Sample records for bullocks

  1. Lean color characteristics of bullock and steer beef. (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Purser, D E; Smith, G C; Griffin, C L; Stiffler, D M; Savell, J W


    Twelve young bulls and 12 steers were slaughtered and the carcasses were fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Top rounds, bottom rounds, and rib eyes were vacuum-packaged and stored at 0 degrees C until 21 d postmortem. After subprimal storage, steaks were removed from each cut and displayed under simulated retail conditions for 3 d. Consumer panelists (n = 110) showed little difference in buying preference for top round, bottom round, and rib eye steaks from steers vs bullocks. Also, consumer panelists could not detect color differences between steaks from steers and bullocks. Experienced panelists (n = 6) detected brighter (P less than .05) muscle color for top round and rib eye steaks from steers but detected no difference in muscle color of bottom round steaks from bullocks and steers. Generally, overall desirability scores favored steaks from steer carcasses. This was particularly true of rib eye steaks. Sex-class of carcass did not affect aerobic plate counts of top round, bottom round, or rib eye steaks either before or after 3 d of retail display. Muscle pH was lower for top round and rib eye steaks from steer carcasses; however, the magnitude of this difference was not large enough to affect retail display stability. Muscle pH of bottom round steaks was not affected by sex-class. Although experienced panelists could detect differences in visual appearance of beef retail cuts from steers and bullocks, consumer panelists did not show a clear purchase preference for steer vs bullock beef. These data suggest that beef retail cuts from bullocks are acceptable in visual appearance.

  2. Entrepreneur for Equality: Governor Rufus Brown Bullock and the Politics of Race and Commerce in Post-Civil War Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age......Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age...

  3. Occurrence of Schistosoma nasale infection in bullocks of Puducherry


    Latchumikanthan, A.; Pothiappan, P.; Ilayabharathi, D.; S. S. Das; D.; Kumar; Ilangovan, C.


    Nasal schistosomiasis is caused by the blood fluke Schistosoma nasale (S. nasalis) adversely affects the health and production of domestic livestock in various parts of India. The present report describes the occurrence of S. nasale infection in two Hallikar breed bullocks of Union Territory of Puducherry. Eggs of S. nasale were noticed in nasal washings/scrapings of animals and identified as per the standard taxonomical keys.

  4. The Call of a Different Drummer: A Conversation with Lyndal Bullock (United States)

    Zabel, Robert; Kaff, Marilyn; Teagarden, Jim


    Lyndal Bullock's career has focused on children and youth with significant behavior and emotional challenges. His career has spanned experiences as a teacher, counselor, and university professor. Dr. Bullock has twice served as president of the Council of Exceptional Children (CEC). His leadership and mentorship have been recognized by many…

  5. Fatty acid composition, conjugated linoleic acid isomers and cholesterol in beef from crossbred bullocks intensively produced and from Alentejana purebred bullocks reared according to Carnalentejana-PDO specifications. (United States)

    Alfaia, C M M; Ribeiro, V S S; Lourenço, M R A; Quaresma, M A G; Martins, S I V; Portugal, A P V; Fontes, C M G A; Bessa, R J B; Castro, M L F; Prates, J A M


    The purpose of this study was to characterise and compare the nutritional value of Portuguese Carnalentejana-PDO beef, obtained from Alentejana purebred bullocks reared in a semi-extensive system, with the meat from Alentejana×Charolais crossbred bullocks produced in a conventional intensive concentrate-based system. In addition, seasonal changes in Carnalentejana-PDO beef quality were assessed, by analysing meat samples from animals slaughtered in early autumn and late spring. The results showed that beef-PDO has different intramuscular fat characteristics in comparison with meat from crossbred bullocks fed intensively with concentrate. However, the finishing period of Alentejana purebred bullocks with concentrate seems to attenuate most of the typical grass-fed characteristics of meat fat. Nevertheless, from a human nutrition perspective, Carnalentejana-PDO beef seems to be healthier than that from intensively reared animals since it has a lower n-6/n-3 ratio, although always above the recommended guidelines for human diet, and higher proportions of c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer and total CLA relative to saturated fatty acids plus total cholesterol (CLA/SFA+CHR). Furthermore, no seasonal variation in the nutritional quality of beef-PDO was apparent. Taken together, the data indicate that Carnalentejana-PDO beef is of greater nutritional value than intensively produced beef from crossbred bullocks throughout the year.

