate the selected musical piece to current musical tastes. Most participants liked the music that they selected, with many continuing to like the music, but most also reported a general broadening of their taste, consistent with developmental literature on open-earedness. PMID:26275069

  11. Program BB for calculation of PEP corrector strengths for beam-bump excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheifets, S.

    1981-06-01

    Excitation of a beam-bump (BB) can be effectively used for a number of goals. Since BB is sensitive only to perturbations of elements which are located inside it, errors and their consequencies spaced separately can be singled out and studied one by one. This technique in principle can be used to study the uniformity of the quadrupole distribution around the ring, the beam stays clear size of the machine at different locations, the polarity and probably even the strength of sextupole magnets, alignments of different monitors, etc. It can be used also to increase the beam cross section if that appears to be desirable. Design of PEP correctors does not allow to use them for excitation of a halfwave BB. The minimum number of correctors which can be used in this situation is three. The situation for horizontal plane is aggravated still more since most of horizontal correctors are hooked in pairs. The presence of sextupole magnets interlacing the correctors makes it necessary to use iterative procedure to find the corrector strengths for BB, since a perturbed orbit is influenced by a field of a sextupole magnet which in turn depends on the perturbed orbit value in the sextupole. Since the strength of sextupoles are rather small as the first guess of corrector strengths for iterative procedure can be taken the linear solution neglecting sextupoles. This paper describes the program BB itself, and some results of calculations with BB for PEP. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Speed Bumps on the Road to Sustainability - Energy Technology and Geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given at the 2011 issue of the annual Conference of the Ifri (French Institute of International Relations) Energy Program: 1 - An Energy revolution under way (Peter Taylor, Head of the Energy Technology Division, International Energy Agency); 2 - A look back at Cancun: 'top down' versus 'bottom up' (Barbara Buchner, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Venice office; 3 - CCS: Still in the Starting Blocks? (Juho Lipponen, Head of CCS Unit, International Energy Agency); 4 - Energy Efficiency: Does Anyone Care? (Alan Meier, Senior Scientist and Principal Investigator, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); 5 - The Transport Sector: Anything Goes? (Jean-Luc di Paola-Galloni, Corporate Vice-President, Sustainable Development and External Affairs, Valeo Group); 6 - The Mediterranean Ring: Power or Politics? (Jean-Michel Charpin, Inspecteur General des Finances); 7 - Iran gas and Iraq oil (Chris Segar, Regional Analyst/Middle East and North Africa, International Energy Agency); 8 - Nuclear Power: New Players, New Game, New Rules (Pierre Zaleski, General delegate for the Center of Geopolitics of Energy and Raw Materials, Universite Paris-Dauphine); 9 - The Grid: a Generic Speed Bump (Antonio Pires Santos, Energy and Utilities Industry Leader, Southwest Europe, IBM); 10 - Intellectual Property Rights/Technology transfer (Dominique Menard, Partner, Hogan Lovells (Paris) LLP); 11 - Energy Markets: Conducive to Sustainability (Karsten Neuhoff, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Berlin office, German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin)

  13. GRB 110530A: Peculiar Broad Bump and Delayed Plateau in Early Optical Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Shu-Qing; Liang, En-Wei; Wei, Jian-Yan; Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kui-Yun; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Deng, Can-Min; Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Deng, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    We report our very early optical observations of GRB 110530A and investigate its jet properties together with its X-ray afterglow data. A peculiar broad onset bump followed by a plateau is observed in its early R band afterglow lightcurve. The optical data in the other bands and the X-ray data are well consistent with the temporal feature of the R band lightcurve. Our joint spectral fits of the optical and X-ray data show that they are in the same regime, with a photon index of $\\sim 1.70$. The optical and X-ray afterglow lightcurves are well fitted with the standard external shock model by considering a delayed energy injection component. Based on our modeling results, we find that the radiative efficiency of the GRB jet is $\\sim 1\\%$ and the magnetization parameter of the afterglow jet is $<0.04$ with the derived extremely low $\\epsilon_B$ (the fraction of shock energy to magnetic field) of $(1.64\\pm 0.25)\\times 10^{-6}$. These results indicate that the jet may be matter dominated. Discussion on delayed ...

  14. Speed Bumps on the Road to Sustainability - Energy Technology and Geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C.; Taylor, P.; Van Der Linde, C.; Buchner, B.; Ramsay, W.C.; Lipponen, J.; Meier, A.; Berkeley, L.; Di Paola-Galloni, J.L.; Jaureguy-Naudin, M.; Charpin, J.M.; Segar, Ch.; Zaleski, P.; Lesourne, J.; Pires Santos, A.; Menard, D.; Neuhoff, K.; Oettinger, G.

    2011-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given at the 2011 issue of the annual Conference of the Ifri (French Institute of International Relations) Energy Program: 1 - An Energy revolution under way (Peter Taylor, Head of the Energy Technology Division, International Energy Agency); 2 - A look back at Cancun: 'top down' versus 'bottom up' (Barbara Buchner, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Venice office; 3 - CCS: Still in the Starting Blocks? (Juho Lipponen, Head of CCS Unit, International Energy Agency); 4 - Energy Efficiency: Does Anyone Care? (Alan Meier, Senior Scientist and Principal Investigator, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); 5 - The Transport Sector: Anything Goes? (Jean-Luc di Paola-Galloni, Corporate Vice-President, Sustainable Development and External Affairs, Valeo Group); 6 - The Mediterranean Ring: Power or Politics? (Jean-Michel Charpin, Inspecteur General des Finances); 7 - Iran gas and Iraq oil (Chris Segar, Regional Analyst/Middle East and North Africa, International Energy Agency); 8 - Nuclear Power: New Players, New Game, New Rules (Pierre Zaleski, General delegate for the Center of Geopolitics of Energy and Raw Materials, Universite Paris-Dauphine); 9 - The Grid: a Generic Speed Bump (Antonio Pires Santos, Energy and Utilities Industry Leader, Southwest Europe, IBM); 10 - Intellectual Property Rights/Technology transfer (Dominique Menard, Partner, Hogan Lovells (Paris) LLP); 11 - Energy Markets: Conducive to Sustainability (Karsten Neuhoff, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Berlin office, German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin)

  15. The Influential Effect of Blending, Bump, Changing Period, and Eclipsing Cepheids on the Leavitt Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Varela, A.; Muñoz, J. R.; Sabogal, B. E.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Martínez, J.

    2016-06-01

    The investigation of the nonlinearity of the Leavitt law (LL) is a topic that began more than seven decades ago, when some of the studies in this field found that the LL has a break at about 10 days. The goal of this work is to investigate a possible statistical cause of this nonlinearity. By applying linear regressions to OGLE-II and OGLE-IV data, we find that to obtain the LL by using linear regression, robust techniques to deal with influential points and/or outliers are needed instead of the ordinary least-squares regression traditionally used. In particular, by using M- and MM-regressions we establish firmly and without doubt the linearity of the LL in the Large Magellanic Cloud, without rejecting or excluding Cepheid data from the analysis. This implies that light curves of Cepheids suggesting blending, bumps, eclipses, or period changes do not affect the LL for this galaxy. For the Small Magellanic Cloud, when including Cepheids of this kind, it is not possible to find an adequate model, probably because of the geometry of the galaxy. In that case, a possible influence of these stars could exist.

  16. Program BB for calculation of PEP corrector strengths for beam-bump excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation of a beam-bump (BB) can be effectively used for a number of goals. Since BB is sensitive only to perturbations of elements which are located inside it, errors and their consequencies spaced separately can be singled out and studied one by one. This technique in principle can be used to study the uniformity of the quadrupole distribution around the ring, the beam stays clear size of the machine at different locations, the polarity and probably even the strength of sextupole magnets, alignments of different monitors, etc. It can be used also to increase the beam cross section if that appears to be desirable. Design of PEP correctors does not allow to use them for excitation of a halfwave BB. The minimum number of correctors which can be used in this situation is three. The situation for horizontal plane is aggravated still more since most of horizontal correctors are hooked in pairs. The presence of sextupole magnets interlacing the correctors makes it necessary to use iterative procedure to find the corrector strengths for BB, since a perturbed orbit is influenced by a field of a sextupole magnet which in turn depends on the perturbed orbit value in the sextupole. Since the strength of sextupoles are rather small as the first guess of corrector strengths for iterative procedure can be taken the linear solution neglecting sextupoles. This paper describes the program BB itself, and some results of calculations with BB for PEP. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  17. 凸点晶圆测试共性问题研究与应用%Research and Application of Common Issues for the Bump Wafer Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁建华

    2012-01-01

    集成电路“轻、薄、小”的趋势使新封装技术在产业中不断得以应用.晶圆凸点工艺作为新封装技术的关键工序尤为重要,相应的凸点晶圆测试方案是产业面临的现实问题.针对凸点晶圆测试中出现的新问题和技术难点,结合在多个凸点晶圆测试开发和量产过程中积累的成功经验,按照晶圆测试控制流程,依次阐述在凸点晶圆测试中碰到的共性问题,如针对凸点晶圆测试的新型探针卡及测试过程中针压控制、凸点损伤与量产测试中关键操作控制、在线清针与检查、工艺数据测试衔接等.并提供预防凸点损伤的过冲控制参数自动获取解决方案和凸点晶圆并行测试解决方案,实现凸点晶圆可靠的量产测试,有效提高了凸点晶圆的测试能力.%For the "light, thin, compact" IC trend, the new packaging technology is applied continuous in IC industry. While the wafer bumping process is the key process of the new packaging technology, the bump wafer test is a real problem of the industry. For the new problems and technical difficulties from bump wafer test, combine with the successful experiences of multiple bump wafer test development and production test, in accordance with the wafer test control process, the common problems encountered in the bump wafer test were discussed. The common issues consist of the new probe cards and over drive control during bump wafer test, the bump damage and the critical operating control of the production test, the online needle cleaning and checking, the process data for testing. The overshoot control parameters for bump injury prevention were provided, and its solutions were obtained automatically, and the solutions of bump wafer parallel test were also obtained. The reliable bump wafer production test was achieved, and the bump wafer test capability was improved effectively.

  18. Precision spectroscopy of the helium atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shui-ming HU; Zheng-Tian LU; Zong-Chao YAN

    2009-01-01

    Persistent efforts in both theory and experiment have yielded increasingly precise understanding of the helium atom. Because of its simplicity, the helium atom has long been a testing ground for relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects in few-body atomic systems theoretically and experimentally.Comparison between theory and experiment of the helium spectroscopy in ls2p3pJ can potentially extract a very precise value of the fine structure constant a. The helium atom can also be used to explore exotic nuclear structures. In this paper, we provide a brief review of the recent advances in precision calculations and measurements of the helium atom.

  19. Self-Similar Bumps and Wiggles: Isolating the Evolution of the BAO Peak with Power-law Initial Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by cosmological surveys that demand accurate theoretical modeling of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in galaxy clustering, we analyze N-body simulations in which a BAO-like gaussian bump modulates the linear theory correlation function \\xi_L(r)=(r_0/r)^{n+3} of an underlying self-similar model with initial power spectrum P(k)=A k^n. These simulations test physical and analytic descriptions of BAO evolution far beyond the range of most studies, since we consider a range of underlying power spectra (n=-0.5, -1, -1.5) and evolve simulations to large effective correlation amplitudes (equivalent to \\sigma_8=4-12 for r_bao = 100 Mpc/h). In all cases, non-linear evolution flattens and broadens the BAO bump in \\xi(r) while approximately preserving its area. This evolution resembles a "diffusion" process in which the bump width \\sigma_bao is the quadrature sum of the linear theory width and a length proportional to the rms relative displacement \\Sigma_pair(r_bao}) of particle pairs separated by...

  20. Blue Supergiant Model for Ultra-Long Gamma-Ray Burst with Superluminous-Supernova-Like Bump

    CERN Document Server

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Suwa, Yudai; Nakamura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Long GRBs (LGRBs) have typical duration of $\\sim 30\\ {\\rm s}$ and some of them are associated with hypernovae, like Type Ic SN 1998bw. Wolf-Rayet stars are the most plausible LGRB progenitors, since the free-fall time of the envelope is consistent with the duration, and the natural outcome of the progenitor is a Type Ic SN. While a new population of ultra-long GRBs (ULGRBs), GRB 111209A, GRB 101225A, and GRB 121027A, has a duration of $\\sim 10^4$ s, two of them are accompanied by superluminous-supernova (SLSN) like bumps, which are $\\lesssim 10$ times brighter than typical hypernovae. Wolf-Rayet progenitors cannot explain ULGRBs because of too long duration and too bright SN-like bump. A blue supergiant (BSG) progenitor model, however, can explain the duration of ULGRBs. Moreover, SLSN-like bump can be attributed to the so-called cocoon-fireball photospheric emissions (CFPEs). Since a large cocoon is inevitably produced during the relativistic jet piercing though the BSG envelope, this component can be a smok...

  1. Improving Touschek lifetime in ultralow-emittance lattices through systematic application of successive closed vertical dispersion bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunlin, J.; Leemann, S. C.; Andersson, Å.

    2016-06-01

    In present ultralow-emittance storage ring designs the emittance coupling required for the production of vertically diffraction-limited synchrotron radiation in the hard x-ray regime is achieved and in many cases surpassed by a correction of the orbit and the linear optics alone. However, operating with a vertical emittance lower than required is disadvantageous, since it decreases Touschek lifetime and reduces brightness due to the transverse emittance increase from intrabeam scattering. In this paper we present a scheme consisting of closed vertical dispersion bumps successively excited in each arc of the storage ring by skew quadrupoles that couple horizontal dispersion into the vertical plane to a desired level and thereby raise the vertical emittance in a controlled fashion. A systematic approach to vertical dispersion bumps has been developed that suppresses dispersion and betatron coupling in the straight sections in order to maintain a small projected emittance for insertion devices. In this way, beam lifetime can be significantly increased without negatively impacting insertion device source properties and hence brightness. Using simulation results for the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring including magnet and alignment imperfections we demonstrate that Touschek lifetime can be increased by more than a factor 2 by adjusting the vertical emittance from 1.3 pm rad (after orbit correction) to 8 pm rad (after application of dispersion bumps) using two to three independent skew quadrupole families all the while ensuring deviations from design optics are restrained to a minimum.

  2. Presence of dust with a UV bump in massive, star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 2.5

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, S; Pannella, M; Savaglio, S

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental properties of the extinction curve, like the slope in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) and the presence/absence of a broad absorption excess centred at 2175 A (the UV bump), are investigated for a sample of 108 massive, star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 2.5, selected from the FDF Spectroscopic Survey, the K20 survey, and the GDDS. These characteristics are constrained from a parametric description of the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of a galaxy, as enforced by combined stellar population and radiative transfer models for different geometries, dust/stars configurations and dust properties. In at least one third of the sample, there is a robust evidence for extinction curves with at least a moderate UV bump. The presence of the carriers of the UV bump is more evident in galaxies with UV SEDs suffering from heavy reddening. We interpret these results as follows. The sample objects possess different mixtures of dust grains and molecules producing extinction curves in between the average o...

  3. 3-D CT angiographic demonstration of a neonatal ductus arteriosus aneurysm with development of ductal calcification: are the ''ductus bump'', ductus arteriosus aneurysm, and ductal calcification related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ''ductus bump'' was noted as an incidental finding on a chest radiograph in a newborn infant with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. A chest CT performed on the first day of life demonstrated this to be a ductus arteriosus aneurysm (DAA), which subsequently thrombosed. Ductal calcification was noted on follow-up imaging. We propose that the ''ductus bump'' may actually be a DAA, which resolves presumably by thrombus formation. Ductal calcification may also be related to the regression of the thrombus. (orig.)

  4. The newest precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces basic of precision measurement, measurement of length, limit gauge, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, measurement of shapes and locations, measurement of outline, measurement of external and internal thread, gear testing, accuracy inspection of machine tools, three dimension coordinate measuring machine, digitalisation of precision measurement, automation of precision measurement, measurement of cutting tools, measurement using laser, and point of choosing length measuring instrument.

  5. Control of flow separation on a contour bump by jets in a Mach 1.9 free-stream: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kin Hing; Zare-Behtash, Hossein; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2016-09-01

    Flow separation control over a three-dimensional contour bump using jet in a Mach 1.9 supersonic free-stream has been experimentally investigated using a transonic/supersonic wind tunnel. Jet total pressure in the range of 0-4 bar was blowing at the valley of the contour bump. Schlieren photography, surface oil flow visualisation and particle image velocimetry measurements were employed for flow visualisation and diagnostics. Experimental results show that blowing jet at the valley of the contour bump can hinder the formation and distort the spanwise vortices. The blowing jet can also reduce the extent of flow separation appears downstream of the bump crest. It was observed that this approach of flow control is more effective when high jet total pressure is employed. It is believed that a pressure gradient is generated as a result of the interaction between the flow downstream of the bump crest and the jet induced shock leads to the downwards flow motion around the bump valley.

  6. Precision Clock Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Tests and evaluates high-precision atomic clocks for spacecraft, ground, and mobile applications. Supports performance evaluation, environmental testing,...

  7. Precision Attachment: Retained Overdenture

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasree, K; Mrs.M.Bharathi; Nag, V. Dileep; B. Vinod

    2011-01-01

    Precision attachments are small interlocking devices to connect prosthesis and abutments that offer a variety of solutions to the challenge of balance between functional stability and cosmetic appeal. Precision attachments have wide applications, used in fixed removable bridge, removable partial dentures, overdentures, implant retained overdentures, and maxillofacial prosthesis. Attachment retained overdentures helps in distribution of masticatory forces, minimizes trauma to abutments and sof...

  8. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  9. Precision enhancement of pavement roughness localization with connected vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, R.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Deng, F.

    2016-02-01

    Transportation agencies rely on the accurate localization and reporting of roadway anomalies that could pose serious hazards to the traveling public. However, the cost and technical limitations of present methods prevent their scaling to all roadways. Connected vehicles with on-board accelerometers and conventional geospatial position receivers offer an attractive alternative because of their potential to monitor all roadways in real-time. The conventional global positioning system is ubiquitous and essentially free to use but it produces impractically large position errors. This study evaluated the improvement in precision achievable by augmenting the conventional geo-fence system with a standard speed bump or an existing anomaly at a pre-determined position to establish a reference inertial marker. The speed sensor subsequently generates position tags for the remaining inertial samples by computing their path distances relative to the reference position. The error model and a case study using smartphones to emulate connected vehicles revealed that the precision in localization improves from tens of metres to sub-centimetre levels, and the accuracy of measuring localized roughness more than doubles. The research results demonstrate that transportation agencies will benefit from using the connected vehicle method to achieve precision and accuracy levels that are comparable to existing laser-based inertial profilers.

  10. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Samborski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture (PA is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM. Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS, remote sensing yield monitors. Because of the multidisciplinary character of precision agriculture, books published on this subject differ in their content. The first books on this topic appeared in the mid 90’ of the last century. The intention of this paper is to present reviews of three books the titles of which each contains the term “precision agriculture”. The books are as follows:1 Handbook of Precision Agriculture – Principles and Applications (2006 edited by Ancha Srinivasan. 2 Precision Agriculture’05 (2005 edited by John V. Stafford 3 Precision Agriculture (2006 by Terry A. Brasse.

  11. Evaluation of potential and consequences of steam bump in high heat waste tanks and assessment and validation of GOTH computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyanarayana, K., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-15

    This report describes the thermal hydraulic analysis performed using the GOTH computer code to evaluate the potential and consequences of steam bumps in high heat waste tanks. The analysis was performed for three different sludge volumes that correspond to the current sludge volume in tank AZ-101, combined sludge volumes of tank AZ-101 and tank AZ-102 and the projected consolidated sludge volume of tank C-106 and tank AY-102. For each case, the steam bump potential was evaluated starting the simulation with a realistic best estimate initial temperature distribution as well as with a conservative potentially possible axial temperature distribution in the sludge. To include further conservatism in estimating the consequent release of radioactive material, steam bump analyses were also performed suppressing steam condensation with subcooled liquid in waste. In addition,calculations were performed with in leakage flow paths corresponding to open risers and pump and sluice pit cover blocks as well as with normal in leakage flow paths due to drain pipes and infiltration paths. Therefore, the report presents the steam bump evaluations encompassing from an extremely conservative case of initiating a steam bump with local saturation temperature throughout the sludge with condensation suppressed and open risers to a realistic potential case with loss of cooling of initiating at steam bump with only the bottom layer with local saturation temperature with condensation included considering only the normal in leakage flow paths. The results show that in all cases the consequences from an energetic bump may not be acceptable, and the safe operation should include keeping peak sludge temperatures below local saturation values. The report also includes a brief description of the capability and validation of models used in the GOTH computer code.

  12. Characteristics of Laser Reflow Bumping of Sn3.5Ag and Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu Lead-Free Solder Balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhong TIAN; Chunqing WANG; Yarong CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Lead-free Sn3.5Ag and Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu solder balls were reflowed by laser to form solder bumps. Shear test was performed on the solder bumps, and SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer) was used to analyze the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at interface region. A finite element modeling on the temperature gradient and distribution at the interface of solder bump during laser reflow process was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of the IMCs growth direction. The results show that the parameters window for laser reflow bumping of Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu was wider than that of Sn3.5Ag. The shear strength of Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu solder bump was comparable to that of Sn3.5Ag solder bump, and was not affected obviously by laser power and irradiation time when appropriate parameters were used. Both laser power and heating time had a significant effect on the formation of IMCs. A continuous AuSn4 interrnetallic compound layer and some needle-like AuSn4 were observed at the interface of solder and Au/Ni/Cu metallization layer when the laser power is small. The formation of needle-like AuSn4 was due to temperature gradient at the interface, and the direction of temperature gradient was the preferred growth direction of AuSn4. With increasing the laser power and heating time, the needle-like AuSn4 IMCs dissolved into the bulk solder, and precipitated out once again during solidification along the grain boundary of the solder bump.

  13. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  14. Precision Multiboson Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzi, G.; Campanario, F.; Englert, C.; Rauch, M.; Spannoswky, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present recent results in precision multiboson (+jet) phenomenology at the LHC. Results for diboson + jet, triboson, and also for WAA + jet will be discussed focusing on the impact of the perturbative corrections on the expected phenomenology.

  15. Laser precision microfabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Sugioka, Koji; Pique, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturization and high precision are rapidly becoming a requirement for many industrial processes and products. As a result, there is greater interest in the use of laser microfabrication technology to achieve these goals. This book composed of 16 chapters covers all the topics of laser precision processing from fundamental aspects to industrial applications to both inorganic and biological materials. It reviews the sate of the art of research and technological development in the area of laser processing.

  16. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Samborski; Dariusz Gozdowski

    2007-01-01

    Precision agriculture (PA) is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM). Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing yield monitors. Because...

  17. Hermetic integration of liquids using high-speed stud bump bonding for cavity sealing at the wafer level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelius, Mikael; Fischer, Andreas C.; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Roxhed, Niclas

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports a novel room-temperature hermetic liquid sealing process where the access ports of liquid-filled cavities are sealed with wire-bonded stud bumps. This process enables liquids to be integrated at the fabrication stage. Evaluation cavities were manufactured and used to investigate the mechanical and hermetic properties of the seals. Measurements on the successfully sealed structures show a helium leak rate of better than 10-10 mbarL s-1, in addition to a zero liquid loss over two months during storage near boiling temperature. The bond strength of the plugs was similar to standard wire bonds on flat surfaces.

  18. Hermetic integration of liquids using high-speed stud bump bonding for cavity sealing at the wafer level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a novel room-temperature hermetic liquid sealing process where the access ports of liquid-filled cavities are sealed with wire-bonded stud bumps. This process enables liquids to be integrated at the fabrication stage. Evaluation cavities were manufactured and used to investigate the mechanical and hermetic properties of the seals. Measurements on the successfully sealed structures show a helium leak rate of better than 10−10 mbarL s−1, in addition to a zero liquid loss over two months during storage near boiling temperature. The bond strength of the plugs was similar to standard wire bonds on flat surfaces. (paper)

  19. Precision QCD measurements at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirumov Hayk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent experimental results on perturbative QCD from the HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS is presented. All inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised ep scattering are combined. They span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q2, and in Bjorken x. This data set is used as the sole input to NLO and NNLO QCD analyses to determine new sets of parton distributions, HERAPDF2.0, with small experimental uncertainties and an estimate of model and parametrisation uncertainties. Also shown are new results on inclusive jet, dijet and trijet differential cross sections measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering. The precision jet data is used to extract the strong coupling αs at NLO with small experimental errors.

