WorldWideScience

Sample records for bumon ni okeru

  1. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the coal preparation sector in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sentan bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Specifying the coal preparation technology among clean coal technologies (CCT) in China, the paper investigated governmental policies, plans, standards of coal preparation technology, subjects, etc. toward the introduction/spread of coal preparation technology, and studied decision, introduction and spread of the coal preparation system suitable for the coal utilization status in China. The survey was conducted in Shanxi and Henan Provinces which are main provinces of coal production, and field survey was made at some selected coal preparation plants having different operational conditions. In the field survey, problems on the operation were extracted, and points of improvement were studied at the same time. Further, to grasp the positioning of coal preparation in CCT in China, survey was carried out on laws and regulation on coal preparation in terms of energy and environmental policies. Finally, the result of the field survey was analyzed, a coal preparation system of which the introduction/spread in medium- and long-term are enabled was proposed considering the coal utilization status and economic situation in China, and how to introduce/spread it was studied. 35 figs., 42 tabs.

  2. Improvement of magnetic properties of Fe-50mass%Ni in MIM process; MIM process ni okeru Fe-50mass%Ni no jiki tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Fujita, S. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Fujita, M.; Ninomiya, R. [Mitsuikinzoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-15

    Metal injection molding (MIM) process is hoped to be one of processing for required to more complicated parts of magnetic components. In this study, the effect of different types of powders (prealloyed and mixed elemental powders) on the magnetic properties of permalloy (Fe-50mass%Ni) through the MIM technique was investigated. Approximately 94% of theoretical density was obtained by using the prealloyed powder, and the retained carbon and oxygen contents were controlled to be low. On the other hand, 96% of theoretical density was obtained by using the mixed elemental powder, but the magnetic properties were inferior to that of prealloyed powder's because of high retained oxygen content. By using the carbonyl Fe powder with high carbon, the retained oxygen and carbon content could be controlled to be low, resulting in the improved magnetic properties. (author)

  3. Application of new analytical techniques to the order-disorder transformation in Ni-Mo alloys; Ni-Mo gokin no kisoku-fukisoku hentai ni okeru atarashii kozo kaiseki no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, K.; Hata, S.; Kuwano, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper presents the analytical example of the ordering process of order-disorder transformation in Ni-Mo alloy using recent experimental techniques. Monte Carlo simulation clarified the fact that the ordering process in Ni4-Mo alloy is largely affected by short range interaction in the early stage of ordering, and forms D1a, D022 and Pt2Mo structure units with a similar atomic pair correlation. The ordering process is largely affected by long range interaction with an advance of ordering, and develops only D1a structure most stable in energy. In order to check the existence of SRO (short range order) structure obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, the analysis of high-resolution TEM images under SRO condition was carried out using the imaging plate recently developed for TEM. The analytical result showed that the observed N2M3 pattern is derived from not always the existence of N2M3 structure but superimposition of D1a, D022 and Pt2Mo structure units. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Solute element distribution and carbide formation in Ni-base superalloys fabricated by rheocasting. Kaiten kakuhan gyokoshita Ni ki chogokin ni okeru yoshitsu genso no bunpu to tankabutsu seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Y.; Ichikawa, K. (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)); Matsuo, M. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-20

    An attention has begun being given on a method for manufacturing highly ductile metallic materials by means of mechanically stirring the materials in solid-liquid coexisting region and uniformly micronizing the structure. This study discussed effects of the rotation stirring on the microstructures, distribution of solute elements, carbide formation, phosphorous segregation and solid-liquid distribution coefficients in the Ni-base superalloy TMP-3. The results obtained may be summarized as: In the agitated structural material stirred at 70 rev/s in the solid-liquid coexisting region, the dendrite structure was broken up and equiaxed grain structure with the primary solid particle size of 65{plus minus}15{mu}m was formed; the element distribution of Ni, Cr, Co, Al, Ti, Mo, Nb, and W showed no noticeable difference by positions in the structure; the size of{gamma}{prime} phase precipitated on crystal boundaries decreases when cast by rheocasting than when cast stationarily; and the carbides of Nb, Ti and Mo precipitate uniformly along grain boundaries, different from that they precipitate in a plate form in stationary casting. 19 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Effects of solvent and catalysts on the hydrogenolysis of alkylnaphthalenes; Alkylnaphthalene no suisoka bunkai ni okeru yobai to shokubai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamura, S. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Catalytic effects of metal and carbon materials, which promote hydrogen transfer from hydrogen donor solvents, are investigated during hydrogenolysis of benzyl-1-methylnaphthalenes (BMN) selected as a hydrogen acceptor. For the isomer distribution of BMN after the reaction, almost the same molecular ratio before the reaction was obtained independent of the presence of catalysts. Selectivity of position during the addition of hydrogen atoms from tetralin was not found. For the reaction of BMN in tetralin, 1-methylnaphthalene and toluene were obtained as products, but the formation of benzylnaphthalene was not found. As for the nuclear hydride of BMN, the trace amount formation was confirmed by gas chromatography. For the hydrogen transfer from tetralin progressed catalytically, it was found that the nuclear of naphthalene can not be hydrogenated easily. This was considered to be due to the obstruction of hydrogen transfer from tetralin by the strong adsorption of BMN on the Ni surface. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Characterization of the various catalyst for solvent hydrogenation at 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru kakushu yozai suisoka shokubai no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakebayashi, H.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Performance of various catalysts for hydrogenation of recycle solvent was evaluated for the operation of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU). Distillate between 220 and 538{degree}C derived from the liquefaction of Tanito Harum coal was used as recycle solvent. Deactivation behaviors of catalysts were compared using a prediction equation of catalyst life, by which aromatic carbon index (fa) after hydrogenation can be determined from the fa of recycle oil before hydrogenation, reaction temperature, and total hydrogenation time. Total hydrogenation time satisfying the {Delta}fa, 0.05 before and after hydrogenation were 8,000, 4,000, and 2,000 hours for NiMo-based catalysts C, A, and B, respectively. Catalyst C showed the longest life. Used catalysts were also characterized. The catalyst C showed larger mean pore size than those of the others, which resulted in the longer life due to the delay of pore blockage. From measurements by XPS and EPMA, relative atomic concentration of carbon increased remarkably after the use for all of catalysts, which was considered to be due to the adhesion of hydrocarbons. Increase of metal atoms, such as Fe and Cr, was also observed due to the contamination of entrainment residues. Deactivation of catalysts was caused by the adhesion of hydrocarbons, and metallic compounds, such as Fe and Cr. 3 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  7. Tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magma series at Adatara volcano, northesast Japan. ; Evolution mechanisms and genetic relationship. Tohoku Nippon, Adatara kazan ni okeru soreaito, karuku alkaline magma keiretsu. ; Sono shinka mechanism to seiin kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinawa, A. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-07-15

    In this report, the generation and evolution processes of coexisting low-alkali tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas at Adatara volcano is discussed on the basis of petrological data, and a reasonable petrological model is proposed. For the tholeiitic suite, variations of major-, trace- and rare earth-elements and Sr isotopic compositions are explained with the fractional crystallization hypothesis. These are mineralogical observations supporting this hypothesis. In contrast, for calc-alkaline suite, compositional variations of considerable numbers of major-elements and trace-elements are explained with the fractional crystallization model, but wide variations of Ni and Cr, and light REE heavy-REE ratios are inconsistent with this model. It is considered that other processes, such as mixing of magmas, assimilation and gaseous transfer, may have operated as additional processes. Also, mineralogical data are compatible with this view. 62 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. nihon no iryo jujisha ni okeru shokugyosei sutoresu

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 慎也

    2014-01-01

    主査 : 水野雅文 /タイトル : Occupational stress among healthcare workers in Japan /著者 : Shinya Ito, Shigeru Fujita, Kanako Seto, Takefumi Kitazawa, Kunichika Matsumoto, Tomonori Hasegawa /掲載誌 : Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation /巻号・発行年等 : 49(2):225-234, 2014 /本文ファイル : 出版者版

  9. Bonded structure application for aircraft. Kokuki ni okeru secchaku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, O. (Japan Airlines Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-05

    Adhesives play an important role in a technology of the aircraft structure for which lightness and strength are required. The paper explains the present situation of bonding technology employed for aircraft, the honeycomb structure, production of composite materials and the related problems. Advantages and purposes of employing adhesives as substitutes for fasteners like screws, rivets, etc. are as follows: decreases in stress concentration, weight reduction, smoothing of surfaces, improvement of acoustic fatigue by adhesives flexibility, prevention of gas-liquid leakage. Epoxide adhesives are mainly used for aircraft. Together with tear straps, which are metal-metal bonded to the rear fuselage plate of aircraft, and waffle doublers, an aluminium honeycomb sandwich structure, whose weight is 1/7 of an aluminium plate same in rigidity, is used in such parts of aircraft as spoilers, outer plates of flaps, etc. The problem of the bonded structure is detachment. Therefore, how to prevent, discover and repair it is most important. 3 figs.

  10. Effect of massive transformation on formation of acicular structure in austenitic stainless steel weld metal solidified as ferritic single phase. Report 5. Study on solidification and subsequent transformation of Cr-Ni stainless steel weld metals; Feraito tanso de gyokosuru osutenaito kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku ni okeru ashikyura jo soshiki no keisei ni oyobosu masshibu hentai no eikyo.5. Cr-Ni kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku no gyoko/hentai ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H.; Koseki, T.; Okita, S.; Fuji, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    The authors clarified that massive transformation occurs at two phase region under To temperature and there is K-S relation between the massive formation phase and base phase using {gamma} stainless steel that solidifies at F mode and forms acicular structure at room temperature structure. There is a possibility of massive transformation in weld metals because the cooling rate below the high temperature To was high even for normal welding process. Thereupon, in this report, whether the massive transformation effects the formation of acicular structure or not was studied as for {gamma} stainless steel weld metal that solidifies at F mode and room temperature structure becomes acicular form of two {delta} and {gamma} phase. As a result, it was clarified that massive transformation occurs at two phase region with temperature below To, and the room temperature structure was acicular form structure irrespective to massive transformation in case of composition with small Cr/Ni ratio even in case of stainless steel that solidifies at F mode. 20 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Noise characterization in SWD survey; SWD ni okeru noise ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T.; Ozawa, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    SWD (Seismic While Drilling) is located as one kind of the reverse VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) technology, and a working drill-bit is used as its energy-source. The SWD is carried out for a check-shot survey as well as a prediction ahead of the bit. The largest advantage of the SWD technology may be a prediction, while drilling, of a drilling hazard such as an abnormal pressure zone. On the other hand, a serious disadvantage exists in the data quality due to a contamination by large noises generated from a working rig, because the SWD survey is done `while drilling`. Regarding the characteristics of these noises, especially the noise received by surface geophones has not been clarified quantitatively yet. Through several field experiments, the authors have evaluated the characteristics. In this paper, the dominant frequency range of the surface geophone noise is discussed. Furthermore, the noise from the mud motor is also discussed. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Study on the time-domain electromagnetic responses; TDEM ho ni okeru denji oto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, K.; Endo, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With an objective to perform three-dimensional analysis with high accuracy in using the electromagnetic exploration method, characteristics in electromagnetic response were analyzed, and conditions for acquiring necessary data were discussed. The discussion defined a parameter called `response anomaly` which uses response from media to standardize response only from substances with abnormal resistivity. The receivers were located uniformly on the same plane, and the response anomaly was derived from electromagnetic response from each of the three horizontal and vertical components at each receiving point, which was expressed as a contour map. The parameter for the abnormal body was consisted of location and resistivity contrast with media. Discussions using the contour map were given on the response when these factors for the parameter were varied. As a result, it was found that the response anomaly appears in the form that reflects the abnormal body, and the response anomaly of the horizontal component is superior in terms of being large. It was also referred that, as a requirement for the abnormal body which gives larger impact from the electromagnetic response, the abnormal body should have lower resistivity than that in the media, and resistivity contrast with the media should be greater. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Present status of geothermal power development in Kyushu; Kyushu ni okeru chinetsu hatsuden no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyoshi, M. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    The present situation was introduced of the geothermal power generation in Kyushu. In Kyushu, where there are lots of volcanos and abundant geothermal resources, the geothermal exploration has been made since long ago. Three non-utility use units at three geothermal power generation points and six commercial use units at five points are now in operation in Kyushu. The total output is approximately 210 MW, about 40% of the domestic geothermal power generation. At Otake and Hacchobaru geothermal power plants, the Kyushu Electric Power Company made the geothermal resource exploration through the installation/operation of power generation facilities. At the Otake power plant, a geothermal water type single flashing system was adopted first in the country because of its steam mixed with geothermal water. At the Hacchobaru power plant, adopted were a two-phase flow transportation system and a double flashing system in which the geothermal water separated from primary steam by separator is more reduced in pressure to take out secondary steam. Yamakawa, Ogiri and Takigami power plants are all for the joint exploration. Geothermal developers drill steam wells and generate steam, and the Kyushu Electric Power Company buys the steam and uses it for power generation. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Role of geophysical exploration for civil engineering; Doboku chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Sato, S. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the current status of applying geophysical exploration to civil engineering works, application examples of latest geophysical exploration technologies in typical civil engineering fields (dams, tunnels, banks, and civil engineering works in urban areas), and of geophysical exploration technologies specially devised at civil engineering work sites. The applications include utilization in rock classification and weathering division, estimation of grouting effect and its injection scope, determination of loosening as a result of tunnel excavation, utilization of the relationship between S-wave velocity and N-value revealed by the standard penetration test, and tunnel front exploration. A well logging technique utilizing boring holes is available as a latest technology. Tomography technology using elastic waves, specific resistance and radar has its application increased as it is used in dams, tunnels, and foundations of other important structures. Attempts are made on application of explorations using the shallow bed reflection method and three-dimensional exploration method. Frequently used technologies include seismic exploration using the refraction method for dams, high-density electric exploration for tunnels, electric exploration for banking, and PS logging using the suspension method for structure foundations. 30 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Petroleum exploration and production in Japan; Nihon kokunai ni okeru sekiyu tanko to seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, M.

    2000-02-01

    The production of crude oil was started even in Japan from the nineteenth century to the twentieth century beginning in Niigata Prefecture, and the real petroleum industry was produced. The production has been started even in Akita Prefecture in the age in Taisho and Showa. The petroleum industry in Japan developed from the comparatively old like this. However, it is not very much known generally. Because of the oil of output is fewer than an amount of import from foreign countries. This paper describes oil gas rice pad in Japan and the production situation. (NEDO)

  16. SWD experiment at Southwest Andrews oil field; Nansei Andrews yuden ni okeru SWD jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozawa, T.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    Seismic while drilling (SWD) is an accurate drilling method by which time-to-depth (T-D) information for determining the accurate bit location and information of bedding boundaries below the bit can be obtained. However, the signal level is rather low compared with the noise generated from the rig during drilling. It is required for improving the S/N ratio to calculate a correlation using reference signals simultaneously acquired using a pilot sensor which is a geophone attached to the rig. Some experiments were conducted in the Southwest Andrews Oil Field. Deterioration of data quality due to the noise particular to the SWD in this oil field could be reduced by proper data acquisition geometry including the minimum offset distance using a geophone array. In order to correct the time, a velocity of P-wave propagating the drill pipe was estimated using auto-correlation of the pilot traces. The S/N ratio was improved by the VSP deconvolution and the stacking effect during VSP-CDP conversion. Thus, could be obtained the accurate T-D information and reflection wave information below the bit. 12 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Problems of adhering organisms in power stations. Hatsudensho ni okeru fuchaku seibutsu no mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Isamu (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-01-05

    Much seawater is used in thermal power station in Japan to cool condensers but organisms adhered on the water channel system result many troubles such as increase of flowing resistance, reduction of thermal transfer efficiendy, corrosion or erosion-corrosion of condenser pipes, and cleaning difficulty for periodic inspection. Living organisms range from micro bacteria of 2 mum to oysters and others of about 10cm size. For these reasons, the intake open channel is previously designed to larger size and this margin is called the shellfish allowance. Mussels which adhere most on circulating water channels, are one of Bivalvia, grow to 3-6cm and in maximum case to 9cm in a year. These adhere on the surface base by secreting adhesive disc consisting of byssus. Barnacles are one of Crustacea and their larvas search preferable places as to light, roughness and water flow and can adhere on a place in considerably rapid water flow. Other organisms are bacteria and Hydrozoa. Many problems are caused by these organisms even now. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Evaluation technology of lead-free solders; Namari free handa zairyo ni okeru hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, M.; Shiokawa, K. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development,Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-09-10

    Solders mainly composed of tin and lead are currently in widespread use in semiconductor devices. However, in view of lead influences on the human body and environmental problems, lead-free solders have been in urgent demand. In this study, aiming to improve the solderability and reliability of a tin-silver solder, one of most promising lead-free solder materials, we have investigated elements to be added. Focusing on typical lead-free tin-silver solders and tin-lead eutectic solders, this paper describes the result of investigations into the mechanical properties solderability, micro structures of the solder materials and gas analysis in soldering. (author)

  19. Annual energy review-1996; 1996 nen ni okeru juyona energy kankei jiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-20

    This paper reviews the important items concerned with energy in 1996. Primary energy supply sums to 529times10{sup 13}kcal increasing by 2.4% over last year. The growth rates of demand over last year are 2.5% in industry use, 3.7% in transport use, 3.7% in home use, and 1.3% in business use. On R & D trend of use technologies of energy resources, the following are described: (1) Petroleum: resource exploitation, transport, stock, refining, and petrochemistry, (2) Coal: resource exploitation, coal structure and property, processing, transport, liquefaction, gasification, carbonization, tar industry, carbon industry, and coal ash utilization, (3) Natural gas: resource exploitation, transport, storage, and conversion technology, (4) Natural energy: hydraulic, solar, geothermal, wind power, oceanic and biomass energies, and (5) Others: waste resources, hydrogen and alcohol. On R & D trend of energy conversion technology, combustion theory, boiler, engine, thermal energy system, and high-efficiency power generation technology are described. Environmental problems and their protective technologies are also described

  20. Study of active noise control in ducts. Kanrokei ni okeru nodoteki soon seigyo hoho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Yoshiatsu

    1988-08-01

    On an active control to reduce noise in ducts, the theoretical and experimental studies of the energies ratio of the noise and the cancelling sound which should be produced by a speaker, were carried out. In case the cancelling sound was produced by the speaker which was set in the branch duct, the energies ratio varied with the setting position, the length and the cross section of the branch duct and the frequency of the noise. As the non-dimensional length of the branch duct was drawing near 0.5, the energies ratio became small. But when the non-dimensional length was 0, the ratio did not become smaller than 1. The experimental test confirmed that it was possible to reduce the noise by the cancelling sound which energies ratio was as small as about one hundredth of the noise. In case the noise was the pure sound, and the wave-length was over one fourth of the duct diameter, it was possible to reduce the noise more than 40 dB. And in case the wave-length was one eighth the reduction quantity was about 20 dB. Therefore, in case the noise is the pure sound or close to the pure sound, it is possible to apply the active noise control. 5 references, 23 figures.

  1. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Refraction experiment in the Kobe-Hanshin area; Kobe Hanshin kan ni okeru kussetsuho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koketsu, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    The refraction experiments were conducted to investigate the underground structures reaching the basement by analyzing the results of the artificial earthquakes the explosion earthquake research group produced in City of Kobe and the Hanshin District on December 12 to 15, 1995. Considering that noise level can exceed 1 mkine in an urban area even in the mid-night, the courses of traverse were drawn focusing on Points S2 through S4 and U1. The earthquake waves from Points S2 through S4 are generally low in amplitude. However, the major components of the signals have a dominant frequency exceeding 10Hz, which makes them distinguishable from urban noise having a lower frequency, contrary to the previous indication that such a low-amplitude wave might not be distinguishable. On the other hand, the signals from the explosion at Point 4 in Awaji Island cannot be distinguished in the urban area, even on the nearby course of traverse D. At present, the analytical group is organized to read various phases running and analyze the P-velocity structures. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Survey of Joint Implementation activities in China; Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is a large task for Japan to positively promote the Joint Implementation activities related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Rapid increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases, especially CO2, is predicted in China with remarkable economic growth and population of 1.2 billion. It is essential to promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. In this survey, framework, organization, problems and tasks were investigated to effectively promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. Construction of framework for the real Joint Implementation activities has been proposed. Current problems for promoting the Joint Implementation activities in China are that the distinct guideline for the Joint Implementation is not established in the government, that the receiving system including receiving, planning and arranging sections is not established, and that the burden problems for the costs of project evaluation, data acquisition, monitoring, and verification are not solved. 5 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Measures taken for recycling at beer breweries; Beer kojo ni okeru saishigenka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, M. [Kirin Breweri Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-05

    Full recycling of waste was achieved in our all breweries in 1998. This paper introduces the history to solve the problems relating to waste in our beer brewerise, our basic consideration for recycling, the status of waste generation and recycling activities, our measures taken for recycling and its relating cost, and in addition, the general measures taken by our industry as a whole. (author)

  5. Moored observation of the Indonesia throughflow; Indonesia tsuka ryuiki ni okeru keiryu kansoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashino, Y. [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Watanabe, H.; Yamaguchi, H. [Sanyo Techno Marine Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan); Herunadi, B.; Hartoyo, D.

    1998-10-16

    This paper partially reports the observation in the southern part of the Philippine Sea of the Indonesian throughflow that JAMSTEC performed jointly with the Applied Agency of Indonesian Engineering Evaluation. From February 1994 to June 1995, two mooring systems were established between the Talaud Island and Morotai Islands to examine the ocean variability of the Indonesian throughflow. As a result, a strong northwestward flow (that carries the mixed sea water of intermediate water in the North Pacific and high salt water in the South Pacific) of which the maximum flow velocity reaches 60 m/s in the southern mooring system with the water depth of 300 to 700 m was observed in each winter of 1994 and 1995. A westward flow that carries the South Pacific water toward the Maluku Sea in summer was observed in the southern mooring system. In both mooring systems, oscillation was detected at intervals of approximately 50 days. 36 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Technology of latent-heat recovery for boiler system; Boira ni okeru sennetsu kaishu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, T. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    The boiler has reached the highest degree of completion among combustion equipment and is highly efficient. In order to enhance its efficiency further, it is ordinary to recover the retention heat of the combustion exhaust gas, but due to the problem of low temperature corrosion caused by the sulfur content in fuel resulted from a temperature drop of the exhaust gas, heat recovery has been done not sufficiently. In this article, an example is introduced to plan the betterment of efficiency by application of a latent heat recovering economizer to a sugar manufactory and a report is made on the energy saving effect by recovering the latent heat and a study on the quality of the material for the latent heat reclaimer. The above latent heat reclaimer is a system which takes advantage of the feature of the natural gas reportedly having no sulfur content, brings down the temperature at the outlet of a heat exchanger of the boiler exhaust gas to below the dew point, thereby recovers the condensed latent heat of the vapor in the exhaust gas and utilizes it for heating up the boiler feed water. In this example, the line of an already installed boiler has been partially modified and only a latent heat reclaimer has been installed newly. The increase of efficiency has been as high as 5.28%. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Wind turbine power generation projects supported by NEDO; NEDO ni okeru furyoku hatsuden shien jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The long-term energy supply/demand balance prospects, reviewed in 1998, revise the wind turbine power generation target greatly upward to 300,000kW by 2010. Outlined herein are the national wind turbine power generation projects promoted by NEDO. The wind power development field test projects investigated wind conditions in detail at 94 sites, designed systems for 31 sites and installed/operated the systems at 13 sites during the FY1995 - 1998 period. The new energy enterpriser support projects tend to be concentrated in the coastal areas facing the Sea of Japan, from Hokkaido to Tohoku/Hokuriku districts, having an annual average wind velocity in a range from 5.3 to 6.2m/s at a height of 20m from the ground. The wind turbine capacity ranges from 800kW as the minimum eligible level for the national project to 20,000kW. It is expected that the project produces relatively good results at each site. The local new energy introduction promotion projects, supported by local autonomies, have been spreading throughout Japan since FY1997. The locally supported projects are expected to be more profitable than the national projects. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Wood bioindustry in the 21st century. 21 seki ni okeru mokuzai bio kogyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, T. (Research Association for systematic Utilization of Wood Components, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    For these about ten tears, technology has remarkably made progress to convert chemical contents of wood, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin into effective materials. As for the fractionation of wood contents, a mutual bonding is noted to be physically or chemically made respectively among all cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin which are structural contents of wood cell wall. Therefore, each of those contents must be fractionated and separated to be converted and utilized, which methods comprise, among others, digestion and explosive crushing method, acetic acid digestion method, and fine powder saccharification method. For the chemical and biochemical conversion of fractionated contents, it was introduced that the hemicellulose is thoroughly hydrolyzed, converted into monosaccharide xylose, further reduced to xylitol and finally converted into xylooligosaccharide and reduced xylooligosaccharide. Also, butanediol can be biologically produced by conversion. As for the chemical and biochemical conversion and utilization of cellulose, the cellulose can be hydrolyzed to glucose with enzyme to derive sorbitol, acetone and acetic acid by fermentation, and many other kinds of material. 7 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Role of advanced technology in mechanical engineering. Kikai kogaku ni okeru cho no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koda, T. (Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-10-05

    Since technology prefixed with 'super' is ultra-technology in another word, two kinds of work are introduced, that are on-going in the ultra-technology section in Mechanical Engineering Lab., the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. It is noted therewith that in order to realize 'super', introduction of knowledge of unfamiliar fields to mechanical engineering is one of ways. The first is a research on ion-injection onto solid surfaces by introducing quantum mechanics to mechanical engineering. Possibility of rotating new materials and physical properties is under investigation using MeV ion injection equipment. The second is a research on named 'cozy machine'. This is an example of introduction of physiological knowledge and is based on the concept that an operator can handle his machine pleasantly if it is controlled with his proper biorhythm. The possibility to form 1/f sway related to being cozy is shown using electrocardiographic signals upon which the interval of an R wave showing the largest amplitude is determined. Rotating machines are controlled in proportion to the potential. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Magnetic prospecting in Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb; Kaibukiyama kofun ni okeru zenjiryoku sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1996-10-01

    Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb located in Kumeda, Kishiwada City, Osaka has a square shape in the front and an orbicular shape in the rear, which was considered to be made in the 4th century. This ancient tomb has a total length about 135 m, a diameter of orbicular shape in the rear about 82 m, and a height about 9 m, which is a symbolical existence of the Kumeda ancient tombs. Stone chamber and stone casket made of Sanbagawa crystalline schist or rhyolitic-andesitic tuff are expected in this tomb. Magnetic prospecting in this study is accompanied with this survey. A differential type proton magnetometer was used for the measurements, which were conducted using meshes with 1 m edges. A pair of distinct positive and negative magnetic anomalies were observed in the center of orbicular shape in the rear. This coincides with a location of main body buried, which is archaeologically estimated. The magnetic anomaly might be caused by the article buried in the tomb, such as ironware, based on the measurement of magnetic intensity. From the calculated values of magnetic anomaly using a model, the buried article with magnetic anomaly was considered to have a size with length of 1 m, width of 0.1 m, and height of 0.2m. The negative magnetic anomaly could not be explained only by this. It is necessary to consider the other reasons. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area; Hanshin chiiki ni okeru bido no kihon tokusei nitsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Suzuki, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Seo, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To increase general understandings of fundamental characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area, microtremors have been observed at Sumiyoshi River-side, Rokko Island, and Nishinomiya. Relations were discussed among the stability of predominant period, successive fluctuation and meteorological conditions. For the analysis, cosine-type taper was conducted before and after 10% of the observed records, and Fourier spectrum was calculated by smoothing using Parzen window with a band width 0.3 Hz. Geometrical mean of two components was used as a horizontal component. At the observation points except Sumiyoshi River-side, predominance in the short period side was not distinct, and was not stable due to the successive fluctuation of predominant period. However, there was less successive fluctuation of spectrum ratio between different two points in the band with period more than 1 sec. Since there was a close correlation between the successive fluctuation in this band and the wind velocity or air pressure, the microtremors in this band was affected by a single vibration source. Ground characteristics could be illustrated by the averages of ratio against base points of moving observation. 14 refs.

  12. Detailed seismic intensity in Morioka area; Moriokashi ni okeru shosai shindo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Settai, H. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamada, T. [Obayashi Road Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To reveal a seismic intensity distribution in individual areas, a large-scale detailed seismic intensity survey was conducted in Morioka City through questionnaire, as to the Hokkaido Toho-oki (HE) earthquake occurred on October 4, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 4 at Morioka, and the Sanriku Haruka-oki (SH) earthquake occurred on December 28, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 5 at Morioka. A relationship was also examined between the seismic intensity distribution and the properties of shallow basement in Morioka City. The range of seismic intensity was from 2.9 to 4.6 and the difference was 1.7 in the case of HE earthquake, and the range was from 3.1 to 5.0 and the difference was 1.9 in the case of SH earthquake. There were large differences in the seismic intensity at individual points. Morioka City has different geological structures in individual areas. There were differences in the S-wave velocity in the surface layer ranging from 150 to 600 m/sec, which were measured using a plate hammering seismic source at 76 areas in Morioka City. These properties of surface layers were in harmony with the seismic intensity distribution obtained from the questionnaire. For the observation of short frequency microtremors at about 490 points in the city, areas with large amplitudes, mean maximum amplitudes of vertical motion components more than 0.1 mkine were distributed in north-western region and a part of southern region. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Development of a platoon driving AHS; AHS jikkensha ni okeru gunsoko seigyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Y.; Inoue, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nissan and the Public Work Research Institute of the Ministry of Construction are developing an Automated Highway System. We are investigating a longitudinal control system in AHS. In this paper, a vehicle control method using two actuators an engine and a brake, is described. Experimental and simulated results are shown. A Platoon driving control method using road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication is described. And the influence of the communication on the control performance is shown by experiments and simulation. The effects of the communication device and control device mentioned above are verified by experimental results in an AHS field test conducted in September 1996 on a dosed highway. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Mechatronization of rotating machines in plant; Plant ni okeru kaiten kikai no mechatronics ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, H. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-10-01

    This paper introduces mechatronization of rotating machines in a plant, with application examples of electronic governors as the main subject. For centrifugal compressors, design and fabrication of anti surging control system have become possible by using a programmable logic controller (PLC) and a distributed control system (DCS) with fine scanning time. An electronic governor for turbine control has been added with a function to control amount of power generated by a motive force recovery device in a flowing catalytic cracking equipment by means of an expander inlet valve. This has made possible to operate the motive force recovery device automatically even under a low load operation. With an electronic governor to control supply and receipt amount of steam to and from an existing plant, the governor valve opening angles were so controlled that actual steam header pressure matches the setting, whereas the steam has become possible to be utilized without waste under normal operation. Operation of a comprehensive compressor/turbine monitoring system on DCS, operation of centrifugal compressors of two casings by using electromagnetic bearings, and motor speed control with use of an inverter heve also become possible. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Improvement works of water quality in the enclosed area. Heisasei kaiiki ni okeru suishitsu kaizen jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, Y. (Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-10

    This paper introduces specific examples of measures to preserve and improve water quality as adopted in the harbor environment administration to prevent pollution and create comfortable environments. In the investigation of ocean bottom purification, a test construction has been carried out using a sand covering method at Mikawa Bay. The sand covering method uses good quality sand to cover sludge on the ocean bottom to suppress dissolution of nutrients that have been revolving from the ocean bottom sludge into sea water. The method also reduces dissolved oxygen consumption in sea water by the ocean bottom sludge and improves the water quality in the area and the ecosystems. In the change of ocean bottom sludge quality in vertical distribution in the sand covered area, the COD content decreased more largely than in the current ocean bottom, but it increased more largely with lapse of time during which floating mud has precipitated. The 'sea blue' technology development project intends to implement the following activities compositely: advancement of environment improving technologies that utilize natural purification ability; environmental improvement including sludge dredging, and improving water quality and ocean bottom quality; improvement of green areas that are highly friendly with water; and application of measures to form amenity spaces. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Radio communication for motor sports; Motor sports ni okeru musen tsushin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, K. [Kenwood Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes general radio communication, and radio telephone and data communication for motor sports. The radio communication for racing cars is largely disturbed by car noises and peripheral noises. The adverse effect of noises caused by on-board computer on communication, and that of radio waves on a computer are unavoidable. The radio communication is also disturbed by various radio devices in a racing circuit. As disturbance measures, change of radio frequency and filtering are necessary. For the radio telephone communication between a driver and a manager or a manager and team staffs, a close-talking microphone or a microphone with a noise canceler are used to pick up proper voices from strong roaring. However, although the frequency band of engine noises is nearly equal to that of human voices, separation of voices is extremely difficult. The car data during racing are transmitted rapidly to a pit by microwave communication, and used for the planning of a race strategy in a pit. (NEDO)

  19. Array TDEM survey at the Yufuin fault; Yufuin danso ni okeru array shiki TDEM tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, Y.; Fukuda, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Science; Jomori, N. [Chiba Electric Research Institute Co., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The array arrangement of receivers was studied to improve the resolution of LOTEM (long offset transient electromagnetics) survey. To eliminate the effect of underground structure from a source to a receiving point, continuous array arrangement from a source site is desirable. The survey at the Yufuin fault was carried out by arranging TEM receivers at intervals of 100m from the source. Since the synchronization between transmitting and receiving points by high-precision clock is essential, an amplifier for a flux gate magnetometer capable of measuring at four points at the same time was used. In the south plateau of the Yufuin basin, a relatively high resistivity stratum more than several tens ohm m exists at depth less than several hundreds meter, and a low resistivity stratum less than 10 ohm m exists under that. Those boundary depth increases toward the north up to 950m, and the depth subsequently decreases toward the north until the low resistivity stratum disappears. In addition, the uniform stratum of 1000m deep continues toward the north. Such precise resistivity structure around the fault was obtained by dense arrangement of measuring points. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Challenge of the global warming-JAMA. Chikyu ondanka mondai to jidosha sangyo ni okeru torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. (Japan Automobile Manufactures Association Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    This paper summarizes the global warming problem challenged by the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. An investigative analysis was carried out on CO2 related data. Its gists are described as follows: The rate of contribution to CO2 emission in the automotive sector is about 17%; fuel consumption improvement has long been discussed, but is in a trend of hitting the ceiling because of the needs of mounting gears for safety improvement and of vehicle upsizing; amount of fuels used is increasing year after year; the rate of the increase correlates with the economy growth; the growth of CO2 emission from automobiles would be smaller than the values given in several reports as a result of the Japanese economic growth lower than the anticipation; effects of the fuel consumption improvement are assumed to reduce CO2 emission by several percentage points in 2000; electric vehicles could reduce CO2 emission by 40% per car if nuclear power generation is partly used; fluorocarbon used in the automobile industry is for foaming, rinsing and air conditioners, with its use in the former two applications being planned to be totally abolished; and the problem thereof exists in air conditioners, for which recovery, leakage measures, and conversion to new coolants are being discussed. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Exploration under pavement by electromagnetic subsurface profiling. Hosoka ni okeru roban rosho heno haaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, C.; Miyatsu, Y.; Seki, M. (Construction Project Consultant Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    This paper reports explorations on change in roadbeds and subgrades under pavement by means of an electromagnetic wave method (underground radar method). The paper summarizes the measurement principle of this exploration method, the measurement equipment (consisting of a control unit, an antenna unit, and an image output unit), and data analysis and processing. It is indicated that the quality of the exploration result is governed by the antenna used, whereas a reference is shown for selecting antennas according to the exploration objects (embedded pipes, underground cavities, and pavement thickness) and depths of the explorations. The paper then lists examples of explorations conducted by using antennas with a frequency of 500 MHz. The explorations include the following cases: cavities directly below concrete seals (with a thickness of 10 cm), hume pipes (with a diameter of 10 cm) embedded in a depth of 1.1 m under asphalt pavement, clearances existing in subgrades, loosened ground bed believed to have been caused by immersion, and clearances (depth of 70 cm) existing in ground beds behind bridge piers. 5 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Geophysical exploration in environmental engineering; Kankyo engineering ni okeru butsuri tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes underground environmental issues to which geophysical exploration can be applied. Especially, ground pollution, waste treatment and unexploded ordnance (mine) detection are discussed by considering worldwide technology trends through examples in Japan and the USA. Since environmental surveys are generally conducted for regional and rather shallow ground, rapidity, economy and high resolution are required for geophysical exploration. In response to these demands, a mapping system using capacitor electrodes and a complex resistivity method for detecting organic compounds are promising for the electrical prospecting. A shallow electromagnetic method is being standardized for the electromagnetic prospecting. A cesium magnetic gradient meter is also being standardized for the magnetic prospecting. An underground radar, seismic prospecting, and gravitational prospecting are also applied to some grounds. Prospecting of pollution sources, high- and low-concentration ground pollution, monitoring of pollutant removal, soundness survey of water barrier in management-type waste treatment place, and detection of unexploded ordnance are illustrated for the examples. 15 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Port construction projects in Sabah, Malaysia; Malaysia Sabah shu ni okeru kowan koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuwaka, M.; Ichinose, Y. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-15

    This paper introduces civil engineering circumstances in Sabah, Malaysia through harbor constructions in the past decade. The state of Sabah has a large number of good natural harbors with coast lines formed complexly, and these harbors are managed and operated by the Sabah Harbor Department since 1968. The first two-decade long-term plan (1976 to date) has developed major harbors, and the second two-decade plan (1992 to 2012) has selected important harbors and is moving new improvements forward. Export of woods and imports of general consumer goods and industrial products had been the major activities of the ports before the 1980`s, while wood export has changed from logs to lumbers, and palm oil export and fertilizer import have increased after the 1990`s. The paper describes renewal and expansion constructions of harbor facilities at Kota Kinabalu Port, and constructions at the harbor for rationalization in containerization, and for building a movable pier for ferry use. At Lahad Datu Port, constructions for building container yards and new piers are in progress as the expansion constructions as of 1996. Because the construction sites are located in maritime tropical rain forest climate with high temperature and much rainfall, attentions are paid on concrete placement temperatures and quality control. 7 figs.

  4. Dissipative structure of mechanically stimulated reaction; Kikaiteki reiki hanno ni okeru san`itsu kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-20

    Recently various studies have been conducted concerning the state changes of materials obtained through mechanical alloying (MA) or mechano-chemical (MC) processing. What is noticeable is the quasi-steady state of almost all the materials obtained through various processes including MA and MC, and that the super cooling, supersaturating and high residue distortion realized under unbalanced conditions have not been clarified. In other words, the tracing capability to the external binding conditions is low. In this report, the appearance of the high temperature phase and high pressure phase obtained through MA or MC processing, the forming of amorphous, the mesomerism of the amorphous materials, the interesting phenomena generated by combination between the mechanical disturbance and chemical reactions were discussed with concrete examples, and a steady dissipative organization theory was approached from the viewpoint of dissipative structure development which is equal to the forming process of the quasi-steady phase. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Human physiology and psychology in space flight; Uchu hiko ni okeru ningen no seiri to shinri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)

  6. Use of natural energy in hyper-skyscrapers. Chocho koso kenchiku ni okeru shizen energy riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unno, K. (Takenaka Komuten Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-05-30

    Construction of large scale hyper-skyscrapers( more than 500 m high ) by next century is coming to inevitable stage, and the problems regarding supply and consumption of energy/resources together with the use of natural energy in such construction are described. Transport of water at high direction, conformity of supply and save energy are pointed out as problems for supplying water energy. Calculated amount of required electrical energy used by electrical appliances of sky-city ( 1000 m high ) has been about 440,000 KVA, and necessity of autonomous supply network system for electric power and heat supply is stressed. For sky-city, 1000 m, use of new energy( supply of 20% of total electric power is possible with optical generation, wind power generation) and the use of unused energy ( draft generations, generation from refuse incineration, pumped storage generation ) are emphasized. Effective supply of water resource like refuse of waste water is cited. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Solar energy drying for agricultural products. Nosanbutsu kanso ni okeru taiyonetsu riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Jun' ichi (National Grassland Research Inst., Tochigi, (Japan))

    1989-09-30

    Natural drying was previously used to dry agricultral products but artificial drying is widely used today with the diffusion of agricultural machines. Therefore, solar energy utilization to dry agricultural products depends on how effective solar energy is utilized in addition to the mechanized artificial drying. Further, drying of agricaltural products varies in respective countries and local areas because water content in products varies on weather conditions. Wheats harvested in U.S. contain fewer water content and can be dried for 3 months in a large storing bin by natural ventilation and cn be shortened to 1 month by placing a solar collector before the blower. Many Japanese farmers utilize vinyl houses and drying is made by combining vinyl house, and flat floor type dryer, circulating dryer or rotary stirring dryer. Moreover, 100% utilization of solar enegy results higher cost, so that in many cases, combined utilization with oil firing is made. Moderate heat such as solar energy is suitable for drying of agricultural products to maintain the quality and it is desirable to develop any reasonal technique. 14 refs., 12 fig.

  8. Trends in developing alternative energies in Sweden. Sweden ni okeru daitai energy kaihatsu no doko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, S. (The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-07-10

    This paper introduces a summary of the survey made on the Swedish policies on alternative energies. The country has a characteristic that the alternative energy policies have a great importance for each political party as its reigning strategy. The largest weight for the alternative energies is placed on bioenergies. Sweden has been already depending on bioenergies at 15% of the country[prime]s total energy supply. Nearly half amount of the budget in the new five-year alternative energy plan approved in 1991 is bioenergy related. The budget of 3.76 billion kronor can be broken down into 1 billion kronor for effective energy utilization, 1.92 billion kronor for bio-fuel utilization, and 800 million kronor for bio-fuel utilizing plants. The bio-fuel utilizing plants include improved CFB utilizing steam cycle power generation, gasified compound cycle power generation, a bio-fuel/natural gas compounding plan, and a bio-fuel/caustics recovery boiler compounding plan, each having merits and demerits. Thirty-five wind power generating plants are in operation producing a total power of about 10,000 MWh in 1990. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. On noise, traffic and factory vibrations in Akita city; Akitashi ni okeru soon oyobi kotsu kojo shindo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M.; Kikuchi, T.; Morino, T.; Sannohe, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education

    1996-05-01

    Noise and vibration were measured in Akita City. In 1994, noise and traffic-caused vibration were measured along the trunk lines and other roads across the entire Akita City area. In 1995, the effort centered on the Ibarashima manufacturing quarters, the important source of noise and vibration in Akita city. The general-purpose noise meter LA-220S was used to measure noise and the vibration level meter VR-5100 was used to measure vibration. The results of noise measurement carried out at 122 points in Akita City indicated that the noise level was high along Route 7, Route 13, and the southern line belonging to the newly built national highway, marking the highest of approximately 74dB. As compared with the measurement made in 1968, the value was higher by 3-13dB. A roughly similar trend was seen in vibration. The noise level measurement of 1995 accomplished at 100 points in the vicinity of Ibarashima district indicated that the factories were responsible for high levels of noise and vibration. It was found that the levels lowered in proportion to the increase in the distance from the factories. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Waste gas treatment technology at steelmaking plants. Seitetsu setsubi ni okeru hai gas shori gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Shimizu, K.; Deshimaru, K.; Watari, S. (Nihon Univ., Narashino, Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology)

    1992-11-30

    A variety of furnaces are employed for steelmaking. The waste gases from these furnaces are used as fuel gases or flared to the atmosphere. For the enhancement of energy efficiency at these plants and the improvement of environment, it is essential to remove the impurities contained in the waste gases, such as soot, dust, NOx and SOx with high efficiency at the lowest possible cost. In coke oven and sintering furnace, soot and dust consisting of sulphuric element, cyanogenic element and fume of alkali metals as main constituents are the subject of treatment, because these elements were contained in the raw materials. And, in blast furnace and LD converter, soot and dust are the subject of treatment because the materials have already been treated under high-temperature and the waste gases contain little chemical impurities consequently. On the other hand, in various combustion furnaces, purified by-product gases, such as the above mentioned BFG (blast furnace gas), LDG (LD converter gas) and COG (coke oven gas), etc., are used frequently and NOx generated by the high-temperature combustion is often the subject of treatment. In this report, the waste gas treatment technology developed by Nippon Steel Corporation for these various furnaces was described. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Measurement of organic carbon quantity at chemoautorophic bacterium; Kagaku dokuritsu eiyo saikin ni okeru yuki tansoryo no sokutei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, I.; Kato, K.; Nozaki, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurokawa, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Described herein is the method for analyzing quantity of organic carbon synthesized by chemoautotrophic bacterium. It is based on the combustion-infrared spectroscopy, which is normally adopted for quantitative analysis of organic carbon. The problems involved in the measurement of organic compounds synthesized by iron-oxidizing bacteria are noise by culture medium components, aging of gas analyzer and contamination with organic compounds from a silicon plug. The measures taken in this study against these problems include comparison of the results with a medium containing iron-oxidizing bacteria with those with a medium free of these bacteria, calibration with the standard solution for each measurement, and replacement of a silicone plug by a silicon cap. Organic carbon is measured by a TOC-5000 analyzer equipped with an automatic sample feeder ASI-5000. Biomass density is determined by the MPN method. It is confirmed that organic carbon quantity is almost in proportion to biomass density, a phenomenon which can be used to determine organic carbon quantity. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Guarantee of property right in open access systems. Legal study of property right of electric utilities and expropriation; Open access ni okeru zaisanken no hosho. Denki jigyo ni okeru zaisanken to shuyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    A study has been made about the relationship between open access, which has now become an important element of the electric utilities renovation efforts in the U.S. and Europe, and property right. The meaning of open access is to guarantee free access to suppliers by securing fair competition between them through separation of the vertical integration in power transmission and opening the transmission network to final customers. In case of Japan, the U.S., and Germany where private sector suppliers run electric utilities, however, a need arises to consider the property right that such suppliers enjoy as guaranteed by their Constitutions. The outcomes of discussions made in Germany and the State of California were complied, and some conclusions were reached. It constitutes an infringement of their property right for the authorities to order them to allow open access without compensation. In case the authorities use expropriation for the same purpose, they have to make it known clearly that the separation and opening is to the benefit of the public and must compensate fully for their action. There is no problem in giving the authorities the power to force the electric utilities to sign a wheeling contract in case the latter unlawfully rejects to sign one proposed by a wheeling-requesting party. 24 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Study on the optimal control of the ground thermal storage system in the greenhouse. Part 4; Onshitsu ni okeru taiyo energy dochu chikunetsu system ni okeru saiteki seigyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M. [Sanko Air Conditioning Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakahara, N. [Kanagawa University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Three types of weight in both energy saving and optimum room temperature environment were changed to obtain the optimal control solution of the ground thermal storage system in a greenhouse. The relation diagram between the optimal solution of a performance function, and the state constraints and control function constraints was created in consideration of the energy term in a control function value area and the room temperature environment. As a result, the whole image of the performance function could be grasped in consideration of the energy term with inequality constraints and the room temperature environmental term in this study. The rate of a weighting factor in the performance function significantly influences the optimal solution. The influence on the optimal solution also changes when the optimal room temperature schedule differs. The influence that three types of rising algorithm exert on the convergence and converging speed was investigated. Superiority or inferiority occurs according to the space properties of a performance function. A zigzag method is most disadvantageous. The constraints can be converged to the optimal solution using an SUMT outer point method irrespective of the initial value. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Looking for mine of the petroleum in China, especially, looking for mine activities in the foreign enterprise; Chukajinminkyowokoku ni okeru sekiyu no tanko. Tokuni gaikokukigyo ni okeru tanko katsudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    Modern petroleum industry after the Chinese establishment (1950) rose mainly by the Russian cooperation, and main discovery such as oil field 1959 was made as to the discovery in 1955 oil field. After that, that activities range was limited to middle Kunisaki department land stage by a master though looking for mine which is characteristic of China, development were made by Russian withdrawal and there was discovery such as a task hill oil field in the victory oil field and 1964 big port oil field for 1962 and for 1976. (NEDO)

  15. 3D seismic survey in Honjo, Akita. Problems and struggles in acquisition and processing; Akitaken Honjo koku ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa. Genba sagyo to data shori ni okeru mondaiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imahori, S.; Kotera, Y.; Nakanishi, T. [Japan Energy Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Honjo mining area where investigations are conducted is hilly and has a complicated terrain with gas pipes buried in the ground just under the access road disabling the proper positioning of shock-generating large excavators or vibrators. Auger`s shallow hole shooting method is used in this survey to execute blastings at 639 points. In this method using charge depths of 4m, different from the conventional method using deeper charge depths (20-25m), surface waves prevail in the shot records giving rise to a new problem of removing them in the stage of data processing. The 2D filter that is a powerful tool in 2D data processing is not available in a 3D-survey where the tracing intervals are irregular in the shot records. In the effort of this time, a window length as a parameter in the direction of time is specified, and the F-X dip filtering method is employed in which any event that linearly continues beyond a certain number of traces in the said window is eliminated as a linear noise. It is recommended that the weighting function be changed in the direction of space since surface wave velocities are different at different locations. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Dream of future on human-machine cooperative system; Ningen robot system ni okeru fluid power gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-01-15

    This paper describes the human-machine cooperative system and fluid power technology. Most of Japanese robot R and D activities shifted from early R and D on hydraulic or pneumatic driving to that on simple electric driving, and development of fluid power technology as actuator and control technology is retarded. For creating an artificial work environment with a presence by virtual reality formation technology, an equipment (actuator) directly acting such five senses (sensor) of operators as visual, auditory, pressure and contact senses is essential. Pneumatic actuator is extremely suitable for such one because of its small size, light weight, safety and high power density. Robocup has been held as the soccer game of many autonomous robots. For the soccer game of human beings and robots, development of such technologies for advanced autonomous robots is necessary as realtime processing, advanced intelligence, human friendliness, safety, high-efficiency high-power actuator equivalent to human muscle, and energy source. (NEDO)

  17. Future petroleum geophysicists and SEGJ; Sekiyu gyokai ni okeru butsuri tansa gijutsusha no shoraizo to Butsuri Tansa Gakkai eno kitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, A. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes future petroleum geophysicists and an anticipation to SEGJ (The Society of Exploration Geophysicists of Japan). Among various elemental technologies, it is undoubted that three-dimensional seismic exploration would be a main technology for prospecting petroleum gas. In the early stage of three-dimensional exploration, an improvement of accuracy for geological evaluation was a major purpose based on the successful exploratory drilling. In the 1990`s, some companies have a policy in which three-dimensional exploration is initially employed especially for the marine seismic prospecting as a major exploration technology. Since simple structures have been already prospected, it is required to prospect more complicated traps with higher accuracy. It is also required to shorten the turnaround time from the initial prospecting to the start of production. Furthermore, the three-dimensional exploration is used as a control technology for advancing the recovery by improving the accuracy of reservoir management. It is required for the geophysicists to have wide knowledge with keeping original exploration technologies. 2 refs.

  18. Needs for intelligent field sensors in petrochemical plants. Sekiyu kagaku plant ni okeru intelligentter dot fieldter dot sensor eno needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, T. (Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    This report explains the process sensors used in petrochemical plants. To establish a safety and accident preventing systems, the function of a sensor to substitute the five senses of an operator is demanded. A man inspects using the senses of seeing, hearing, touch and smell, and takes measures judging from all factors, not from the state of one point. For a wide-range monitoring function, there is a need for a robot which is loaded with sensors of various intelligences and which moves freely at the field. When many sensors are configurated for the wide-range monitoring, the maintenance of system comes into question. The sensor with intelligent functions recently developed can contribute to the maintenance because it is highly accurate and it has the function of self-diagnosis. If it becomes possible to process data with the sensor at the field utilizing the intelligent function, the central control room will be miniaturized and automatization will be pushed forward remarkably. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Desiliconization process of hot metal at blast furnance casthouse. Koro chusho ni okeru yosen no tatsukei shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, T.; Takeda, K.; Taguchi, S.; Shinohara, K.; Kato, H.; Matsumoto, T. (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    The Kawasaki Steel has developed several types of desiliconization facilities at blast furnace runner and applied to blast furnaces according to their individual local conditions. In response to the restriction in the maximum feed rate and mass velocity of desiliconization reagent by the slag foaming and splash formations for the desiliconization method without slag removal at the casthouse, three methods, i.e., a top feed method, a blasting by one stage, and a blasting by two stages were developed, according to increases in the required feeding rate of the desiliconization reagent. In the case that the desiliconization slag is removed at the blast furnace runner, it was demonstrated that the injection method by use of an immersion lance was effective because of its high oxygen efficiency in desiliconization. An simulation model of desiliconization was also developed, and the effect of the lance shape on oxygen efficiency in desiliconization was evaluated. On the basis of the simulation results, the oxygen efficiency in desiliconization was able to be increased to 60% by the improvement of the injection conditions. 8 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. NEDO`s solar energy program in developing countries; Hatten tojokoku ni okeru NEDO no taiyo energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    This paper describes the solar energy program promoted in developing countries by NEDO. Research of photovoltaic power generation systems for middle-scale villages has been conducted in Indonesia between FY 1984 and FY 1989. International cooperative demonstration development for photovoltaic power generation systems has been conducted in Nepal, Mongolia, Thailand and Malaysia for five to six years since FY 1994. For the research of solar heat, air heat collection type drying systems using solar heat has been promoted between FY 1993 and FY 1998. Employment of solar micro hydraulic power hybrid systems is planned in regions with rainy and dry seasons. In FY 1997, photovoltaic power generation systems were constructed in Gansu, Sinkiang Uighur, and Hopeh in China for operation researches. Durability tests have been conducted in Oman. A plan of construction of photovoltaic power generation systems with a capacity from a few MW to 1 GW at maximum in deserts is to be promoted as international cooperative activities with PVPS of IEA and CTI. Japan will play a major role on the activities as a proposal country based on the achievement of PVTEC. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Rejection of salts in nanofiltration of skim milk; Dasshinyu no nano roka ni okeru enrui no soshiritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, I.; Kikuchi, M.; Sakurai, K. [Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-10

    The authors carried out nanofiltration of skim milk and analyzed the salt rejection data using the extended Nernst-Planck equation. The following observed rejections of major constituents in salts were obtained. Na and K: 50 to 60 %, Cl: -5 to 15 %, Ca, Mg and P: > 97 %. It is considered that since Ca and Mg are mostly combined with phosphate and citrate in milk, they were rejected by a sieving effect, thus producing high rejections. Electroneutrality in permeate, and no-electric-current condition in solute flux are observed, respectively. In the subsequent analysis, the authors used a set of proposed assumptions, (1) a complete rejection of solute except Na, K and Cl by the membrane, (2) existence of a fixed charge in skim milk due to impermeable ions of proteins, etc. Rejection of Na, K and Cl calculated from the analysis are in good agreement with those of the experimental data. (author)

  2. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks for electric utilities; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shorai vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonaru, S.; Ono, K.; Sakai, S.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuboi, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Manabe, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Miki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The vision of an advanced information system is proposed to cope with the future social demand and business environmental change in electric utilities. At the large turning point such as drastic reconsideration of Electricity Utilities Industry Law, further improvement of efficiency and cost reduction are requested as well as business innovation such as proposal of a new business policy. For that purpose utilization of information and its technology is indispensable, and use of multimedia and common information in organization are the future direction for improving information basis. Consequently, free information networks without any limitation due to person and media are necessary, and the following are important: high-speed, high-frequency band, digital, easily connectable and multimedia transmission lines, and cost reduction and high reliability of networks. Based on innovation of information networks and the clear principle on advanced information system, development of new applications by multimedia technologies, diffusion of communication terminals, and promotion of standardization are essential. 60 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Water monitoring and its information management system in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu monitoring to joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, H.

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the water monitoring system (WMS) in China applied mainly to surface water and operated within the competence of the Environmental Protection Agency. The WMS consists of a national water monitoring network and a water information system that monitors surface water periodically. The WMS comprises water monitoring stations classified from class 1 to class 4, which are located in 2,222 locations. Stations from class 1 to class 3 are operated by using computers, but class 4 stations are still incapable to use floppy disks to perform information transmission. When an information management system is completed at the China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center being constructed by gratis assistance from the Japanese Government, transmission of water quality data will become possible by means of the cable line system in addition to the table system and the floppy system. The water quality data are published to general people in the forms of Chinese gazette for the environmental conditions, the environment yearbook, and the reports on environmental quality. However, the more important is to publish more publications to make people aware of the actual state of water pollution and have them cooperate in environment preservation. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  4. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Kusunose, K.; Cho, A.; Tosha, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T.; Yamada, F. [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T. [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Polymer-based matrix composites in general industries. Ippan sangyo bun'ya ni okeru kobunshiki fukugo zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmochi, K. (National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-02-15

    This paper summarizes the course of development of polymer-based matrix composites (PMC) begun in the 1950's, their future problems, and prospects. Because of PMC being a petroleum product, the changing period before and after the first and second oil crises (1974-1983) has seen even a negative growth from the declined product price out of increased material cost. However, the materials have been continuing expansion in such applications year after year for two decades since then as plant, marine vessel, and housing materials. The course of their development to date has included such proliferation impeding factors as unproved reliability, high production cost, and legal regulations because of being new materials. However, the ardent technical development efforts having produced a number of products including hybrid FRP, particularly the fundamental technology development studies sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, have improved properties and reliability and contributed largely to expanding practical applications. Sought in different functions expected in PMC in the future would be application of bionic designs, transfer from functional quality to sensitive quality, and development of material recycling techniques. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Interphase boundary structure and transformation mechanism in diffusional phase transformations; Kakusan hentai ni okeru iso kaimen kozo to hentai kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuhara, T.; Maki, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    This paper discusses a lattice changing mechanism in diffusional phase transformations (atom diffusion rate determination) based on observations through a high-resolution electron microscope. If a parent phase and a generated phase have different crystal structures, change in lamination occurs as a result of a step generated on a terrace with good consistency moving in the horizontal direction. In addition, it has been thought that removal of atoms occurs due to random diffusion jump in a riser or a kink which has a locally inconsistent structure, and no surface undulations will occur. On the other hand, growth interfaces are consistent in martensite transformation, and atomic correspondence is univocal in the parent phase and the generated phase. Also in diffusion transformation accompanying distribution of displacement type elements, the surface undulations will appear as in the case of the martensite transformation. This fact suggests that, also in the diffusional transformation, not only the terrace interface, but also the riser or kink interface having been thought inconsistent conventionally are all consistent or semi-consistent as in the martensite transformation. It also suggests that lattice correspondence exists between the parent phase and the generated phase. 30 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Superplasticity of low carbon HSLA steel during bainite transformation. Teitanso teigokinko no beinaito hentai ni okeru chososei kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Miyaji, H.; Furubayashi, E. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    Recently, the development of high strength low alloy steel (HSLA steel) of untempered type is advanced by using the comparatively high strength and excellent tenacity of the bainite or martensite of carbon remained being transformed. In the present researches, the superplasticity during the bainite transformation due to the continuous cooling and changes of the structure as well as the mechanical properties due to the superplastic deformation are examined with the samples of Mn-Cr-Mo system HSLA steel. The results obtained therefrom are shown as follows. The temperatre range of B[sub S] and bainite transformation is moving to the higher temperature side along with the increasing of the applied stress when it is over 60 MPa. The bainitic structure is composed of the mixture lath-like bainitic ferrite and granular bainitic ferrite in the use of having no applied stress, while the percentage of the latter increases simultaneously with the increasing of the applied stress. Transformation superplastic strain is increasing together with the increasing of the applied stress, and its increasing is over the linear function when the applied stress is above about 50 MPa. 22 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Present status and amendable subjects of brewery CIM. Beer kojo ni okeru CIM no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, T.; Kimura, T. (Asahi Breweries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-10

    Though the beer consumption is being smoothly increased, there has been a considerable change in consumers prime taste of beer for these several years. The present report exhibits the computer integrated manufacturing system introduced in Ibaraki Brewery, Asahi Beer to be operated as per the target. The introduction of that system aimed at an execution of integrated administration, high particularly in quality control, to integrate the information and control of total production activities from the production planning to the product delivery. Together with the structuring of information system for the integrated production, aim was taken also at the heightening in quality control, heightening in administration level, labor saving and newly conceived distribution system. As for the structuring of hardware, the system was functionally classified into production planning level, administration level for the manufacturing and distribution, and control level for the processing and distribution. Each of those levels was accommodated with the most suitable machinery thereon. The future problems are about the quality control data measurement and widened application of database. 5 figs.