  6. Sandy ja Hugh - paar või mitte? / Hugh Grant, Sandra Bullock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grant, Hugh, 1960-


    Romantilises komöödias "Kaks nädalat armumiseks" ("Two Weeks Notice"), režissöör Marc Lawrence, mängivad kaks kuulsat näitlejat. Staarid oma suhetest : Hugh Grant : "Sandra on geenius"; Sandra Bullock : "Oleme temaga nagu kaksikud!"

  7. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart: Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G. Jamkhande


    Full Text Available From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far.

  8. Desempenho de novilhos nelore suplementados em pasto durante época das águas Performance of crossbreed nelore bullock grazing supplemented during the raining seazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilker Dias Lima


    Full Text Available A procura por alimentos e derivados que não sejam utilizados na dieta humana ou na alimentação de animais monogástricos, juntamente com formas de suplementação, são aspectos importantes na busca de fontes alternativas para alimentação de ruminantes e redução no tempo de abate. Com este trabalho teve-se como objetivo avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes de concentrado na engorda de novilhos nelore suplementados em pasto durante o período das águas. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Vitorinha, de propriedade da Fundação de Apoio ao Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão/FAEPE, ligada à Universidade Federal de Lavras/UFLA, em Lavras, região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, entre os meses de janeiro a maio de 2001. Foram utilizados 24 animais mestiços nelores, machos, inteiros, com idade média de 17 meses e peso vivo médio de 308,0 kg. Durante o período experimental, os animais foram alojados em uma pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens, com área de 11,2 ha, com disponibilidade média de 5400 kg MS/ha no início do período. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de níveis crescentes de concentrado, calculados como percentual do peso vivo: T1- 0%; T2- 0,15%; T3- 0,30%; T4- 0,45%. O experimento foi delineado em blocos casualizados, com peso vivo inicial como fator de blocagem, sendo 6 blocos e 4 tratamentos, totalizando 24 parcelas experimentais. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se o software estatístico SISVAR (Sistema de Análise de Variância de Dados Balanceados. Não houve diferença significativa para ganho de peso diário (PThe demand for foods and its derivates that would not be used in the human diet or in the monogastric animals diet in addition with supplement forms are important aspects in the search for alternative sources for ruminant nutrition and reduction in the slaughtered time. This work had as objective to evaluate growing levels of concentrate in the fattening of nelore bullock gazing supplemented during the raining

  9. Dieta com alto teor de gordura e desempenho de tourinhos de grupos genéticos diferentes em confinamento High-fat diet and feedlot performance of bullocks of different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Roberto Duarte Lopes Souza


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho em confinamento de tourinhos de quatro grupos genéticos distintos tratados com dietas com diferentes teores de gordura. Foram utilizados nove animais Nelore, nove Caracu, dez ½ Caracu ¼ Angus ¼ Nelore e dez ½ Red Angus ¼ Caracu ¼ Nelore, com massa corporal inicial de 227±33 kg e dez meses de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois tratamentos nutricionais: baixo teor de gordura (3,15% de extrato etéreo e alto teor de gordura (7,28% de extrato etéreo. A ingestão de matéria seca (IMS foi quantificada durante 208 dias e as pesagens dos animais foram realizadas a cada 28 dias. Os animais alimentados com as dietas de alto e de baixo teor de gordura apresentaram resultados similares de ganho médio diário de peso (1,511x1,487 kg por dia, respectivamente e de eficiência alimentar (194x180 g de ganho por quilograma de MS ingerida, respectivamente; a IMS, em percentagem do peso vivo, foi menor nos animais alimentados com dieta de alto teor de gordura (2,25x2,40, respectivamente. Os animais cruzados apresentaram maior ganho de massa corporal e IMS que os Nelore. A dieta com alto teor de gordura pode ser utilizada em confinamento para melhorar o desempenho de tourinhos ½ Caracu ¼ Angus ¼ Nelore, pois é eficiente para reduzir a ingestão de matéria seca e não prejudica o ganho de massa corporal dos animais.This work aimed to evaluate the feedlot performance of bullocks of four distinct genetic groups receiving diets with different levels of fat. Nine Nelore; nine Caracu; ten ½ Caracu ¼ Angus ¼ Nelore and ten ½ Red Angus ¼ Caracu ¼ Nelore bullocks, with a mean initial weight of 227±33 kg and ten months of age, were randomly assigned to two nutritional treatments and fed either with low-fat (3.15% ether extract or high-fat diet (7.28% ether extract. Dry matter intake (DMI was quantified during 208 days and the animals were weighed every 28 days. Animals fed with the high-fat and