  20. Estimating sparse precision matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Zhou, Harrison H.; O'Connell, Ross

    2016-05-01

    We apply a method recently introduced to the statistical literature to directly estimate the precision matrix from an ensemble of samples drawn from a corresponding Gaussian distribution. Motivated by the observation that cosmological precision matrices are often approximately sparse, the method allows one to exploit this sparsity of the precision matrix to more quickly converge to an asymptotic 1/√{N_sim} rate while simultaneously providing an error model for all of the terms. Such an estimate can be used as the starting point for further regularization efforts which can improve upon the 1/√{N_sim} limit above, and incorporating such additional steps is straightforward within this framework. We demonstrate the technique with toy models and with an example motivated by large-scale structure two-point analysis, showing significant improvements in the rate of convergence. For the large-scale structure example we find errors on the precision matrix which are factors of 5 smaller than for the sample precision matrix for thousands of simulations or, alternatively, convergence to the same error level with more than an order of magnitude fewer simulations.

  1. Precision Higgs Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughezal, Radja

    2015-04-01

    The future of the high energy physics program will increasingly rely upon precision studies looking for deviations from the Standard Model. Run I of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) triumphantly discovered the long-awaited Higgs boson, and there is great hope in the particle physics community that this new state will open a portal onto a new theory of Nature at the smallest scales. A precision study of Higgs boson properties is needed in order to test whether this belief is true. New theoretical ideas and high-precision QCD tools are crucial to fulfill this goal. They become even more important as larger data sets from LHC Run II further reduce the experimental errors and theoretical uncertainties begin to dominate. In this talk, I will review recent progress in understanding Higgs properties,including the calculation of precision predictions needed to identify possible physics beyond the Standard Model in the Higgs sector. New ideas for measuring the Higgs couplings to light quarks as well as bounding the Higgs width in a model-independent way will be discussed. Precision predictions for Higgs production in association with jets and ongoing efforts to calculate the inclusive N3LO cross section will be reviewed.

  2. Developing Precision Stroke Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DavidSLiebeskind

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke experts stand at the cusp of a unique opportunity to advance the care of patients with cerebrovascular disorders across the globe through improved imaging approaches. NIH initiatives including the Stroke Progress Review Group (SPRG promotion of imaging in stroke research and the newly established NINDS Stroke Trials network converge with the rapidly evolving concept of precision medicine. Precision stroke imaging portends the coming shift to individualized approaches to cerebrovascular disorders where big data may be leveraged to identify and manage stroke risk with specific treatments utilizing an improved neuroimaging infrastructure, data collection and analysis. We outline key aspects of the stroke imaging field where precision medicine may rapidly transform the care of stroke patients in the next few years.

  3. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended......Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs is...... mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser...

  4. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jungmann, Klaus P

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 $\\mu$s. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular groun dstate hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular Quantum Electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

  5. EFFECT OF BUMP WIDTH ON THE EFFICIENCY OF HIGH-LOW 4H-SIC IMPATT AT Ka-BAND WINDOW FREQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUMEN BANERJEE,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bump width on the efficiency of high-low p+nn-n+ single drift 4H-SiC Impatt diode has been investigated at Ka-band (35 GHz window frequency. A drift diffusion model has been used to study theparameters at optimum bias current density. The diode is designed to operate at millimeter wave frequency. The highest efficiency obtained is found to be at and around 25.47% if the high-to-low doping ratio is varied from 1000 to 50 for a fixed n layer width of 0.8 μm. The conversion efficiency is found to be higher at lower bump width for small doping density ratio. As the doping density is increased the peak efficiency is found to shift towards higher bump width.

  6. Report of the temperature problem of new horizontal shift bump power supply at the J-PARC RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 3-GeV RCS (Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron) of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex), the new shift bump (SB) power supply has been developed and manufactured according to 400MeV injection beam energy upgrade of the LINAC (Linear accelerator). Manufacture and a factory test operation were finished in November, 2013, and test operation in J-PARC RCS was started in January, 2014. However, the trouble of the DC charger of the FT-unit (Flat top unit), which did not occur in the factory, was frequent. Therefore, in user operation from February of the year, the power supply was operated only with the R/F-unit (Rise Fall unit) without using the FT unit. As a result, the flat-top part of the bump waveform had a slight droop. The electrolytic capacitor of the R/F-unit can be not regenerated with the energy of this flat top part and the operation time of the DC charger became usually longer. The DC charger was overloaded and the temperature of the circuit parts was higher. In this paper, the present of the new SB power supply, the cause and measures method of the high temperature problem of the DC charger is reported. (author)

  7. Spitzer Observations of the Molecular Cloud toward HD 62542: A Sightline with Exceedingly Anomalous 2175 Angstrom Extinction Bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aigen; Draine, Bruce; Misselt, Karl; Smith, J. D.; Wang, Zhong

    2005-06-01

    The 2175 Angstrom bump is the strongest spectroscopic interstellar extinction feature. Its carrier remains unidentified 40 years after its first detection. The molecular cloud toward HD 62542 is of special interest, because the extinction toward HD 62542 exhibits an exceedingly anomalous 2175 Angstrom bump -- extremely broad and weak and peaking at 2110 Angstrom, in marked contrast to the near-invariant peak wavelength of 2175 Angstrom for most sightlines. We propose to perform low-resolution IRS spectroscopic observations (from 5--40 micron in both SL and LL modes), IRAC 3.5, 4.5, 5.8, 8 micron and MIPS 24, 70 micron imaging observations of the HD 62542 cloud. These data, when combined with existing extinction, polarization, and the 12, 25, 60, and 100 micron IRAS broadband photometry data, will allow us (1) to quantitatively constrain the properties of the dust in this cloud and in particular, those of the ultrasmall grains (e.g. PAHs); (2) to test the silicate/graphite-PAH model developed for the Milky Way diffuse interstellar medium and shown successful when applied to reflection nebulae and other galaxies; (3) to test the PAH model as the carrier of the 2175 Angstrom interstellar extinction hump; (4) to study the dust properties in relation to the interstellar environment.

  8. Dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves encountering a density bump or void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves that encounter various density structures (such as bumps, voids, or steps) in the surrounding ambient medium. We present and explain the characteristic response features that each type of density structure in the medium leaves on the forward shock (FS) and reverse shock (RS) dynamics for blast waves with either a long-lived or short-lived RS. We show that when the ambient medium density drops, the blast waves exhibit in some cases a period of an actual acceleration (even during their deceleration stage) due to adiabatic cooling of blast waves. Comparing numerical examples that have different shapes of bumps or voids, we propose a number of consistency tests that must be satisfied by correct modeling of blast waves. Our model results successfully pass these tests. Employing a Lagrangian description of blast waves, we perform a sophisticated calculation of afterglow emission. We show that as a response to density structures in the ambient medium, the RS light curves produce more significant variations than the FS light curves. Some observed features (such as rebrightenings, dips, or slow wiggles) can be more easily explained within the RS model. We also discuss the origin of these different features imprinted on the FS and RS light curves.

  9. Can the bump in the composite spectrum of GRB 910503 be an emission line feature of gamma-ray bursts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ping Qin; Fu-Wen Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Appearing in the composite spectral data of BATSE, EGRET and COMPTEL for GRB 910503, there is a bump at around 1600keV. We perform a statistical analysis on the spectral data, trying to find out if the bump could be accounted for by a blue-shifted and significantly broadened rest frame line due to the Doppler effect of an expanding fireball surface. We made an F-test and adopted previously proposed criteria. The study reveals that the criteria are well satisfied and the feature can be interpreted as the blue shifted 6.4 keV line. From the fit with this line taken into account, we find the Lorentz factor of this source to be Γ = 116+9-9 (at the 68% confident level,△X2 = 1) and the rest frame spectral peak energy to be EO,p= 2.96+0.24-0.18 keV. Although the existence of the emission line feature requires other independent tests to confirm, the analysis suggests that it is feasible to detect emission line features in the high energy range of GRB spectra when taking into account the Doppler effect of fireball expansion.

  10. Precision temperature measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Pavel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a great variety of sensors for temperature measurements. The Pt100 is well known as one of the transducers with excellent precision and linearity. The only problem is the need of a high gain precision instrumentation amplifier which greatly increases the cost of the system. A large varriety of simple microcontrollers are developed to use with a lot of type of senzor which made the first translate of a nonelectric parameter in the electric form like pulse width or frequency or analogue voltage amplitude. After the signal was converted it can be transmited to an upper level to proces them.

  11. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, Eugene A. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  12. Precision genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram;

    2014-01-01

    of glycobiology, primarily due to their low efficiencies, with resultant failure to impose substantial phenotypic consequences upon the final glycosylation products. Here, we review novel nuclease-based precision genome editing techniques enabling efficient and stable gene editing, including gene disruption...... by introducing single or double-stranded breaks at a defined genomic sequence. We here compare and contrast the different techniques and summarize their current applications, highlighting cases from the field of glycobiology as well as pointing to future opportunities. The emerging potential of precision gene...

  13. Mapping of mechanical stresses in silicon substrates due to lead-tin solder bump reflow process via synchrotron x-ray topography and finite element modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White beam synchrotron x-ray topography (WBSXRT) is a non-destructive technique, which is capable of analysing the strain and/or dislocation distribution in single crystal materials. This paper discusses the application of WBSXRT to the analysis of strain fields due to the microelectronic packaging of integrated circuits. A ball grid array package containing an Intel (reg) Pentium (reg) III microprocessor was employed to investigate the spatial extent of strain fields imposed on the underlying silicon substrate due to the reflow process for lead-tin solder bumps. Large area and section back-reflection SXRT images were taken before and after the reflow process at 350 deg. C in atmosphere. The effects of strain imposed by the overlying bump structures in these x-ray topographs have been observed principally via orientational contrast. This was also the situation after the reflow process due to severe stresses in the underlying silicon beneath the lead bumps. The estimated magnitudes of shear stress, vertical bar τxy vertical bar, imposed on the underlying silicon were calculated to be of the order of 100 MPa. A simulation of the orientational contrast at the edge of bump was performed based on the kinematical theory of x-ray diffraction (Rantamaeki R et al 1999 J. Appl. Phys. 86 4298). The degree of lattice distortion is well fitted to the topographs of the post-reflow sample. The spatial strain in the underlying silicon was relieved dramatically after the lead bumps were removed from the wafer, which confirms that the solder bump formation is indeed a major source of strain in the underlying Si. Finite element modelling was performed in two-dimensional plane strain mode. The magnitudes and spatial distribution of the stresses after the reflow process are in good agreement with the SXRT results

  14. Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the ob...

  15. Precision physics at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk the author gives a brief survey of some physics topics that will be addressed by the Large Hadron Collider currently under construction at CERN. Instead of discussing the reach of this machine for new physics, the author gives examples of the types of precision measurements that might be made if new physics is discovered

  16. Precision Profits: The Economics of a Precision Agricultural Sprayer System

    OpenAIRE

    Batte, Marvin T.; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza

    2005-01-01

    Precision guidance and precision sprayer control have substantial promise to reduce input application overlap, thus saving chemicals, fuel, and time during the application process. In this report we provide preliminary estimates of the magnitude of the private benefits for a precision guidance system combined with auto-boom control for agricultural sprayers (precision spraying). Hypothetical farm fields are analyzed, allowing comparison of the performance of the precision system to a traditio...

  17. Self-similar bumps and wiggles: Isolating the evolution of the BAO peak with power-law initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Chris; Weinberg, David H.

    2011-09-01

    Motivated by cosmological surveys that demand accurate theoretical modeling of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in galaxy clustering, we analyze N-body simulations in which a BAO-like Gaussian bump modulates the linear theory correlation function ξL(r)=(r0/r)n+3 of an underlying self-similar model with initial power spectrum P(k)=Akn. These simulations test physical and analytic descriptions of BAO evolution far beyond the range of most studies, since we consider a range of underlying power spectra (n=-0.5, -1, -1.5) and evolve simulations to large effective correlation amplitudes (equivalent to σ8=4-12 for rbao=100h-1Mpc). In all cases, nonlinear evolution flattens and broadens the BAO bump in ξ(r) while approximately preserving its area. This evolution resembles a diffusion process in which the bump width σbao is the quadrature sum of the linear theory width and a length proportional to the rms relative displacement Σpair(rbao) of particle pairs separated by rbao. For n=-0.5 and n=-1, we find no detectable shift of the location of the BAO peak, but the peak in the n=-1.5 model shifts steadily to smaller scales, following rpeak/rbao=1-1.08(r0/rbao)1.5. The perturbation theory scheme of McDonald (2007) [P. McDonald, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 75, 043514 (2007).10.1103/PhysRevD.75.043514] and, to a lesser extent, standard 1-loop perturbation theory are fairly successful at explaining the nonlinear evolution of the Fourier power spectrum of our models. Analytic models also explain why the ξ(r) peak shifts much more for n=-1.5 than for n≥-1, though no ab initio model we have examined reproduces all of our numerical results. Simulations with Lbox=10rbao and Lbox=20rbao yield consistent results for ξ(r) at the BAO scale, provided one corrects for the integral constraint imposed by the uniform density box.

  18. Self-similar bumps and wiggles: Isolating the evolution of the BAO peak with power-law initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by cosmological surveys that demand accurate theoretical modeling of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in galaxy clustering, we analyze N-body simulations in which a BAO-like Gaussian bump modulates the linear theory correlation function ξL(r)=(r0/r)n+3 of an underlying self-similar model with initial power spectrum P(k)=Akn. These simulations test physical and analytic descriptions of BAO evolution far beyond the range of most studies, since we consider a range of underlying power spectra (n=-0.5, -1, -1.5) and evolve simulations to large effective correlation amplitudes (equivalent to σ8=4-12 for rbao=100h-1 Mpc). In all cases, nonlinear evolution flattens and broadens the BAO bump in ξ(r) while approximately preserving its area. This evolution resembles a diffusion process in which the bump width σbao is the quadrature sum of the linear theory width and a length proportional to the rms relative displacement Σpair(rbao) of particle pairs separated by rbao. For n=-0.5 and n=-1, we find no detectable shift of the location of the BAO peak, but the peak in the n=-1.5 model shifts steadily to smaller scales, following rpeak/rbao=1-1.08(r0/rbao)1.5. The perturbation theory scheme of McDonald (2007) [P. McDonald, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043514 (2007).] and, to a lesser extent, standard 1-loop perturbation theory are fairly successful at explaining the nonlinear evolution of the Fourier power spectrum of our models. Analytic models also explain why the ξ(r) peak shifts much more for n=-1.5 than for n≥-1, though no ab initio model we have examined reproduces all of our numerical results. Simulations with Lbox=10rbao and Lbox=20rbao yield consistent results for ξ(r) at the BAO scale, provided one corrects for the integral constraint imposed by the uniform density box.

  19. Precision Muon Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gorringe, T P

    2015-01-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio $\\mu_\\mu / \\mu_p$, lepton mass ratio $m_{\\mu} / m_e$, and proton charge radius $r_p$. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiment...

  20. A passion for precision

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  1. Precision disablement aiming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  2. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  3. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  4. Effect of Joint Scale and Processing on the Fracture of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints: Application to Micro-bumps in 3D Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebanpour, B.; Huang, Z.; Chen, Z.; Dutta, I.

    2016-01-01

    In 3-dimensional (3D) packages, a stack of dies is vertically connected to each other using through-silicon vias and very thin solder micro-bumps. The thinness of the micro-bumps results in joints with a very high volumetric proportion of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), rendering them much more brittle compared to conventional joints. Because of this, the reliability of micro-bumps, and the dependence thereof on the proportion of IMC in the joint, is of substantial concern. In this paper, the growth kinetics of IMCs in thin Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu joints attached to Cu substrates were analyzed, and empirical kinetic laws for the growth of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn in thin joints were obtained. Modified compact mixed mode fracture mechanics samples, with adhesive solder joints between massive Cu substrates, having similar thickness and IMC content as actual micro-bumps, were produced. The effects of IMC proportion and strain rate on fracture toughness and mechanisms were investigated. It was found that the fracture toughness G C decreased with decreasing joint thickness ( h Joint). In addition, the fracture toughness decreased with increasing strain rate. Aging also promoted alternation of the crack path between the two joint-substrate interfaces, possibly proffering a mechanism to enhance fracture toughness.

  5. Simulation studies of plasma waves in the electron foreshock - The generation of Langmuir waves by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    Particle simulation experiments were used to study the basic physical ingredients needed for building a global model of foreshock wave phenomena. In particular, the generation of Langmuir waves by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution is analyzed. It is shown that, with appropriately designed simulations experiments, quasi-linear theory can be quantitatively verified for parameters corresponding to the electron foreshock.

  6. Investigation Of The Effects Of Reflow Profile Parameters On Lead-free Solder Bump Volumes And Joint Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalu, E. H.; Lui, Y. T.; Ekere, N. N.; Bhatti, R. S.; Takyi, G.

    2011-01-01

    The electronics manufacturing industry was quick to adopt and use the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) assembly technique on realization of its huge potentials in achieving smaller, lighter and low cost product implementations. Increasing global customer demand for miniaturized electronic products is a key driver in the design, development and wide application of high-density area array package format. Electronic components and their associated solder joints have reduced in size as the miniaturization trend in packaging continues to be challenged by printing through very small stencil apertures required for fine pitch flip-chip applications. At very narrow aperture sizes, solder paste rheology becomes crucial for consistent paste withdrawal. The deposition of consistent volume of solder from pad-to-pad is fundamental to minimizing surface mount assembly defects. This study investigates the relationship between volume of solder paste deposit (VSPD) and the volume of solder bump formed (VSBF) after reflow, and the effect of reflow profile parameters on lead-free solder bump formation and the associated solder joint integrity. The study uses a fractional factorial design (FFD) of 24-1 Ramp-Soak-Spike reflow profile, with all main effects and two-way interactions estimable to determine the optimal factorial combination. The results from the study show that the percentage change in the VSPD depends on the combination of the process parameters and reliability issues could become critical as the size of solder joints soldered on the same board assembly vary greatly. Mathematical models describe the relationships among VSPD, VSBF and theoretical volume of solder paste. Some factors have main effects across the volumes and a number of interactions exist among them. These results would be useful for R&D personnel in designing and implementing newer applications with finer-pitch interconnect.

  7. The effect of intermetallic compound evolution on the fracture behavior of Au stud bumps joined with Sn-3.5Ag solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Kyu; Ko, Yong-Ho; Kim, Jun-Ki; Lee, Chang-Woo; Yoo, Sehoon

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and joint properties of Au stud bumps joined with Sn-3.5Ag solder were investigated as functions of flip chip bonding temperature and aging time. Au stud bumps were bonded on solder-onpad (SOP) at bonding temperature of 260°C and 300°C for 10 s, respectively. Aging treatment was carried out at 150°C for 100 h, 300 h, and 500 h, respectively. After flip chip bonding, intermetallic compounds (IMCs) of AuSn, AuSn2, and AuSn4 were formed at the interface between the Au stud bump and Sn-3.5Ag solder. At a bonding temperature of 300°C, AuSn2 IMC clusters, which were surrounded by AuSn4 IMCs, were observed in the Sn-3.5Ag solder bump. After flip chip bonding, bonding strength was approximately 220.5mN/bump. As aging time increased, the bonding strength decreased. After 100 h of aging treatment, the bonding strength of the joint bonded at 300°C was lower than that bonded at 260°C due to the fast growth rate of the AuSn2 IMCs. The main failure modes were interface fractures between the AuSn2 IMCs and AuSn4 IMCs, fractures through the AuSn2 IMCs and pad lift. Initial joint microstructures after flip chip bonding strongly affected the bonding strengths of aged samples.

  8. Precision animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, A.P.F.; WOOLLIAMS, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...

  9. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  10. Electroweak precision tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document aims at summarizing a dozen of years of the author's research in High Energy Physics, in particular dealing with precision tests of the electroweak theory. Parity violating asymmetries measurements at LEP with the ALEPH detector together with global consistency checks of the Kobayashi-Maskawa paradigm within the CKM-fitter group are gathered in the first part of the document. The second part deals with the unpublished instrumental work about the design, tests, productions and commissioning of the elements of the Pre-Shower detector of the LHCb spectrometer at LHC. Physics perspectives with LHCb are eventually discussed as a conclusion. (author)

  11. Precision mass measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläser, M.; Borys, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mass as a physical quantity and its measurement are described. After some historical remarks, a short summary of the concept of mass in classical and modern physics is given. Principles and methods of mass measurements, for example as energy measurement or as measurement of weight forces and forces caused by acceleration, are discussed. Precision mass measurement by comparing mass standards using balances is described in detail. Measurement of atomic masses related to 12C is briefly reviewed as well as experiments and recent discussions for a future new definition of the kilogram, the SI unit of mass.

  12. Precise extractions of the x and Q2 dependence of R = σL/σT, F2p, F2d, and F2n/2p from a combined analysis of SLAC [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] deep inelastic electron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a precise study of the x and Q2 dependence of the proton, deuteron and neutron structure functions. In particular R = σL/σT, F2p, F2d, and the ratio F2d/F2p were extracted in a combined analysis of SLAC deep inelastic electron scattering experiments. Data from eight experiments were radiatively corrected with a new improved radiative correction formalism, and all experiments were normalized to the precise data of SLAC E140, thus yielding a single coherent data set. We find that Rp = Rd as expected from QCD. The results for R are somewhat larger than the prediction of QCD with target mass effects, thus indicating the existence of additional dynamic higher twist effects. Using both SLAC and CERN data, we obtained a parametrization of R in the range 0.52 2 and 0.1 2. These data provide a constraint at low Q2 for high Q2 muon and neutrino experiments. A study of the Q2 dependence of the ratio of deuteron and proton structure functions shows a slope which is consistent with QCD and explains the difference in this ratio between SLAC and CERN experiments. 7 figs

  13. Precision muon physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, T. P.; Hertzog, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio μμ /μp, lepton mass ratio mμ /me, and proton charge radius rp. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiments. Another focus is the uncommonly broad and topical range of questions in atomic, nuclear and particle physics that such experiments explore.

  14. Precision manufacturing using LIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective is the fabrication of small high-precision parts using LIGA, which can be used in a variety of industrial applications. LIGA is a combination of deep x-ray lithography, electroplating, and replication processes that enables the fabrication of microstructures with vertical dimensions several millimeters high, lateral dimensions in the micrometer range, and submicron tolerances. On beamline 10.3.2, at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) has built an end station suitable for LIGA. The ALS is an excellent source of radiation for this application. The CXRO, in close collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed the other essential process steps of mask making, resist development, x-ray exposure, and electroplating. This technology provides a powerful tool for mass production and miniaturization of mechanical systems into a dimensional regime not accessible by traditional manufacturing operations. We will present several applications that exploit the characteristics of the LIGA process: the fabrication of magnetic laminations for a high precision stepping motor; miniature octopole lens for advanced e-beam lithography; high-aspect-ratio x-ray collimating grids for astronomy; and microscopic tumblers for nuclear security. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J.L.

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  16. Precision Joining Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.W.; Westphal, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10--12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of US industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  17. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e+e- linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed

  18. Precise reddening and metallicity of NGC6752 from FLAMES spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gratton, R G; Carretta, E; De Angeli, F; Lucatello, S; Momany, Y; Piotto, G; Recio-Blanco, A

    2005-01-01

    (abridged) Accurate reddenings for Globular Clusters could be obtained by comparing the colour-temperature obtained using temperatures from reddening-free indicator (Halpha), with that given by standard colour-temperature calibrations. From a single 1300 seconds exposure with FLAMES at VLT2 we obtained spectra centred on Halpha (R=6000, 5precision reddening estimate has been obtained for the cluster: E(B-V)=0.046 +/- 0.005. The same exposure provided UVES spectra of seven stars near the red giant branch bump (R=40000, 20

  19. Fast, High-Precision Readout Circuit for Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, David M.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Key, Richard W.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Wrigley, Chris J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sander, Stanley P.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.