  9. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nara National College of Technology; Nara Kogyo Koto Senmon Gakko ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y. [Nara Technical Coll., Nara (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    In the electronic control engineering course, basic knowledge is taught for mechanics, electronics/electricity, control, robotics, information processing, etc., with the purpose of bringing up practical mechatronics engineers, and then, training is conducted so that the students are able to deal with these subjects comprehensively. In the subject of hydraulics and pneumatics for the special course, a lecture on hydraulic and pneumatic control is given in the second year, where structures of hydraulic and pneumatic actuators are explained as well as the principle of operation and the control method. As the related experiment, measurement of liquid viscosity coefficient and flow measurement by a Venturi tube are carried out in the fourth year of the regular course. In addition, carried out in the fifth year are the measurement of stress by trailing velocity distribution of an object and the measurement of pressure distribution around a column. As a subject for graduation theses, a mobile carrier for welfare nursing is being developed using a pneumatic actuator. Development of a suitable actuator is also being developed simultaneously. In the education of electronic control engineering, it is essential to give the students understanding of hydraulic and pneumatic actuator control centering on the role of mechatronics. (NEDO)

  10. Prevention countermeasure for breeding of iron bacteria in ion-exchanged water. Junsui ni okeru tetsu bakuteria hassei boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, S. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The wear troubles of the water-supplying pump as well as water-supplying control valve due to the blocking-up of the strainer caused by the abnormal breeding of iron bacteria in ion-exchanged water have been occurring frequently since several years before in Oita Manufactory of Nippon Steel Corporation. The strainer provided in front of the pumps for supplying the water to each users are blocked up by the iron bacteria bred abnormally in the tanks of ion-exchanged water. Consequently, the cavitation phenomenon of water-supplying pump happens and the inside wear occurs. It is revealed by the results of the examination on the prevention countermeasure for breeding of iron bacteria carried out by the present authors that the destruction and the extinction of the cells are brought about by the concentrated electrification of the iron bacteria due to the electrification in the ion-exchanged water. In this paper, the principles, progress of study and development, the results of the practical tests in respect of prevention countermeasure for breeding of iron bacteria in ion-exchanged water by turning on electricity are described. The conventional means of frequency transformation are used in the experiment, and the betterment such as the increase of capacity of condenser is added because of the high electricity-resistance of ion-exchanged water. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Magnetic constraints of basement structure offshore of western Kyushu, Japan; Kyushu seiho kaiiki ni okeru jiki ijo no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S.; Nakatsuka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the results from the qualitative analysis of magnetic anomalies offshore of western Kyushu and from an analysis by a three-dimensional two-layer model inversion. The analysis ranged from Kyushu on the east to Jeju Island on the west and from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on the north to Tanegashima and Yakushima Islands on the south, namely, the area of 580km from east to west and 580km from south to north. The analytical data used was Magnetic Anomaly Map of Asia (GSJ and CCOP, 1994). In the qualitative analysis, a pseudogravity anomaly map and a pole gravity anomaly map were prepared from the total magnetic force anomaly map by means of a frequency filter operation. As a result, it was noted that two distinctive magnetic high belts existed in the margin of the Tunghai Shelf, extending from the sea area to the west of the Nansei Islands continuously to NNE, and being distributed transversely through the Goto sedimentary basin. Additionally, in the inversion analysis, it was demonstrated that the magnetic basement became shallow at the margin of the Tunghai Shelf north of latitude 31 degrees north, extending nearly in the NNE direction through west of the Goto Islands, west of Tsushima Island, and continuing to the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Inoue, J.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S. [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  15. Function of Regenerator in the multi staged regenerative refrigerator; Tadan chikureigata reitoki ni okeru chokureiki no kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T.; Nogawa, M.; Zhu, S. [Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    On the function of regeneration vessel, which is the base element of regeneration type refrigerating machine, there is two of viewpoint as a heat exchanger greatly separate and viewpoint as an energy converter. Here, to begin with, the function of regeneration vessel as energy converter is arranged, and especially, both expression is compared on the expression of the regeneration vessel efficiency. In addition, the essence of multistage used in the cooling of the regeneration type refrigerating machine is examined from the viewpoint of the function of the regeneration vessel. (NEDO)

  16. Design method for heat exchanger of stirling cycle machines; Sutaringu saikuru kikan ni okeru netsu kokanki no sekkei shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, H. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Recently, the Stirling cycle organization attracts the attention as 1 of the countermeasure to the global environmental problem, and the tendency of various application equipment developments heightens. The main factor is in constructing CFC elimination refrigeration air conditioner, and the development example as an engine for power source of refrigerating machine used in the ultra-low-temperature region and equipment variously is reported. In this paper, practical design tool and design examination case are introduced, while design technique of heat exchanger, which is the most important in design development of these, ST refrigerating machine and ST engines is described. (NEDO)

  17. Possibility of EV with solar cells on the new traffic system; Shinkotsu system ni okeru solar car no kanosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I.; Kojima, S. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A possibility of a new traffic system was studied for a solar car which is light in weight, small in size and low in speed (cruising speed: 20 km/h) and does not need so much power because of the use for short distance. In the new traffic system, people travel short distance in city by solar car, and use trains for travel between cities. By installing solar cells on roofs, etc. of houses and buildings such as garages around stations, power needed for solar car and incidentally required can be supplied. Assuming the short distance transportation, the car is for one person with a height of luggage space of 70cm, mean length of 165cm, and floor height of 50cm above the ground. In case that the power generation by solar cells (256.5W) is at maximum with no shading during travel on conditions of load weight of 10kg, personnel weight of 70kg, and total weight of 250kg, it was found that solar cells can supply 89% of the required output under test road travel at speed of 20 km/h. A viability of the solar car proposed here is great. A possibility at the time of mode road travel is also studied. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Decay of weak pressure waves in a low pressure tube; Teiatsu kannai ni okeru bisho atsuryokuha no gensui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiya, T.; Terada, Y.; Komura, A. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan); Higashino, F.; Abe, H. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Abe, M. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-04-25

    The characteristics of pressure wave propagation in a vacuum tube have been investigated experimentally from the viewpoint of vacuum protection in the beam lines of a synchrotrons radiation facility. Baffle plates having a single orifice of 5, 10 or 15 mm in diameter were installed in shock tubes 5 m in length, and 36.6 or 68.8 mm in diameter, in order to show the pressure wave or shock wave propagation as a model for the beam line. To evaluate the decay of pressure waves pressure changes with time at several locations along the side wall as well as at the end wall of the tube were measured. The results show that the effect of the orifices on pressure wave propagation and its decay is significant. The present investigation may contribute to the design and construction of high energy synchrotrons radiation facilities with long beam lines. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Yokokura, T.; Kiguchi, T.; Yokota, T.; Matsushima, J. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method; Gokusenso jishin hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S.; Muraoka, S.; Kaida, Y.; Takahashi, T. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To effectively use the very shallow seismic reflection for active fault survey, a method has been investigated by which fault structures can be appropriately reconstructed from the fault information detected in the original records. The first step of reconstructing the fault system from the travel time reflection curve was to grasp an outline of fault structure from the patterns of travel time curve observed in the original record. For the very shallow seismic reflection method, especially, the low velocity layers in a shallow part succeeding from the ground surface made the issue complicated. Then, the travel time reflection curves were calculated in the case of existing several horizontal reflection surfaces in the surface layer. The constant values, mean velocities to the depth at individual reflection surfaces were used for the approximation of velocities. The outline of fault structure was grasped from the observation of original record. Then, the structure was reconstructed from the travel time curves. When the mean velocity in the medium was known, reconstruction of the feature of reflection surfaces from the travel time curves could be determined by simple mapping. When the mean velocity was unknown, it was calculated using the reciprocal travel time from the common reflection surface for individual reflection surfaces. 7 figs.

  1. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, T. [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  2. Studies on reactivity of coal surfaces at low temperature; Teion ni okeru sekitan hyomen no hannosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn reactivity of coal at its surface, surfaces of oxidized coal samples were investigated. Miike coal was oxidized by using {sup 18}O2 in a closed loop system. As the reaction progresses, proportion of CO2 including isotopes increased rapidly as a result of oxidation of CO sites existing in the coal and the newly generated C{sup 18}O sites. The oxidizing reaction progressed via oxygen adsorbing sites generated near the surface, and oxygen containing groups. An FT-IR analysis estimated the depth of the oxidized layer to be 10{mu}m or less from particle surface. The oxidized coal was pulverized to see its surface condition. Functional groups introduced by the oxidation enter into the vicinity of the surface in a form to desorb as CO. CO2 is trapped in inner pores. The coal surface was observed by using an atomic force microscope. No observable openings in the pore structure were discerned on the surface before the oxidation, and the structure agrees with a closed pore model. Surface image oxidized in-situ by oxygen for one hour had slight roundness, which led to a supposition of structural change, and changes in the functional group and adsorption species. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Change of unit skeletons during an artificial coalification; Jinko sekitanka katei ni okeru tan`i kokkaku kozo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y.; Hayamizu, K. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to obtain knowledge about formation and growth of condensed ring structure in a coalification process, discussions were given on product skeleton structure by using hydrogenation and hydrocracking of heated cellulose. In underwater heating of cellulose, reaction of dehydration has occurred at 200{degree}C or lower, that of decarbonation at 250{degree}C or higher, and that of demethanizing at 300{degree}C, resulting in production of a dark-brown coal-like substance. The substance has lower H/C value and higher O/C value than coal. As the underwater heating temperature rises, the hydrogenation reactivity of the heated substance decreases, and so does the ratio of conversion into toluene solubles. These phenomena are related to strength of cross-linking bond between unit skeleton structures. A substance heated at an underwater heating temperature of 200{degree}C turns toluene-soluble almost completely even during the hydrogenation reaction (350{degree}C for 2 hours), but the soluble product decreases at underwater heating temperatures of 250 and 300{degree}C. However, soluble product of more than 90% was obtained when hydrocracking (at 425{degree}C for one hour) was performed. The toluene-soluble product in the heated substance is only 50% when the underwater heating temperature reaches 350{degree}C even if the hydrocracking is carried out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Hydrogenolysis reactions characteristics of deashed coal under low temperature; Teionka ni okeru dakkai shoritan no suisoka bunkai hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal liquefaction, the effect of inorganic minerals on liquefaction reactivity and the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment on organic molecular structure of coals were studied by demineralization of low-rank coals in HCl or HF solution. In experiment, Taiheiyo coal specimen was deashed in HCl solution at 25-70{degree}C for 6 hours while agitating, and in addition, deashed in HF solution. Hydrogenolysis of the deashed coal specimen was conducted using tetralin or methylnaphthalene as solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 1.96MPa at reaction temperature of 693K for 60min. The experimental results are as follows. The ash content of Taiheiyo coal hardly offers catalysis in hydrogenolysis reaction. Carboxyl group increases in demineralization of coal because of breakage of bridged bonds. Organic structure of coal changes by demineralization in dense HF solution. Change in organic structure of coal by demineralization in dense HF solution is dependent on treatment temperature. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Measurement improvements of heat flux probes for internal combustion engine; Nainen kikan ni okeru netsuryusokukei no kaihatsu to kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, H.; Tasaka, H. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In heat flux measurement in engines, material properties of a heat flux probe and numerical prediction of those influence have been discussed rather than practical measurement accuracy. This study featured the process for the quantitative examination of heat flux probes. Although the process required direct comparison among all the probes and additional measurements in a constant volume bomb, precision of heat flux measurement was greatly improved so that the essential characteristics of heat transfer in engines can be detected. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S.; Ukawa, H. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K.; Kitagawa, A. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Improvement of vehicle stability in cornering on uneven road; Akuro senkaiji ni okeru sharyo no anzensei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, K.; Harada, M.; Harada, H. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The active control of vehicle suspensions and rear wheel steering systems in turning on uneven roads is analyzed by means of LQR control theory, assuming that cornering forces depend on tire normal loads in addition to tire slip angles. The authors quantitatively investigated the effectiveness of the integrated control of the active suspension and the rear wheel steering, comparing the contributions of each individual system. Furthermore, in this paper, the role of the chassis control and driver control are studied in order to improve the stability of vehicle motion disturbed by the road surface. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Interaction effects on combustion of alcohol droplet pairs; Alcohol kei nenryo niekiteki no nensho ni okeru kansho koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okai, K.; Ono, Y.; Moriue, O.; Shiba, S.; Araki, M.; Tsue, M.; Kono, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nomura, H. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology; Shiga, S. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-02-25

    Experimental investigation was conducted on two droplet-array combustion of methanol and methanol/dodecanol mixture fuels in microgravity. For methanol, effects of ambient pressure and droplet spacing were examined. Results show that the droplet lifetime decreases with increasing spacing at relatively low pressure and the droplet lifetime becomes independent of spacing at higher-subcritical and supercritical pressures. For methanol/dodecanol mixture, effects of pressure, fuel composition were investigated in terms of occurrence of disruption. Disruption of droplet during combustion was demonstrated both for single droplet and droplet pairs. (author)

  9. Engineering technologies for steel structure applied to Trans-Tokyo bay highway project; Tokyowan odan doro ni okeru kokozo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumuro, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kanda, K. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    The Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway is a 15.1 km toll road that spans the Tokyo Bay from Kawasaki City in Kanagawa Prefecture to Kisarazu City in Chiba Prefecture by a bridge, an undersea shield tunnel, and two man-made islands. Many new technologies and methods were introduced to construct a large-scale structure safely, rationally, and in a short time on the weak ground under the depth of water in a seismic region such as Tokyo Bay. Kawasaki Steel participated in this project in: (1) development and construction of a revetment structure to which the technology of an oil drilling jacket was applied, (2) design and construction of a large-sized bridge with long-span and multi-span continuous girders on the sea, and (3) design and installation of a mud water treatment module for the shield tunnel constructed on the sea. As a result, the bearing-capacity measurement technology based on the dynamic method of a large diameter steel pipe pile was developed in item (1). The long-term corrosion-proof method using titanium clad steel was developed in item (2), and the way to construct the treatment facilities of approximately 5100 tons in item (3). 3 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Steel structure (bridge and building); Doboku/kenchiku bun`ya ni okeru yosetsu gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukazawa, M. [Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    In this article, the trends of welding engineering are discussed in two groups, namely bridges and steel frames. First of all, in the field of bridges, as the themes of technical innovation of steel bridges, the challenge to build long span bridges, coping with new structural forms, and rationalization of general bridges are selected. Concerning very long bridges, considerable elongation of its spans and technological development for materials, design, construction and erection relating to improvement of profitability become inevitable. Besides, in addition to the functions of bridges, the bridges playing the roles of environmental and/or artistic structures become many, thereby the cases of using welding for the site joints increase. As the measure for rationalize bridge construction, it is to reduce steel weight and working costs for increasing profitability, and the progress of welding technology therefor has been observed. With regard to the manufacture of bridge portions in a factory, labor saving, automatization and robotization of in-house welding have been made, and bridge maintenance as well as pursuance of attaining the state of maintenance free are also important. The trend that the bridge load is becoming larger and enhancement of earthquake resistance are also important. Regarding steel frames, functionalization of steel, making steel very thick, various automatization of manufacturing, and pursuance of earthquake resistant safety are being made. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Optimal control of reflux ratio for batch distillation; Bacchi joryu ni okeru kanryuhi no saiteki kido to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Jun [Sankyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Mutsumi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1999-03-10

    To obtain maximum production under minimum utility-cost, the optimal operation of reflux ratio is considered for a batch distillation process. Pontryagin's maximum principle is one of the solutions to calculate such an optimal operation, but it requires extensive trial and error. In this paper, a faster algorithm is proposed to modify the initial values of Hamilton's multiplier. With the rapid growth of computer power, this algorithm will provide a way to realize the real-time optimization and control of the reflux ratio. To reduce the on-line calculation, a control table for the optimal operation can by calculated off-line as a function of state variables. These control methods provide the real optimal operation for a given evaluation function. (author)

  12. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nippon Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering; Nippon Kogyo Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsukyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terashima, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nippon Institute of Technology. Department of Mechanical Engineering has fluid dynamics, mechatronics II, air conditioning, heat transfer engineering, and facility and equipment engineering as the themes related to hydraulics and pneumatics. The control engineering courses have the pneumatics-related themes of supply of pneumatic pressure for a short time and methods for cutting off pneumatic pressure when the piston reaches the dead center, as the energy-saving type driving methods for pneumatic cylinders; measurement of frictional force by the experiments on low-friction cylinders; and researches on improvement of stiffness of pneumatic cylinder type actuators for control valves, among others. Students are directly involved in equipment designs, fabrication and experiments. Many machines and facilities are now easily handled, and operated according to manuals. To prepare graduation theses only by the aid of personal computers is not adequate for education of students in this age, when they have less chances for education through experiences in affluent environments. The mechanical engineering students are given chances for practical education through experiments and graduation thesis preparation. However, it is necessary for general engineering students to be more exposed to technical practices. (NEDO)

  13. Non-linear mechanical simulations in space structures engineering; Uchu kozobutsu kogaku ni okeru hisenkei kikai rikigaku simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K. [Kinki Univ Osaka (Japan)

    1997-08-05

    Space structure engineering comes under the combination of different engineering fields. Role of numerical analysis and simulation is large in space structure engineering. Considering space structure engineering as an application of non-linear mechanical simulation, constrains with simulation technology and analysis examples are explained in this paper. Following important points are confirmed by simulating the motion of membrane under external force acting on inner and outer surfaces at a particular point of square satellite model which rotates in tension membrane. When the external force is removed, each material point and membrane centre move with vibration, however centre of gravity of satellite moves very rapidly along the vertical direction of membrane centre. Further external disturbance (which develops on material points) propagates at all material points and membrane centre as a twisted wave. Maximum relative displacement between inner surface and outer surface decreases with the increment of initial angular velocity but not on the points of upper membrane. Fluctuation of position motion of satellite resulted from external disturbance is become small as initial rotation angular velocity increases. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Education for fluid power in department of mechanical engineering of Sophia University; Jochi Daigaku Kikai kogakuka ni okeru yukuatsu kyooiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiji, T. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Faculty of Science and Technology

    2000-03-15

    Curricular guidelines are that importance be attached in the educating policy to the primary subjects of study and that compulsory subjects are to be acquired through practice. Out of primary subjects, those which should better be learned by all the students are set as compulsory subjects. Related subjects are divided into fluid-related subjects and control-related subjects. Experiments are conducted of the 'inspection of orifice flowmeter and Bourdon tube pressure gage,' 'fluid friction in round tube,' and 'servo-mechanism.' In a lesson on drafting, hydraulic equipment provided by business corporations is used. It is hoped that educating units be provided. Subjects of research for graduation and master's theses are the turbine-driven pump, constant pressure source system, hydraulic drive system, application of control theory to an injection molding machine, highly intelligent fluid, noise reduction for an automotive compressor, state of fluid in a hydraulic control valve, analysis of flow in pneumatic equipment elements, and cavitation in a vane pump. More than half of these subjects are pursued in collaboration with industrial or Government circles. It is expected that the Society will be an organization to benefit the students. (NEDO)

  15. Feasibility study on introducing new energy systems into Asian villages; Asia sonraku ni okeru shin energy donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For improvement of living standards in unelectrified areas of Asia, the feasibility of new energy power generation systems was surveyed. The degree of electrification of local areas is different every country, and Thailand is ahead of other countries, while Laos and Cambodia are most unelectrified. Power supply of 100W/house seems to be adequate for local areas because of weather condition, housing situation and life-style. Economic support and education on electricity are necessary for poor areas. Although needs for new energy is increasing, the priority is given to industrial and urbanized areas because of cost and investment effects, and remote areas are dependent on grant- in-aid. Resources of photovoltaic, wind power and micro- hydraulic energies are abundant, however, selection of energy and verification of its usability are important, and the local energy density maps were thus prepared. In introduction of new energy, after selection of energy suitable for an area concerned, such geographical and social conditions should be surveyed as road condition, water rights, land utilization, economic support system, policy and intention of inhabitants. 76 refs., 68 figs., 91 tabs.

  16. Analysis of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; Harada, a.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K.

    1997-10-01

    Premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) makes it possible to achieve low NOx emission. It is an important factor to make the homogeneous spray formation for PREDIC. In this paper presents I the effect of the spray dispersion on emission characteristic were analyzed with the spray observation and engine test. Pintle type nozzle, which has different feature from orifice type nozzle, are used to form the hollow cone spray. As a result, the pintle type nozzle having grooves to generate the swirl flow, makes the reduced penetration in comparison with the hole nozzle under low ambient gas pressure. And it could improve THC, CO emissions at low NOx emission condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Analysis of flame propagation phenomenon in simplified stratified charge conditions; Tanjunkasareta sojo kyukiba ni okeru kaen denpa gensho no kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyoshi, Y.; Morikawa, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kamimoto, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Since the local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration inside the cylinder affects the combustion characteristics, a basic research on combustion phenomenon in stratified charge conditions is required. The authors have made experiments with a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge field by using a removable partition, to obtain the combustion characteristics. Also, numerical calculations are made using some combustion models. As a result, the important feature that the combustion speed is faster in stratified condition than in homogeneous condition can be predicted by the two-step reaction model. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Examination of poisonous gas in Matsumoto city, Nagano Pref.; Matsumotoshi ni okeru yudoku gas chudoku jiko eno taio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuhata, A. [Nagano Research Inst. for Health and Pollution, Nagano (Japan)

    1996-02-10

    This report explains how the Sanitation and Pollution Laboratory of Nagano Prefecture came to isolate sarin and describes some examples of information gathering efforts which played a very important role in the sarin isolating process. The Matsumoto sarin incident took place late at night of June 27, 1994. The laboratory acting upon a request of the prefectural pollution control section completed its specimen collecting in the afternoon of June 28. In its efforts to search for the casualty-causing substance, the laboratory gathered information from the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Japan Poison Information Center, JICST, Matsumoto Health Center, and Professor Naito of the Tsukuba University. Next, the analysis/retrieval team started collecting data from the GC-FPD and GC-MS. The peak in the curve pointed to sarin, and this also made it clear that the substance was neither soman nor tabun. A question remained unanswered as to why sarin, a nerve gas which is a weapon of war, existed in a peaceful castle town of Matsumoto. The greatest difficulty in the sarin isolating process came from the lack of the standard substance to which sarin was to be referred to. Sarin was determined to be the responsible substance only after a general judgement based on the results of comparison with the retention indexes, analysis using the GC-MS (EI) and then GC-MS (CI), and experiments using Japanese cyprinodont. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Introduction of research and development in Image Information Science Laboratory; Image joho kagaku kenkyusho ni okeru kenkyu kaihatsu no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-10

    This paper introduces research and development at the Image Information Science Laboratory. This is a joint industry-university research institution for the purpose of making a computer recognize human non-language information, expressing and transmitting it, with the research conducted at two centers, Kanto and Kansai. The following studies are being made at the Kansai research center: man/machine interface making natural communication possible between a man and a machine, with emphasis placed on visual information; sensing technology for measuring human activity, technology for analyzing/forming human sensitivity, and technology of expression; technology by which a work is done by a computer in place of a man and reproduced on the computer, with the skill transferred to a man; and development of a spatial expression media system such as a three-dimensional display device. The Tokyo research center is participating in the following projects: committee for promoting joint industry-university research and development of virtual reality (VR); joint industry-university research, development and implementation project of advanced VR; survey on physiological psychological effect in VR system and the like; and research and development of human media. (NEDO)

  20. Feasibility study of various geophysical methods at the Nojima fault; Nojima danso ni okeru kakushu butsuri tansaho no tekiyo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Nozaki, K.; Shima, H.; Yamane, M.; Igarashi, T. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of various geophysical methods at the Nojima fault. A shallow bed investigation (to a depth of several ten meters) was performed at the Nojima-Hirabayashi area, a very shallow bed investigation (to a depth of several meters), a shallow bed investigation and a medium depth bed investigation (to a depth of several hundred meters) at the Kokura area, and a very shallow bed investigation at the Nashimoto area. Combinations of two to four investigation methods were used according to the objectives and depths of the investigations at each area. The combinations were selected from the following methods: seismic investigations (P-wave reflection and N-wave reflection methods), electric investigation using the IP image method, electromagnetic investigation using the VLF method, underground radar investigation, micro-gravity investigation, and gravity investigation. The result may be summarized as follows: in places where a fault forms a boundary between base rocks and a sedimentation bed, it was possible to identify clearly position of the fault, and estimate inclination angles and vertical shift; and during the medium depth investigation at the Kokura area, identification was made on a geological structure (deformation of a sedimentation bed above the base bed) which is important in verifying the nature of an active fault. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Using of the geophysical methods to an investigation in city; Toshi ni okeru butsuri tansaho no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-10

    Some of the exploration methods are taken up out of the geophysical methods, which have made drastic change by technological advancement, to discuss their technological development and application in cities. The elastic wave exploration is classified into the refraction method which uses refracted waves and the reflection method which utilizes reflected waves. Shallow reflection method allows visual observation of the complex underground structure, and is an excellent exploration method which provides highly accurate data. There are many types in the electrical exploration. New exploration methods have been developed as a result of improvement in the computer performance, advancement in the technology of numerical analysis, and improvement in the performance of exploration equipment, and they are being applied to the electrical exploration in many fields including tunnel and dam construction works. Geotomography is an application of the technology of medical tomography to ground exploration. Underground radar method is a method of investigating the ground structure by radiating electromagnetic waves from the ground surface in similar way to that of the reflection method and capturing the reflected waves from underground. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Global Environment, human activity, and recycling of resources. Chikyu kankyo to ningen katsudo ni okeru shigen recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahiro, Y.; Wakamatsu, T. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-04-18

    Discussion is made on the recycling of resources which is one the very important problems for the global environment and human activity. In consideration of the limited natural resources and utilization by the human race of the resources for long, recycling of resources'' for saving resources is extremely important. The scale of the waste treatment industry in Japan is estimated to be between 4 to 5 trillion yen which exceeds 1% of the GNP with the trend of increase year by year, and the industrial waste treatment industry is taking root in Japan. Recycling'' can be grouped in three methods, i.e. recovery of materials, conversion of materials, and conversion of energy. The primary object of recycling is to spare resources and save energy. Recycling is of deep significance from the viewpoint of energy saving. There is a big merit in the conservation of dumping sites. Making best use of the useful secondary resources in the wastes is directly connected with the solution to the problems of prolongation of resources'' and conservation of global environment'' with which the human race is now confronted. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  4. Deep sedimentary structure model beneath the Osaka plain; Osaka heiya ni okeru shinbu chika kozo no model ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K.; Kagawa, T.; Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Restructuring was carried out on a sedimentary basin structure model of the Osaka plain including Osaka Bay by using newly obtained underground structural data. After the Hygoken-nanbu Earthquake of 1995, a large number of underground structure investigations have been performed in Osaka Bay and urban areas of Kobe and Osaka. However, very few surveys have been done in areas peripheral to Osaka Prefecture, such as the Ikoma area. Therefore, an attempt has been made to increase the number of measuring points to acquire underground structural data of these areas. Estimation of basic rock depths has utilized the dominant cycles in H/V spectra obtained from micro vibration survey, and good correlation of the base rock depths derived by a refraction exploration and a deep-bed boring investigation. With regard to bed division and P- and S- wave velocities in sedimentary beds in the Osaka sedimentary basin, an underground structure model was prepared, which was divided into four beds according to the refraction exploration and the micro vibration investigation. Data obtained by using this model agreed well with depth data acquired from physical exploration and other types of investigations. However, no good agreement was recognized in the data for such areas where the basic depth changes abruptly as the Rokko fault and the Osaka bay fault. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Yellowstone National Park, USA; Beikoku Yellowstone kokuritsu koen ni okeru genchi jikaritsu sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    For the purpose of interpreting data of the aeromagnetic anomalies in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.A., in-situ magnetization intensity measurements have been carried out in 1994 and 1995 on geological outcrops of rocks in that area. Comparisons and discussions were given on the measurement results, and existing rock magnetic data and aeromagnetic anomaly data available for the area. Outside the Yellowstone caldera, part of granitic gneisses among the Precambrian granitic gneisses and crystalline schists distributed to the north has an abnormally high magnetization intensity of 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI. This could be a powerful anomaly source for the high magnetic anomaly in this area. Paleogene volcanic rocks distributed widely in the eastern part of the park also have magnetization intensity as high as 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher, which are also thought a powerful anomaly source in this area. Part of Pleistocene basalts which are exposed partially in the western part of the park has also very high magnetization intensity at 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher. This suggests correlation with the magnetic anomaly in the east-west direction distributed in this area. Quaternary rhyolites are more magnetic than Quaternary welded tuffs, which should give greater effects to the magnetic anomaly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Power feeding to terminal devices in optical subscriber network; Hikari fuaiba tsushin ni okeru tanmatsu kiki eno kyuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, M

    1998-09-01

    This paper outlines present state of the feeding system in the light access system in consideration of backup in case of home power failure. In the optical communication, equipment with bilateral conversion function for light and electricity has to be installed both on communication service side and home side. Outline of the light access system and equipment requiring backup are shown. The following items are explained: main types of the light access system, such as FTTC (fiber to the curb), FTTP (fiber to the pole), FTTH (fiber to the home) and HFC (hybrid fiber coax), and the feeding system; problems on feeding system for the light access system. Key elements of ONU (optical network unit) for FTTH and construction of the ONU power source are illustrated. The ONU power source is composed of a backup power supply unit and main body supply unit. Backup power is indispensable to the ONU and analog telephones: output is supplied by the backup batteries in power failure. For miniaturization of the backup power source, power supply circuits and backup batteries have to be miniaturized simultaneously. History of miniaturization is explained on the experimental models. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Measurement results of BHTV logging at the geothermal well. 1; Chinetsusei ni okeru BHTV kenso no sokutei kekka. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, S.; Shimizu, I. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In association with excavation of the No. 135 steam producing well in the Onikubi geothermal power plant in Miyagi Prefecture, shapes of production zones and drilling-induced fracture (DIF) were acquired from the borehole televiewer (BHTV) data. The BHTV logging shoots sound waves onto well walls of wells filled with fluid and detects the reflection waves to investigate the state of the well walls. Vertical fracture with opening lengths from 2 to 3 m were found at depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m. Water run-off has occurred at a depth of about 1312 m during the excavation, to which these vertical fractures might have contributed possibly. In depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m, fractures inclining toward north-east direction and south-west direction are predominant. Some fractures in the depth of about 1333 m incline toward east-south-east direction and west-north-west direction. Fracture inclination azimuth in all of the present logging sections is predominantly in north-east direction and south-west direction. When the DIF is considered to show the maximum compression azimuth, the earth`s crust stress azimuth is generally in east-west direction, which crosses slightly obliquely with the running direction of the predominant fracture in this well. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  8. Shallow seismic reflection prospecting in Hachiro-kata reclaimed land; Hachirogata kantakuchi ni okeru senbu hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitsunezaki, C.; Fukutome, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Noda, K.; Sato, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College; Hayashi, H.; Ishii, E.; Yamanaka, Y.; Matsuno, K.; Mikuni, S. [Suncoh Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Along the Japan Sea coast in Akita Prefecture and in the vicinity, there exist active fault groups, such as the Kitayuri thrust fault group in the south and Noshiro thrust fault group in the north. It is estimated that there is another fault, running from Akita City located between the above-said two thrust fault groups into the Hachiro-kata reclaimed land, roughly connecting the two thrust fault groups. This third fault is supposed to be related to the hypocenter of Tencho Earthquake of 830, but its location and structural configuration are not known, and it is not known whether it is an active fault, either. Investigations are conducted using S- and P-waves. The greatest problem in the use of P-waves is that there exists a layer in which signal attenuation is high and transmission is anomalously slow. This problem is ascribed to the layer pore water rendered unsaturated though slightly by the inclusion of air bubbles, and is explained for the most part by the White model. A survey using S-waves is advantageous in that it does not experience no difficulty of this kind. In the P-wave cross section, a structure supposed to be an inversion layer is observed at a level deeper than 200m. In the case of the S-wave method, more details of the shallow structure will be available when the degree of CMP stacking is augmented as usual. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 3D seismic experiment in difficult area in Japan; Kokunai nanchiiki ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Nakagami, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    Difficult area in this context means an exploration-difficult area supposed to store oil/gas but retarded in exploration for the lack of knowledge about the geological structure due to poor quality of available seismic survey records. Discussed in this paper is a survey conducted into an area covering the southern part of Noshiro-shi, Akita-ken, and Yamamoto-cho, Yamamoto-gun, Akita-ken. An area size suitable for data collection at a target depth of 2500m is determined using an interpretation structure compiled on the basis of available well data and 2D seismic survey data. The plan for siting shock points and receiving points is modified case by case as restrictive factors come to the surface (resulting from the complicated hilly terrain, presence of pipes for agricultural water, etc.). The peculiarities of seismic waves in the terrain are studied through the interpretation of the available well data and 2D seismic survey data for the construction of a 3D velocity model for the confirmation of the appropriateness of the plan for siting shock points and receiving points. Efforts are exerted through enhanced coordination with the contractor to acquire data so that a technologically best design may be won within the limits of the budget. The quality of the data obtained from this experiment is in general better than those obtained from previous experiments, yet many problems remain to be settled in future studies about exploration-difficult areas. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Relation between frequency of seismic wave and resolution of tomography; Danseiha tomography kaiseki ni okeru shuhasu to bunkaino no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, M.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With regard to the elastic wave exploration, discussions have been given on the relationship between frequency and resolution in P-wave velocity tomography using the initial travel time. The discussions were carried out by using a new analysis method which incorporates the concept of Fresnel volume into tomography analysis. The following two arrangements were used in the calculation: a cross hole arrangement, in which seismic source and vibration receiving points were arranged so as to surround the three directions of a region extending 250 m in the horizontal direction and 500 m in the vertical direction, and observation is performed between two wells, and a permeation VSP arrangement in which the seismic source is installed on the ground surface and receiving points installed in wells. Restructuring was performed on the velocity structure by using a total of 819 observation travel times. This method has derived results of the restructuring according to frequencies of the seismic source used for the exploration. The resolution shown in the result of the restructuring has become higher as elastic waves with higher frequency are used, and the size of the structure identified from the restructuring result has decreased. This fact reveals that sufficient considerations must be given on frequencies of elastic waves used according to size of objects to be explored. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method. 2; Gokusenso hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S.; Muraoka, S.; Takahashi, T. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Fault analysis is required in addition to the ordinary process of structural analysis (CDP stacking) for the examination of discontinuity in the reflection horizon in question. The fault shape restoration principle is that the reflection point of a reflection wave observed at a certain receiving point is on an ellipse with the shock point and receiving point at its focal points and that the sum of the distances between the reflection point and the focal points is equal to the reflection wave propagation time. The DMO velocity is worked out by calculation using the positive travel time and inverse travel time from the common reflection surface. When the reflection surface is inclined by {theta}, the average interval velocity/cos{theta} is called the DMO velocity. When the reflection surface inclination and the average interval velocities are determined separately in this way, the position of the reflection point may be worked out, and this enables the calculation of the amount of migration (lateral movement). The reflection wave lineups carried by the original record are picked up one by one, and the average interval velocities are treated very prudently. After such a basic DMO conversion treatment, the actualities of the fault are described fairly correctly. 3 figs.

  12. Reinstatement of material research in the 21st century; 21 seiki ni okeru zairyo kenkyu no fukken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinbara, K. [Osaka Univercity, Osaka (Japan). Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research

    2000-03-10

    Just before the 21st century, Japan is demanded most importantly of reforming the industrial structures, breeding new industries, and working on global environment and energy problems. To solve these problems, emergence of material technologies based on original ideas is indispensable. However, Japan lacks a temperament to value original ideas and support them in positive manners. Structuring unique ideas and concepts with high originality is one of the most important intellectual production activities for human being. Understanding that these activities require incessant challenging spirit and accumulation of exhaustive efforts, a system should be structured to give the highest honor to researchers and groups who have made successes in this respect. It should be understood that development of the material technologies requires huge amount of fund, human resources and time, and national strategies should be established as required. Habitat segregation is to be moved forward in research and development, and a system will be built that links effectively the seed oriented research by universities and national research institutes with the need oriented research by business enterprises. The 21st century will be an age that many people can dream of their own success. (NEDO)

  13. Pitting corrosion of copper in aqueous solutions containing phosphonic acid as an inhibitor. Hosuhon san wo inhibita toshite fukumu suiyoekichu ni okeru do no koshiku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School); Seri, O.; Tagashira, K. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)); Nagata, K. (Sumitomo Light Metal Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Lab.)

    1993-09-15

    Phosphonic acid-based inhibitors that are poured into cooling water for copper-tube circulation systems for open heat-accumulators were studied on their influence on pitting corrosion of copper. Amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) dissolved into distilled water to 50 ppm was used for the immersion corrosion test. The corrosion-proof effect of additives such as ZnSO4, benzotriazole (BTA) was tested too. 0.5 mm thick phosphate-treated copper plates with a hole of 5 mm in diameter were used as test specimens. Pitting corrosion on the copper plate occurred when ATMP, BTA and ZnSO4 coexisted. It was proved that SO4 [sup 2-] is essential since Na2SO4 in stead of ZnSO4 induced also corrosion. The pitting took place when 0.6 ppm or more of SO4 [sup 2-] was present in a BTA-added ATMP solution. It was observed that the pitting is prone to occur with increase of SO4 [sup 2-] and the number of pitting increases. The following relationship is established when pitting corrosion occurs; E[sub b] [le] E[sub corr], where the former is a potential value at which current density shows a steep increase and the latter is an average value of spontaneous electrode potential showing a plateau. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Horizontal wells in the Daleel field 2nd development campaign; Dariru yuden no niji kaihatsu ni okeru suihei koi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, K. [Japex Oman Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    The horizontal wells excavated at various places in the world have been carried out at an increasing tempo during recent some years. In particular, Oman has a number of small scale petroleum wells and a task on what means their oil production should be increased, therefore the horizontal excavation is judged to be much optimum. In this Daleed field 2nd development mainly consisting the prolonged region development ranged from north to south, all developing oil wells were determined to excavate with the horizontal excavation method and 10 wells were planned to excavate from the judgement of the possibility of low cost, in addition to the advance of the horizontal excavation technique. The excavating operation was conducted from July 1st, 1994 to March 22nd, 1995, and was finished without any failures. Test results of all oil wells are good, and the mean value of the initial production indices of the horizontal wells were about 3 times to that of vertical wells. And, it made possible to produce petroleum from the areas impossible in the vertical wells, because of presence of gas gap. Adoption of the horizontal well increased early oil production rate, which brought a lot of contribution to economics of the project. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Study on the swirling flow field in a rotating cylinder. 3rd Report. Experiment; Kaiten kannai ni okeru senkai nagareba ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishibe, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kaji, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-02-25

    In the previous papers, the swirling flow field in a rotating hollow turbine shaft was solved using computational fluid dynamics. It was observed that a large-scale spiral vortex existed at a place where the swirling flow turned radially outward. In this report, the pressure fluctuations in the swirling flow field are measured. The main part of the internal cooling air system of a gas turbine is used as the experimental apparatus. A specially devised liner in inserted inside the hollow turbine shaft and ten pressure sensors are embedded axially and circumferentially in the liner to measure the unsteady wall pressures. The pressure fluctuations which have the same characteristics as the rotating spiral vortex predicted in the numerical results are captured. The amplitude is great at the sensors near the place where the vortex was predicted in the numerical results and the precession frequency of the rotating spiral vortex is in close agreement with the calculated frequency. (author)

  16. Investigational study on the development, production and wide spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe; Hokuo ni okeru fukushi yogu no kaihatsu seisan fukyu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of grasping the present situation of the development/production/spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe, an investigation was conducted paying visits to Sweden and Denmark. Basically in the Swedish policy for handicapped persons, disablement is defined not only as features which belong to each individual, but as problems arising when the environment surrounding each individual touches one another. Moreover, characteristics of their policies on welfare apparatus are that major welfare apparatus can be provided for the disabled free of charge, and that the government and public organs play a major role in each step of the development, evaluation, distribution and provision of welfare apparatus. Features of the market of welfare apparatus are that users and buyers of the apparatus are different persons, that a public corporation called SUB participates in determining selling prices, etc., and that the market reflects needs and requests from users comparatively naturally. The needs for welfare apparatus at the Research Institute of Handicapped Persons are grasped through opinion exchanges with groups of handicapped persons or information exchanges with the technical aid center. 3 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Necessity of irrigation for revegetation on reclaimed land with fly ash. Sekitanbai umetatechi ni okeru ryokuka no tameno kangai no hitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, Tetsuo; Kozakai, Kazuki; Okabe, Katsumi.

    1989-02-01

    In view of the growing importance of revegetation measures of a reclaimed land with fly ash discharged from a coal burning thermal power plant, a study was made on necessity of irrigation in case of the positive execution of the above revegetation. This is a report of the above study. The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) Comparing the available moisture amounts in terms of volume percentage of moisture, about 36% is for fly ash and about 34% for volcanic ash soil, but when fly ash is solidified, the above figure for fly ash becomes about 90% of that for volcanic ash soil. (2) The maximum water infiltration capacity of fly ash is 1/10-1/50 of that of volcanic ash soil and the surface run-off is much. The furrow or drip irrigation system is suitable. (3) The evaporation in fly ash is almost same as that in volcanic ash soil and the designed duty of water irrigation is considered to be 7-8mm/day (in case of cultivation of tangerine and pasture). (4) In case when the above reclaimed land is covered with volcanic ash soil, an aquifer is observed at the boundary layer between the surface soil coverage and the land. Hence draining measures such as underdrainage systems are desirable from the viewpoint of the growth of plants. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Survey of the trend of technical development and industrial policies in Asian countries; Asia shokoku ni okeru gijutsu kaihatsu no doko to sangyo gijutsu seisaku ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A sharp rise in industrial productivity in Asia countries indicates a rising level of R and D technology. Since Japan has not clearly grasped the R and D ability in these countries, it has not given appropriate personnel/material R and D support to them. Therefore, for the purpose of exactly grasping the R and D ability of Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India) and studying an effective and appropriate method for R and D cooperation, a survey was conducted of R and D potentials in Asia and R and D support policies of the countries. As a result of the survey, the following are taken up as items to be considered: promotion of exchanges between Tsukuba, etc. in Japan and research/university towns and science parks being constructed in lots of countries, participation of private companies in high-tech joint work in cooperation with Japan, sending information from Japan using internet, etc. and exact grasp of needs at partner side, cooperation given to new comers without asking for research results (use of OB researchers, etc.) 25 refs., 39 figs., 59 tabs.

  19. Improvement of performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator by means of segmented loads; Hiheiko disk gata MHD hatsudenki ni okeru bunkatsu fuka ni yoru seino kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, H.; Okuno, Y.; Kabashima, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-20

    The performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator with segmented loads is examined with {gamma}-{theta} two dimensional numerical simulations. The use of segmented loads is found to improve the generator performance when a low electron temperature plasma is introduced to the channel. The simulation results reveal the desired values of load resistances connected in upstream and downstream regions, respectively. The concept of the segmented loads is considered to be superior to rearranging seed fractions and load resistances. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Results of geophysical survey on Hanaore-fault in the Kyoto urban area; Butsuri tansa ni yoru Kyoto shigaichi ni okeru Hanaore danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan); Toshioka, T.; Matsubara, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper reports results of gravity survey and seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method to identify distribution of the Hanaore fault in the Kyoto urban area. In the gravity survey, level differential structure caused by the fault was identified as an abrupt change in Bouger anomalous values. The continuity therefrom made the estimation possible on existence and positions of such faults as the Hanaore fault belonging to the Hanaore fault system, the Shishigaya fault, the Kaguraoka fault, and the Okazaki fault. The estimation as a result of the gravity survey include the following findings: the Hanaore fault runs from south of the Yoshidayama in the south-north direction; the distribution of the Okazaki fault has a level differential structure falling on the east side; the structure shows low Bouger anomaly distribution; and this area forms a rift valley belt. In the seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method, no distinct reflection plane considered as the basement was verified because of influence from urban area noise. However, it was possible to estimate such an underground structure as a monoclinal fold from shapes of the reflection plane and the distribution depths. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Study on the impact assessment for the life cycle assessment (LCA); Kankyo fuka bunseki ni okeru impact assessment ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the impact assessment which is an important step for LCA. For classification of the impact assessment, the existing literature was reviewed and a skeleton for the classification was proposed. The weighting factors for nine selected impact categories, which were used to calculate environmental load point (ELP) for the valuation, were obtained for two overseas groups, i.e., students of Amsterdam University and SETAC Europe members. It was found that the former provided the similar trends to general Japanese, however that the latter gave high weighting in the global warming and depletion of ozone layer. The ELP was proposed and applied to automatic washing machine, coffee maker, waste incineration power generation system, and co-generation system. As a result, its effectiveness was demonstrated. This report also describes problems for the LCA of thermal and material recycling of PS trays. 99 refs., 96 figs., 73 tabs.

  2. Investigation into the analysis method of total ecobalance in chemical industry products. 3; Kagaku kogyo seihin ni okeru total eko balance no bunseki shuho ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing a total life-cycle ecobalance analysis (LCA) method, the paper studied making of a general computer program for chemical industry products. The study has been made on general-purpose plastics (PET/PSP (polystyrene paper)) since fiscal 1993 aiming at making the CO2 emission computing program covering the entire process of production from extraction of raw materials through waste disposal. In fiscal 1995, the following were conducted for enhancement of generalization of the method: expansion of environmental load items and increase in validity of the concept, and expansion of database. Notice was taken of not only CO2 but SOx, NOx and water quality load items. The survey was made on the recycling situation in Japan and abroad and the PET recycling plant , and environmental load item data are collected to expand database. The program was verified by analyzing an example of reusing PET bottle to carpet, and one-step development can be made toward the establishment of the method. Moreover, an analysis was made for the environmental assessment of the related programs abroad, and a tentative original plan can be proposed for the standardization of environmental load analysis and the integrated assessment method. 39 refs., 130 figs., 76 tabs.

  3. Analysis of the pressure response of high angle multiple (HAM) fractures intersecting a welbore; Kokeisha multi fracture (HAM) kosei ni okeru atsuryoku oto kaiseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujo, S.; Osato, K. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arihara, N. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Schroeder, R.

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports pressure response analysis on wells piercing a high angle multi (HAM) fracture model. In this model which is defined on a three-dimensional space, a plurality of slanted fractures intersect with wells at high angles (however, intersection of fractures with each other is not considered). With respect to the pressure response analysis method using this model, the paper presents a basic differential equation on pressure drawdown and boundary conditions in the wells taking flows in the fractures pseudo-linear, as well as external boundary conditions in calculation regions (a reservoir spreads to an infinite distance, and its top and bottom are closed by non-water permeating beds). The paper also indicates that results of calculating a single vertical fracture model and a slanted fracture model by using a numerical computation program (MULFRAC) based on the above equations agree well respectively with the existing calculation results (calculations performed by Erlougher and Cinco et al). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Study of installation of PV systems at campus; Campus ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden donyu ni kansuru kenkyu (taiyo denchi nomi wo secchishita baai no yobi kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, N.; Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In terms of energy consumption, environmentality and economical efficiency in the case of installing the photovoltaic power system on the rooftop of the university campus, a comparative study was conducted with other power generation systems. As objects to be comparatively studied, selected were the all-electric type centralized space heating/cooling system, cogeneration system, nighttime heat storage system and centralized system with solar cells installed. The panel area of the PV system is 10,000m{sup 2} on the rooftop and 7,000{sup 2} on the outer wall. About data on solar radiation, average values obtained in Nagoya were used. Assessment was made in terms of energy consumption amount at the time of operation, system COP, emission amounts of CO2, NOx and SOx at the time of manufacturing and operation, initial cost, running cost, etc. As a result of the study, an effect of reducing global warming gas was admitted in the PV system. However, the initial cost of the solar cell panel was high, and the life cycle cost of the PV system was lower than other systems. 1 ref., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Starting and stopping control on power conditioner in photovoltaic power system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru power conditioner no kido teishi seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, H.; Nakamura, H. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Studies are made about the control of the power conditioner over the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function in a photovoltaic power generation system. The analysis is conducted by means of computer simulation into the effect of a start/stop function added to the control of MPPT and the effect on the generation of power of the setting of parameters in the start/stop function. The reduction in output power due to difference between the actual operation point and the optimum operation point is evaluated by use of a load matching correction factor. In this simulation, it is assumed that the solar cell array consists of 13 rows in 5 parallel columns, is capable of a normal output of 3.149kW, has a panel tilted at 30 degrees, and faces due south. The power conditioner is assumed to be a system rated at 3kVA, equipped with system interconnection and back flow features. As a result, it is learned that the stop voltage should be set at 180V or lower and the steady voltage near 185.5V for a good result and that there is not much need after all for the start/stop technique. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Pseudo-random data acquisition geometry in 3D seismic survey; Sanjigen jishin tansa ni okeru giji random data shutoku reiauto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuburaya, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    Influence of pseudo-random geometry on the imaging for 3D seismic exploration data acquisition has been investigate using a simple model by comparing with the regular geometry. When constituting wave front by the interference of elemental waves, pseudo-random geometry data did not always provide good results. In the case of a point diffractor, the imaging operation, where the constituted wave front was returned to the point diffractor by the interference of elemental waves for the spatial alias records, did not always give clear images. In the case of multi point diffractor, good images were obtained with less noise generation in spite of alias records. There are a lot of diffractors in the actual geological structures, which corresponds to the case of multi point diffractors. Finally, better images could be obtained by inputting records acquired using the pseudo-random geometry rather than by inputting spatial alias records acquired using the regular geometry. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Investigation of the deposit formation in pipelines connecting liquefaction reactors; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika hanno tokan fuchakubutsu no seisei yoin ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Y.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The liquefaction reaction system of an NEDOL process coal liquefaction 1t/d PSU was opened and checked to investigate the cause of the rise of differential pressure between liquefaction reactors of the PSU. The liquefaction test at a coal concentration of 50 wt% using Tanito Harum coal was conducted, and it was found that the differential pressure between reactors was on the increase. By the two-phase flow pressure loss method, deposition thickness of deposit in pipelines was estimated at 4.4mm at the time of end operation, which agreed with a measuring value obtained from a {gamma} ray. The rise of differential pressure was caused by deposit formation in pipelines connecting reactors. The main component of the deposit is calcite (CaCO3 60-70%) and is the same as the usual one. It is also the same type as the deposit on the reactor wall. Ca in coal ash is concerned with this. To withdraw solid matters deposited in the reactor, there are installed pipelines for the withdrawal at the reactor bottom. The solid matters are regularly purged by reverse gas for prevention of clogging. As the frequency of purge increases, the deposit at the reactor bottom decreases, but the deposit attaches strongly to pipelines connecting reactors. It is presumed that this deposit is what Ca to be discharged out of the system as a form of deposition solid matter naturally in the Ca balance precipitated as calcite in the pipeline connecting the reactor. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Study of the influence of microgravity on the biological cells and molecular level; Seitai saibo bunshi level ni okeru bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The shape of osteoblast, gene appearance, gene of rice blast, cellular fusion of plants, gravity acceptance mechanism of unicellular organisms, and physiological and immunity functions of mice were investigated under the microgravity condition. The influence of gravity on the vital reaction and the influence of microgravity on the crystallization of vital substances were also investigated. For the observation of osteoblast, the fluorescence dye reacted with Ca was well taken in the cells. The microgravity affected the stability of rice blast, but hardly affected the protoplast culture of mushroom. The reaction of ciliate against the gravity related to the specific gravity difference between cells and outer liquid. The level of adrenaline in blood of mice increased during the drop. The moving speed of trigger waves of chemical parallel slit formed at the BZ reaction under the microgravity became 60% to 80% of that on the ground. In the case of crystallization at the deposition agent concentration of 1% to 4%, the turbidity showing the degree of crystallization changed complicatedly. Nine processes of crystal growth were recognized. 21 refs., 55 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Investigational study of the CO2 balance in high temperature CO2 separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of technologies of high temperature separation/recovery/reutilization of CO2. In the study, data collection, arrangement and comparison were made of various separation technologies such as the membrane method, absorption method, adsorption method, and cryogenic separation method. With the LNG-fired power generation as an example, the adaptable environment and effectivity were made clear by making models by a process simulator, ASPEN PLUS. Moreover, using this simulator, effects of replacing the conventional steam reforming of hydrocarbon with the CO2 reforming were made clear with the methanol synthesis as an example. As to the rock fixation treatment of high temperature CO2, collection/arrangement were made of the data on the fixation treatment of the CO2 separated at high temperature into basic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite in order to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of the treatment. Besides, a potentiality of the fixation to concrete waste was made clear. 57 refs., 57 figs., 93 tabs.

  11. Application of information theory to the sensitivity analysis of cogeneration system performance; Johoryo no gainen ni yoru kojenereshon system ni okeru fuka deta eikyo bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Ishizaka, T.; Honnma, I. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    Cogeneration system (CGS) is anticipated by department of energy to play an important role in environment preservation. Cogeneration system`s estimation is depended on the preconditions, heat and electricity load data. Since the recognition of heat and electricity load is difficult, efficiency in load data is demanded repeatedly for the evaluation of cogeneration system. Necessary load factors for the estimation of cogeneration system from the energy department`s point of view as well as what measure may become good while recognizing load factors are investigated in this paper. Based on this, a proposal is made by considering load factors of buildings as a standard for estimation of the system. Further fixed quantity assessment is made with the results of computer simulation. From the obtained results, following observations are noted. Recognization of total load capacity is become very important when base load is introduced considerable amount for houses. Load factor`s information is very important for hotel when heat and electricity are used in balance. It is concluded that irrespective of motor capacity, whole day load factor information is necessary for office buildings. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. On the muscle activity control in the hierarchy motor systems. Hierarchy undo system ni okeru kin no kassei seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, M.; Miyamoto, Y. (Osaka Industrial University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-31

    Excitory impulses for motor systems are controlled by the psychophysiological nervous systems in the body either autonomically or voluntarily. Involved in the voluntary control loop are motor cortex, basal gangalia, thalamus, cerebellum, etc. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether it is possible to reduce or emphasize the muscle contraction voluntarily through electromyogram (EMG) feedback training. EMG can indicate the excitory impulses of motor units. In the experiments, electrodes were placed on the skin above muscles. A significant reduction effect was observed for subjects trained in relaxation of the forehead musculature through EMG feedback. Results of the experiments suggested that biofeedback training for relaxation of the forehead tensional muscle might be effective in eliminating muscle contraction, and that feedback training for activation of damaged muscles might be effective in emphasizing muscle contraction. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Detection of bit location by acoustic emission technique in horizontal directional drilling. Kojo sakushin koho ni okeru bit ichi no AE ho ni yoru hyotei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M.; Niitsuma, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sugimori, S. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Grauduate School); Nakajima, T. (NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-09-20

    The accuracy of the bit location in the excavation of pilot holes with horizontal drilling technique must be kept less than several tens of centimeters. Such an accuracy is hard to be achieved by the existing controlling technology. The depth of the bit tip can be measured comparatively accurately using a clinometer and the like. The azimuth meter, gyroscope, underground radar, locator, etc. are used for the detection of azimuth of the bit, but every one of them has its own problem. Therefore, new measuring methods to be used in combination with the conventional methods are required which can cover up the shortcomings of the conventional methods. Acoustic emission (AE) technique is employed for the detection of the bit location, and the accompanying problems as well as detecting performance are investigated. It is used for the measurement in the drilling test performed at the reclaimed land on the premises of Keihin ironworks of NKK Corp. In connection with the detection of the bit location in horizontal pilot drilling, a study is made on the zone detection technique for AE signals generated by the bit when striking ground and those generated during drilling. 7 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Bacterial cultivation in high magnetic fields by 7-tesla superconducting magnet; 7T chodendo magnet ni yori hasseishita kojiba ni okeru biseibutsu no baiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, M.; Saito, I.; Kamikado, T.; Ito, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Japan Magnet Technology Inc., Kobe (Japan); Liuno, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ano, T.; Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1994-12-20

    Although a large number of studies on effects of magnetic fields on living organisms was reported, no definite results were obtained in many cases because the related conditions are non-uniform and uncertain, such that the uniform magnetic space is smaller than test samples, and temperature control is insufficient. Therefore, the present study developed a microorganism cultivation system that is applied with a 7-T superconducting magnet. This system has the following features: it generates homogeneous magnetic fields of 0.5 to 7 T {plus_minus} 0.5% in the space with a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 200 mm in a normal temperature bore (with a diameter of 160 mm); it can cultivate microorganisms aerobically at temperatures of 10 to 70{degree}C {plus_minus} 0.1{degree}C; it can perform the cultivation simultaneously with a control cultivation in a small magnetic field weaker than the geomagnetism; and a gradient magnetic field and a variable magnetic field can also be applied. As a result of cultivating colibacillus by using the system, a proliferation effect greater by 40% to 80% than the control was obtained in a uniform magnetic field of 7 T, and a proliferation effect greater by several times in variable magnetic fields of 5.2 to 6.1 T was attained with good reproducibility. 22 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Fixed position holding control for self-propulsion barges under disturbance condition; Gairanka ni okeru jiko baji no teiten hoji seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijima, K.; Murata, W.; Furukawa, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    In direct hoisting work in suspension bridge construction, since a cable crane directly hoists a bridge beam block put on a barge on the sea, precise fixed position holding function is required for a barge. The control system was then designed on the basis of an ILQ control theory, and the effect of change in time constant as design parameter on fixed position holding performance was studied. In addition, the critical disturbance for fixed position holding control was studied through numerical simulation under various disturbance conditions using the above designed control system. As a result, in the design of control systems on the basis of an ILQ control theory, the precise control system could be designed by diminishing, in particular, the time constant for state variable around a z axis among time constants according to the extent of disturbance. The control performance was largely affected by response delay period from sensing of disturbance to beginning of control. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Questionnaire investigation for the earthquake in Honjo city and Yazawa city, Akita Prefecture; Jishin ni kansuru ishiki chosa (Akitaken Honjoshi oyobi Yuzawashi ni okeru anketo kara)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education; Kabutoya, S.