  10. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Bullock County, Alabama, USA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  12. Page 1 Engineering analysis of the two-wheel bullock cart design ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the case of carts with large wheels, the effect of variation of u on the neck oad is not significant on level terrain or sloping ground. For example, for a cart with wheels of diameter 183 cm (72 in.) on level ground, W/W, is only 0 006 and 0-014 at p of 0-2 and 0-5 respectively. However, the variation of the neck load with p is.

  13. A new bioactive thiophenolic glycoside from the leaf of Massularia acuminata (g. Don Bullock) ex Hoyle (Rubiaceae). (United States)

    Oriola, A O; Aladesanmi, A J; Idowu, T O; Akinkunmi, E O; Obuotor, E M; Ogunsina, M O


    Massularia acuminata is a small tree or shrub of tropical rainforest. The leaves are used in Nigerian ethno-medicine for the treatment of microbial infections and pharmacological report suggested the leaf extract as possessing antioxidant activity. This study was therefore carried out to determine the most antioxidant and antimicrobial active fraction(s) of Massularia acuminata leaf and the constituent(s) responsible for the activities. The leaf of Massularia acuminata was investigated for in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and agar dilution method respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated the best activities among the partitioned fractions tested. Bioassay guided purification of the most active ethyl acetate fraction led to isolation of a new thiophenolic glycoside, characterized as 4-(3',3'-dihydroxy-1-mercaptopropyl)phenyl glycosylpyranoside. The isolated compound from the leaf of Massularia acuminata demonstrated antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and may be responsible for the activities of leaf extract and its ethyl acetate fraction, hence this may justify its ethnomedicinal use.

  14. Androgenic potentials of aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata (G. Don) Bullock ex Hoyl. stem in male Wistar rats. (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Akanji, Musbau Adewumi; Oladiji, Adenike Temidayo; Adesokan, Ayoade Abdulfatai


    The use of medicinal plants in the management of several ailments is gaining popularity nowadays. Massularia acuminata, one of such plants is commonly used as chewing sticks due to its antimicrobial activity and the aqueous extract of its stem as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac activity in some plants may be due to androgen increasing property of its phytochemicals. This study therefore sought to assess the androgenic potentials of aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata stem in male rats for 21 days. Male rats weighing between 220 and 260 g were completely randomized into four groups: A, B, C and D. Group A, the control received orally 1 ml of distilled water (the vehicle) while groups B, C and D were orally administered with 1 ml each corresponding to 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the plant extract, respectively for 21 days. Rats were sacrificed 24h after 1, 7 and 21 days. Compared with the control, extract administration at all the doses produced significant increase (PMassularia acuminata stem has androgenic potential which may stimulate male sexual maturation and enhance normal testicular function.

  15. Investigations at Antroli: A late Harappan site and maritime archaeological exploration on the coast of Navibandar, Saurashtra, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    interesting feature of the road is the bullock cart marks. The length of this road is about 150 meter. It is made over a shallow channel of estuary and this road was mainly used for transporting the goods from boat to the market by bullock cart and vice...