    2013-01-01

    The GEO-CAPE mission described in NASA's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey requires high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution measurements to monitor and characterize the rapidly changing chemistry of the troposphere over North and South Americas. High-frame-rate focal plane arrays (FPAs) with many pixels are needed to enable such measurements. A high-throughput digital detector readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that meets the GEO-CAPE FPA needs has been developed, fabricated, and tested. The ROIC is based on an innovative charge integrating, fast, high-precision analog-to-digital circuit that is built into each pixel. The 128×128-pixel ROIC digitizes all 16,384 pixels simultaneously at frame rates up to 16 kHz to provide a completely digital output on a single integrated circuit at an unprecedented rate of 262 million pixels per second. The approach eliminates the need for off focal plane electronics, greatly reducing volume, mass, and power compared to conventional FPA implementations. A focal plane based on this ROIC will require less than 2 W of power on a 1×1-cm integrated circuit. The ROIC is fabricated of silicon using CMOS technology. It is designed to be indium bump bonded to a variety of detector materials including silicon PIN diodes, indium antimonide (InSb), indium gallium arsenide (In- GaAs), and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays to provide coverage over a broad spectral range in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral ranges.

  20. Experimental Precision and Variety Comparison Precision in Regional Crop Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-ling; ZHANG Qun-yuan; GE Zhi-nan; YANG Fu-xin; ZHANG De-gui; LIU Wen-xin

    2002-01-01

    According to the basic concepts of precision and the principles of analysis of variance (ANOVA), precision types for experiments and variety comparison in regional crop trials (RCT) were studied and developed; expected variety comparison precision (EVCP) and realized variety comparison precision (RVCP) and the corresponding statistical indexes of them were proposed. It was explained that experimental precision (EP) and variety comparison precision (VCP) are two kinds of precision of RCT; EP includes error precision and variety mean precision, which can be measured respectively by the coefficient of variation of single observation's error (CVe) and the coefficient of variation of variety mean's error (CVY); VCP includes EVCP and RVCP, which can be measured respectively by the detectable least relative difference (DLRD) and the relative least significant distance (RLSD); EP is an important factor of VCP but not identical to it; RVCP is the realization of EVCP. Besides error, experimental design and GE interaction and ANOVA model affect VCP. Several application examples for these precision indexes were presented, and the precision of regional cotton trials in the Yellow River Valley and the Changjiang Valley were investigated through the historical data of RCTs from 1980 to 1999.

  1. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, K. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Artuso, M. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Beveren, V. van; Beuzekom, M. van; Boterenbrood, H. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R. [CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Heijden, B. van der [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hombach, C. [University of Manchester, Manchester, Lancashire (United Kingdom); Hynds, D. [Glasgow University, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Hsu, D. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); John, M. [University of Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Koffeman, E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leflat, A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Li, Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Longstaff, I.; Morton, A. [Glasgow University, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Pérez Trigo, E. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Plackett, R. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-03-21

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100–200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assembled at the SPS at CERN. The sensors are shown to be highly efficient up to a few micrometers from the physical edge of the sensor. The distortion of the electric field lines at the edge of the sensors is studied by reconstructing the streamlines of the electric field using two-pixel clusters. These results are supported by TCAD simulations. The reconstructed streamlines are used to study the field distortion as a function of the bias voltage and to apply corrections to the cluster positions at the edge.

  2. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, K.; Artuso, M.; van Beveren, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R.; van der Heijden, B.; Hombach, C.; Hynds, D.; Hsu, D.; John, M.; Koffeman, E.; Leflat, A.; Li, Y.; Longstaff, I.; Morton, A.; Pérez Trigo, E.; Plackett, R.; Reid, M. M.; Rodríguez Perez, P.; Schindler, H.; Tsopelas, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Wysokiński, M.

    2015-03-01

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100-200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assembled at the SPS at CERN. The sensors are shown to be highly efficient up to a few micrometers from the physical edge of the sensor. The distortion of the electric field lines at the edge of the sensors is studied by reconstructing the streamlines of the electric field using two-pixel clusters. These results are supported by TCAD simulations. The reconstructed streamlines are used to study the field distortion as a function of the bias voltage and to apply corrections to the cluster positions at the edge.

  3. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100–200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assembled at the SPS at CERN. The sensors are shown to be highly efficient up to a few micrometers from the physical edge of the sensor. The distortion of the electric field lines at the edge of the sensors is studied by reconstructing the streamlines of the electric field using two-pixel clusters. These results are supported by TCAD simulations. The reconstructed streamlines are used to study the field distortion as a function of the bias voltage and to apply corrections to the cluster positions at the edge

  4. Design and evaluation of a 2D array PIN photodiode bump bonded to readout IC for the low energy x-ray detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Sunwoo; Park, Shin-Woong; Yi, Yun

    2006-01-01

    A 2D array radiation sensor, consisting of an array of PIN photodiodes bump bonded to readout integrated circuit (IC), has been developed for operation with low energy X-rays. The PIN photodiode array and readout IC for this system have been fabricated. The main performance measurements are the following: a few pA-scale leakage current, 350 pF junction capacitance, 30 microm-depth depletion layer and a 250 microm intrinsic layer at zero bias. This PIN photodiode array and readout IC were fabricated using a PIN photodiode process and standard 0.35 microm CMOS technology, respectively. The readout circuit is operated from a 3.3 V single power supply. Finally, a 2D array radiation sensor has been developed using bump bonding between the PIN photodiode and the readout electronics. PMID:17946079

  5. Effects of the Bogie Mechanism on the Dynamic Behavior of Crawler-type Construction Machines in Traveling on Firm Grounds with Continuous Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masajiro; Nakagawa, Chikara; Nakamura, Shinya

    In crawler-type construction machines, flexible suspension system like bogie mechanism type suspension is used to reduce and disperse the load acting on the running gear and to absorb the vibration from uneven ground. However, the quantitative effects of the bogie are not so clear. In this paper, by using a modeling and simulation method for crawler-type construction machine with bogie mechanism, which is developed by the authors, in traveling on firm grounds with continuous bumps, representative simulation cases to analyze the dynamic behavior were conducted. Then K-type and X-type bogie as flexible suspension and locked K-type and X-type bogie as rigid suspension were selected. In two bump pitch cases, effects of the bogie mechanism introduction and the bogie type on the dynamic behavior of the machine, such as the lower rollers load and the bouncing and pitching behavior were shown quantitatively and discussed.

  6. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  7. PARTITION-OPTIMIZED SINGLE EMULSION PARTICLES IMPROVE SUSTAINED RELEASE OF AMPHIPHILIC BUMPED KINASE INHIBITORS TO CONTROL MALARIA TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Yacoob

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic molecules are challenging to be incorporatedinto polymeric particles for sustained release due to their significant solubility in both water and organic solvent used in the fabrication process. Here, we investigated an extensive panel of fabrication methods for the incorporation and release of amphiphilic molecules, in particular, novel amphiphilic bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs. Previously, BKIswere shown to reduce malaria transmission by blocking of gametocyte exflagellation. Prolonged BKI bioavailability for effective transmission blocking is crucial since infectious gametocytes circulate for several weeks inthe mammalian host, well beyond the half-life of BKIs. So far, delivery systems for sustained release of those BKIs have not been successfully formulated yet. Here we demonstrate that out of several delivery vehicles the partition-optimized single emulsion particles are the ideal system for incorporation and sustained release of amphiphilic BKIs. They increased the incorporation greater than 90% through optimized partitioning of amphiphilic molecules to the polymer phase and sustained release of BKIs up to several weeks with a reduction in the initial burst release. Overall this work provides a method for the incorporation and sustained release of amphiphilic BKIs, and can be adapted for other amphiphilic molecules.

  8. Comparisons of the nonlinear and the quasilinear model for the bump-on-tail instability with phase decorrelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of discrete global modes in a toroidal plasma interacting with an energetic particle distribution is studied, and in particular when the dynamics of the system using the nonlinear and quasilinear descriptions are macroscopically similar. The dynamics can be described with a nonlinear bump-on-tail model in a two-dimensional phase space of particles. A Monte Carlo framework is developed for this model with an included decorrelation of the wave- particle phase, which is used to model extrinsic stochastisation of the wave-particle interactions. From this description, a quasilinear version of the model is also developed, which is described by a diffusive process in energy space due to the added phase decorrelation. Due to the reduced dimensionality of phase space, the quasilinear description is typically less computationally demanding than the nonlinear description. The purpose of the studies is to find conditions when a quasilinear model sufficiently describes the same phenomena of the wave-plasma interactions as a nonlinear model does. Via numerical and theoretical parameter studies, regimes where the two models overlap macroscopically are found. These regimes exist above a given threshold of the strength of the decorrelation, where coherent phase space structures are destroyed on time scales shorter than characteristic time scales of nonlinear particle motion in phase space close to the wave-particle resonance. Specifically for the quasilinear model, a theoretical value of the time scale of quasilinear flattening is derived and numerically verified

  9. X-ray bumps, iron K-alpha lines, and X-ray suppression by obscuring tori in Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolik, Julian H.; Madau, Piero; Zycki, Piotr T.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the X-ray spectral properties of unobscured type 1 and obscured type 2 Seyferts as predicted by the unified Seyfert scheme. We consider the reprocessing of X-ray photons by photoelectric absorption, iron fluorescence, and Compton downscattering in the obscuring tori surrounding these active nuclei, and compute by Monte Carlo methods the reprocessed spectra as a function of the viewing angle. Depending on the optical depth and shape of the torus, and on the viewing angle, the X-ray flux can be suppressed by substantial factors when our line of sight is obscured. We show that an immediate consequence of the existence of an obscuring thick torus is the production in the spectra of type 1 Seyfert galaxies of a bump in the continuum above 10-20 keV and an Fe K-alpha line with significant equivalent width. In those type 2 Seyferts for which the hard X-ray spectrum has been substantially suppressed, the equivalent width of the Fe K-alpha line in the transmitted spectrum can be very large.

  10. Precision measurements of Linear Scattering Density using Muon Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Åström, E; Calliari, I; Calvini, P; Checchia, P; Donzella, A; Faraci, E; Forsberg, F; Gonella, F; Hu, X; Klinger, J; Ödqvist, L S; Pagano, D; Rigoni, A; Ramous, E; Urbani, M; Vanini, S; Zenoni, A; Zumerle, G

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that muon tomography can be used to precisely measure the properties of various materials. The materials which have been considered have been extracted from an experimental blast furnace, including carbon (coke) and iron oxides, for which measurements of the linear scattering density relative to the mass density have been performed with an absolute precision of 10%. We report the procedures that are used in order to obtain such precision, and a discussion is presented to address the expected performance of the technique when applied to heavier materials. The results we obtain do not depend on the specific type of material considered and therefore they can be extended to any application.

  11. Accuracy and Precision in Collider Event Shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodrubetz, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss and investigate the use of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) for high precision calculations. In the first part of the work, we present an extraction of the strong coupling, $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ and the leading nonperturbative parameter $\\Omega_1$, using the event shape C-parameter. By comparing lepton collider data to the C-parameter cross section, we extract values $\\alpha_s(m_Z)=0.1123\\pm 0.0015$ and $\\Omega_1=0.421\\pm 0.063\\,{\\rm GeV}$ with $\\chi^2/\\rm{dof}=0.988$ for $404$ bins of data. The later parts of this thesis are dedicated to using on-shell helicity methods to extend SCET beyond leading power. We present a complete set of scalar helicity building blocks and describe an interesting angular momentum selection rule that restricts how these building blocks can be assembled.

  12. The application of the gradient-based adjoint multi-point optimization of single and double shock control bumps for transonic airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, K.; Nejati, A.; Chaharlang Kiani, K.; Taheri, R.

    2015-08-01

    A shock control bump (SCB) is a flow control method which uses local small deformations in a flexible wing surface to considerably reduce the strength of shock waves and the resulting wave drag in transonic flows. Most of the reported research is devoted to optimization in a single flow condition. Here, we have used a multi-point adjoint optimization scheme to optimize shape and location of the SCB. Practically, this introduces transonic airfoils equipped with the SCB which are simultaneously optimized for different off-design transonic flight conditions. Here, we use this optimization algorithm to enhance and optimize the performance of SCBs in two benchmark airfoils, i.e., RAE-2822 and NACA-64A010, over a wide range of off-design Mach numbers. All results are compared with the usual single-point optimization. We use numerical simulation of the turbulent viscous flow and a gradient-based adjoint algorithm to find the optimum location and shape of the SCB. We show that the application of SCBs may increase the aerodynamic performance of an RAE-2822 airfoil by 21.9 and by 22.8 % for a NACA-64A010 airfoil compared to the no-bump design in a particular flight condition. We have also investigated the simultaneous usage of two bumps for the upper and the lower surfaces of the airfoil. This has resulted in a 26.1 % improvement for the RAE-2822 compared to the clean airfoil in one flight condition.

  13. Precision Cryogenic Dilatometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, Matthew; Halverson, Peter; Levine-West, Marie; Marcin, Martin; Peters, Robert D.; Shaklan, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    A dilatometer based on a laser interferometer is being developed to measure mechanical creep and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of materials at temperatures ranging from ambient down to 15 K. This cryogenic dilatometer has been designed to minimize systematic errors that limit the best previously available dilatometers. At its prototype stage of development, this cryogenic dilatometer yields a strain measurement error of 35 ppb or 1.7 ppb/K CTE measurement error for a 20-K thermal load, for low-expansion materials in the temperature range from 310 down to 30 K. Planned further design refinements that include a provision for stabilization of the laser and addition of a high-precision sample-holding jig are expected to reduce the measurement error to 5-ppb strain error or 0.3-ppb/K CTE error for a 20-K thermal load. The dilatometer (see figure) includes a common-path, differential, heterodyne interferometer; a dual-frequency, stabilized source bench that serves as the light source for the interferometer; a cryogenic chamber in which one places the material sample to be studied; a cryogenic system for cooling the interior of the chamber to the measurement temperature; an ultra-stable alignment stage for positioning the chamber so that the sample is properly positioned with respect to the interferometer; and a data-acquisition and control system. The cryogenic chamber and the interferometer portion of the dilatometer are housed in a vacuum chamber on top of a vibration isolating optical table in a cleanroom. The sample consists of two pieces a pillar on a base both made of the same material. Using reflections of the interferometer beams from the base and the top of the pillar, what is measured is the change in length of the pillar as the temperature in the chamber is changed. In their fundamental optical and electronic principles of operation, the laser light source and the interferometer are similar to those described in Common-Path Heterodyne

  14. Centroid precision and orientation precision of planar localization microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGray, C; Copeland, C R; Stavis, S M; Geist, J

    2016-09-01

    The concept of localization precision, which is essential to localization microscopy, is formally extended from optical point sources to microscopic rigid bodies. Measurement functions are presented to calculate the planar pose and motion of microscopic rigid bodies from localization microscopy data. Physical lower bounds on the associated uncertainties - termed centroid precision and orientation precision - are derived analytically in terms of the characteristics of the optical measurement system and validated numerically by Monte Carlo simulations. The practical utility of these expressions is demonstrated experimentally by an analysis of the motion of a microelectromechanical goniometer indicated by a sparse constellation of fluorescent nanoparticles. Centroid precision and orientation precision, as developed here, are useful concepts due to the generality of the expressions and the widespread interest in localization microscopy for super-resolution imaging and particle tracking. PMID:26970565

  15. Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Mechanical State of a Coal Pillar During Longwall Mining Panel Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Jiang, Yaodong; Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Jie; Liu, Shuai

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a numerical investigation on the dynamic mechanical state of a coal pillar and the assessment of the coal bump risk during extraction using the longwall mining method. The present research indicates that there is an intact core, even when the peak pillar strength has been exceeded under uniaxial compression. This central portion of the coal pillar plays a significant role in its loading capacity. In this study, the intact core of the coal pillar is defined as an elastic core. Based on the geological conditions of a typical longwall panel from the Tangshan coal mine in the City of Tangshan, China, a numerical fast Lagrangian analysis of continua in three dimensions (FLAC3D) model was created to understand the relationship between the volume of the elastic core in a coal pillar and the vertical stress, which is considered to be an important precursor to the development of a coal bump. The numerical results suggest that, the wider the coal pillar, the greater the volume of the elastic core. Therefore, a coal pillar with large width may form a large elastic core as the panel is mined, and the vertical stress is expected to be greater in magnitude. Because of the high stresses and the associated stored elastic energy, the risk of coal bumps in a coal pillar with large width is greater than for a coal pillar with small width. The results of the model also predict that the peak abutment stress occurs near the intersection between the mining face and the roadways at a distance of 7.5 m from the mining face. It is revealed that the bump-prone zones around the longwall panel are within 7-10 m ahead of the mining face and near the edge of the roadway during panel extraction.

  16. Precision Farming. A Comprehensive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Alley, Mark M.; McClellan, Phil; Brann, Daniel Edward, 1945-; Donohue, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Precision Farming (PF), also referred to as precision agriculture or variable rate technology, is the process used to vary management of crop production across a field. This publication introduces the principles and terminology used in PF. Crop producers can use this information to gain a working knowledge of PF and develop the ability to implement PF technologies in traditional crop production.

  17. PRECISION FARMING FOR NITROGEN MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approaches to precision nitrogen management vary from region to region depending on crop, soils, landscape, and climate yet all strategies essentially attempt to estimate crop nitrogen demand or plant available nitrogen. In this chapter, we provide case studies that illustrate precision nitrogen ma...

  18. High precision 3D coordinates location technology for pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system, manual way has been used to collimate the pellet traditionally, which is time-consuming and low-level automated. A new method based on Binocular Vision is proposed, which can place the prospecting apparatus on the public diagnosis platform to reach relevant engineering target and uses the high precision two dimension calibration board. Iterative method is adopted to satisfy 0.1 pixel for corner extraction precision. Furthermore, SVD decomposition is used to remove the singularity corners and advanced Zhang's calibration method is applied to promote camera calibration precision. Experiments indicate that the RMS of three dimension coordinate measurement precision is 25 μm, and the max system RMS of distance measurement is better than 100 μm, satisfying the system index requirement. (authors)

  19. The extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extractant for extraction and re-extraction of heavy metal ions has been worked out. The extractant consists of ferromagnetic particles suspended in liquid and covered by unsaturated fatty acids. The liquid, unsoluble in other liquids taken part in the process, contains also an organic derivative of phosphoric acid as a complexing agent

  20. Cold gas and a Milky Way-type 2175-Å bump in a metal-rich and highly depleted absorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Caucal, Paul; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Rahmani, Hadi; Jiang, Peng; Schneider, Donald P.; Lundgren, Britt; Pâris, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    We report the detection of a strong Milky Way-type 2175-Å extinction bump at z = 2.1166 in the quasar spectrum towards SDSS J121143.42+083349.7 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We conduct follow up observations with the Echelle Spectrograph and Imager on-board the Keck II telescope and the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. This 2175-Å absorber is remarkable in that we simultaneously detect neutral carbon (C I), neutral chlorine (Cl I), and carbon monoxide (CO). It also qualifies as a damped Lyman α system. The J1211+0833 absorber is found to be metal rich and has a dust depletion pattern resembling that of the Milky Way disc clouds. We use the column densities of the C I fine structure states and the C II/C I ratio (under the assumption of ionization equilibrium) to derive the temperature and volume density in the absorbing gas. A CLOUDY photoionization model is constructed, which utilizes additional atoms/ions to constrain the physical conditions. The inferred physical conditions are consistent with a canonical cold (T ˜ 100 K) neutral medium with a high density (n(H I) ˜ 100 cm-3) and a slightly higher pressure than the local interstellar medium. Given the simultaneous presence of C I, CO, and the 2175-Å bump, combined with the high metallicity, high dust depletion level, and overall low ionization state of the gas, the absorber towards J1211+0833 supports the scenario that the presence of the bump requires an evolved stellar population.

  1. Razor Bumps (Pseudofolliculitis Barbae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shaving, shaving against the "grain" or direction of hair growth, or using multi-blade razors. Who's At Risk ... at night Eflornithine cream to try and reduce hair growth Topical or oral antibiotics Trusted Links MedlinePlus: Hair ...

  2. Erratum: Precision Velocity Fields in Spiral Galaxies. I. Noncircular Motions and rms Noise in Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Charles; Bothun, G.

    2000-05-01

    In the paper ``Precision Velocity Fields in Spiral Galaxies. I. Noncircular Motions and rms Noise in Disks'' by Charles Beauvais and G. Bothun (ApJS, 125, 99) the abstract was incorrect. The corrected abstract is as follows: Imaging Fabry-Perot data have been acquired for a sample of spiral galaxies from which two-dimensional velocity fields have been constructed on a subkiloparsec resolution scale. These velocity fields are then examined for evidence of noncircular motions. Individual spectra are extracted and the resultant line profiles are fitted with Voigt, Gaussian, and Lorentzian functions. Gaussians are shown to provide a better model for simultaneously fitting a large number of line profiles, successfully fitting a higher fraction. The kinematic disk (i.e., tilted ring) modeling procedure is studied in detail and is shown to accurately recover the underlying rotational structure of galactic disks. The process of obtaining rotation curves from full two-dimensional velocity data is examined. Small-scale ``bumps and wiggles'' on the rotation curves are shown to be due to the inclusion of noncircular motions. Use of the rotation curve estimate returned by the modeling procedure rather than deprojection of the velocity field is recommended to avoid their inclusion. Investigation of the symmetry of the major- and minor-axis rotation curves reveal strong evidence of nonconcentric gas orbits with the maximum center shift of ~300 pc. Comparisons between kinematic and photometric structure (e.g., position angles, inclinations, centers) show considerable noise on small scales. Although large-scale averages are in agreement, this noise is a matter of some concern in the application of the Tully-Fisher method to disk galaxies. Moreover, cases of significant misalignment in position angle between the inner and outer disks are seen in two of the sample galaxies and may indicate the transition between luminous and dark-matter-dominated regions (i.e., where the maximum disk

  3. Precision Multiband Photometry with a DSLR Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Csubry, Z.; Hartman, J. D.; Bhatti, W.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-03-01

    Ground-based exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HAT Network of Telescopes (HATNet), and KELT have discovered close to two hundred transiting extrasolar planets in the past several years. The strategy of these surveys is to look at a large field of view and measure the brightnesses of its bright stars to around half a percent per point precision, which is adequate for detecting hot Jupiters. Typically, these surveys use CCD detectors to achieve high precision photometry. These CCDS, however, are expensive relative to other consumer-grade optical imaging devices, such as digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs). We look at the possibility of using a DSLR camera for precision photometry. Specifically, we used a Canon EOS 60D camera that records light in three colors simultaneously. The DSLR was integrated into the HATNet survey and collected observations for a month, after which photometry was extracted for 6600 stars in a selected stellar field. We found that the DSLR achieves a best-case median absolute deviation of 4.6 mmag per 180 s exposure when the DSLR color channels are combined, and 1000 stars are measured to better than 10 mmag (1%). Also, we achieve 10 mmag or better photometry in the individual colors. This is good enough to detect transiting hot Jupiters. We performed a candidate search on all stars and found four candidates, one of which is KELT-3b, the only known transiting hot Jupiter in our selected field. We conclude that the Canon 60D is a cheap, lightweight device capable of useful photometry in multiple colors.

  4. High-precision multipass reflectometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.F.; Baumeister, P.

    1981-01-01

    The multipass reflectometer has been shown to be a convenient and precise instrument for the measurement of spectral reflectances in excess of 0.99. This report gives a brief sketch of the initial setup of the reflectometer, its operation, optimization of parameters, and some limitations to the expected precision. The instrumental precision is set by the uncertainty in the computer fit of a straight line to the measured data. Systematic errors due to nonuniform photosurfaces and the effects of astigmatism have been minimized. We have used this reflectrometer to measure the absolute reflectance of evaporated aluminum films in the uv and visible regions. It has also been used to measure the low-level insertion losses of laser window materials for this same spectral region.