    1996-05-01

    Consciousness for the earthquake was investigated by questionnaire surveys made in Honjo City and Yuzawa City, Akita Pref. in October 1995 twelve years after the Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake (M=7.7) in May 1983. The survey was conducted in terms of 27 items including personality, memory, knowledge/interest, psychology/action, mental attitude/preparations, wishes for researchers and administration, etc. Also included were the items on the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and the earthquake blank areas. The number of distributed questionnaires and the recovery rate of them are 1500 and 79.2% in Honjo City, and 1700 and 84.7% in Yuzawa City. From the survey, it was found that people have a lot of knowledge of and high interest in the earthquake and well remember it, and a lot of people know of tsunami, liquefaction phenomena, and the earthquake blank area. Further, they are afraid of earthquakes and think of their actions to be taken in case of earthquake. However, most people are little prepared for earthquakes. Important future subjects were suggested for the study of disaster prevention measures. 13 figs.

  17. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Itokawa, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Future trends in coal mining technology at Ikeshima Colliery. Mainly, setup and actual results of high-speed man riding train; Ikeshima Tanko ni okeru tanko gijutsu no doko. Toku ni kosoku jinsha no donyu to jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiromoto, K.; Irie, T.; Murakami, M. [Matsushima Coal Mining Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan); Takahashi, K. [The Coal Mining Research Center, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    This paper describes the introduction of high-speed man riding train at Ikeshima Coal Mine. The production area is below the sea bottom in the southern offshore of the Ikeshima Island. With increasing the depth of production faces, it is significant for the insurance of operation time to enhance the intensive and highly efficient transportation system and to reduce the transportation and movement time. A high-speed man riding train has been introduced as a transportation system for workers. It is operated in the base gallery at the -650 m level from No. 1 train stop to southern train stop with a distance of 5477 m. It is operated at the maximum speed of 50 km/h, and the single transportation time can be reduced from 18 to 12 minutes. Construction was started in 1995, and practical operation was started in November 1996. Various technical problems were solved concerning the high-speed operation, advanced management of tracks, and monitor and control of operation conditions and a signal system. This system was named as `Goddess-Jikai` which has been operated 19 times a day in the running interval with a return way of 11 km. It has been safely and comfortably operated in a total distance of 33700 km by the end of May 1997. Oscillation is measured by the continuous oscillation monitoring system, and track management is enhanced using a track inspection train. Future high-speed safe operation is expected. 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Development of hydroponic system using agricultural waste. 2. Utilization of ozone for sterilization of nutrient solution; Suiko saibai ni okeru haikibutsu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu. 2. Ozone ni yoru baiyoeki sakkin ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazoe, H.; Yoshihara, T.; Nakaya, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    Discussions were given on a sterilizing effect of ozone on Fusarium bacteria in hydroponic culture, and its effect on components in the culture solution. In an experiment, dry air with O3 concentration of 3.5 ppm was sent into aqueous solution inoculated with Fusarium bacteria at a flow rate of 5 liters per minute. The Fusarium bacteria was sterilized nearly completely in about five minutes. No change was observed in pH, EC and dissolved oxygen concentration of the O3-treated culture solution. However, iron and manganese among the soluble components have been oxidized by O3 and precipitated, hence these components must be added after the O3 treatment. In spinach culture performed on a culture medium inoculated with Fusarium bacteria, ozone water containing dissolved O3 at 0.8 ppm was flown into a urethane foam medium and vegetable roots. This treatment has resulted in reduction of the number of strains occurred with a wilt symptom below that in the section flown with distilled water. The spinach has grown normally without showing an effect of the ozone water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Relationship between the electric resistivity and the rain fall in discontinuity zone of rock slope by the continuous measurement; Renzoku tokei ni yoru ganban shamen no furenzokutaibu ni okeru mikake hiteiko henka to kou tono kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumi, H.; Nishida, K. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The relationship between change in resistivity and rainfall was studied by continuously measuring resistivities of fracture zone and stratum boundary along the measuring line of 95m long from the top to bottom of rock slope. The measurement field was located on a hill of 150-200m high at the northern part of Arima-Takatsuki tectonic line. Electrodes of 30m in maximum measuring depth were arranged at 289 points by dipole-dipole method. Resistivity was continuously measured at time intervals of 6 hours. Apparent resistivity was hardly affected by rainfall at points with less infiltration of stormwater from the ground surface, while it decreased by rainfall at points on fracture zone, stratum boundary or bleeding channel. The change rate of apparent resistivity could be approximated with the exponential function of rainfall. In such case, the apparent resistivity under most dried condition at the concerned point should be used as reference maximum apparent resistivity. The change rate of apparent resistivity due to rainfall in fracture zone reflects infiltration of stormwater, suggesting to be useful for disaster prevention of slopes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Detection of the oscillation mode of measured waveforms in power systems by Prony analysis; Puroni kaisekiho ni yoru denryoku keito ni okeru jissoku hakei no doyo mode kenshutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, K. [Kansai Electaric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the detection method of the oscillation modes by Prony analysis from measured data on power systems. A Prony analysis method can obtain the oscillation frequency and logarithmic damping rate corresponding to eigenvalue directly, and is suitable for detecting the oscillation modes. The analysis result showed that longer sampling intervals of 0.2-0.4s allows detection of the long-period oscillation modes from less data, and the index corresponding to waveform areas allows evaluation of the significance of each mode. It was also confirmed that a low-pass filter with a time constant of nearly 0.2s is effective for poor data including various noises, and correction of amplitude and phase shifts is possible by filter. In addition, the study result on application of a Prony analysis method to instantaneous value waveforms showed that analysis of harmonic characteristics is possible by selecting proper analytical parameters, and a Prony analysis method is applicable to analysis of measured data enough. (NEDO)

  3. Investigation on comparative studies relative to the world oil market models used at Energy Modeling Forum (EMF). EMF ni okeru sekai sekiyu shijo model ni kansuru hikaku kenkyu ni tsuite no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. (The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) has established a working group comprising researchers and policy operators delegated from the three sectors of the government, academic world, and private businesses. The working group has advanced comparative studies relative to the world oil market models during 1991 to 1992, and compiled the 'International Oil Supplies and Demands, EMF REPORT 11'. This paper introduces its summary. The group has selected 11 models from the existing oil market models, and given developers of these models with 12 kinds of common premises to perform scenario analyses. Some of the results of comparisons and analyses on the 11 times 12 kinds of simulation results may be quoted as follows: a common trend has been observed that the Middle East dependency will increase; overseas supply source dependency will increase rapidly in major energy consuming countries (the dependency in the U.S.A. will increase from 1/3 in 1988 to 2/3 in 2010); and estimations on demands and prices up to 2010 were diversified, clearly reflecting differences in viewpoints. 2 refs.

  4. Practical risk estimation method and applications of aerial photographs for preventing slope disasters in railways; Tetsudo ni okeru shamen saigai to sono taiosaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T.; Noguchi, T. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper, upon describing the actual states of slope disasters in railways, indicates the current status of measures taken to prevent these disasters. It also describes the measures to prevent slope disasters occurring currently and the future prospect thereof, focusing on the following two points: (1) a recently developed method for evaluating risks in banking and excavation slopes, and (2) an information control technology to prevent disasters of slope collapses by using remote sensing system and attempts on a method to estimate locations with risks of collapse occurrence by using the former information control technology. Development has been made of a method to evaluate rain disaster risks, which can identify quantitatively rain resisting strength of slopes, reflect the rain resisting strength on the operation rules, and estimate disasters on the real time basis. The method has been developed by using a statistic method to estimate the collapse critical rain amount as an exciting cause from predisposing cause of banking and excavation slopes, based on the record of nationwide disasters. Discussions were given on application of latest remote sensing technologies to slopes along railroads. Furthermore, an attempt was implemented on estimating collapse risks along railroad lines, utilizing slope information extracted from the above application of the remote sensing technologies. 13 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Integrated practical technology for rationalization of production system in Miike coal mine; Seisan kozo kaikaku no tame no sogo shien gijutsu (Miike tanko ni okeru gijutsu kaikaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, H. [Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    This paper describes the improvement of production structure and the reduction since the latter half of FY 1990 in the Miike Coal Mine. The annual production was reduced from 4.5 to 2.35 million tons. The rationalization strategy is composed of the increase in productivity with intensive faces by introducing high performance mining facilities (MHP) and by modifying mining method, the mechanization of driving works, the simplification of underground structures, the reduction of indirect costs, and the rationalization of surface management departments. Faces were reduced to one or two by the MHP, and high operation rate and energy saving are achieved using self-advancing frames. Face moving period was reduced by rotating the MHP within the underground. Labor-saving of belt conveyors was achieved using built-up frames. For the gallery driving, a base gallery was excavated before production, and level driving was expanded through the base gallery. High-speed and systematic face driving was realized through in-seam driving by operating road header without using blasting. To avoid the decrease in operation rate due to unexpected faults or spring waters, early grasping system of face conditions was established, and environmental arrangement was enriched. The efficiency was improved from 96 in FY 1988 to 159 t/person{center_dot}month in FY 1995. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Historical overview of geophysical exploration for hydrocarbon prospecting in Japan; Nippon no sekiyu kogyo ni okeru butsuri tanko gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Y. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes a historical overview of geophysical exploration for hydrocarbon prospecting in Japan. In general, history is divided into eras by the qualitative change. In the case of geophysical exploration, the history is desired to be divided by considering the both of qualitative change in the technology and that in the practical application. In the early time of geophysical prospecting, gravitational exploration, magnetic exploration, seismic refraction method and seismic reflection method were elementarily and successfully tried. In the era of classical geophysical exploration, seismic reflection method and gravitational/magnetic methods were basically completed, and accumulation structures of potential petroleum were discovered around existing oil fields. In the era of systematic geophysical exploration, techniques of underground geological reflection profiles were completed with digitalization, and systematic petroleum exploration was conducted. In the era of modern geophysical exploration, 3D seismic was put into practice, and the inversion accuracy was improved, in which the geophysical exploration could be contributed jointly with the geological techniques. New development era of geophysics is expected. 31 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Role of simulation model in petroleum exploration. Have we developed new ideas for exploration; Sekiyu tanko ni okeru simulation no yakuwari. Hatashite wareware no shikoho wa kawattanoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, K. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a role of simulation model in petroleum exploration based on geology. Geology is based on inductive method in which a scientific fact can be extracted and estimated from the pile of descriptive records. Such an inductive method is called a backward model. While, geophysics is based on a deductive method in which a physical or mathematical model is developed assuming a uniformitarialism in the past before extracting a scientific fact through the model calibration. Such a deductive method is called forward model. Introduction of simulation model has been useful for petroleum exploration due to its deductive property. However, some conceptualization and simplification are introduced in such a method. Therefore, its accuracy is still far from the fact. However, objective concept can be obtained to certain degree. Simulation modeling is one of a significant methods by which petroleum exploration can be activated and new ideas can be created in the field of petroleum geology. It is required to apply the simulation modeling by checking it using conventional inductive method. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Switching surge overvoltages on a feeding system of a MAGLEV train; Jiki fujoshiki tetsudo no kidenkei ni okeru kaihei surge kaden`atsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muragishi, H. [Nippon Yusoki Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, Y.; Muraoka, N.; Ametani, A. [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-04-20

    Discussions using simulations were given on surge overvoltages and earth fault surge overvoltage associated with operation of a section switchgear in a feeding system of a MAGLEV train. Results of the discussions may be summarized as follows: throw-in surge overvoltage caused by the section switchgear is about 25 kV at maximum on the coil and about 15 kV on the cable sheath. The coil overvoltage increases as the closer to 90 degrees the throw-in phase approaches, and the greater the power supply frequency increases. The cable sheath overvoltage, however, is not affected by these environments. Breaking surge overvoltage caused by the section switchgear reaches 115 kV on the coil and about the same value on the cable sheath when the breaking current is 50 A. Earth fault surge overvoltage due to cable fault is 24 kV at maximum on the coil, while it reaches 32 kV on the cable sheath. The cable sheath overvoltage depends largely on sheath installing conditions. These overvoltages can be suppressed sufficiently lower than insulation levels of each device by installing arresters. 17 refs., 18 figs.

  9. Interfacial area between gases and liquid in a valve plate column and a bubble cap tray; Barubu danto oyobi hosho danto ni okeru kieki sesshoku menseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakoua, M.; Dribika, M.; Besher, E

    1999-03-05

    A mathematical model has been developed for absorption accompanied by chemical reaction of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in alkanolamine solutions encountered in plants for natural gas sweetening in Libya. The model has been used to calculate actual number of plates in industrial columns. The model results errors in number of trays predictions due to the lack of procedures for estimating interfacial area for the in between flow regime that prevailed in two industrial plants. The developed correlation for interfacial area estimation for the in between flow regime gives zero error in number of trays prediction. (author)

  10. Preventive design review as quality assurance and further task at Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.; Kawasaki Juko ni okeru jizen kensho no torikumi to kongo no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakata, S.; Okazaki, S.; Nishimoto, T.; Saeki, H.; Niguma, Y. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    At Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI), to reduce the risk in manufacturing and contribute to our company management, the most useful method of our Quality Assurance (QA) activities is preventive verification by design reviews (DR). During a design review, we effectively use the abundant experience of our company in the technologies of design, manufacturing and management to prevent failures resulting from the upper processes, such as design. As a direct result of this activity (GRP-50 and 75), failure costs have been greatly reduced. In the future we will continue to evolve our QA activities backed by preventive verification, aiming at linking Total Quality Management (TQM) to management in order to progress our company management and business process. (author)

  11. Survey on the feasibility of simple waste energy systems in medium or small cities; Chusho toshi ni okeru kan`igata haikibutsu riyo energy system no kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For effective use of wastes, the concept of a waste utilization system suitable for local characteristics of the Kyushu district was surveyed. The amount, features and processing method of wastes were surveyed for every kind of wastes and every region. Characteristics of wastes themselves and their use technologies were surveyed to study the energy system concept, and the concept was selected mainly for simple middle or small-scale systems. Main wastes available as heat source showed distinctive distributions every region. The following seven concepts were thus selected: RDF (refuse derived fuel) energy system mainly using general wastes, RDF system using wood chips and agricultural plastic wastes, co-generation system by premixed combustion of chicken manure and combustion improver, premixed combustion of livestock manure and combustion improver, methane fermentation using livestock, distillery and starch wastes, and pyrolytic oil system or gas system using agricultural plastic wastes. Establishment of any systems is difficult only in single region because of their economic scale. The collection and storage methods of raw materials should be studied. 36 figs., 40 tabs.

  12. Research report for fiscal 1998. Promotion of activities implemented jointly etc. in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo nado suishin chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows some flexibility in the implementation of methods for achieving the goal, such as emission trading, activities implemented jointly (AIJ) among advanced countries, construction of clean development mechanisms (CDM) with developing countries, etc., and Japan intends to positively make use of them for the achievement of the goal. For China, who holds second place in the list of greenhouse gas emitting countries in the world, the promotion of CDM is quite important. With the situation taken into consideration, interaction was effected with Chinese officers and scientists of government agencies and academic institutes involved in environmental matters, and researches were conducted. Views and information were exchanged regarding environmental problems and, after on-site investigations, researches were conducted and suggestions were presented as to how AIJ and CDM should be. The suggestions covered Chinese policies toward AIJ and CDM, current state of AIJ projects in China and systems for their promotion, means for enhancing such projects, and discovery of candidates for AIJ and CDM project application. (NEDO)

  13. Microscopic damage of quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminates at various temperatures; Kakuondo kankyoka ni okeru carbon/epoxy giji tohosei sekisoban no bishiteki sonsho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ogi, K.; Matsubara, T.; Wang, W.; Takao, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1998-06-15

    Quasi-isotropic Carbon/Epoxy laminates under tensile loading are investigated to understand the effects of temperature on stress-strain response and damage progress including the interlaminar delamination growth behavior. The material system used is T800H/3631 and the stacking sequence is quasi-isotropic [0deg/45deg/-45deg/90deg]s. The transverse crack behavior is microscopically observed and its density is quantitatively measured by using an optical microscope under various loads at different temperatures, i.e., low (-100deg), room (25deg) and high (150deg) temperatures. The interlaminar delamination growth behavior is non-destructively examined by a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). It is found that nonlinearity observed in the stress-strain response is caused by the large scale interlaminar delamination throughout the length of the specimen. The transverse crack propagation and interlaminar delamination growth behavior are obviously affected by the temperature environments. Characteristic transverse crack formation at the edge of -45deg layer under -100deg is pointed out and its mechanism is discussed with the use of shear coupling of an off -axis lamina. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Survey of the actual state of the coal related research and development in Japan. 11; Nippon ni okeru sekitan kanren kenkyu kaihatsu jittai chosa. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    NEDO is surveying the actual state of the coal related research/development in Japan to supply information on the coal related research/development in Japan to IEA`s coal research project database. This book of fiscal 1997 version includes 338 subjects. The details described are name of research institute, the section in charge, address, name of country, telephone No., name of joint researcher, research theme, classification, outline of research, project No., name of researcher, sponsor, the budget appropriated, term of research, remarks, etc. The books of data collected from each country in surveys of the actual state of the coal related R and D and IEA`s coal researches which have been made so far are submitted for general viewing at NEDO Information Center. Also, a part of those can be accessible from the energy database of which NEDO Information Center is performing on-line service for user members

  15. Land subsidence in the Saga plane due to water shortage in 1994; Saga heiya ni okeru 1994 nen ijo kassui to jiban chinka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachiya, Y.; Kitajima, J. [Saga Prefectural Government Office, Saga (Japan); Jinno, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-08-21

    This paper reports land subsidence in Saga Plane during the abnormal drought in 1994. Saga Plane is arranged with a table land with a height of 20 m or lower above sea level, an alluvial fan, an inundation plane, and a delta in that order, with a reclaimed land spreading in front thereof. Groundwater is utilized mainly for industrial use in the Saga district, with consumption of 12 million m{sup 3} per year in around 1975 and 3.5 million m{sup 3} per year in recent years. The Shiraishi district uses groundwater mainly for tap water supply and agriculture, with normal consumption of 600 to 900 m{sup 3} per year having risen to 2000 m{sup 3} per year in 1994 when the abnormal drought has been experienced. The Saga prefectural government has been conducting groundwater collection amount survey, groundwater level measurement and level survey every year. As a result of observations, annual maximum subsidence has stopped at 3.3 cm and subsidence volume of 1280 m{sup 3} as a result of reduced groundwater collection in the Saga area. The Shiraishi area had ground water collection greatly increased due to drought, with the annual maximum subsidence having reached 16.0 cm and the subsidence volume of 5.9 million m{sup 3}. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Novel control strategies of HVDC system with self-commutated converter. Jireishiki henkanki wo tekiyoshita HVDC sytem ni okeru tanshi seigyo to kyocho seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokiwa, Y.; Ichikawa, F.; Suzuki, K. (Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Inokuchi, H.; Hirose, S.; Kimura, K. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-01-20

    This report describes new control strategies of a self -commutated converter applied to the HVDC systems; that is, the cooperative control for a two-terminal transmission system and the terminal control which is applicable to a multi-terminal system. The DC voltage control with an upper and lower power-limiter showed excellent characteristics when applied to the two- terminal transmission system. A voltage margin method was also introduced as a power flow reversal method. These terminal control methods, if required, are able to change interchange power at the receiving end in the case of fault in the communication system. Moreover, the DC voltage control with two-stage voltage control characteristics was proposed for the multi-terminal HVDC system. with this mehtod, the DC transmission system can be operated continuously and stably cooperating electric power at each terminal even when one terminal is collapsed. The terminal control performance in the above two-terminal HVDC system was tested with a simulator. The result showed favorable performance characteristics at the time of power flow reversal and one terminal start-up during other terminal operation. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  17. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility survey on offshore wind power generation in Japan; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nippon ni okeru yojo furyoku hatsuden no donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey studied the feasibility of large-scale offshore wind power generation in Japan. Attempt was also made on preparation of outline maps of offshore wind around Japan. The cost of future offshore wind power generation systems is roughly dependent on technical issues and environmental issues. As technical issues, 'installation site,' 'foundation,' 'system interconnection' and 'maintenance/management' were summarized based on applications in Europe. As a result, it was clarified that technical issues can be solved with existing technologies to a certain extent, however, those relate to economical problems closely. The previous environment impact assessments say that wind power generation has no problems on the environmental issues. As relatively strong wind coastal areas, the outline maps of offshore wind point out Western Hokkaido area, Japan Sea area of Tohoku district, Pacific ocean area of the central part of Honshu, Genkai Nada area, Western Kyushu area and Southwest islands area, and suggest that these areas are promising for offshore wind power generation. (NEDO)

  18. Optimization of man-machine roll allocation in automatic systems; Jidoka system ni okeru hito to kikai no yakuwari buntan no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, H. [Yokokawa Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research and Development Lab.

    1996-08-10

    Bearing reliability and safety of automatic systems in mind, man-machine roll allocation in the operation of facilities is examined, and the optimal roll allocation is proposed. The outline of the method for man-machine roll allocation is given in process instrumentation system, robotized assembly plant, railroad operation control system, and passenger airplane operation control system. The types of man-machine roll allocation in automatic system is divided into normal and emergency cases. Improvement in the total reliability of man-machine system can be expected by man-machine mutual complementary roll allocation. The core of the intelligent support system for emergency is the growing knowledge base, and the system performs intelligent support automatically or with the support of human in an emergency. For smooth man-machine information interchange at man`s own will, logical difference between man and machine must be adjusted in the man-machine interface. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Report of the 14th IFAC symposium on automatic control in aerospace; Dai 14 kai IFAC `koku uchu ni okeru jido seigyo symposium` shusseki hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasuka, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-05

    This is the report of the 14th International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) symposium on automatic control in aerospace, held on August 24 to 28 1998 at National Seoul University, ROK, by the author who participated in the symposium. This symposium is held by the IFAC`s Aerospace Technical Committee once in every 3 years for automatic control mainly for aerospace, in particular navigation, guidance and control of aircraft, satellites, rockets and the like. A total of 65 papers were presented to 25 sessions, with a total of 106 attendees. There were a number of attendees from Japan, and Russia sent an unusually large number of attendees. The general lectures covered the topics of, e.g., attitude and orbit control of satellites and the like, control of aircraft, guidance and control of missiles, navigation of aircraft and space aircraft, space robotics, failure diagnosis, basic theories on control, and system development. Reports on development and results of actual projects accounted for the majority in the sessions for control of satellites, rockets and the like. (NEDO)

  20. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Discussion on sensor location in circular array for spatial autocorrelation method; Kukan jiko sokanho no enkei array ni okeru jishinkei haichi no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Saito, T.; Yoshida, A. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    Methods to derive underground structures by utilizing the dispersion phenomenon of surface waves contained in microtremors include the frequency-wave number analysis method (the F-K method) and the spatial autocorrelation method (SAC method). The SAC method is said capable of estimating the structures to deeper depths than with the F-K method if the same seismometer is used. However, the F-K method is used more frequently. This is because the SAC method imposes a strict restriction that seismometers must be arranged evenly on the same circumference, while the F-K method allows seismometers to be arranged arbitrarily during an observation. Therefore, the present study has discussed whether the SAC method can be applied to observations with the seismometers arranged in the same way as in the F-K method, by using microtremor data acquired from actual observations. It was made clear that a seismometer arrangement for the SAC method may be sufficed with at least three meters arranged on the same circumference. These meters may not have to be arranged evenly, but because the acquired phase velocities may vary according to wave arriving directions and seismometer arrangement, it is desirable to perform observations with seismometers arranged as evenly as possible. 13 figs.

  2. Array measurements of long-period microtremors in southwestern Kanto plain, Japan; Kanto heiya nanseibu ni okeru yaya choshuki bido no array kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, H.; Sato, H.; Kurita, K.; Seo, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Array measurements of long-period microtremors were carried out in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain, Japan, to obtain S-wave velocity structures in sedimentary beds as fundamental data for estimating long-term strong ground motion in Kanto Plain. The major component in a long-term seismic motion observed in Kanto Plain is the surface wave. According to the result of observations on Love wave by Kinoshita et al, the wavelengths of the surface waves of a long-term cycle are 10 to 20 km. Therefore, if an array observation is to be performed at intervals of about two wavelengths, about 40 points will be required to cover the entire Kanto plain. The final phase velocity is decided by averaging phase velocities of each cycle obtained for each data set. The acquired phase velocities are analyzed inversely by using a genetic algorithm to derive the S-wave velocities at each observation point. The present microtremor array observation has used 13 points in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain to acquire S-wave velocity (Vs) distribution in sedimentary beds. It was made clear that beds with Vs of 1.0 km/s and Vs of 1.5 km/s exist in this area between the surface bed and the seismic foundation with Vs of about 3 km/s. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Airborne gamma-ray survey around the Negoro fault. 1; Negoro danso shuhen chiiki ni okeru kuchu {gamma} sen tansa. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, E.; Kasuya, Y.; Hasegawa, H. [Aero Asahi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukuda, E. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    An airborne gamma-ray survey was carried out to investigate the active fault system in the central structure line in the peripheral area of the city of Wakayama. At the same time, with an objective to enhance applicability of the airborne gamma-ray survey to active fault investigation, fundamental data were acquired and discussed. The measurement data were processed according to the standard method specified by IAEA. An ID-FFT filter and a nonlinear filter were employed to extract anomalous gamma-ray intensity values. The gamma-ray intensity distribution chart shows a noticeable positive anomalous area extending from the central part of the western edge to the north-east direction. This area agrees nearly well with the Negoro fault, but its peak portion is positioned slightly more to south than the position of the Negoro fault shown in existing data. The Sakuraike fault and the vicinity of the central structure line also show positive anomaly as a whole, particularly remarkably in the vicinity of their converging portion. However, differing from the vicinity of the Negoro fault, the areas are not extracted as an anomalous area which has directionality and extends in a line form. One of the factors for this would be that it is a fault in unsolidified deposits with low opening trend, differing from the one in solidified rocks. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Development of high field magnets at the National Research Institute for Metals. Kinzoku zairyo gijutsu kenkyusho ni okeru kojikai magnet gun no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoshi, T.; Inoue, K.; Maeda, H. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    Sinece 1988, the Scince and Technology Agency has initiated the superconductor multicore project, which has a purpose of the versatile study on the high temperature superconducting materials of the oxide series. The National Research Institute for Metals is in charge of 5 cores out of them, and in the performance evaluation core which is one of them, the development of each kind of the high field magnets is being advanced for evaluating the characteristics under the high magnetic field. As the magnets, including the 40T class hybrid magnet which generates the steady state magnetic field of 40T, the superconducting magnet of 20T with a large diameter which generates the magnetic field over 20T with a superconductor, the condenser bank system for the pulse magnet to generate the pulse magnetic field up to 80T, and the ultra-precise magnet system which generates the magnetic field with a high uniformity will be consolidated. Keeping pace with a removal of the National Research Institute for Metals to Tsukuba, the construction of the strong magnetic field station is being advanced in the Sakura area. These several kinds of magnets are scheduled to be used in turn for the international joint study. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Development of natural gas in the South American region and internationalization of a market thereof; Nanbei chiiki ni okeru tennen gasu kaihatsu to shijo no kokusaika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, N. [Japan Petroleum Development Association, Tokyo (Japan); Terada, S. [Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Recently, natural gas development in the South American region is actively advanced. Especially, southern countries have formed the customs union 'Mercosur' (the South America south cooperation market), and an energy supply network such as the natural gas pipeline has been formed with the integration of the market. In this paper, a present state of development project, an installment balance situation, a production situation, a relation infrastructure and a trend of the market of natural gas in South America especially each country of the southern district are described. And, the introduction of foreign capital is also advancing with the restructuring related to the natural gas business in these countries. Therefore, those trends are also described. In the South American countries, Argentina has abundant natural gas reserves which is the next quantity to Venezuela, and has coped with the development of natural gas since early times. According to the prediction of future demand trend of natural gas, Argentina, Bolivia and Trinidad Tobago are mentioned as an exporter of natural gas, and Brazil and Chile are mentioned as an importer of natural gas. (NEDO)

  6. Motion analysis of human cervical vertebrae and injury mechanisms during low speed rear impacts; Teisokudo tsuitotsu ni okeru ningen no keitsui kyodo kaiseki to shogai mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kaneoka, K.; Inami, S.; Hayashi, K. [University of Tsukuba. Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    It is said that, as long as a head rest is used in an automobile, dilation of the cervical vertebrae will not extend the physiological range. However, neck injuries are still occurring frequently as a result of the rear collision accidents. This paper describes an experiment simulating low speed rear impacts by using ten volunteers for the purpose of clarifying the neck injury mechanism. Data taken by using a continuous X-ray photographing device were analyzed. The following points were made clear on features of collisions from comparison with normal cervical vertebral behavior: at a rear impact, the cervical vertebrae are subjected to action of axial compression force due to inertia of the neck, in addition to push-up of the body resulting in upward movement, and the force remains affecting the cervical vertebral behavior thereafter; the effect appears as a bending condition in the cervical vertebrae in the initial stage around 50 to 100 ms after the impact, and then transfers into dilation behavior; and this condition exceeds the normal physiologically movable range, particularly the movement of the winding center being abnormal, which is thought to involve in the mechanism of generating injuries in vertebral joints. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  7. New utilization and recall of carbon dioxide in domestic and foreign countries; Saikin no naigai ni okeru tansan gas no riyo to kaishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanada, M.

    1994-09-01

    This paper summarizes the utilization technologies and recovery of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is manufactured from such inorganic materials as carbonates and cokes, and such organic materials as hydrocarbons and alcohols. Carbon dioxide used in refreshing beverages is manufactured by sulfuric acid decomposition of sodium bicarbonate or limestone, pyrolysis of carbonates, natural gushing, and alcohol fermentation. Sodium carbonate is obtained by using the Solvay process that uses NaCl, NH3 and CaCO3 as the raw materials, but CO2 from hydrocarbons is utilized recently. The sugar industry uses slaked lime and CO2 in cleaning raw sugar concentrates. Grain size, shape, and grain size distribution of the precipitated calcium carbonate light obtained from reaction of slaked lime and CO2 are affected by reaction temperatures and concentrations. This precipitated calcium carbonate light is used in rubber filling, paper manufacturing, and plastics. South Africa and other countries manufacture gypsum for cement by using limestone and sulfuric acid as the raw materials. The annual dispersion of CO2 from fossil fuel consumption amounts to 5.2 billion tons. Discussed as its reducing measures include fixation by sea algae, adsorption, absorption and clathration by zeolite and monoethanol amine. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Characteristic analysis of turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure; Takukakuka kukan kozo ni okeru ranryunetsu kakusan gensho no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, C.; Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    An analysis was made on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure necessary for designing calorific power and environment for functional systems used in marine vessels and off-shore structures. In a multi-compartment structure, the diffusion phenomenon is complex because of movement of air flow in turbulence and buoyancy resulted from non-isothermal condition. The phenomenon is largely affected by space shapes and walls, and the conditions in heat diffusion field is governed also by shapes of opening connecting the compartments. An analysis was made by using the SIMPLE method on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment space with high Raleigh number in which natural convection is dominant. If the opening is small, the Coanda effect appears, in which air flow passing through the opening rises along the wall, wherein a high-temperature layer is formed near the ceiling, making the heat diffusion inactive. If the opening is large, a jetting flow from the opening and a large circulating flow are created, which cause active advection mixture, making temperature gradient smaller in the upper layer. Heat transfer intensity in an opening on a partition wall decays in proportion with 1/4th power of the opening ratio. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Calculation of wave resistance by using Kochin function in the Rankine source method; Rankinsosuho ni okeru kochin kansu wo mochiita zoha teiko keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to avoid negative wave resistance (which is physically incomprehensible) generated in calculating wave resistance by using the Rankine source method, a proposal was made on a wave resistance calculation method using the Kochin function which describes behavior of speed potential in regions far apart from a hull. The Baba`s condition was used as a free surface condition for the speed potential which expresses wave motions around a hull. This has allowed a new Kochin function which uses as unknown the speed potential on the hull surface and the free surface near the hull to be defined and combined with the Rankine source method. A comparison was made between the calculated values for wave resistance, hull subsidence and trim change of an ore transporting vessel (SR107 type of ship) in a fully loaded condition and the result of water tank tests. The wave resistance values derived from pressure integration have all become negative when the Froude number is from 0.1 to 0.2, while no negative resistance has appeared in the calculations by using the Kochin function, but the result has agreed with that of the water tank tests. Accuracy of the calculations at low speeds was improved. The trim change in the calculations was slightly smaller than that in the water tank tests. The subsidence showed a good agreement. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Cooperative measurements of microtremors in the north-eastern region of Nishinomiya city, Hyogo Pref.; Nishinomiyashi hokutobu ni okeru joji bido no godo kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Matsuzawa, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sawada, Y.; Tazawa, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the purpose of generally grasping space distribution of ground vibration characteristics, cooperative measurements were conducted in a wide area, mainly in the area stricken by the M7 earthquake. Forty-five organs such as governmental institutes, universities, and private company institutes participated in the measurements which were conducted at 1967 measuring points. The area which the author is in charge is an area from the north of Nishinomiya City to the south of Takarazuka City. The area is relatively far from the hypocenter area, but the magnitude is 7 there and damage was concentrated. The measurements were made by each independent team from August 29 to September 1, 1995. As a result of spectral measurements of NS, EW and UD components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 1.5 sec. cycle in almost all measuring points and components. Further, in spectra of horizontal motion components of A measuring point group, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.15-0.5 sec. cycle, and in those in B and C measuring point groups, in an extent of 0.35-0.5 sec. cycle. In upper/lower motion components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.3 sec. cycle in A measuring point group. 4 figs.

  11. Composition dependence of the rate of bainitic transformation in Cu-Zn-Al alloys; Cu-Zn-Al gokin ni okeru bainite hentai sokudo no gokin sosei izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, M.; Marukawa, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-04-20

    The bainitic transformation is known to have an intermediate nature between the martensitic transformation and the diffusional transformation, while its transformation mechanism has not yet been clarified precisely. If this transformation involves lattice shearing like the martensitic transformation, it should take place more easily in those alloys which have a higher tendency to transform martensitically. On this expectation, the composition dependence of bainitic transformation kinetics has been studied in Cu-Zn-Al alloys. Especially, the relation between the martensitic transformation temperature (Ms) and the bainitic transformation rate was examined. The transformation process was traced by measuring the electrical resistivity of specimens during aging. It was found that the transformation rate is higher in those alloys having a higher Ms temperature. The activation energy for the process, obtained from its temperature dependence, is independent of the alloy composition and roughly equal to that for solute diffusion in the parent alloy. This indicates that the transformation is controlled by diffusion of solute atoms. The composition dependence of the bainitic transformation rate is discussed in terms of a diffusion controlled growth theory. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Continuous cooling transformation behavior for heat treatment of spheroidal graphite cast iron. Kyujo kokuen chutetsu no netsushoriji ni okeru renzoku reikyaku hentai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, T.; Matsumoto, H. (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Kasugai, T. (National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan)); Koyama, M. (Automobile Foundry Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan))

    1992-08-25

    In order to study basic heat treatment properties of spheroidal graphite cast iron, the continuous cooling transformation(CCT) diagrams for the material equivallent to FCD700 under various austenitized conditions were obtained. There were 4 kinds of austenitized conditions varying from 1123K and 420s to 1323K and 1,800s. Eight kinds of cooling time from the austenitized temperature to 773K ranged from 6s to 4,000s. The transformation temperature was measured by a thermal expansion method. When the austenitized temperature was increased from 1123K to 1323K, ferrite and pearlite transformation regions moved a little in the CCT diagrams and the martensite transformation temperature decreased from 493K to 458K. The bainite region in the CCT diagrams disappeared at the austenite temperatures above 1223K. The nucleation sites of ferrite and pearlite in the spheroidal graphite cast iron were generated at grain boundary between austenite and graphite but not at grain boundary between austenites. The reason of such phenomena was also studied. 10 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Isothermal transformation behavior in 12%Cr-0.3%C steel; 12%Cr-0.3%C ko ni okeru koon hentai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, M. [Japan Casting and Forging Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan); Tsuchiyama, T.; Takaki, S. [Kyushu Univearsity, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    In order to get fine grain of large martensitic stainless steels products, it is available to use the isothermal transformation before the austenitizing. When 12%Cr-0.3%C steel is subjected to the full solution treatment and following isothermal transformation at 900-1,020K, it is observed that the microstructures are affected by the isothermal ageing temperature. The microstructure transformed isothermally at 1,020K is the full eutectoid structure where carbides precipitate homogeneously. On the other hand, the microstructure transformed at 900K is the mixed heterogeneous structure: the eutectoid structure where carbides precipitate densely around the edge of prior austenite grains and the ferrite structure where carbides hardly precipitate in the center of prior austenite grains. These phenomena are concerned with the decreasing in carbon content in the untransformed austenite as the eutectoid transformation progresses. The amount of decreasing in carbon at 900K is larger than at 1,020K, which causes the shortage of carbon in austenite in the last period of isothermal transformation. In the case of the isothermal transformation at 900K, the reason of why there are the ferrite structures with no carbide in the center of prior austenite grains is that the massive transformation is induced by the shortage of carbon in untransformed austenite. (author)

  14. Effect of applied synthetic auxin on root growth in plantlet propagation by cuttage and tissue culture; Sashiki to soshiki baiyo ni okeru gosei auxin rui no shiyo koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, K.; Yoshihara, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of synthetic plant hormone 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA on root growth in plantlet propagation was clarified by the cuttage and the issue culture of strawberry seedling production. A periwinkle, vine, and azalea are the effect of 4-C1-IAA on root growth, and a promotion effect was recognized for rooting and root elongation. The concentration of 4-C1-IAA in which the growth promotion effect of a root most appears varies depending on the species of a plant. The concentration of a periwinkle was 20 ppm, and that of an azalea was 2000 ppm. The growth promotion effect of a root in 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA was compared with IBA for an azalea. The result showed that 4-C1-IAA is the same in the effect as IBA and that TFIBA is higher than for IBA. The growth of a vine`s terminal bud was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth, and the callus occurring when IBA was treated was not formed. The rooting of a strawberry was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth. The combined use of TFIBA and BA promotes the growth of a side bud and forms a multi-bud plant. However, rooting was inhibited. The callus caused by the effect of BA on root growth could be suppressed through the combined use with TFIBA. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Effective range of electrical stimulation in brain silica preparation; No slice hyohon ni okeru denki shigeki koka han`i no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takimori, T.; Ogawa, T.; Nishida, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    In order to examine the confines of electrical stimulation in layer 2/3 of visual cortex in the brain slice preparation, we estimated the effective range of the stimulation based on the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) evoked in layer V neuron which receives input from layer 2/3. For this purpose, we recorded and compared EPSPs amplitudes evoked by stimulations at directly over site of recording electrode and lateral site in layer 2/3. Since the EPSP increased linearly with stimulus intensity before the saturation, it was considered that the EPSP correlates with the number of projecting neurons in area directly excited with the stimulation. Then we formed the region model by which we can get the ratios between the neuron numbers in areas excited by different sites stimulations against the stimulus effective ranges. And in the stimulus intensity for action potential threshold of layer 5 neuron, we evaluated the effective range for the relative values of EPSPs to be produced with the stimulations of 250{mu}m lateral site and directory over site. In the model, the ratio increased monotonically with the effective range and in the case of 250{mu}m for the effective range, the ratio between those EPSPs was less than the value in the model. These results led the conclusion that the effective range of the intensity for layer 5 neuron to generate the output is confined within 250{mu}m from directly over site, that is, within layer 2/3. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Cyanide formation by the cyanide distillation of nitrate. Zen shian joryuji ni okeru shosan ion ga kanyosuru shian kagobutsu ion no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, H. (The Chiba Prefectural Lab. of Water Pollution, Chiba (Japan))

    1994-06-10

    Cyanide ion is formed by reacting disodium ethylenediamine-tetra-acetate (EDTA) with a sample containing nitrous ion. Further, it is known that cyanide ions are also generated from the reaction between EDTA and the product of the reaction of oxide and the substance like hydroxyl ammonium chloride which is added to reduce the oxide contained in the sample. In the present researches, the possibility of the formation of cyanide ions from the nitric acid used popularly in the manufactory of plating and surface-treatment is examined. It is expected that if nitric ion takes a part in the formation of cyanide ion, the reaction reducing the nitric ion into nitrous ion would happen as the former step thereof. Therefore, the cyanide distillation of nitric ions co-existing with the reducing agent is carried out, and it is confirmed that cyanide ion is formed with the participation of EDTA. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. Flow characteristics of Hijiori HDR reservoir form circulation test in 1995; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru shinbu choryuso yobi junkan shiken (1995 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, N.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports the result of a preliminary circulation test conducted in fiscal 1995 on a deep reservoir (at a depth of about 2200 m) in the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field. One water injection well and two production wells were drilled to constitute a circulation loop, to which the circulation test was performed to investigate the flow characteristics thereof. The result revealed the following matters: total amount of injected water of 51500 m{sup 3} resulted in a total fluid recovery rate of about 40%; as a result of well stimulation given twice during the initial stage of the water injection, the continuity impedance in the vicinity of the injection well decreased largely (however, the continuity improvement upon the second attempt was considerably inferior to that from the first attempt); and increase in the water injection amount does not necessarily lead to increase in the production amount. The paper describes additionally that it is extremely difficult to interpret non-linearity between the injection and production amounts by using a model prepared previously with a main objective to analyze the Hijiori HDR circulation system. 1 ref., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Application of streaming potential method for detection of fractures in granitic rock; Kamaishi kozan ni okeru ryutai ryudo den`iho tekiyo shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, T.; Yokoi, K.; Yoneda, Y. [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Senba, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Measurements were made using the streaming potential method for the purpose of investigating the expansion of hydration cracks, direction of their propagation, and the chaining of cracked surfaces, in the granitic rock. Tests were conducted by use of a bore hole in the gallery wall. The bore hole yielded approximately 400 liters of water per minute, the bore hole was closed and then opened, and the change with the passage of time in the spontaneous potential (SP) on the gallery wall was measured. At a spot 31.2m from the mine entrance, the SP dropped by 15mV simultaneously with the opening of the bore hole, and rose by 14mV simultaneously with the closure of the same. The phenomenon was true for other locations, that is, for the section from the mine entrance to a spot 9.0m therefrom, and for a section beginning at 15.0m and ending at 19.2m therefrom. No change in the SP was observed in a group of cracks with water springing out of the gallery roof, beginning at a point 40m and ending at a point 54m from the mine entrance. The result suggests the possible application of the streaming potential method to the investigation of cracks. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  19. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, S.; Ikuma, T.; Tanifuji, R. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Travel time and ray path computation in 2D-heterogeneous structures; Fukinshitsu kozo ni okeru jishinha soji oyobi hasen no atarashii keisan hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujie, G.; Kasahara, J.; Sato, T.; Mochizuki, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    Methods were studied for determining the initial travel time and ray paths with stability when an non-linear travel time inversion is performed in an inhomogeneous structure. The travel time calculation was based on Faria and Stoffa`s method. First, the 2-dimension space was sectioned by grids, and `slowness` was assigned to all the lattice points. Starting from the vibration source, travel time at each lattice point is sequentially calculated. This method calculates travel time for any structure without breakup. In this study, an algorithm more sophisticated than the method of Faria, et al., was developed, and the improvement of travel time calculation accuracy led to the accurate determination of the direction of incidence into the lattice points during the initial motion. The calculation of ray paths was effected by tracing back from the receiving points the incidence into the lattice points or by following back the ray paths to the vibration source. This method performs stable calculation for a heavily inhomogeneous structure and, with the algorithm being simple, do the parallel programming as well. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Magnetotelluric investigation in and around southern part of Hidaka metamorphic belt in Hokkaido, Japan; Hidaka henseitai nanbuiki ni okeru MT kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Utsugi, M.; Hirano, K.; Doi, T.; Nishida, Y.; Arita, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An MT observation was conducted in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, for the estimation of the 2D resistivity structure in the southern part of the metamorphic belt, when frequencies of the VLF, ELF, and ULF bands were used. An approximately 42km-long traverse line was set to cross the Hidaka metamorphic belt from east to west. As for the observation points, 48 VLF points, 16 ELF points, and 4 ULF points were provided. During the data processing, impedance tensor was calculated in the frequency domain for the determination of the apparent resistivity relative to frequency and the phase difference. As the result, it was found that there is a fairly large resistivity gap between observation spots MNS and KWR and that the boundary corresponds to the Hidaka metamorphic belt, that the metamorphic belt that is reflected as a conspicuous high-resistivity layer in the VLF-, ELF-MT slopes down toward the east and has a distribution as deep as 10km in the vicinity of observation point KWR, that this high-resistivity layer sandwiches a low-resistivity layer at a depth of 5-7km, and that on the east side of the metamorphic belt there is a medium-resistivity layer creeping under the belt from the east side toward the west side. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Flow characteristic of Hijiori HDR reservoir from circulation test in 1991; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru senbu choryuso shiken (1991 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, T.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports one example of flow analyses on a circulation test carried out in fiscal 1991 at the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field (Yamagata Prefecture). A fluid circulation model was proposed to simulate an HDR circulation system for a shallow reservoir (at a depth of about 1800 m) demonstrated in the circulation test by using an electric circuit network (which expresses continuity impedance in resistance and fluid storage in capacitance). Storage capacity of the reservoir was estimated by deriving time constant of the system from data of time-based change in reservoir pressure associated with transition phenomena during the circulation test. The storage capacity was estimated separately by dividing change of storage in the reservoir by change in the reservoir pressure. To derive the storage in the reservoir, a method to calculate non-recovered flows in the circulation test was utilized. The results of evaluating the reservoir capacity in the shallow reservoir using the above two independent methods were found substantially consistent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Succession of benthos and nutrient removal rate in the hydroponic culture system; Shokubutsu suiko saibaikei ni okeru konken seibutsu no henka to eiyoen no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizaki, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakazato, H. [Biox Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-10

    Such nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorus discharged into lakes and rivers can cause organic contamination as a result of eutrophication in water areas if they are left as they are. However, they can be re-utilized as resources if they are utilized more effectively. This paper reports a hydroponic organism filtering method as a promising method of utilization thereof. It also explains transition in organism phase in rhizosphere and a water purification experiment. Such suspended matters as phytoplanktons in raw water are filtered and captured by roots of plants; such small animals as tendipedidae and physia live symbiotically in the rhizosphere; their excrements and nutrients are absorbed into and utilized by plants; and coexistence is made possible between diverse water-front environments including terrestrial systems and diverse living organisms. Cresson cultivation, observation on transition in the benthos composition, and a lake water purification experiment were carried out at the Kasumigaura Lake experimental facility. Various findings were acquired such that, in order to attain diverse coexistences including those with natural enemies and well-ventilated environments, a water channel of larger than a certain size is required. Results were also obtained that can be expected as an effective technique that may be used in public water areas. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance in cooling mode; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Reibo unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    When a heat pump is used for cooling purpose, it is possible to utilize different kinds of waste water as high-heat sources. However, these heat sources would have their temperatures vary with seasons and time in a day. Therefore, a discussion was given on performance of a heat pump when water and air heat sources are used for condensers during cooling operation independently, in series and in parallel, respectively. The air condenser shows an equivalent COP as compared with the water condenser when air temperature is lower by about 8 degC than water temperature. At the same heat source temperature, the COP for the water condenser indicated a value higher by about 0.6 than the case of the air condenser. A method to use condensers in parallel experiences little contribution from the air heat source, and performance of the heat pump decreases below the case of using the water heat source independently when the air heat source temperature becomes higher than that of the water heat source. In the case of series use in which a water condenser is installed in front and an air condenser in rear, its effect is exhibited when temperature in the air heat source is lower than that in the water heat source. Better performance was shown than in operating the water heat source independently. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Comparison of performance between a parallel and a series solar-heat pump system; Solar heat pump system ni okeru heiretsu setsuzoku no seino hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K.; Zhao, J.; Baba, H.; Endo, N. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In a solar heat pump system, a single-tank system was fabricated, in which a heat pump is installed in series between a heat collecting tank and a heat storage tank. At the same time, a double-tank system was also fabricated, in which two tanks are assembled into one to which a solar system and a heat pump are connected in parallel. Performance of both systems was analyzed by using measured values and estimated values. Heat collecting efficiency in the double-tank system is higher by about 13 points than in the single-tank system. Nevertheless, the coefficient of performance for the single-tank system is 1.03 to 1.51 times greater than that of the double-tank system. Dependency of the single-tank system on natural energy is higher by 0.3 to 3 points than the double-tank system. Putting the above facts together, it may be said that the single-tank system connecting the solar system and the heat pump in parallel is superior in performance to the double-tank system of the series connection. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Study on the simulation time increments for solar DHW heating systems; Taiyonetsu kyuto simulation ni okeru keisan jikan kankaku no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Calculation time intervals effective in simulating solar DHW systems were discussed, taking into account water temperature in a heat storage tank and calorific power in supplied hot water. The discussion was given on a direct heat collecting system in which heat passes through a heat collector from the bottom of the heat storage tank and returns to the center of the tank, and an indirect heat collecting system which has a heat exchanger built inside the heat storage tank at its bottom. The calculation was performed with time intervals of one to sixty minutes and five to forty-five layer divisions. The following results were obtained: because the calorific power of the hot water supplied is underestimated in the calculation if the calorific power of one hot water supply is extremely large, the calculation time intervals must be reduced to 1 to 15 minutes; cumulative calorific power of the hot water supply was found to show little variation if the number of division is greater than fifteen; and the daily cumulative effective heat collection amount shows very little variation due to the calculation time intervals, but errors from the measured value have decreased as the smaller the number of layer division in the direct heat collecting system, and as the greater the number of division in the indirect heat collecting system. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Numerical simulation of emissions and depositions of acidic air pollutants in East Asia; Higashi ajia chiiki ni okeru taikiosen busshitsu no haishutsu to yuso simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H. [Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    In order to consider how to cope with problems of great-sphere air pollution in the East Asia such as acid rain, etc., it is required to investigate the real conditions of emitted air pollutants and to develop a transfer model which clarify the relation between emissions and depositions. This paper describes the present state of studies on the amount of estimated air pollutive emissions in the East Asia and estimated depositions by transfer models. Typical studies on estimated grid-by-grid distribution of emissions in the East Asia are explained first and other estimated examples, i.e. data announced by the Chinese Government and etc., air also referred. The models developed for estimating acidic pollutants falling down in the East Asia are insufficient, however, acidic pollutant transfer models applied at present are introduced. The results of the author`s study are described and the subjects for a future study are referred. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system; Arima Takatsuki Rokko katsudanso chiiki ni okeru komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Okuma, S.; Morijiri, R.; Makino, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic survey was conducted in December, 1995, over the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system, where the 1995 Hyogo-South (Kobe) earthquake took place. Based on the surveyed data, the magnetic anomaly distribution in the Kei-Hanshin district was illustrated. Features of magnetic anomaly observed in it were discussed. Influence of artificial structures in the coastal zone of Kobe City was tried to be removed. Distinct magnetic anomaly observed in the center of Kyoto City was located at the southern part near Shijo-Karasuma. This was mainly affected by the artificial structure. A high magnetic anomaly with a long wave length was observed in the southern part of Kyoto. There was a high magnetic anomaly in an area surrounded by central cities of Nishinomiya-Toyonaka district. At the location where positive and negative magnetic anomalies were illustrated in NEDO`s map in the coastal zone of Kobe City, the anomaly pattern was clarified. The influence of artificial structure was approximated using a point dipole. The dipole was placed in each block having a magnetic anomaly. The parameter was determined by the inverse analysis, to remove the influence. Consequently, most of magnetic anomalies due to artificial structures could be removed. 6 figs.

  9. Change in surface SP caused by pressure buildup observed at the Nigorikawa geothermal area; Nigorikawa chiiki ni okeru atsuryoku buildup ji no shizen den`i henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K.; Yano, Y.; Matsushima, N.; Ishido, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Takahashi, M.; Suzuki, I.; Aoyama, K.; Kuwano, T.

    1996-10-01

    To examine the effect of change of subsurface flow system on the surface SP (self potential), SP measurements were carried out before and after the pressure buildup and drawdown during the periodic inspection at Nigorikawa area. Relation between the SP distribution and the observed data was also examined by 2-D numerical simulation. Tendency was found that the SP increased gradually with the production near the production well, decreased during the pressure buildup, and increased again during the drawdown. There were some points having the reverse tendency in the surrounding area. Behavior during the pressure buildup and drawdown was not clear. The resistivity near the ground surface was low ranging between 2 and 5 ohm/m within the Nigorikawa basin. The variation of SP was not so large when compared with the measuring error. The SP profiles on the secondary section passing in the center of caldera at the production stop and at one week after the production start were well corresponded with the profiles under natural conditions which were reproduces using the 2-D model. It was considered that the SP profile before the production stop was affected by the production. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Comparison of {gamma}-ray profile across active normal and reverse faults; Seidansogata to gyakudansogata katsudanso ni okeru hoshano tansa kekka no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, A.; Wada, N.; Sumi, H. [Shimada Technical Consultants, Ltd., Shimane (Japan); Yamauchi, S.; Iga, T. [Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Active faults confirmed at trench and outcrop were surveyed by the {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The active fault found at trench is a normal fault, and that found at outcrop is a reverse fault. The {gamma}-ray spectral characteristics of these two types of faults were compared to each other. The normal fault is named as Asagane fault located in Aimi-machi, Saihaku-gun, Tottori prefecture. The reverse fault is named as Yokota reverse fault located in Yokota-cho, Nita-gun, Shimane prefecture. Rises of radon gas indicating the existence of opening cracks were confirmed above the fault for the normal fault, and at the side of thrust block for the reverse fault. It was considered that such characteristics were caused by the difference of fault formation in the tensile stress field and in the compressive stress field. It was also reconfirmed that much more information as to faults can be obtained by the combined exploration method using the total counting method and the spectral method. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Effect of total pressure on sulfur capture of Ca-ion exchanged coal; Kaatsu jokenka ni okeru Ca-tanjitan no datsuryu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.; Benjamin, G.; Abe, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal gasification and combustion under high pressure as highly efficient coal utilization, the effect of total pressure and sintering on the SO2 capture ability of Ca-ion exchanged coal and other desulfurizing agents were studied. In experiment, specimens were filled into a small pressurized reactor to heat them under high-pressure N2 atmosphere. After the completion of combustion reaction of char at 850{degree}C, SO2, CO2 and CO gases were measured at an outlet while flowing SO2/N2. As the experimental result, all of the S content in Ca-ion exchanged coal was not absorbed by Ca content in coal during pyrolysis and combustion, resulting in discharge of 36% of the S content. Since Ca-ion exchanged coal is fast in combustion reaction, most of the S content was desulfurized by coal ash. The ash content yielded from Ca-ion exchanged coal was more excellent in SO2 capture ability than limestone even under higher pressure. In the case of CO2 partial pressure lower than equilibrium CO2 pressure for CaCO3 decomposition, the capture ability decreased with an increase in total pressure, while in higher CO2 partial pressure, it was improved. 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms; Koteisho netsubunkai ni okeru teitankatan kara no N2 no sisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    In order to establish coal NOx preventive measures, discussions were given on formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms thereof. Chinese ZN coal and German RB coal were used for the discussions. Both coals do not produce N2 at 600{degree}C, and the main product is volatile nitrogen. Conversion into N2 does not depend on heating rates, but increases linearly with increasing temperature, and reaches 65% to 70% at 1200{degree}C. In contrast, char nitrogen decreases linearly with the temperature. More specifically, these phenomena suggest that the char nitrogen or its precursor is the major supply source of N2. When mineral substances are removed by using hydrochloric acid, their catalytic action is lost, and conversion into N2 decreases remarkably. Iron existing in ion-exchanged condition in low-rank coal is reduced and finely diffused into metallic iron particles. The particles react with heterocyclic nitrogen compounds and turn into iron nitride. A solid phase reaction mechanism may be conceived, in which N2 is produced due to decomposition of the iron nitride. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Conversion of char nitrogen to N2 under incomplete combustion conditions; Fukanzen nensho jokenka ni okeru char chuchisso no N2 eno tenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Q.; Yamauchi, A.; Oshima, Y.; Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The effect of combustion conditions on conversion of char nitrogen to N2 was studied in the combustion experiment of char obtained by pyrolysis of coal. Char specimen was prepared by holding ZN coal of Chinese lignite in Ar atmosphere at 1123K for one hour. A batch scale quartz-made fluidized bed reactor was used for combustion experiment. After the specimen was fluidized in reaction gas, it was rapidly heated to start combustion reaction. CO, CO2 and N2 in produced gases were online measured by gas chromatography (GC). As the experimental result, under the incomplete combustion condition where a large amount of CO was produced by consuming almost all of O2, no NOx and N2O produced from char were found, and almost all of N-containing gas was N2. At the final stage of combustion, pyridinic-N disappeared completely, and pyrrolic-N decreased, while O-containing nitrogen complexes became a main component. It was thus suggested that O-containing nitrogen complexes are playing the role of intermediate product in combustion reaction. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Anodic Behavior of Semiconducting Diamond Thin-film Electrodes in the Electrolyte for Electrochemical Fluorination; Handotai daiamondo denkyoku no denkai fussokayokuchu ni okeru youkyoku kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Hirotake.; Kawasaki, Shinji. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Textile Science and Technology; Momota, Kunitake. [Morita Chemical Industries, Osaka (Japan). Department of Research and Development; Okino, Fujio.; Touhara, Hidekazu. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Technology]|[Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Jaoan Science and Technology Corporation; Gamonishitani, Mika.; Sakaguchi, Isao.; Ando, Toshihiro. [National Institute for Research in Inorganic Materials, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Japan Science and Technology Corporation

    1998-12-31

    Electrochemical behavior of semiconducting diamond thin-film electrodes has been studied by measuring cyclic voltammograms for the anodic oxidation of 1,4-difluorobenzene in the electrolyte, neat Et{sub 4}NF{center_dot}4HF. A comparative study using a Pt-electrode establishes that the electrochemical fluorination of 1,4-difluorobenzene using the diamond electrode yields 3, 3, 6, 6-tetrafluoro-1, 4-cyclohexadiene. Furthermore no peaks corresponding to the redox reaction of Pt-electrode, i.e., the formation and reduction of PtO{sub 2}, are observed in the CVs obtained using the diamond electrode, suggesting that the diamond electrode is more stable than the Pt-electrode. The results suggests that electrochemical fluorination and the electrolytic production of elemental fluorine are possible at the dimensionally stable diamond electrode. (author)

  18. Temperature effect on corrosion fatigue strength of coated ship structural steel; Zosen`yoko tosozai no fushoku hiro kyodo ni okeru ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, M.; Fuji, A.; Kojima, M.; Kitagawa, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kumakura, Y.