  16. Page 1 294 Basawan Sinha, Ramesh Bhatia and Supriya Lahiri 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bullocks and implements required in irrigated agriculture, (ii) annual costs of mainten- ance of bullocks, command area development costs such as those of land levelling and shaping, field channels, field drains, improvement in facilities for storage, marketing, transport and communication. These costs have been estimated ...

  17. Kweekskool teenoor teologiese fakulteit: Die ervaring van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    office, who have enjoyed the benefits of a liberal education' (Bullock 1955:18). Die predikant moet 'an educated man' wees (Bullock 1955:67). Aan die ...... Crafford, D 1982. Aan God die dank. Pretoria: NG Kerk Uitgewers. De Graaf, W 1955. Een monument der afscheiding. Kampen: Kok. 90. HTS SO/I A 2 (1994) ...

  18. Novel Therapeutic Approaches Toward Treating Prostate Cancer (United States)


    Nat. Cell Biol. 1, 207-214 54. Pogacic, V .. Bullock, A. N .. Fedorov , 0 .. Filippakopoulos, P., Gasser, C., Biondi, A., Meyer-Monard, S., Knapp...J Med Chern 2009;52:74-86. 22. Pogacic V, Bullock AN, Fedorov 0, Fllippakopoulos P, Gasser C, Biondi A, eta!. Structural analysis Identifies

  19. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final... (United States)


    ... affordable prices can attract businesses and jobs to a state or region, and higher health-insurance prices.... *Attorney of Record. FOR PLAINTIFF STATE OF MONTANA: Steve Bullock, Attorney General of Montana. James P...

  20. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bodegom, P.M.; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.


    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 2, 2016 ... Ritchiea albersii Gilg. Capparaceae. Tree. +. Not Assessed. Rothmannia urcelliformis (Hiern) Bullock ex Robyns. Rubiaceae. Tree. +. Not Assessed. Rothmannia whitfieldii (Lindl.) Dandy. Rubiaceae. Tree. +. Not Assessed. Salacia sp. Linn. Celastraceae. Tree. +. Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E. A. Bruce.

  2. Десятка самых прибыльных актеров / Кая Коовит

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Коовит, Кая, 1968-


    10 kõige enam teenivat Hollywoodi näitlejat (Quigley Publishing' andmeil) on Denzel Washington, Shia LaBeouf, Brad Pitt, Meryl Streep, Tom Hanks, Robert Downey jr., George Clooney, Matt Damon, Johnny Depp ja Sandra Bullock

  3. Thoraco-pericardiotomy in two bovines under field condition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    - bred pregnant cow and a bullock. The patients had a history of brisket edema, anorexia, and wasting condition for a period of 15 days. The physical and clinical examination for both cases revealed jugular pulsation, marked edema of brisket.

  4. The effect of supplementary feeding on the work output and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, no significant difference (P>0.05) in the rectal temperature was noticed between the two breeds after work. The average weight of bunches of oil palm fruits carried by a bullock cart per day was 2.03 tonnes while that of a wheel barrow used by human porters was 1.61 tonnes. It was more economical to use bullock ...

  5. On the correct name of Icterus bullockii (Passeriformes: Icteridae) (United States)

    Chesser, R. Terry


    William Bullock was an Englishman who owned the Egyptian Hall (also known as the London Museum or Bullock’s Museum) at Piccadilly in London, a museum opened in 1812 to display his collection of antiquities, artifacts, and natural history specimens. Following the sale of Bullock’s collection in 1819, the Egyptian Hall served as an exhibition space. Bullock and his son, William Bullock, Jr., both enthusiastic naturalists, travelled in Mexico in 1822–1823, spending some six months together collecting natural history specimens and other artifacts for exhibition and investigating mining and other business opportunities (Costeloe 2006). The elder Bullock returned to London with the collections in 1823, but his son, while ostensibly managing the silver mine his father had purchased in Temascaltepec, outside of Mexico City, continued to travel in Mexico and collect specimens, often in the company of German naturalist Ferdinand Deppe (Costeloe 2006). William Bullock, Sr., meanwhile prepared the Mexican collection for exhibition at the Egyptian Hall. Twin exhibitions on ancient and modern Mexico opened, with much fanfare, in April 1824, and were a great success, remaining open until September 1825 (Costeloe 2006). Afterwards, the contents of the exhibitions were dispersed via auction, but not before Bullock had made the bird specimens available to English naturalist William Swainson for “recording this portion of his discoveries” (Swainson 1827: 365).