  5. Static mechanics analysis of no bumping or vibration welding structure applied in high-speed & heavy-load CWR with single inclined surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the sleeper, railroad bed, welding technology and materials of the high-speed & heavy-load Continuous Welded Rail (CWR) have been improved greatly. However, the orientation relationship between welding surface and rail is still orientation structure, which appeared 185 years ago in UK, namely, the welding surface is normal to the longitudinal direction of the rail. Thus rail welds are subject to vertical pure shear stress, lateral pure shear stress and axial pure tensile stress. Pure shear stress and pure tensile stress are both dangerous stresses, which result in failure of welds under high-speed & heavy-load condition for a long time. When the wheels pass rail welds, it is difficult to avoid vertical bumping and lateral vibration. In order to solve these problems, in this paper we put forward the single inclined welding surface having dip angle α with the lateral rail or dip angle β with the vertical rail and analyze the position geometry and stress state. Thus the vertical bumping and lateral vibration are basically eliminated, then the bearing capacity of the welding surface is significantly improved, and the stress of axial pure tensile and lateral pure shear of the welding surface is reduced.

  6. Effect of solder bump size on interfacial reactions during soldering between Pb-free solder and Cu and Ni/ Pd/ Au surface finishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flip chip technology provides the ultimate in high I/ O-density and count with superior electrical performance for interconnecting electronic components. Therefore, the study of the intermetallic compounds was conducted to investigate the effect of solder bumps sizes on several surface finishes which are copper and Electroless Nickel/ Electroless Palladium/ Immersion Gold (ENEPIG) which is widely used in electronics packaging as surface finish for flip-chip application nowadays. In this research, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis was conducted to analyze the morphology and composition of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interface between the solder and UBM. The IMCs between the SAC lead-free solder with Cu surface finish after reflow were mainly (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 and Cu6Sn5. While the main IMCs formed between lead-free solder on ENEPIG surface finish are (Ni, Cu)3Sn4 and Ni3Sn4. The results from FESEM with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) have revealed that isothermal aging at 150 degree Celsius has caused the thickening and coarsening of IMCs as well as changing them into more spherical shape. The thickness of the intermetallic compounds in both finishes investigated was found to be higher in solders with smaller bump size. From the experimental results, it also appears that the growth rate of IMCs is higher when soldering on copper compared to ENEPIG finish. Besides that, the results also showed that the thickness of intermetallic compounds was found to be proportional to isothermal aging duration. (author)

  7. The red giant branch phase transition: Implications for the RGB luminosity function bump and detections of Li-rich red clump stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cassisi, Santi; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    We performed a detailed study of the evolution of the luminosity of He-ignition stage and of the red giant branch bump luminosity during the red giant branch phase transition for various metallicities. To this purpose we calculated a grid of stellar models that sample the mass range of the transition with a fine mass step equal to ${\\rm 0.01M_\\odot}$. We find that for a stellar population with a given initial chemical composition, there is a critical age (of 1.1-1.2~Gyr) around which a decrease in age of just 20-30 million years causes a drastic drop in the red giant branch tip brightness. We also find a narrow age range (a few $10^7$ yr) around the transition, characterized by the luminosity of the red giant branch bump being brighter than the luminosity of He ignition. We discuss a possible link between this occurrence and observations of Li-rich core He-burning stars.

  8. Thermal Conductivity Anomalies Related to the Double-Bump of Resistivity in Nd0.7Sr0.3Mn1-xCrxO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui-Ping; WU Bai-Mei; LI Bo; WANG Ming; DU Kan

    2005-01-01

    @@ The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity κ(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) has been measured for perovskite Nd0.7Sr0.3Mn1-x Crx O3 (0.01 ≤ x ≤0.15) in the temperature range of 10-300 K.The double-bump feature in ρ(T) is observed for x = 0.08 and 0.10 samples.Below the insulating-metallic transition temperature TIM, κ(T) shows a sharp increase and such an increase is depressed gradually by the increasing Cr content.While κ(T) displays an anomalous decrease around the temperature where the second bump of ρ(T) emerges.We suggest that the enhancement of κ(T) below TIM is related to both phonons and magnons, the ferromagnetic interaction of Mn3+-O-Cr3+ should be super-exchange interaction rather than double-exchange interaction, and the Cr doping just weakens the DE interaction in this system.

  9. PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES WITH CSHELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial velocity (RV) identification of extrasolar planets has historically been dominated by optical surveys. Interest in expanding exoplanet searches to M dwarfs and young stars, however, has motivated a push to improve the precision of near-infrared RV techniques. We present our methodology for achieving 58 m s-1 precision in the K band on the M0 dwarf GJ 281 using the CSHELL spectrograph at the 3 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We also demonstrate our ability to recover the known 4 MJUP exoplanet Gl 86 b and discuss the implications for success in detecting planets around 1-3 Myr old T Tauri stars.

  10. Precision protection through indirect correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yao

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the quantum Fisher information of the parameters of the initial atomic state is studied, in the framework of open quantum systems, for a pair of static two-level atoms coupled to a bath of fluctuating vacuum scalar fields. Our results show that the correlations between the two atoms as well as the precision limit in quantum metrology are determined by the separation between the two atoms. Remarkably, when the separation between the two atoms approaches zero, the quantum Fisher information, thus the precision limit of the estimation of the parameters of the initial atomic state will be survived from the vacuum fluctuations after long time evolution.

  11. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  12. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from the gum socket. It is usually done by a general ... gum. If you need a more complex tooth extraction: You will be given sedation so you are ...

  13. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  14. Environment-assisted precision measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, G.; Cappellaro, P.; Maze, J. R.;

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are in...

  15. Precision Measurements in Neutron Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Marc; collaboration, for the PERKEO II

    2007-01-01

    We present new precision measurements of angular correlation coefficients in polarized neutron decay. We have obtained values for the electron asymmetry coefficient A, the neutrino asymmetry coefficient B, and for the proton asymmetry coefficient C. In combination with other results, the new measurements are used to derive limits on "Physics beyond the Standard Model".

  16. Sensor fusion for precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information-based management of crop production systems known as precision agriculture relies on different sensor technologies aimed at characterization of spatial heterogeneity of a cropping environment. Remote and proximal sensing systems have been deployed to obtain high-resolution data pertainin...

  17. Precise laser refractometry of liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonchukov, S.; Vakurov, M.; Yermachenko, V.

    2006-01-01

    The results of development of two versions of the intracavity laser refractometry in reflection (ILRR) are reviewed in this paper. The ILRR method is based on the use of the properties of two-mode lasers with broken cavity and allows the precise refractive investigations of turbid media to be fulfil

  18. Spin and precision electroweak physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perspective on fundamental parameters and precision tests of the Standard Model is given. Weak neutral current reactions are discussed with emphasis on those processes involving (polarized) electrons. The role of electroweak radiative corrections in determining the top quark mass and probing for ''new physics'' is described

  19. Precision Farming Tools. Yield Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Alley, Mark M.; McClellan, Phil

    2005-01-01

    Using yield monitors is the first step many producers take in precision farming. A yield monitor, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, is an electronic tool that collects data on crop performance for a given year. To have accurate data for yield map interpretation, the yield monitor must be properly operated and calibrated.

  20. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  1. Precision and reproducibility in AMS radiocarbon measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkis, M.A.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.E.; Lawson, E. M.; Smith, A.M.; Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a technique by which rare radioisotopes such as {sup 14}C can be measured at environmental levels with high efficiency. Instead of detecting radioactivity, which is very weak for long-lived environmental radioisotopes, atoms are counted directly. The sample is placed in an ion source, from which a negative ion beam of the atoms of interest is extracted, mass analysed, and injected into a tandem accelerator. After stripping to positive charge states in the accelerator HV terminal, the ions are further accelerated, analysed with magnetic and electrostatic devices and counted in a detector. An isotopic ratio is derived from the number of radioisotope atoms counted in a given time and the beam current of a stable isotope of the same element, measured after the accelerator. For radiocarbon, {sup 14}C/{sup 13}C ratios are usually measured, and the ratio of an unknown sample is compared to that of a standard. The achievable precision for such ratio measurements is limited primarily by {sup 14}C counting statistics and also by a variety of factors related to accelerator and ion source stability. At the ANTARES AMS facility at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories we are currently able to measure {sup 14}C with 0.5% precision. In the two years since becoming operational, more than 1000 {sup 14}C samples have been measured. Recent improvements in precision for {sup 14}C have been achieved with the commissioning of a 59 sample ion source. The measurement system, from sample changing to data acquisition, is under common computer control. These developments have allowed a new regime of automated multi-sample processing which has impacted both on the system throughput and the measurement precision. We have developed data evaluation methods at ANTARES which cross-check the self-consistency of the statistical analysis of our data. Rigorous data evaluation is invaluable in assessing the true reproducibility of the measurement system and aids in

  2. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  3. Direct High-Precision Measurement of the g-Factor of a Single Antiproton Stored in a Cryogenic Penning Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, S; Blaum, K; Quint, W; Walz, J

    2012-01-01

    We propose a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment, or g-factor, of a single antiproton stored in a cryogenic Penning trap. Currently the most precise value of the magnetic moment of the antiproton is extracted from hyperfine spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms, and known with a relative precision of $10^{-3}$, only . With the experiment proposed in this Letter of Intent we aim at a measurement with a relative precision of $10^{-9}$ or better.

  4. Precision Rosenbluth measurement of the proton elastic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of a new Rosenbluth measurement of the proton form factors at Q2 values of 2.64, 3.20 and 4.10 GeV2. Cross sections were determined by detecting the recoiling proton in contrast to previous measurements in which the scattered electron was detected. At each Q2, relative cross sections were determined to better than 1%. The measurement focused on the extraction of GE/GM which was determined to 4-8% and found to approximate form factor scaling, i.e. μpGE ∼ GM. These results are consistent with and much more precise than previous Rosenbluth extractions. However, they are inconsistent with recent polarization transfer measurements of comparable precision, implying a systematic difference between the two techniques

  5. Precise determination of lattice phase shifts and mixing angles

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Bing-Nan; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a general method for determining phase shifts and mixing angles on the lattice with greater precision than existing methods. The approach starts with angular momentum projection on the lattice wave functions in order to construct lattice radial wave functions. We then impose spherical wall boundaries together with an adjustable auxiliary potential to determine phase shifts at arbitrary energy. For coupled partial waves, we use a complex-valued auxiliary potential that breaks time-reversal invariance in order to extract phase shifts and mixing angles from the complex-valued wave functions. We benchmark the method using a system of two spin-1/2 particles interacting through a finite-range potential with a strong tensor component, and find that scattering parameters can be extracted precisely for all angular momenta and energies. We discuss the application of the method to ab initio lattice Monte Carlo studies.

  6. NEW PRECISION PIEZOELECTRIC STEP ACTUATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianfang; YANG Zhigang; FAN Zunqiang; CHENG Guangming

    2006-01-01

    A new precision piezoelectric actuator is proposed to improve its drive capabilities. The actuator is based on the piezoelectric technology. It adopts the principle of bionics and works with a new method of stator initiative anchoring/loosen and a distortion structure of double-side thin flexible hinge. It solves the problem of anchoring/loosen, frequency, journey, resolution and velocity. The experiment shows that the new linear piezoelectric actuator works with high frequency (100 Hz), high speed (502 μm/s), large travel (>10 mm), high resolution (0.05 μm) and high load (100 N). This kind of new piezoelectric actuator will be applied for large travel and high resolution driving device, optics engineering, precision positioning and some micromanipulation field.

  7. Design of precise lightweight mirror

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, Tomáš; Melich, Radek; Václavík, Jan; Lédl, Vít

    Vol. 284-287. Zürich : Trans Tech Publications, 2013 - (Hsieh, W.), s. 2717-2722 ISSN 1660-9336. [International Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation 2012 (ICETI 2012)/2./. Kaohsiung (TW), 02.11.2012-06.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0079 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : SiSiC * lightweight mirrors * precise optics Subject RIV: JV - Space Technology

  8. Precise Object Tracking under Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results. xiiiThe precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high

  9. Time-Precision Flexible Adder

    OpenAIRE

    García Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Mora Pascual, Jerónimo Manuel; Mora Mora, Higinio

    2003-01-01

    A new conception of flexible calculation that allows us to adjust a sum depending on the available time computation is presented. More specifically, the objective is to obtain a calculation model that makes the processing time/precision more flexible. The addition method is based on carry-select scheme adder and the proposed design uses precalculated data stored in look-up tables, which provide, above all, quality results and systematization in the implementation of low level primitives that ...

  10. Precision measurements in pionic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anagnostopoulos, D.F.; Cargnelli, M.; Fuhrmann, H.; Giersch, M.; Gotta, D.; Gruber, A.; Hennebach, M.; Hirtl, A.; Indelicato, P.; Liu, Y.W.; Manil, B.; Markushin, V.E.; Marton, J.; Nelms, N.; Simons, L.M.; Trasinelli, M.; Zmeskal, J

    2003-06-30

    The strong interaction in the pion nucleon system leads to a shift and a broadening of the 1s-ground state in pionic hydrogen. These two quantities are being measured in an experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute with much improved precision and allow an experimental test of recent calculations in the framework of Chiral Perturbation Theory. The experimental techniques using high resolution crystal spectroscopy are described as well as recent results.

  11. Precision photometry for planetary transits

    CERN Document Server

    Pont, F; Pont, Frederic; Moutou, Claire

    2007-01-01

    We review the state of the art in follow-up photometry for planetary transit searches. Three topics are discussed: (1) Photometric monitoring of planets discovered by radial velocity to detect possible transits (2) Follow-up photometry of candidates from photometric transit searches to weed out eclipsing binaries and false positives (3) High-precision lightcurves of known transiting planets to increase the accuracy on the planet parameters.

  12. 读出电路铟柱打底层对铟柱成球高度的影响%Effect of UBM of ROIC on indium bump height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢珩; 梁宗久; 杨雅茹

    2011-01-01

    It had difficulty in flip chip bonding cause the indium bump height of ROIC was too low in large IRFPAs.We die an experiment upon dimension of UBM and analyzed its influence on indium bump height.The indium bump height of ROIC is in direct proportion to the indium bump size and film thickness, but in inverse proportion to the UBM size of ROIC.To solve the problem,an improved thread of research thoughts is presented in this paper.%针对超大规模红外探测器读出电路铟柱成球后高度过低导致倒装互连难度增加这一问题,设计了试验,并分析讨论了读出电路铟柱打底层(UBM)形状对铟柱成球高度的影响.得出了铟球高度与铟柱尺寸和铟柱生长高度成正比,与读出电路铟柱打底层尺寸成反比,并提出了进一步增加铟球高度的思路.

  13. Observation of a dip-bump structure in differential cross section for anti pp→ anti nn in the 700-760 MeV/c momentum range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a sample of about 3500 events, the total and differential cross sections of anti pp→anti nn in the 700-760 MeV/c incident momentum region have been measured. It is found that sigmasub(CE)=10.7 +- 0.2 mb at the average momentum of 730 MeV/c. The differential angular distribution is characterised by a sharp peak and a dip in the forward direction followed by a secondary maximum. The position of the dip corresponds to mod(t) approximately (msub(π))2. These results are compared with the predictions of the model of Bryan-Phillips. On the other hand, this dip-bump structure can be well understood on a simple picture involving a π exchange and a constant background (for mod(t)2). (Auth.)

  14. Design and preliminary results for a fast bipolar resonant discharge pulser using SCR switches for driving the injection bump magnets at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast (4.0 μs half period) resonant discharge pulser using SCRs has been designed and constructed to drive the injection bump magnet system at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The pulser employs a series-parallel arrangement of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) that create a bipolar high voltage (+/- 10 KV), high peak current (6600 amps.) and a high di/dt (6000 amp/μs) switch network that discharges a capacitor bank into the magnet load. Fast recovery diodes in series with the SCRs significantly reduce the SCR turn-off during the negative current cycle of the magnet. The SCR switch provides a very reliable and stable alternative to the gas filled Thyratron. A very low impedance transmission system allows the pulser system to reside completely outside the storage ring shielding wall

  15. Design and preliminary results for a fast bipolar resonant discharge pulser using SCR switches for driving the injection bump magnets at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast (4.0 us half period) resonant discharge pulser using SCRs has been designed and constructed to drive the injection bump magnet system at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The pulser employs a series-parallel arrangement of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCRS) that creates a bipolar high voltage (±10 KV), high peak current (6600 amps.) and a high di/dt (6000 amp/us) switch network that discharges a capacitor bank into the magnet load. Fast recovery diodes in series with the SCRs significantly reduces the SCR turn-off time during the negative current cycle of the magnet. The SCR switch provides a very reliable and stable alternative to the gas filled Thyratron. A very low impedance transmission system allows the pulser system to reside completely outside the storage ring shielding wall

  16. Late Time Multi-wavelength Observations of Swift J1644+5734: A Luminous Optical/IR Bump and Quiescent X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Brown, G. C.; Metzger, B. D.; Page, K. L.; Cenko, S. B.; O'Brien, P. T.; Lyman, J. D.; Wiersema, K.; Stanway, E. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Perley, D. A.; Bloom, J. S.

    2016-03-01

    We present late time multi-wavelength observations of Swift J1644+57, suggested to be a relativistic tidal disruption flare (TDF). Our observations extend to >4 years from discovery and show that 1.4 years after outburst the relativistic jet switched off on a timescale less than tens of days, corresponding to a power-law decay faster than t-70. Beyond this point weak X-rays continue to be detected at an approximately constant luminosity of LX ˜ 5 × 1042 erg s-1 and are marginally inconsistent with a continuing decay of t-5/3, similar to that seen prior to the switch-off. Host photometry enables us to infer a black hole mass of MBH = 3 × 106 M⊙, consistent with the late time X-ray luminosity arising from sub-Eddington accretion onto the black hole in the form of either an unusually optically faint active galactic nucleus or a slowly varying phase of the transient. Optical/IR observations show a clear bump in the light curve at timescales of 30-50 days, with a peak magnitude (corrected for host galaxy extinction) of MR ˜ -22 to -23. The luminosity of the bump is significantly higher than seen in other, non-relativistic TDFs and does not match any re-brightening seen at X-ray or radio wavelengths. Its luminosity, light curve shape, and spectrum are broadly similar to those seen in superluminous supervnovae, although subject to large uncertainties in the correction of the significant host extinction. We discuss these observations in the context of both TDF and massive star origins for Swift J1644+5734 and other candidate relativistic tidal flares.

  17. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  18. Precision luminosity measurement at ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Pandurovic, M; Smiljanic, I

    2014-01-01

    In these proceedings a novel approach to deal with the beam-induced effects in luminosity measurement is presented. Based on the relativistic kinematics of the collision frame of the Bhabha process, the beam-beam related uncertainties can be reduced to the permille level independently of a precision with which the beam parameters are known. Specific event selection combined with the corrective methods we introduce, leads to the systematic uncertainty from the beam-induced effects to be at a few permille level in the peak region above the 80% of the nominal centre-of-mass energies at ILC.

  19. High precision anatomy for MEG

    OpenAIRE

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and ...

  20. High-precision photometry for K2 Campaign 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. X.; Penev, K.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bhatti, W.; Domsa, I.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2015-12-01

    The two reaction wheel K2 mission promises and has delivered new discoveries in the stellar and exoplanet fields. However, due to the loss of accurate pointing, it also brings new challenges for the data reduction processes. In this paper, we describe a new reduction pipeline for extracting high-precision photometry from the K2 data set, and present public light curves for the K2 Campaign 1 target pixel data set. Key to our reduction is the derivation of global astrometric solutions from the target stamps, from which accurate centroids are passed on for high-precision photometry extraction. We extract target light curves for sources from a combined UCAC4 and EPIC catalogue - this includes not only primary targets of the K2 campaign 1, but also any other stars that happen to fall on the pixel stamps. We provide the raw light curves, and the products of various detrending processes aimed at removing different types of systematics. Our astrometric solutions achieve a median residual of ˜0.127 arcsec. For bright stars, our best 6.5 h precision for raw light curves is ˜20 parts per million (ppm). For our detrended light curves, the best 6.5 h precision achieved is ˜15 ppm. We show that our detrended light curves have fewer systematic effects (or trends, or red-noise) than light curves produced by other groups from the same observations. Example light curves of transiting planets and a Cepheid variable candidate, are also presented. We make all light curves public, including the raw and detrended photometry, at http://k2.hatsurveys.org.

  1. Study of Abnormal Vertical Emittance Growth in ATF Extraction Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabau, M.; Faus-Golfe, A.; /Valencia U., IFIC; Alabau, M.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; Le Meur, G.; Rimbault, C.; Touze, F.; /Orsay, LAL; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.K.; /Daresbury; Appleby, R.; Scarfe, A.; /Manchester U.; Kuroda, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; White, G.R.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN

    2011-11-04

    Since several years, the vertical beam emittance measured in the Extraction Line (EXT) of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK, that will transport the electron beam from the ATF Damping Ring (DR) to the future ATF2 Final Focus beam line, is significantly larger than the emittance measured in the DR itself, and there are indications that it grows rapidly with increasing beam intensity. This longstanding problem has motivated studies of possible sources of this anomalous emittance growth. One possible contribution is non-linear magnetic fields in the extraction region experimented by the beam while passing off-axis through magnets of the DR during the extraction process. In this paper, simulations of the emittance growth are presented and compared to observations. These simulations include the effects of predicted non-linear field errors in the shared DR magnets and orbit displacements from the reference orbit in the extraction region. Results of recent measurements using closed orbit bumps to probe the relation between the extraction trajectory and the anomalous emittance growth are also presented.

  2. PRECISION ATTACHMENTS; APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A unique concern of a removable denture when compare d to others is retention. Retention is the ability of the prosthesis to resist the movement of denture away from the supporting tissues/teeth. The component of removable d enture which provides retention is called as direct retainer. 1,3,4 A direct retainer can be either an extracoronal or intracoronal retainer. Extracoronal direct retainer uses mechanical resistance to displa cement through components placed on external surface of abutment teeth. Intracoronal retainer is either cast or attached to tally within the restored natural contours of an abutment tooth. 1 One of the main drawbacks of extracoronal retainers used in partial dentures is visibility. Many patients find themselves in an aest hetically compromised state when these retainers are placed on teeth in visible area. Preci sion attachments provide solution for this problem. Also, precision attachments provide better ve rtical support and better stimulation to the underlying tissue through intermittent vertical massage. 1,9 Although the history of intracoronal retainers goes back to 5 th and 4 th centuries BC, technically more sound developments began in early 2 0 th century AD, with Dr. Herman E. S. Chayes formulating the principle of internal attachme nt in 1906. Since then precision attachments are playing an important role in removabl e and fixed partial denture, conventional and implant supported overdenture. 9

  3. Precision experiments in electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electroweak theory of Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam (GWS) has become one of the twin pillars upon which our understanding of all particle physics phenomena rests. It is a brilliant achievement that qualitatively and quantitatively describes all of the vast quantity of experimental data that have been accumulated over some forty years. Note that the word quantitatively must be qualified. The low energy limiting cases of the GWS theory, Quantum Electrodynamics and the V-A Theory of Weak Interactions, have withstood rigorous testing. The high energy synthesis of these ideas, the GWS theory, has not yet been subjected to comparably precise scrutiny. The recent operation of a new generation of proton-antiproton (p bar p) and electron-positron (e+e-) colliders has made it possible to produce and study large samples of the electroweak gauge bosons W± and Z0. We expect that these facilities will enable very precise tests of the GWS theory to be performed in the near future. In keeping with the theme of this Institute, Physics at the 100 GeV Mass Scale, these lectures will explore the current status and the near-future prospects of these experiments

  4. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the moderate processing conditions of 323 K, 13.8 MPa, 30 min and 750 rpm.

  5. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employed. It is observed that the beam density profile cannot always be described by a function that is factorizable in the two transverse coordinates. The introduction of a two-dimensional description of the beams improves significantly the consistency of the results. For proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV a relative precision of the luminosity calibration of 1.47% is obtained using van der Meer scans and 1.43% using beam-gas imaging, resulting in a combined precision of 1.12%. Applying the calibration to the full data set determin...

  6. DESIGN OF FARMLAND GIS FOR PRECISION AGRICULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Precision Agriculture, also known as Precision Farming, or Prescription Farming, is a modern agriculture technology system, which brings " precision" into agriculture system. All concepts of Precision Agriculture are established on the collection and management of variable cropland information. As the tool of collecting, managing and analyzing spatial data, GIS is the key technology of integrated Precision Agriculture system. This article puts forward the concept of Farmland GIS and designs Farmland GIS into five modules, and specifies the functions of the each module, which builds the foundation for practical development of the software. The study and development of Farmland GIS will propel the spreading of Precision Agriculture technology in China.