    1997-08-01

    The corrosion fatigue life was obtained using uncoated and tar epoxy resin specimens to clarify the temperature effect. The life curve for corrosion fatigue of machined and uncoated steel in the air and sea was obtained. The fatigue strength of uncoated steel largely decreases in the sea and breaks even in the nominal stress range of less than 1/2 of the fatigue limit in the air. The effect of temperature on the coated steel is represented by a corrosion coefficient. The steel coated at 25{degree}C is 1/1.03 to 1/1.13 at 40 to 60{degree}C. This showed that the fatigue strength decreases when the temperature exceeds 25{degree}C. However, it has not such tendency and significance that are represented quantitatively. There is a slight difference in the short-life area between the crack generation life and breaking life. However, the long-life area has no significance that influences the whole evaluation. In the long-life corrosion fatigue, the crack occurs from the corrosion pit due to the exposure below the coated film and progresses in the base material before the coated film is destroyed. The effect of the corrosion pit remarkably appears at a low-stress level. 14 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Stabilizing control of crystal size distribution in continuous crystallization processes; Renzoku shoseki purosesu ni okeru kessho ryukei bunpu no anteika seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, K.; Sotowa, K.; Kano, M.; Hasebe, S.; Hashimoto, I. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The sustained oscillation of the crystal size distribution (CSD) in continuous crystallization process is analyzed by simulation using a detailed model. CSD can not be used as a controlled variable because of its distributed nature. Therefore, the method of selecting representability indices for CSD and the stabilizing control of CSD based on those indices are investigated. A multi-loop scheme is proposed, wherein a system with the third moment of large crystal and the rate of product flow from the continuous crystallizer used as the controlled variable and the operating variable, respectively, is added to the SISO control system which employs microcrystal population density as the controlled variable and the microcrystal flow rate as the operating variable. The controlling performances of the newly proposed multi-loop scheme and the SISO control scheme are compared. It is confirmed that the proposed controlling method is effective when the constrain from the microcrystal flow rate is strict. 6 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Education for hydraulics and pnuematics in Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University; Hiroshima shiritsudaigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, M. [Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Hiroshima City University. Department of Computer Science is responsible for the education, covering a wide educational range from basics of information processing methodology to application of mathematical procedures. This university provides no subject directly related to hydraulics and pneumatics, which, however, can be studied by the courses of control engineering or modern control theories. These themes are taken up for graduation theses for bachelors and masters; 2 for dynamic characteristics of pneumatic cylinders, and one for pneumatic circuit simulation. Images of the terms hydraulics and pneumatics are outdated for students of information-related departments. Hydraulics and pneumatics are being forced to rapidly change, like other branches of science, and it may be time to make a drastic change from hardware to software, because their developments have been excessively oriented to hardware. It is needless to say that they are based on hardware, but it may be worthy of drastically changing these branches of science by establishing virtual fluid power systems. It is also proposed to introduce the modern multi-media techniques into the education of hydraulics and pneumatics. (NEDO)

  1. Energy conservation progress in building equipment. Energy conservation on the sports facilities; Kenchiku setsubi ni okeru sho energy no shiten. Supotsu reja shisetsu no sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakura, I.; Kayo, M. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-05

    There are various kinds of sports and leisure facilities. Due to their classes, aims, operation styles and so forth, the grades of aimed environments and facilities change. For example, like a baseball, swimming and skating, quantity of motion and grade of sportswear are different due to their classes and a target environment is also differs. On the other hand, public facility for citizen use is required its cheaper fee, but private facility on commercial base is required its user-collecting capability with added-value. In order to content individual needs of each facility, it is important to combine properly its target environment and its equipment system. The sports and leisure facilities have often large space on their characteristics, and are necessary to maintain their target environments as well as to treat their thermal emission in closed space and to supply their required air. Therefore, it is an extremely meaningful to conduct the energy saving in the facility apt to consume a lot of energy, which is described in this paper mainly on in-door large space facilities. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Combined process of pyrolyzer/combuster for gas production and power generation; Chugoku ni okeru chukibo hatsuden to toshi gas seizo no tame no fukugo process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, I. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Ma, T.

    1997-10-30

    In China, they are using a lot of coal by direct firing for domestic cooking, space heating and industrial use. Therefore air pollution is the big problem in every cities in winter season. And at moment, they do not have enough infrastructure for supplying energy such as gas and electric power. There is a great need for facilities for supplying gas and electric power from coal in big cities with much less pollution. This paper d a combined process of medium size plant of gas production and power generation by using fluidized circulation bed pyrolizer and combuster, to contribute to the energy supply which greatly reduces air and water polution and coal consumption. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Design and construction of precast PC-slab for the `Tokai Obu viaduct`; Tokai Obu kokakyo ni okeru precast PC yukaban no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuguchi, K.; Murayama, A. [Japan Highway Public Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Kitayama, K.; Yamashita, S. [P.S. Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-31

    This paper describes the construction of Toukai Obu viaduct completed in 1997. This viaduct is specified by use of PC slabs, length of 974.5m and design speed of 100km/h, and was constructed aiming at cost reduction and new rational structure. Precast PC (PCa) slabs prestressed in a direction of slab span were produced under severe quality control in a factory. The PCa slabs stocked in a factory were transported by trailer and specific frame to the construction site, and laid on steel bridge girders by crane. An RC loop joint method for PCa slabs was newly adopted as one of the lap splice methods of reinforcing bars which is superior in cost and maintenance to conventional slab connecting methods in a longitudinal direction of bridges with PC steel material. Because of less domestic applications, a cyclic loading fatigue test at fixed points was carried out using a small model to obtain fatigue proof stress and fracture morphology. A moving loading test was also carried out at an actual loading level using full-scale slab specimens to obtain fatigue proof stress and long-span slab behavior. 7 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Perpendicular construction of bridge girder for long span suspension bridge under a rapid stream; Kyuchoryuka ni okeru chodai tsuribashi no hokoketa chokka tsuri koho no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakao, T.; Koga, N. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-20

    Perpendicular construction of bridge girder for a long span suspension bridge, which is to be constructed over the Kurushima Channel, an international route, has been investigated. For the construction of suspension bridge over channels, the overhang construction is generally employed. Bridge girder perpendicular construction, in which unit girder block is lifted from a carrier barge and directly constructed by means of lifting beams located at main cable, is a superb method in terms of cost, time, and safety. It is necessary to stay the carrier barge during the anchoring of girder block and lifting beams. Mooring of the carrier barge is required under a rapid stream, which results in the trouble of under way ships. A propulsion positioning system has been developed for the bridge girder carrier barge, by which the position/propulsion of four thrusters equipped at each corner of the barge can be automatically controlled. Thus, the perpendicular construction of bridge girder has been developed, in which mooring is not required even under the rapid stream. The position of barge can be maintained within a range of {plus_minus}2.5 m even under a rapid stream with a speed of 3 kn. The quick joint can be certainly connected for about one minute in the horizontal movement within {plus_minus}2.5 m and vertical movement within 0.5 m. For this perpendicular construction, the construction time can be shortened to around 16 to 17 minutes, which has been usually taken for three hours. 2 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Traffic flow characteristics and analysis on weaving sections of the Hanshin Expressway. Hanshin kosokudoro ni okeru orikomi kukan no kotsu jittai to kotsuryu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makigami, Y. (Ritsumeikan Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Toyota, (Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Matsuo, T. (Hanshin Expressway Public Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-01-20

    The report is aimed at giving an idea about design of the weaving section or traffic plan, which describes the outline and the results of a series of traffic survay and capacity analysis on weaving section on the Central Loop and its neighboring section of the Hanshin Expressway in 1985 to 1990 by making use of both areal photographs taken from a helicopter and video recordings and which makes an effort to clear which area does the traffic jam caused by the narrow road affect on and how does the mechanism show while making search the characteristics of the traffic flow in a weaving section. Using these traffic data, the applicability of HCM-85 Weaving Capacity Analysis Method to the Japanese expressway is evaluated. It also makes a touch to the problems and study about analysis method of weaving section. 11 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Comparison of ER and MR actuators in terms of performance in ERMC high-precision positioning; ERMC koseido ichigime ni okeru ER/MR actuator no seino hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Watanabe, H. [Tokyo Engineering Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Sugimoto, A. [Research Inst. of Industrial Safety, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-15

    Although the characters of a (magnetorheological (ER) fluid are quite like those of a dispersed electrorheological (ER) fluid, MR differs from ER in that the change in shear stress that MR shows upon magnetic field application is scores of times greater than that ER shows and that MR can be used even when the voltage is low. In this lecture, antagonistic rotation type actuators working on ER or MR are caused to incline with the angle of inclination controlled by the ERMC system, and the two are compared in terms of the frequency of stoppage achieved. The ERMC system is a high-precision positioning system making full use of the variable flow characteristics of the Bingham plastic that is a functional fluid. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Pressure response of electrorheological suspension in a model ER damper; ER damper model ni okeru bunsanke ER ryutai no atsuryoku oto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Yonekawa, T. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-01-25

    This paper reports the examination result of the pressure response of an electrorheological suspension fluid (obtained when the particles of a strong acid ion-exchange resin are dispersed on silicon oil and whose rheological characteristics vary with the action in the external electric field) in an electrorheological (ER) damper model (experimental equipment consisting of an ER valve with plane parallel electrode and a piston cylinder). A rectangular wave voltage is applied to the ER valve to obtain the pressure fall components based on the steady ER effect of an ER fluid flowing between the plane parallel electrodes. The intensity of the electric field and the dependence on the flow velocity were formulated by an approximate function. The flow velocity dependency of this ER effect does not coincide with the theoretical analysis result based on a Bingham fluid model. The pressure in a cylinder presents the transient response of a first-order lag to the rectangular wave voltage input to the ER valve. The time constant value in this case can be explained by considering the compressibility of the residual air in the ER fluid. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Application of numerical analysis method to jet engine combustion design. Jet engine yo nenshoki no sekkei ni okeru suchi kaiseki no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negoro, T.; Arai, M.; Kuyama, T.; Nakahata, T.; Hirokawa, M. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-01-20

    This paper describes features and applications of numerical analysis for jet engine combustor design. The numerical analysis for flow fields in a combustor has set a limitation on objects to be analyzed for each component element in the combustor or each design element, and carried out the analysis upon selecting basic formulas and models. The numerical analysis is effective to predict qualitatively the effects on flow patterns in the whole combustor liner interior or temperature distributions in the combustor liner interior, but is not sufficiently effective for use as quantitative evaluation. An application suggested that a parallel shape is more preferable that does not squeeze a flow outlet on the outer side that can be expected of providing sufficiently large recirculation flow region, as a result of analyzing the flow patterns around fuel injection valves. Dump diffuser analysis revealed that the above shape is preferable in supplying air stably from the annulus part into the liner interior through air holes. It was verified that the analysis of flows in the combustor liner has identified features of the flows qualitatively. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Numerical analysis of viscoelastic start-up flow in abrupt contraction channel; Kyushukusho ryuro ni okeru nendansei ryutai no start up nagare no suchi keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, K. [Osaka University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-10-25

    Start-up flows of viscoelastic fluids in a two-dimensional 4 to 1 abrupt contraction channel is numerically studied and the transient behavior of viscoelastic fluids is discussed. The multi mode Leonov model is applied to describe the rheological properties of the viscoelastic fluid. The numerical simulation has been carried out for two Weissenberg numbers. The following results are obtained from the present analysis: The corner vortices develop with time and restrict the velocity gradient to relax the growth of the stress field. The circular secondary flow works as a stress relief mechanism. The overshoot of the stress growth is observed at the high Weissenberg number and is not done at the low Weissenberg number. This phenomenon is caused by the unsteady elongational property of the fluid. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Numerical calculation of viscoelastic flows through eccentric abrupt contraction; Henshin kyushuku shoryuro ni okeru nendansei ryutai no nagare no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Mori, N.; Matsumura, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-04-25

    Numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows through an eccentric four-to-one abrupt contraction are carried out using the Giesekus model. The SMAC (Simplified-Marker-and-Cell) method is used to analyze the three-dimensional flows. The velocity profiles along the path line passing through the center of the exit exhibit an overshoot near the entry section, and at high Weissenberg numbers an undershoot follows the overshoot. The magnitude of the stress along the same path line has a peak near the entry, section, and its slow relaxation process indicates that a large downstream length is necessary for fully developed stress conditions to exist. The peak is lower than that for the flow through the concentric four-to-one abrupt contraction ; the decrease in the peak amplitude is understood to be due to the distortion of the path line in the eccentric geometry. A corner vortex, the height of which is a maximum at the widest corner, grows as the Weissenberg number increases. Furthermore, the tangential flow toward the widest section inside the vortex is determined. 19 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Optimum orbit and control of reflux ratio in the batch distillation; Bacchi joryu ni okeru kanryuhi no saiteki kido to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Jun; Susuzki, Mutsumi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    1999-06-05

    In the batch distillation, optimum orbit of reflux ratio exists under evaluation function of utility cost minimum and product quantity maximum. Enormous repeat calculation was necessary in order to calculate such optimum orbit by maximum principle. In this paper, calculation method which corrects initial value of the Hamilton accompanying function is proposed. Optimum orbit is calculated by this calculation method and advance on recent computer in the real time, and there is it, and it would be able to control the reflux ratio. And, it is also possible reflux ratio optimum state variable control table beforehand. These control method become an operation which is truly optimum for evaluation function. (translated by NEDO)

  12. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Kanazawa University, Department of Human and Mechanical System Engineering; Kanazawa Daigaku Ningen Kikai Kogakuka ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Y. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-03-15

    The above-named department was established in 1996. It advocates, standing on the basis of mechanical engineering, 'adaptation with man,' 'symbiosis with society,' and 'harmony with nature,' and, under these mottos, aims to bring up engineers who are able to create technologies in the field of mechanical engineering. There is no independent subject for fluid power. Relative subjects are the science of flows, thermodynamics and exercise, energy and environmental engineering, and nature and flow. Lectures are given using textbooks mainly. There is no subject that requires experiment on fluid power. It is hoped that teaching materials will be provided. Studies for graduation and master's theses are the 'suction performance of toroidal pumps' and the 'fluid force in, and flow coefficients of, spool valves.' Collaborative researches with industrial circles conducted so far involve the 'study of automotive vane pumps' and the 'suction performance of toroidal pumps.' It is difficult for subjects related to hydraulics and pneumatics to interest students greatly. To interest and attract students, it is felt, the concept like 'hydraulics and pneumatics signify power sources' which gives a tough and mighty impression should be replaced by a softer-tone expression like 'hydraulics/pneumatics and mechatronics and control.' (NEDO)

  13. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Yokohama University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences; Yokohama Kokuritsu Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Yokohama University. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science pursues to most efficiently produce high-quality products useful for human living and compatible with the environments, based on scientific and technological knowledge man has learned. This department has four professional education courses, materials designs, mechanical processes, hot fluid dynamics, and mechanical systems. An independent subject of hydraulic and pneumatic systems is provided for hydraulics and pneumatics. The lectures on mechatronics include those for digitally-, electronically/hydraulically- and electronically/pneumatically-controlled devices, and their characteristics. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, basic fluid analysis, applied fluid analysis, turbo machines, and automatic control. The postgraduate courses provide hydraulic and pneumatic engineering for, e.g., cavitation and unsteady flow through conduits, hydraulic/pneumatic driving and controlling, modeling and robust control of mechanical systems, and designs of fluid-controlling devices and actuators. The experimental courses include tests of centrifugal pump performance, measurement of pressure distributions on journal bearings, and tests of fluid flow through conduits. (NEDO)

  14. Effects of fuel and air mixing on WOT output in direct injection gasoline engine; Chokufun gasoline kikan ni okeru nenryo to kuki no kongo to shutsuryoku seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T.; Iriya, Y.; Naito, K.; Mitsumoto, H.; Iiyama, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of in-cylinder charge motion and the characteristics of the fuel spray and piston crown shape on WOT output in a direct injection gasoline engine are investigated. The fuel and air mixing process in a cylinder is analyzed by computer simulation and LIF method visualization. As a result, the technical factors to achieve enough mixing in a DI gasoline engine equipped with bowl in piston optimized for stratified combustion are clarified. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Numerical simulation of fuel sprays and combustion in a premixed lean diesel engine; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu to nensho no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Sasaki, S.; Shimazaki, N.; Hashizume, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel sprays and combustion in a direct injection Premixed lean Diesel Combustion (PREDIC) engine, which can make smokeless combustion with little NOx emission, is studied numerically. Numerical simulation was carried out by means of KIVA II based computer code with a combustion submodel. The combustion submodel describes the formation of combustible fuel vapor by turbulent mixing and four-step chemical reaction which includes low temperature oxidation. Comparison between computation and experiment shows qualitatively good agreement in terms of heat release rate and NO emission. Computational results indicate that the combustion is significantly influenced by fuel spray characteristics and injection timing to vary NO emission. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Fatigue properties of austempered ductile cast iron at room and elevated temperatures; Austemper kyujo kokuen chutetsu no chukoon ni okeru hiro tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, K.; Hasegawa, N.; Inaga, K. [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan)

    1995-06-15

    Austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) is used widely as a structural material with high strength and toughness. However, since few studies have been made on investigation of fatigue properties at medium to high temperatures, this paper describes rotating bending tests carried out in temperature range between room temperature and 400{degree}C to investigate the fatigue properties and the fatigue crack generating behavior. The following results were obtained: the fatigue limit (fatigue strength after 10{sup 7} bendings) showed a remarkable maximizing phenomenon at temperatures around 300{degree}C; micronization of the base structure caused by transformation of residual austenite was recognized above 300{degree}C, and so was rise in the hardness; heating to this temperature led to rise in the Ms point, making the transformation occur more easily; the effect of repetitive stress causes a processing induced transformation; the temperature at which the transformation and the micronization are completed declines by about 50{degree}C lower than in the non-transformed region; and the fatigue fracture at middle to high temperatures is caused more frequently by internally existing graphite and development of cracks from very small casting cavities. 31 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Numerical analysis of combustion mechanism in iron bath type smelting reduction furnace. Tetsuyokugata yoyu kangenro ni okeru nensho kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinotake, A.; Takamoto, Y. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-07-01

    Introduction and numerical analysis based on mathematical model has been made on the combustion phenomena, and the obtained results are used to analyze material and heat balance in the smelting reduction furnace. Distribution of gas flow, temperature and concentration into the furnace has been possible to estimate for the case where coke or coal is taken as raw material. Variation of dual combustion rate while changing supplied amount of coal species in smelting reduction experiment with 5t capacity, is explained. Under constant oxygen injection, one of the material and heat balance point which operates material and temperature at constant state by coal species and heat loss amount, has been determined, and dual combustion rate and heat efficiency at this point are determined simultaneously. Dual combustion rate and heat efficiency, the source unit of coal and oxygen have increased with the increase of amount of heat loss where as the production of molten iron decreased. Material and heat balance point is shifted to the point with less supply of coal and oxygen when prereduction degree of the ore is increased, and dual combustion rate and heat efficiency has increased. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Technical development of cost-efficient installation of power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka ni okeru doboku kensetsu gorika gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokusho, Koji; Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Yasuo; Ikemi, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Kitano, Koichi; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Kanazu, Tsutomu; Komada, Hiroya.

    1987-12-01

    Various latest technical developments were surveyed for the cost-effective installation of power distribution cables under pavements, and their applicabilities were demonstrated with the evaluation of their cost-reduction effects. Cables in conventional vinyl protection tubes could be buried only 30cm under pavements, and in such case, the cost was reduced to 51% of those of conventional methods. As the results of soil tests, excavated soil over 80% was reusable through coarse screening. Underground radar technique to explore buried pipes from the surface was detectable several pipes buried 1.5-2.0m underground, although some problems in precision were found. The improvement of reinforced concrete man-hole structures to minimize the volume of excavated soil indicated the cost reduction of nearly 20%. The application of these techniques to the installation of cables was expected to ultimately halve the total civil engineering cost. 21 refs., 130 figs., 46 tabs.

  19. Application of geophysical methods to investigation of old castle, especially of the moat; Joshi no chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no tekiyo (horiato no tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A.; Karube, F.; Kobayashi, M.; Toge, M. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An explanation is made about the application of geophysical methods to the investigation of the ruins of old castles especially of their moats. Techniques currently in use for exploration of the ruins of castles are mainly underground radar exploration and electric exploration. The underground radar method sends electromagnetic waves through the ground and receives the reflection for a high-precision exploration of the layers shallow in the ground. Therefore, this method is suitable for probing the ruins of castles relatively shallow in the flat land, hills, and mountains. The electric method (resistivity image method) do the probing by use of the two-electrode arrangement, performs inverse analysis on the basis of the obtained data for the determination of the underground resistivity distribution, and displays the distribution in an image easy to read. This method, when there is a great separation between the two electrodes, explores relatively deep into the ground. Thanks to this feature, this method is effective in probing relatively wide and deep ruins of moats, that is, the ruins of moats of castles built in later years, especially of those then filled with water. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Historical consideration on the overseas development of concrete faced rockfill dams; Kaigai ni okeru concrete hyomen shasuiheki gata rokkufiru-damu hatten no rekishiteki kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, T.

    1995-09-05

    It is preferable that height deference between two reservoirs for pumped storage generation is as large as possible, when allowance enough to meet sustained peak of power need is taken into account. Consequently, dam heights are often designed to exceed 100 m. Concrete faced rockfill dams (CFRDs) have been constructed as such high dams because of reducing construction cost and of absence of previous examples, in the world, for constructing dams higher than 100 m with asphalt faced wall. Features, construction achievement, endurance, construction period and economic efficiency are discussed from a viewpoint of historical development of CFRD. CFRDs have advantages over dams of clay-core rockfill type in regards to being economic, short in construction period, heavily endurable, safe against flooding and so on. The number of CFRDs whose height exceeds 50 m had reached 89 by 1993, since Morena dam was constructed first in California state, USA in 1895. Twenty one of them are higher than 100 m. CFRDs have been enduring without disruption nearly for 100 years, although some dams experienced water leak. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Numerical simulation of nematic liquid crystalline flow in two-dimensional L-shaped channels; Nijigen L gata ryuro ni okeru nematic ekisho no nagare no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chono, S.; Tsuji, T. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-05-25

    Finite difference solutions to the Leslie-Ericksen equations were obtained for flows in two-dimensional L-shaped channels with various contraction ratios of the upstream to downstream channel width. A streamline shift toward the outer wall occurs upstream of the reentrant corner. Such behavior is similar to that of viscoelastic fluids. With increasing contraction ratio, the streamline shift occurs further upstream. The effect of the wall anchoring angle for the director is remarkable; for example, when the anchoring angle along the downstream walls is set to be opposite to the main flow direction, a distortion of streamlines is produced in the corner region and the director moves to the downstream region upside down. At small Ericksen numbers, the orientation angle for the director is varied over a wide area so as to suppress its local deformation. In contrast, when the Ericksen number is large, the director profile in the upstream region is retained close to the corner region where the director turns rapidly to the downstream direction. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Numerical analysis of polymeric liquid crystalline flows between parallel plates. Heiko heibankan ni okeru kobunshi ekisho no nagare no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chono, S.; Iemoto, Y. (Fukui Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Taniguchi, A.; Tsuji, T. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Graduate School)

    1992-11-25

    Liquid crystal is an anisotropic fluid having both fluidity possessed by liquid and optical anisotropy inherent in crystals. Heretofore, Doi theory, which was established in 1981, is the only theory that can describe the rheology behavior of polymeric liquid crystal. Conventionally, there have been studies carried out based on the Doi theory for clarifying the rheology characteristics of polymeric liquid crystal, but there have been very few in which the Doi theory is applied to the flow in a tube. In this paper, the simple shearing flows of polymeric liquid crystal are first described by employing the Doi theory, and then the results of analysis of flows between parallel plates are stated. The main results obtained are as follows. The orientation of polymeric liquid crystal is determined by relative magnitudes of the terms of average field potential and of velocity gradient. In the flows between parallel plates, the propotion of increase of flow rate increases with the pressure gradient, and polymeric liquid crystal possesses a shear-thinning viscosity like normal polymeric fluid. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Tumbling behavior of a nematic liquid crystal in inlet flow between parallel plates; Heiko heibankan iriguchi nagare ni okeru nematic ekisho no tumbling kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, T.; Chono, S. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-07-25

    Two-dimensional tumbling behavior is investigated numerically by calculating inlet flows of a tumbling-type nematic liquid crystal between parallel plates. Calculations are performed for various Ericksen numbers. At the comparatively small Ericksen number of Er=10, the director in the upper half space of the channel rotates counter-clockwise before reaching the fully developed value. At Er=50, the director shows an abrupt rotation just after the inlet section. The rotation is not only convected to the downstream area but propagated from the region near the channel wall where shear rate is large to the center region. When Er is increased further to 100, the director profile does not indicate a monotonic development but a two-step one. In this case, the velocity profile in the main flow direction is wavelike. It is found that the effect of director orientation is strongly reflected on the velocity field, while the reverse effect is weak. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Conditions of existence of fuzzy explanations and approximate solutions in fuzzy abduction; Fuzzy abduction ni okeru setsumei no sonzai joken to kinji kaiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K. [Nagaoka Technical Coll., Niigata (Japan)] Mukaidono, M. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-30

    Abduction is a procedure to derive a set of hypotheses which explains a set of observed events under given knowledge. The obtained set of hypotheses is called explanation. Previously, the authors proposed fuzzy abduction that was an extension of the abduction with the fuzzy theory and showed the way to derive fuzzy explanation. In this theory, observed events and hypotheses are expressed and the given knowledge is expressed by a set of implications with a truth value between zero and one. However, there is no guarantee that fuzzy explanations always exist. This paper clarifies the necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence of fuzzy explanations and proposes a method to obtain approximate solutions when fuzzy explanations do not exist. Fuzzy abduction is a procedure similar to the inverse operation of fuzzy relational equations, however, the proposed method does not require iterative calculation whose number of times cannot be obtain beforehand. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Wind energy technology : from the past to the future; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no henkan. Furyoku hatsuden : kako kara mirai e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-01-20

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20{sup th} century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  6. Report on survey of promotion of activities implemented jointly in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no suishin chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Rapid economy growth has been observed in Asia including Japan. On the other hand, problems of population and environment grew even worse with the economic growth. Especially, China is the second CO2 emission country in the world. Large energy demand is still forecasted with its economic growth in the future. It is well-known that the energy consumption per unit GDP is very large. Therefore, it is very significant to promote the activities implemented jointly with China for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases including CO2, which provides a significant meaning for solving global environmental issues as well as for improving regional environmental issues. It is necessary for the above to recognize the appropriate current situations and to promote the activities implemented jointly suitable for the country. Based on the discussions and information exchanges about environmental issues with staffs concerning environmental policies and scientists as well as the field surveys, methods for the activities implemented jointly were investigated to provide some proposals. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Design and construction of shield tunnel for underground railway in Kuala Lumpur of Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur ni okeru chikatetsu shield no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, T. [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Singh, M.

    1998-01-01

    This report involves the shield tunnel design and construction for a 1.5m-long section of the 3km-long tunnel of LRT System II with part of its new linear line crossing Kuala Lumpur in a north-south direction. The basement consists of sedimentary rock called Kenny Hill formation and limestone, and they are surrounded by granite intrusive bodies. The soil as a whole is complicated in structure, with some part found quite soft, thanks to thermal metamorphosis resulting from high-temperature, high-humidity climatic conditions, and to the granite intrusion. For the shield application process, solidified Kenny Hill strata, weathered or unweathered, are assumed to be provided with an N value of 50 or higher, and cutter heads are chosen accordingly. During the excavation, there are encounters with quartzite concealed in thermally metamorphosed rocks for a rapid wear of cutter heads. There occurs, again, a tunnel face collapse to reach the ground surface caused by changes in stress in the basement due to excavation and by slaking (the disintegration of tunnel walls in swelling clay) of thermally metamorphosed rocks. For the prevention of groundwater from arriving at the outer circumference of the shielding machine, chemical grouting is performed every 0.5m of drilling for the prevention of collapse. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Nonlinear process generating Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a reattached boundary layer; Hakuri saifuchaku nagare ni okeru T-S hado no hisenkei reiki katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, M.; Aiba, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Low-frequency Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves may be thought generated as a result of high-frequency disturbance between two proximity frequency modes grown unstably in a separation shear layer causing secondary nonlinear interference to occur. This fact has been verified by a numerical simulation. A non-compression Navier-Stokes equation was used for the fundamental equation, a tertiary windward difference for the convection term, and a secondary central difference for other differential calculus. The Reynolds number was 200, and the disturbance was introduced by applying `v` variation continuously on the wall face. Non-introduction of the disturbance results in a steady flow. Disturbance frequencies of 0.15 and 0.20 were selected as disturbance frequencies from the relationship between the spatial amplification and the frequency dependency. The structure of the excited disturbance agreed with the intrinsic mode. The difference mode due to nonlinear interference grows as the basic mode was amplified. The basic mode decays sharply in the boundary layer after reattachment, while the difference mode decays slowly. Distribution of the difference mode is a distribution of viscous T-S waves, which may be converted into the intrinsic mode. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Photo-irradiation effects on GaAs atomic layer epitaxial growth. GaAs no genshiso epitaxial seicho ni okeru hikari reiki koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashita, M.; Kawakyu, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Ishikawa, H. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan). Research and Development Center)

    1990-08-10

    Single atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) aims at controlling a growing film at a precision of single molecular layer. In this article, it is reported that the growth temperature range of ALE was expanded by the vertical irradiation of KrF exima laser (248 nm) onto the substrate for the ALE growth of GaAs using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. Thanks for the results of the above experiment, it was demonstrated that the irradiation effect was not thermal, but photochemical. In addition, this article studies the possibility of adsorption layer irradiation and surface irradiation as the photo-irradiation mechanism, and points out that coexistence of both irradiation mechanisms can be considered and, in case of exima laser, strong possibility of direct irradiation of the adsorption layer because of its high power density. Hereinafter, by using both optical growth ALE and thermal growth ALE jointly, the degree of freedom of combination of hetero ALE increases and its application to various material systems becomes possible. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinder in cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers; Chorinkai Reynolds su ryoiki ni okeru enchu no uzu reiki shindo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Nakao, T.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, M.; Goto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-25

    Vortex-induced vibrations were measured for a circular cylinder subjected to a water cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers for a wide range of reduced velocities. Turbulence intensities were changed from 1% to 13% in order to investigate the effect of the Strouhal number on the region of synchronization by symmetrical and Karman vortex shedding. The reduced damping of the test cylinder was about 0.1 in water. The surface roughness of the cylinder was a mirror-polished surface. Strouhal number decreased from about 0.48 to 0.29 with increasing turbulence intensity. Synchronized vibrations were observed even at supercritical Reynolds numbers where fluctuating fluid force was small. Reduced velocities at which drag and lift direction lock-in by Karman vortex shedding were initiated decreased with increasing Strouhal number. When Strouhal number was about 0.29, the self-excited vibration in drag direction by symmetrical vortex shedding began at which the frequency ratio of Karman vortex shedding frequency to the natural frequency of cylinder was 0.32. (author)

  11. Heat transfer in an acoustic-resonance tube model and its visualization; Onkyo kyomeikan ni okeru netsuyuso gensho to sono kashika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, M.; Kataoka, M. [Kansei Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawamoto, A. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Takifuji, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-25

    Acoustic-resonance freezing was devised recently by Wheatley et al that could be called wave freezing that may be applied to chillers used in from small home air conditioners and refrigerators to those for industrial use. With an objective of using these chillers in practical applications, the present study has experimented and discussed the temperature distribution in tubes, transient dynamic movements, and correlation with acoustic fields by using a fundamental resonance model from among the basic design data. The experimental device consists of a speaker for the acoustic vibrator, resonance tubes, and stacking members. Heat transfer in the acoustic resonance tube was experimented, and the temperature distribution in the stacking plates was observed visually by using a temperature sensing liquid quartz sheet. Heat transfer from joints to flank in the pressure amplitude was recognized, and a special temperature distribution was found to be formed by the resonance system. Qualitative elucidation is also possible on the frequency involved in the heat transportation by means of a short stack model and the correlation with kinds of the fluids. Modeling the system as a whole requires further studies. The tested gases include nitrogen, air, R-22 fluorocarbon gas, and helium. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Tape transport control and estimation of reel inertia for magnetic tape drives; Jiki tape kudokei ni okeru reel kansei moment suitei to tape soko seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, N.; Terayama, T.; Sakai, K.; Owada, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    The moment of inertia of the tape reel of VTR varies depending on the reel size and the volume of the tape winding around the reel. Due to the variation, the tension control of the tape in the reel-to-reel drive is difficult. To overcome this problem, the paper presents a new method to identify the tape reel without using additional sensors. Based on this identification scheme, the tape transport control is also presented to achieve the precise tension/speed control. This real-time identification approaches are presented for spinning and running. When the tape reels start spinning up, the tape speed is changed stepwise, by which the inertia of the reel can be estimated using the variation of the tape tension at each reel. The process is repeated to improve the accuracy of identification. Under running condition, the changing inertia can be calculated from the tape radii of two reels. The changing tape radius can be detectable with the speed of capstan. The validity of the proposed method has been approved by experiments using VTR. 6 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Sessile animals` distribution and their water quality purification function in Tokyo inner bay; Tokyoto naiwan ni okeru fuchaku dobutsu no bunpu to suishitsu joka kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K.; Tsuchiya, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Inst. for Environmental Protection, Tokyo (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Okutomi, S. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nishimura, O.; Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1998-01-10

    With sea banks in the Tokyo Inner Bay as the object, discussions were given on identification of actual living conditions for sessile animals and purification function of their dominant species. In the investigation, submerged visual observations and identification on existing quantities were performed in July, September and November, 1995 and February 1996. The following matters were made clear as a result of the investigation: the number of species ranges from 43 to 46 and is stabilized throughout a year; a phenomenon is repeated that the number of individuals decreases in summer and winter, and increases in spring and fall as breeding seasons as a result of the addition of larva; the existing quantity is accounted for 90% or more by four dominant species of M. e. galloprovincialis, L. f. kikuchii, C. gigas and Balanus spp in that order; sessile animals weighing 9,110 tons are living annually in average in the sea banks extending over a distance of 192 km; amount of COD purification based on the annual average deposition quantity is calculated 19 tons as a daily average, which corresponds to 23% of the total COD quantity flowing in from the Tokyo urban area; and on the other hand, COD, N and P produced by sessile animals become new loads to environment over the life of these sessile animals. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Efficient calculation of potential distribution in two-layer earth; Niso kozo daichikei ni okeru denki tansa no tame no koritsuteki den`i keisan shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, M.; Okamoto, Y. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Endo, M.; Noguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y.; Akabane, H. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Agu, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    An efficient calculation method of potential distribution in the presence of an embedded body in multi-layer earth has been proposed by expanding the method of image with a consideration of multiple reflection between the ground surface and each underground boundary. For this method, when solving boundary integral equation with the potential of embedded body surface as only one unknown, i.e., when obtaining discretization equation, ordinary boundary element program developed for analyzing the finite closed region can be used. As an example, numerical calculation was conducted for the two-layer earth. The analysis expression of potential distribution in the case of the certain embedded body in two-layer earth has never published. Accordingly, the calculated results were compared with those by the integral equation method. As a result, it was concluded that the primary potential obtained from the present method agreed well with that obtained from the integral equation method. However, there was a disregarded difference in the secondary potential. For confirming the effectiveness, it was necessary to compare with another numerical calculation method, such as finite element method. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Detection of arcing ground fault location on a distribution network connected PV system; Hikarihatsuden renkei haidensen ni okeru koko chiryaku kukan no kenshutsuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Iwaya, K.; Morooka, Y. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In the near future, it is supposed that a great number of small-scale distributed power sources, such as photovoltaic power generation for general houses, will be interconnected with the ungrounded neutral distribution system in Japan. When ground fault of commercial frequency once occurs, great damage is easily guessed. This paper discusses the effect of the ground fault on the ground phase current using a 6.6 kV high-voltage model system by considering the non-linear self-inductance in the line, and by considering the non-linear relation of arcing ground fault current frequency. In the present method, the remarkable difference of series resonance frequency determined by the inductance and earth capacity between the source side and load side is utilized for the detection of high-voltage arcing ground fault location. In this method, there are some cases in which the non-linear effect obtained by measuring the inductance of sound phase including the secondary winding of transformer can not be neglected. Especially, for the actual high-voltage system, it was shown that the frequency characteristics of transformer inductance for distribution should be theoretically derived in the frequency range between 2 kHz and 6 kHz. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T.; Doi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ando, Y. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R.; Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Technical trend and prospect for wafer cleaning on LSI manufacturing process; LSI seizo kotei ni okeru weha senjo gijutsu no saikin no doko totenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Y. [Dan Science Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-31

    Presently used cleaning process of silicone wafer is based on the modification of so called RCA method from the knowhow point of view, presented by W.Kern and others 25 years ago. On the other hand, with the progress of development of element for next generation, it was already clarified to be required on the process, demanded for high degree control of silicone surface. When considered the practical measure for this, there is a movement towards the establishment of new silicone wafer cleaning concept for new generation instead of making difficult process by precise RCA cleaning. One of the new proposed method is IMEC cleaning. Further, in Tohoku University, new cleaning process, alternative to RCA method is proposed, in which treatment of all chemicals is carried out at room temperature, types of chemicals used for cleaning are limited to minimum and also, concentration of these chemicals is kept as minimum as possible, amount of used superpure wafer is saved by effective recycling and reutilization of spent chemicals. With these tecnologies, there has appeared the sign for new development for cleaning technology. 36 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Process of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the downstream of the Tamagawa river. Tamagawa karyuiki ni okeru sekiyukei tanka suiso no biseibutsu bunkai katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morito, M. (Sumitomo 3M Co., Kanagawa (Japan)); Okada, M.; Murakami, A. (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-12-10

    The process of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated in the downstream of the Tamagawa river. Petroleum hydrocarbons, such as hexadecane, octylbenzene, and 1-methylnaphtalene were observed to be rapidly degraded by microorganisms in the water sampled from the surface of the river after a period of lag time. The longer lag time was observed in order of hexadecane

  19. Numerical method to calculate flow-induced vibration in turbulent flow. 3rd Report. Analysis of vortex-induced vibration in an array of elastically supported tubes; Ranryuba ni okeru ryutai kozotai rensei shindo kaiseki shuho no kaihatsu. 3. Kangun ni okeru uzu reiki shindo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadaoka, N.; Umegaki, K. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-25

    A vortex-induced vibration of an array of elastically supported tubes is simulated in two-dimension by using a flow-induced vibration analysis program, which was developed in order to evaluate flow-induced vibration in various components such as heat exchangers. From a comparison of calculated results and experimental data, the following points are observed. (1) For the calculated results in a 5 {times} 5 square array, the flow pattern surrounding the first-row tubes is markedly different from that observed in the second-row or third-row tubes. This flow pattern is the same as that obtained from the experiment. (2) All tubes begin to oscillate due to unsteady fluid force and the oscillating mode is different for each row of tubes. These oscillation patterns show the same tendency in the experiments and it is concluded that the developed method can simulate vortex-induced vibration in an array of elastically supported tubes. 19 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The exchange bias effect in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Angela; Feygenson, Mikhail; Kreno, Lauren; Patete, Jonathan; Tiano, Amanda; Zhang, Fen; Wong, Stanislaus; Aronson, Meigan

    2009-03-01

    We used magnetic measurements, X-ray diffraction, and HRTEM to study the exchange bias field in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles made by a modified wet chemistry method. We oxidized re-dispersed powders of bare Ni nanoparticles in air at 400^oC and 900^oC. HRTEM showed that annealing at 900^oC of bare Ni nanoparticles led to the formation of exceptionally high quality NiO nanoparticles, resembling perfect bulk-like crystalline order. To our knowledge, there are no reports of NiO particles of such quality in the literature. The loop shift was 1000 Oe at 300K for the NiO nanoparticles, while it was only 120 Oe at 10K for the Ni/NiO nanoparticles. The difference is explained by the different origins of the loop shift in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles. In Ni/NiO nanoparticles, the loop shift is associated with exchange interactions between ferromagnetic Ni and antiferromagnetic NiO. In NiO nanoparticles, however, the origin of the shift is an uneven number of ferromagnetic sublattices present in NiO nanoparticles, which interact differently with an applied magnetic field (Kodama, 1999).

  1. Study on heat collector of the solar system utilizing outdoor air. Experimental results in cases of cold and warm regions; Gaiki donyushiki solar system no shunetsubu ni kansuru kenkyu. Kanreichi to ondanchi ni okeru shunetsu jikken to kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, S.; Ebara, Y. [OM Solar Association, Shizuoka (Japan); Wada, H. [Wada Building Constructors Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    An experiment on heat collection was made in the heat collector of a solar system utilizing outdoor air in cold and warm regions. In this system, outdoor air is heated by the air circulation layer on the roof exposed to solar radiation. The heated air is supplied to the object space for heating and ventilation. In the experiment in a cold region, the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted by putting a baffle plate in the air duct according to the experiment of a glass heat collector. The heat collecting air layer on only the iron roof may leak or freeze in the region subject to coldness or heavy snowfall. Therefore, preheat forms the space of a garret, and the preheat temperature comparatively becomes low. The data in which the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted using only a glass heat collector is required corresponding to the regional situation. In the experiment in a warm region, an experiment was made inclusive of the preheat for which outdoor air is absorbed at the eaves. As a result, the heat collection characteristics of preheat were improved. Moreover, a heat collection temperature of about 60{degree}C was obtained on the heat collection surface including the preheat. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Study on the swirling flow field in a rotating cylinder. 2nd Report. Numerical analysis (2); Kaiten kannai ni okeru senkai nagareba ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Suchi kaiseki (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishibe, T. [Hitachi, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan); Kaji, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-25

    In the 1st report, numerical results were presented for the swirling flow field in a rotating hollow turbine shaft. The existence of a rotating spiral vortex at the place where the swirling flow turns radially outward was shown. The first non-axisymmetric mode of a single spiral vortex was transformed into the second mode of a double spiral vortex at a specific rotating speed of the shaft. In this report, the downstream region of the computational domain is extended to the wheel space, the cavity between the corotating turbine disks, to solve the swirling flow field in the internal cooling air system of a gas turbine. The data on precessing frequencies of the rotating spiral vortex in this numerical analysis are compared with experimental results in a companion paper (3rd report). In addition, attention is paid to the three-dimensional swirling flow field in the rotating cavity with the rotating spiral vortex in the straight tube. (author)

  3. Study on construction of temporary dwellings and problems caused by living long time on Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake; Hanshin / Awaji daishinsai ni okeru okyu kasetsu jutaku no secchi to chokikan shiyo suru baai no kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Nakamura, Y. [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan)] Shimizu, Y. [Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Two years after the above-titled earthquake, an examination was performed on inhabitants in the temporary dwelling houses in Kobe, center of the calamity, and problems caused by a long stay there were clarified together with a grasp of the evolving problems by comparing the result of survey carried out immediately after the disaster. The number of such temporary dwelling houses amounted to 29,128 within Kobe City and 3,168 outside of the city. According to the room arrangement, they were either one f 4 types : 2-rooms with a kitchen, 1 room with a kitchen, dormitory and those specifically for aged persons. There were 59,449 applications at the first offer of 2,702 houses. The priority of their assignments and so on are explained. As for the housing structure, numerous complaints concerned with the room temperature, noise and so forth. As for the living environment, lack of nearby commodity shop, omission of transportation access, ill drainage of the housing sites were pointed out and the matters of demand to the local authorities included the installation of mail post and street lights. As for the health management, insomnia, stiff shoulder, lumbago and other bad physical conditions were revealed. The financial difficulty and the high house rent were obstacles to migrate to other places. The prolonged temporary lives worsened the apprehension of dwellers for the earthquake, typhoon, fire and alike. Some features for the calamity are described in comparison with the result of survey on those who were compelled to live under similar conditions by the eruption of Mr. Fugen. 6 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Considerations on FEM modeling in analyzing buckling and plastic collapse of a detection control; Boto panel no zakutsu sosei hokai kaiseki ni okeru FEM model ka ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, T.; Fujikubo, M.; Yanagihara, D.; Irisawa, M. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Buckling and plastic collapse of upper decks and bottom outer plates of a hull results directly in longitudinal bending collapse of the hull. Therefore, discussions were given on analysis for pressure destruction strength of a detection control panel which assumes an upper deck and a bottom outer plate. Pressure destruction behavior of the panting panel is a complex phenomenon accompanying non-linearity and geometrical non-linearity of the materials. Its whole phenomenon may be analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM) as a principle, but the analysis is not efficient. Therefore, considerations were given in relation to modeling when using the FEM. The considerations were given on a panel attached with flat steel panting members with respect to the modeling scope which considers the buckling mode according to the aspect ratio of the panel partitioned by the deflection control members. If the local buckling mode of the panel is an even number wave mode in the longitudinal direction, a triple span model is required. A modeling scope for a case of being subjected to water pressure and in-plane compression was considered on a panel attached with angle-type steel members having non-symmetric cross section. In this case, a triple bay model is more preferable to reproduce the behavior under water pressure loading. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  5. Study on a wire grasping system for construction works in the electric supply utilizing a visual feedback technique. Visual feedback shuho-wo riyoshita haidensen koji ni okeru densen haaku system ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, T.; Eto, J.; Zhang, H.; Kimuro, Y.; Okada, N. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Yuki, M. (The Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1992-01-30

    Report is made of an automatic wire grasping system studied by applying an image processing method to it. Together with its concept and aspect, explanation is made of a method to process the image in each of the manual mode and auto mide, and control the manipulator. From a small CCD camera fitted to the finger end of manipulator, the image information is put in the computer through an image processor. The locative determination for the wire to be grasped can have the manipulator automatically shifted and located proper to grasp the wire. For the image processing in the auto mode, a linear equation was automatically detected of objective wire as per the image data put therein. Though experimentally fitted at the finger end of manipulator, the CCD camera requires a fitting of fiberscope at its end or other engineered method to take the image data therein against the insulation properties on the site. 4 refs., 16 figs.

  6. Softening and hardening by. gamma. yields. epsilon. martensitic transformation during deformation in high Mn steels. Ko Mn tetsu gokin ni okeru. gamma. yields. epsilon. martensite hentai ni yoru nanka to koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomota, Y.; Ryufuku, S.; Piao, M. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-01-15

    In high Mn steel, martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon occurs under the ordinary pressure. Its application comprises utilization of its configuration memory properties and high work hardening characteristics. The present report studied, by using Fe-Mn type alloy, added with Si or Co, the influence of martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon on the deformation behavior. Tensile test, 2mm/min in speed, being made on molten/cast alloy ingot, thermally treated as specified, epsilon was quantitatively analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The above test/analysis pointed out many notes in result and knowledge, as follows among others: The addition with Si or Co, lowering the Neel temperature, quantitatively increases the epsilon martensite, produced by the processing. The produced quantity of epsilon martensite in case of addition with Si is small, as compared with that in case of two-element Fe-Mn type alloy without addition and in case of addition with Co. All the tested alloys give the softening phenomenon by the martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon. The pre-existing epsilon plate is a strong barrier for the further plastic flow, which accordingly accelerates the work hardening. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Effects of applied stress and plastic strain on. gamma. r reversible. epsilon. martensitic transformation in high Mn alloy polyctystals. Ko Mn tetsu gokin takessho ni okeru. gamma. r reversible. epsilon. martensite hentai ni oyobosu gairyoku to hizumi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomota, Y.; Piao, M.; Hasunuma, T.; Kimura, Y. (Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan))

    1990-06-20

    The influences of applied stress and plastic strain on a transformation austenite ({gamma}) to hcp martensite ({epsilon}) were studied on Fe-16wt%Mn, Fe-24wt%Mn, and Fe-24%Mn-6%Si alloy, and a transformation mechanism and a shape memory phenomenon were more deeply examined. As the quenching structure of three kinds of the alloys consists of two phases of {gamma} and {epsilon}, the specimens were cooled after heated above the A {sub f} temperature to keep {gamma} single phase, and then the tensile tests were carried out. Positive temperature dependence was found under the 0.2% proof stress due to stress-induced {gamma}{yields} {epsilon} transformation in each of Fe-Mn alloy and Fe-24%Mn-6%Si alloy. When {gamma} phase of Fe-24%Mn alloy stabilized due to cyclic transformation was stretched at room temperature, the yield stress was remarkably lowered by the stress-induced {gamma}{r arrow}{epsilon} transformation. When the specimens were stretched at 523K under stress which was larger than the yield strength and then cooled, the elongation along the applied stress direction due to martensitic tranformation was recognized. A shape recovery was remarkable in Si content alloys. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Study on management of resource and environment in poverty areas. Examples of agriculture and water use in bangladesh; Hinkon chiiki ni okeru shigen to kankyo no kanri ni kansuru kenkyu. Banguradeshu no nogyo to mizu riyo wo rei to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Hiroyuki [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1998-12-16

    This paper describes the main features of flood plains and fish production related to agriculture in the vast inland water areas of Bangladesh. The inland fisheries have been an important source of animal protein and provided employment opportunities for rural Bangladeshies. Generally the fishermen's economic conditions are below the poverty line in this country. Fishi production in the inland water areas are not met to the basic needs of the people on a sustainable basis. While inland fishery is important for business as well as for people's livelihood, it is not usually managed appropriately for resource conservation and environment. Fishery policies and planning have to be undertaken for comprehensive long-term perspective in order that agricultural and other sectors would not contaminate the environment. (author)

  9. Baseline experiment of interferometric PGS at the EDM network in the south Kanto area, Japan. GPS kansho sokuiho ni yoru kisen sokuryo no kiso jikken (Minamikanto koha sokuryomo ni okeru hikaku kansoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Murata, I.; Matsumoto, S.; Hirata, Y.; Takahashi, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute); Tsuchiya, A. (National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)); Watada, S. (California Institute of Technology, California (USA)); Iga, A. (Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-25

    The first field baseline observation using SONY GTT-4000, a GPS (Global Positioning System) interferometer was conducted at the EDM (Electromagnetic Distance Measurements) network of the Earthquake Research Institute in the southern Kanto Area, Japan. For the experiments, three GTT-4000 receivers of single frequency version were deployed at three sites which compose a triangle with side distances of about 8km, 12km, and 14km. The present paper introduces the receiver briefly, and the distances obtained by this receiver are compared with those obtained by the EDM observations. Consequently, it was shown that the results by GTT-4000 coincided well with those by EDM with less than 2ppm of accuracy. It was also shown that misclosures of the triangle which was obtained by the relative coordinate estimates were smaller than 1ppm. Furthermore, it was revealed that due to introduction of upgraded dual frequency capability, the receiver can reduce the effect of the ionospheric path delays. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Estimation of shallow ground structure using short-period microtremors array observation. Results in Morioka area; Tanshuki bido no array kansoku ni yoru senbu chika kozo no suitei. Moriokashiiki ni okeru kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Obuchi, T.; Saito, T.; Iwamoto, K. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yoshida, Y. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The velocity structure in the shallow ground structure was evaluated by observing microtremors of 1-10Hz in the Morioka City area. Plural wave sections free of vehicle noises or the like were selected out of the collected microtremor records, and the Fourier spectrum and coherence were calculated. Records sufficiently supporting the correlation between seismographs were chosen for the analysis. The phase velocity was calculated for each observation spot from plural array records by use of the F-K spectrum. The underground velocity structure was estimated by the inversion process using the matrix method. In this method, an early model was built on the basis of the observed phase velocity and the optimum underground velocity structure was determined by alternately performing two inversion processes: one for the case wherein the S-wave velocity is the sole parameter and the other for the case wherein the layer thickness is the sole parameter. As the result, a shallow underground velocity structure, which has good agreement with the available boring data in the Morioka City area, was successfully estimated, verifying the validity of this method. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Time domain electromagnetic method for petroleum exploration. Part 3. Case study in Yoneyama area; Sekiyu tansa ni okeru TDEM ho data shutoku to kaiseki ni tsuite. 3. Niigataken Yoneyama chiiki deno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H.; Mitsuhata, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shiga, N. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The result is reported of a TDEM method-based survey for oil exploration conducted in the Yoneyama district, Niigata Prefecture. The survey covered the southern part of the sedimentary basin in the prefecture, known for the poor quality of the seismic prospecting data that had been recorded. The purpose of the TDEM method-assisted survey was to probe the high-resistivity volcanic rock structure and low-resistivity sedimentary layer, and to know their details. The obtained data were subjected to interpretation by use of the 1D inversion method. A 4000m-deep level was subjected to interpretation, 34 data were inputted, and the early model consisted of 20 layers. As the result, it was found that there was a high-resistivity layer ranging from the ground surface down to a depth of approximately 500m, that a low-resistivity layer 2500-3000m in thickness lay thereunder, and that the lowest layer had a high resistivity of approximately 100 Ohm m. By comparing these data with the geological structure, structures were disclosed corresponding to the rock bed depth, Ukawa syncline, Ishiguro anticline, and Yoneyama mountain mass. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Report on surveys and researches in fiscal 2000 for directionality of technological needs and seeds in IT zone; IT ryoiki ni okeru gijutsu needs to seeds no hokosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to put the assignments in the electronics and information technology fields into order, and to search elementary technologies and system technologies to become the focus of the future research and development, an IT workshop was held where researchers in the industrial, academic and governmental areas can meet together in one room. The social needs toward IT may include, as the correspondence to families with smaller number of children and greater number of persons of advanced age, the correspondence to digital devices, assurance of openness of information contents, enhancement of levels in medical technologies, enhancement of levels in medical services using remote medical systems, enhancement of welfare services, efficiency improvement in welfare services, and reduction of burdens therein. Enumerated in the use of educational information are the enlightenment and proliferation of IT literacy, development of user-friendly information terminals, education open to everybody, enhancement of the education contents, and enhancement of research activities. With regard to elimination of concentration into large urban areas, activation of local economies, homogenization of living environments, dissolution of traffic congestion, and strengthening of disaster preventing functions were pointed out. Also indicated is the assurance of security including the electronic trading, unjust invasion, and privacy protection. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1998 research report on the development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Russia having natural gas resources largest in the world is actively promoting the basic research on liquefaction technology of natural gas such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic catalyst, and its research potential is extremely high. This 3-year research project surveys the R and D trends of catalyst technology for liquefaction of natural gas, and fabricates the prototype FT synthetic catalyst based on the idea of Russian researchers to evaluate its feasibility experimentally. This report summarizes the following to clarify the research background: (1) The technology system for liquefaction of natural gas, and its future R and D trend, (2) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in the world, (3) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in Russia, (4) The research system of catalyses in Russia, (5) The activities of Russian catalysis research institutes, (6) The fuel liquefaction technologies of Russian major research institutes, and (7) The proposals from Russian research institutes. (NEDO)

  14. Study of solute incorporation into ice-layer on freeze concentration with ice-lining; Ice lining toketsu noshukuho ni okeru hyosho sochu eno yoshitsu torikomi ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K. [Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hirata, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    The mechanism of solute incorporation into an ice-layer in freeze concentration with ice-lining was studied by changing the impeller speed N and the difference between the brine temperature and the freezing point of the feed solution {Delta}T in 10 kg/m{sup 3} CCNa solution. The effect of N on the apparent partition coefficient of the solute K, is more serious than that of {Delta}T. The growth rate of the ice layer is 10{sup -7} - 10{sup -6}m/s under the condition of {Delta}T=2.8 - 7.9degC and N = 20-400 min{sup -1}. The growth rate had a little effect on solute incorporation into the ice-layer. K values depended on the surface condition of the ice layer, which is effected by the mixing speed of the impeller. The ice layer formed at low mixing speed has a complex rough shape, and has much solute because of adhesion to a large surface area. Therefore, it is recommended that freeze concentration is performed by making an ice layer with smooth surface at high mixing speed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Study on the performances of handling and stability influenced by the differential terms in the state variables; Soansei ni okeru jotai hensunai no bibun yoso ga seino ni oyobosu eikyo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugasawa, F. [Tamagawa University, Tokyo (Japan); Mori, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The analysis method using the system matrix for state variables can not be applied to the analysis for the system has Complex Cornering Stiffness. The reason is there are differential terms in the state variables. It is found that the differential terms m the state variables can be changed to the constant terms in another state variables. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Effect of surface active compounds on growth and adhesion of anchorage-dependent animal cells at liquid/liquid interface; Eki/ekikaimen ni okeru fuchaku izonsei dobutsu saibo no zoshoku oyobi fuchaku ni taisuru kaimen kassei busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Y.; Oshima, T.; Sato, M. [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1998-03-01

    A cell cultivation using a liquid/liquid (culture medium/fluorocarbon) interface has been practiced as a novel culturing method for anchorage-dependent animal cells, and it is known that cell adhesion at the interface is dependent on the contaminants contained in the hydrophobic liquid. Substances effective for the adhesion and growth of cells are investigated using various surfactants. As a result of comparison of ionic and nonionic surfactants, cell adhesion is observed when ionic surfactant is used, indicating the importance of the electric charge of surfactant. Cell growth is better when ionic surfactant is added to fluorocarbon than when surfactant is added to the culture medium. The cell growth using fluorocarbon added with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride and perfluorooctanoyl chloride is similar to that of culturing using polystyrene, and the importance of surfactant addition to fluorocarbon is indicated. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Combustion characteristics of spark ignition and pilot flame ignition systems in a stratified charge Wankel type rotary engine; Sojo kyuki bankerugata rotary kikan ni okeru spark plug tenka to pilot kaen tenka ni yoru nensho tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.; Moriyoshi, Y.; Wada, Y. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Muroki, T. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-05-25

    A pilot flame ignition system, which has superior characteristics in the high ignition energy and the large flame contact area to a conventional spark ignition system, is experimentally examined by the indicated pressure analysis and the high speed direct photography. A model combustion chamber, which simulates a Wankel-type direct injection stratified charge rotary engine, was employed to test the ignition performance of both the pilot flame ignition and spark ignition systems. As a result, it was found that the pilot flame system successfully ignites the very lean charge stratified mixture which the spark system fails to ignite and that the combustion characteristic difference using different ignition systems becomes small as the overall equivalence ratio is increased. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 3. Removal of organic solvents by catalytic oxidation method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 3. Shokubai sankaho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-05-10

    This paper summarizes circumstances of a catalytic oxidation type deodorizing experiment and a demonstration test on exhaust gas discharged actually from a print shop. The catalytic oxidation method is a method to burn the odor constituents, which are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene, at temperatures of 200 to 300 degC. Space velocity was used as a parameter, and two kinds of platinum systems and two kinds of manganese + copper systems were used as catalysts. Elucidation was made on the space velocity and removal efficiency, removal efficiency of each catalyst, unreacted decomposition originated constituents at low temperatures (150 to 180 degC), and efficiency of each catalyst to remove each constituent. The result revealed that nearly 100% removal is possible at a space velocity of 33000 hr {sup -1} when the platinum-based catalyst and the manganese + copper based catalyst (both in pellet form) are combined. It was also found that the combination is advantageous in terms of cost. A demonstration test was performed at a new factory. Under a condition of combination of the above catalysts at 1:1 ratio, the space velocity of 30000 hr {sup -1}, and gas temperature at catalyst layer inlet of 200 degC, the removal efficiency was 97.9% to 98.7%, which clears the exhaust regulation value specified by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Average concentration in the working environment was 120.9 ppm, which cleared the maximum permissible concentration. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 1. Removal of organic solvents by activated carbon adsorption method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 1. Kasseitan kyuchakuho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-05-10

    This paper describes the state of discharge of organic solvents from a print shop and a deodorizing experiment using a deodorizing equipment of activated carbon adsorption type of a bench test scale. The subject existing print shop has a working space volume of 2000 m{sup 3} and total air exhaust volume of 32000 m{sup 3} per hour. The identified main solvents are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene. Solvent exhaust concentration at a duct was more than two times greater than the exhaust regulation value. The experiment was performed by using an equipment having an adsorption tower filled with activated carbons of particle form and pellet form made from coconut shell respectively. The gas concentration at an inlet to the deodorizing equipment was 394 ppm as the total concentration, exceeding the exhaust regulation value of 200 ppm. It was verified that the activated adsorption process has high removal effect. The break-through time which expresses life of activated carbon was 38 hours for the particle-formed carbon and 29 hours for the pellet-formed carbon when the total outlet gas concentration was set to 10 ppm. If the adsorption continues after the break-through time has been reached, a displacement phenomenon (displacement among constituents due to selective adsorption) can occur. The required length of the adsorption belt was derived. It was verified that the activated carbons can be regenerated and re-used. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Absorption and release of lanthanoid lons during the germination and growing period of radish in culture solution; Suiko saibaiho ni yoru kaiwaredaikon no hatsuga {center_dot} seichoji ni okeru rantanoido ion no kyushu, hoshutsu oyobi kakubui eno chikuseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, O.; Katsube, H. [Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan). Research Inst. for Science and Tech.