  6. Balance Performance of Professional Footballers with Long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O., Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria •. Email: SUMMARY ... ankle sprains (Bullock –Saxton, 1995) and anterior cruciate ligament injury (Friden, et al, 1990; Gauffin, et al, 1990). Holder-Powell and Rutherford (2000) reported impaired.

  7. Estimating Setup of Piles Driven into Louisiana Clayey Soils : Tech Summary (United States)


    Geotechnical engineers and researchers (Seed and Reese 1955, Long et al. 1999, and Bullock et al. 2005) have reported for many years that the axial capacity of a driven pile may increase over time, which is usually referred to as pile setup or freeze...

  8. Estimating setup of driven piles into Louisiana clayey soils : tech summary. (United States)


    Geotechnical engineers and researchers (Seed and Reese 1955, Long et al. 1999, and Bullock et al. 2005) have reported for many years : that the axial capacity of a driven pile may increase over time, which is usually referred to as pile setup or free...

  9. 77 FR 18173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Alabama Pearlshell... (United States)


    ..., Florida; and Barbour, Bullock, Butler, Coffee, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Escambia, Geneva, Henry... concerning the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), E.O. 13211 (Energy, Supply, Distribution... review of the DEA we have determined that a Small Government Agency Plan is not required. Energy, Supply...

  10. Model-Driven Study of Visual Memory (United States)


    Kantner, 2005). In addition, following up the AFOSR Program Re- view, the PI launched a small scale effort to explore the online visuospatial memory...446. Brunswik, E., & Reiter, L. (1937). Eindruckscharaktere schematisierter gesichter. Zeitschrift ftir Psychologie , 142, 67-134. Bullock, D

  11. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS - Vol 7, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived stigma among patients receiving antiretroviral treatment: A prospective randomised trial comparing an m-DOT strategy with standardof- care in Kenya · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Kaai, S Bullock, A Sarna, M Chersich, S Luchters, ...

  12. Nest predators of open and cavity nesting birds in oak woodlands (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Jared Verner


    Camera setups revealed at least three species of rodents and seven species of birds as potential predators at artificial open nests. Surprisingly, among avian predators identified at open nests, one third were Bullock's Orioles (Icterus bullockii). Two rodent species and three bird species were potential predators at artificial cavity nests. This high predator...

  13. Poor mineral intake leads to lameness and ruptured tendons in calves. (United States)


    Ruptured calcanean tendons in 10-month-old calvesMalignant catarrhal fever in a yearling bullockAortic thromboembolism in a four-day-old calfEpitheliogenesis imperfecta in lambsInfectious laryngotracheitis in backyard flocks These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for April 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  14. rrrees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annona reticulata L. (English: Bullock's heart; Hindi: Ramphal) of Annonaceae is a medium-size tree that is often cultivated, but generally grows wild and yields an edible fruit. The leaves are shiny and dark-green. The branches are dark-brown. Flowers are unimpressive, both sepals and petals being sepal-like. The.

  15. Uus kui hästi unustatud vana : Raamaturida / Arno Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Arno, 1950-


    Waugh, Evelyn. Must murjan; Mirbeau, Octave. Toaneitsi päevik; Ödmann, Malin. Mõisa saladus; Dragt, Tonke. Kiri kuningale; Duncker, Dora. Louis XIV armuidüll; Lessing, Doris. Viies laps; Bullock, Michael. Kaev ja teisi jutte; Kaksteist Eesti Kirja

  16. Functional Proteomics to Identify Moderators of CD8+ T Cell Function in Melanoma (United States)


    Timothy N.J. Bullock, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22903-4833 REPORT 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia AND

  17. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An engineering analysis of the design of two-wheel bullock carts has been carried out . with the aid of a mathematical model. Non-dimensional expressions for the pull and l the neck load have been developed. In the first instance, the cart is assumed to be. ; - cruising at constant velocity on a terrain with the effective ...