  7. Role of telecommunications in precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture has been made possible by the confluence of several technologies: geographic positioning systems, geographic information systems, image analysis software, low-cost microcomputer-based variable rate controller/recorders, and precision tractor guidance systems. While these techn...

  8. Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

  9. Precision Electrospray Thruster Assembly (PETA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New low cost, low volume, low power, rugged electrospray thrusters will be ideal as actuators for precision thrusting, if provided with precision high voltage power...

  10. C4NP - Lead Free Flip Chip Solder Bumping Manufacturing and Reliability Data%C4NP-无铅倒装晶片焊凸形成生产工艺与可靠性数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    受控倒塌芯片连接新工艺是一种由IBM公司开发、由Suss MicroTec公司推向商品化的新型焊凸形成技术.受控倒塌芯片连接新工艺采用各种无铅焊料合金致力于解决现有的凸台.形成技术限定,使低成本小节距焊凸形成成为可能.受控倒塌芯片连接新工艺是一种焊球转移技术,熔焊料被注入预先制成并可重复使用的玻璃模板(模具).这种注满焊料的模具在焊料转入圆片之前先经过检查以确保高成品率.注满焊料的模具与圆片达到精确的接近后以与液态熔剂复杂性无关的简单工序转移在整个300 mm(或300 mm以下)圆片上.受控倒塌芯片连接新工艺技术能够在焊膏印刷中实现小节距凸台形成的同时提供相同合金选择的适应性.这种简单的受控倒塌芯片连接新工艺使低成本、高成品率以及快速封装周期的解决方法对于细节距FCiP以及WLCSP凸台形成均能适用.%C4NP is a new solder bumping technology developed by IBM and commercialized by Suss MicroTec. C4NP addresses the limitations of existing bumping technologies by enabling low-cost, fine pitch bumping using a variety of lead-free solder alloys. C4NP is a solder transfer technology where molten solder is injected into pre-fabricated and reusable glass templates (molds). The filled mold is inspected prior to solder transfer to the wafer to ensure high final yields. Filled mold and wafer are brought into close proximity and solder bumps are transferred onto the entire 300 mm (or smaller)wafer in a single process step without the complexities associated with liquid flux. C4NP technology is capable of fine pitch bumping while offering the same alloy selection flexibility as solder paste printing.The simplicity of the C4NP process makes it a low cost, high yield and fast cycle time solution for both,fine-pitch FCiP as well as WLCSP bumping applications.This paper summarizes the latest manufacturing and reliability data for

  11. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  12. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-10-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem -- why is Lambda not huge? -- I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments.

  13. Precise Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    Adatom chains on an atomically regulated substrate will be building components in future precise nanoelectronics. Adatoms need to be secured with chemical bonding, but then electronic isolation between the adatom and substrate systems is not guaranteed. A one-dimensional model shows that good isolation with existence of surface states is expected on an s-p crossing substrate such as Si, Ge, or GaAs, reflecting the bulk nature of the substrate. Isolation is better if adatoms are electronically similar to the substrate atoms, and can be manipulated by hydrogenation. Chain structures with group IV adatoms with two chemical bonds, or group III adatoms with one chemical bond, are semiconducting, reflecting the surface nature of the substrate. These structures are unintentionally doped due to the charge transfer across the chemical bonds. Physical properties of adatom chains have to be determined for the unified adatom-substrate system.

  14. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem--why is Lambda not huge?--I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments

  15. Precision Spectroscopy of Atomic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, A.; Parthey, Ch G.; Kolachevsky, N.; Alnis, J.; Khabarova, K.; Pohl, R.; Peters, E.; Yost, D. C.; Matveev, A.; Predehl, K.; Droste, S.; Wilken, T.; Holzwarth, R.; Hänsch, T. W.; Abgrall, M.; Rovera, D.; Salomon, Ch; Laurent, Ph; Udem, Th

    2013-12-01

    Precise determinations of transition frequencies of simple atomic systems are required for a number of fundamental applications such as tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED), the determination of fundamental constants and nuclear charge radii. The sharpest transition in atomic hydrogen occurs between the metastable 2S state and the 1S ground state. Its transition frequency has now been measured with almost 15 digits accuracy using an optical frequency comb and a cesium atomic clock as a reference [1]. A recent measurement of the 2S - 2P3/2 transition frequency in muonic hydrogen is in significant contradiction to the hydrogen data if QED calculations are assumed to be correct [2, 3]. We hope to contribute to this so-called "proton size puzzle" by providing additional experimental input from hydrogen spectroscopy.

  16. Precision experiments with exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress and modern developments of secondary nuclear beam facilities based on the in-flight and ISOL separation methods are outlined. Precision experiments with nuclear beams characterized by large emittances have been performed by using special ion-optical conditions in spectrometers. A new generation of experiments have been started with stored and cooled exotic nuclei at sub-eV and at relativistic energies using the combination of an ISOL facility and an ion trap or the combination of an in-flight system with a storage and cooler ring, respectively. Both experimental scenarios are realized by ISOLDE and the ISOLTRAP at CERN and the fragment separator FRS in combination with the experimental storage ring ESR at GSI. The power and the potential of these devices are illustrated by direct mass and lifetime measurements. (orig.)

  17. INFORMATION AND THE ADOPTION OF PRECISION FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Daberkow, Stan G.; McBride, William D.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between precision farming information sources and precision farming adoption. The analysis accounts for the fact that not all farmers are aware of precision farming techniques and that those who are aware may not be a random sample. Results indicate that many information sources increase adoption relative to information only from the media, but contact with crop consultants has had the greatest impact on the adoption of precision farming technologies.

  18. Ultrasonic precision optical grinding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; Bechtold, Michael J.; Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank L.; Bechtold, Rob

    2015-10-01

    As optical geometries become more precise and complex and a wider range of materials are used, the processes used for manufacturing become more critical. As the preparatory stage for polishing, this is especially true for grinding. Slow processing speeds, accelerated tool wear, and poor surface quality are often detriments in manufacturing glass and hard ceramics. The quality of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. Through extensive research and development, OptiPro Systems has introduced an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has numerous advantages over traditional grinding processes. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations in line with the rotating spindle. A newly developed software package called IntelliSonic is integral to this platform. IntelliSonic automatically characterizes the tool and continuously optimizes the output frequency for optimal cutting while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more accurate surface. Utilizing a wide variety of instruments, test have proven to show a reduction in tool wear and increase in surface quality while allowing processing speeds to be increased. OptiSonic has proven to be an enabling technology to overcome the difficulties seen in grinding of glass and hard optical ceramics. OptiSonic has demonstrated numerous advantages over the standard CNC grinding process. Advantages are evident in reduced tool wear, better surface quality, and reduced cycle times due to increased feed rates. These benefits can be seen over numerous applications within the precision optics industry.

  19. Precision grinding process development for brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High performance, brittle materials are the materials of choice for many of today's engineering applications. This paper describes three separate precision grinding processes developed at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory to machine precision ceramic components. Included in the discussion of the precision processes is a variety of grinding wheel dressing, truing and profiling techniques

  20. Product Approximation of Grade and Precision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-yong; MO Zhi-wen

    2005-01-01

    The normal graded approximation and variable precision approximation are defined in approximate space. The relationship between graded approximation and variable precision approximation is studied, and an important formula of conversion between them is achieved. The product approximation of gradeand precision is defined and its basic properties are studied.

  1. Advances of Precise Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xin WANG; Xu, Feng; Wei, Yuquan

    2011-01-01

    At present lung tumor radiation therapy has entered the accurate radiotherapy era. Precise radiotherapy includes intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). During the process of implementing precise radiotherapy, these problems should be fully considered to ensure executing precise radiotherapy accurately: patient positioning, controlling of the lung tumor motion, selecting of image techniques, PTV margin, dose prescrip...

  2. Precision Farming and Conservation Advances Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    To many, Precision Farming, more formally termed Precision Agriculture, seems like an oxymoron. Yet site-specific management makes sense to an exponentially growing number of farmers. So where is Precision Farming headed? The short answer is that it is being extended from a focus on crop productio...

  3. Lattice Structure of Variable Precision Rough Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Sumita

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the lattice structure of variable precision rough sets. The notion of variation in precision of rough sets have been further extended to variable precision rough set with variable classification error and its algebraic properties are also studied.

  4. High Precision Photometry for K2 Campaign 1

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Chelsea X; Hartman, J D; Bakos, G Á; Bhatti, W; Domsa, I; de Val-Borro, M

    2015-01-01

    The two reaction wheel K2 mission promises and has delivered new discoveries in the stellar and exoplanet fields. However, due to the loss of accurate pointing, it also brings new challenges for the data reduction processes. In this paper, we describe a new reduction pipeline for extracting high precision photometry from the K2 dataset, and present public light curves for the K2 Campaign 1 target pixel dataset. Key to our reduction is the derivation of global astrometric solutions from the target stamps, from which accurate centroids are passed on for high precision photometry extraction. We extract target light curves for sources from a combined UCAC4 and EPIC catalogue -- this includes not only primary targets of the K2 campaign 1, but also any other stars that happen to fall on the pixel stamps. We provide the raw light curves, and the products of various detrending processes aimed at removing different types of systematics. Our astrometric solutions achieve a median residual of ~ 0.13". For bright stars, ...

  5. Research on high-precision hole measurement based on robot vision method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-mei; Li, Da-peng; Qin, Ming-cui; Li, Zong-yan; Chang, Yu-lan; Xi, Jiang-tao

    2014-09-01

    A high-precision vision detection and measurement system using mobile robot is established for the industry field detection of motorcycle frame hole and its diameter measurement. The robot path planning method is researched, and the non-contact measurement method with high precision based on visual digital image edge extraction and hole spatial circle fitting is presented. The Canny operator is used to extract the edge of captured image, the Lagrange interpolation algorithm is utilized to determine the missing image edge points and calculate the centroid, and the least squares fitting method is adopted to fit the image edge points. Experimental results show that the system can be used for the high-precision real-time measurement of hole on motorcycle frame. The absolute standard deviation of the proposed method is 0.026 7 mm. The proposed method can not only improve the measurement speed and precision, but also reduce the measurement error.

  6. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  7. Precision Study of the $\\beta$-decay of $^{62}$Ga

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    It is proposed to perform a precision study of the $\\beta$-decay of $\\,^{62}$Ga taking advantage of recent developments of the ISOLDE Laser Ion Source. The goal is to eventually extend the high-precision knowledge of superallowed $\\beta$-decays beyond the nine decays that presently are used for extracting the V$_{ud}$ quark mixing matrix element of the CKM matrix. The scientific motivations are the current deviation of more than 2$\\sigma$ of the unitary condition of this matrix, which could be an indication of non-standard-model physics, and a test of the theoretical corrections applied to the experimental data. The experiment will utilise the Total Absorption $\\gamma$-ray (TAG) spectrometer in order to determine weak branchings to excited states in $^{62}$Zn and the ISOLDE spectroscopy station to perform half-life measurements and detailed spectroscopy of this nucleus.

  8. Precision radiocarbon dating of a Late Holocene vegetation history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research is to precisely date vegetation changes associated with early human presence in the Hawkes Bay region. A sequence of AMS radiocarbon ages was obtained using a new technique developed at Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory. A density separation method was used to concentrate pollen and spores extracted from unconsolidated lake sediments from a small-enclosed lake in coastal foothills of southern Hawkes Bay. Radiocarbon measurements were made on fractions of concentrated pollen, separated from associated organic debris. These ages directly date vegetation communities used to reconstruct the vegetation history of the region. This technique results in more accurate dating of Late Holocene vegetation changes interpreted from palynological analyses than techniques formerly used. Precision dating of palynological studies of New Zealand prehistory and history is necessary for correlation of vegetation changes to cultural changes because of the short time span of human occupation of New Zealand. (author). 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs

  10. Precise location of nonmetallic pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described to conduct precise surveys of nonmetallic pipelines. After a thin stranded wire is pulled through a part of the pipe first an inductive or capacitative prelocation is made, in which especially curves are marked. After that with this wire a go-devil with a 500 mCi 60Co-radiation source is moved slowly from reference point to reference point. On the ground plane the corresponding maximum of the radiation intensity is detected and marked as the position of the pipe. About the experiences of the location of two local gas pipelines with 4987 and 11897 km length is reported. The average length of the located sections was about 300 m, the average distance between two reference points was a little more than 8 m. In the case of curves the distances were reduced to 0.5 - 1.0 m. The output of location was 16 h/km, the daily output ca. 600 m. The accuracy is better than +- 10 cm, while in the case of the inductive prelocation deviations of more than 50 cm could be found. During the locations the delivery of gas was uninterrupted. It can be carried out also in thickly populated regions without any danger by radioactive radiation. (Author)

  11. Implications of precision electroweak data

    CERN Document Server

    Hagiwara, K

    1996-01-01

    There are two aspects to the 1995 summer update of the combined preliminary electroweak data from LEP and SLC. On the one hand, agreement between experiments and the Standard Model (SM) has improved for the line-shape and the asymmetry data. The \\tau widths and asymmetries are now consistent with e--\\mu--\\tau universality, and all the asymmetry data including the left-right asymmetry from SLC are consistent with the SM (16\\%CL). On the other hand, a discrepancy between experiments and SM predictions is sharpened for two observables, R_b and R_c, where R_q is the partial Z boson width ratio \\Gamma_q/\\Gamma_h. R_b is 3\\% larger (3.7\\sigma) and R_c is 11\\% smaller (2.5\\sigma) than the SM predictions. When combined the SM is ruled out at the 99.99\\%CL for m_t>170GeV. It is difficult to interpret the 11\\pm 4\\% deficit of R_c, since if we allow only \\Gamma_b and \\Gamma_c to deviate from the SM then the precisely measured ratio R_h=\\Gamma_h/\\Gamma_\\ell forces the QCD coupling to be \\alpha_s\\equiv \\alpha_s(m_Z)_{\\ove...

  12. The Age of Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as Uinflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  13. Studying antimatter with laser precision

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of antihydrogen trapping devices, ALPHA-2, is moving into CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD) hall. This brand-new experiment will allow the ALPHA collaboration to conduct studies of antimatter with greater precision. ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst was recently awarded a grant by the Carlsberg Foundation, which will be used to purchase equipment for the new experiment.   A 3-D view of the new magnet (in blue) and cryostat. The red lines show the paths of laser beams. LHC-type current leads for the superconducting magnets are visible on the top-right of the image. The ALPHA collaboration has been working to trap and study antihydrogen since 2006. Using antiprotons provided by CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD), ALPHA was the first experiment to trap antihydrogen and to hold it long enough to study its properties. “The new ALPHA-2 experiment will use integrated lasers to probe the trapped antihydrogen,” explains Jeffrey Hangst, ALP...

  14. Higgs Precision (Higgcision) Era begins

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Kingman; Tseng, Po-Yan

    2013-01-01

    After the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC, it is natural to start the research program on the precision study of the Higgs-boson couplings to various standard model (SM) particles. We provide a generic framework for the deviations of the couplings from their SM values by introducing a number of parameters. We show that a large number of models beyond the SM can be covered, including two-Higgs-doublet models, supersymmetric models, little-Higgs models, extended Higgs sectors with singlets, and fourth generation models. We perform global fits to the most updated data from CMS, ATLAS, and Tevatron under various initial conditions of the parameter set. Highlights of the results include: (i) the nonstandard decay branching ratio of the Higgs boson is less than 25%; (ii) the most efficient way to achieve the best fit is to introduce additional particle contributions to the triangular-loop functions of H-gamma-gamma and Hgg vertices; (iii) the 1 sigma allowed range of the relative coupling of HVV is 0.96 +0....

  15. Precision is in their nature

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    There are more than 100 of them in the LHC ring and they have a total of about 400 degrees of freedom. Each one has 4 motors and the newest ones have their own beam-monitoring pickups. Their jaws constrain the relativistic, high-energy particles to a very small transverse area and protect the machine aperture. We are speaking about the LHC collimators, those ultra-precise instruments that leave escaping unstable particles no chance.   The internal structure of a new LHC collimator featuring (see red arrow) one of the beam position monitor's pickups. Designed at CERN but mostly produced by very specialised manufacturers in Europe, the LHC collimators are among the most complex elements of the accelerator. Their job is to control and safely dispose of the halo particles that are produced by unavoidable beam losses from the circulating beam core. “The LHC collimation system has been designed to ensure that beam losses in superconducting magnets remain below quench limits in al...

  16. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    physicians with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario, first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct...... validity of the scale. Main outcome measures. Consensus for the content of the scale. To test the scale of Cronbach's alpha, interclass correlation and differential item function was calculated in the prospective study. Results. 89% completed the first and 61% completed the second Delphi round. Hereafter...

  17. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meziane, Mehdi [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Collaboration: PRad Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 ± 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7σ smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these 'electronic' determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup −4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  18. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meziane, Mehdi [DUKE

    2013-11-01

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 {+-} 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7{sigma} smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these "electronic" determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup -4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  19. Precision measurements of Standard Model parameters with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration is engaged in precision measurement of fundamental Standard Model parameters, e.g. the weak-mixing angle. A measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry for the neutral current Drell Yan process is presented and the results are then used to extract a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle. This measurement shows significant sensitivity to the uncertainties of the parton density functions of the proton (PDFs). The status of the $W$ boson mass measurement preparations with ATLAS detector is described.

  20. Precise digital demodulation for fiber optic interferometer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Andrei; Berezhnoi, Andrei; Kudryashov, Aleksei; Liokumovich, Leonid

    2016-03-01

    Different methods are used in the interferometer sensors for target signal extraction. Digital technologies provide new opportunities for precise signal detection. We have developed the principle of signal demodulation using an additional harmonic phase modulation and digital signal processing. The principle allows implementation of processing algorithms using different ratios between modulation and discretization frequencies. The expressions allowing calculation of the phase difference using the inverse trigonometric functions were derived. The method was realized in LabVIEW programming environment and was demonstrated for various signal shapes.

  1. Metrology with μCT: precision challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppes, Alexander; Neuser, Eberhard

    2008-08-01

    Over the last years computed tomography (CT) with conventional x-ray sources has evolved from imaging method in medicine to a well established technology for industrial applications in the field of material science, microelectronics, geology, etc. By using modern microfocus and nanofocus® X-ray tubes, parts can be scanned with sub-micrometer resolutions. Currently, micro-CT is used more and more as a technology for metrological applications. Especially if complex parts with hidden or difficult accessible surfaces have to be measured, CT offers big advantages comparing with conventional tactile or optical coordinate measuring machines (CMMs): high density of measurement points and fast capturing of the complete sample's geometry. When using this modern technology the question arises how precise a CT based CMM can measure in comparison to conventional CMMs? To characterize the metrological capabilities of a tactile or optical CMM, internationally standardized characteristics like length measurement error and probing error are used. To increase the acceptance of CT as a metrological method, the definition and usage of these parameters is important. In this paper, an overview of the process chain in CT based metrology will be given and metrological characteristics will be described. With the help of a special material standard designed and calibrated by PTB-National Metrology Institute of Germany-the influence of methods for beam hardening correction and for surface extraction on the metrological characteristics will be analyzed. It will be shown that with modern micro-CT systems length measurement error of less than 1μm for an object diameter of 20 mm can be reached.

  2. Evaluation of urinary cortisol excretion by radioimmunoassay through two methods (extracted and non-extracted)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and specificity of both methods (extracted versus non-extracted) in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. It used Gamma Coat 125 cortisol Kit provided by Clinical Assays, Incstar, USA, for both methods extracting it with methylene chloride in order to measure the extracted cortisol. It was performed 32 assays from which it was obtained from 0.1 to 0.47 u g/d l of sensitivity. The intra-run precision was varied from 8.29 +- 3.38% and 8.19 +-4.72% for high and low levels, respectively for non-extracted cortisol, and 9.72 +- 1.94% and 9.54 +- 44% for high and low levels, respectively, for extracted cortisol. The inter-run precision was 15.98% and 16.15% for high level of non-extracted cortisol, respectively. For the low level it obtained 17.25% and 18.59% for non-extracted and extracted cortisol respectively. It was evaluated 24-hour urine basal samples from 43 normal subjects, and 53 obese (body mass index > 30) and 53 Cushing's syndrome patients. The sensitivity of the methods were similar (100% and 98.1% for non-extracted and extracted methods, respectively) and the specificity was the same for both methods (100%). It was noticed a positive correlation between the two methods in all the groups studied (p s syndrome. (author)

  3. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  4. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  5. Late time multi wavelength observations of Swift J1644+5734: A luminous optical/IR bump and quiescent X-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    Levan, A J; Brown, G C; Metzger, B D; Page, K L; Cenko, S B; O'Brien, P T; Lyman, J D; Wiersema, K; Stanway, E R; Fruchter, A S; Perley, D A; Bloom, J S

    2015-01-01

    We present late-time multi-wavelength observations of Swift J1644+57, suggested to be a relativistic tidal disruption flare (TDF). Our observations extend to >4 years from discovery, and show that 1.4 years after outburst the relativistic jet switched-off on a timescale less than tens of days, corresponding to a power-law decay faster than $t^{-70}$. Beyond this point weak X-rays continue to be detected at an approximately constant luminosity of $L_X \\sim 5 \\times 10^{42}$ erg s$^{-1}$, and are marginally inconsistent with a continuing decay of $t^{-5/3}$, similar to that seen prior to the switch-off. Host photometry enables us to infer a black hole mass of $M_{BH}=3 \\times 10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$, consistent with the late time X-ray luminosity arising from sub-Eddington accretion onto the black hole in the form of either an unusually optically faint AGN or a slowly varying phase of the transient. Optical/IR observations show a clear bump in the light curve at timescales of 30-50 days, with a peak magnitude (correc...

  6. d = 11 Supergravity on almost flat R^4 times a compact hyperbolic 7-manifold, and the dip and bump seen in ATLAS-CONF-2010-088

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Rough estimates are presented to show that the bump at 1.7 to 1.9 TeV seen in ATLAS-CONF-2010-088 could arise from about 10^{30} approximately degenerate Kaluza-Klein graviton states in the s channel, which according to a conjecture by Brooks on the lowest nonzero eigenvalue of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on generic compact hyperbolic manifolds of large intrinsic volume, might arise from compactification of d = 11 supergravity on a manifold with a compact hyperbolic Cartesian factor of intrinsic volume around 10^{30} and curvature radius an inverse TeV. A simple guess is suggested for the 4-form flux dependent terms in the dimension 8 local term in the quantum effective action in 11 dimensions for the case when the flux is covariantly constant, which on reduction to 10 dimensions with NS 3-form flux agrees with the Kehagias-Partouche conjecture, supported by recent calculations by Richards, apart from terms that contain factors that occur in the classical Einstein equation in 10 dimensions. Using this guess...

  7. Weak soft X-ray excesses need not result from the high-frequency tail of the optical/ultraviolet bump in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Bozena; Zycki, Piotr T.

    1994-01-01

    The broad-band ROSAT/EXOSAT X-ray spectra of six Seyfert 1 galaxies are fitted by a model consisting of a direct power law and a component due to reflection/reprocessing from a partially ionized, optically thick medium. The reflected spectrum contains emission features from various elements in the soft X-ray range. In all objects but one (Mrk 335), the fit is satisfactory, and no additional soft X-ray excess is required by the data. This means that in most sources there is no need for the thermal 'big blue bumps' to extend into soft X-rays, and the soft X-ray excesses reported previously can be explained by reflection/reprocessing. Satisfactory fits are obtained for a medium ionized by a source radiating at less than or approximately 15% of the Eddington rate. The fits require that the reflection is enhanced relative to an isotropically emitting source above a flat disk. The necessary high effectiveness of reflection in the soft X-ray band requires strong soft thermal flux dominating over hard X-rays.