    1999-11-10

    The radish (Kaiware daikon) was grown in the culture solution containing lanthanoid ions at 20 degree C. The absorption and release behavior of hydrogen, potassium and lanthanoid ions were examined during the germination and growing period of the radish. During the germination period (ca. 30 h) from the seed in the culture solution of pH 5 at 20 degree C, the concentration of potassium in increased, and hydrogen and lanthanoid ions decreased. On the other hand, in the growing period (ca. 1 week), almost all potassium ion which liberated from the seed to the culture solution in the germination period was absorbed to the radish, and hydrogen and lanthanoid ions were released to the solution. The correlation coefficients of correlation between the concentration of potassium and lanthanoid ions were -0.96- -0.99, -0.77- -1.0 in the germination and growing period, respectively, and a good negative correlation was observed between them. Furthermore, it was examined about the influence of the concentration of lanthanoid ions and the accumulation. As for the lower concentration than 1 ppm, it did not have an influence at all against the germination of radish and the growth. And these ions showed that it was often accumulated in comparison with the stem and the leaf of by a root. On the other hand, at concentration higher than 3 ppm of lanthanoid ions in the culture solution the radish germinated poorly and did not completely mature. When the concentration of lanthanoid ions were more than 10 ppm, a seed germinated a little, but did not grow at all. From the above results, the positive effect of the lanthanoid ions on the growth of radish could not be admitted. (author)

  1. FY 1997 report of survey on the intellectual property in international collaboration research project; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kokusai kyodo kenkyu ni okeru chiteki zaisanken ni tsuite no chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In promoting international collaboration research project, coordination of the patent system of each country which participants to the project belong to has broad implications in concluding the contract for the project. For example, in Japan, 100% of the patent belongs to the government for contrast or collaboration project with the government. While, in the USA, the patent developed by the private company belongs to the private company even for the contrast project. In Japan, the shared patent can not be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. While, in the USA, the shared patent can be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. Due to such a difference, some projects can not be established by ill coordination of intellectual property even when the meaning of the projects is well understood. In this survey, was investigated the outline of patent systems of major countries to study about what should well balanced treatment of intellectual property in international collaboration research project be in the future. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Study of a fuel injection quantity sensor in diesel engine. Part 3. Experimental evaluation of the improved type micro turbine sensor; Diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funsharyo sensor no kenkyu. 3. Funsharyo keisoku no seido kojo ni kansuru jikken hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Kobayashi, T. [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Micro Turbine Sensor has been developed to measure fuel injection quantity and injection rate. Previous reports described results of experiments on the MTS which were carried out under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The MTS has been improved in shape of a holder tip and a detecting procedure for rotating speed of a turbine. As a result revolution speed of the turbine increased 18% over the conventional type holder under steady flow condition. Furthermore the measurement resolution of the MTS came up to about 2(mm{sup 3}/pulse) at 20(mm{sup 3}/stroke) under intermittent spray conditions using fuel injection pump. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Research and survey report of FY 1997 on the CO2 balance for high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the application condition and effectiveness of high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology. To evaluate the present process, it was compared with others, such as separation using a polymer membrane, physico-chemical absorption process, adsorption process, hydrogen contact reduction process, and biological fixation. The development trends of absorption, membrane, adsorption, and cryogenic separation were investigated. The questionnaire was carried out about the separation technologies which are in the stage of performance test using actual gas, to arrange and compare the data and information. The current trends of chemical and biological CO2 fixation and utilization technology were also investigated for arranging the subjects. High-temperature CO2 disposal by the carbonation in concrete waste has been studied, to clarify its application conditions and effectiveness. In order to compare the separation technologies, treatment processes of CO2 in the exhaust gas from boilers of LNG power generation and coal fired power generation were simulated. These processes were simulated by ASPEN PLUS for the modeling. Trends of application of ASPEN PLUS and collection of information were surveyed by participating in the ASPEN WORLD. 103 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  4. Studies on the roles of small GTP-binding proteins and heterotrimeric G proteins in intracellular vesicular transport; Saibonai shoho yuso ni okeru teibunshiryo GTP ketsugo tanpakushitsu oyobi 3 ryotai G tanpakushitus no kino ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Kazuhisa [Tsukuba University, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute of Science

    1998-12-16

    Transport of proteins between organelles involves carrier vesicles. A variety of GTP-binding proteins are responsible for the formation of carrier vesicles. A family of small GTP-binding proteins, ARFs, trigger budding of the vesicles, while a high molecular weight GTP-binding protein, dynamin, is responsible for fission of the neck of the budding vesicles. In this study, we cloned and determined the subcellular localization of six mouse ARF proteins, and cloned three human guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for ARF. We also cloned and determined its subcellular localization of a novel dynamin-like protein, named DVLP (for Dnm 1p/Vps 1p-like protein). (author)

  5. General report on investigations of fault, earthquake motion and damage due to the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake; 1995 nen Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni okeru danso, jishindo, higai ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Compiled herein are the results of various investigations and examinations conducted concerning the 1995 Hyogoken-nambu earthquake. Along the boundary surface between the granite and Osaka group, and in the Osaka group, accumulated displacements and flexural structures are found, supposedly attributable to faulting, by high-density electric prospecting and underground radar prospecting near the Nojima earthquake fault. Displaced structures in the unconsolidated covering layer are detected to the depth of 10-odd meters. Displacement of ground water due to earthquake is different between the shallow and deep layers, which can be explained by a simplified model. The dynamic stress drop in the main shock is equal to the maximum ({Delta}{gamma}) value of each of the aftershocks, and there exists a certain ceiling over the {Delta}{gamma}dependence on the earthquake moment. The maximum acceleration of the earthquake motion estimated from waveforms in the rock is approximately 300 gals, which probably results from the concentration in one direction of the inputted energy wherein long period components are dominant. The newly developed nonlinear analysis technique simulates the attenuation and amplification of acceleration accompanied by liquefaction, and the buckling behavior of bridge columns may be explained by this technique. 72 refs., 84 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Fiscal 1993 investigational study of a model of international cooperation for an environmentally harmony type green technosystem; 1993 nendo Oshu ni okeru haikibutsu shori oyobi recycle no doko ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For the natural environment preservation, effective utilization of resources, and maintenance of the ecosystem, an international cooperation model was proposed for the environmental harmony type green technosystem. A comprehensive evaluating analysis of a green forest resource, etc. as the global resource, and an intensive extraction of subjects and needs was made. The analysis was conducted of technical possibility and abstract business development effects toward the industrialization with high values added which is in harmony with the environment. As a case study, the Papua New Guinea area, Malaysia was selected and re-evaluated. For this typical tropical forest area, a new technical system was studied based on the natural environment, industry/economy, social/cultural assessment, etc., and a model for industrializing new international cooperation was proposed. For the model making for industrialization, various steps to be taken and conditions to be prepared were studied and arranged for the realization. Upon going ahead with the international technical cooperation, Japan, a large lumber consuming country, needs to always consider the fostering and effective use of lumber resource in particular. 27 refs., 28 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Measurements of fiber orientation in two-dimensional fiber suspension flow using image-processing method; Gazo shoriho ni yoru sen`i gan`yutai no nijigen nagare ni okeru sen`i haiko no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chono, S.; Tanoue, S.; Iemoto, Y. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-10-25

    Orientation profiles of fibers in fiber suspension flow between two parallel plates with a square cylinder on the center axis was studied by using the computer image analysis. The orientational order parameter S decreases near the square cylinder because the flow changes its direction and also a wake is developed, while it is large near the channel wall owing to high shear deformation. The preferred angle and S decrease in the downstream vicinity of the square cylinder, and reach fully-developed values at a farther area. S along the channel center axis increases with increasing a fiber concentration and the Reynolds number. The size of a square cylinder has an effect on the fiber orientation near the cylinder. Since a stagnation region and a large wake are developed before and after a cylinder for a viscoelastic fluid, a lower value of S near the cylinder is obtained for the viscoelastic fluid compared to that for a Newtonian fluid. At a downstream area, however, the viscoelastic fluid gives a higher values of S. 21 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  8. On the relation between free volume and powder pressure with the gas stream in the powder moving-bed; Gasu nagare wo tomonau kotai idoso ni okeru kukanritsu to ryutaiatsu no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyasu, Suminao; Yoshino, Akio; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu

    1999-04-05

    On the stand pipe with gas stream equipped the bottom in fluidized bed from powder and equation of continuity of the gas, equation of momentum balance considering frictional force of wall surface and equation of pressure loss of the gas by relative speed and test data on the axial gas pressure distribution besides with stand pipe axial direction powder pressure {sigma}{sub z} relational expression of free volume {epsilon} it asks ask. According to this result, (1) d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is increased in free volume or big part in the stand pipe entrance, and it once lowers in the middle, and in addition, it increases in the downward again. That is to say, the inflection point of the powder pressure does the right and presence in the. intermediate. (2) There is mainly the high possibility by the effect of the frictional force of stand pipe wall surface on d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} increasing in the stand pipe inlet vicinity. (3) The powder pressure is not only free volume but also function of the powder particle diameter too. And, this powder ratio and free volume also showed that the distribution of amount of gas which flow and axial gas pressure, powder pressure, free volume, etc. was obtained the stand pipe from relational expression of particle size and other theoretical formula. (translated by NEDO)

  9. Correlation of voidage and stress of granular materials in a packed moving bed accompanied with gas flow; Gasu nagare wo tomonau funtai idoso ni okeru kugekiritsu to funtaiatsu no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyasu, Yoshitada. [Sanzou Energy Engineering Corp., Okayama (Japan); Yoshino, Fumio.; Iwata, Hiroshi.; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-03-10

    The flow characteristics of granular materials and gas in a vertical packed moving bed, called a [stand pipe], furnished at the bottom of the fluidized bed are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A correlation equation of axial stress {sigma}{sub z} and voidage {epsilon} of granular materials in the stand pipe is proposed through investigations of the continuity equation, the momentum balance equation, Ergun's equation for gas pressure loss and the gas pressure distribution data measured experimentally in the axial direction. Regarding the relation of the axial stress and the voidage, it was recogniged that : 1. The absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is large at the voidage near the minimum fluidizing condition, and at the voidage in the dense packed condition, and an inflection point of {sigma}{sub z} exists in range between the both conditions ; 2. It seems to be the wall-friction-effect of stand pipe that the absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is larger at the inlet of stand pipe, and ; 3. The stress is also a function of the particle diameter. The gas flow rate, axial stress distribution of granular materials, gas pressure distribution and voidage distribution in the axial direction of the stand pipe can be calculated from relating equations. (author)

  10. Study on passive earth pressure acting on the embedment of an earth retaining wall for braced excavation work in cohesive soil; Nenseido jiban ni okeru kussaku dodomeheki neirebu no judo doatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. [Pacific Consultants K.K., Tokyo (Japan); Hirashima, K. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-15

    Passive earth pressure exerts a great influence on the stress and deformation of earth retaining walls in braced excavation. To calculate this pressure, conventional ultimate earth pressure equation, or Rankine-Resals and Coulomb`s equation, are currently applied respectively to cohesive and sandy soil. However, these intentional equation to determine passive earth pressure do not adequately take into account the excavation width during work and the shearing resistance on the earth retaining wall surface. This paper deals with cohesive soil only, deriving a calculation equation for passive earth pressure, which takes into account excavation width and the shearing resistance of the earth retaining wall surface. Then, constants in this equation are determined using the calculation results obtained from the finite element method with blasts-plastic elements. The calculation results are also compared with measured values in the model test in order to check the applicability of the calculation equation for passive earth pressure thus obtained. Finally, this paper proposes a practicable calculation equation for passive earth pressure. 13 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Quantum analysis in the transition process to excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions; Denshi shototsu ni tomonau sanso bunshi ni okeru reiki jotai sen`i no ryoshironteki kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, K. [Gifu National College of Technology, Gifu (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-25

    For understanding of fundamental chemical reactions under a highly non equilibrium condition which is quite often used in plasma processing, the relevant atomic and molecular processes must be clarified. In this study, an analysis of the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions in the oxygen plasma has been carried out. First, the electron density distribution in an oxygen molecule has been calculated using the extended Huckel molecular orbital method. Then, the electron potential energy distribution in the transition process to the excited state has been estimated. The electron behavior has been calculated using the estimated unidimensional electron potential energy distribution and unsteady quantum mechanics. As a result, the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions and its conditions have been clarified qualitatively. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Behavior of cooling jet in the lateral injection in film cooling. 1st Report. ; Time-averaged velocity and temperature field. Span hoko ni fukidasu makureikyaku ni okeru reikyaku kuki no kyodo. 1. ; Jikan heikin sokudoba to ondoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, A. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Yamamoto, M. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)); Shizawa, T.; Honami, S. (Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-02-25

    In order to improve the gas turbine blade film cooling technology, this paper elucidates flow field and temperature field of secondary air blown out into a span direction; derives the temperature distribution on the wall face; and describes cooling air behavior in film cooling. The wall face temperature distribution measured with a temperature measuring system using liquid crystal has shown relatively good correspondence with the temperature distribution in the vicinity of the wall face as measured by a two-wire probe. Film cooling by blowing air into the span direction has shown good attachment of the secondary air onto the wall face in the secondary air blowing direction. However, in the opposite direction to the air blowing direction, air has attached to the wall face only poorly because of vortex movements of the primary air due to being dragged in. The secondary air has departed from the wall face as the blow-out ratio has been increased, resulting in drop in the cooling efficiency. A 'Z' direction position that the temperature of the secondary air shows a maximum value differs from a 'Z' direction position having a peak in the wall face cooling efficiency, the difference having become more noticeable with increasing blow-out ratio. A region with lower cooling efficiency due to rolling-in of the primary air exists near the blow-out hole, where rolling-in of the primary air is recognized prominently as the blow-out ratio has been increased. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Study on the swirling flow field in a rotating cylinder. 1st Report. Numerical analysis-1; Kaiten kannai ni okeru senkai nagareba ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. suchi kaiseki-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishibe, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kaji, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-04-25

    The swirling flow field including non-axisymmetric phenomena in a rotating hollow turbine shaft is solved using computational fluid dynamics. The three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are adopted and discretized by an implicit TVD scheme. No axisymmetric assumption is applied in order to find non-axisymmetric phenomena. The computational domain, therefore, is extended circumferentially to 360 degree and axisymmetric boundary conditions along the center axis are avoided. The existence of a rotating spiral vortex at the place where the swirling flow turns radially outward is shown. The spiral vortex rotates about the shaft center axis in the same direction as the circumferential velocity of the main flow. Conversely, the vortex has a spiral form opposite to the rotational direction of the fluid. The first non-axisymmetric mode of a single spiral vortex is transformed into the second mode of a double spiral vortex at a specific rotating speed of the shaft. (author)

  14. Field observation on the behavior of falling rock. 1st report. Study on the rock fall along a slope; Firudo ni okeru rakuseki no rakka kyodo. 1. Ganban shamen no rakuseki ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujihira, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hosoya, S.; Ogawa, K.; Takagai, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School

    1996-10-25

    A tendency of gradual extinction of disasters caused by the breaking of loose stones and falling rocks in limestone mines and quarries is brought by the improvement of safety control against slope accidents in these years. In this study, in order to examine the accumulation of data contributing to the countermeasure against falling rock in strip mines, the movement of rocks in an open-shooting quarry were shot by video cameras and analysed to clarify the behaviors of falling rock. The following results are obtained. It is found by observing falling rocks from a slope side that the value of falling velocity is getting smaller in an order of block-shaped, tabular and stick-shaped rocks. In the case of tabular rock, there is a tendency that the velocity distribution has two peaks. Not only the falling velocity but also the rolling velocity of block-shaped rock is smaller than those of block-shaped and tabular rock. Further, values near the supremum of actually measured values can be given by a rolling velocity equation wherein the shape of falling rock is assumed as orbicular. If setting it forth as a premise, said equation is possible to be used for estimating rolling velocity. 24 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Borehole geophysics for delineating the geological structure in the Sakonishi prospect, the Hida area, Japan; Hida chiiki Sako nishi chiku ni okeru boring ko riyo butsuri tansa ni yoru chishitsu kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, H.; Hishida, H.; Yoshioka, K. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In order to discuss effectiveness of physical exploration in the Sakonishi prospect in the Hida area, physical exploration was carried out by utilizing bored wells. This area contains the Kamioka mine, one of the major base metal mines in Japan, where electrical exploration has been attempted several times in the past. No effective results have been obtained, however, because specific resistance contrast between mine beds and base rocks is too small, and the topography is too steep making site workability inferior. As part of the investigations on geological structures over wide areas, electrical logging (specific resistance and natural potential) was performed in fiscal 1995 and 1996 by utilizing the boreholes. Induced polarization logging was also conducted on the same boreholes. A traverse line on the ground with a length of 600 m and boreholes were used to execute specific resistance tomography. Clear extraction was possible on a fault structure which is thought related with limestone distribution and mine bed creation. However, it was not possible to identify upward continuity of zinc ores expected in the exploration. Because of not large a specific resistance contrast between zinc ores and base rocks, it is difficult to find mine bed locations only from the information on the specific resistance. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Researches regarding a constructing problem of a PV system. Part 1. Conscious investigation by means of a questionnaire survey; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru kenchikuteki shomondai no kenkyu. 1. Anketo chosa ni yoru ishiki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; Kuroki, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The installation and introduction of photovoltaic power generation systems (PVS) in buildings are growingly expected in the construction field from now, coupled with the marketing of a solar cell module as a product for a construction material in the form of an external wall or a roof material for example. For this purpose, it is necessary at first to summarize problems that may arise at the time of or after the installation of PVS as a product. This paper examines an opinion poll, degree of recognition, current problems, etc., of PVS as a result of a questionnaire survey given to engineers and architects engaged in the actual construction business. The degree of recognition and interest was very high. Consultation or request for PVS installation was much more than predicted in numbers. Roughly 50% of the respondents reacted positively for the future installation request of PVS and, combined with the respondents who answered to look into the installation tentatively, not less than 90% were of a forward-looking opinion. The 85% of the respondents was not aware of the monitor business system for residential PVS. Further, the survey clearly brought out the importance of cost problems. 1 ref., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Effects of passive control boundary layer around the throat on a transonic diffuser; Throat kinbo ni okeru kyokaiso no passive control ga sen`onsoku diffuser ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaga, M.; Nagai, M.; Haga, T. [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). College of Engineering; Miyara, T. [University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Tomita, n. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-25

    The effects of a passive control boundary layer applied around the throat on a transonic diffuser were investigated experimentally by wall static pressure measurements and by schlieren optical observations. The experiments were conducted using three kinds of the diffuser walls, one was a solid wall and the other two were porous with a 30 mm or 50 mm-long cavity underneath enabling the flow around the shock wave to circulate through the porous wall. The results show that the Mach waves normal to the flow were observed when diffusers were almost choked and that the pressure fluctuations in a transonic diffuser were greatly reduced by passive control. According to the frequency analysis, the frequency range attenuated by passive control is between about 700 Hz and 1 kHz regardless of the length of the cavities. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  19. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  20. Magnetic Properties of Ni Nanoparticles and Ni(C) Nanocapsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Structure and magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles and Ni(C) nanocapsules were studied. The carbon atoms hardly affect the lattice of Ni to form Ni-C solid solution or nickel carbides. The large thermal irreversibility in zerofield-cooled and zero-field magnetization curves indicates magnetic blocking with a wide energy barrier. Saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity of Ni(C) nanocapsules decrease with increasing temperature.

  1. Surface Tension of Molten Ni and Ni-Co Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2005-01-01

    Surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys was measured at the temperature range of 1773~1873 K using an improved sessile drop method with an alumina substrate in an Ar+3%H2 atmosphere. The error of the data obtained was analyzed. The surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys decreases with increasing temperature. The influence of Co on the surface tension of Ni-Co alloys is little in the studied Co concentration range.

  2. Room temperature ferromagnetism of Ni, (Ni, Li), (Ni, N)-doped ZnO thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AU; ChakTong

    2010-01-01

    Ni-doped ZnO thin films (Ni concentration up to 10 mol%) were generated on Si (100) substrates by a sol-gel technique. The films showed wurtzite structure and no other phase was found. The chemical state of Ni was found to be bivalent by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of magnetic measurements at room temperature indicated that the films were ferromagnetic, and magnetic moment decreased with rise of Ni concentration. The magnetization of Ni (10 mol%)-doped ZnO film annealed in nitrogen was lower than that annealed in argon, suggesting that the density of defects had an effect on ferromagnetism.

  3. ZnNi data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    www.asetsdefense.org Teaming website: www.materialoptions.com Other data .. •• • Zinc - nickel alloy coatings r~.., ataTECH Corrosion...cathodic corrosion protection with y- zinc - nickel alloy! () ToTAL ----------------- · ---------------- . A ~ESTCP ~§g.~J?.P Keith Legg 847-680...2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. Fatigue Test Results (Alkaline Zinc - Nickel , Phase IV) • Nickel Alloy 718 Bolts – 3/8” diameter Cd or Zn-Ni

  4. Ni landsbyer i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Denne rapport beskriver en evaluering af statsstøttede forsøg med at styrke og udvikle mindre lokalsamfund. Forsøgene er gennemført i ni kommuner. Da der i disse år er stor opmærksomhed om de små byers og samfunds udviklingsmuligheder, har erfaringerne fra forsøgsprojekterne bred interesse. Forsø...

  5. Analytical study on aseismic base isolation in new offshore location. For practical location for thermal power plants by soft-landing artificial ground construction method; Atarashii kaijo ricchi ni okeru menshinsei ni kansuru kaisekiteki kento. Nanchaku jinko jiban koho ni yoru karyoku hatsuden setsubi ricchi jitsuyoka ni mukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Sakakibara, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, M. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-09-05

    Assuming offshore location of thermal power plants by soft-landing artificial ground construction method, its effect on uneven settlement of facility unit group and its seismic behavior were studied. In soft-landing artificial ground, the total weight and buoyancy of a caisson body with interior space are balanced by controlling water level in a tank to reduce landing pressure. Artificial ground resists lateral seismic external force by friction with submarine bedrock. Settlement analysis and seismic behavior analysis were conducted by 2-D FEM. As a result, bottom RC honeycomb structure was sufficient to resist uneven settlement during construction even under fixed junction condition between units. In soft-landing artificial ground, the maximum acceleration was reduced to nearly 70% by aseismic base isolation as compared with conventional methods. In addition, its sliding manner in earthquake was different from that of rigid bodies, and the maximum stress acceleration transmitted to the bottom of artificial ground changed even under the same waveform. 4 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. FY 1998 annual symposium by the information/communication sections; 1998 nendo joho tsushin bumon kenkyu seika hokokukai wo kaisai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-10

    The Kansai Electric Power`s FY 1998 annual symposium by the information/communication sections was held on February 26 with a total of 182 attendees from the company`s sections related to information and communication and also from the affiliates. Mr. Imagawa, Planning Dept. Manager of Kansai Multimedia Service, gave a keynote address titled `Status of the information/communication industry in Japan and strategies of this company.` A total of 6 papers covering a wide area were presented: development of multicore type OPGW as the base for backbone network structures, essential for constructing the future multimedia networks; application of ATM; future software architectures serving as the bases for development of a variety of systems which support intra-office job innovation; researches on map information systems as the common bases; image information transmission systems aimed at improvement of usefulness of PHS; and researches on EMC. (NEDO)

  7. Niños investigadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Liebel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available EN LA SOCIOLOGÍA INFANTIL, EL PRINCIPIO DE HACER PARTICIPAR A NIÑAS Y NIÑOS en los procesos de investigación está ampliamente reconocido. Tomando como punto de partida ese principio de participación, el presente aporte analiza la pregunta de en qué medida y de qué manera los niños mismos pueden actuar como investigadores. A fin de apreciar en lo justo la perspectiva de los niños, el presente trabajo aboga por que –con el debido acompañamiento de personas adultas– la investigación esté en manos de los niños. Por medio de varios ejemplos de países del Sur, se muestra cómo poner en práctica esta forma de investigación encabezada por niños. Tomando en cuenta la desigualdad en las relaciones entre niñas, niños y personas adultas, el trabajo hace referencia a problemas de ética y práctica investigativa que surgen en el proceso de investigación y también en el tema del uso de los resultados. Finalmente, se explican los beneficios que niñas y niños pueden obtener de sus propias investigaciones.

  8. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  9. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Aoi, N; Takeuchi, S; Suzuki, H; Bazin, D; Bowen, M D; Campbell, C M; Cook, J M; Dinca, D -C; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Iwasaki, H; Kubo, T; Kurita, K; Motobayashi, T; Mueller, W F; Nakamura, T; Sakurai, H; Takashina, M; Terry, J R; Yoneda, K; Zwahlen, H

    2010-01-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen targetat a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation gamma-rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of delta = 1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z = 28 or N = 50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  10. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, N.; Kanno, S.; Takeuchi, S.; Suzuki, H.; Bazin, D.; Bowen, M. D.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Iwasaki, H.; Kubo, T.; Kurita, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Mueller, W. F.; Nakamura, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takashina, M.; Terry, J. R.; Yoneda, K.; Zwahlen, H.

    2010-09-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target at a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation γ rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of δ=1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z=28 or N=50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  11. Recent exploration and production technologies on natural gas; 20 seiki ni okeru tennengasu kaihatsu gijutsu no henkan. Tanko oyobi kaihatsu {center_dot} seisan gijutsu no gaiyo to sono suii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Natural Gas and Project Planning Dept.

    2000-03-20

    New diplomatic policies based on energy diversification and multinational cooperation, the rapid growth of economic development and energy demand, and the social consideration of preventing environmental pollution (such as CO{sup 2} emissions, acid rain, destruction of the ozone layer and global warming) have caused the utilization of natural gas resources to become the new energy trend. Exploration and production technologies for natural gas are basically very similar to those for crude oil. They also consist of various relevant technical aspects such as gravity survey, seismic survey, logging, well drilling, reservoir simulation, field development planning and production monitoring. Additionally, the oil and gas industry has been continuously making efforts to resolve various technical issues and improve its performance and efficiency. For the past ten years, as the result of these tremendous and ceaseless efforts, we have obtained various innovations and reduced risks and costs. Furthermore, new natural gas utilization technologies such as GTL (Gas to liquid), DME(Di-methyl ether), fuel cell and hythane are now under development and moreover, it's expected that the utilization of natural gas resources will further increase. This paper briefly explains the outline of exploration and production technologies applied to natural gas in the world. (author)

  12. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Research on collection and utilization of coal mine methane gas in Russia (Kuznetsk coal field); Russia (Kuznetsk tanden) ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The above-mentioned effort is to comply with the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) joint implementation clause. At this coal field, mining facilities are growing superannuated and obsolescent in the prolonged business depression, causing frequent occurrence of disasters such as gas explosions. The coal mine gas collection rate at the Kuznetsk coal field is as low as 17%, with concern for safety discouraging sufficient collection. Even the small amount of the collected gas is, in the absence of gas utilizing facilities, totally discharged into the air. For the mitigation of global warming, for mining safety, and for the establishment of a foundation for business, it is desired that coal mine methane gas collection/utilization facilities and related technologies be introduced into the coal field. Gas purging from the pits is incomplete, which is attributed to the lack of equipment capable of excavating proper-diameter bores longer than 100m for longwall mining. Ventilation also needs improvement. The research is under way on the premise that highly reliable intermediate range (300m) boring equipment and gas management technologies will be available. Collection of gas of a 30-35% concentration level at a collection rate of 40% is the target. (NEDO)

  13. Roles of calcareous nannofossil in petroleum exploration. Its usefulness for biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and paleoceanography; Sekiyu tanko ni okeru sekitanshitsu nanno kaseki no yakuwari. Sono seiso jogaku, sequence so jogaku oyobi kokaiyogakuteki yukosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, C. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Conventionally, stratigraphy of oil field area of East-northern Japan Sea side was decided and used by foraminifer fossils. Foraminifer fossils analysis has various types of benefits not only from the aspect of rich in data, easy available of data at the exploration site, promptness, formation sequence decision but also from the point of view of wider application area such as estimation of paleo-environment using bottom species and so forth, and even at present, it covers the most important position in the fine fossil analysis of well samples. Research of calcareous nannofossil of East-northern coast region of the Japan Sea has been promoted rapidly since the beginning of 1980`s, and its effectiveness for the detail determination of stratigraphy age has been stressed. According to this research findings, quaternary section will be possible with contrast of about 10,000 order by using calcareous nannofossil base. In this report, simple introduction of the application of calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy to oil exploration in the same region together with the role of calcareous nannofossil in the oil exploration, are described. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Coalbed methane collection and utilization project in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    China is surveyed for promotion of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures in the Kyoto Protocol, the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The project aims to collect methane for global warming suppression and to use it as town gas and for power generation as well. The survey covers the 2 coalfields of Yangquan and Panjiang. The Yangquan coalfield is the largest anthracite yielding base in China, with 6 mines in operation. Power generation centering on a 100MW plant is discussed, and generation fired by a mixture of debris out of the coal preparation facility and gas is compared with another fired by town gas, on the assumption that 130-million m{sup 3} is available under the current circumstances. In the case of the Panjiang coalfield, which is expected to develop into a large coal base in the southern part of China, power generation centering on a 50MW plant fired by a mixture of debris and gas is discussed, on the assumption that 63-million m{sup 3} is collectable from the existing 5 mines. Use of town gas is also studied. When Japan's coalbed methane collection technology is applied, the gas drainage rate will be elevated to 40-35% or higher. It is desired that the use of gas drainage will be further diffused for the prevention of disasters of coal mine gas explosion. It is hoped that the use of environmentally friendly energies will be enhanced. (NEDO)

  15. Modified spatial autocorrelation method using autoregressive model for estimating underground velocity structure from microtremor array observation; Bido array tansa ni okeru kukan jiko sokanho no jiko kaiki model wo mochiita kairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Obuchi, T. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Spatial autocorrelation method (SAC) is an effective analysis for estimating underground S-wave velocity structure from microtremor phase velocity dispersion relation because it has larger detectable range of microtremor wavelength than frequency-wavenumber analysis. However, phase velocities estimated by conventional SAC methods such as band-pass filtered method or Fast Fourier Transform method were not precise if suitable band width was not selected for analysis. We proposed a new technique for SAC using autoregressive model which estimated spectra with high resolution because the best fitting model can be selected using AIC. We apply the new method to calculate phase velocities of microtremors which were observed at a ground of Morioka Technical High School with arrays. As a result, phase velocities calculated by the new method were continuous with frequency although those calculated by the conventional methods were scattered. This indicates that SAC functions calculated by the new method are estimated better than those by conventional SAC methods. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Influence on driver fatigue of vertical vibrations over long distances. Assessment in terms of stress hormones; Driver no unten hiro ni okeru joge shindo no eikyo. Stress hormone wo shiyo to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, T.; Inagaki, H. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Driving tests are conducted to obtain some indexes that describe the cumulative effect of the sense of tiredness. The heart rate, Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, urinary adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol in saliva are tested. Adrenaline and Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia are ultimately named in view of their correlation with tiredness. It is believed that tiredness is attributable to two factors, which are increase in mental stress and decrease in vigilance. An excitation test is then conducted using a motion simulator. Upon application of 4Hz vibrations (equivalent to the chest section resonance frequency), adrenaline increases sharply, and then decreases sharply upon termination of excitation. Upon application of 1.6Hz vibrations (equivalent to the head section resonance frequency), adrenaline increases but not sharply, and the elevated level is sustained for some time after excitation. Driving tests are next conducted using a vehicle with its suspension fixed and another with 1-2Hz vibrations reduced. Rise in the adrenaline level is found inhibited aboard the latter. No difference is detected in terms of Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia between the two vehicles. 4 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Fiscal 1994 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Investigation on the trend of coal demand in Central and South American countries; 1994 nendo kaigaitan kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chunanbei shokoku ni okeru sekitan jukyu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Focusing on the present status and future of coal demand in Central/South American countries and the coal trade between Central/South American countries and the U.S., the paper described the present status and future of coal demand there and the effects on Japan. Export of Colombian coal will amount to approximately 30-35 million tons in 2000. Venezuelan coal 10-20 million tons. The U.S. imported good-quality general coal low in sulfur content, 3.08 tons from Columbia and 1.39 tons from Venezuela. Coal export from the U.S. to Central/South America was mostly of raw material coal, 5 million tons in 1993 and 5.39 million tons in 1994. General coal was 180,000 tons. The U.S. has no plans of increasing US coal export to Central/South America. But it is safely predicted that Columbia and Venezuela will increase coal export to Europe in the future. It will bring about decrease in export of US coal to Europe, which connects with increasing pressure for the coal trade amount of Japan. 21 figs., 47 tabs.

  18. On the households of same family name and occupation. At old map in Hirato on 1792; Doi setai ni okeru dosei and dogyo setai. Hirato rokuchozu {center_dot} kansei 4 nen (1792)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojina, Kyoji; Iida, Toshihiko; Oya, Maki

    1999-09-01

    There were 79 lodging households at Hirato on 1792; 79 combinations of the main household and the sub household, and so there were 29 combinations of same family name, 27 combinations of same occupation. Then the households of same family name and same occupation were only 13 pairs. These 13 pairs were following, the teams of Daylaborer were 4, the team of Daylaborer were 4, the teams of Carpenter were 3, the teams of Dyer were 2, the teams of Wooden Bucket Maker were 2, the team of Ship wright and Noodle was both one. So on the rest households of same family name, the main household of Unemployed were 7 teams, the same teams of Wholesaler were 3, the same teams of the Dyer were 2, and single-team were 4, total 16. The teams of the main household of Unemployed were divided in four groups, 1st combinations were three samples with Daylaborer and 2nd were two samples with Carpenter, so one simple with Blacksmith and Dry-Cake Maker. The teams of the main household whose occupation was Wholesaler were two combinations with Unemployed and one combination with Unknown. The teams of the main house-hold whose occupation was Dyer were one with Unemployed and another with Dyer-Apprentice. Four single-teams were Fishmongers with Unemployed, Citrus Fruits with Daylaborer, Shether with Worker in metal and Daylaborer with Blacksmith. Then on the occupations of lodging households, Daylaborers were 18 households, Unemployeds were 16 households, Carpenters were 8 households, Wooden-Bucket Makerws and Dyers and Fish Street-Salers were each three households and so. On the main households of lodging households, Unemployeds were 13 households, Daylaborers were 11 households, Carpenters and Dyers both were six households, Haberdasherys and Fishmongers both were four households and so. At the cases of same occupation in the combination of the main and the sub household, Daylaborers were 8 teams which located in five towns except two towns. Carpenters were five teams which located in only 'Shokunin-machi', Fish Street-salers were three teams which located in 'Sakikata-machi' and 'Uodana-machi'. The others located each in only one town. On 4th Job there were total five cases, on the three cases main job was Wholesaler and on the rest cases was Pawn Shop and Malt Syrup Shop. The sets of main Job was Wholesaler, the 2nd Oil Dealer, the 3rd Miso-Shoyu and the 4th Rice Shop were two. The rest set was main Job Wholesaler, the 2nd Job Malted Rice Shop, the 3rd Job Miso-Shoyu and the 4th Job Notion. The next case of the main Job was Pawn Shop, the 2nd Oil Dealer, the 3rd Miso-Shoyu and the 4th Dyer. The other case the main Job was Malt Syrup Shop, the 2nd Job Malted Rice Shop, the 3rd Job Tobacco Shop and the 4th Job Rice Shop. (author)

  19. Progress of electrical and electronic engineering in the last 10 years. 4. Progress in the field of power and energy; Denki denshi gijutsu 10nen no ayumi-4. Denryoku/energy bun`ya ni okeru ayumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimoto, M.

    1998-06-01

    Among recent development and advancement of the electric power system techniques, system stability upgrading technique, voltage stability upgrading technique, and system protection technique thought to be important in particular were introduced in their main points, and at the same time some recent trends on system analysis technique and simulation technique supporting development of this field were mentioned. With the difficulty of location of electric source and delivery facilities, because of strong tendency of large power transmission from remote area, upgrading of system stability and voltage stability is an important problem. For a system stabilization method by means of power electronics technique, as static valueless power compensation apparatus (SVC) is widely used in the world, in American Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), some actual system proof tests on Thyristor Controlled Series Condenser (TCSS), self-excited type SVC, and so on are advanced. As for large capacity electric power instruments technique for power transmission and distribution, apparatus with 1,000 kV in AC and 500 kV in DC were developed. It can be said to have prepared the large capacity power transmission toward the 21st Century. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Progress of electrical and electronic engineering in the last 10 years. 7. Progress in the field of sensors and micromachines; Denki denshi gijutsu 10nen no ayumi-7. Sensor/maikuro mashin bun`ya ni okeru ayumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    In order that construction of high grade information society promotes industrial development and resolves various problems such as environment pollution, high aged society, and so forth, a sensor-actuator possible to in- and out-put various informations is essential. On last ten years, development of the micro-sensor and the actuator is miracle. In addition to sophisticated silicon IC process technique, this is much dependent upon the development of research technique in hardware such as fine three-dimensional processing technique such as anisotropic etching, wafer direct joining, and so on, new material creation with sensor function, thin film preparation technique of functional material, and so forth, and in software such as neuro-computer, parallel processing, and so forth. In the former hardware, it is important to select a material which show dramatically a phenomenon to convert a detected value to electrical signal, and to fabricate this to an optimum shape. In this paper, these new functional materials and recent development of the processing were outlined. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Progress of electrical and electronic engineering in the last 10 years. 3. Progress in the field of fundamentals and industries; Denki denshi gijutsu 10nen no ayumi-3. Kiso zairyo bun`ya ni okeru ayumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Study on magnetic contaminant thermonuclear plasma is begun to pay attention to spherical Tokamak type, helical type, and so forth at science level as well as development of Tokamak type. In Germany and Japan, a helical type large scale research apparatus is constructed. Electrical insulation material and technique are the fundamental technique supporting stability and high reliability of electric power supply in the steady rising of consumed electric power. On 1980s a new space charge measuring method is developed, for recent 10 years research and development in this field was much advanced. It is now over expression to say that development of electronics in today depends upon the development of electric and the electronic materials. Among them, permanent magnet materials are used in a very wide region for acoustic, rotation, communication/measurement/control apparatus, and so forth as an application to use magnetic flux (magnetic field) formed by the magnet. In the study on high electric field phenomenon, thunder observation for thunder protection of the electric power system, cryogenic temperature electric insulation to realize the super conducting power systems in future, and so forth have progressed extremely. 8 figs.

  2. Progress of electrical and electronic engineering in the last 10 years. 5. Progress in the field of electronics, informations and systems; Denki denshi gijutsu 10nen no ayumi-5. Denshi/joho/system bun`ya ni okeru ayumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, K. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Study on analogue integrated circuit technique borne by needs of recent multi-media communication is advancing to a direction intending to decide problem by a construction technique for a system of transmitter and receiver rather than individual circuit. As for a process technique of the circuit integration, a minute CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) with 0.5{mu}m or 0.35 {mu}m thick silicon is occupying at its main part, from bipolar or a little older GaAs. As it is said that the 21st Century is an age of optonics, since success in oscillation of the ruby laser, advancement of laser technique and its application technique is miracle. Advancement of medical bioengineering is also miracle, biological information processing and visualization of biological information in artificial internal organs and biological measurement are also advanced. Development of communication technique in optical fiber got into its stride since 1970. Now, the optical fiber cable was expanded to 13 times for these ten years, and reached 79,000 km in 1996. Owing to the development of network computing technique, environment of computer changed dramatically. 6 figs.

  3. Progress of electrical and electronic engineering in the last 10 years. 6. Progress in the field of industry applications; Denki denshi gijutsu 10nen no ayumi-6. Sangyo oyo bun`ya ni okeru ayumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, T.

    1998-06-01

    Power electronics technology conducting conversion and control of electric power by means of electronic means by using the power semiconductor device, developed extremely by development of the power transistor and GTO (Gate Turn-off Thyristor). In the demand, the spread of inverter is miracle, centering the motor control, uninterruptible power supply (USP) and so on, it is used in many fields such as manufacturing industry, chemical industry, OA (Office Automation) system, and so forth. The history of realization in the rotary machines reaches about 110 years. The development of recent technique containing driving technique is miracle. There is a variable speed pumped-storage power system developed and realized by Japan faster than in the world. In the field of the railway, speed-up in the Shinkansen line and the ordinary railway line, power saving, cost reduction, improved convenience, and so forth were intended. In the field of the road traffic, car navigation brought an extreme spread as well as cost reduction. For a typical example of control technique in industry, there is a technique of motion control. This is a field possible for Japan to show a priority from its original, such as robot control. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Time series analysis of the CO sub 2 exchange rate in the one-year-old leaves of laelia anceps lindl. Laelia anceps lindl no ichinen shiyo ni okeru CO sub 2 kokan sokudo no jikeiretsu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogane, Yuji; Ando, Toshio (Chiba Univ., Chiba, (Japan). Faculty of Horticulture)

    1990-01-31

    Concerning the carbon-fixing patterns in the dark reaction of plant photosynthesis, it has been known that there are 3 kinds, namely C {sub 3}, C {sub 4}, and CAM types, most of green plants fix CO {sub 2} by their C {sub 3} circuits and those with {C sub 4} and CAM circuits are rather small in number. However, CAM plants can switch from the CAM type to the C {sub 3} type or vice versa depending upon the external as well as internal factors and have capability of changing the balance between the two circuits, often making analysis of quantitative and qualitative changes of photosynthesis difficult, hence the analysis of photosynthesis rate of CAM plants dealt with in the studies which have so far been made has been limited to a quantitative grasp. This study used Laelia anceps Lindl. as sample material, classified several conditions whose photosynthesis rates differ recognizably and succeeded to analyze qualitative differences of these conditions by the mathematical measure. For analyzing photosynthesis rates, the time series analysis was newly adopted. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Suppression of electrochemical decomposition of propylene carbonate (PC) on a graphite anode in PC base electrolyte with catechol carbonate; Catechol carbonate tenka denkaieki deno graphite fukyokujo ni okeru propylene carbonate no bunseki yokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Congxiao; Nakamura, H. [Saga Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Noguchi, H.; Yoshio, M.; Yoshitake, H. [Ube Industries Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    In this study, 0.5-2.0 wt.% of catechol carbonates were added to a 1MLiPF6/propylene carbonate (PC) - diethyl carbonate (DEC) electrolyte, and this addition could suppress the decomposition of PC on MCMB6-28 (graphitized meso-phase carbon manufactured by the Osaka, Gas Co., Ltd.). The catechol carbonate-added electrolyte proved effective in suppressing the decomposition of PC even on graphite, such as NG-7 (manufactured by the Kansai Netsu Kagaku Co, Ltd.), natural graphite produced in China and natural graphite produced in Madagascar. It is highly possible that catechol carbonates act as radical scavengers. It could be ascertained that, when this electrolyte was used for a LiCoO2/MCMB6-28 lithium ion secondary battery, the capacity was substantially the same as the calculated one, and a PC-based electrolyte can be used for a lithium ion secondary battery using a negative electrode of graphite. 13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Manufacturing facilities of pharmaceutical products and measures for purification of its environment. Qualitative guarantee of productive enviroment in medicinal factory; Iyakuhin no seizo shisetsu to kankyo seijoka taisaku. Iyakuhin kojo ni okeru seizo kankyo no hinshitsu hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaga, H. [Kajima Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-31

    Medicines have its peculiarity which is concerned in health and life of a human being, hence it is important to secure its validity, safety and high quality, and it is demanded to establish firmly the quality control system from research and development throughout production, logistics, up to usage. Accordingly, in order to export medicines overseas, it is required to validate that the medicines are manufactured in accordance with GMP (good manufacturing practice) of the country of destination. When Kajima Construction Co. designed and constructed a pharmaceutical plant to manufacture injections to be exported to the U.S.A., it planned and executed the validation technique from the viewpoint of quality assurance of the manufacturing environment as the GMP qualified plant, hence in this article, the outline of the above is reported. With regard to application of GMP, differences between Japan and the U.S.A. are pointed out. Also systematization of quality validation of the manufacturing environment is commented upon. Furthermore, examples are shown concerning execution of validation, and the monitor facility corresponding to daily validation is described. 4 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Adsorption equilibrium and adsorption rate in N{sub 2}O/hydrogenation synthesis mordenite system; N{sub 2}O/suisoka gosei morudenaito keie ni okeru kyuchaku haiko to kyuchaku sokudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Tadashi; Komatsu, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Yoshito; Kato, Satoru; Nagahama, Kunio [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-05

    Adsorption equilibrium and adsorption rate in N{sub 2}O/hydrogenation synthesis mordenite system were examined by the constant volume method. N{sub 2}O introduction pressure was adjusted to 70kPa comparatively high-dense, it was made to contact to the hydrogenation mordenite each other and by the mercury manometer pressure change and the N{sub 2}O absorbed amount was obtained. As the result, the adsorption equilibrium relation of N{sub 2}O could be arranged in the Langmuir style, and it was proven that N{sub 2}O equivalent heat of adsorption corresponded to the physical. And, the diffusion of N{sub 2}O in the hydrogenation synthesis mordenite was analyzed according to the surface diffusion model. Whether it was to show the aging variation of absorbed amount by assuming that it lowers with the progress of the adsorption, at the good accuracy was made on N{sub 2}O surface diffusion coefficient. In addition, the relationship between surface diffusion coefficient and zeolite pore diameter was clearly filtered. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Integral form of diffusion equation and its application to the calculation of concentration dependent diffusion coefficient for desorption (isothermal drying); Sekibungata kakusan hoteishiki to son dacchaku (toon kanso) katei ni okeru nodo izon kakusan keisu sanshutsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Y.; Yamamoto, S. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-10

    The integral form of the diffusion equation for a slab with a constant surface concentration based on the dissolved solid coordinate is derived, which presents the relation between desorption rate and integral average diffusion coefficient by the ratio of the 0 and 1st moments of concentration distribution. The relation between the 0 and 1st moments is quite insensitive to the concentration distribution governed by the diffusion equation with the concentration dependent diffusion coefficients and is satisfactorily estimated by the ratio of average to center concentration at the starting point of the regular regime. From these equations, one desorption curve is quantitatively transformed to the integral average diffusion coefficients as a function of center concentrations. The diffusion coefficient is calculated as a function of concentration by differentiating the integral average diffusion coefficients. As an example, the isothermal drying data of skim-milk aqueous solution are analyzed. 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks on electronic utilities. Part 1. Present and subjects of utility telecommunication network; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shirai vision. 1. Joho tsushin network no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaki, S.; Manabe, S.; Ono, K.; Kawai, Y.; Miki, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    It is predicted that there will be many changes in environment of electric utilities such as expansion of electric power demand, spread of distributed power sources, and changes in market structures due to deregulation. As a first step to think about future telecommunication networks which respond to these changes and adopt technical innovation of telecommunication, present conditions and problems of the current utility telecommunication network are outlined. The utility telecommunication is characterized by high reliability and existence of the information that requires strict transmission delay restriction. The following points are given as the future subjects: although most utility telecommunication networks currently consist of leased lines, they have to be changed to the switched networks for diversifying telecommunication service. It should be considered that the leased line network, which has a hierarchical structure based on a geographical extent, will have a hierarchical structure that is able to correspond to the future telecommunication service. It is better for the current individual loop shape with dual telecommunication circuits to be changed into the overall link shape. In introducing the ATM transmission to improve the path efficiency, it is a premise to secure reliability. 8 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Self-rehealing characteristics of a sodium current limiter and its over current coordination for low voltage distribution systems; Natoriumu (Na) genryu soshi no jiko fukkyu tokusei to teiatsu haiden kairo oyo ni okeru kadenryu kyocho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Y.; Hamano, S.; Mori, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-20

    As one of the short circuits protection techniques in a power circuit, there is a technique called the current-limiting breaking. When a short circuit current commences to flow after a short circuit occurs, this technique limits and breaks this current under a certain value by some measures before this current reaches to the crest value. There is a current-limiting fuse in the best known one as a functional element doing the current-limiting breaking. However in case of a current-limiting fuse, when an element is fused off, because a current can not be flowed, it has to be replaced. As a new element to eliminate this defect and moreover with a current-limiting function, a self-rehealing type current-limiting element possessing the alkaline metal, Na as an element has been developed. In this report, as for this element called Na current-limiting element, together with elucidating a rehealing process after the current-limiting action experimentally in detail, an overcurrent coordination is investigated when this element is applied to a main circuit of the control center, which is one of the low voltage distribution systems. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Returning method of hot water in geothermal power generation and structure of pipeline for hot water returning; Zinetsu hatsuden ni okeru nessui no kangen shori hoho oyobi kangen nessuiyo haikan kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Y.

    1997-06-17

    According to the invention, the geothermal fluid consisting of steam and hot water gushing out of steam production well is separated into steam and hot water by means of gas-liquid separator, and the hot water is returned into the ground through the returning well without being exposed to the atmosphere. At that time, the temperature of the hot water to be returned to the ground is lower than the temperature of the hot water remained in the well. Before returning the hot water to the ground, the hot water level in the return well is lowered by means of compressed air so as to keep the temperature of hot water remained in the well being higher than the temperature of hot water to be returned. The pipeline of the hot water closed system including the production well and return well is either upward inclined or downward inclined in the flowing direction. In these ways, the hot water can be returned safely to the ground without causing hammering. 2 tabs.