  18. The anaesthetic potency of benzocaine-hydrochloride in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    References. BULLOCK, T.H. 1955. Compensation for temperature in the metabolisms and activity of poikilotherms. Bioi. Rev. 30: 311- 342. S.-Afr. Tydskr. Dierk. 1984, 19(1). CLARK, M.W. 1948. Topics in the physiological chemistry. Williams. & Wilkens, Baltimore, p.738. FERREIRA, J. T. 1982. The evaluation of benzocaine- ...

  19. Relationship between production performance and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    mortality rates and poor lifetime rearing performance of ewes (Haughey et al., 1982; Kilgour et al., 1993; ... (1982), Walker et al. (1992), Kilgour et al. (1993) and Patterson et al. (1997). At measuring, ewes, while standing in a chute, were restrained using a light squeeze; at first, faeces .... Anderson, L.H. & Bullock, K.D., 1994.

  20. of Perionyx excavatus (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osmium tetroxide for I h (Bullock 1984). The samples were washed in distilled water ..... through which spenn can be transported. Ismail (1982) reported a single chaeta with three lobes with such a mecha- nism for Lampi/o mauritii. The comb-like structures on the penial chaetae of P. excavatus could facilitate the transport of.

  1. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African J. TradCAM

    1982). However, its 1H NMR, COSY and 13C NMR spectral studies are being reported for the first time. Further, its occurrence in this plant is also being reported for the first time. Exposure to MEx caused significant behavioural changes ... substances (Bullock et al., 1977). From the result section, it is evident that compound ...

  2. Onshore excavation at Bet Dwarka Island, in the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    and bullock carts might reflect a past reality. Radiocarbon dates of the lowest level of BDK-II is 2040- 1860 years B.P. Excavation of the present Dwarka suggests that around the Christian Era the sea level was lower than the present (Sankalia 1966...

  3. Ancient technology of jetties and anchorage system along the Saurastra coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    , at places where there are no jetties, even very large sailing ships were run aground at high tide. As the tide receded leaving bare sand beneath the ship, passengers and cargo were moved to and fro, with the help of large carts drawn by bullocks (Mc...

  4. Slaughterhouse 22: A Language for Death (United States)

    Inglis, Fred


    Criticizes the Bullock report for its failure to treat language as "the" medium for the expression of values and as the way of bringing the young to confront the world as it is (complete with history, economics, hunger, poverty and morality) and to seek personal and collective meaning from this "confrontation". (Editor/RK)

  5. Understanding Field Experiences: The Zone of Maximal Contact and the Conundrums and Sacred Stories in Teacher Education. Commentary (United States)

    Pinnegar, Stefinee


    This article provides the author's comments on the studies by Tom Russell, David Dillon, Shawn Bullock, Lynn Thomas, and Andrea Martin which are reported in this issue of "Studying Teacher Education." Here Stefinee Pinnegar reflects on the intractable conundrums of teacher education and teachers educators that she felt was her…

  6. The Role of Perfluorocarbons in Mitigating Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)


    Table 1 Animal use Gantt chart We have completed all experiments involving animal use, according to the Schedule of Work (SOW) … 1...Ross Bullock, MD, PhD Org : Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami Award Amount: $$$$$$$ Study/Product Aim(s) 1) PFC will be effective

  7. The sustainability of changes in agricultural technology: The carbon, economic and labour implications of mechanisation and synthetic fertiliser use. (United States)