  8. Cold gas and a Milky Way-type 2175 {\\AA} bump in a metal-rich and highly depleted absorption system

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Jingzhe; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J Xavier; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Rahmani, Hadi; Jiang, Peng; Schneider, Donald P; Lundgren, Britt; Pâris, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of a strong Milky Way-type 2175 \\AA$ $ extinction bump at $z$ = 2.1166 in the quasar spectrum towards SDSS J121143.42+083349.7 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 10. We conduct follow up observations with the Echelle Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) onboard the Keck-II telescope and the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the VLT. This 2175 \\AA$ $ absorber is remarkable in that we simultaneously detect neutral carbon (C I), neutral chlorine (Cl I), and carbon monoxide (CO). It also qualifies as a damped Lyman alpha system. The J1211+0833 absorber is found to be metal-rich and has a dust depletion pattern resembling that of the Milky Way disk clouds. We use the column densities of the C I fine structure states and the C II/C I ratio (under the assumption of ionization equilibrium) to derive the temperature and volume density in the absorbing gas. A Cloudy photoionization model is constructed, which utilizes additional atoms/ions to constrain the physica...

  9. Is the late near-infrared bump in short-hard GRB 130603B due to the Li-Paczynski kilonova?

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wu, Xue-Feng; Wei, Da-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Short-hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be produced by the merger of two binary compact objects, specifically by two neutron stars or by a neutron star orbiting a black hole. According to the Li-Paczynski kilonova model, the merger would launch sub-relativistic ejecta and a near-infrared/optical transient would then occur, lasting up to days, which is powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements synthesized in the ejecta. The detection of a late bump using the {\\em Hubble Space Telescope} ({\\em HST}) in the near-infrared afterglow light curve of the short-hard GRB 130603B is indeed consistent with such a model. However, as shown in this Letter, the limited {\\em HST} near-infrared lightcurve behavior can also be interpreted as the synchrotron radiation of the external shock driven by a wide mildly relativistic outflow. In such a scenario, the radio emission is expected to peak with a flux of $\\sim 100 \\mu$Jy, which is detectable for current radio arrays. Hence, the radio afterglow data ...

  10. Uncertainties on near-core mixing in red-clump stars: effects on the period spacing and on the luminosity of the AGB bump

    CERN Document Server

    Bossini, Diego; Salaris, Maurizio; Pietrinferni, Adriano; Montalbán, Josefina; Bressan, Alessandro; Noels, Arlette; Cassisi, Santi; Girardi, Léo; Marigo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Low-mass stars in the He-core-burning phase (HeCB) play a major role in stellar, galactic, and extragalactic astrophysics. The ability to predict accurately the properties of these stars, however, depends on our understanding of convection, which remains one of the key open questions in stellar modelling. We argue that the combination of the luminosity of the AGB bump (AGBb) and the period spacing of gravity modes (DP) during the HeCB phase, provides us with a decisive test to discriminate between competing models of these stars. We use the MESA, BaSTI, and PARSEC stellar evolution codes to model a typical giant star observed by Kepler. We explore how various near-core-mixing scenarios affect the predictions of the above-mentioned constraints, and we find that DP depends strongly on the prescription adopted. Moreover we show that the detailed behaviour of DP shows the signature of sharp variations in the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, which could potentially give additional information about near-core features. We ...

  11. Smooth bumps in H/V curves over a broad area from single-station ambient noise recordings are meaningful and reveal the importance of Q in array processing: The Boumerdes (Algeria) case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillier, B.; Chatelain, J.-L.; Hellel, M.; Machane, D.; Mezouer, N.; Ben Salem, R.; Oubaiche, E. H.

    2005-12-01

    Single-station H/V curves from ambient noise recordings in Boumerdes (Algeria) show smooth bumps around 1 and 3 Hz. A complementary microtremor study, based on two 34 and 134-meter aperture arrays, evidences that these bumps are indeed real peaks produced by two strong VS contrasts at 37 and 118 meters depth, strongly smoothed by very high S-wave attenuation in the two sedimentary layers. These two H/V bumps, observed over a broad area, are meaningful and reveal the importance of Q in S-wave velocity modeling from microtremor array data processing. It also appears that Tertiary rocks should be, at least in some cases, taken into account, together with the Quaternary sediments, to explain single-station H/V frequency peaks, and therefore that considering only the first 30 m of soil for VS amplification evaluation, as usually recommended, sometimes leads to flaky results by artificially eliminating non-explained low-frequency peaks from the analysis.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND METHOD VALIDATION OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biradar sanjivkumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aesculus hippocastanum is highly regarded for their medicinal properties in the indigenous system of medicine. The objectives of the present study include the validation of Aesculus hippocastanum extract. Authenticated extract of seeds of the plant was collected and the method was developed for the validation. In this the extract was subjected to check the Accuracy, Precision, Linearity and Specificity. For the validation UV spectrophotometer was used. The proposed UV validation method for the extract is accurate, linear, precise, linear, specific and within the range. Further isolation and in-vitro studies are needed.

  13. Precision Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Hunting Elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine postulates improved prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease based on patient specific factors especially DNA sequence (i.e., gene) variants. Ideas related to precision medicine stem from the much anticipated "genetic revolution in medicine" arising seamlessly from the human genome project (HGP). In this essay I deconstruct the concept of precision medicine and raise questions about the validity of the paradigm in general and its application to cardiovascular disease. Thus far precision medicine has underperformed based on the vision promulgated by enthusiasts. While niche successes for precision medicine are likely, the promises of broad based transformation should be viewed with skepticism. Open discussion and debate related to precision medicine are urgently needed to avoid misapplication of resources, hype, iatrogenic interventions, and distraction from established approaches with ongoing utility. Failure to engage in such debate will lead to negative unintended consequences from a revolution that might never come. PMID:26902518

  14. Study on noise of precision panel saw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUWan-yi; QIYing-jie; ZHANGZhao-hao; QIXiao-jie

    2003-01-01

    According to ZBJ65015-89 standard about noise level testing method of woodworking toot, the noise testing for MJg0# and MJCl125 precision panel saws was conducted by using model ND2 precision soundqevel apparatus and double frequency wave filter. The testing results showed that the unloaded running noise source of precision panel saw was mainly from main saw blade and its aeromechanic noise was the largest. The rotating speed was determined as an important factor to impact dynamic characters of precision panel saw as the unloaded running noise increased along with speed increasing. For reducing noise of precision panel saw, the first important way is to reduce the aeromechanic noise produced by main saw blade rotating at high speed; based on assuring the processing precision, choosing tow speed is a better way to drop dawn noise; from the view of design, the diameter of clamping lid is better of half of outer diameter of main saw blade.

  15. Interactions between science and precision engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. P.; McClure, E. R.; Saito, T. T.

    1987-11-01

    The history of scientific progress is intertwined intimately with precision engineering. Precision engineering and science have synergistically interacted in stimulating each other to significant advances. Furthermore, tangible benefits to the quality of human life, through often unexpected industrial applications, occur. High energy lasers, astrophysical telescopes, and anamorphic optics, along with developments in ultraprecision machining and measurement, are discussed as examples of evolution in science and precision engineering. Possibilities for ultimate by-products for mankind's welfare are explored.

  16. New methods for precision Moeller polarimetry*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision electron beam polarimetry is becoming increasingly important as parity violation experiments attempt to probe the frontiers of the standard model. In the few GeV regime, Moeller polarimetry is well suited to high-precision measurements, however is generally limited to use at relatively low beam currents (<10 μA). We present a novel technique that will enable precision Moeller polarimetry at very large currents, up to 100 μA. (orig.)

  17. New methods for precision Moeller polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision electron beam polarimetry is becoming increasingly important as parity violation experiments attempt to probe the frontiers of the standard model. In the few GeV regime, Moeller polarimetry is well suited to high-precision measurements, however is generally limited to use at relatively low beam currents (< 10 (micro)A). We present a novel technique that will enable precision Moeller polarimetry at very large currents, up to 100 (micro)A

  18. Modeling and control of precision actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Kiong, Tan Kok

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionGrowing Interest in Precise ActuatorsTypes of Precise ActuatorsApplications of Precise ActuatorsNonlinear Dynamics and ModelingHysteresisCreepFrictionForce RipplesIdentification and Compensation of Preisach Hysteresis in Piezoelectric ActuatorsSVD-Based Identification and Compensation of Preisach HysteresisHigh-Bandwidth Identification and Compensation of Hysteretic Dynamics in Piezoelectric ActuatorsConcluding RemarksIdentification and Compensation of Frict

  19. Precision Agriculture Technology Adoption for Cotton Production

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, Kenneth W.; Mishra, Ashok K.; Chintawar, Sachin; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; English, Burton C.; Lambert, Dayton M.; Marra, Michele C.; Larkin, Sherry L.; Reeves, Jeanne M.; Martin, Steven W

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on the adoption of precision technologies have generally used logit models to explain the adoption behavior of individuals. This study investigates factors affecting the number of specific types of precision agriculture technologies adopted by cotton farmers. Particular attention is given to the influence of spatial yield variability on the number of precision farming technologies adopted, using a Count data estimation procedure and farm-level data. Results indicate that farmers ...

  20. Advances of Precise Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin WANG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available At present lung tumor radiation therapy has entered the accurate radiotherapy era. Precise radiotherapy includes intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT. During the process of implementing precise radiotherapy, these problems should be fully considered to ensure executing precise radiotherapy accurately: patient positioning, controlling of the lung tumor motion, selecting of image techniques, PTV margin, dose prescription and reporting, arrangement of beams, controlling of dose volume and treatment delivering.

  1. Precision Higgs boson measurement at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Pandurovic, Mila

    2016-01-01

    The design of the next generation collider in high energy physics will primarily focus on the possibility to achieve high precision of the measurements of interest. The necessary precision limits are set, in the first place, by the measurement of the Higgs boson but also by measurements that are sensitive to signs of New Physics. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an attractive option for a future multi-TeV linear electron-positron collider, with the potential to cover a rich physics program with high precision. In this lecture the CLIC accelerator, detector and backgrounds will be presented with emphesis on the capabilities of CLIC for precision Higgs physics.

  2. Quantitative metamaterial property extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schurig, David

    2015-01-01

    We examine an extraction model for metamaterials, not previously reported, that gives precise, quantitative and causal representation of S parameter data over a broad frequency range, up to frequencies where the free space wavelength is only a modest factor larger than the unit cell dimension. The model is comprised of superposed, slab shaped response regions of finite thickness, one for each observed resonance. The resonance dispersion is Lorentzian and thus strictly causal. This new model is compared with previous models for correctness likelihood, including an appropriate Occam's factor for each fit parameter. We find that this new model is by far the most likely to be correct in a Bayesian analysis of model fits to S parameter simulation data for several classic metamaterial unit cells.

  3. Precise measurement of volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this paper, we propose a method for extraction of the specific eccrine sweat gland by means of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en face OCT images are constructed by the swept-source OCT. In the experiment, we demonstrate precise measurement of the volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus.

  4. Precise Location Acquisition of Mobility Data Using Cell ID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Ali Shad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cellular network data has become a hot source of study for extraction of user-mobility and spatio-temporal trends. Location binding in mobility data can be done through different methods like GPS, service provider assisted faux-GPS and Cell Global Identity (CGI. Among these Cell Global Identity is most inexpensive method and readily available solution for mobility extraction; however exact spatial extraction is somehow a problem in it. This paper presents the spatial extraction technique of mobile phone user raw data which carries the information like location information, proximity location and activity of subjects. This work mainly focuses on the data pre-processing methodology and technique to interpret the low level mobility data into high level mobility information using the designed clustering methodology and publically available Cell-IDs databases. Work proposed the semi- supervised strategy to derive the missing locations thorough the usage of semantic tag information and removal of spatial outliers for precise mobility profile building.

  5. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Misra; Darshana Mehta; B.K. Mehta; Jain, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimi...

  6. Biopolymer extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Y; Al-Zuhairy, S.; Pronk, M.; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht

    2015-01-01

    In a prior art reactor set up dense aggregates of microorganisms are formed, typically in or embedded in an extracellular matrix. Such may relate to granules, to sphere like entities having a higher viscosity than water, globules, a biofilm, etc. The dense aggregates comprise extracellular polymeric substances, or biopolymers, in particular linear polysaccharides, The present invention is in the field of extraction of a biopolymer from a granular sludge, a biopolymer obtained by said method, ...

  7. Little Higgs and precision electroweak tests

    OpenAIRE

    Deandrea, Aldo

    2004-01-01

    I consider the low energy limit of Little Higgs models. The method consists in eliminating the heavy fields using their classical equations of motion in the infinite mass limit. After the elimination of the heavy degrees of freedom one can directly read off deviations from the precision electroweak data. I also examine the effects on the low energy precision experiments.

  8. Little Higgs Models and Precision Electroweak Data

    OpenAIRE

    Casalbuoni, Roberto; Deandrea, Aldo; Oertel, Micaela

    2003-01-01

    We study the low energy limit of Little Higgs models. The method consists in eliminating the heavy fields using their classical equations of motion in the infinite mass limit. After the elimination of the heavy degrees of freedom we can directly read off deviations from the precision electroweak data. We also examine the effects on the low energy precision experiments.

  9. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  10. Ultra-precision processes for optics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William R.

    1991-12-01

    The Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) is developing advanced manufacturing technologies for fabrication of ultra precision optical components, aiming for a ten-fold improvement in precision and a shortening of the scheduled lead time. Current work focuses on diamond single point turning, ductile grinding, ion milling, and in/on process metrology.

  11. Remote sensing applications to precision farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional mechanized agriculture treats large fields with uniform agronomic practices. Precision agriculture/precision farming brings a new concept to manage in-field variability with variable rate application of fertilizers and pesticides, site-specific water management, as well as planting, etc....

  12. The Value of Information in Precision Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xuanli; Nelson, Macon; Ibrahim, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how the value of information is measured and its role in precision farming. Two types of precision farming are discussed regarding information in use and ways of information collection. Analytical equations have been derived to link the estimation of the value of information to limited parameters available.

  13. Precision correlation measurements in nuclear β decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision measurements in nuclear β decay provide a sensitive means of searching for new physics beyond the standard electroweak model. This paper reviews the status of selected precision measurements of correlation observables in nuclear and neutron β decay and discusses the prospects and future plans.

  14. Precision multi-band photometry with a DSLR camera

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, M; Penev, K; Csubry, Z; Hartman, J D; Bhatti, W; de Val-Borro, M

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HATNet and KELT have discovered close to two hundred transiting extrasolar planets in the past several years. The strategy of these surveys is to look at a large field of view and measure the brightnesses of its bright stars to around half a percent per point precision, which is adequate for detecting hot Jupiters. Typically, these surveys use CCD detectors to achieve high precision photometry. These CCDs, however, are expensive relative to other consumer-grade optical imaging devices, such as digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs). We look at the possibility of using a digital single-lens reflex camera for precision photometry. Specifically, we used a Canon EOS 60D camera that records light in 3 colors simultaneously. The DSLR was integrated into the HATNet survey and collected observations for a month, after which photometry was extracted for 6600 stars in a selected stellar field. We found that the DSLR achieves a best-case median absolute deviation (MA...

  15. Precision surveying the principles and geomatics practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ogundare, John Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of high precision surveying, including recent developments in geomatics and their applications This book covers advanced precision surveying techniques, their proper use in engineering and geoscience projects, and their importance in the detailed analysis and evaluation of surveying projects. The early chapters review the fundamentals of precision surveying: the types of surveys; survey observations; standards and specifications; and accuracy assessments for angle, distance and position difference measurement systems. The book also covers network design and 3-D coordinating systems before discussing specialized topics such as structural and ground deformation monitoring techniques and analysis, mining surveys, tunneling surveys, and alignment surveys. Precision Surveying: The Principles and Geomatics Practice: * Covers structural and ground deformation monitoring analysis, advanced techniques in mining and tunneling surveys, and high precision alignment of engineering structures *...

  16. TIME-SPACE CONCEPT FOR PRECISION MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaokang; PENG Donglin; ZHU Ge; WANG Xianquan

    2008-01-01

    The transformation between time and space is discussed. To improve real-time response speed of intelligent measuring system, the concept of exchanging program execution time with more circuitry is presented working in cycle mode. Displacement measuring by magnification is achieved with period measurement by magnification. To change the condition that traditional precision measurement depends on machining precision greatly, the concept of measuring space with time and theory of time-space coordinate transformation are proposed. Guided by the idea of measuring space with time, differential frequency measurement system and time grating displacement sensor are developed based on the proposed novel methods. And high-precision measurement is achieved without high-precision manufacture, which embeds the remarkable characteristics of low cost but high precision to the devices. Experiment and test results conform the validity of the proposed time-space concept.

  17. A single mutation in the gatekeeper residue in TgMAPKL-1 restores the inhibitory effect of a bumped kinase inhibitor on the cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Sugi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is the causative pathogen for Toxoplasmosis. Bumped kinase inhibitor 1NM-PP1 inhibits the growth of T. gondii by targeting TgCDPK1. However, we recently reported that resistance to 1NM-PP1 can be acquired via a mutation in T. gondii mitogen-activated protein kinase like 1 (TgMAPKL-1. Further characterization of how this TgMAPKL-1 mutation restores the inhibitory effect of 1NM-PP1 would shed further light on the function of TgMAPKL-1 in the parasite life cycle. Therefore, we made parasite clones with TgMAPKL-1 mutated at the gatekeeper residue Ser 191, which is critical for 1NM-PP1 susceptibility. Host cell lysis of RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191A was completely inhibited at 250 nM 1NM-PP1, whereas that of RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191Y was not. By comparing 1NM-PP1-sensitive (RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191A and -resistant (RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191Y clones, we observed that inhibition of TgMAPKL-1 blocked cell cycle progression after DNA duplication. Morphological analysis revealed that TgMAPKL-1 inhibition caused enlarged parasite cells with many daughter cell scaffolds and imcomplete cytokinesis. We conclude that the mutation in TgMAPKL-1 restored the cell cycle-arresting effect of 1NM-PP1 on T. gondii endodyogeny. Given that endodyogeny is the primary mechanism of cell division for both the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages of this parasite, TgMAPKL-1 may be a promising target for drug development. Exploration of the signals that regulate TgMAPKL-1 will provide further insights into the unique mode of T. gondii cell division.

  18. AFTER@LHC: a precision machine to study the interface between particle and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J P; Brodsky, S J; Chambert, V; Didelez, J P; Genolini, B; Ferreiro, E G; Fleuret, F; Hadjidakis, C; Lorce, C; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Rosier, P; Schienbein, I; Scomparin, E; Uggerhoj, U I

    2014-01-01

    We outline the opportunities to study with high precision the interface between nuclear and particle physics, which are offered by a next generation and multi-purpose fixed-target experiment exploiting the proton and ion LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal.

  19. AFTER@LHC: a precision machine to study the interface between particle and nuclear physics

    OpenAIRE

    Lansberg J.P.; Arnaldi R.; Brodsky S.J.; Chambert V.; Didelez J.P.; Genolini B.; Ferreiro E.G.; Fleuret F.; Hadjidakis C.; Lorcé C.; Rakotozafindrabe A.; Rosier P.; Schienbein I.; Scomparin E.; Uggerhøj U.I.

    2013-01-01

    We outline the opportunities to study with high precision the interface between nuclear and particle physics, which are offered by a next generation and multi-purpose fixed-target experiment exploiting the proton and ion LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal.

  20. AFTER@LHC: a precision machine to study the interface between particle and nuclear physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lansberg J.P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We outline the opportunities to study with high precision the interface between nuclear and particle physics, which are offered by a next generation and multi-purpose fixed-target experiment exploiting the proton and ion LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal.

  1. Neutron activation analysis of medicinal plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Solano lycocarpum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnondedron barbatiman plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing biological reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed is briefly discussed. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Methods for high precision 14C AMS measurement of atmospheric CO2 at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graven, H D; Guilderson, T P; Keeling, R F

    2006-10-18

    Development of {sup 14}C analysis with precision better than 2{per_thousand} has the potential to expand the utility of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} measurements for carbon cycle investigations as atmospheric gradients currently approach traditional measurement precision of 2-5{per_thousand}. The AMS facility at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, produces high and stable beam currents that enable efficient acquisition times for large numbers of {sup 14}C counts. One million {sup 14}C atoms can be detected in approximately 25 minutes, suggesting that near 1{per_thousand} counting precision is economically feasible at LLNL. The overall uncertainty in measured values is ultimately determined by the variation between measured ratios in several sputtering periods of the same sample and by the reproducibility of replicate samples. Experiments on the collection of one million counts on replicate samples of CO{sub 2} extracted from a whole air cylinder show a standard deviation of 1.7{per_thousand} in 36 samples measured over several wheels. This precision may be limited by the reproducibility of Oxalic Acid I standard samples, which is considerably poorer. We outline the procedures for high-precision sample handling and analysis that have enabled reproducibility in the cylinder extraction samples at the <2{per_thousand} level and describe future directions to continue increasing measurement precision at LLNL.

  3. Precision Polarimetry at the International Linear Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Helebrant, C.; Käfer, D.; List, J.(Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg und Zeuthen, 22603, Hamburg, Germany)

    2008-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will collide polarised electrons and positrons at beam energies of 45.6 GeV to 250 GeV and optionally up to 500 GeV. To fully exploit the physics potential of this machine, not only the luminosity and beam energy have to be known precisely, but also the polarisation of the particles has to be measured with an unprecedented precision of dP/P ~ 0.25% for both beams. An overall concept of high precision polarisation measurements at high beam energies will ...

  4. Precision gauge unification in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raby, Stuart, E-mail: raby@pacific.mps.ohio-state.ed [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ratz, Michael, E-mail: mratz@ph.tum.d [Physik-Department T30, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai, E-mail: kai.schmidt-hoberg@ph.tum.d [Physik-Department T30, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-04-19

    We discuss the issue of precision gauge unification in the MSSM. We find that a comparably light gluino, as it emerges in certain patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, can be a key ingredient for ensuring precision gauge unification without relying on the presence of extra particles around the scale of grand unification. In particular, the so-called mirage pattern for gaugino masses can naturally lead to precision gauge unification. There is also an interesting correlation with reduced fine-tuning, due to rather light gluinos.

  5. Precision gauge unification in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Raby, Stuart; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the issue of precision gauge unification in the MSSM. We find that a comparably light gluino, as it emerges in certain patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, can be a key ingredient for ensuring precision gauge unification without relying on the presence of extra particles around the scale of grand unification. In particular, the so-called mirage pattern for gaugino masses can naturally lead to precision gauge unification. There is also an interesting correlation with reduced fine-tuning, due to rather light gluinos.

  6. Workshop on Precision Measurements of alphas

    CERN Document Server

    Bethke, S; Kluth, S; Schieck, J; Stewart, I W; Aoki, S; Beneke, M; Blumlein, J; Brambilla, N; Brodsky, S; Descotes-Genon, S; Erler, J; Forte, S; Gehrmann, T; Golterman, M; Hashimoto, S; Kronfeld, A; Kuhn, J; Lepage, P; Martin, A; Mateu, V; Menke, S; Nomura, Y; Pahl, C; Petriello, F; Pich, A; Rabbertz, K; Salam, G; Schulz, H; Sommer, R; Steinhauser, M; Webber, B; Yuan, CP; Zanderighi, G

    2011-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the "Workshop on Precision Measurements of alphas" held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of alphas(mZ) in the MS-bar scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, tau-decays, electroweak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  7. The Future of Precision Medicine in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Lori M; Strotman, Lindsay N

    2016-09-01

    Precision medicine in oncology focuses on identifying which therapies are most effective for each patient based on genetic characterization of the cancer. Traditional chemotherapy is cytotoxic and destroys all cells that are rapidly dividing. The foundation of precision medicine is targeted therapies and selecting patients who will benefit most from these therapies. One of the newest aspects of precision medicine is liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy includes analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acid, or exosomes obtained from a peripheral blood draw. These can be studied individually or in combination and collected serially, providing real-time information as a patient's cancer changes. PMID:27514468

  8. Mixed-Precision Spectral Deferred Correction: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grout, Ray W. S.

    2015-09-02

    Convergence of spectral deferred correction (SDC), where low-order time integration methods are used to construct higher-order methods through iterative refinement, can be accelerated in terms of computational effort by using mixed-precision methods. Using ideas from multi-level SDC (in turn based on FAS multigrid ideas), some of the SDC correction sweeps can use function values computed in reduced precision without adversely impacting the accuracy of the final solution. This is particularly beneficial for the performance of combustion solvers such as S3D [6] which require double precision accuracy but are performance limited by the cost of data motion.