  12. Construction of Hidaka Power Station discharge channel. TBM/ECL techniques as applied in countering methane blowing-out; Hidaka hatsudensho hosuiro tunnel no seko. Methane gas yushutsu chiso ni okeru TBM/ECL koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, K.; Suzuki, H.; Kasai, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-05-05

    The construction site being located in a coal mining zone, machine excavation not requiring men at the tunnel face or blastings is employed for fear of methane gushing. The method adopted in this work involves TBM (tunnel boring machine), ECL (extruded concrete lining), and continuous belt conveyer, all excellent in terms of safety, workability, construction time, and cost. In this report, explosion-proof facilities are changed when an unexpectedly high rate of methane of not less than 5% is detected upon completion of 917m-long excavation, men are ordered out of the working site in the presence of 0.5% of methane, and electricity likely to cause fires is cut off when methane comes to occupy 1.0%. Horizontal boring is carried out for detecting methane. Although lining and spraying processes are required in the conventional method for preventing gas entrapment in between the support and ground, methane gushing is instantly suppressed in the method used here thanks to lining continuously installed in the TBM rear section. The method being a hermetic air bubble shield method, methane can enter only at the screw conveyer, and such can be effectively diluted by concentrated ventilation at the exit. The continuous belt conveyer is free of friction that may start fires, and the air duct ensures full ventilation for the tunnel. The construction time proves shorter by two months, demonstrating the usefulness of this method. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Filament coupling in rapid-quenched and transformed jelly-roll Nb{sub 3}Al multifilamentary conductors; Kyunetsu kyurei{center_dot}hentai ho jieriroru Nb{sub 3}Al tashin senzai ni okeru fuiramento ketsugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banno, N.; Takeuchi, T.; Ito, K.; Wada, H. [National Research Institute for Metals, Tokyo (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Saitama (Japan); Kosuge, M. [National Research Institute for Metals, Tokyo (Japan); Tagawa, K. [Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Saitama (Japan); Nakagawa, K. [Hitachi Cable Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-29

    In Nb{sub 3}Al wire described in the above title, filaments are adjacent to each other and bridging between filaments and proximity effect are worried about. In three kinds of wires with different diameter, A15 phase was formed via supersaturated solid solution by heat treatment of rapid heating/quenching and transformation. By measuring magnetization characteristics, hysteresis loss and critical current density, the equivalent filament diameter was determined. As the result, it was found that hysteresis tends to become less with larger diameter of filament at higher temperature. Also, from magnetic field dependence of equivalent filament diameter, the possibility that bridging occurred in the sample with shortest distance between filaments and the proximity effect occurred in longer distance between filaments was shown. (NEDO)

  14. Stress-induced transformation of retained austenite and residual stress in polishing and grinding of ADI. ADI no kenma kensaku kako ni okeru zanryu austenite no kako yuki hentai to zanryu oryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Tada, S.; Abe, T. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Tohoku, Sendai (Japan)); Kurihana, S. (Fukushima Prefectural Office, Fukushima (Japan))

    1993-06-25

    In the present research, relation between the retained austenite ([gamma]) and residual stress (Sr) on the mechanically worked surface was investigated by an X-ray diffraction to furthermore reform the ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron) which is high toughness automobile part material. As samples, selected were two types of ductile iron which are equivalent to FCD450 and FCD600, respectively. In the main process of thermal treatment, they are austenitized in argon at 1173K in the furnace, held quickly cooled (to between 573 and 648K) a cooled at room temperatures. After the treatment, both of them have no structural differences. As a result of investigating the relation of [gamma]'s stress-induced transformation on the polished and ground surface to both Sr and carbon concentration, the vol% of [gamma] on the worked surface by silicon carbide waterproof abrasive paper and buff is small on the surface where the Sr is high, and both of them are mutually correlative. The [gamma] is so quasi-stable as to be martensitized, if worked, and degraded in mechanical properties. The low carbon ductile iron (less than 1.4% in carbon content) is easy to transform, while the high carbon ductile iron (more than 1.6% in carbon content) is difficult to transform and its [gamma] is stable for the working. 16 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. Data acquisition and evaluation analysis on advanced high-efficiency energy system field test project (fiscal 2000); 2000 nendo sendoteki kokoritsu energy system field test jigyo ni okeru data shuyaku oyobi hyoka kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Field tests have been performed on the next generation phosphoric acid fuel cell power generation systems to collect and analyze the long-term operation data and trouble cases by introducing the final proliferation pattern into the actual demand on a trial basis. This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 2000. The locations of executing the field tests in fiscal 2000 are the 15 sites, including the NTT Central Training Center, and the Environment and Energy Exploratirium. Measurements were carried out at each test site on fuel gas consumption, fuel cell output power amount, utilized quantity of heat at low temperatures, utilized quantity of heat at elevated temperatures, and discarded quantity of heat. In addition, the total demand power amount and the shutdown information were also put into order. As a result of the evaluation analysis, the second factory of Senhoku Manufactory recorded the longest operation time of 23,777 hours, whose operation factor has reached 92%. Five systems had the continuous operation time exceeded 5,000 hours. The power generation efficiency was about 40% in a system using the town gas 13A fuel, wherein the total efficiency was 90% or greater. The largest number of failures in fiscal 2000 was seven at Tochigi Factory of Kirin Brewery, whose average number of failure was 1.6 a year. (NEDO)

  17. Range of wavelengths possible to estimate phase velocities of surface waves in microtremors; Bido tansaho ni okeru suitei kanona bidochu no hyomenha iso sokudo no hacho han`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K.; Okada, H.; Ling, S. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    To specify the maximum wavelength of the phase velocities that can be estimated by the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method or F-K method in microtremor exploration, investigations were conducted using numerical simulation. In view of feasibility, an equilateral triangle array was employed, the maximum radius of the array having 7 observation points being 0.10km. The dispersion curve of the Rayleigh wave basic mode was calculated from an underground structure model. White noise was used as the incident wave, and, in case the waves came in from multiple directions, a different phase spectrum was assigned to each direction. In searching for the maximum wave length of phase velocities that could be estimated, a limit was imposed upon estimation, and it was prescribed that the wavelength be the limit if the difference between the theoretical value and estimated phase velocity was 5% or higher. As the result, it was found that it is possible to estimate the phase velocity when the wavelength is up to approximately 10 times longer than the array maximum radius in the SPAC method, and up to approximately 5 times longer in case of the F-K method. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Photovoltaic system at Nagaoka College of Technology. Fabrication of photovoltaic system and development of data logging system; Nagaoka kosen ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden. Setsubi no kochiku to data shuroku system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, M.; Shirai, I.; Togawa, K.; Koshoji, H.; Otaki, S. [Nagaoka College of Technology, Niigata (Japan); Murata, M.; Murata, K.; Nomura, M. [New Energy Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Reported in this paper is a photovoltaic power generation facility built in the yard of Nagaoka College of Technology. The purpose of this study is to find out if such a facility operates effectively in a heavy-snow region. A data logging system is also constructed. In a preliminary experiment, a 50W panel was installed, facing southwest at an inclination of 30degC, on the roof of the schoolhouse. A voltmeter, ammeter, and slide rheostat were used to perform necessary measurement. The panel temperature was approximately 50degC, and insolation was estimated at 70mW/cm{sup 2}. The data logging system is comprised of a personal computer, display, printer, etc. Using this system, voltage and current are measured with the load automatically adjusted, and the maximum power point is sought out and logged. In addition, insolation, ambient temperature, and panel temperature are logged. Data is logged every 10th minute and, when a day`s measurement is over, mean values are obtained for every hour and data is built for a power generation profile, all automatically. There is a plan for a wintertime power generation experiment. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Experimental results of 2-propanol dehydrogenation with a falling-liquid film reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru ryuka ekimakushiki 2-propanol bunkai hanno jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ando, Y.; Takashima, T. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Koike, M.; Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A solar chemical heat pump is intended to attempt multi-purposed effective utilization of solar energy by raising low temperature solar heat of about 100 degC to 150 to 200 degC by utilizing chemical reactions. The chemical heat pump under the present study uses a 2-propanol (IPA)/acetone/hydrogen system which can utilize low-temperature solar heat and has large temperature rising degree. It was found from the result of experiments and analyses that IPA dehydrogenation reaction can improve more largely the heat utilization rate in using a falling-liquid film reactor than using a liquid phase suspended system. As an attempt to improve further the heat utilization rate, this paper reports the result of experimental discussions on inclination angles of a reaction vessel and feed liquid flow rate which would affect the fluid condition of the liquid film. As a result of the experiments, the initial deterioration in the catalyst has settled in about 15 hours, and its activity has decreased to about 60% of the initial activity. It was made clear that the influence of the inclination angle of the reaction vessel on the reaction is small. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Fate models for chemical substances in exposure and risk assessment. Focused on estimation of atmospheric concentration; Bakuro{center_dot}risuku hyoka ni okeru kagaku busshitsu unmei yosoku moderu. Taikichu nodo suitei wo chushin toshite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-09-20

    A fate model is one of the most effective tools in exposure and risk assessment of chemical substances. Two different type models are available for estimating the atmospheric concentration. One is unit box and multi compartment type model, the other is atmospheric dispersion model. These models should be used in different suitable situations because each model has both advantage and disadvantage. Estimation of the long-term average concentration in a comparatively wide region into which substances are continuously discharged should be required in the environmental assessment of chemical substances. We developed the model with which to estimate long-term average atmospheric concentrations of chemicals. The model validation was conducted for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene concentrations in the atmosphere by comparing calculated values and observed values. Good agreement with the measured values was obtained for the monthly average concentration. The model is capable of estimating the long-term (such as monthly) average distribution of concentration of chemicals in a wide flat area such as the Kanto plain. (author)

  1. Characteristics of natural gas lean combustion through the compression of quiescent charge in a rapid compression combustor; Kyusoku asshuku nensho sochinai seishi yokongoki asshuku ni okeru tennen gas no kihaku nensho tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, K. [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan); Segawa, D.; Kadota, T.; Hirooka, S. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Higashino, K. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-04-25

    In order to develop a natural gas fueled spark ignition engine with high thermal efficiency and clean exhaust gases, combustion characteristics of natural gas and air mixtures were examined using a rapid compression combustor. We concentrated on lean mixtures because of their potential for high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. To elucidate the effect of compression-induced physical aspects on the combustion process, the charge was kept quiescent before the start of the compression process. The results showed that an increased charge pressure increased the time required for combustion. A high compression ratio or piston speed tended to shorten the combustion time, but their effects were rather weak. An increased humidity in mixtures measurably increased the combustion time. The stratified charge, which was examined using the soap bubble method, markedly improved the combustion process of lean mixtures. 7 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Propagation of shock waves in dilute bubbly liquids. 4th Report. Comparison between theory and experiment for a uniform bubbly mixture; Kihoryuchu ni okeru shogekiha no denpa. 4. Kin`itsu kiho bunpuji no jikken to riron tono hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, M.; Shimaura, N.; Higashino, F. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Matsumoto, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-07-25

    Transient shock wave phenomena in a liquid containing non-condensable gas bubbles are studied experimentally and numerically. In order to obtain a uniform spatial distribution of bubbles experimentally, an upwardly directed bubbly flow, whose initial gas volume fraction is 0.2%, is generated in a shock tube. The liquid used is silicone oil. Nitrogen, argon, and SF6 gas bubbles are tested to show the thermal effects of the bubble interior. The transient pressure profiles determined in the experiments for the upwardly bubbly flow agree well quantitatively with those obtained by numerical calculation using a uniform spatial distribution of bubbles. Since the thermal diffusivity of SF6 is much lower than that of nitrogen and argon, the damping on the radial oscillation of the SF6 bubble is mainly due to the compressibility of the liquid. Thus, the radial motion of the bubble should be estimated by solving an equation in which the liquid compressibility is taken into account. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Emission inventory of air pollutants in East Asia. Anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide in China; Higashi Asia chiiki wo taishotoshita taiki osen busshitsu no haishutsuryo suikei. Chugoku ni okeru io sankabutsu no jin`i kigen haishutsuryo suikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H.; Tonooka, Y.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan); Ikeda, Y. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering

    1995-11-10

    Anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in China was investigated to establish an emission inventory on air pollutants in East Asia. Major objectives of the study were to establish the emission inventory having the most detailed emission categories and regional resolution comparing with previous works, and being expandable to other air pollutants. Under popularization of desulfurization, conventional methodologies face to limitation of data quality, but in this work the contribution of SO2 removal by recent installation of desulfurization units was also taken into account. China was selected as the first subjective country because China has the largest emission sources of SO2 in East Asia, which contribute a significant portion of acid deposition in Japan. By our estimation total amounts of 21 Tg of SO2 were emitted in China in 1990. About 90% of the SO2 came from coal combustion, and power and heat generation part was responsible for over 30% of the total discharge. The total amounts of the SO2 emission were classified by provinces, major cities, and two grid systems such as 80{times}80 km square and 1{degree}{times}1{degree} resolution. Emissions in Sichian, Shandong and Jiangus provinces were ranked as the top three. Chongqing, Shanghai and Chengdu were selected to be major cities for the SO2 emission. 30 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Utilization of two-way multicore cables and comparison of various electrode configurations in electrical prospecting; Denki tansa ni okeru sohokogata tashin cable no riyo to kakushu dekyoku haichi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsushima, J. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    For more precise electrical prospecting, the new multicore cable was developed to allow high-density measurement by conventional equipment. Since conventional multicore cables are inferior in cost, length and weight, the new cable is composed of an n-conductor cable, two n-conductor male connectors and n lead wires. For connection of the multi-conductor cable and lead wires, cable sheath is peeled at n points at specific intervals. Sheath of the k-th conductor is peeled at k-th point from the terminal, and restored for insulation after connection of the conductor and lead wire. The male connectors are attached to the both ends of the multi-conductor cable. Since this two-way type cable can be used at every end, the measuring equipment can measure at one divisional point after another of a long measuring line while shifting the equipment from one point to another. All measurements are perfected only with two short cables. Resistivities were successfully measured along the long measuring line of 480m long with 97 electrodes arranged at intervals of 5m. Various electrode configurations were also compared. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Ethanol production by high cell-density culture with periodic reversion of circulating flow in cross-flow filtration. Ryudo hoko henkan cross flow rokaho wo mochiita komitsudo baiyoho ni okeru ethanol seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakura, T.; Toda, K. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Applied Microbiology)

    1991-07-25

    For the purpose of effective production of ethanol, high cell-density culture was examined using a bioreactor with a flat-membrane filtlation module for three kinds of ethanol production microorganism, and the productivity of ethanol fermentation was investigated. The flow direction of the culture broth circulating along a flat membrane in the filtration module was changed periodically, at intervals of 4 minutes and 1 minute, as a result of which, the filtration flux was stabilized to some degree and increased five-fold over that of the control experiment. When the cell concentration in the reactor was maintained at a constant by draining broth at a proper rate, the filtration flux was stabilized further and increased twenty-fold over that of the control experiment. The productivity and exit concentration of ethanol in this cell recycle culture when the cell concentration was 200 gl{sup {minus}1} of Bakers yeast, were 83.7 gl{sup {minus}1}h{sup {minus}1} and 30.2 gl{sup {minus}1}, respectively. For the other two kinds of yeast, high ethanol concentration and productivity were confirmed, concluding that this production method was effective. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the coal of the Philippines, where the expansion of the use of coal as a substitute for petroleum/plant fuel is aimed at, the paper grasped the situation of coal production/development, the trend of coal import and domestic distribution, the coal utilization trend, and environmental problems, and analyzed the situation of coal utilization/spread by industry including the commercial/residential use. The purpose of the survey is to draw up a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. As to the use of environmentally-friendly coal technology which should be adopted to the coal mining industry and commercial/residential sector, cited are the introduction of coal preparation technology and power transmission technology, and the development/spread of briquette as a firewood substituting fuel. In the electric power sector, the problem is the treatment of ash after combustion and the effective use. Relating to the treatment of flue gas, there is no installation at all of desulfurization facilities and denitrification facilities. In the cement industry sector, they wish to return fuel from heavy oil to coal. For it, it is necessary to study dust preventive measures. In the other sectors, coal hasn`t been used very much. An increase in coal demand is not expected also in the future, and big problems concerning coal haven`t occurred. 42 figs., 64 tabs.

  9. Relationships between oxygen content, modulation period and superconducting property of Bi-based superconducting oxides. Bi kei sankabtsu chodendotai ni okeru sanso ganryo, hencho kozo oyobi chodendo tokusei no sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Miura, N.; Yamazoe, N. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering Sciences); Hiroi, Z.; Bando, Y. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research)

    1992-09-10

    Two (2223 and 2212) of three superconducting phases in the Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) oxide superconductor were examined for their changes of crystal structures and superconducting properties with changing oxygen content. Their oxygen sorption behavior examined by the temperature-programmed-desorption method showed that both samples desorb trace amounts of oxygen in a temperature range of 350-600 centigrade and the behavior examined by the temperature-programmed oxidation method showed that they absorb (absorb) reversibly oxygen desorbed above in a range of 100-350 centigrade. The critical temperature to bear diamagnetism (Tc) of the 2223 sample fell from 111 K to 96 K as oxygen was desorbed up to 600 centigrade. However, Tc recovers reversibly to the initial value when oxygen was re-absorbed. Contrary to the 2223, the 2212 sample showed the opposite Tc change. Both samples increased in their c-axes lengths and their modulation periods and the changes were reversible respectively. It was pointed out that the Tc behaviors of both sample systems were dependent on the concentration of holes on the CuO2 surfaces. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Stabilizing control of continuous DTB crystallizer. Influence of undissolved fine crystals in external heater; DTB gata renzoku shosekiki no anteika seigyo. Gaibu kanetsuki ni okeru bisho kessho tokenokori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Kiyoshi; Sotowa, Ken' ichi; Kano, Manabu; Hasebe, Shinji; Hashimoto, Iori [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-01-10

    In the study of modeling and control of continuous DTB crystallizers, it has been common practice to assume complete dissolution of fine crystals in an external heater (fines dissolver). However, complete dissolution of fine crystals is not always guaranteed because the dissolution rate is finite. In this work, a model of an external heater is developed by taking account of the finite dissolution rate of the crystals. The model is used to study the influence of incomplete dissolution of fine crystals on the stabilizing control of the crystal size distribution (CSD). It is found to be difficult to suppress the sustained oscillation of CSD by using the conventional SISO controllers, which regulate the amount of fines crystals by manipulating the fines flow rate. This is because when the fines flow rate is very large, an increase in the fines flow rate can reduce the amount of crystal dissolution in the external heater. It is demonstrated that instability can be avoided by imposing an upper limit on the fines flow rate. Furthermore, it is shown that the upper limit can be predicted by using the results of open-loop simulation. (author)

  11. Trend of recent motor sports related technology. From engine point of view; Saikin no motor sports ni okeru saishin gijutsu no doko. Engine no shiten kara mita gijutsu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, T. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents the trend of the motorsports related technology focusing on F1, Champ Car and Le Man using high technology and high fundamental technology. Indeed each category of these three has its own regulation. Therefore the difference in the regulations which depends on the restriction level for usable technology requires different technological development. One is using real high technology while another is using high fundamental technology. Taking these affairs into account, characteristic of the each technology for each motor sports category is described from engine point of view. (author)

  12. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 2. Diffusion prevention of organic solvents evaporating from printing process; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 2. Insatsuki kara hasseisuru yuki yozai no kakusan boshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, H.; Suzuki, Y. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-05-10

    With an objective to preserve the environment and reduce load on a deodorizing device, discussions were given on a high-efficiency hood for printing machines in a print shop. Solvents discharged from this factory consist of ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene, whose maximum total permissible concentration is 147 ppm. Two kinds of hoods with different opening areas were fabricated on a trial basis as hoods for monochromic gravure printing machines. Elucidation was made on the relationship of concentrations in a laboratory and ducts with discharged air amount. Collection effect is greater in a hood with higher face air velocity at the opening portion. It was made clear that the minimum air discharge amount that can clear the permissible concentration is 1000 m{sup 3} per hour inclusive of the safety factor. This value is derived under a condition that the secondary drying blower is stopped during printing work and the drying portion is shut off. For the similar purpose a hood for two-color gravure printing machine (with the first and second printing portions provided with hoods and installed with resistance plates to equalize face air velocity between both hoods) was fabricated on a trial basis for discussion. The minimum required air discharge amount was estimated to be 1100 m{sup 3} per hour. Total air discharge amount when all the printing machines are operating would be 10400 m{sup 3} per hour, and the concentration would be 690 ppm. 5 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in Malaysia on effective utilization of waste heat from paper sludge incineration; 1999 nendo Malaysia ni okeru seishi sludge nensho hainetsu yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Efforts are under way to popularize practical energy conservation technologies through verification on real machines in target countries. Possibilities were studied that Malaysian paper making plants would adopt technologies of collecting heat from high-temperature exhaust gas from paper sludge incineration and of effectively utilizing the thus-collected heat. The Malaysian paper making industry produced 800-thousand tons or more in 1998, covering 72% of the total national demand. Heat recovery facilities may be installed in 15 plants. On-site surveys were made into their actual states, and then Genting Sanyen Industrial Paper Sdn. Bhd. was selected as the plant for the model project, and detailed model project feasibility studies were conducted. The studies covered the amount of wastes from paper making, their properties, treatment process, amounts of utilities to be used during system operation, land on which to build the facilities, and a plan for collecting invested funds. As the result, it was concluded in view of the magnitude of the expected fruit that the model project be implemented at this plant. (NEDO)

  14. Release and degradation of Microcystins during the batch culture of Microcystis aeruginosa and grazing with and without microanimals; Microcystis aeruginosa no baiyo katei oyobi bisho dobutsu no sesshoku katei ni okeru microcystin no yoshutsu to bunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.; Ryu, J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Inamori, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Jin, I. [Kyungbuk National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-10

    In order to investigate growth of Microcystis aeruginose, a representative toxic blue algae, and dynamics involved in microcystin degradation, the samples collected in Korean fresh water were cultured. Microcystin is an intracellar toxin, and is retained in a cell as long as it is alive. It is eluted out into surrounding water, when the cell which retains it is dead, and cannot be removed by a general purification treatment. It is therefore essential to remove the algae, when it is abnormally grown, to grasp the dynamics involved in transfer of the toxin resulting from cell breakdown, and to develop the adequate treatment method, to secure safe water. A. hemprichi and M. guttula as a protozoan show high ability of predating the M. aeruginose. Of the systems grazed with microanimals, those with A. hemprichi, P. erythrophthalma and M. guttula show higher degradation ability than the others. It is also found that microcystin is eluted out into surrounding water, when M. aeruginose is abnormally grown in a natural water area and self-degraded, and possibly persists for extended periods. 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Study and utilization of water-dominated and low-temperature geothermal fields in Italy; Itaria ni okeru nessui takuetsugata oyobi teion chinetsu shigen no kenkyu to riyo jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-06-15

    This paper reports the state of research and development of hot-water dominated and low-temperature geothermal resources in Italy. Geothermal explorations and studies are conducted by the Italian electric power company ENEL and the International Geothermal Research Institute, of which the development of geothermal power generation is carried out by ENEL. Hot water dominated geothermal fields in the central Italy include the Tuscany area having Larderello south of Firenze and the Monte Amiata area, the Latium area around Rome, and the Campania area around Napoli. Low-temperature geothermal fields in the northern Italy include Ferrara, Vicenza, Euganei Hills, and Aqui Terme. A large number of wells have been drilled to as deep as 3000 m in high-temperature geothermal areas for power generation. The present drilling is targeted exclusively at deep reservoirs. In the hot water dominated areas in the central Italy, power plants of 20-MW class are built even in areas with not too high productivity, where waste hot water is utilized in binary cycle. In the northern low-temperature geothermal area, warm water is utilized directly. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Fiscal 1997 for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the optimization of the coal transportation system in Indonesia; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In addition to the data collection and site surveys made in Phase 1, conducted in Phase 2 were determination of sites for harbors, determination of a scenario on coal transportation from coal mines to harbors, optimization of the coal transportation system, social/economic assessment, and proposal on the optimum transportation system. The results of the simulation were as follows: It is the most advantageous to transport coal from coal deposit area to harbor by rail and from harbor to Paiton by barge weighed over 10,000 tons. Tanjung Api Api is the most advantageous as harbor. The production scale which is profitable became more than 15 million tons. The present coal price of PTBA is $25/t arriving Suralaya. The coal in this case is said to be 5500kcal/kg in quality, and the coal of the same quality to this is only profitable. 8 refs., 68 figs., 104 tabs.

  17. Snow-melting facilities capable of meeting multiple needs. Present state and future tasks in a Ministry of Construction jurisdiction in Tohoku District; Tohoku chiken kannai ni okeru doro shoyusetsu shisetsu no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, N. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Novel snow-melting facilities in use in Tohoku District, Japan, are described. One operates on a heat source in which heat is generated in the composting process. Grass, cattle droppings, and clay as a fermentation promoter are blended, and the blend is allowed to ferment. The obtained heat travels through a non-freezing liquid serving as a heater exchanger, and fed into snow-melting pipes. Laboratory tests are conducted, and it is found that the best fermentation occurs when the compost is a blend of 20% glass and 80% cattle droppings. At the air temperature of 0-5degC, heat is continuously emitted at approximately 40degC. This system may prove to be feasible when 40-50m{sup 2} is the size of the area to cover. The disposal of compost and the management of grass are the tasks to be dealt with in the future. The other utilizes wind force. Power produced by a wind turbine is used for road heating and tunnel lighting, and operates sight line guidance. The wind turbine introduced here outputs 250kW, producing a yearly total of 489.2kW. There is a plan for a verification test using a small wind power generator. Future tasks include the sale of surplus power, measures for noise reduction, and measures for preventing an adverse impact on TV, etc. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Stratigraphy and eruption ages of deposits at the southeast side of Nishiyama volcano, Hachijo island during the last 2,500 years; Hachijojima, Nishiyama kazan nantoroku ni okeru saikin 2,500 nenkan no funshutsubutsu no sojo to funka nendai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, S.; Shimada, S. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-25

    The Nishiyama volcano of the Hachijo island is a stratovolcano whose volcanic activity started approximately 10,000 years ago. Among the lateral volcanos surrounding the cone-shaped mountain, there is a Kandoyama tuff cone formed by a phreatomagmatic eruption at the southeastern base of the Nishiyama volcano. It is known that Kandoyama`s latest eruption is not older than 4,000 years. In this report, the stratigraphy of eruptive deposits and the types of eruptions involving Nishiyama after Kandoyama formation are clarified. Also, the history of Nishiyama` eruption is discussed, for which a study is made about the stratigraphic relationship between its eruption and the results of {sup 14}C dating or the eruption remainders, corresponding terrestrial episodes recorded in ancient literature usable for eruption dating, etc. The conclusion is summarized below. The eruptive deposits are to be supposedly dated at a period after the completion of caldera aggradation. At the southeastern base of Nishiyama, the eruption of 1605 is to immediately follow the eruption of approximately 1,100 years ago, and no eruption so active as to cause the outflow of lava is noticed therebetween. It is inferred that the Nishiyama volcano erupts once in a period of 300-700 years. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. 55th electric science promotion prize (progress prize). Demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW first in the world; Dai 55 kai denki gakujutsu shinkosho (shinposho) jusho. Seiaihatsu no OPGW ni okeru hikari soriton denso no jissho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-10

    Electric science promotion prize (progress prize) is given to `Person who newly proposed a new concept, theory, material, device, system and method on electrical science and technology, or demonstrated these proposals` by the commendation committee of Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan every year. Eight promotion prizes including that for Kansai Electric Power`s `Demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW first in the world` were given. This research succeeded in development of the transmission/ receiving device suitable for optical soliton transmission, and the prediction method of an optimum transmission condition by computer simulation. In addition, this research succeeded in 10Gbit transmission of 784km and 40Gbit transmission (4-wave multiplex) of 392km by applying the above research result to Okurobe trunk line OPGW (98.2km). This demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW is first in the world. (NEDO)

  20. Transmission test in connection of different types of optical fibers: a dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fiber (DSF) and a single-mode optical fiber (SM); DSF-SM ishu hikari fiber setsuzoku ni okeru denso shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, J. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-08-25

    The currently used optical transmission system usually uses a single-mode optical fiber (SM) with 1.3 {mu} m band. For sections requiring long-distance transmission, a dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fiber (DSF) with 1.55 {mu} m band is beginning to be partly used. If, in using these fibers, the different types of optical fibers, SM and DSF, can be used directly connected with each other, structuring an economical optical communication network including the existing SM fibers may become possible. This paper describes measurements of connection loss between the different optical fibers of DSF and SM, a transmission test on the connection between the different optical fibers of DSF and SM by using an amplifier for optical fibers used in an actual field, and an optical wave multiplex transmission test. The measurements and the tests were carried out in winter and summer of 1997 by using the existing OPGW optical fibers among the Okayama substation, the Higashi-Okayama substation, and the Susai substation. The connection between the different optical fibers of DSF and SM generates greater connection loss than in connection with the same type of fibers due to difference in the mode field diameters. Therefore, it will be necessary in constituting an optical fiber line to incorporate connection loss of about 1 to 2 dB in connector connection and about 0.5 to 1 dB in welding connection. 1 ref., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Shinwa-no-Sato Park (wind characteristics investigation); Shinwa no sato koen ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Shinwa-no-Sato Park, Kirishima Town, Aira-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. The average wind speeds at 20m and 10m above ground are 3.9m/s and 3.3m/s, but they are a little higher in the prevalent directions of east and east-north-east, and are 4.7m/s and 5.5m/s. The annual operation rates of the 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW wind turbine models are 36.0%, 39.1%, and 55.5%. Their annual capacitor ratios are 12.4%, 14.9%, and 15.0%. The annual wind direction occurrence rate on the wind axis is as high as 70.6% in the direction of west, and it should be highly evaluated that turbulence intensity is 0.3 or less in all the directions. As for the surroundings, the observation station is situated in a park which contains no residential zone that may cause noise-related troubles, and possibilities are quite low of difficulties entailing electromagnetic wave emission. Accordingly, wind power development at Kirishima Town is not impossible. But, before a wind power system is actually introduced into the park, it is necessary to select a wind turbine which can operate on low wind speeds of 1-3m/s and can easily connect to the commercial line in the interconnection scheme. (NEDO)

  2. Film condensation of HCFC-123 on in-line bundles of horizontal finned tubes. Effect of fin geometry. Suihei fin tsuki kan no gobanme kangun ni okeru HCFC-123 no gyoshuku. Fin keijo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H.; Takamatsu, H.; Takada, N. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study); Kim, K. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)); Ishikawa, Y. (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-25

    Theoretical analysis and experiments were carried out in regard to the condensation of HCFC-123 vapor on a horizontal finned tube. The previous paper described the theoretical analysis on the film condensation in a tube nest with low-fins. In this study, approximate expressions of heat transfer coefficient for a newly proposed high-performance finned tubes are suggested and compared with the experimental results. In the test, HCFC-123 vapor was flowed from the upper part of the tube nest arranged in squares of 3 rows and 15 layers (tube pitch: 22mm), and was condensed on the tube surface. The liquid film formation was observed, and the heat transfer properties were measured. Two kinds of conventional low-fin tubes and two kinds of finned tubes of which shape is similar to the newly proposed ones were tested. One of the new finned tubes showed the highest heat transfer performance, which was about 85% higher than that of the conventional low-fin (26 fpi) tube. The theoretical model for condensation in the previous paper was correspondent with the experimental data at low vapor speed and low condensate inundation rate. 14 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Film condensation of HCFC-123 on staggered bundles of horizontal finned tubes. Effect of fin geometry; Suihei fintsukikan no chidori kanbun ni okeru HCFC-123 no gyoshuku. Fin keijo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H.; Takamatsu, H.; Takada, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study; Makishi, O. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sejimo, H. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-03-25

    Experiments were conducted to obtain row-by-row heat transfer data during condensation of downward flowing HCFC-123 vapor in staggered bundles of horizontal two-dimensional fin tubes. Two conventional low fin tubes and two finned tubes with fin shapes close to that of a new high-performance fin proposed by Zhu and Honda were tested. The latter tubes had fin dimensions that were optimized by theoretical analysis. The heat transfer characteristics were compared with previous results for in-line bundles of the same test tubes and with theoretical predictions for stagnant vapor. The decrease in heat transfer due to condensate inundation was less significant for the staggered tube bundle. The highest heat transfer coefficient was provided by the staggered bundle of one of the new finned tubes. The theoretical predictions compared well with experimental data at a low vapor velocity and a low to medium condensate inundation rate. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  5. Research activities of hybrid ceramic ball bearings for turbochargers in research and development center, Koyo Seiko; Koyo seiko sogo kenkyusho ni okeru turbocharger yo ceramic tamajikuuke no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, K. [Koyo Seiko Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-05-20

    Silicon nitride ceramics developed at Hikari Seiko's General Technology Research Institute was applied for the first time in the world in 1998 to balls used in bearing for turbo chargers for commercially available passenger cars. This paper reports the summary thereof. Silicon nitride used in the ceramic ball bearing is a high quality ceramic material that uses yttrium oxide and aluminum oxide as sintering auxiliaries, and is treated with hot static water pressure and made denser. Characteristics of low density as compared to that of high-carbon chrome bearing steel used as the general bearing steel are as follows: bearing weight, and ball's centrifugal force under high speed rotation are reduced; its heat resistance makes use of bearing possible under elevated temperatures; and shared bondage reduces seizing due to running out of oil film when the bearing is rotated at high speeds. Thus, the material is well suitable for turbo chargers. Its rolling fatigue life exceeds that of the bearing steel, and it is made clear that the damage pattern is exfoliation similar to that in the bearing steel. A life test for the ceramic ball bearing showed a result exceeding the calculated life time. (NEDO)

  6. Generation of metallic arc spectrum of pumping discharge of XeCl laser; XeCl ekishima laser reiki hoden ni okeru arc iko to kinzoku supekutoru no hassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, H.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-12-20

    An arc generation of a long-pulse spiker-sustainer excimer laser with about 250ns of pulse width , is discussed by using time-varying spectroscopic method. First arcing occurs during a main discharge for laser excitation and shows XeII spectrum, while a glow-like discharge represents only XeI spectrum, the metallic spectrum such as Nil caused by vaporization of electrode material begins to appear just after the termination of the main discharge. Second arcing occurs after about 2{mu}s, which brings strong intensity of Nil spectrum. It means that the reignition arc might be produced in a metallic vapor that appears during the main discharge. Accordingly, it is concluded that the reignition arc is inherently metallic, which is different from the main arc with rare gas plasma. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Ionization current in N2 gas. Part 7. ; Diffusion and reflection of metastable particles. N2 gas chu ni okeru denri denryu. 7. ; Jun antei reiki ryushi no kakusan to hansha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Ito, H.; Sekizawa, H. (Chiba Inst. of Technology, Chiba (Japan)); Ikuta, N. (Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    The energy loss process in quenching of excited particles by collision to other ones and solid surfaces was investigated with metastable excited particles formed in weakly ionized gases. The measured lifetime of N2 metastable particles in N2, N2/CO, N2/CH3 gases during Townsent discharge did not agree with the Molnar's theoretical value which was obtained by solving diffusion equations using the boundary condition that assumes the density of excited particles to be zero at electrodes and tube walls. Strange behavior was observed too, that is, coefficients of diffusion and reaction rate determined by the theoretical lifetime change systematically with the distance between electrodes. Then, the novel boundary condition that takes reflection coefficient into account was applied to solve diffusion equations. The results obtained could account for experimental results without any discrepancy. The analysis of results clarified the dependence of various parameters of metastable excited particles on the reflection coefficient. The increase of reflection coefficient decreases the surface quenching of excited particles at electrodes and elongs effectively excited lifetime and increases the number of collisional quenching in gas phases. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Determination of electron impact ionization and excitation coefficients in He-Xe gas mixtures. He-Xe kongo gas ni okeru denshi shototsu denri keisu oyobi reiki keisu no sokutei to kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Tachibana, K. (Kyoto Inst. of Technology, Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-03-20

    The rare gas discharge gives a stable discharge and light emission characteristics at low temperature in comparison with the discharge of the vapor of such a metal as Hg. The present barrier for the commercialization of the color PDP lies in the lower level of its emission intensity and efficiency in comparison with that of CRT. In this report, an electron impact ionization coefficient in a gas mixture and an electron impact excitation coefficient for a XeIs {sub 4} level were analyzed using a Boltzmann equation by means of a steady state Townsend method using a drift tube. By comparing both, the elementary process in the gas mixture is investiagted to discuss the respective contributions for the effective ionization coefficient and the excitation coefficient. As a result, it was found that the ionization process in the He-Xe gas mixture could be described by the processes of direct ionization of Xe and He, and an indirect ionization (Penning effect) by an active helium. 37 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Pressure dependence of emission intensity of rare-gas excimer light produced by silent discharge; Teikiatsu ryoiki ni okeru musei hoden reiki ki gas excimer hikari shutsuryoku no atsuryoku izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    To establish the pressure dependence of silent discharge excited rare gas excimer light emission, a vacua ultraviolet light was subjected to spectroscopic analysis at a pressure lower than 20kPa. Researches are under way to apply the discharge excited rare gas excimer lamp as a vacuum ultraviolet light source for the development of new materials and for the conservation of environments. When the pressure is as low as 1.8kPa or 4.4kPa, the emission has peaks at wavelengths centering on 147nm and 149nm, both of which are the resonance lines of the xenon atom. Excimer generation becomes prominent as the pressure increases, with the second continuum of light growing dominant at 35kPa to weaken relatively the resonance lines and the first continuum of light. In the first continuum, emission increases only at a suppressed rate, as compared with emission in the second continuum, due for instance to a collision caused relaxation process in which excimers are lost. In the case of xenon in the vicinity of 10-11kPa, the first continuum of light and the second continuum of light are approximately equal in emission intensity, producing a vacuum ultraviolet light source with a bandwidth relatively large for a single gas spectrum. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Evaluation of the autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture using the impulse response function; Impulse oto kansu wo mochiita shisei henkan katoki ni okeru jiritsu shinkei kino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Toyota College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    Autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture has been evaluated by applying transient response function of the system to the blood regulation system. The impulse response function was determined from the change in heart rate before postural change to the upright posture, and was compared with the transient change immediately after a change to the upright posture. The time series of R-R interval of electrocardiogram was used as the time series of the change in heart rate. To determine the impulse response function, an autoregressive model was applied to the R-R interval time series. The impulse response function at the steady state is a transient reaction at the impulse stimulation added to the blood regulation system. The R-R interval decreases rapidly by the autonomic neuropathy reaction in which the blood is rapidly transferred into the legs immediately after a change to upright posture. There is a close correlation between the initial temporary decrease in R-R interval and the impulse response function derived from the change in heart rate immediately after a change to the upright posture. Accordingly, the blood regulation and autonomic neuropathy functions can be evaluated by the impulse response function without actual standing test and load of tested persons. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Survey by region/industry in India; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indo ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A survey was made in India which is a coal producing/consuming country following China in Asia and where coal is used for about 60% of the primary commercial energy. The survey was conducted on coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental issues, aiming at studying feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly coal utilization system into every industry including the residential/commercial one, and at implementing a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation. Total power source facilities in fiscal 1995 are 83.3 million kW, 64% of which are coal thermal power facilities and generated 260 TWh, 69% of the total output energy. Main commercial energy sources are coal, oil and natural gas, and oil is self-sufficient. The survey this time did not examine very well the actual state of the environmental pollution problem caused by the coal utilization. Indian coal is high in ash content but low in sulfur content, and therefore, SOx polluting air has not been a very important problem so far, but soot/smoke is almost the problem. Further, ash treatment after combustion at boilers, etc. is expected to be a big problem in the future. 49 figs., 88 tabs.

  12. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Silicon kessho usumaku ni okeru hyomen kaimen saiketsugo sokudo no hyoka to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films. To optimize design and manufacture of solar cells, it is necessary to identify correctly resistance factor (or doping) of bulk of materials, bulk minority carrier life, and recombination velocity on surface, passivation interface and electrode interface. A group in the Hokkaido University has been working since a few years ago on development of non-contact and non-destructive photo-luminescence surface level spectroscopy (PLS{sup 3}). A new non-contact C-V method was also introduced. Using these methods, basic discussions were given on possibility of separate measurements on surface/interface and bulk characteristics of solar cell materials. The PLS{sup 3} method and the non-contact C-V method were used for experimental discussions on evaluation of silicon mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline materials. Discussions were given on separate evaluations by using the DLTS method. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Reduction of artificial source effect in the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the Hanshin region; Hanshin chiiki no komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa ni okeru jinko noise source no eikyo no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Makino, M.; Morijiri, R.; Okuma, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in December 1995 on areas from Kobe City to Kyoto City in relation to the Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake in 1995. It was found in the survey that effects of electric trains driven by direct current and man-made structures cannot be avoided, working as a large noise factor in extraction and analysis of geological information. This paper describes a quantitative analysis on magnetic anomaly suspected to have been caused from artificial sources seen in the magnetic map of the Hanshin area obtained from the above exploration data. The paper also gives considerations on methods to remove the effects therefrom. It then describes a quantitative analysis and the result of attempts on removal of the anomaly, taking up the following factors: (1) distribution of specific and remarkable magnetic anomalies which correspond to railroad positions of the Hanshin Railways running through the Nishinomiya-Toyonaka area, (2) the magnetic anomaly trend in positive and negative pair seen in the seafront area of Kobe City, and (3) typical bipolar isolated type magnetic anomaly in the north-west part of Kobe City. The cause for (1) was loop current flown for the railway operation, that for (2) was man-made structures in the improved seafront area, and that for (3) was a provisionally built metal waste storage yard. 9 figs.

  14. 2D inversion results and interpretation of CSAMT data in the Itaya prospect, Northern Honshu, Japan; Tohoku nanbu chiiki Itaya chiku ni okeru CSAMT ho nijigen kaiseki kekka to sono kaishaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, K.; Hishida, H.; Katayama, H. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A two-dimensional analysis was carried out on electric exploration data obtained by using the CSAMT method in the Itaya prospect in the southern part of the Tohoku region in Japan. Considerations were given on mine exploration targets. Gold produced in this area is contained in stockwork or vein deposited quartz in silicified hydrothermal breccia. Therefore, the exploration targets are silicified rocks that show high resistivity. The field investigation using the CSAMT method was conducted by installing a dipole source of about 1.9 km as a transmission source at a location about 6 km apart from the investigation area, and by measuring transmission currents from 8 to 10A and ten frequencies from 4 to 2048 Hz. The two-dimensional analysis was performed by using programs of a forward calculation that used a finite element method and of an inversion calculation that used a least-squares method. Analysis utilizing resistivity of the boring cores made minimizing RMS misfit possible. As a result, estimations were made on distribution of silicification and claying alteration from the detailed resistivity distribution around the Itaya mine. 5 ref., 8 figs.

  15. Three-dimensional modeling in the electromagnetic/magnetotelluric methods. Accuracy of various finite-element and finite difference methods; Denjiho MT ho ni okeru sanjigen modeling. Shushu no yugen yosoho to sabunho no seido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    To enhance the reliability of electromagnetic/magnetotelluric (MT) survey, calculation results of finite-element methods (FEMs) and finite difference methods (FDMs) were compared. Accuracy of individual methods and convergence of repitition solution were examined. As a result of the investigation, it was found that appropriate accuracy can be obtained from the edge FEM and FDM for the example of vertical magnetic dipole, and that the best accuracy can be obtained from the FDM among four methods for the example of MT survey. It was revealed that the ICBCG (incomplete Cholesky bi-conjugate gradient) method is an excellent method as a solution method of simultaneous equations from the viewpoint of accuracy and calculation time. For the joint FEM, solutions of SOR method converged for both the examples. It was concluded that the cause of error is not due to the error of numerical calculation, but due to the consideration without discontinuity of electric field. The conditions of coefficient matrix increased with decreasing the frequency, which resulted in the unstable numerical calculation. It would be required to incorporate the constraint in a certain form. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Combustion characteristics in a municipal solid waste incinerator. 1st Report. ; Field test and computer simulation for combustion characterization. Toshi gomi shokyakuro ni okeru nensho tokusei. 1. ; Nensho jotai haaku no tame no jikken to simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimi, T.; Higashimura, K. (Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)); Koyama, M.; Hirayama, N. (Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan))

    1994-05-25

    For suppressing and controlling the emission of dioxins in the flue gas from the city garbage incinerator, it is necessary to perform the complete combustion. The combustion state in the incinerator was investigated to understand the influence of combustion factors on the combustion. A computer simulation analysis on the gas flow in the incinerator was also carried out. The concentration of CO and O2 in the combustion gas leaving the incinerator and the temperature distribution in the incinerator were measured. The results showed that the atmosphere in the incinerator was distinctly separated into two zones, i.e., the high temperature zone where the O2 concentration was extremely low while the CO concentration exhibited its peak value and the low temperature zone where the CO concentration was relatively low and O2 concentration was excessively high. The effect of combustion gas temperature on the combustion reaction of unburnt gas was found to be high. When the combustion gas temperature was elevated, the CO concentration in the exhaust gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator was exponentially decreased. The relationship between the CO concentration and the O2 concentration could be expressed in a quadratic equation. There was a certain optimum O2 optimal concentration range for reducing the CO concentration. The O2 concentration was an important factor for controlling the combustion. The result of computer simulation proved to be shown well the combustion gas flow in the incinerator. 8 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Experiment for deep seismic reflections in Hidaka, Hokkaido. Comparison between Vibroseis and explosive data; Hidaka chiiki ni okeru shinbu hanno data no shutoku jikken. Vibroseis to dynamite no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, N.; Ikawa, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T.; Tsumura, N.; Shinohara, M.; Ikawa, T. Ikawa, H.; Asano, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Miyazono, N. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Arita, K.; Moriya, T.; Otsuka, K.; Omura, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Osaka Prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Hirata, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Okuike, S.

    1997-05-27

    This is a prompt report. These days the importance of acquiring knowledge about the structure from the lower crust down to the upper mantle is often discussed with reference taken to Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. The Hidaka collision belt where the lower crust is exposed on the surface is a rare phenomenon in the world and has been the subject of seismic survey. As a part of the survey, experiments are conducted by the use of vibrations produced by Vibroseis and dynamite sources. Every one of the shot records (20-second record) from the two types of vibration sources contains a clear echo in the vicinity of 16 seconds supposedly from a level deeper than 40 kilometers, not to mention reflections from shallow levels. Although some studies have to be conducted before the reflecting geological boundary (possibly the upper mantle) of the echo near the 16-second point can be identified, yet this is probably the reflection from the deepest level ever obtained in the seismic reflection survey conducted in Japan`s land area. It is proved by this experiment that vibration from a vibrator can reach as far as that from explosion if the vibrator specifications are rightly chosen. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Fiscal 1996 survey for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the coal infrastructure propagation in Indonesia; 1996 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan infura seibi chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Phase 1 survey in fiscal 1996 was conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In the survey, conducted were collection of data on coal fields and site surveys, collection of data on inland transportation and site surveys, collection of data on harbors and site surveys, and worked out were a simplified database and a coal transportation plan by optimization of the coal chain system. The area for survey is the periphery of the Musi River of South Sumatra. The results of the simulation by LP models were as follows: When the coal of Bukit Asam coal mine is $25/t in price, only coal of 5500Kcal/kg is profitable, and when $27/t in price, coal of 4500Kcal/kg also becomes profitable. This shows that if the coal is of good quality, it can pay arriving at Suralaya, independent of the distance of transportation. 47 figs., 63 tabs.

  19. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance with heat sources arranged in parallel; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Netsugen heiretsu unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Miura, N.; Sato, S. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y.; Hamada, K. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A heat pump system using water and air as heat sources was built and evaluated for its performance. In this system, evaporators may be operated singly or as connected in parallel or series, and, for each case, the quantity of heat acquired may be measured and system performance may be quantitatively evaluated. The findings follow. When the two heat sources are equal in temperature in the single-evaporator operation, the evaporation temperature is about 7{degree}C higher on the water side than on the air side, and the performance coefficient is about 0.7 higher. When the air heat source temperature is 25{degree}C in the parallel operation, like quantities of heat are obtained from both heat sources, and collection of heat from the water increases with a decrease in the air heat source temperature but, with an increase, collection from the air increases. When the air heat source temperature decreases, the evaporation temperature decreases in the single-evaporator working on the air and in the parallel operation but it levels off in the single-evaporator working on the water alone. When the water heat source temperature decreases, evaporation temperature drop is sharper in the single-evaporator working on the water than in the parallel operation, which suggests the transfer from the parallel operation to the single-evaporator working on the air. In the single-evaporator operation on the water heat source, the evaporation temperature linearly decreases with an increase in superheating. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  20. Self-excited shock oscillation in transonic diffuser flows. 2nd report . Spectral distribution and peak frequency of oscillation; Sen'onsoku diffuser nagare ni okeru shogekiha no jirei shindo. 2. shindo no spekutoru bunpu to peak shuhasu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, T.; Miyazato, Y.; Maasuda, M.; Matsuo, K. [Kyushu Univaersity, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-05-25

    Concerning the self-excited shock oscillation in a transonic diffuser flow, the response of a normal shock wave to a 'white' pressure disturbance, that is, a small pressure disturbance having the same power spectral density over every frequency, is analyzed by solving the equation representing shock displacement due to the disturbance. According to the present analysis, the spectral density distribution and peak frequency of the shock oscillation depend on Mach number just upstream of the shock wave and a non-dimensional parameter determined from the diffuser geometry at the time-mean shock location. The shock displacement power spectral density distributions obtained by the analysis agree very well with those measured in our experiment. A non-dimensional relationship between the peak frequency of the shock oscillation and diffuser geometry at the shock location, Eq. (18), is obtained, and this equation agrees well with the present and previous experimental results. (author)

  1. Application of hopfield-type neural network to switch planning problem of power distribution system. Denryoku keito no fuka yuzu mondai ni okeru hopfield kei neural network no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, C.; Kawakami, J. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-20

    Reserches are actively carried on for neural computing which employs neural network. Hopfield-type neural network is attracting attention as a solution mechanism for combinatorial optimization problems. Most of the reports made on the application of Hopfield-type neural network deal only with equality conditions as the constraints for the optimization problems. Adopting auxiliary variables, a method for the solution, by regular Hopfield-type neural networks, of combinatorial optimization problems including inequality constraints was developed. With the switch planning problem as an example, stability analysis of the energy functions was performed, and conditions for the stabilization were clarified although they are partial. To deal with the inequality constraints, special neurons were introduced which converge to intermediate values between 0 and 1. This method was applied to the switch planning problem of the power distribution system. It was made clear that reasonable solution can be obtained by this method. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  3. Magnetic property and interface structure of Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta multilayers, utilizing Ta as buffer layer, were prepared by rf reactive and dc magnetron sputtering. The exchange coupling field between NiO and NiFe reached a maximum value of 9.6×103 A/m at a NiO film thickness of 50 nm. The composition and chemical states at interface region of Ta/NiO/Ta were studied by using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and peak decomp- osition technique. The results show that there is an "inter- mixing layer" at the Ta/NiO (and NiO/Ta) interface due to a thermodynamically favorable reaction 2Ta + 5NiO = 5Ni + Ta2O5. This interface reaction has a great effect on exchange coupling. The thickness of Ni+NiO estimated by XPS depth- profiles is about 8-10 nm.

  4. Measurement of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); He, Ming, E-mail: minghe@ciae.ac.cn [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Ruan, Xiangdong [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Xu, Yongning [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Shen, Hongtao [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Du, Liang; Xiao, Caijin; Dong, Kejun; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Xuran [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Lan, Xiaoxi [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wu, Shaoyong; Zhao, Qingzhang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Cai, Li [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Pang, Fangfang [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The long lived isotopes {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni can be used in many areas such as radioactive waste management, neutron dosimetry, cosmic radiation study, and so on. Based on the large accelerator and a big Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the measurement method for {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni is under development at the AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). By using the ΔE-Q3D technique with the Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the isobaric interferences were greatly reduced in the measurements of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni. A four anode gas ionization chamber was then used to further identify isobars. With these techniques, the abundance sensitivities of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni measurements are determined as {sup 59}Ni/Ni = 1 × 10{sup −13} and {sup 63}Ni/Ni = 2 × 10{sup −12}, respectively.

  5. Interface chemical states of NiO/NiFe films and their effects on magnetic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广华; 柴春林; 朱逢吾; 赖武彦

    2002-01-01

    Ta/NiOx/Ni81Fe19/Ta multilayers were prepared by rf reactive and dc magnetron sputtering.The exchange coupling field (Hex) and the coercivity (Hc) of NiOx/Ni81Fe19 as a function of the ratio of Ar to O2 during the deposition process were studied.The composition and chemical states at the interface region of NiOx/NiFe were also investigated using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and peak decomposition technique.The results show that the ratio of Ar to O2 has great effect on the nickel chemical states in NiOx film.When the ratio of Ar to O2 is equal to 7 and the argon sputtering pressure is 0.57 Pa,the x value is approximately 1 and the valence of nickel is +2.At this point,NiOx is antiferromagnetic NiO and the corresponding Hex is the largest.As the ratio of Ar/O2 deviates from 7,the exchange coupling field (Hex) will decrease due to the presence of magnetic impurities such as Ni+3 or metallic Ni at the interface region of NiOx/NiFe,while the coercivity (Hc) will increase due to the metallic Ni.XPS studies also show that there are two thermodynamically favorable reactions at the NiO/NiFe interface: NiO+Fe=Ni+FeO and 3NiO+2Fe=3Ni+Fe2O3.These interface reaction products are magnetic impurities at the interface region of NiO/NiFe.It is believed that these magnetic impurities would have effect on the exchange coupling field (Hex) and the coercivity (Hc) of NiO/NiFe.

  6. Thermodynamic reassessment of Gd–Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahou, Z., E-mail: rahou.zakarea@gmail.com; Mahdouk, K.

    2015-11-05

    By means of CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) approach, the phase diagram and thermodynamic data of the Gd–Ni system were critically assessed. The Gd–Ni system contains four solution phases (liquid, face-centered cubic FCC-A1, body-centered cubic BCC-A2 and hexagonal close-packed HCP-A3) modeled with the Redlich-Kister polynomials and seven intermetallic compounds Gd{sub 3}Ni, GdNi, GdNi{sub 2}, GdNi{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 7}, GdNi{sub 5} and Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 17}, which are all treated as stoichiometric compounds. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters describing various phases in this binary system was obtained. The phase diagram and thermodynamic quantities calculated from assessed parameters agree well with experimental data.

  7. GRAIN BOUNDARY CHEMISTRY IN Ni3Al AND Ni3Si

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, I; Schulson, E.; Michael, J.; Padgett, R.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the Ni/Al ratio at grain boundary regions in Ni3Al have been performed, using x-ray microanalysis of thin foils in a scanning transmission electron microscope, as a function of both alloy stoichiometry and the addition of boron. It is shown that whilst grain boundaries of Al-rich and stoichiometric Ni3Al have a composition similar to the matrix composition, boundaries in Ni-rich Ni3Al can be highly Ni-enriched. The addition of B to Ni3Al produces Ni enrichment in grain boundar...

  8. Electron Density Distributions for Millerite, Vaesite , Heazlewoodite and Ni metal: A Case for the Importance of NiNi Bond Paths for Electron Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, N. L.; Gibbs, G. V.; Downs, R. T.; Prewitt, C. T.; Rosso, K. M.; Cox, D. F.

    2006-12-01

    Bond paths and the bond critical point properties have been calculated for the bonded interactions comprising the Ni sulfide minerals millerite, vaesite and heazlewoodite and Ni metal. The experimental NiS bond lengths decrease linearly as the magnitudes of the properties each increases in value. Bond paths exist between the Ni atoms in heazlewoodite and millerite for NiNi separations that match the shortest separation in Ni metal, an indicator that the Ni atoms are bonded. Bond paths also exist between the Ni atoms in bulk Ni metal. In addition, the bcp properties of the bonded interactions in Ni metal are virtually the same as those in heazlewoodite and millerite. In contrast, NiNi bond paths are absent in vaesite where the NiNi separations are 60% greater than those in Ni metal. The bcp properties for the NiNi bonded interactions scatter along protractions of the NiS bond length-bcp property trends, suggesting that the two bonded interactions have similar characteristics. NiNi bond paths radiate throughout Ni metal and the metallic heazlewoodite structures as continuous networks whereas the NiNi paths in millerite are restricted to isolated Ni3 rings. Electron transport in Ni metal and heazlewoodite is pictured as occurring along the bond paths, which behave as networks of atomic size wires that radiate in a contiguous circuit throughout the two structures. Unlike heazlewoodite, the electron transport in millerite is pictured as involving a cooperative hopping of the d orbital electrons from the Ni3 rings comprising Ni3S9 clusters to Ni3 rings in adjacent clusters via the p orbitals on the interconnecting S atoms. Vaesite, an insulator at low temperatures and a doped semiconductor at higher temperatures, lacks NiNi bond paths.

  9. Submicron particles of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Saravanan; T A Jose; P John Thomas; G U Kulkarni

    2001-10-01

    Magnetic sub-micron sized particles (with diameters in the range 100–600 nm) of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys, protected with polyvinylpyrrolidone have been prepared in gram quantities using the polyol process. Experiments carried out with different metal precursors and starting compositions have yielded reliable routes to produce particles of the desired diameters in the 100–600 nm range. The particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic measurements. The particles are found to be stable under ambient conditions indefinitely. The coercivity values of the Co and Ni particles are ∼ 50% higher compared to the corresponding bulk values. The alloy particles follow a trend similar to the bulk alloys.

  10. Enhancement of condensation heat transfer using an electric field. 2nd Report. Model analysis on heat transfer enhancement using a bare wire electrode; Denba ni yoru gyoshuku netsu dentatsu no sokushin ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Rasen denkyoku ni okeru dennetsu sokushin no model kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, R. [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nishio, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Tanasawa, I. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-06-25

    A model experiment was conducted to investigate the dynamic behavior of a liquid sheet under an electric field applied parallel to the flow direction. It was confirmed that the liquid sheet was changed into columns when the applied voltage exceeded a certain critical value. Then a model analysis based on a linear stability theory was carried out to predict the critical applied voltage and it was shown that the analytical results were in good agreement with the measured values. Further, based on the above-mentioned model describing the dynamic behavior of the liquid sheet, an analytical model predicting the EHD effect on condensation heat transfer for a finned tube was presented. It was shown that the predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental data on the flooding angle and condensation heat transfer coefficient for a finned tube under electric fields. (author)

  11. Research on possible roles of grass-roots organizations in solving population and poverty problems in primate cities. Case of DKI Jakarta; Shuzatoshi ni okeru jinkomondai, hinkonmondai no kaiketsu ni muketeno gurasu{center_dot}rutsu no kanosei ni kansuru kenkyu. Jakaruta wo jirei toshite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshihara, Naoki [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Faculty of Arts and Letters

    1999-12-16

    DKI Jakarta, one of the primate cities in developing countries, is now facing rapidly worsening problems, such as over-urbanization, deepening of polarization in societies, spreading of urban poor, and economic catastrophe. In accordance to these problems, grass-roots organizations which contains RT/RW, Arisan, PKK, Posyandu and so on, have been gaining more and more functions as mediator between the people and the government, as representative mechanism for the consciousness of the people, and also as supplementary support body for the overall administrative organ of the government, while they do now exist as a certain system of solution which mobilizes various voluntary resources. And they are in part mirrors which reflect the present condition of life-worlds in Southeast Asian societies. (author)

  12. Study on individual care in nursing home. Part 2. Studies on social welfare institution for the elderly from the aspect of dwelling; Koreisha kyoju shisetsu ni okeru kobetsuteki kaigo ni kansuru kosatsu. Sumai toshiteno tokubetsu yogo rojin home no arikata ni kansuru kenkyu 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y.; Otaki, K.; Ohara, K. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)] Toyama, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-06-30

    This study pays attention to the relation between individual care and residents` activities in the social welfare institutions for the elderly (nursing homes) and aims to clarify the influence of building environment (nursing home as dwelling place) on individual care. Behaviors of care staffs and residents are surveyed in four nursing homes. The results of the analysis of the survey are as follows: The care staff`s activities are influenced not only by physical environment and also by the residents` activities. A single bed room is more effective than a multi-bed room for individual care. The small care unit is effective in building plan if the number of staffs is enough. The personal care activities which constitute the greater part of the care activities depend on the location of the residents. It is important to pay attention not only to arrange the common space but also how to use the common space. Spatial structure is required the consideration of the relative position of not only care rooms and resident rooms but also of care rooms and the space used by residents. 7 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Study on the large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power generation in desert of China and its utilization. Development of energy and agriculture in solar farm; Chugoku ni okeru ogata taiyoko hatsuden to sono riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Solar farm ni yoru energy to nogyo kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, S.; Ohashi, Y.; Ito, H. [Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ojima, S. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper proposes solar farm, a system suitable for China`s present circumstances, and describes its development plan. In this plan, agriculture and stock farming are promoted through irrigation using PV power in the desert zone, middle-east China. In addition, electric power is produced by laying PV power generation modules. The solar farm has 100 blocks of farmland equivalent to 700 ha, which includes 300 farmhouses (population of 1200). It can be a food supply base producing rice and wheat. The power generation capacity is at least 1000 kW, and the night power is supplied by battery installed in each farmhouse. The power generated in the daytime is used not only for agriculture but also for secondary industry such as processing of agricultural and stock farming products. The Chinese government requires 300,000 ha of farmland development every year up to 2030, the peak of population. When a half of this is developed by the solar farm, 200 solar farms are to be developed every year. For 30 years, 6000 solar farms are to be developed. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Studies on the air distribution and thermal performance of the air circulation wall. Part 4. Study on the thermal emissivity of the air circulation layer`s surfaces; Gaidannetsu tsuki koho ni okeru tsuki sonai no netsu tsuki tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu. 4. Tsuki sonai hyomen no hosha tokusei ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimori, K.; Sakai, K.; Ishihara, O. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The thermal and air distribution characteristics of the air circulation wall in a heat-insulated system were grasped using an experimental model. In this paper, the difference in the heat exchange between the wall and air was confirmed based on the radiation on the circulation layer`s surface. In this system, thin air circulation layers with ventilating holes at the top and bottom are attached to the south and north outer walls of a wooden building. This system is a kind of passive solar house that achieves the insolation screening effect and the temperature rising effect based on solar collection. The heat flow in a circulation layer is eliminated by the natural convection heat transfer on the outer wall. The heat flow passing through insulating materials is the heat transfer by radiation. The heat flow based on the in-layer natural convection is increasingly eliminated by the decrease in temperature on the air circulation layer`s surface. The decrease in room surface temperature using aluminum foil and the reflective heat-insulated effect showed that the heat passing through the wall surface decreases as the convection heat transfer in an air circulation layer increases. 6 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Ni putes ni soumises. Media and women with other gender?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIÉBLEMONT Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, new women's movements emerge like Ni putes ni soumises (NPNS who give a new approach to activism: not the one on feminists in the classi- cal sense of the term with the connotations it carries, but women carrying claims in the media and through the media on the living conditions of the residents of the suburbs. So, many media will take part in the mediatization of NPNS and its dis-courses, and will serve in some way as a place of “factory” for the public opinion.