    Gathorne-Hardy, Alfred


    New agricultural technologies bring multiple impacts which are hard to predict. Two changes taking place in Indian agriculture are a transition from bullocks to tractors and an associated replacement of manure with synthetic fertilisers. This paper uses primary data to model social, environmental and economic impacts of these transitions in South India. It compares ploughing by bullocks or tractors and the provision of nitrogen from manure or synthetic urea for irrigated rice from the greenhouse gas (GHG), economic and labour perspective. Tractors plough nine times faster than bullocks, use substantially less labour, with no significant difference in GHG emissions. Tractors are twice as costly as bullocks yet remain more popular to hire. The GHG emissions from manure-N paddy are 30 % higher than for urea-N, largely due to the organic matter in manure driving methane emissions. Labour use is significantly higher for manure, and the gender balance is more equal. Manure is substantially more expensive as a source of nutrients compared to synthetic nutrients, yet remains popular when available. This paper demonstrates the need to take a broad approach to analysing the sustainability impacts of new technologies, as trade-offs between different metrics are common.

  8. The sail wing windmill and its adaptation for use in rural India (United States)

    Sherman, M. M.


    An 8 meter-diameter prototype sail wing windmill is reported that uses a one meter-diameter bullock cartwheel to which three bamboo poles are latched in a triangular pattern with overlapping ends, to form the airframe for cloth sails. This device lifts 300 pounds to a height of 20 feet in one minute in a 10 mph wind.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The ordering of the poems is, as Bullock himself states in the. Introduction, an artificial one. There is no manuscript extant which presents in its entirety the corpus of Gambara's poems. Nor is there evidence that Gambara intended her poems to be placed in a canzoniere- like structure so as to be read as a diario dell'anima.

  10. Development of a Sterile Amniotic Membrane Tissue Graft Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (United States)


    running tap water and counterstained with methyl green (Vector). Stained sections were then dehydrated, cleared, and mounted. Images of the stained...dispersed birefrin- gence with green , yellow, and orange/red coloring present throughout most of the tissue regions (Fig. 2B, E). The color and...terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. Micro- biol Mol Biol Rev 64, 548, 2000. 38. Rosario , D.J., Reilly, G.C., Ali Salah, E., Glover, M., Bullock

  11. The Mechanism of Action of Unique Small Molecules that Inhibit the Pim Protein Kinase Blocking Prostate Cancer Cell Growth (United States)


    INVESTIGATOR: Andrew S. Kraft, MD Charles D. Smith, PhD Marina Y. Zemskova, PhD...APPENDIX A          REGULATION OF SKP2 LEVELS BY THE PIM-1 PROTEIN KINASE Bo Cen 1 , Sandeep Mahajan 2 , Marina Zemskova 3 , Zanna...Sutterluty, H., Chatelain, E., Marti, A., Wirbelauer, C., Senften, M., Muller , U., and Krek, W. (1999) Nat Cell Biol 1, 207-214 54. Pogacic, V., Bullock

  12. Injury Prevention Survey: Army Awareness Assessment and Needs Analysis, 9 July - 26 August 2014 (United States)


    2012 Orthopedics and Biomechanics . J Sports Med. 33: 940–946. Knapik J.J., et al. 2001. Risk factors for training-related injuries among men...associated with overuse, sports , and physical training. To assess current injury prevention (IP) knowledge and interests and identify IP topics where awareness...result from various unit or personal physical training activities like sports or running (Nindl 2013; Bullock 2010; Jones et al. 2010b; Ruscio 2010

  13. Will Climate Change the Future of Homeland Security (United States)


    support and encouragement of my advisor, Glen Woodbury, and co-advisor, Christopher Bellavita. Their belief in the importance of this topic kept me...Jane Bullock. I am forever indebted to the Walker and Hamilton Bank and Trust for their financial support and to my classmates who never lost faith...Government Dataset. Climate Central ( is the website run by an independent organization of scientists and journalists involved with

  14. The Pada-Yatra of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu


    Swami, Bhakti Caru


    The word pada-yatra literally means to walk on foot. In early India people used to travel by chariot, horseback, elephant, bullock-cart, or palanquin. But saintly persons, having renounced such worldly comforts, would travel by foot. Their main concern was to teach the glories of God to the conditioned living entities and thereby deliver them from their miserable materialistic lives. Walking was the best means of contacting the common people and accomplishing that goal. When Lord Chaitanya to...