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  10. Extracting the cross section angular distributions for 15C high-energy resonance excited via the (18O,16O two-neutron transfer reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbone D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 13C(18O,16O15C reaction has been studied at 84 MeV incident energy. The ejectiles have been momentum analized by the MAGNEX spectrometer and 15C excitation energy spectra have been obtained up to about 20 MeV. In the region above the two-neutron separation energy, a bump has been observed at 13.7 MeV. The extracted cross section angular distribution for this structure, obtained by using different models for background, displays a clear oscillating pattern, typical of resonant state of the residual nucleus.

  11. Precision Munition Electro-Sciences Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility allows the characterization of the electro-magnetic environment produced by a precision weapon in free flight. It can measure the radiofrequency (RF)...

  12. Toward precision medicine in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lin; Jiang, Teng; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2016-03-01

    Technological development has paved the way for accelerated genomic discovery and is bringing precision medicine into view. The goal of precision medicine is to deliver optimally targeted and timed interventions tailored to an individual's molecular drivers of disease. Neurological diseases are promisingly suited models for precision medicine because of the rapidly expanding genetic knowledge base, phenotypic classification, the development of biomarkers and the potential modifying treatments. Moving forward, it is crucial that through these integrated research platforms to provide analysis both for accurate personal genome analysis and gene and drug discovery. Here we describe our vision of how precision medicine can bring greater clarity to the clinical and biological complexity of neurological diseases. PMID:27127757

  13. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  14. Precision Farming Tools. Soil Electrical Conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Alley, Mark M.; Holshouser, David Lee, 1963-; Thomason, Wade Everett

    2005-01-01

    Soil electrical conductivity (EC) is one of the simplest, least expensive soil measurements available to precision farmers today. Soil EC measurement can provide more measurements in a shorter amount of time than traditional grid soil sampling.

  15. High Precision Measurements Using High Frequency Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Aohan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Öwall, Viktor; Pullerits, Tonu; Karki, Khadga J

    2014-01-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5X10^8. In this letter, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in-situ virtual metrology in material design.

  16. Time profile of the slowly extracted beam

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, M

    1997-01-01

    An important spin-off from accelerators is the use of synchrotrons for cancer therapy. For this application a precise control of the slow extraction is needed to satisfy the medical specifications for the online measurement and control of the delivered dose. This has led to a renewed interest in the basic theory of third-order resonance extraction. In the present paper, an analytic study of the time profile of the extracted beam is made by first considering the time profile of an elementary strip of monoenergetic particles from the side of the shrinking stable triangle. This basic result is then used to predict the characteristics of the spills for the most common extraction configurations. The influence of ripples whose period is comparable to the transit time of a particle in the resonance is also analyzed. Simulations of the extraction process that confirm the analytic study are included.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction in natural products analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluids (SCFs) are increasingly replacing the organic solvents, e.g., n-hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, or methanol, that are conventionally used in industrial extraction, purification, and recrystallization operations because of regulatory and environmental pressures on hydrocarbon and ozone-depleting emissions. In natural products extraction and isolation, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), especially employing supercritical CO(2), has become a popular choice. Sophisticated modern technologies allow precise regulation of changes in temperature and pressure, and thus manipulation of solvating property of the SCF, which helps the extraction of natural products of a wide range of polarities. This chapter deals mainly with the application of the SFE technology in the natural products extraction and isolation, and outlines various methodologies with specific examples. PMID:22367893

  18. Single mode, extreme precision Doppler spectrographs

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Christian; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Betters, Christopher H.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2012-01-01

    The 'holy grail' of exoplanet research today is the detection of an earth-like planet: a rocky planet in the habitable zone around a main-sequence star. Extremely precise Doppler spectroscopy is an indispensable tool to find and characterize earth-like planets; however, to find these planets around solar-type stars, we need nearly one order of magnitude better radial velocity (RV) precision than the best current spectrographs provide. Recent developments in astrophotonics (Bland-Hawthorn & Ho...

  19. Precise Asymptotics for Lévy Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Shui HU; Chun SU

    2007-01-01

    Let {X(t), t ≥ 0} be a Lévy process with EX(1)=0 and EX2(1)<∞. In this paper, we shall give two precise asymptotic theorems for {X(t), t≥0}. By the way, we prove the corresponding conclusions for strictly stable processes and a general precise asymptotic proposition for sums of i.i.d.random variables.

  20. High precision machining on high speed machines

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kopač

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Modern Machines for precision products for three dimensional machining have by milling over 20.000 rpm. Differences between hard and soft machining have influences on concept of machines. Stiffness and rigidity are characteristics and variables which caused the precision and quality of machined part.Design/methodology/approach: This paper introduce some of interesting modern machine tools with different concept as DCG (Drive in Centre of Gravity - Mori Seiki), LAF (Look Ahead Functio...

  1. Precision siting of a particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise location is a specific survey job that involves a high skilled work to avoid unrecoverable results at the project installation. As a function of the different process stages, different specifications can be applied, invoking different instruments: theodolite, measurement tape, distanciometer, invar wire. This paper, based on experience obtained at the installation of particle accelerator equipment, deals with general principles of precise location: tolerance definitions, increasing accuracy techniques, schedule of locations, sensitivity analysis, quality control methods. (author)

  2. Precise subtyping for synchronous multiparty sessions

    OpenAIRE

    Dezani-Ciancaglini, Mariangiola; Ghilezan, Silvia; Jakšić, Svetlana; Pantović, Jovanka; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The notion of subtyping has gained an important role both in theoretical and applicative domains: in lambda and concurrent calculi as well as in programming languages. The soundness and the completeness, together referred to as the preciseness of subtyping, can be considered from two different points of view: operational and denotational. The former preciseness has been recently developed with respect to type safety, i.e. the safe replacement of a term of a smaller type when a term of a bigge...

  3. High precision inter-continental GPS network

    OpenAIRE

    Monico, João Francisco Galera

    1995-01-01

    GPS relative positioning provides precision of the order of 1 part per million (ppm) within relatively short periods of time. Considering this level of precision, together with the fact that the cost of GPS receivers is continuing come down, it is now apparent that most of the future geodetic surveys will be performed by GPS, It is therefore important to establish geodetic control networks which are suitable for geodetic GPS activities. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBG...

  4. Macromodel of Precise Signal-Phase Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Matej Šalamon; Bojan Jarc

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a precise macromodel of a signal-phase meter, which allows continuous phase measurement during simulation. It has been developed as a support tool during the design process of a signal-conditioning circuit for incremental position encoders. The development of a signal conditioning circuit requires precise measurements of small signal phases, amplitudes and offsets using the analog/digital circuit simulator. The phase measurement cannot be performed directly with a simulato...

  5. RISK MANAGEMENT POTENTIAL OF PRECISION FARMING TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lowenberg-DeBoer, James

    1999-01-01

    Initial ideas on risk management uses of precision agricultural technology focused on site-specific treatment of problem areas to reduce the probability of low yields and returns. Recent discussions deal with sensor and remote-sensing information to improve marketing and "as applied maps" as trace-back mechanisms to manage liability. A theoretical model is presented that suggests that there are plausible circumstances under which precision farming can reduce temporal yield variability. Empiri...

  6. Improved Precision Measurement of the Casimir Force

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Anushree; Lin, Chiung-Yuan; Mohideen, U.

    1999-01-01

    We report an improved precision measurement of the Casimir force. The force is measured between a large Al coated sphere and flat plate using an Atomic Force Microscope. The primary experimental improvements include the use of smoother metal coatings, reduced noise, lower systematic errors and independent measurement of surface separations. Also the complete dielectric spectrum of the metal is used in the theory. The average statistical precision remains at the same 1% of the forces measured ...

  7. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR PRECISION FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Harmandeep Singh; Nitika Sharma

    2013-01-01

    A decision support system for precision farming is designed to assist farmers, agricultural experts, research workers or any intellectuals with guidance in making various farming related decisions and help them to access, display and analyze data that have geographic content and meaning. The concept of precision farming is not only related with the use of technologies but it is also about the five R’s that is use of right input (nutrients, water, fertilizer, money, machinery etc.), at the rig...

  8. Data Mining und Wissensentdeckung im Precision Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Als ein Hemmnis für die Akzeptanz von Precision Farming können Wissensdefizite identifiziert werden. Es existieren bis dato nur wenige Algorithmen zur Umsetzung einer teilflächenspezifischen Bewirtschaftung, die überlegene ökonomische Ergebnisse erwarten lassen. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird die Methode “Wissensentdeckung in Datenbanken” eingesetzt, um ökonomisch optimierte Entscheidungsregeln zu erzeugen. Dazu werden die einzelnen Prozessschritte dieser Methode für den Bereich Precision Farmi...

  9. Precision Nitrogen Fertilization Technology with Micro Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Biermacher, Jon T.; Epplin, Francis M.; Brorsen, B. Wade; Solie, John B.; Raun, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Sensor-based precision fertilizer technologies are being developed and researched by production scientists. One such technology uses normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) reflectance measurements of growing winter wheat plants and a nitrogen fertilizer optimization algorithm (NFOA) to determine nitrogen requirement necessary for plants to reach their yield plateau. A number of precision fertilizer application systems that use this technology are considered in this paper. A linear resp...

  10. Electroweak Precision Data and New Gauge Bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Erler, Jens

    2009-01-01

    I review constraints on the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson from high energy electroweak (EW) precision data. The same data set also strongly limits various mixing effects of hypothetical extra neutral gauge bosons (Z') with the ordinary Z. I also discuss low energy precision measurements which are sensitive to other aspects of Z' physics, such as the direct exchange amplitude and the flavor or CP violating sectors.

  11. Precision optical displacement measurements using biphotons

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Kevin; Pang, Shengshi; Kwiat, Paul G.; Jordan, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    We propose and examine the use of biphoton pairs, such as those created in parametric down conversion or four-wave mixing, to enhance the precision and the resolution of measuring optical displacements by position-sensitive detection. We show that the precision of measuring a small optical beam displacement with this method can be significantly enhanced by the correlation between the two photons, given the same optical mode. The improvement is largest if the correlations between the photons a...

  12. NONEL High Precision MS Delay Detonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The NONEL high precision MS Delay Detonator (FDG-1detonator) is introduced. The main aspects about the FDG-1 detonator include the choice of structure, delay composition, control of the gas chamber, o ptimum charge and density, suitable explosives per meter in the NONEL tube, base firing charge and the main specifications. The improvement of the characteristics of FDG-1 detonator has been tested systematical ly. The testing method is reliable and its precision can meet the dema nd for usage.

  13. An attempt for the precise isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact virtual image double focusing mass spectrometer was adopted for the precise isotope analysis with surface ionization ion source. A interface with 16-bit DA converter was set into the computer for automatic control of magnetic field. This new system enabled to measure isotopic ratios by peak hopping method. To obtain high precision, the digital voltmeter under computer control was introduced for collecting data and processing them successively. The flatness of the peak top and the stability of the magnetic field during the single run were checked and found to be satisfactory. For the test of the measuring system, the isotopic ratios of K, Rb and Sr were measured using shelf reagents. It was concluded that (1) by the Faraday collector, the isotopic ratio could be measured with the precision better than 0.01 % when the ion currents for both isotopes were higher than 10-11 A, (2) for the isotope less abundant than 10-4, the precision achieved a few percent by Faraday collector with ion current of 10-15 A, while the precision was within 1 % by SEM collector with ion current of 10-17 A. The performance of the mass spectrometer was found to be satisfactory to measure isotopic ratios with a high precision. (author)

  14. Precision oncology: origins, optimism, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay; Fojo, Tito; Brada, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Imatinib, the first and arguably the best targeted therapy, became the springboard for developing drugs aimed at molecular targets deemed crucial to tumours. As this development unfolded, a revolution in the speed and cost of genetic sequencing occurred. The result-an armamentarium of drugs and an array of molecular targets-set the stage for precision oncology, a hypothesis that cancer treatment could be markedly improved if therapies were guided by a tumour's genomic alterations. Drawing lessons from the biological basis of cancer and recent empirical investigations, we take a more measured view of precision oncology's promise. Ultimately, the promise is not our concern, but the threshold at which we declare success. We review reports of precision oncology alongside those of precision diagnostics and novel radiotherapy approaches. Although confirmatory evidence is scarce, these interventions have been widely endorsed. We conclude that the current path will probably not be successful or, at a minimum, will have to undergo substantive adjustments before it can be successful. For the sake of patients with cancer, we hope one form of precision oncology will deliver on its promise. However, until confirmatory studies are completed, precision oncology remains unproven, and as such, a hypothesis in need of rigorous testing. PMID:26868357

  15. Precision validation of MIPAS-Envisat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Piccolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the variation and validation of the precision, or estimated random error, associated with the ESA Level 2 products from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. This quantity represents the propagation of the radiometric noise from the spectra through the retrieval process into the Level 2 profile values. The noise itself varies with time, steadily rising between ice decontamination events, but the Level 2 precision has a greater variation due to the atmospheric temperature which controls the total radiance received. Hence, for all species, the precision varies latitudinally/seasonally with temperature, with a small superimposed temporal structure determined by the degree of ice contamination on the detectors. The precision validation involves comparing two MIPAS retrievals at the intersections of ascending/descending orbits. For 5 days per month of full resolution MIPAS operation, the standard deviation of the matching profile pairs is computed and compared with the precision given in the MIPAS Level 2 data, except for NO2 since it has a large diurnal variation between ascending/descending intersections. Even taking into account the propagation of the pressure-temperature retrieval errors into the VMR retrieval, the standard deviation of the matching pairs is usually a factor 1–2 larger than the precision. This is thought to be due to effects such as horizontal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere and instability of the retrieval.

  16. The use of a solvent extraction technique for the analysis of trace metal pollutants in estuarine water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solvent extraction technique, based on metal carbamate complex formation is investigated for its usefulness in the analysis of estuarine water samples. Preliminary results indicate an extraction efficiency over 90% and a good precision. (author)

  17. Parameter selection of pocket extraction algorithm using interaction interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Chong-Min; WON Chung-In; RYU Joonghyun; CHO Cheol-Hyung; BHAK Jonghwa; KIM Deok-Soo

    2006-01-01

    Pockets in proteins have been known to be very important for the life process. There have been several studies in the past to automatically extract the pockets from the structure information of known proteins. However, it is difficult to find a study comparing the precision of the extracted pockets from known pockets on the protein. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for extracting pockets from structure data of proteins and analyze the quality of the algorithm by comparing the extracted pockets with some known pockets. These results in this paper can be used to set the parameter values of the pocket extraction algorithm for getting better results.

  18. 特厚煤层综放开采冲击地压防治技术与实践%Technology and Practices on Mine Pressure Bumping Prevention and Control of Fully Mechanized Top Coal Caving Mining in Ultra Thick Seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周澎

    2011-01-01

    According to the serious mine pressure bumping, gateway repair difficulty and other production problems of No. 250102 fully mechanized top coal caving mining face in Huating Mine, a series technical research and the prevention and control practices was conducted. The analysis showed that the deep mining depth, seam with pressure bumping tendency, hard and thick sandstone roof and irrational width of the gateway coal pillars would be main influence factors to cause the pressure bumping in the coal mining face. The comprehensive index was applied to judge the pressure bumping danger index as 0. 89 of the fully mechanized top coal caving mining face and the mining face would have a strong pressure bumping danger. Based on the early prediction, the micro seismic method was applied to monitor and measure the bumping danger zone. As for the bumping danger zone, the pressure releasing blasting in the gateway side wall, deep borehole blasting in the roof, dynamic water injection (8 ~ 13 MPa) and static water injection as well as other pressure releasing and danger control measures were comprehensively applied to reduce the mine pressure bumping behavior strength and to effectively reduce the pressure bumping occurred in the fully mechanized top coal caving mining face.%基于华亭煤矿250102综放工作面冲击地压显现强烈、巷道返修难度大,开展了一系列技术研究和防治实践.分析表明,大采深、煤层具有冲击倾向性、坚硬厚层砂岩顶板、护巷煤柱留宽不合理是导致该工作面发生冲击地压的主要因素,并采用综合指数法判定该综放面冲击危险指数0.89,具有强冲击地压危险性.在早期预测的基础上,采用微震法对冲击危险区域进行监测.对具备冲击危险的区域,综合采用巷帮煤体卸压爆破、顶板深孔爆破、动压注水(8~13 MPa)与静压注水等卸压解危措施,削弱了冲击地压显现强度,有效降低了综放工作面冲击地压的发生.

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND METHOD VALIDATION OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Biradar sanjivkumar; Dhumansure Rajkumar; Patil Mallikarjun; Biradar Karankumar; K Sreenivasa Rao

    2012-01-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum is highly regarded for their medicinal properties in the indigenous system of medicine. The objectives of the present study include the validation of Aesculus hippocastanum extract. Authenticated extract of seeds of the plant was collected and the method was developed for the validation. In this the extract was subjected to check the Accuracy, Precision, Linearity and Specificity. For the validation UV spectrophotometer was used. The proposed UV validation method for ...

  20. Multielement determination in soil extracts by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest Swiss soils from 39 locations, each sampled at three depths, were extracted with a buffered solution of pH 4.65 containing EDTA. Nearly 30 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained are discussed in terms of efficiency of the extractant, precision and accuracy. Summarized results are presented for the quantity fractions of the extracted elements. (author) 18 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Precision Analysis of Three Dimension Free Curves Nanofabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Three dimension free curves find wide applications in engineering. There is no problem to express them exactly mathematically, but th e reportage has not been done on the investigation of precision analysis of thre e-dimension free curves nanofabrication. Nanofabrication Precision includes the geometrical precision and the precision of driving system (below simply cal led the system precision). This paper submits the precision analysis method of c urve normal vector to analyze geometrical precision. ...

  2. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle addition on electroless Ni–P under bump metallization for lead-free solder interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One primary purpose of this study is to introduce an electroless Ni–P–TiO2 (17.5 at% of P) composite coating as a pad finish for advanced electronic packaging. In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles were incorporated into the Ni–P layer by electroless deposition and its function as novel under bump metallization (UBM) was intensively investigated. The majority of the added TiO2 nanoparticles were proved to be uniformly distributed in UBM by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interfacial reaction between electrolessly deposited Ni–P–TiO2 layer and Sn–3.5Ag solder alloy was systematically analyzed. The prime Ni–P UBM was used for comparison to evaluate the effect of TiO2 nanoparticle on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical property. Both solder/Ni–P and solder/Ni–P–TiO2 joints were aged at temperature from 150 °C to 190 °C for different aging periods in order to study the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) growth and calculate the activation energy. It was found the growth of Ni3Sn4 IMC layer and the void formation at the reaction interface were successfully suppressed with the help of the TiO2 nanoparticle. The activation energies for the growth of Ni3Sn4 on Ni–P and Ni–P–TiO2 layers were calculated to be 50.9 kJ/mol and 55.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The extensive growth of Ni3P and Ni–Sn–P phases as well as the consumption rate of the amorphous UBM was controlled in joints with TiO2 nanoparticles. Thus Ni–P–TiO2 UBM blocked the Cu diffusion from substrate to interface. A detailed reaction induced diffusion mechanism was proposed. The solder/Ni–P–TiO2 solder joint consistently demonstrated higher shear strength than solder/Ni–P joint as a function of aging time. TiO2 nanoparticle contributed to slow down the declining rate of shear strength from 0.021 Mpa/h to 0.013 Mpa/h with the aging time. Moreover, after the shear strength test, fracture mainly occurred at solder matrix of the solder

  3. Effect of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle addition on electroless Ni–P under bump metallization for lead-free solder interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiao; Xu, Sha [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yang, Ying; Chen, Zhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chan, Y.C., E-mail: eeycchan@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2014-04-01

    One primary purpose of this study is to introduce an electroless Ni–P–TiO{sub 2} (17.5 at% of P) composite coating as a pad finish for advanced electronic packaging. In this study, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were incorporated into the Ni–P layer by electroless deposition and its function as novel under bump metallization (UBM) was intensively investigated. The majority of the added TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were proved to be uniformly distributed in UBM by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interfacial reaction between electrolessly deposited Ni–P–TiO{sub 2} layer and Sn–3.5Ag solder alloy was systematically analyzed. The prime Ni–P UBM was used for comparison to evaluate the effect of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical property. Both solder/Ni–P and solder/Ni–P–TiO{sub 2} joints were aged at temperature from 150 °C to 190 °C for different aging periods in order to study the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) growth and calculate the activation energy. It was found the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} IMC layer and the void formation at the reaction interface were successfully suppressed with the help of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle. The activation energies for the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on Ni–P and Ni–P–TiO{sub 2} layers were calculated to be 50.9 kJ/mol and 55.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The extensive growth of Ni{sub 3}P and Ni–Sn–P phases as well as the consumption rate of the amorphous UBM was controlled in joints with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Thus Ni–P–TiO{sub 2} UBM blocked the Cu diffusion from substrate to interface. A detailed reaction induced diffusion mechanism was proposed. The solder/Ni–P–TiO{sub 2} solder joint consistently demonstrated higher shear strength than solder/Ni–P joint as a function of aging time. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle contributed to slow down the declining rate of shear strength from 0.021 Mpa/h to 0.013 Mpa/h with the aging time

  4. A Bump on the Head

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-15

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about concussions, including how serious they are, symptoms, what to do if you think you have one, and tips for preventing them.  Created: 2/15/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/15/2011.

  5. Principles and techniques for designing precision machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, L C

    1999-02-01

    This thesis is written to advance the reader's knowledge of precision-engineering principles and their application to designing machines that achieve both sufficient precision and minimum cost. It provides the concepts and tools necessary for the engineer to create new precision machine designs. Four case studies demonstrate the principles and showcase approaches and solutions to specific problems that generally have wider applications. These come from projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in which the author participated: the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Accuracy Enhancement of High- Productivity Machine Tools, the National Ignition Facility, and Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Although broad in scope, the topics go into sufficient depth to be useful to practicing precision engineers and often fulfill more academic ambitions. The thesis begins with a chapter that presents significant principles and fundamental knowledge from the Precision Engineering literature. Following this is a chapter that presents engineering design techniques that are general and not specific to precision machines. All subsequent chapters cover specific aspects of precision machine design. The first of these is Structural Design, guidelines and analysis techniques for achieving independently stiff machine structures. The next chapter addresses dynamic stiffness by presenting several techniques for Deterministic Damping, damping designs that can be analyzed and optimized with predictive results. Several chapters present a main thrust of the thesis, Exact-Constraint Design. A main contribution is a generalized modeling approach developed through the course of creating several unique designs. The final chapter is the primary case study of the thesis, the Conceptual Design of a Horizontal Machining Center.

  6. Development of INCONEL 600 precision tube (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Yeong Han; Jo, Bong Hyeon; Lee, Dong Hee; Kim, Wan Kyo; Jeong, Pyeong Keun; Yoon, Hwang Lo; Chio, Seok Sik [Sammi Steel Co. Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    Steam generator, being connected with nuclear fuel reactor is one of the most important part of nuclear power plant and consists of a large number of INCONEL 600 tubes. Approximately 160 tons of tubes are needed for a single nuclear power plant. All of INCONEL 600 steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plants have been imported. The aim of this research is to develop INCONEL 600 precision tubes for steam generator of nuclear power plant. If this research is conducted successfully, we can produce nuclear fuel tubes, Ni-alloy precision tubes and stainless steel precision tubes for many purposes and technology of INCONEL 600 steam generator tubes are similar to those of other tubes above mentioned. In the current study, development of preliminary manufacturing process of INCONEL 600 precision tubes for steam generator and investigation of material`s metallurgical characteristics were conducted. The main scope of this research is as follows. First, the preliminary manufacturing process design was conducted after investigations of foreign manufacturing processes and technical reports. Second, the results of investigations of material`s metallurgical characteristics through the manufacturing process were applied to the production technology of tentative INCONEL 600 precision tubes for sample. Third, preliminary process routes were established and samples of INCONEL 600 precision tube were produced by this process. As the results of this research, 14 pieces of INCONEL 600 precision tubes were produced by preliminary manufacturing process and the material`s metallurgical characteristics were investigated through the processes. But the SCC test could not be conducted due to the absence of equipment. In order to apply the results of SCC test to the manufacturing process, we need a SCC tester which can simulate SCC characteristics under high temperature and high pressurized circulating water. 95 refs., 55 figs., 20 tabs.