  16. Effects of plate thickness on reverse martensitic transformation of prestrained NiTi/NiTi alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhu; CUI Lishan; ZHENG Yanjun

    2007-01-01

    In this Paper, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)was used to study the effects of predeformation and plate thickness on the reverse martensitic transformation of explosively welded NiTi/NiTi alloy.Results showed that there was a constraint between Ni50.4Ti(NiTi-1)and Ni49.8Ti (NiTi-2),which led to that the thickness of NiTi-1 or NiTi-2 strongly affected the reverse martensitic transformation behavior because residual stress variations in thickness wound enable bias force to be built inside the composite.The DSC measurements showed that after deformation,the reverse martensitic transformation temperature of the composite was increased with the increasing thickness of NiTi-2.Also.the XRD results revealed that the microstructure of NiTi/NiTi alloy changed from B2 phase to B19'phase along the thickness direction.

  17. Preparation and property of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni nano-composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Jen; Wang, Yuxin; Shu, Xin; Tay, Seeleng; Gao, Wei; Shakoor, R. A.; Kahraman, Ramazan

    2015-03-01

    The duplex Nickel-Boron-Titania/Nickel (Ni-B-TiO2/Ni) coatings were deposited on mild steel by using two baths with Ni as the inner layer. TiO2 nanoparticles were incorporated into the Ni-B coatings as the outer layer by using solid particle mixing method. The microstructure, morphology and corrosion resistance of the duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni nanocomposite coatings were systemically investigated. The results show that the duplex interface was uniform and the adhesion between two layers was very good. The microhardness of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating was much higher than the Ni coating due to the outer layer of Ni-B-TiO2 coating. The corrosion resistance of the duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating was also significantly improved comparing with single Ni-B coating. The Ni-B-10 g/L TiO2/Ni coating was found to have the best corrosion resistance among these duplex coatings. This type of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating, with high hardness and good corrosion resistance properties, should be able to find broad applications under adverse environmental conditions.

  18. Thermal modeling of NiH2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthus, Agnes-Marie; Alexandre, Alain

    1994-01-01

    The following are discussed: NiH2 battery mission and environment; NiH2 cell heat dissipation; Nodal software; model development general philosophy; NiH2 battery model development; and NiH2 experimental developments.

  19. Comprehensive theoretical studies on the low-lying electronic states of NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenli; Liu, Wenjian

    2006-04-21

    The low-lying electronic states of the nickel monohalides, i.e., NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI, are investigated by using multireference second-order perturbation theory with relativistic effects taken into account. For the energetically lowest 11 lambda-S states and 26 omega states there into, the potential energy curves and corresponding spectroscopic constants (vertical and adiabatic excitation energies, equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants) are reported. The calculated results are grossly in very good agreement with those solid experimental data. In particular, the ground state of NiI is shown to be different from those of NiF, NiCl, and NiBr, being in line with the recent experimental observation. Detailed analyses are provided on those states that either have not been assigned or have been incorrectly assigned by previous experiments.

  20. CONFIGURATION-INTERACTION IN NI METAL AND NI-ALLOYS AND HIGH-ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TANAKA, A; JO, T; SAWATZKY, GA

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the electronic state of Ni atoms in Ni metal and of Ni impurity in Cu and Au metals from the viewpoint of 3d configuration interaction (CI) using the Anderson impurity model including atomic multiplets. On the basis of the discussion, we give an interpretation for the Ni 2p-core X-ray pho

  1. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  2. On the similarity of the bonding in NiS and NiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The bonding in NiS is found to be quite similar to that in NiO, having an ionic contribution arising from the donation of the Ni 4s electron to the S atom and a covalent component arising from bonds between the Ni 3d and the S 3p. The one-electron d bonds are found to be of equal strength for NiO and NiS, but the two-electron d bonds are weaker for NiS.

  3. Mechanisms of High Coercivity in Ni/NiO Composite Films by Post Annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A coercivity as large as 2.4 kOe has been achieved in the Ni/NiO composite film after an annealing under a magnetic field of 10 kOe and an O2 partial pressure of 0.001 torr. The coercivity was attributed to the strong exchange coupling of Ni and NiO. Small grain size of Ni and NiO was observed after the post-annealing. The enhanced coercivity is probably associated with the domain wall pinning by local energy minima, the distribution of Ni and NiO, and the domain structure in the interface of Ni/NiO generated under the presence of the magnetic field during the post-annealing.

  4. Effects of chemical coating with Ni on electrochemical properties of Mg2Ni hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of nickel coating on the electrochemical properties of Mg2Ni hydrogen storage alloys are presented in this paper. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to examine the crystal structure and surface morphologies of the bare and Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys. The electrochemical properties of alloys were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that Ni coating not only decreased the charge transfer resistance, but also decreased the H atom diflusion resistance for Mg2Ni alloys. It was also found that Ni coating effectively improved the discharge capacity, but decreased the cycling performance of the as-synthesized Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys. The discharge current has a great impact on the cycling performance of the as-synthesized Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys.

  5. Synthesis and catalytic performance of SiO2@Ni and hollow Ni microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Liu, Yanhua; Shi, Xueting; Yu, Zhengyang; Feng, Libang

    2016-11-01

    Nickel (Ni) catalyst has been widely used in catalytic reducing reactions such as catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds and catalytic reduction of organic dyes. However, the catalytic efficiency of pure Ni is low. In order to improve the catalytic performance, Ni nanoparticle-loaded microspheres can be developed. In this study, we have prepared Ni nanoparticle-loaded microspheres (SiO2@Ni) and hollow Ni microspheres using two-step method. SiO2@Ni microspheres with raspberry-like morphology and core-shell structure are synthesized successfully using SiO2 microsphere as a template and Ni2+ ions are adsorbed onto SiO2 surfaces via electrostatic interaction and then reduced and deposited on surfaces of SiO2 microspheres. Next, the SiO2 cores are removed by NaOH etching and the hollow Ni microspheres are prepared. The NaOH etching time does no have much influence on the crystal structure, shape, and surface morphology of SiO2@Ni; however, it can change the phase composition evidently. The hollow Ni microspheres are obtained when the NaOH etching time reaches 10 h and above. The as-synthesized SiO2@Ni microspheres exhibit much higher catalytic performance than the hollow Ni microspheres and pure Ni nanoparticles in the catalytic reduction of methylene blue. Meanwhile, the SiO2@Ni catalyst has high stability and hence it can be recycled for reuse.

  6. Kinetics of Ni sorption in soils: roles of soil organic matter and Ni precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenqing; Peltier, Edward; Sparks, Donald L

    2012-02-21

    The kinetics of Ni sorption to two Delaware agricultural soils were studied to quantitatively assess the relative importance of Ni adsorption on soil organic matter (SOM) and the formation of Ni layered double hydroxide (Ni-LDH) precipitates using both experimental studies and kinetic modeling. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were conducted with both soils at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 7.5 from 24 h up to 1 month. Time-resolved Ni speciation in soils was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during the kinetic experiments. A kinetics model was developed to describe Ni kinetic reactions under various reaction conditions and time scales, which integrated Ni adsorption on SOM with Ni-LDH precipitation in soils. The soil Ni speciation (adsorbed phases and Ni-LDH) calculated using the kinetics model was consistent with that obtained through XAS analysis during the sorption processes. Under our experimental conditions, both modeling and XAS results demonstrated that Ni adsorption on SOM was dominant in the short term and the formation of Ni-LDH precipitates accounted for the long-term Ni sequestration in soils, and, more interestingly, that the adsorbed Ni may slowly transfer to Ni-LDH phases with longer reaction times.

  7. Structural evaluation and nonlinear optical properties of Ni/NiO, Ni/NiCo2O4 and Co/Co3O4 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahulan, K. Mani; Padmanathan, N.; Philip, Reji; Balamurugan, S.; Kanakam, Charles C.

    2013-10-01

    Nanocomposites of Ni/NiO, Ni/NiCo2O4 and Co/Co3O4 have been synthesized by a chemical reduction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirm the mixed composite nature of the sample and uniform particle size of approximately 13 nm. Formation of Ni/NiCo3O4 solid solution or NiCo2O4 spinel phase in the mixed composite is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum. Magnetic hysteresis (M-H) curves of the nanocomposites show excellent ferromagnetic (FM) nature at room temperature. Nonlinear optical transmission of the nanocomposites is measured using the open aperture Z-scan technique employing 7 nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. Experimental results show that NiO/NiO-Co3O4/Co3O4 nanocomposites exhibit good optical limiting performance. From the measurements and numerical fitting of the data to theory, it is found that nonlinear absorption has contributions from excited state absorption and two-photon absorption. Optical limiting is enhanced in Co3O4 and Ni/NiCo2O4 in which the Co3O4 content has a larger volume ratio.

  8. Continuum mechanics simulations of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites during reduction and re-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    for the dimensional change arises from the volumetric change related to the phase change NiO ↔ Ni. The measurable change in bulk length is given by the ceramic YSZ backbone as a response to the stress created by the chemical strain. The different subprocesses described in the model for YSZ were elastic and anelastic...... expansion, diffusional creep, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and microcracking due to excessive stress. In the Ni/NiO phase, nonelastic strains in terms of diffusional and power law creep were implemented, and additionally for NiO deformation due to microcracking and/or pseudoplasticity. Semi......-empirical correlations were employed for creep limiting grain growth of Ni and NiO, particle coarsening of Ni and particle growth in NiO during the oxidation. Seven experimental cases of high temperature redox dilatometry were simulated. The model shows good qualitative agreement with the measurements. The different...

  9. Monoligated monovalent Ni: the 3d(Ni)9 manifold of states of NiCu and comparison to the 3d9 States of AlNi, NiH, NiCl, and NiF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschopf, Gretchen K; Morse, Michael D

    2005-12-22

    A dispersed fluorescence investigation of the low-lying electronic states of NiCu has allowed the observation of four out of the five states that derive from the 3d(Ni)9 3d(Cu)10 sigma2 manifold. Vibrational levels of the ground X2delta(5/2) state corresponding to v = 0-11 are observed and are fit to provide omega(e) = 275.93 +/- 1.06 cm(-1) and omega(e)x(e) = 1.44 +/- 0.11 cm(-1). The v = 0 levels of the higher lying states deriving from the 3d(Ni)9 3d(Cu)10 sigma2 manifold are located at 912, 1466, and 1734 cm(-1), and these states are assigned to omega values of 3/2, 1/2, and 3/2, respectively. The last of these assignments is based on selection rules and is unequivocal; the first two are based on a comparison to ab initio and ligand field calculations and could conceivably be in error. It is also possible that the v = 0 level of the state found at 912 cm(-1) is not observed, so that T0 for the lowest excited state actually lies near 658 cm(-1). These results are modeled using a matrix Hamiltonian based on the existence of a ground manifold of states deriving from the 3d9 configuration on nickel. This matrix Hamiltonian is also applied to the spectroscopically well-known molecules AlNi, NiH, NiCl, and NiF. The term energies of the 2sigma+, 2pi, and 2delta states of these molecules, which all derive from a 3d9 configuration on the nickel atom, display a clear and understandable trend as a function of the electronegativity of the ligands.

  10. Study on Transfer of Ni in Soil—Plant System Using 63Ni Tracer Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TUCONG

    1996-01-01

    A study was carried out on the transfer of native and added Ni towards plant both in different soils and at different time by using 63 Ni tracer technique.The transfer of added Ni in soil was greater than native Ni and declined as time increased.The mobility was greater for soluble plus exchangeable fraction of soil Ni but very smaller for residual and Fe/Mn oxide bound fractions.These indicated that Ni was more mobile and more harmful in soils with a low pH and /or low content of Fe/Mn oxides.

  11. Manufacture of Raney Ni catalyst with metastable Ni2Al3 by high-energy milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Ni-Al alloy containing Cr, Fe additives were prepared as Raney Ni catalyst by high energy milling. The size and surface state of Ni-Al alloy powder were studied by particle size analyzer and sanning electron microscopy, the structure was analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer methods. The results showed that after a high-energy milling (HEM), the Ni-Al alloy transforms to a nano-scale NiAl structure with rich Al. Byannealing the alloy, a metastable Ni2Al3 phase can be obtained.

  12. Bipolar resistive switching of Au/NiOx/Ni/Au heterostructure nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, S.; Perego, D.; Tallarida, G.; Bestetti, M.; Franz, S.; Spiga, S.

    2013-10-01

    Arrays of Au/NiOx/Ni/Au nanowires with a diameter of 50 nm were characterized by conductive atomic force microscopy, which was used to probe the electrical behavior of single nanowires still included in the array. A bipolar switching of the single Au/NiOx/Ni/Au nanowires is demonstrated and is attributed to the choice of an asymmetric couple of electrode materials and, possibly, to a non-uniform Ni oxidation profile inside the NiOx segments. An analysis of the conduction mechanism in a single nanowire is presented to further support this conclusion.

  13. Manufacture of Raney Ni catalyst with metastable Ni2Al3 by high—energy milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕荣厚; 马如璋; 等

    1999-01-01

    The Ni-Al alloy containing Cr,Fe additives were prepared as Raney Ni Catalyst by high energy milling.The size and surface state of Ni-Al alloy powder were studied by particle size analyzer and sanning electron microscopy.the Structure was analyzed by XRD and Moessbauer methods.The results showed that after a high-energy milling(HEM).the Ni-Al alloy transforms to a nano-scale NiAl structure with rich Al.By annealing the alloy,a metastable Ni2Al3 phase can be obtained.

  14. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition; Etude exclusive des collisions centrales Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: coexistence de phase et decomposition spinodale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, B

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  15. niños preescolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosario Portilla Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora la relación entre la escritura y la comprensión de la referencia a través de una tarea de sinonimia en niños entre 5 y 6 años de edad, de origen latinoamericano, escolarizados en Barcelona (España. Las variables relacionadas con la tarea de sinonimia fueron (a la comprensión de la entidad lingüística nombre y (b el nivel de conceptualización de la escritura de los niños y la presencia de etiquetas escritas durante la tarea. Para la tarea de sinonimia se utilizaron pares de sinónimos dialectales del español (de Latinoamérica y de la Península Ibérica. Los resultados mostraron una diferenciación en el razonamiento de los niños, la cual dependía de la comparación entre lenguaje oral y lenguaje escrito en el desarrollo de la tarea, evidenciando una mayor aceptación de la sinonimia en la modalidad de lenguaje oral que en la modalidad de lenguaje escrito.

  16. Comparison of the thermal stabilities of NiSi films in Ni/Si, Ni/Pd/Si and Ni/Pt/Si systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, R N

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different interlayer materials (Pd and Pt) deposited between Ni films and Si substrates on the NiSi thermal stability are discussed. Ni sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 4 sub 3 Pd sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 5 sub 7 Si and Ni sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 4 sub 5 Pt sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 5 sub 5 Si solid solutions were formed when the samples were annealed at high temperatures and the lattice parameters of Ni sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 4 sub 3 Pd sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 5 sub 7 Si were calculated according to Vegard's law. The NiSi thermal stability was enhanced by interposing a Pd or Pt interlayer, and the sample with the Pt interlayer had the highest NiSi thermal stability among all the samples studied. This is attributed to the reduction of the interface energy between NiSi and Si substrates and the decrease of the driving force for the nucleation of NiSi sub 2 , induced by formation of the NiSi(200) preferred orientation and the solid solution respectively.

  17. Magnetic Properties of Grain Boundaries of Nanocrystalline Ni and of Ni Precipitates in Nanocrystalline NiCu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, H.; Guan, Z.; Li, X.; Wichert, Th.

    2001-11-01

    Perturbed γγ-angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC) was used to investigate nanocrystalline Ni and NiCu alloys, which are prepared by pulsed electrodeposition (PED). Using diffusion for doping nanocrystalline Ni with 111In four different ordered grain boundary structures are observed, which are characterized by unique electric field gradients. The incorporation of 111In on substitutional bulk sites of Ni is caused by moving grain boundaries below 1000 K and by volume diffusion above 1000 K. The nanocrystalline NiCu alloys prepared by PED are microscopically inhomogeneous as observed by PAC. In contrast, this inhomogeneity cannot be detected by X-ray diffraction. The influence of the temperature of the electrolyte, the current density during deposition, and the optional addition of saccharin to the electrolyte on the homogeneity of nanocrystalline NiCu alloys was investigated.

  18. Mixing behaviors in Cu/Ni and Ni/V multilayers induced by cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1509 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Perepezko, J.H., E-mail: perepezk@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1509 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Larson, D.; Reinhard, D. [CAMECA Instruments Inc., 5500 Nobel Drive, Madison, WI 53711 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The composition profiles of Cu/Ni and Ni/V multilayers were investigated. • A compositional oscillation was observed in the Cu/Ni composition profile. • The Ni/V composition profile varies smoothly and continuously between end members. • The effective diffusion coefficients were enhanced by about 30 order of magnitudes. • The effective temperature were estimated as 946 K for Cu/Ni and 936 K for Ni/V. - Abstract: Multilayers of Cu60/Ni40 and Ni70/V30 foil arrays were cold rolled in order to study the transformation reactions and mixing behaviors induced by deformation. Upon cold rolling, the layer thicknesses were refined to about 20 nm and solid solution phases were induced from pure end members (i.e. Cu, Ni and V) in both cases. The composition profiles for Cu/Ni and Ni/V multilayer samples at the deformation level where the solid solution phases coexist with end members were investigated by means of atom probe tomography and electron energy loss spectrum, respectively. An oscillation in the composition of Cu–Ni solid solution phase was observed, however the composition profile of Ni/V shows a smoothly varying curve between the end members. The effective diffusion coefficients were promoted by about 30 orders of magnitude for both Cu/Ni and Ni/V compared to room temperature diffusion. The effective temperature for Cu/Ni multilayers after 36 passes and Ni/V after 60 passes are estimated as 946 K and 936 K respectively.

  19. Transparent nanostructured electrodes: Electrospun NiO nanofibers/NiO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamastra, F.R. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Nanni, F. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Enterprise Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Menchini, F. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Nunziante, P. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Grilli, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.grilli@enea.it [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2016-02-29

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/nickel(II) acetate precursor fibers were deposited by electrospinning directly on radio frequency sputtered thin Ni and NiO films grown on quartz substrate, starting from Ni(II) acetate and PVP solution in ethanol. The samples were calcined in air in the temperature range 400–500 °C to obtain transparent and conductive p-type NiO nanofibers on NiO films. A higher density of nanofibers was obtained on Ni/quartz substrates, as compared to NiO/quartz ones, demonstrating the feasibility of fiber adhesion directly to an insulating substrate previously coated by a thin Ni layer. Samples were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometric and resistance measurements. - Highlights: • Nanostructured electrodes: electrospun NiO nanofibers/NiO films were fabricated. • NiO fibers were directly grown on insulating substrate coated by thin Ni or NiO films. • Good quality crystalline fibers were obtained at low calcination temperatures. • Transparent and conductive p-type electrodes were fabricated.

  20. A threonine stabilizes the NiC and NiR catalytic intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-03-27

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production.

  1. Electroless Plated Co-Ni-P-B/Ni Foam Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeil; Kim, Taegyu

    2016-02-01

    Co-Ni-P-B catalyst supported on Ni foam was prepared using electroless plating for hydrogen generation from an alkaline NaBH4 solution. Co-B, Co-P-B, and Co-Ni-B were prepared for comparison. Surface morphology of catalyst/Ni foams were observed using SEM analysis. The Co- Ni-P-B/Ni foam catalyst showed the superior performance on hydrogen generation rate due to the uniform formation of catalyst particles on the surface of Ni foam. Characteristics of hydrogen generation rate on the Co-N-P-B/Ni foam catalyst were investigated at the variety of NaBH4 and NaOH concentrations. The hydrogen generation rate increased with decreasing NaBH4 concentration, while increasing NaOH concentration. Durability test was performed, resulting in the stable hydrogen generation for 6 hours.

  2. Study of the interfacial magnetism in NiO/NiFe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafur, Miguel, E-mail: umiguelt@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil); Alayo, W. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.P. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo, Rua Humberto de Almeida Francklin 257 - Bairro Universitario, Sao Mateus - 29933-415 ES (Brazil); Xing, Y.T.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil)

    2010-05-31

    The interfacial magnetism of NiO/NiFe bilayers with different NiFe layer thicknesses, produced by DC and RF magnetron sputtering, has been studied by magnetometry and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). In magnetic hysteresis loops, the exchange bias field was found to be inversely proportional to the NiFe layer thickness. The fit using the Meiklejohn and Bean model gives a coupling energy at the NiO/NiFe interface of approximately 0.027 mJ/m{sup 2}. The analysis of the XMCD spectra of Fe and Ni, using the sum rules, shows a reduction of the effective spin magnetic moments in bilayers with NiFe thickness less than 4 nm. This reduction is attributed to hybridization of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic atoms d orbitals near the interface and/or formation of antiferromagnetic alloys due to atomic diffusion at the interfaces.

  3. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3 Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, MK; Jia, QY; Ramaswamy, N; Allen, RJ; Mukerjee, S

    2015-03-12

    We report a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unpreeedented massactivity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). in alkaline electrolyte. The HER Oietics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-euride/C samples were evaluated in aquebus 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni-Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiOx and Cr2O3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. The onset of the HER is significantly improved compared to munerous binary dor ternary Ni-alloys, inCluding Ni Mg materials. It is likely that at adjacent Ni/NiOx sites, the oxide acts as a sink for OHads, while the metallic Ni acts as a, sink for the H-ads, intermediate of the HER, thus minimizing the high activation energy of hydrogen evolution via water reduction. This is confirmed by in situ XAS studies that show that the synergistic HER enhancement is due to NiO content and that the Cr2O3 appears to stabilize the composite NiO component-under HER conditions (where NiOx would typically be reduced to metallic Ni-0). Furthermore, in contrast to Pt, the Ni(O-x)/Cr2O3 catalyst appears resistant to poisoning by the anion.exchange ionomer (AEI), a serloua consideration when applied to an anionic polymer electrolyte interface. Furthermore, we report a: detailed model of the double layer interface which helps explain the observed ensemble effect in the presence of AEI.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF Ni BIOACCUMULATION BY SYNECHCOCCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoran Li; Zhuwei Du; Jianglong Liang; Huiqing Bai; Yali Feng

    2006-01-01

    Influencing factors on bioaccumulation of Ni by Synechcoccus were studied in this paper. The equilibration time of Ni bioaccumulation was about 80 min in aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation quantity reached maximum when mass ratio of Ni to dry weight concentration of Synechcoccus was 16-18%. Bioaccumulation quantity increased with increasing pH. The optimum pH was 9-10 and higher pH led to precipitation of Ni(OH)2. Bioaccumulation quantity was also influenced by temperature and light intensity reaching their optima at 35℃ and 3 000 Ix respectively. Bioaccumulation of nonliving algae was larger than that of living algae.

  5. 酸度对化学镀Ni-P和Ni-Mo-P的影响%Effect of acidity on Ni-P and Ni-Mo-P chemical plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方永奎; 邱安娥; 张翼; 邱万忠

    2002-01-01

    研究了镀液pH值对Ni-P和Ni-Mo-P化学镀镀层的生成速度和镀层中Ni质量分数的影响. 结果表明,镀液的pH值不仅影响Ni的沉积速度,而且影响镀层中Ni的质量分数;镀层生成速度均随镀液pH值增大而出现极大值,但两者的位置有所不同;随镀液pH值增加,Ni-Mo-P镀镀层中w(Ni)出现极大值,而Ni-P镀则是pH值增至一定值后w(Ni)趋于平稳;镀层的生成速度与镀层中w(Ni)的最高点都出现在相同的酸度下,Ni-P镀镀液的最佳pH值为5.5,而Ni-Mo-P镀镀液的最佳pH值为6.5.

  6. Ni clay neoformation on montmorillonite surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dähn, R; Scheidegger, A; Manceau, A; Schlegel, M; Baeyens, B; Bradbury, M H

    2001-03-01

    Polarized extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (P-EXAFS) was used to study the sorption mechanism of Ni on the aluminous hydrous silicate montmorillonite at high ionic strength (0.3 M NaClO4), pH 8 and a Ni concentration of 0.66 mM. Highly textured self-supporting clay films were obtained by slowly filtrating a clay suspension after a reaction time of 14 days. P-EXAFS results indicate that sorbed Ni has a Ni clay-like structural environment with the same crystallographic orientation as montmorillonite layers.

  7. Determination of isothermal sections of the Co-Nb-Ni and Ni-Mo-Re ternary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yan; WANG Richu; YU Kun; WEN Danhua

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal sections of the Co-Nb-Ni ternary system at 1373 K and the Ni-Mo-Re ternary system at 1473 K were determined by means of diffusion triple and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).The results indicate that there are three three-phase regions found in the Co-Nb-Ni ternary system at 1373 K:(Ni,Co)+NbCo3+ Ni3Nb,NbCo3+NbCo2+Ni3Nb,and NbCo2+μ+Ni3Nb;and four three-phase regions found in the Ni-Mo-Re ternary system at 1473 K:Re+Ni+χ,Ni+NiMo+σ,σ+χ+ Ni,and σ+Mo+NiMo.No ternary eompoond is observed in the two isothermal sections.The isothermal sections arc contrasted with the previous study.

  8. First principles exploration of NiO and its ions NiO+ and NiO-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Constantine N; Mavridis, Aristides

    2013-02-07

    We present a high level ab initio study of NiO and its ions, NiO(+) and NiO(-). Employing variational multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) and single reference coupled-cluster methods combined with basis sets of quintuple quality, 54, 20, and 10 bound states of NiO, NiO(+), and NiO(-) have been studied. For all these states, complete potential energy curves have been constructed at the MRCI level of theory; in addition, for the ground states of the three species core subvalence (3s(2)3p(6)∕(Ni)) and scalar relativistic effects have been taken into account. We report energetics, spectroscopic parameters, dipole moments, and spin-orbit coupling constants. The agreement with experiment is in the case of NiO good, but certain discrepancies that need further investigation have arisen in the case of the anion whose ground state remains computationally a tantalizing matter. The cation is experimentally almost entirely unexplored, therefore, the study of many states shall prove valuable to further investigators. The ground state symmetry, bond distances, and binding energies of NiO and NiO(+) are (existing experimental values in parenthesis), X(3)Σ(-)(X(3)Σ(-)), r(e) = 1.606 (1.62712) Å, D(0) = 88.5 (89.2 ± 0.7) kcal/mol, and X(4)Σ(-)(?), r(e) = 1.60(?) Å, D(0) = 55 (62.4 ± 2.4) kcal/mol, respectively. The ground state of NiO(-) is (4)Σ(-) (but (2)Π experimentally) with D(0) = 85-87 (89.2 ± 0.7) kcal/mol.

  9. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of air annealing on structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, K.; Ullah, Asmat; Mushtaq, M.; Kamran, M.; Hussain, S. S.; Mumtaz, M.

    2016-11-01

    We reported systematic study on structural and magnetic properties of nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) nanoparticles annealed under air atmosphere at different temperatures in the range 400-800 °C. The XRD spectra revealed two phases such as Ni and NiO. The average crystallite size increases with increasing annealing temperature. A phase diagram was developed between two phases versus annealing temperature using XRD analysis. At lower annealing temperatures, Ni phase is dominant which does not easily undergo oxidation to form NiO. The NiO phase increases with increasing annealing temperature. FTIR spectroscopy revealed an increase in the NiO phase content at higher annealing temperature, which is in agreement with the XRD analysis. SEM images showed that nanoparticles are well separated at lower annealing temperatures but get agglomerated at higher annealing temperatures. The ferromagnetic (FM) Ni phase content and saturation magnetization (Ms) showed nearly the same trend with increasing annealing temperature. The nanoparticles annealed at 500 °C and 800 °C revealed highest and lowest Ms values, respectively, which is in accordance with the XRD phase diagram. Coercivity showed an overall decreasing trend with increasing annealing temperature due to decreased concentration of FM Ni phase and increasing average crystallite size. All these measurements indicate that the structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles are strongly influenced by the annealing temperature.

  11. Magnetic anisotropy studies on pulsed electrodeposited Ni/Ag/Ni trilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanapal, K.; Revathy, T.A.; Raj, M. Anand [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Narayanan, V. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Stephen, A., E-mail: stephen_arum@hotmail.com [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Ni/Ag/Ni layered film has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Crystalline nature of layered films is confirmed using XRD. • Magnetic easy axis is observed to be parallel to the plane of the film. • Magnetic anisotropy change is dependent on number of layers. • Ni/Ag/Ni layered film shows higher anisotropy energy than pure Ni film. - Abstract: The pulsed electrodeposition method was employed for the deposition of pure Ni, Ni/Ag and Ni/Ag/Ni films due to its greater advantages while comparing with other methods. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of fcc structure for both nickel and silver. The cross sectional scanning electron microscopy shows the layer formation in Ni/Ag and Ni/Ag/Ni films. The metallic nature of the nickel and silver were also confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The magnetic anisotropy behaviour was studied using vibrating sample magnetometer which gives that the easy axis is in plan of the film for all the film.

  12. Porous NiTi shape memory alloys produced by SHS: microstructure and biocompatibility in comparison with Ti2Ni and TiNi3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Paola; Panseri, Silvia; Ruffini, Andrea; Montesi, Monica; Ghetti, Martina; Zanotti, Claudio; Tampieri, Anna; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-10-01

    Shape memory alloys based on NiTi have found their main applications in manufacturing of new biomedical devices mainly in surgery tools, stents and orthopedics. Porous NiTi can exhibit an engineering elastic modulus comparable to that of cortical bone (12-17 GPa). This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Open cells porous NiTi was produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from Ni and Ti mixed powders. The main NiTi phase is formed during SHS together with other Ni-Ti compounds. The biocompatibility of such material was investigated by single culture experiment and ionic release on small specimen. In particular, NiTi and porous NiTi were evaluated together with elemental Ti and Ni reference metals and the two intermetallic TiNi3, Ti2Ni phases. This approach permitted to clearly identify the influence of secondary phases in porous NiTi materials and relation with Ni-ion release. The results indicated, apart the well-known high toxicity of Ni, also toxicity of TiNi3, whilst phases with higher Ti content showed high biocompatibility. A slightly reduced biocompatibility of porous NiTi was ascribed to combined effect of TiNi3 presence and topography that requires higher effort for the cells to adapt to the surface.

  13. Structure-activity relations for Ni-containing zeolites during NO reduction II. Role of the chemical state of Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosqueda-Jiménez, B.I.; Jentys, A.; Seshan, K.; Lercher, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the metal in Ni-containing zeolites used as catalysts for the reduction of NO with propane and propene was studied. In the fresh catalysts, Ni is located in ion exchange positions for Ni/MOR, Ni/ZSM-5, and Ni/MCM-22. The formation of carbonaceous deposits, the removal of Al from fra

  14. Characterization of Electrodeposited Nanoporous Ni and NiCu Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboski, Kyla; Hampton, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films are interesting candidates to catalyze certain reactions because of their large surface areas. This project focuses on the deposition of Ni and NiCu thin films on a Au substrate and further explores the catalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Depositions are created using controlled potential electrolysis. Samples are then dealloyed using linear sweep voltammetry. Before and after the dealloying, all the samples are characterized using multiple techniques. Electrochemical capacitance measurements allow comparisons of sample roughness. HER measurements characterize the reactivity of the sample with respect to the specific catalytic reaction. The Tafel equation is fit to the data to obtain information about the kinetics of the HER of the samples. Other methods for characterizing the samples include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The use of SEM allows images to be taken of the deposition to determine the change in the structure pre- and post- dealloy of the sample. EDS allows the elemental composition of the deposition to be determined before and after the dealloy stage. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under RUI Grant DMR-1104725, MRI Grant CHE-1126462, MRI Grant CHE-0959282, and ARI grant PHY-0963317.

  15. Spin polarization effect of Ni2 molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shi-Ying; Zhu Zheng-He

    2008-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) method (b3p86) of Gaussian 03 is used to optimize the structure of the Ni2 molecule. The result shows that the ground state for the Ni2 molecule is a 5-multiple state, symbolizing a spin polarization effect existing in the Ni2 molecule, a transition metal molecule, but no spin pollution is found because the wavefunction of the ground state does not mingle with wavefunctions of higher-energy states. So the ground state for Ni2 molecule, which is a 5-multiple state, is indicative of spin polarization effect of the Ni2 molecule, that is, there exist 4 parallel spin electrons in Ni2 molecule. The number of non-conjugated electrons is greatest. These electrons occupy different spatial orbitals so that the energy of the Ni2 molecule is minimized. It can be concluded that the effect of parallel spin in the Ni2 molecule is larger than that of the conjugated molecule, which is obviously related to the effect of electron d delocalization. In addition, the Murrell-Sorbie potential functions with the parameters of the ground state and other states of the Ni2 molecule are derived. The dissociation energy De for the ground state of the Ni2 molecule is 1.835 eV, equilibrium bond length Re is 0.2243 nm, vibration frequency ωe is 262.35 cm-1. Its force constants f2, f3 and f4 are 1.1901 aJ.nm-2, 5.8723 aJ.nm-3, and 21.2505 aJ.nm-4 respectively. The other spectroscopic data for the ground state of the Ni2 molecule ωexe, Be and αe are 1.6315cm-1, 0.1141 cm-1, and 8.0145×10-4 cm-1 respectively.

  16. Models of the Ni-L and Ni-SIa States of the [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Active Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Geoffrey M; Huynh, Mioy T; Li, Yulong; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Rauchfuss, Thomas B; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2016-01-19

    A new class of synthetic models for the active site of [NiFe]-hydrogenases are described. The Ni(I/II)(SCys)2 and Fe(II)(CN)2CO sites are represented with (RC5H4)Ni(I/II) and Fe(II)(diphos)(CO) modules, where diphos = 1,2-C2H4(PPh2)2(dppe) or cis-1,2-C2H2(PPh2)2(dppv). The two bridging thiolate ligands are represented by CH2(CH2S)2(2-) (pdt(2-)), Me2C(CH2S)2(2-) (Me2pdt(2-)), and (C6H5S)2(2-). The reaction of Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe) and [(C5H5)3Ni2]BF4 affords [(C5H5)Ni(pdt)Fe(dppe)(CO)]BF4 ([1a]BF4). Monocarbonyl [1a]BF4 features an S = 0 Ni(II)Fe(II) center with five-coordinated iron, as proposed for the Ni-SIa state of the enzyme. One-electron reduction of [1a](+) affords the S = 1/2 derivative [1a](0), which, according to density functional theory (DFT) calculations and electron paramagnetic resonance and Mössbauer spectroscopies, is best described as a Ni(I)Fe(II) compound. The Ni(I)Fe(II) assignment matches that for the Ni-L state in [NiFe]-hydrogenase, unlike recently reported Ni(II)Fe(I)-based models. Compound [1a](0) reacts with strong acids to liberate 0.5 equiv of H2 and regenerate [1a](+), indicating that H2 evolution is catalyzed by [1a](0). DFT calculations were used to investigate the pathway for H2 evolution and revealed that the mechanism can proceed through two isomers of [1a](0) that differ in the stereochemistry of the Fe(dppe)CO center. Calculations suggest that protonation of [1a](0) (both isomers) affords Ni(III)-H-Fe(II) intermediates, which represent mimics of the Ni-C state of the enzyme.

  17. Angle-resolved XPS Studies of Magnetic Multilayers Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta%磁性多层膜Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta角分辨XPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广华; 朱逢吾; 马纪东; 王安荣

    2002-01-01

    磁性多层膜Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta由磁控溅射方法制备.采用角分辨X射线光电子能谱(XPS)研究了反铁磁(NiO)/铁磁(NiFe)界面.结果表明,在NiO/NiFe界面发生了化学反应: NiO+Fe = Ni+FeO和3NiO+2Fe =3Ni+Fe2O3,此反应深度约为1~1.5 nm.反应产物将影响NiO对NiFe的交换耦合.

  18. Oxidation kinetics of Ni metallic films: Formation of NiO-based resistive switching structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtade, L.; Turquat, Ch. [L2MP, Laboratoire Materiaux et Microelectronique de Provence, UMR CNRS 6137, Universite du Sud Toulon Var, BP 20132, F-83957 La Garde Cedex (France); Muller, Ch. [L2MP, Laboratoire Materiaux et Microelectronique de Provence, UMR CNRS 6137, Universite du Sud Toulon Var, BP 20132, F-83957 La Garde Cedex (France)], E-mail: christophe.muller@l2mp.fr; Lisoni, J.G.; Goux, L.; Wouters, D.J. [IMEC, Interuniversity MicroElectronics Center, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Goguenheim, D. [L2MP, Laboratoire Materiaux et Microelectronique de Provence, UMR CNRS 6137, ISEN-Toulon, Maison des Technologies, Place Georges Pompidou, F-83000 Toulon (France); Roussel, P. [UCCS, Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ortega, L. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, UPR CNRS 5031, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-04-30

    Resistive switching controlled by external voltage has been reported in many Metal/Resistive oxide/Metal (MRM) structures in which the resistive oxide was simple transition metal oxide thin films such as NiO or TiO{sub 2} deposited by reactive sputtering. In this paper, we have explored the possibility to form NiO-based MRM structures from the partial oxidation of a blanket Ni metallic film using a Rapid Thermal Annealing route, the remaining Ni layer being used as bottom electrode. X-ray diffraction was used to apprehend the Ni oxidation kinetics while transmission electron microscopy enabled investigating local microstructure and film interfaces. These analyses have especially emphasized the predominant role of the as-deposited Ni metallic film microstructure (size and orientation of crystallites) on (i) oxidation kinetics, (ii) NiO film microstructural characteristics (crystallite size, texture and interface roughness) and (iii) subsequent electrical behavior. On this latter point, the as-grown NiO films were initially in the low resistance ON state without the electro-forming step usually required for sputtered films. Above the threshold voltage varying from 2 to 5 V depending on oxidation conditions, the Pt/NiO/Ni MRM structures irreversibly switched into the high resistance OFF state. This irreversibility is thought to originate in the microstructure of the NiO films that would cause the difficulty to re-form conductive paths.

  19. Purification of a Ni sup 2+ -binding protein, pNiXa, from Xenopus ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, B.L.; Makowski, G.S.; Nomoto, S.; Sunderman, F.W. (Univ. of Connecticut, Farmington (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Previous research on nickel-induced teratogenesis in Xenopus laevis identified several Ni{sup 2+}-binding proteins, including pNiXa in Xenopus ovaries, unfertilized eggs, and embryos. A major goal of this research project is elucidating the role of pNiXa in the uptake, embryotoxicity, and teratogenicity of Ni{sup 2+} in Xenopus. To purify and identify pNiXa, ovarian tissue from mature Xenopus females was homogenized in 3 vol of Tris buffer and centrifuged. The supernatant was centrifuged; the ultracentrifugal supernatant was batch-adsorbed onto DEAE-cellulose. The pNiSa remained unbound and was subsequently adsorbed on phosphocellulose and eluted by a step-wise NaCl gradient. The pNiXa was eluted in 0.25 M NaCl; this fraction was concentrated, and further purified by reverse phase chromatography on a 5 {mu}m C-8 column, with a linear trifluoroacetic acid/acetonitrile gradient. The pNiXa was eluted at {approximately}56% acetonitrile, yielding a single protein band with mol wt {approximately}47 kD,based on SDS-PAGE analysis. Comparison of the amino acid composition of pNiXa versus the results obtained by automated Edman degradation indicated that the N-terminus of pNiXa was blocked. Sequencing of peptide fragments of pNiXa is underway.

  20. Formation of dioxins on NiO and NiCl2 at different oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yan, Mi; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jianhua; Olie, Kees; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-08-01

    Model fly ash (MFA) containing activated carbon (AC) as source of carbon, NaCl as source of chlorine and either NiO or NiCl2 as de novo catalyst, was heated for 1h at 350 °C in a carrier gas flow composed of N2 containing 0, 6, 10, and 21 vol.% O2, to study the formation of PCDD/Fs (dioxins) and its dependence on oxygen. The formation of PCDD/Fs with NiCl2 was stronger by about two orders of magnitude than with NiO and the difference augmented with rising oxygen concentration. The thermodynamics of the NiO-NiCl2 system were represented, X-ray absorption near edge structural (XANES) spectroscopy allowed to probe the state of oxidation of the nickel catalyst in the MFA and individual metal species were distinguished using the LCF (Linear combination fitting) technique: thus three supplemental nickel compounds (Ni2O3, Ni(OH)2, and Ni) were found in the fly ash. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicates that both Ni2O3 and NiCl2 probably played an important role in the formation of PCDD/Fs.

  1. Preparation and Properties of Amorphous NiFe/Cu/NiFe Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yun; JIANG Ya-dong; HU Wen-cheng; ZENG Hong-juan

    2004-01-01

    The amorphous of Permalloy on the copper subtract was studied using composite electroplating method. A portion of hydrogen brings the counteraction on the surface of cathode leading nickel-iron alloys to be anomalous in the process of co-depositing. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that the Ni-Fe alloys layer is amorphous. The Giant Magneto -Impedance (GMI) effect of Ni-Fe alloys was obtained under the optimal conditions, dependence on the soft magnetic property of Ni-Fe amorphous thin film. As a result, the ratios△ Z/Z of NiFe/Cu/NiFe amorphous thin film are 30% at 40 kHz which is in low frequency. Furthermore, the GMI value of NiFe/Cu/NiFe amorphous thin film with a sandwich structure is higher than that of single-layer ferromagnetic films of the same thickness.

  2. Nanoscale structural heterogeneity in Ni-rich half-Heusler TiNiSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Jason E., E-mail: jedouglas@mrl.ucsb.edu; Pollock, Tresa M. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Chater, Philip A. [Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Brown, Craig M. [Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Seshadri, Ram [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    The structural implications of excess Ni in the TiNiSn half-Heusler compound are examined through a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron scattering studies, in conjunction with first principles density functional theory calculations on supercells. Despite the phase diagram suggesting that TiNiSn is a line compound with no solid solution, for small x in TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn there is indeed an appearance—from careful analysis of the scattering—of some solubility, with the excess Ni occupying the interstitial tetrahedral site in the half-Heusler structure. The analysis performed here would point to the excess Ni not being statistically distributed, but rather occurring as coherent nanoclusters. First principles calculations of energetics, carried out using supercells, support a scenario of Ni interstitials clustering, rather than a statistical distribution.

  3. Abrasive wear property of laser melting/deposited Ti2Ni/TiNi intermetallic alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A wear resistant intermetallic alloy consisting of TiNi primary dendrites and Ti2Ni matrix was fabricated by the laser melting deposition manufacturing process. Wear resistance of Ti2Ni/TiNi alloy was evaluated on an abrasive wear tester at room temperature under the different loads. The results show that the intermetallic alloy suffers more abrasive wear attack under low wear test load of 7, 13 and 25 N than high-chromium cast-iron. However, the intermetallic alloy exhibits better wear resistance under wear test load of 49 N. Abrasive wear of the laser melting deposition Ti2Ni/TiNi alloy is governed by micro-cutting and plowing.Pseudoelasticity of TiNi plays an active role in contributing to abrasive wear resistance.

  4. Preparation of ZnNiMo/{gamma}-alumina catalysts from recycled Ni for hydrotreating reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, Carlos F.; Lopez, Julio [Laboratorio de Catalisis y Metales de Transicion, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia Edo Carabobo, Apartado Postal 3336 (Venezuela); Scaffidi, Adriana; Scott, Carlos E. [Centro de Catalisis, Petroleo y Petroquimica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ciencias, Apartado 47102, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2005-09-18

    Ni, recovered from Ni-Cd cellular phone batteries, was used in the preparation of ZnNiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed reductions (TPR), surface area determinations (BET) and chemical analysis. Vanadyl octaethyl porphyrin (VOOEP) hydrodeporphyrinization (HDP) and thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) were used as catalytic tests. It was found that the addition of Zn increases the ratio between octahedral and tetrahedral Mo in ZnMo and ZnNiMo catalysts, and that Ni addition lowers the reduction temperature of Mo species. Both results induce a positive synergetic effect for HDP and HDS reactions. An activity maximum was found for the catalyst with a Zn/(Zn+Ni) atomic ratio equal to 0.29, for both reactions. Finally, the use of a possible pollutant (Ni-Cd batteries) to produce a catalyst to eliminate contaminants in fuels was shown to be feasible.

  5. Thermodynamic Analysis of Electrodeposited Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhong-cheng; XU Rui-dong; WANG Ji-kun

    2004-01-01

    The potential-pH diagram of Ni-P-H2O system is calculated and constructed by use of thermodynamic data. On the basis of the potential-pH diagram the electrochemical behaviors of electrodepositing Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P alloys are analyzed. The phases of Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P coatings are identified by means of X-ray diffraction analysis. The thermodynamic analysis shows that it is difficult to deposit Mo or P individually from its aqueous solution, and they must be co-deposited with other metals by induced deposition; P and Ni can be deposited as compound Ni3P on the cathode; Mo is deposited in two forms: one is in the form of MoO3 solid particles and the other is in the form of compound MoC. X-ray diffraction analysis is in agreement with the thermodynamic analysis.

  6. One-neutron knockout from $^{57}$Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Yurkewicz, K L; Brown, B A; Enders, J; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Hansen, P G; Maddalena, V; Navin, A; Sherrill, B M; Tostevin, J A

    2006-01-01

    The single-particle structure of $^{57}$Ni and level structure of $^{56}$Ni were investigated with the \\mbox{$^{9}$Be ($^{57} $Ni,$^{56}$Ni+$\\gamma$)$\\it{X}$} reaction at 73 MeV/nucleon. An inclusive cross section of 41.4(12)~mb was obtained for the reaction, compared to a theoretical prediction of 85.4 mb, hence only 48(2)% of the theoretical cross section is exhausted. This reduction in the observed spectroscopic strength is consistent with that found for lighter well-bound nuclei. One-neutron removal spectroscopic factors of 0.58(11) to the ground state and 3.7(2) to all excited states of $^{56}$Ni were deduced.

  7. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  8. Charge ordering in Ni1 +/Ni2 + nickelates: La4Ni3O8 and La3Ni2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botana, Antia S.; Pardo, Victor; Pickett, Warren E.; Norman, Michael R.

    2016-08-01

    Ab initio calculations allow us to establish a close connection between the Ruddlesden-Popper layered nickelates and cuprates not only in terms of filling of d levels (close to d9) but also because they show Ni1 +(S =1 /2 ) /Ni2 +(S =0 ) stripe ordering. The insulating charge-ordered ground state is obtained from a combination of structural distortions and magnetic order. The Ni2 + ions are in a low-spin configuration (S =0 ) yielding an antiferromagnetic arrangement of Ni1 + S =1 /2 ions like the long-sought spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic insulator analog of the cuprate parent materials. The analogy extends further with the main contribution to the bands near the Fermi energy coming from hybridized Ni dx2-y2 and O p states.

  9. Environmental liability on the risk of hazardous meterials. (2). ; Problems and trends in the international companies, especially with regards to the techniques and law of insurances (from the lst international congress on safety science). Kikenbusshitsu risk ni taisuru kankyo sekinin. (2). ; Kokusai hikaku ni okeru mondaiten to keiko, oyobi koreyori shozuru hoken gijutsu to hokenhojo no mondaiten (daiikkai anzen kogaku kokusai kaigi kara shoyaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H. (Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-15

    An environmental liability act was promulgated in the European Community where the regulation on air, water, soils and foods, and the liability provisions are increasingly tightened. This paper introduces the Conditions in Germany'' for the circumstances thereabout as seen from the insurance company point of view, using an extract from the presentations at the lst International Safety Engineerings Conference. In Germany, the consciousness to the problem of Altlasten'' (inadequate disposition areas) has been heightened since about 1983. This has made the problems of soil and ground water contamination handled in more advanced ways, whereas the criterion values are not fixed but incessantly revised downwards, causing a situation embarrassing for insurance companies in how to handle liabilities of unspecified number og parties on the pollutions accumulated over many years. The new environmental act is unified under one common concept from the water quality control act to the gene technologies act. For instance in the gene technologies act enforced in July 1990, all the related operations must follow the intentions of the law makers, and are subject to statutory regulations. Liabilities must be fulfilled on any damage that even operators and scientists were not able to be aware of.

  10. Recent trends of deep offshore exploration. From `Survey of Trends and Problems in Floating Structure Operating Technology for Deep Offshore Drilling Systems`; Daisuishin kaiiki ni okeru saikin no tanko kaihatsu doko ni tsuite. `Daisuishin kussaku system no futai un`yo gijutsu i kansuru doko to mondaiten no chosa` yori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosomi, A. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Japan National Oil Corporation`s survey for fiscal 1997 of deepsea mine exploration and exploitation in the world is described. The survey discloses that future potentials are high in the Mediterranean, Asia, and Oceania although the generally known main deepsea oil-producing zones of the world belong in the Atlantic, as exemplified by the western part of the North Sea. The level of oil exploitation in the ocean that has been 200m or shallower in the past is now advancing deeper toward levels lower than 1000m. As for pilot drilling, although a 2000m-deep level is regarded as the limit beyond which progress deeper would be difficult, yet drilling into a 3000m-deep level is now being planned. Among drilling contractors, reorganization is under way through merger and acquisition. Although the total number of rigs has reduced, demand for rigs turned strong in 1996, and the number of rigs is increasing rapidly through new construction or refurbishment. As for ocean development systems, various practical applications have added to the list of available systems. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Survey report for fiscal 1997 on the survey report on the actual state of technical cooperation on industrial technologies by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiiki ni okeru Obei shokoku no sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru gijutsu kyoryoku jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The actual state was surveyed on the technical cooperation by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region. The U.S.A. is making research cooperation with Thailand on ethylene molecule structures to enhance productivity in rubber production, France on molecule markers for high production rubber clone selection, and Australia on grain storing and drying methods. For the Philippines, America is giving assistance on management of reproducible resources, France on climate information communications systems for local areas, Australia on grain storing and drying methods, and Germany on waste oil recovery and reutilization, and development of pollution-free energy resources. For Malaysia, the Great Britain is cooperating on building engineering research centers, Australia on search for plant patheology genetic organics available in the Pacific region, and Germany on investigative researches on pollution prevention for tin mines and processing areas, and forestry and plant information systems. With respect to the ASEAN, this paper reports its activities placing importance on biology and electronics engineering, while the organization is taking actions in the areas of foodstuffs, animals, electronics, information and material science, energy exploration, marine and earth physics, and resource development. (NEDO)

  12. Study on suppression acoustic resonance of interaction tones from a centrifugal motor blower. Modeling of phenomenon and proposal of suppression method; Enshingata sofuki ni okeru doseiyoku kansho ni kiin suru onkyoteki iyomei gensho no hasei genri to yokuseiho. Gensho no model ka to yokusei shuho no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimura, K.; Watanabe, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-10-25

    In a centrifugal blower with diffuser vanes, the noise level may unexpectedly increase at certain numbers of revolutions. In particular, the phenomenon of acoustic resonance due to aerodynamic interaction tones between the impeller and the diffuser is a serious problem. In this paper, we develop a physical model to describe this phenomenon. The model assumes that inner flow paths both in the impeller and the diffuser behave as quasi-one-dimensional acoustic tubes. We constructed a mathematical model to predict critical numbers of revolutions at which resonance occurs, and conducted experiments to verify the model, and the results agree well with the mathematical model. We also propose an effective method for suppressing the resonance in which diffuser vanes with slits are used. Each diffuser vane has a slit located just behind the end of the facing area between neighboring vanes. The location of the slit is determined by the mathematical model. Experiments show that the method successfully reduces keen noise by as much as 8 dB. (author)

  13. Development of [l brace]100[r brace] texture in silicon steel sheets by isothermal austenite[yields]ferrite transformations and its mechanism. Keiso kohan ni okeru toon [gamma][yields][alpha] hentai ni yoru [l brace]100[r brace] shugo soshiki no keisei to sono kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, T. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Advanced Technology Research Lab.); Tanaka, T. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Iron and Steel Research Lab.)

    1993-12-01

    The texture in silicon steel sheets has been studied during this half of century and the methods for forming the textures suitable as the soft-magnetic materials of [l brace]110[r brace][l angle]001[r angle] as well as [l brace]100[r brace][l angle]001[r angle] have been found. However, few researches has been carried out on the silicon steel using positively the innate properties of the steel such as the transformation between the austenite ([gamma]) and [alpha]-ferrite and the recrystallization in the coexisting area of [alpha]/[gamma] duplex. In this study, the isothermal [alpha][yields][gamma] transformation during the process of vacuum-annealing and decarburizing-annealing of 2% silicon steel containing carbon and Mn and the texture formation accompanied therewith are examined. The conclusions are as follows. The isothermal [alpha][yields][gamma] transformation occurs in the layer just below the surface and the structure of the surface becomes the single phase of [alpha]-ferrite in the vacuum of 10[sup -3]Pa and the temperature is kept constant within the range of [alpha]/[gamma] duplex temperature or [gamma]-phase temperature as from 850 to 1050 centigrade. This surface structure develops to the strong [l brace]100[r brace] texture. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Recent energy situation in the U.S. and Europe. Trend of discussions on energy safety security and energy policies in the E.U. and CIS (commonwealth of independent states) countries; Obei ni okeru saikin no energy jijo. Energy anzen hosho ni kansuru giron no doko to EU oyobi CIS shokoku no energy seisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The E.U. intends to establish the stabilized new partnership and economic area, based on free trades and tighter economic cooperation with Mediterranean countries. For the purpose of establishing the effective cooperative relationship in the energy field, the E.U. committee taking the short- and medium-term initiative prepares as follows: The establishment of the European/Mediterranean Energy Forum is thought of. This is for the joint management of cooperation in the energy field and the organization of the conferences and meetings of information exchanges between partners. The discussion is started for the final joining in the organization of partners of Mediterranean countries who do not participate in the Pan-European Energy Charter conference. They study options adoptable for easing investments. They cooperate with the related countries for carrying out the project having common interest in the TENs (Trans-European energy networks) field. The working-out of plans and projects is promoted for coordinating energy projects according to the purposes and procedures of MEDA. 59 refs.