  7. Precise determination of lattice phase shifts and mixing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing-Nan; Lähde, Timo A.; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a general and accurate method for determining lattice phase shifts and mixing angles, which is applicable to arbitrary, non-cubic lattices. Our method combines angular momentum projection, spherical wall boundaries and an adjustable auxiliary potential. This allows us to construct radial lattice wave functions and to determine phase shifts at arbitrary energies. For coupled partial waves, we use a complex-valued auxiliary potential that breaks time-reversal invariance. We benchmark our method using a system of two spin-1/2 particles interacting through a finite-range potential with a strong tensor component. We are able to extract phase shifts and mixing angles for all angular momenta and energies, with precision greater than that of extant methods. We discuss a wide range of applications from nuclear lattice simulations to optical lattice experiments.

  8. Precise atomic radiative lifetime via photoassociative spectroscopy of ultracold lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained spectra of the high-lying vibrational levels of the 13Σ+g state of 6Li2 via photoassociation of ultracold 6Li atoms confined in a magneto-optical trap. The 13Σ+g state of the diatomic molecule correlates to a 2S1/2 state atom plus a 2P1/2 state atom. The long-range part of the molecular interaction potential for this state depends on the 2P atomic radiative lifetime. By calculating the energy eigenvalues of a model potential for the 13Σ+g state and fitting them to the experimentally measured vibrational levels, we have extracted a value for the 2P lifetime of 26.99±0.16 ns. The precision is currently limited by the accuracy of a region of the model potential provided by ab initio calculations

  9. Stability precision dynamic testing system on artillery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Li, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic feature of Weapon equipments is one of important performance index for evaluating the performance of the whole weapon system. The construction of target range in our country in fire control dynamic testing is relatively backward; therefore, it has greatly influenced the evaluation on the fire control system. In order to solve this problem, it's urgent to develop a new testing instrument so as to adjust to the armament research process and promote weapon system working more efficiently and thereby meeting the needs of modernization in national defense. This paper proposes a new measure which is used to test the stability precision of the fire control system, and it is installed on the moving base. Using the method, we develop a testing system which can test the stability precision of the fire control system and achieve a high precision results after testing. The innovation of the system is we can receive the image not only by CCD, but our eyes. It also adopts digital image-forming and image processing technique for real-time measurement and storing of the target information; it simultaneously adopts the method adjusting the platform and the corresponding fixture mounted on a sample to measure the stable precision and the precision of corner of stabilizator. In this paper, we make a description on the construction of the system and the idea of the designing of the optical system. Finally, we introduce the actual application of the system and testing results.

  10. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  11. Semantic Extraction for Multi-Enterprise Business Collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hongjun; FAN Yushun

    2009-01-01

    Semantic extraction is essential for semantic interoperability in multi-enterprise business collabo-ration environments. Although many studies on semantic extraction have been carried out, few have focused on how to precisely and effectively extract semantics from multiple heterogeneous data schemas. This paper presents a semi-automatic semantic extraction method based on a neutral representation format (NRF) for acquiring semantics from heterogeneous data schemas. As a unified syntax-independent model, NRF re-moves all the contingencies of heterogeneous data schemas from the original data environment. Conceptual extraction and keyword extraction are used to acquire the semantics from the NRF. Conceptual extraction entails constructing a conceptual model, while keyword extraction seeks to obtain the metadata. An industrial case is given to validate the approach. This method has good extensibility and flexibility. The results show that the method provides simple, accurate, and effective semantic intereperability in multi-enterprise busi-ness collaboration environments.

  12. Precision Top-Quark Mass Measurements at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U. /Fermilab; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M

    2012-07-01

    We present a precision measurement of the top-quark mass using the full sample of Tevatron {radical}s = 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions collected by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 8.7 fb{sup -1}. Using a sample of t{bar t} candidate events decaying into the lepton+jets channel, we obtain distributions of the top-quark masses and the invariant mass of two jets from the W boson decays from data. We then compare these distributions to templates derived from signal and background samples to extract the top-quark mass and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets with in situ calibration. The likelihood fit of the templates from signal and background events to the data yields the single most-precise measurement of the top-quark mass, mtop = 172.85 {+-} 0.71 (stat) {+-} 0.85 (syst) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  13. Large precision muon detector for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Bing

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS muon spectrometer is designed to exploit the full physics discovery potential at the Large Hadron Collider in a stand-alone mode. The precision muon detector is made of monitored drift tubes with tracking precision better than 50 mum to measure the muon track sagitta in the toroidal magnetic field. A world-wide intensive construction work of the ATLAS muon detector is under way. We report the precision muon detector mass production experience, including the R&D results on the long tube operation stability and the impact on the momentum resolution due to wire sag. The quality control data in mass production are presented. Cosmic ray test results show that the MDT chambers have tracking efficiency close to 100% and single wire resolution is better than 80 mum.

  14. Large precision muon detector for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Bing

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS muon spectrometer is designed to exploit the full physics discovery potential at the Large Hadron Collider in a stand-alone mode. The precision muon detector is made of monitored drift tubes with tracking precision better than 50 mu m to measure the muon track sagitta in the toroidal magnetic field. A world-wide intensive construction work of the ATLAS muon detector is under way. We report the precision muon detector mass production experience, including the R and D results on the long tube operation stability and the impact on the momentum resolution due to wire sag. The quality control data in mass production are presented. Cosmic ray test results show that the MDT chambers have tracking efficiency close to 100% and single wire resolution is better than 80 mu m.

  15. High-Precision Computation and Mathematical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2008-11-03

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. This paper presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides some analysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, scattering amplitudes of quarks, gluons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, Ising theory, quantum field theory and experimental mathematics. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable component of a modern large-scale scientific computing environment.

  16. [On Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ren-bing; Wang, Yong-yan; Lv, Song-tao

    2015-09-01

    According to the correlative analyses on Chinese medicine essence, dosage forms and quality control level, it expounds the precise concept of Chinese medicine, and its quality advantages and characteristics in this paper, furthermore discusses how to achieve the ideal drugs and Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation. Base on the Chinese medicine essence, using the concept of nature medicine and its drug system to construct Chinese medicine effective material basis and its drugs, with the correlative analyses of whole view and reductionism, the problems of uncertainty quality of original natural medicinal resources and preparations may well be solved, and further with the macroscopic to microcosmic construction of drug system, the precision in expectations of Chinese medicine quality and higher production lever may well be achieved. PMID:26978969

  17. High-Precision Computation and Mathematical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. This paper presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides some analysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, scattering amplitudes of quarks, gluons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, Ising theory, quantum field theory and experimental mathematics. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable component of a modern large-scale scientific computing environment.

  18. Precision measurement of W mass at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The W mass allows for a precise cross check of the Standard Model (SM), and its uncertainty is the limiting factor for sensitivity to the SM Higgs mass and what may lie beyond. A precise W mass measurement is feasible at the LHC due to large number of events, not only for W decays, but also corresponding Z decays, which will be the key ingredients for precision calibration and understanding of systematic errors. Using statistics corresponding to 10 fb-1 of data at the LHC, we have investigated strategies for improving the uncertainty on the mass measurement beyond 15 MeV, including both theoretical and experimental effects. No single source of uncertainty necessarily contribute more than 5 MeV to the overall uncertainty

  19. Precision measurement of W mass at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Troels C. [Building 40-3D-002, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    The W mass allows for a precise cross check of the Standard Model (SM), and its uncertainty is the limiting factor for sensitivity to the SM Higgs mass and what may lie beyond. A precise W mass measurement is feasible at the LHC due to large number of events, not only for W decays, but also corresponding Z decays, which will be the key ingredients for precision calibration and understanding of systematic errors. Using statistics corresponding to 10 fb{sup -1} of data at the LHC, we have investigated strategies for improving the uncertainty on the mass measurement beyond 15 MeV, including both theoretical and experimental effects. No single source of uncertainty necessarily contribute more than 5 MeV to the overall uncertainty.

  20. BOOTSTRAPPING FOR EXTRACTING RELATIONS FROM LARGE CORPORA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new approach of relation extraction is described in this paper. It adopts a bootstrapping model with a novel iteration strategy, which generates more precise examples of specific relation. Compared with previous methods, the proposed method has three main advantages: first, it needs less manual intervention; second, more abundant and reasonable information are introduced to represent a relation pattern; third, it reduces the risk of circular dependency occurrence in bootstrapping. Scalable evaluation methodology and metrics are developed for our task with comparable techniques over TianWang 100G corpus. The experimental results show that it can get 90% precision and have excellent expansibility.

  1. High-speed precision motion control

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Pang, Chee Khiang

    2011-01-01

    Written for researchers and postgraduate students in Control Engineering, as well as professionals in the Hard Disk Drive industry, this book discusses high-precision and fast servo controls in Hard Disk Drives (HDDs). The editors present a number of control algorithms that enable fast seeking and high precision positioning, and propose problems from commercial products, making the book valuable to researchers in HDDs. Each chapter is self contained, and progresses from concept to technique, present application examples that can be used within automotive, aerospace, aeronautical, and manufactu

  2. Precision Electroweak Physics at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ayres

    2015-04-01

    The current status of precision tests of the electroweak Standard Model is summarized, and a short review of the theory input from higher-order loop corrections is given. The most constraining quantities are the masses and couplings of the W and Z bosons, and it is shown how these put strong bounds on various examples of new physics. Furthermore, the impact of current and future LHC data on electroweak precision tests is described in some detail. It is also briefly discussed how measurements of anomalous gauge boson couplings provide complementary information about the electroweak theory.

  3. Electroweak precision data and gravitino dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Heinemeyer

    2007-11-01

    Electroweak precision measurements can provide indirect information about the possible scale of supersymmetry already at the present level of accuracy. We review present day sensitivities of precision data in mSUGRA-type models with the gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). The 2 fit is based on , sin2 eff, ( - 2) BR( → ) and the lightest MSSM Higgs boson mass, ℎ. We find indications for relatively light soft supersymmetry-breaking masses, offering good prospects for the LHC and the ILC, and in some cases also for the Tevatron.

  4. SDPTools: High Precision SDP Solver in Maple

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Semidefinite programs are an important class of convex optimization problems. It can be solved efficiently by SDP solvers in Matlab, such as SeDuMi, SDPT3, DSDP. However, since we are running fixed precision SDP solvers in Matlab, for some applications, due to the numerical error, we can not get good results. SDPTools is a Maple package to solve SDP in high precision. We apply SDPTools to the certification of the global optimum of rational functions. For the Rumps Model Problem, we obtain the...

  5. High precision numerical accuracy in physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns arise that the current standard of double-precision floating-point may no longer be sufficient for today's large-scale numerical simulations. One approach to solve this problem will be to switch to a wider floating-point format: the upcoming quadruple-precision standard is introduced and compared to currently available software-based approaches. Another complimentary approach is to use mathematical and algorithmic techniques to improve the accuracy of large floating-point programs and the confidence in the quality of the result

  6. Development of high precision switching power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high precision switching power supply was developed for the PFN modulator of RIKEN SACLA. The maximum output voltage is 50 kV, and the maximum repetition rate is 120 pps. The switching power supply consists of main and sub switching circuits. In the sub circuit, the pulse-width-modulation (PWM) method was used in order to obtain high precision charging voltage stability ( < 100 ppm–pp). The switching power supply was tested, and a charging voltage stability of 1 Vpp (20 ppm–pp) and a repetition rate of 120 pps were achieved. (author)

  7. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  8. Unsupervised Learning of mDTD Extraction Patterns for Web Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongseok; Jung, Hanmin; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    2003-01-01

    Presents a new extraction pattern, modified Document Type Definition (mDTD), which relies on analytical interpretation to identify extraction target from the contents of Web documents. Experiments with 330 Korean and 220 English Web documents on audio and video shopping sites yielded an average extraction precision of 91.3% for Korean and 81.9%…

  9. NCI and the Precision Medicine Initiative®

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's activities related to precision medicine focuses on new and expanded precision medicine clinical trials; mechanisms to overcome drug resistance to cancer treatments; and developing a shared digital repository of precision medicine trials data.

  10. Precision Medicine In Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Precision Medicine Initiative Precision Medicine In Action Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of ... Dishman "I am totally motivated to support precision medicine because I am one of the early prototype ...

  11. Self-generation of machining precision and its realization in lapping of super precision solid balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bopeng ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the principle of self-genera-tion of machining precision by explaining its basic concept and five necessary conditions for forming a system with self-organization capability. A self-generation system is a kind of system with self-organization capability. The self-generation of machining precision for solid balls with super precision is emphatically explained. From the view-point of self-organization, there are three types of systems including system S1 with the self-regulation capability, S2 with the self-determination capability of goals, and S3 with the self-organization capability. Although they are all closed loop control systems, they have different con-structions and functions. Necessary conditions for achiev-ing self-generation of machining precision are given. Establishment of the system for machining solid balls with super precision is discussed. Self-generation of machining precision for solid balls with super precision on the basis of the capability of self-removal of errors is presented. Self-generation includes the ability of self-removal of errors for solid balls, convergence of self-removal of errors, self-generation of precision, and self-generating system for the given.

  12. 76 FR 35024 - Precision Dynamics Corporation San Fernando, CA; Precision Dynamics Corporation, Also Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... FR 51848). At the request of the company, the Department reviewed the certification for workers of... Employment and Training Administration Precision Dynamics Corporation San Fernando, CA; Precision Dynamics... Corporation, San Fernando, California. The workers are engaged in activities related to production...

  13. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nethra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is done through Web page segmentation, but it increases the time complexity. Hand crafted rule generation uses string manipulation function for rule generation, but generating those rules is very difficult. A hybrid approach is proposed to extract main content from Web pages. A HTML Web page is converted to DOM tree and features are extracted and with the extracted features, rules are generated. Decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are machine learning methods used for rules generation. By using the rules, noisy part in the Web page is discarded and informative content in the Web page is extracted. The performance of both decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are measured with metrics like precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy.

  14. Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

  15. Precision Machining Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in precision machining technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and…

  16. High precision machining on high speed machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kopač

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modern Machines for precision products for three dimensional machining have by milling over 20.000 rpm. Differences between hard and soft machining have influences on concept of machines. Stiffness and rigidity are characteristics and variables which caused the precision and quality of machined part.Design/methodology/approach: This paper introduce some of interesting modern machine tools with different concept as DCG (Drive in Centre of Gravity - Mori Seiki, LAF (Look Ahead Function on machine - Sodick, high speed 20.000 – 60.000 rpm, linear drive, etc. The way from idea to machined part will be shown.Findings: To achieve high precision it is necessary to fill out many request function on machine. Results on machined part depend also from machined material (hardness, structure, size of crystals.Research limitations/implications: Engineers job is to prepare the optimal CNC (PNC program on connection of CAD – CAM software’s. After all mentioned factor test work piece is machined and measured.Originality/value: Comparison between results data on plan and measurement shows us the reality and give us decision around high precision product.

  17. High precision sodium pressure sensor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high precision sodium pressure sensor with a dynamometric ring has been studied. The sensor constitution, the dynamometric ring calculation, the gauges setting, the measuring circuit and the gauging device are presented. The correction method of in-line temperature effect is given. The calibration error is analyzed

  18. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  19. Precision electroweak physics at future collider experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, U. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Demarteau, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    We present an overview of the present status and prospects for progress in electroweak measurements at future collider experiments leading to precision tests of the Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions. Special attention is paid to the measurement of the {ital W} mass, the effective weak mixing angle, and the determination of the top quark mass. Their constraints on the Higgs boson mass are discussed.

  20. RISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN PRECISION AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Laura; Dillon, Carl R.; Isaacs, Steven G.; Shearer, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop economic, risk management decision aids for precision agriculture practitioners to identify temporal risk spatially from production. Break-even analysis, coefficient of variation and a mean variance framework are used to identify risk. An interpretation of the resulting risk maps will also be presented.

  1. Bullet trajectory reconstruction - Methods, accuracy and precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, Erwin J A T; Kerkhoff, Wim

    2016-05-01

    Based on the spatial relation between a primary and secondary bullet defect or on the shape and dimensions of the primary bullet defect, a bullet's trajectory prior to impact can be estimated for a shooting scene reconstruction. The accuracy and precision of the estimated trajectories will vary depending on variables such as, the applied method of reconstruction, the (true) angle of incidence, the properties of the target material and the properties of the bullet upon impact. This study focused on the accuracy and precision of estimated bullet trajectories when different variants of the probing method, ellipse method, and lead-in method are applied on bullet defects resulting from shots at various angles of incidence on drywall, MDF and sheet metal. The results show that in most situations the best performance (accuracy and precision) is seen when the probing method is applied. Only for the lowest angles of incidence the performance was better when either the ellipse or lead-in method was applied. The data provided in this paper can be used to select the appropriate method(s) for reconstruction and to correct for systematic errors (accuracy) and to provide a value of the precision, by means of a confidence interval of the specific measurement. PMID:27044032

  2. Precision tests of the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of the precision measurements of electroweak observables is discussed with the special emphasis on the results obtained recently. All together these measurements provide the basis for the stringent test of the Standard Model and determination of the SM parameters. 22 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs

  3. Refined analysis of the electroweak precision data

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmaier, S; Schildknecht, D; Dittmaier, S; Kuroda, M; Schildknecht, D

    1995-01-01

    We refine our recent analysis of the electroweak precision data at the \\PZO\\ pole by including the hadronic decay modes of the \\PZO. Within the framework of an effective Lagrangian we parametrize SU(2) violation by the additional process-specific parameters \\De y_\

  4. Fundamental constants: The teamwork of precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Edmund G.

    2014-02-01

    A new value for the atomic mass of the electron is a link in a chain of measurements that will enable a test of the standard model of particle physics with better than part-per-trillion precision. See Letter p.467

  5. PRECISELY COMPENSATED EFFICIENT COMPONENT MODE SYNTHESIS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yutian; Ichiro Hagiwara

    2004-01-01

    Based on the improved mode superposition method proposed by Z.D.Ma and I.Hagiwara, a precisely compensated efficient mode synthesis method is developed.The calculation procedure is discussed in detail and the truncation error is also analyzed.By comparison, it is shown that this method has a higher accuracy and a less calculation time than the general used ones.

  6. Precision electroweak physics at future collider experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an overview of the present status and prospects for progress in electroweak measurements at future collider experiments leading to precision tests of the Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions. Special attention is paid to the measurement of the W mass, the effective weak mixing angle, and the determination of the top quark mass. Their constraints on the Higgs boson mass are discussed

  7. Adoption of Precision farming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, S.; Blackmore, S.; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Pedersen, H. H.

    2003-01-01

    The adoption of precision farming (PF)in Denmark has been studied through two mail surveys, personal interviews and focus groups with farmers and other stakeholders. Farmers are in general optimistic about PF but it is difficult to verify the economic and environmental gains. It has been difficult...

  8. Precision Farming auch im Ökolandbau?

    OpenAIRE

    Klöble, Ulrike; Fröba, Norbert; Niemann, Henrik; Kielhorn, Arnd

    2007-01-01

    Die Technik der Parallelfahrsysteme wird auch für den kleinen Betrieb interessant, wenn er Geräte und Maschinen in Kooperation oder das Angebot eines Lohnunternehmers nutzt. Der Artikel wurde im Rahmen des Teilprojekts "Transfer von Precision Farming" im Forschungsverbundprojekt preagro (gefördert vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung) erstellt.

  9. Surfaces in Precision Engineering, Microengineering and Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Kunzmann, H.; Peggs, G. N.;

    2003-01-01

    with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are presented, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, light and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface properties at micro and nanoscale are considered, including geometry as well as physical and chemical...

  10. Neutrino discoveries lead to precision measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, M

    2002-01-01

    The science of neutrino physics has reached a watershed, with discovery giving way to precision measurements. The author reports from the XXth International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics. Topics covered are low-energy neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, long-baseline experiments, accelerator experiments, neutrino properties, neutrinos in astrophysics and cosmology, dark matter and neutrino telescopes.

  11. Surface texture metrology for high precision surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido

    This paper introduces some of the challenges related to surface texture measurement of high precision surfaces. The paper is presenting two case studies related to polished tool surfaces and micro part surfaces. In both cases measuring instrumentation, measurement procedure and the measurement...

  12. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dheenathayalan, P.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy

  13. Micropropulsion Systems for Precision Controlled Space Flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jack

    . This project is thus concentrating on developing a method by which an entire, ecient, control system compensating for the disturbances from the space environment and thereby enabling precision formation flight can be realized. The space environment is initially studied and the knowledge gained is used...

  14. Results in Precision Multiboson+Jet Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Campanario, Francisco; Englert, Christoph(SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom); Rauch, Michael; Spannowsky, Michael(Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE, U.K.); Zeppenfeld, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    We review recent results in precision multiboson+jet phenomenology at the LHC. We discuss strategies how to compute these processes at NLO QCD and examine the impact of the perturbative corrections on the expected phenomenology, especially in the context of anomalous gauge boson couplings searches.

  15. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  16. Precision measurements of cosmic ray air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Bray, J. D.; Buitink, S.; Dallier, R.; Ekers, R. D.; Falcke, H.; James, C. W.; Martin, L.; Revenu, B.; Scholten, O.; Schröder, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Supplemented with suitable buffering techniques, the low-frequency part of the SKA can be used as an ultra-precise detector for cosmic-ray air showers at very high energies. This would enable a wealth of scientific applications: the physics of the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic ray

  17. Ten Years of Precision Electroweak Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Sirlin, Alberto

    1999-01-01

    We review a number of theoretical developments in Precision Electroweak Physics that are closely connected with the interpretation of experiments. The emphasis is on the test of the Standard Model at the level of its quantum corrections, the search for the Higgs boson, and constraints on new physics.

  18. Proposal for a CLEO precision vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab experiment E691 and CERN experiment NA32 have demonstrated the enormous power of precision vertexing for studying heavy quark physics. Nearly all collider experiments now have or are installing precision vertex detectors. This is a proposal for a precision vertex detector for CLEO, which will be the pre-eminent heavy quark experiment for at least the next 5 years. The purpose of a precision vertex detector for CLEO is to enhance the capabilities for isolating B, charm, and tau decays and to make it possible to measure the decay time. The precision vertex detector will also significantly improve strange particle identification and help with the tracking. The installation and use of this detector at CLEO is an important step in developing a vertex detector for an asymmetric B factory and therefore in observing CP violation in B decays. The CLEO environment imposes a number of unique conditions and challenges. The machine will be operating near the γ (4S) in energy. This means that B's are produced with a very small velocity and travel a distance about 1/2 that of the expected vertex position resolution. As a consequence B decay time information will not be useful for most physics. On the other hand, the charm products of B decays have a higher velocity. For the long lived D+ in particular, vertex information can be used to isolate the charm particle on an event-by-event basis. This helps significantly in reconstructing B's. The vertex resolution for D's from B's is limited by multiple Coulomb scattering of the necessarily rather low momentum tracks. As a consequence it is essential to minimize the material, as measured in radiation lengths, in the beam pip and the vertex detector itself. It is also essential to build the beam pipe and detector with the smallest possible radius

  19. A High-Precision Forecasting Model and Its Constructing Method for Vein-Type Gold Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A high-precision forecasting and prospecting model incorporating the “field theory-field structure analysis-field simulation”, a temporal and spatial structural framework reflecting local extremely fine structures, is established to make an effective extraction and an integrated analysis of multivariate forecasting information. This model can best show not only the coupling between metallogenic anomalous structure, mineralized structure and information structure, but also the extraction, optimization, matching and summarization of key forecasting information. The technological keys to this model are the fine structural analysis of geological and geophysical and geochemical anomalous fields and metallogenic fields, and the establishment of occurrence patterns for the spatial location of orebodies.

  20. Precise measurement of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We propose a method for extraction of the target eccrine sweat gland by use of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en-face OCT images are constructed by the SS-OCT. Furthermore, we demonstrate precise measurement of instantaneous volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus. The dynamic change of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating is performed by this method during the period of 300 sec with the frame intervals of 3.23 sec.