  15. Geothermal energy development activities. Report of the field trip of the Development and Utilization of Geothermal Resources in Tianjin, the 30th International Geothermal Congress; Dai 30 kai IGC chugoku tenshinshi ni okeru chinetsu chokusetsu riyo no kengaku ni sanka shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubayashi, O. [Geological Survey of Japan Ibaragi (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The 30th International Geothermal Congress (IGC) was held in August, 1996, in the Beijing Great Hall of People`s Congress, Beijing, China. The author of the paper took part in an excursion being a part of IGC titled the Development and Utilization of Geothermal Resources in Tianjin and reported the summary in this paper. Because the Tianjin area has relatively high geothermal gradient, the direct utilization of the geothermal resources has been pushed forward from the 1980`s. An electron controlled hot water production and supply system developed by the Geothermal Resources Center, Tianjin Environment Protection Bureau is characterized in not utilizing any heat exchanger and conducting chemical treatments to prevent scaling. This system adopts a fuzzy-control, calculates the most suitable operating condition based on 48 kinds of observed parameters (hot water flow rate, pressure, external temperature, etc.) and controls automatically all the hot water production and supply system. The system can supply warming for 95,000 square meters including a municipal library and the neighboring 6 buildings. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Study on the energy performance of an energy producing and saving house. Part 3. Measurement results of the connecting system to the power grid and prediction of the PV system electric generation residence in Kyushu; So sho energy seino ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gyakuchoryu keito renkei system no nenkan jisseki to Kyushu ni okeru jutaku deno hatsudenryo yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O.; Sakai, K.; Hirakawa, M. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    Two-year study of an energy-producing/-saving house equipped with a 5kWp photovoltaic power generation system is described, in which the track records of this system capable of back-flow and system interconnection and inverter performance are analyzed, and the power expected to be obtained when photovoltaic power generation systems are installed in some residential houses in the Kyushu area is predicted. In the analysis of the yearly variance in the demand/supply of electric power, it turns out that more is generated in spring than in summer, which is thanks to the good weather in spring, typhoons in summer, and power generation efficiency degraded due to temperature rise in the modules. The amount of photovoltaic cell module-generated power is estimated by performing a multiple regression analysis involving the amount of insolation, outside air temperature, and wind speeds. Furthermore, available power is calculated using a relational expression involving inverter performance. On the assumption of 3kW-capacity photovoltaic power generation systems installed at residential houses at various locations across Kyushu, the expected amount of power to be generated is calculated, which proves to be approximately 3000kWh a year, confirming the effectiveness of the photovoltaic power generation system. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Fatigue crack propagation behavior in the field of residual stress distribution. 7th Report. Study of fatigue crack propagation behavior based upon RPG load; Zanryu oryokuba ni okeru hiro kiretsu denpa kyodo. 7. RPG kijun ni yoru hiro kiretsu denpa kyodo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyosada, M.; Niwa, T. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-01

    In the previous report, load causing tensional plastic region or in other words the load limit above RPG load was an effective load limit for fatigue crack propagation and corresponding to this, the relation between the stress expansion coefficient limit {delta}K{sub RP} and fatigue crack propagation rate including the periphery of lower limit region showed linear relation in logarithm graph. In this report, many informations were achieved from the fatigue crack propagation experiment under same load condition using center notched specimens for the three cases such as tension residual stress and compression residual stress are applied to the near edges of the specimen, and for the case where residual stress do not exist in order to study whether the stress expansion coefficient limit {delta}K{sub RP} corresponding to load range above RPG load can be a parameter of fatigue crack propagation rate or not even in case of residual stress field and further, whether the simulation of RPG load can be materialize even in case of residual stress field or not. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Fatigue crack propagation behavior in the field of residual stress distribution. 7th Report. Study of fatigue crack propagation based upon RPG load; Zanryu oryokuba ni okeru hiro kiretsu denpa kyodo. 7. RPG kijun ni yoru hiro kiretsu denpa kyodo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyosada, M.; Niwa, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-31

    In the previous paper, a simulation model of fatigue crack opening and closing phenomena in an arbitrary stress distribution field for the purpose of obtaining RPG load is shown. From the calculation and experimental results of RPG load, the effects of stress ratio and delayed retardation on fatigue crack propagation are quantitatively assessed. Moreover it becomes clear that the stopping condition of fatigue crack propagation is {delta}K{sub RP}{le}0. In this paper, fatigue crack propagation tests in residual stress distribution field are carried out. Two types of center notched specimens are prepared: one is that gas heating is made at the center line of the specimen which leads to tensile residual stress field in the middle part of the specimen, the other at near the edges of the specimen which leads to compressive residual stress field in the middle part of the specimen. It becomes clear that tensile residual stress descends RPG load and compressive residual stress raises RPG load. Moreover if the large compressive residual stress exists, crack closes even when tensile yield zone generates at the crack tip under loading process. In this case, plastic zone could not grow until crack becomes fully open. Simulated RPG load is in good agreement with experimental one even in the field of residual stress distribution. And compressive residual stress has a large effect of decreasing the fatigue crack propagation rate. These effects can be successfully estimated by the simulation model. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Stratified charge combustion system using pilot flame ignition. Application to a model combustion chamber of Wankel-type rotary engine; Pilot kaen chakka ni yoru sojo kyuki nensho hoshiki no kenkyu. Wankel gata rotary kikan no model nenshoshitsu ni okeru nensho kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyoshi, Y.; Muroki, T.; Song, Y. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-25

    The ignition mechanism of a pilot flame in a stratified charge mixture was examined using a model combustion chamber of a Wankel-type rotary engine. Experimental study such as LDV measurement, pressure data analysis, high-speed photography and image analysis provides detailed knowledge concerning the stratified charge combustion, which is complemented by theoretical study of the mixture formation process inside the combustion chamber. Characteristics of the pilot flame as an ignition source and the mixture formation inside the model chamber required for enhanced combustion are determined in this study. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Aerodynamic stability study of a long-span prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge. Aerodynamic behavior of edge box girder under uniform flow; Chodai PC shachokyo no taifu anteisei ni kansuru kenkyu. Ichiyoryuchu ni okeru edge girder keishiki no kuriki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, T. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    In recent years, the construction of long-span bridges is on the increase. Prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges are dynamically very efficient structures of relatively low cost that blend in well with the landscape. Maintenance is also easy. Consequently, the adoption of edge box girders for cable-stayed bridges is increasing worldwide, but problems related to the aerodynamic stability of the structure have emerged. The aerodynamic stability of edge box girders for a prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge was investigated under uniform flow conditions by conducting several wind tunnel experiments. As a result, the section of the bridge deck was optimized to prevent torsional flutter within an angle of attack varying from -5 to +5 degrees. It is therefore possible to guarantee the aerodynamic stability of long-span prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. (author)

  1. Effect of Ca/Al molar ratio on the growth of Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa and Chamaecyparis pisifera grown in nutrient solution culture and their critical point; Suiko saibai jokenka ni okeru sugi, hinoki, sawara no seiiku ni oyobosu Ca/Al no eikyo to critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Umezawa, T.; Murakoshi, M. [Bio-Environment Research, Co. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    A solution culture is experimented for the investigation of the effect of Ca/Al on the growth of Sugi (cryptomeria), Hinoki (cypress), and Sakura (cherry tree), and of CP (critical point for the emergence of the effect of Al). The solution culture is performed in water under specified conditions, the harvest is assortedly collected after 14 weeks, and is measured for dried weight. Sugi and Hinoki wither and die at an Al concentration of 5mM, but not at an Al concentration of 1mM or less. The concentration of Ca fails to exert any significant influence. At the Al concentration of 5mM, the trees are inhibited from growing in height or trunk diameter, but not affected by Ca concentration. The dried weight shares the same trend. The dried weight begins to decrease when the mol concentration ratio of Ca/Al or (K+Ca+Mg)/Al lowers to four or less. It may be concluded that conifers are inhibited from growing when the Al concentration is 2mM or higher, Ca/Al is one or lower, or (K+Ca+Mg)/Al is five or lower. If the point where growth is inhibited by 20% or 50% is chosen as the reference point, the CP of (K+Ca+Mg)/Al will be 1 or 0.5, respectively. This means that a different reference point yields a different value. There is an experimental outcome stating that growth is not affected even when this value is 0.4 in the case of soil exposed to artificial acid rain. 22 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Quantitative analysis of schlieren photographs for internal combustion engine diagnostics. 2nd Report. ; Smoothing of background distortion and analytical results of transient wall-impinging jet. Nainen kikan ni okeru schlieren shashin no teiryoka gazo shoriho ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. ; Background no yugami jokyo, narabini hiteijo hekimen shototsu funryu no kaiseki kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, H.; Chikahisa, T.; Murayama, T. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-02-25

    It was previously reported, for the research on the internal combustion engine, that the quantitative analysis of Schlieren photographs, one of simple visualization technologies, is effective on the heightening in accuracy of the analysis by Schlieren photographs and however, insufficient in countermeasures against the background distortion, causing errors. Then, by removing background distortion and analyzing Schlieren photographs, taken of transient wall-impinging jet, evaluation was made of the present quantitative analysis. As a result, a method could be shown to effectively correct the background distortion. Further, upon analyzing transient wall-impinging jet by that method, result could be obtained to be sufficiently accurate to grasp its structural characteristics. The resent quantitative analysis is advantageous in capability of, among others, monentarily quantify the two-dimensional phenomenon by a simple unit, and support the quantitative information for the Schlieren measurerment, widely used in the research on the internal combustion engine. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Measurements of the liquid phase temperature in fuel sprays via exciplex fluorescence method. 1st Report. Development of the measuring technique and application to fuel sprays injected into atmospheric pressure and high temperature environments; Exciplex keikoho ni yoru nenryo funmu no ekiso ondo bunpu sokutei. 1. Sokutei shuho no kaihatsu to joatsu koon fun`ikichu ni okeru funmu eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizaki, T.; Nishida, K.; Hiroyasu, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Funahashi, T.

    1998-07-25

    A measuring method based on the exciplex fluorescence technique has been developed for planar measurements of the liquid phase temperature distribution in fuel sprays. The liquid fuel (n-hexadecane or squalane) was doped with pyrene (C16H10). The fluorescence intensity ratios of the pyrene monomer and excimer emissions has temperature dependence, and were used to determine the liquid phase temperatures in the fuel sprays. The spray was excited by laser radiation at 266 nm, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged by an intensified CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of the liquid phase temperature was estimated from the fluorescence image by the temperature dependence of the intensity ratio. The results demonstrate that this laser-based thermometry technique is available for 2-D measurements of the liquid phase temperature in fuel sprays. 13 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Study of coherent optical fiber communication in electromagnetic field. 3. Measurement of transient state of polarization in actual OPGW caused by lightning; Coherent hikaritsushin eno denjikai no eikyo to taisaku. 3. Jitsu field no OPGW ni okeru rakurai ni yoru henpa hendo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurono, M.; Isawa, K.; Kuribata, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Coherent optical fiber communication method is effective for increase of transmission capacity of existing optical fiber. But it needs a control of polarization state of optical signal. Especially through OPGW (Optical fiber composite Ground Wire), the polarization state will be influenced by lightning. This report describes a field measurement of optical polarization characteristics in actual OPGW of Hokuriku electric company in the condition of lightning. Main results are follows; (1) In normal condition without lightning, the states of optical polarization have alternative fluctuations of 60Hz. (2) In lightning weather, the transients of optical polarization are detected 51 times in two half months. It is made clear that these transient states are due to lightning by checking the time of day with the time data of LLS (Lightning Location System) and with the time of power line trip. (3) By estimating the waves of polarization shift, the duration of transient is 2 - 5msec, the rise time is 50 - 200usec. and wave tail has damping oscillation of 2 - 5kHz. The maximum shift of polarization states on Poincare sphere is 165 degree, which means polarization changes almost opposite states. (4) By evaluating the locations of lightning with LLS data, the transient polarization shift is caused by lightning over 50 km from observed OPGW. And the short distance tends to the large fluctuation of polarization. This characteristics may have a possibility of application to lightning monitoring. 7 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of the current state and tasks of research and development of technologies for effectively utilizing CO{sub 2} fixation by higher vegetation; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Koto shokubutsu ni okeru nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu no genjo to kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations and studies are conducted seeking for a CO2 fixation method improved by utilizing the photosynthesizing function of higher vegetation. Details of higher vegetation genes are being disclosed thanks to the rapid progress of studies making use of molecular biological techniques, and the application of the genetic mechanism to scientific and technological fields is becoming increasingly feasible. In particular, the role of the CO2 fixation enzyme RuBisCO has been elucidated almost completely. It has been learned that, in terms of photosynthesizing capability, the C{sub 4} plants (corn etc.) are 2-3 times higher than the C{sub 3} plants (rice, wheat, etc.), and 5-10 times higher than the CAM plants (cactuses etc.). Studies are also under way about the rice genome so that a photosynthesizing capability so high as that of the C{sub 4} plants may be endowed the rice plant. The metabolism and control of useful substances produced in the CO2 fixation process etc. in the higher vegetation are being investigated, and it is now expected that some day such useful substances will be produced and utilized efficiently. Researches are under way into the relationship between the green leaf that is the organ that performs photosynthesis and the organ (sink) that stores and utilizes starch and sugar is in progress, and now a new field is going to open where vegetables will be fully utilized. (NEDO)

  6. Combustion-driven oscillation in a furnace with multispud-type gas burners. 4th Report. Effects of position of secondary air guide sleeve and openness of secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation condition; Multispud gata gas turner ni okeru nensho shindo. 4. Nijigen kuki sleeve ichi oyobi nijigen kuki vane kaido no shindo reiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, I.; Okiura, K.; Baba, A.; Orimoto, M. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-25

    Effects of the position of a secondary air guide sleeve and the openness of a secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation conditions were studied experimentally for multispud-type gas burners. Pressure fluctuation in furnaces was analyzed with the previously reported resonance factor which was proposed as an index to represent the degree of combustion oscillation. As a result, the combustion oscillation region was largely affected by both position of a guide sleeve and openness of a guide vane. As the openness having large effect on the ratio of primary and secondary air/tertiary air and the position hardly having effect on the ratio were adjusted skillfully, the burner with no combustion oscillation region was achieved in its normal operation range. In addition, as the effect of preheating combustion air was arranged with a standard flow rate or mass flow flux of air, it was suggested the combustion oscillation region due to preheating can be described with the same manner as that due to no preheating. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  7. In-cylinder flow field in a spark-ignited natural gas engine. 1st Report. In-cylinder flow visualization by PTV; Hibana tenkashiki tennen gas kikan no nenshoshitsunai ni okeru ryudo tokusei. 1. PTV ni yoru ryudoba no kashika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukano, Y.; Hisaki, H.; Kida, S. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kadota, T. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-02-25

    In-cylinder flow field in a spark-ignited natural gas engine was investigated by the laser light sheet PTV method, which can analyze flow field in a short time. Using a single-cylinder visualization engine, flow field was measured right below and 10 mm, 20 mm, and 40 mm below cylinder head, at various crank angles in intake, compression, and expansion strokes. The results showed that induction-generated swirl was getting concentric to the cylinder center in compression stroke, and was shifted to the outward radial direction in expansion stroke. Swirl velocity increases with the lapse of time, showing its maximum around 20deg BTDC during compression stroke, and varies from cycle to cycle within {+-}5% to its maximum velocity. Squish velocity shows its inward maximum and outward maximum around 20deg BTDC and 20deg ATDC, respectively, and varies from cycle to cycle within {+-}8% to its maximum outward velocity. The maximum outward squish velocity in expansion stroke is about twice as large as the maximum inward squish velocity in compression stroke. 11 refs.

  8. Project to support promotion of forming an environmentally friendly energy community. Survey report on 'a survey on business feasibility of power generation using dechlorinated RPF in the Muroran area'; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo. Muroran chiku ni okeru datsuenso RPF ni yoru hatsuden jigyo no kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations and discussions were given on business feasibility of 'combustion power generation business based on wide area collection of dechlorinated RPF' as one measure for effective utilization of waste plastics, environmental performance as the effect therefrom, and district business promotion. The result of the discussions may be summarized as follows: in the case one, a 100-liter per hour boiler will supply the Muroran Steel Mill with steam of 19 tons per hour and electric power of 17.7 MW; in the case two, a 100-liter per hour boiler will supply the Hokkaido Electric Power Company with power of 21 MW; a 50-liter per hour boiler will supply the Muroran Steel Mill with power of 9.8 MW; fuel will be transported by trucks from inside Hokkaido, by bulk loaded vessels from the Tokyo Metropolitan area, and by trucks from the piers; the turbine will be multi-stage bleeding type; scattered ash will be filtered by a bag filter; an activated carbon facility will be installed to remove dioxins; ash will be treated by a dissolution preventive solidifying system; and the business profitability is better in the case two than in the case 1, but assurance of subsidy is still an indispensable condition. (NEDO)

  9. Analysis of fractures along a borehole axis at a geothermal well. Preliminary study for interpretation of 3D stress field using logging data. Chinetsusei ni okeru koseijiku ni sou fracture no kaiseki. Kenso data wo riyoshita 3 jigen oryokuba kaiseki no yobiteki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, T.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. (GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Hayashi, K. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Fluid Science)

    1994-05-01

    Logging and analysis by BHTV and FMI were made in order to detect and evaluate the fracture before and after the hydraulic crushing of geothermal well. As a result of BHTV logging, the number of fractures detected increased before and after its hydraulic crushing. Though artificially generated, new open cracks were not confirmed at approximate depths of mud water leakage. That leakage which was generated by the hydraulic crushing was judged attributable to the opening of originally existing natural cracks. The FMI logging which electrically surveys the borehole wall can easily give information about the stratification planes. Many fractures were detected due to stratification planes which traveled west-northwestward with a southwestward dip of 20[degree] at the depth of 950 to 1100m. It was judged that some fractures leaking the mud water had largely depended upon the intrusive orientation of andesite and natural cracks during the hydraulic crushing, and lay on an intrusive boundary of andesite. The conclusion from the foregoing was that the evaluation of fracture, through logging by BHTV and FMI in advance, in the borehole is important for the hydraulic crushing. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M.

    1996-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Attempt to measure the temperature, pressure and particle velocity of pyrocastic surge with penetrator-type gauge. ; Airdropping experiment at Unzen volcano. Penetrator hoshiki ni yoru kasai surge no ondo, atsuryoku, ryushi sokudo sokutei no kokoromi. ; Unzendake ni okeru toka jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, H. (Science Education Institute of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan)); Kamata, K.; Sange, K. (Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Science); Nakada, S. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Science); Kamata, H. (Geological Survey of Japan, Osaka Office, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes development of a penetrator intended of measuring temperatures, pressures, and particle velocities of air blasts and pyroclastic surges occurring in volcanos, and its airdropping experiment. This device forms a spear with a total length of 150 cm to 160 cm disposed with wings at the tail, and a stopper to prevent the spear from penetrating into ground deeper than 60 cm. The device for measuring temperatures suspends metal pieces of 16 kinds in total including such metals as lead and tin, and such alloys as eutectic solders and type lead to enable measuring a temperature range from 100[degree]C to 810[degree]C . The device for measuring pressures consists of a square pipe with a length little shorter than one meter, twisted to 22.5[degree] at three locations, each of the 16 faces made from the twisting being attached with two blast meters (using lead and copper foils, serving also as particle velocity meters). Twelve prototype devices have been dropped (not having been recovered yet) on five points of the east side slope of Mt. Unzen using a helicopter. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Investigation of the creation of functional surfaces and the recent development in related researches. 2. Investigation of the development of new isolation/refining systems in water system; Kokino hyomen no sosei to shintenkai no kenkyu doko chosa. 2. Suikei ni okeru atarashii bunri seisei system no kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Propositions were made concerning new chromatography and membrane separation techniques wherein a command control material is used, the mobile phase is fixed upon water, and the fixed phase is caused to vary by external commands, and how to develop the said techniques into a project was discussed. New methods were also introduced, capable of separating water systems and, particularly, capable of separating and refining, without damaging their functions, bionic elements such as proteins, genes, and cells, which encouraged discussion on the future of the said project. As for command controlled materials, detailed investigations were conducted into materials responsive to physical stimulation such as light, electric field, magnetic field, or heat and materials responsive to PH and chemical or biochemical substances, and discussion was made on the structures and characters of the said materials. Concerning the manufacture of a command controlled surface, consideration centered particularly about the density and thickness of command controlled molecules to be introduced onto the surface. Furthermore, the current state and problems were discussed regarding chromatographic separation and refining of optical isomers, nucleic acids, physiologically active substances, peptides, cells, etc. 252 refs., 75 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Microscopic phase field study of the antisite defect of Ni3 Al in binary Ni-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The temporal evolution feature of a microscopic phase field model is utilized to study the antisite defects of L1 2-Ni 3 Al;this is quite different from other physicist’ interests.There are mainly two points in brief.Firstly,antisite defects Ni Al and Al Ni ,which are caused by the deviation from the stoichiometric Ni 3 Al,coexist in the Ni 3 Al phase.The surplus Ni atom in the Ni-rich side is prone to substitute Al thus producing the antisite defect Ni Al that maintains the stability of the L1 2 structure.In other case,the surplus Al atom in the Al-rich side is accommodated by a Ni sublattice consequently giving rise to antisite defect Al Ni .The calculated equilibrium occupancy probability of Ni Al is much higher than that of Al Ni .This point is generally in line with other theoretical and experimental works.Additionally,both Ni Al and Al Ni have a strong negative correlation to time step during the disorder-order transformation.Since the initial value of Ni Al and Al Ni on each site of the matrix is right at the concentration that we set,we can observe the decrease process of Ni Al and Al Ni from the initial disordered high anti-structure state to their respective equilibrium state,i.e.to the result of the ordering process further coarsening.

  14. Thermodynamic assessment of the Ni-Sb binary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhanmin; TAKADU Yoshikazu; OHNUMA Ikuo; KAINUMA Ryosuke; ZHU Hongmin; ISHIDA Kiyohito

    2008-01-01

    The Ni-Sb binary alloy system was thermodynamically assessed using CALPHAD approach in this article.Excess Gibbs energies of solution phases,liquid and fcc phases,were formulated using the Redlich-Kister expression.The intermediate phases were modeled by the sublattice model with (Ni,Va)0.5(Ni,Sb)0.25(Ni)0.25 for Ni3Sb_HT phase and (Ni,Va)0.3333(Sb)0.3333(Ni,Va)0.3333 for NiSb phase.The other phases including Ni3Sb,Ni7Sb3,and NiSb2 were treated as stoichiometric compound owing to their narrow composition ranges.Based on the reported thermodynamic properties and phase diagram data,the thermodynamic parameters of these phases were optimized,and the obtained values can reproduce the available experimental data well.

  15. The cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticle with borate capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zunjing; Wang, Yongjing; Pan, Danmei; Chen, Zhi; Pan, Xiaohong; Wang, Yonghao; Lin, Zhang

    2011-11-01

    The impact of surface capping on cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticle was investigated with Escherichia coil (E.coli) in this work. The NiO nanoparticle and NiO nanoparticle capped by borate (denoted as NiO-borate) were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The average size of both nanoparticles is about 4.0 nm. The plate experiments demonstrated that NiO-borate nanoparticles show lower cytotoxicity than NiO nanopaticles. Further spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the concentration of both extracellular and intercellular Ni2+ in NiO-borate system were lower than that of uncapped one. Intracellular ICP-AES analysis also showed the concentration of Ni element was higher than Ni2+, suggesting the NiO nanoparticles might penetrate into the cellular interior. Comprehensive AFM, SEM and TEM observation illustrated both NiO-borate and NiO nanoparticles lead to the collapse of cellular body, the convex on the cell wall and the damage of cell wall ultimately. In summary, the surface capping with borate on NiO nanopaticles will suppress the release of the Ni2+ ions and impede the contact between the NiO nanoparticle and cell wall, which ultimately decreased the cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticles.

  16. Stability of Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia anodes based on Ni-impregnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemensoe, Trine; Thyden, Karl; Chen, Ming; Wang, Hsiang-Jen [Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Division, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - DTU, Frederiksborgvej 339, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-11-01

    Sintering of Ni is a key stability issue for Ni-YSZ anodes, and especially infiltration based electrodes. The potential of MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.90}Gd{sub 0.10}O{sub 1.95} (CGO10) as sintering inhibitors was investigated for infiltrated Ni based anode structures. The structures were prepared from tape cast porous YSZ layers that were impregnated with Ni to form an electronic percolating phase. The Ni-YSZ structure was subsequently impregnated with the inhibitor candidate, and the stability of the structure was evaluated from conductivity measurements. Lower conductivity degradation rates were observed for samples infiltrated with the inhibitor candidates, and the best inhibitor effect was seen with higher loadings of CGO10, and CeO{sub 2} showed similar potential. The degradation in conductivity was not visibly reflected in the microstructure as Ni coarsening in any of the cases. An adverse effect of MgO, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was reduced conductivity, possibly due to reaction with Ni and the formation of higher resistive phases. The Ni-infiltrated anodes were shown to have better initial electrochemical performance at 650 C than conventionally produced Ni-YSZ anodes, but still very poor stability, and further improvement of the inhibitor approach is necessary before applying the Ni-infiltrated anodes in SOFCs. (author)

  17. Effect of Electromigration on Interfacial Reaction in Ni/Sn/Ni-P Solder Joint%电迁移对Ni/Sn/Ni-P焊点界面反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷达; 周少明; 黄明亮

    2012-01-01

    The line-type Ni/Sn/Ni-P(Au) solder joints were used to determine the effect of electromigration (EM) on interfacial reaction under the current density of 5.0×103 A/cm2 at 150 ℃. For comparison, the Ni/Sn/Ni-P(Au) interconnects were aged at the same temperature for the same duration. The results show that the current direction plays an important rule on Ni-P layer consumption. When electrons flowed from Ni-P side to Ni side (Ni-P layer was the cathode), EM accelerated the Ni-P layer consumption. More Ni-P layer was consumed with increasing EM time. After EM for 100 h and 200 h, 5.88 μm and 13.46 urn Ni-P layer were consumed, respectively. Instead of Ni3Sn4, Ni2SnP IMC layer was observed at the Sn/Ni-P interface, and there was a porous Ni3P layer between Ni2SnP IMC and Ni-P. When electrons flowed from Ni side to Ni-P side (Ni-P layer was the anode), no obvious Ni-P layer consumption was observed during EM, and Ni3Sn4 IMC formed at the Sn/Ni-P interface. The thickness of the Ni3Sn4 IMC increased slowly with increasing EM time and reached to 1.81 μm after EM for 200 h.%研究了温度为150℃,电流密度为5.0×103A/cm2的条件下电迁移对Ni/Sn/Ni-P(Au)线性接头中界面反应的影响.结果表明电流方向对Ni-P层的消耗起着决定作用.当Ni-P层为阴极时,电迁移加速了Ni-P层的消耗,即随着电迁移时间的延长,Ni-P层的消耗显著增加;电迁移100 h后Ni-P层消耗了5.88 μm,电迁移200 h后Ni-P层消耗了13.46μm.在Sn/Ni-P的界面上形成了一层Ni2SnP化合物而没有观察到Ni3Sn4化合物的存在,多孔状的Ni3P层位于Ni2SnP化合物与Ni-P层之间.当Ni-P层为阳极时,在电迁移过程中并没有发现Ni-P层的明显消耗,在Sn/Ni-P的界面处生成层状的Ni3Sn4化合物,其厚度随着电迁移时间的延长而缓慢增加,电迁移200 h后Ni3Sn4层的厚度达到1.81 μm.

  18. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-06-25

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  19. Nanocrystalline Ni-W coatings on copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780, Athens (Greece); Plainakis, G.D.; Lagaris, D.A. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780, Athens (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    Nanocrystalline Ni-W coatings were produced on copper substrates with the aid of electrodeposition technique. The morphology, chemical composition and structure of the produced coatings were examined with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The microhardness of alloy Ni-W coatings on copper substrate was also studied. The adhesion between the Ni-W coating, having W content 50 wt%, and the copper substrate, was also studied with a scratch testing apparatus. The scratch tests resulted in the coatings suffering an intensive brittle fracture and minor delamination.

  20. De niños e infancias

    OpenAIRE

    Camenen, Gersende; Liendo, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    A Sarmiento, el niño sabio, lo llevan de casa en casa como al prodigio del pueblo para oírlo leer en voz alta. Norah Lange, la niña excéntrica, grita desaforada en distintos idiomas y finge carcajadas enloquecidas desde el techo de su casa hasta gastar la voz. Reinaldo Arenas, el niño salvaje, escribe, como Celestino, poemas con un cuchillo en el tronco los árboles para que no amanezca. Borges, el traductor precoz, lee a los seis años el Quijote en inglés sin tener la menor sospecha de que el...

  1. Thermal diffusion in Ni/Al multilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, S.; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Two Ni/Al multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering of nominal design [Ni(200A)/Al(100A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 and [Ni(50A)/Al(227A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 on Si substrates were annealed at 200 Degree-Sign C. As-deposited and annealed samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray reflectometry (XRR). The effort was to study the path of alloying in the above two multilayers of same elements but of opposite stoichiometric ratio. We find distinct differences in alloying of these samples.

  2. New developments in Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.; Hoghoj, P. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    It is now 20 years since super-mirrors were first used as a neutron optical element. Since then the field of multilayer neutron-optics has matured with multilayers finding their way to application in many neutron scattering instruments. However, there is still room for progress in terms of multilayer quality, performance and application. Along with work on multilayers for neutron polarisation Ni/Ti super-mirrors have been optimised. The state-of-the-art Ni/Ti super-mirror performance and the results obtained in two neutron-optics applications of Ni/Ti multilayers are presented. (author).

  3. Ni nanoparticles prepared by simple chemical method for the synthesis of Ni/NiO-multi-layered graphene by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mokhtar; Remalli, Nagarjuna; Gedela, Venkataramana; Padya, Balaji; Jain, Pawan Kumar; Al-Fatesh, Ahmed; Rana, Usman Ali; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.

    2017-02-01

    A new chemical method was used to obtain a high yield of nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs). The effect of solvent (distilled water, ethylene glycol, and ethanol) and surfactant (oleic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidinone) on the morphology and crystallinity of the synthesized Ni-NPs has been investigated. The experimental results revealed that among the solvents mentioned above, ethanol gives the best results in terms of complete reduction, controlled morphology and size distribution of Ni-NPs. The surfactants played an important role in impeding the agglomeration and surface oxidation of Ni-NPs. The surfactants also affected the morphology of the Ni-NPs. The synthesized Ni-NPs are found to be quite stable in air. The best of the synthesized Ni-NPs were effectively used as catalysts for the synthesis of Ni/NiO-multi-layered graphene using catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique.

  4. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, M. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Bi, K., E-mail: bike@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications and School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Fan, H. P. [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University Qindao College, Qingdao 266106 (China); Zhao, Z. S. [Shandong Engineering Consulting Institute, Jinan 250013 (China)

    2015-04-15

    The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of α{sub E,31} = 2.8 V ⋅ cm{sup −1} ⋅ Oe{sup −1} is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors.

  5. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of αE,31 = 2.8 V ⋅ cm−1 ⋅ Oe−1 is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors.

  6. Synthesis of Ni-poor NiO nanoparticles for p-DSSC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polteau, Baptiste; Tessier, Franck; Cheviré, François; Cario, Laurent; Odobel, Fabrice; Jobic, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    To improve the performances of p-Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (p-DSSC) for the future, the synthesis of modified p-type nickel oxide semiconductor, commonly used as photocathode in such devices, was initiated with Ni3O2(OH)4 as precursor. This specific nickel oxyhydroxide was first characterized by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Then its thermal decomposition was thoroughly studied in order to control the particles size of the as-prepared NiO nanopowders. Low temperature decomposition in air of this precursor allows the formation of Ni1-xO nanoparticles with a large amount of Ni vacancies and specific surface areas up to 250 m2 g-1. Its ammonolysis at 250 °C leads to nanostructured N-doped NiO (NiO:N) materials.

  7. Microstructure and Martensitic Transformation Behaviors of Explosively Welded NiTi/NiTi Laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhu; CUI Li-shan; ZHENG Yan-jun

    2007-01-01

    The study is a first attempt to prepare bulk NiTi/NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) laminates with a macroscopic heterogeneous composition by explosive welding and investigate their microstructures and martensitic transformation behaviors. After explosive welding, a perfect interfacial bonding between the two components and a reversible martensitic transformation are realized in the tandem.Results show achievement of a fine granular structure and the maximum value of microhardness near the welding interface because of the excessive cold plastic deformation and the high impact velocity during the explosive welding. Meanwhile, the effects of aging on the transformation of the welded tandem are investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and subject to discussion. The transformation temperatures of NiTi/NiTi SMAs increase with the rise of the aging temperature. The experimental results indicate the shape memory properties of NiTi/NiTi SMA fabricated by explosive welding can be improved by optimizing the aging technology.

  8. Photoactivation of the Ni-SIr state to the Ni-SIa state in [NiFe] hydrogenase: FT-IR study on the light reactivity of the ready Ni-SIr state and as-isolated enzyme revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hulin; Xu, Liyang; Inoue, Seiya; Nishikawa, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Hirota, Shun

    2016-08-10

    The Ni-SIr state of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F was photoactivated to its Ni-SIa state by Ar(+) laser irradiation at 514.5 nm, whereas the Ni-SL state was light induced from a newly identified state, which was less active than any other identified state and existed in the "as-isolated" enzyme.

  9. Effect of metallic content on mechanical property of Ni/(10NiO-NiFe2O4) cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; ZHANG Gang; YE Shao-long; LAI Yan-qing; TIAN Zhong-liang; SUN Xiao-gang

    2006-01-01

    Ni/ (10NiO-NiFe2O4 ) cermets were fabricated by using cold pressing-sintering method. The phase composition and effect of metallic content on the mechanical properties such as bending strength, Vickers' hardness,fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance were studied. The results show that the cermets consist of Ni, NiO and NiFe2O4. Within the range of metallic content from 0 to 17% (mass fraction), the relative density decreases with the increase of metallic content and the decrease of sintering temperature, Vickers' hardness decreases from 7 097 MPa to 4 814 MPa and the bending strength increases from 110 MPa to 157 MPa, and the fracture toughness mal shock testing falls sharply as the thermal shock temperature difference is above 200℃. The cermets samples,whose metallic content is 10% and 15%, respectively, exhibit promising property of thermal shock resistance at 960 ℃ with six cycles of heating and quenching testing.

  10. Electronic structure of graphene on Ni surfaces with different orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudikov, D.A., E-mail: gelbry@gmail.com; Zhizhin, E.V.; Rybkin, A.G.; Rybkina, A.A.; Zhukov, Y.M.; Vilkov, O. Yu.; Shikin, A.M.

    2016-08-15

    An experimental study of the graphene, synthesized by propylene cracking on Ni surfaces with different orientation: (100) and (111), using angle-resolved photoemission, has been performed. It has been shown that graphene on Ni(111) had a perfect lateral structure due to consistency of their lattices, whereas graphene/Ni(100) consisted of a lot of domains. For both systems electronic structure was quite similar and demonstrated a strong bonding of graphene to the underlying Ni surface. After Au intercalation the electronic structure of graphene in both systems was shifted to the Fermi level and became linear in the vicinity of the K point of the Brillouin zone. - Highlights: • Graphene on Ni(111) is well-ordered, whereas on Ni(100) – multi-domain. • Graphene on Ni(111) and Ni(100) is strongly bonded with substrate. • Intercalation of Au atoms restores the linearity in dispersion and makes graphene quasi-free on both Ni(100) and Ni(111).

  11. Electrodeposited NiCu Alloy Catalysts for Glucose Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jieun; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Sookil [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang Hyun; Jang, Jong Hyun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    NiCu alloys have been suggested as potential candidates for catalysts in glucose oxidation. In this study, NiCu alloys with different compositions were prepared on a glassy carbon substrate by changing the electrodeposition potential to examine the effect of Ni/Cu ratios in alloys on catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry showed that NiCu alloys had higher catalytic activity than pure Ni and Cu catalysts. Especially, Ni{sub 59}Cu{sub 41} had superior catalytic activity, which was about twice that of Ni at a given oxidation potential. X-ray analyses showed that the oxidation state of Ni in NiCu alloys was increased with the content of Cu by lattice expansion. Ni components in alloys with higher oxidation state were more effective in the oxidation of glucose.

  12. Mechanical properties of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites depending on temperature, porosity and redox cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2009-01-01

    with the Neel temperature, 250 degrees C, of NiO was observed. Above this temperature, a linear decrease occurred. Specific damping showed a peak at 170-180 degrees C and increased above ca. 1000 degrees C in NiO-YSZ. In the reduced state the elastic modulus decreased linearly with temperature; specific damping......The Impulse Excitation Technique (IET) was used to determine the elastic modulus and specific damping of different Ni/NiO-YSZ composites suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The porosity of the as-sintered samples varied from 9 to 38% and that of the reduced ones from 31 to 52...

  13. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  14. Thermal stability of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers; an EBSD-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Gholinia, A.; Trimby, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein recrystallisat......The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein...

  15. Studies on the valence electronic structure of Fe and Ni in FeNi1- alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Basa; S Raj; H C Padhi; M Polasik; F Pawlowski

    2002-05-01

    -to- X-ray intensity ratios of Fe and Ni in pure metals and in FeNi1- alloys ( = 0.20, 0.50, 0.58) exhibiting similar crystalline structure have been measured following excitation by 59.54 keV -rays from a 241Am point source, to understand as to why the properties of permalloy Fe0.2Ni0.8 is distinct from other alloy compositions. It is observed that the valence electronic structure of Fe0.2Ni0.8 alloy is totally different from other alloys which may be attributed to its special magnetic properties.

  16. Layering and temperature-dependent magnetization and anisotropy of naturally produced Ni/NiO multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, S. D.; Trachylis, D.; Velgakis, M. J. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kapaklis, V.; Joensson, P. E.; Papaioannou, E. Th. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Poulopoulos, P. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Fumagalli, P. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Politis, C. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Ni/NiO multilayers were grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature, with the aid of the natural oxidation procedure. That is, at the end of the deposition of each single Ni layer, air is let to flow into the vacuum chamber through a leak valve. Then, a very thin NiO layer ({approx}1.2 nm) is formed. Simulated x-ray reflectivity patterns reveal that layering is excellent for individual Ni-layer thickness larger than 2.5 nm, which is attributed to the intercalation of amorphous NiO between the polycrystalline Ni layers. The magnetization of the films, measured at temperatures 5-300 K, has almost bulk-like value, whereas the films exhibit a trend to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an unusual significant positive interface anisotropy contribution, which presents a weak temperature dependence. The power-law behavior of the multilayers indicates a non-negligible contribution of higher order anisotropies in the uniaxial anisotropy. Bloch-law fittings for the temperature dependence of the magnetization in the spin-wave regime show that the magnetization in the multilayers decreases faster as a function of temperature than the one of bulk Ni. Finally, when the individual Ni-layer thickness decreases below 2 nm, the multilayer stacking vanishes, resulting in a dramatic decrease of the interface magnetic anisotropy and consequently in a decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  17. Modeling and simulation of NiO dissolution and Ni deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Suk Woo; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Lim, Tae Hoon [Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Dissolution of NiO cathode into the electrolyte matrix is an important phenomena limiting the lifetime of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The dissolved nickel diffuses into the matrix and is reduced by dissolved hydrogen leading to the formation of metallic nickel films in the pores of the matrix. The growth of Ni films in the electrolyte matrix during the continuous cell operation results eventually in shorting between cathode and anode. Various mathematical and empirical models have been developed to describe the NiO dissolution and Ni deposition processes, and these models have some success in estimating the lifetime of MCFC by correlating the amount of Ni deposited in the matrix with shorting time. Since the exact mechanism of Ni deposition was not well understood, deposition reaction was assumed to be very fast in most of the models and the Ni deposition region was limited around a point in the matrix. In fact, formation of Ni films takes place in a rather broad region in the matrix, the location and thickness of the film depending on operating conditions as well as matrix properties. In this study, we assumed simple reaction kinetics for Ni deposition and developed a mathematical model to get the distribution of nickel in the matrix.

  18. Differences of transformation behavior between Ni-rich TiNi shape memory films and alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺志荣; 周敬恩

    2002-01-01

    The differences of transformation behavior between Ni-rich TiNi shape memory film (SMF) and shape memory alloy (SMA) age-treated at 773K after solution-treatment at 973K have been investigated, using Ti-51.5Ni thin film and Ti-51.5Ni bulk alloy as examples, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), SEM and EDX. It is found that the age-treated Ni-rich TiNi SMF and SMA are of the same types of transformation, i.e., A→R→M (during cooling), and M→A (during heating) (A: parent phase; R: R-phase; M: martensite); the transformation temperature of the TiNi SMF is lower than that of the SMA, but the SMFs hysteresis is larger. The transformation heat of the TiNi SMF and SMA is nearly the same. The reason that TiNi SMFs strain is sensitive to temperature is not hysteresis, but its thickness is thinner, and the temperature is easy to distribute homogeneously.

  19. Martensitic Transformation of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy Fiber Reinforced Ni Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lishan CUI; Yan LI; Yan jun ZHENG; Huibin XU

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a TiNi shape memory alloy fiber Ni matrix composite was fabricated by an electroplating method using TiNialloy as the cathode and Ni as the anode. The constrained martensitic transformation behaviors of the TiNi alloy were studiedby differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and the results showed that two endothermic peaks appear on the DSC heatingcurves and the reverse transformation temperatures increase with increasing prestrain levels. Moreover, comparing to the freetransformation, the temperature window of the constrained reverse transformation is widely expanded due to the influence ofrecovery stress.

  20. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India); Mandal, S.K., E-mail: sk_mandal@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India)

    2010-04-15

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni{sup 2+} clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni{sup 2+} clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  1. Cavitation erosion of NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, A. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada)]|[Univ. of British Columbia (Canada). Metals and Materials Engineering Dept.; Salvi, R. [Univ. of British Columbia (Canada). Metals and Materials Engineering Dept.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1999-02-01

    Vibratory cavitation erosion tests were carried out on as-cast NiAl intermetallic compounds containing 46.5 to 62.1 at. pct Ni. The erosion rate decreased with increasing nickel content by over two orders of magnitude, from a high of 16.4 to 0.11 mg{center_dot}h{sup {minus}1}. These low erosion rates exhibited by the nickel-rich alloys containing 58 and 62.1 at. pct Ni, the interruptions in their mass loss with time, and the unusual effects associated with surface finish and intensity of cavitation were found to be associated with the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Alloys containing 58 to 62 at. pct Ni have the potential for use as materials for the cavitation protection of hydraulic machinery.

  2. GRAFIČNI PRISTOP K FIGURATIVNEMU SLIKARSTVU

    OpenAIRE

    Bergles, Niko

    2010-01-01

    V diplomskem delu z naslovom Grafični pristop k figurativnemu slikarstvu sem se posvetil tistim področjem likovne teorije in zgodovine, na podlagi katerih sem sam ustvarjal. Nalogo sem razdelil na tri dele

  3. Prospect of MH-Ni Batteries Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shaoping; Xing Zhiqiang; Liang Wanlong; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The development trend and promising application prospects of high-power MH-Ni battery were reviewed by studying and comparing the current high-power batteries research area.High-power MH-Ni batiery has good performlife with 500 ~ 1000 times, abundant material resource, especially abundant rare earth resource in China, high-rate discharging, rapid charging, good safety as well as no pollution, etc., which is regarded as the most promising storage battery for electric vehicles.The performance of high power MH-Ni battery can be brought into play fully and ensure electric vehicles performance if it is equipped with appropriate chargers, controlling system and electric motors.Facing opportunities and challenges, MH-Ni battery has promising application prospects on hybrid electric automobile, electric bicycle and a variety of small sized electric vehicles by improving its technology constantly and developing market actively.

  4. Effect of Mg/Ni ratio on microstructure of Mg–Ni films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Junko, E-mail: junko.matsuda@i2cner.kyushu-u.ac.jp [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Uchiyama, Naoki; Kanai, Tomomi; Harada, Kazumi [ATSUMITEC CO., LTD., Ubumi 7111, Yuto-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-0192 (Japan); Akiba, Etsuo [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties of Mg–Ni films depend on the Mg/Ni ratio. • Mg{sub 6}Ni films are composed of Mg-rich amorphous matrix and Mg{sub 2}Ni nanocrystals. • Mg{sub 2}Ni is fully amorphous, in contrast Mg crystallization occurs in Mg{sub 10}Ni films. • Mg{sub 6}Ni films after hydrogenation include Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, MgH{sub 2} and Mg crystals. • Mg crystallization causes to reduce desorption kinetics and cycle ability. - Abstract: The relationship between the Mg/Ni ratio and microstructure of Mg–Ni films with a Pd-cap deposited by magnetron sputtering is investigated using transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the 6Mg–Ni films are observed to be composed of a Mg-rich amorphous matrix and Mg{sub 2}Ni nanocrystals. In contrast, the 10Mg–Ni films contain Mg nanocrystals and Mg-rich amorphous. The 2Mg–Ni films, which absorb/desorb hydrogen repeatedly as well as 6Mg–Ni films, are fully amorphous and have a homogeneous distribution of Mg and Ni. The hydrogenated 6Mg–Ni film, after 200 cycles of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation, includes Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2} nanocrystals as well as Mg crystals. In conclusion, the crystallization of Mg reduces desorption kinetics and cycle ability of the Mg–Ni films. Our results suggested that Mg crystallization occurs in films with an initial Mg/Ni ratio greater than 7.7 the eutectic composition between Mg and Mg{sub 2}Ni.

  5. Amorphous Ni-P Hollow Spheres Prepared by Self-assembly of Ni-P Nanoparticles on Polystyrene Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first preparation of amorphous Ni-P/PS (polystyrene) core-shell and Ni-P hollow microspheres was per-formed using a surface seeding-electroless plating method. The preliminary magnetic properties of the amorphous Ni-P hollow sphere were investigated and compared with those of the Ni hollow sphere.

  6. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: An experimental and mechanistic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At

  7. Towards Single-component Molecular Conductor [Ni(dmit)2] by Charge Disproportionation:2[Ni(dmit)2]-0.5 →[Ni(dmit)2 ]+ [Ni(dmit)2]-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi FANG; Hong LEI; Wen XU

    2003-01-01

    A new method of synthesizing single-component molecular conductor [Ni(dmit)2] by the reaction 2(Me4N)[Ni(dmit)2]2→[Ni(dmit)2] + (Me4N)[Ni(dmit)2] is reported. [Ni(dmit)2] exhibits a semiconductive behavior above 167 K, while from 167 K down to the measuring limit of 60 K, it exhibits metallic conductivity.

  8. Density and Structure Analysis of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG

    2004-01-01

    Density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1773~1873 K with a sessile drop method.The density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys trends to decrease with increasing temperature. The density and molar volume of the alloys trend to increase with increasing W concentration in the alloys. The calculation result shows an ideal mixing of Ni-W alloys.

  9. Present status of business participation in refinery-selling by OPEC countries. OPEC san prime yukoku no karyu bumon shinshutsu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S. (The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    The OPEC countries being arranged in business participation status in the infrastructure, particularly its recent trend, the main countries among them were analyzed in oil policy. As the oil price depends considerably upon the oil situation, the oil producing countries can secure a stabilized income by amplifying the exportation of oil products, small in price change and high in additional value. Having early started an uninterrupted direct participation in the infrastructure of oil consuming countries, Kuwait was securing a comparatively stabilized income therefrom. Among the OPEC countries participating in the infrastructure, Venezuela is at the head in number and refining capacity of refineries owned overseas. Later than Kuwait and Venezuela, Saudi Arabia started a participation in the infrastructure with a venturing foundation jointly with Texaco in 1988. Though proceeding with a participation in the infrastructure almost concurrently with Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi was almost limited to capital investments in the worldwide major oil companies. 6 refs., 22 tabs.

  10. Autothermal Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane in Fluidized Reactor over Highly Dispersed Ni Catalyst Prepared from Ni Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jing; HOU Zhao-Yin; SHEN Kai; LOU Hui; FEI Jin-Hua; ZHENG Xiao-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Highly dispersed Ni catalysts on spherical SiO2 were prepared by simple impregnation of Ni(acac)2, [Ni-(NH3)6-n(H2O)n]2+, [Ni(en)3]2+ and [Ni(EDTA)]2-. Pulse adsorption of H2 and TEM analysis results confirmed that Ni was dispersed very well on the surface of SiO2 even after calcination (4 h) and reduction (1 h) at high temperature of 800 ℃. These highly dispersed and uniquely sized Ni crystallites were more stable and more reactive for both autothermal reforming and partial oxidation of methane in fluidized reactor.

  11. Effects of Ni content on the shape memory properties and microstructure of Ni-rich NiTi-20Hf alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghaian, S. M.; Karaca, H. E.; Tobe, H.; Pons, J.; Santamarta, R.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Noebe, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory properties and microstructure of four Ni-rich NiTiHf alloys (Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20, Ni50.7Ti29.3Hf20, Ni51.2Ti28.8Hf20, and Ni52Ti28Hf20 (at.%)) were systematically characterized in the furnace cooled condition. H-phase precipitates were formed during furnace cooling in compositions with greater than 50.3Ni and the driving force for nucleation increased with Ni content. Alloy strength increased while recoverable strain decreased with increasing Ni content due to changes in precipitate characteristics. When the precipitates were small (˜5-15 nm), they were readily absorbed by martensite plates, which resulted in maximum recoverable strain of 2% in Ni50.7Ti29.3Hf20. With increasing Ni content, the size (>100 nm) and volume fraction of precipitates increased and the growth of martensite plates was constrained between the precipitates when the Ni concentration was greater than 50.7 at.%. Near perfect dimensional stability with negligible irrecoverable strain was observed at stress levels as high as 2 GPa in the Ni52Ti28Hf20 alloy, though the recoverable strain was rather small. In general, strong local stress fields were created at precipitate/matrix interphases, which lead to high stored elastic energy during the martensitic transformation.

  12. Heavy metal environmental impact. Nickel (Ni); Impatto ambientale da metalli pesanti. Il Nichel (Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ. Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-02-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a heavy metal in over 3.000 different alloys used to produce kitchen utensils, batteries, coins, etc.. Human extractive and industrial activities are therefore a cause for environmental dispersion of this metal into the biosphere. This shows how in urban areas car traffic and house-heating are the main sources of nickel pollution. Nickel is relatively non-toxic, such as iron, cobalt, copper and zinc; nevertheless prolonged inhalation of dust containing such compounds as Ni O or NiCl{sub 2} concurs in the outbreak of respiratory pathologies. The carcinogenic effect of such compounds as Ni S, Ni O and Ni(CO){sub 4} has been confirmed by experiments on laboratory animals. Ni potentially toxic concentrations, and as a consequence of potential environmental impact, are to be mainly found in populated areas where the main sources are represented by industries and landfills. [Italian] Il nichel (Ni) e' un metallo presente in oltre 3.000 differenti leghe che vengono utilizzate per la produzione di utensili da cucina, batterie, monete, ecc.. Le attivita' estrattive ed industriali dell'uomo sono quindi causa di una dispersione del metallo nella biosfera. Sono stati riscontrati elevati tassi di Ni nell'atmosfera di aree urbane. Cio' sta a dimostrare che nelle aree urbane il traffico automobilistico e il riscaldamento domestico sono le fonti principali di inquinamento da tale metallo. Il nichel e' relativamente atossico, analogamente a ferro, cobalto, rame e zinco, tuttavia l'inalazione protratta di polveri contenenti composti come il NiO o il NiCl{sub 2} contribuisce al manifestarsi di patologie dell'apparato respiratorio. E' stato confermato sperimentalmente su animali da laboratorio l'effetto cancerogeno di alcuni composti quali NiS, NiO e Ni(CO){sub 4}. Concentrazioni potenzialmente tossiche di Ni, e quindi di probabile impatto ambientale, sono maggiormente da ricercare nelle zone antropizzate dove le fonti

  13. Improvement of Ni phytostabilization by inoculation of Ni resistant Bacillus megaterium SR28C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Mani; Ma, Ying; Freitas, Helena

    2013-10-15

    The use of metal tolerant plants for the phytostabilization of metal contaminated soil is an area of extensive research and development. In this study the effects of inoculation of Ni-resistant bacterial strains on phytostabilization potential of various plants, including Brassica juncea, Luffa cylindrica and Sorghum halepense, were studied. A Ni-resistant bacterial strain SR28C was isolated from a nickel rich serpentine soil and identified as Bacillus megaterium based on the morphological features, biochemical characteristics and partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strain SR28C tolerated concentrations up to 1200 mg Ni L(-1) on a Luria-Bertani (LB) agar medium. Besides, it showed high degree of resistance to various metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr) and antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and kanamycin) tested. In addition, the strain bound considerable amounts of Ni in their resting cells. Besides, the strain exhibited the plant growth promoting traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in modified Pikovskayas medium and LB medium, respectively in the absence and presence of Ni. Considering such potential, the effects of SR28C on the growth and Ni accumulation of B. juncea, L. cylindrica and S. halepense, were assessed with different concentrations of Ni in soil. Inoculation of SR28C stimulated the biomass of the test plants grown in both Ni contaminated and non-contaminated soils. Further, SR28C alleviated the detrimental effects of Ni by reducing its uptake and translocation to the plants. This study suggested that the PGPB inoculant due to its intrinsic abilities of growth promotion and attenuation of the toxic effects of Ni could be exploited for phytostabilization of Ni contaminated site.

  14. Electroless Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings: preparation and evaluation of microhardness, wear and corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, T.S.N. Sankara; Krishnaveni, K.; Seshadri, S.K

    2003-12-20

    The present work deals with the formation of Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings by electroless plating process and evaluation of their hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings were prepared using dual baths (acidic hypophosphite- and alkaline borohydride-reduced electroless nickel baths) with both Ni-P and Ni-B as inner layers and with varying single layer thickness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the duplex interface. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of electroless nickel duplex coatings were compared with electroless Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. The study reveals that the Ni-P and Ni-B coatings are amorphous in their as-plated condition and upon heat-treatment at 450 deg. C for 1 h, both Ni-P and Ni-B coatings crystallize and produce nickel, nickel phosphide and nickel borides in the respective coatings. All the three phases are formed when Ni-P/Ni-B and Ni-B/Ni-P duplex coatings are heat-treated at 450 deg. C for 1 h. The duplex coatings are uniform and the compatibility between the layers is good. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the duplex coating is higher than Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. Among the two types of duplex coatings studied, hardness and wear resistance is higher for coatings having Ni-B coating as the outer layer whereas better corrosion resistance is offered by coatings having Ni-P coating as the outer layer.

  15. Dissolution and Interfacial Reactions of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 Intermetallic Compound in Molten Sn-Cu-Ni Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-hong; Lai, Wei-han; Chen, Sinn-wen

    2014-01-01

    (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 is an important intermetallic compound (IMC) in lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints on Ni substrate. The formation, growth, and microstructural evolution of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 are closely correlated with the concentrations of Cu and Ni in the solder. This study reports the interfacial behaviors of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC (Sn-31 at.%Cu-24 at.%Ni) with various Sn-Cu, Sn-Ni, and Sn-Cu-Ni solders at 250°C. The (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 substrate remained intact for Sn-0.7 wt.%Cu solder. When the Cu concentration was decreased to 0.3 wt.%, (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 significantly dissolved into the molten solder. Moreover, (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 dissolution and (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 formation occurred simultaneously for the Sn-0.1 wt.%Ni solder. In Sn-0.5 wt.%Cu-0.2 wt.%Ni solder, many tiny (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 particulates were formed and dispersed in the solder matrix, while in Sn-0.3 wt.%Cu-0.2 wt.%Ni a lot of (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 grains were produced. Based on the local equilibrium hypothesis, these results are further discussed based on the liquid-(Cu, Ni)6Sn5-(Ni,Cu)3Sn4 tie-triangle, and the liquid apex is suggested to be very close to Sn-0.4 wt.%Cu-0.2 wt.%Ni.

  16. The Influence of Sintering Temperature in NiO Target on the Properties of Exchange Coupling NiO/Ni81Fe19 Double-Layered Films%NiO靶烧结温度对NiO/Ni81Fe19双层膜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡用时; 邱进军; 李佐宜; 刘兴阶

    2000-01-01

    在不同的温度下烧结制备NiO靶,用射频磁控溅射法淀积NiO/Ni81Fe19双层膜,研究了不同的温度烧结NiO靶对NiO/NiFe双层膜特性的影响,结果表明,使用不同的烧结温度制备的NiO靶溅射所得的NiO膜中Ni的化学价态及其含量不同,进而影响NiO/Ni81Fe19双层膜的磁滞回线的矩形度及层间交换耦合作用.

  17. Synthesis and characterizations of Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene for oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Tung-Yuan; Huang, Li-Ying; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Kuan-Syun; Liu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Po-Tuan; Chao, Chi-Yang; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2014-01-01

    We are presenting our recent research results about the Ni-NiO nanoparticles on poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-modified graphene sheet (Ni-NiO/PDDA-G) nanocomposites prepared by the hydrothermal method at 90°C for 24 h. The Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene sheets are measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern for exploring the structural evidence to apply in the electrochemical catalysts. The size of Ni-NiO nanoparticles is around 5 nm based on TEM observations. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show the Ni in the (012), (110), (110), (200), and (220) crystalline orientations, respectively. Moreover, the crystalline peaks of NiO are found in (111) and (220). The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) result represents the loading content of the Ni metal which is about 34.82 wt%. The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA/XPS) reveals the Ni(0) to Ni(II) ratio in metal phase. The electrochemical studies with Ni-NiO/PDDA-G in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 were studied for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

  18. Synthesis and characterizations of Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Tung-Yuan; Huang, Li-Ying; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Kuan-Syun; Liu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Po-Tuan; Chao, Chi-Yang; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2014-08-01

    We are presenting our recent research results about the Ni-NiO nanoparticles on poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-modified graphene sheet (Ni-NiO/PDDA-G) nanocomposites prepared by the hydrothermal method at 90°C for 24 h. The Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene sheets are measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern for exploring the structural evidence to apply in the electrochemical catalysts. The size of Ni-NiO nanoparticles is around 5 nm based on TEM observations. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show the Ni in the (012), (110), (110), (200), and (220) crystalline orientations, respectively. Moreover, the crystalline peaks of NiO are found in (111) and (220). The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) result represents the loading content of the Ni metal which is about 34.82 wt%. The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA/XPS) reveals the Ni0 to NiII ratio in metal phase. The electrochemical studies with Ni-NiO/PDDA-G in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 were studied for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

  19. Impacts of Two Types of El Niño and La Niña Events on Typhoon Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chun Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The HadISST (Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset is used to define the years of El Niño, El Niño Modoki, and La Niña events and to find out the impacts of these events on typhoon activity. The results show that the formation positions of typhoon are farther eastward moving in El Niño years than in La Niña years and much further eastward in El Niño Modoki years. The lifetime and the distance of movement are longer, and the intensity of typhoons is stronger in El Niño and in El Niño Modoki years than in La Niña years. The Accumulated Cyclone Energy of typhoon is highly correlated with the Oceanic Niño Index with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. We also find that the typhoons anomalously decrease during El Niño years but increase during El Niño Modoki years. Besides, there are two types of El Niño Modoki, I and II. The intensity of typhoon in El Niño Modoki I years is stronger than in El Niño Modoki II years. Furthermore, the centroid position of the Western Pacific Warm Pool is strongly related to the area of typhoon formation with a correlation coefficient of 0.95.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240