  15. Agent-based Modeling Methodology for Analyzing Weapons Systems (United States)


    1998) published similarities between ABM and the more traditional equation based methods of simulation and developed criteria for choosing one...analysis method of the effects of a new weapon on tactics and combat decision making by modeling flexible agent behaviors in a mission level combat...adaptive system (Bullock, McIntyre, & Hill, 2000). There are several statistical methods available for conducting analysis of simulation models (Law

  16. Сандра Баллок поблагодарила Алара Кивило / Тийт Туумалу

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Туумалу, Тийт, 1971-


    Näitleja Sandra Bullock tänas oma Filminäitlejate Gildi Auhindade (American Screen Actors Guild Awards) tseremoonia tänukõnes ka operaator Alar Kivilod. Artiklis Kanadas sündinud ja Los Angeleses töötavast eesti päritolu filmioperaatorist ning lähemalt tema ühest südamelähedasemast tööst, filmist "Taking Chance" (USA 2009)

  17. Domestic Violence Prior to and During Pregnancy within a Selected Military Population and its Relationship to Depressive Symptomatology (United States)


    Jefferson Davis Highway Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...1996 Nurse Manager : David Grant Medical Center OB/GYN Clinic Travis Air Force Base, CA 1992-1994 Charge Nurse: David Grant Medical Center...weight infant, fetal injury, preeclampsia , preterm labor, preterm delivery, hemorrhage, impaired bonding, and delayed postpartum recovery (Bullock et

  18. Perceptual Performance Impact of GPU-Based WARP and Anti-Aliasing for Image Generators (United States)


    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Feb 2016 – May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PERCEPTUAL PERFORMANCE IMPACT OF GPU -BASED WARP & ANTI...generator, perception, geometric distortion, geometric warp, NVIDIA warp API, GPU warp, vision assessment. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...OF GPU -BASED WARP & ANTI-ALIASING FOR IMAGE GENERATORS Logan Williams1, Charles Bullock1, Doug Traill2, Kevin Amaratunga3, James Gaska1, Marc

  19. Relação entre preço da carne bovina e do animal comercializado em Cuiabá, MT = Relationship between the prices of cattle beef and animal negotiated in Cuiabá, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Beloni


    evaluated variables were arroba price of Steers/Bullock and Cowin Cuiabá region, and the cuts: Sirloin Steak, Top Sirloin CAP, Topside, Chuck, Shank and Hump Steak, in the State of Mato Grosso. A descriptive analysis was carried out by determining correlation coefficients and regression analysis, using data available in weekly bulletins from the Instituto Mato-Grossense de Economia Agropecuária from November 2013 to October 2016. High correlation coefficients were obtained between cuts prices and the arroba price of Steers/Bullock and of Cow. The regression equations generated showed high coefficients of determination. The behavior of cut prices was variable over time, as it is affected by arroba price of Steers/Bullock and Cow. These, in turn, have their prices influenced mainly by the supply of matrices for slaughter, by the climate and by economic factors. The prices of the beef cuts studied are strongly and positively related to the arroba prices of Steers/Bullock and Cow, allowing their estimation from empirical models.

  20. Fundamental Mechanistic Investigations of Silane and Chlorocarbon Addition to Low Valent Palladium Species and their Application to Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Mark J.


    The collaboration between Mark Fink (Tulane University) and R. Morris Bullock (Brookhaven National Laboratory, currently at PNL) is an effort to understand some of the fundamental processes involved in catalytic bond activations with low coordinate palladium species. The project involves the photochemical generation of reactive low-valent palladium species as transients using nanosecond laser flash photolysis and the subsequent investigation of their reactions with chloroarenes and hydrosilanes. In the case of Si-H activation of hydrosilanes, relatively long-lived sigma complexes are implicated. These complexes may be important models for C-H activation in hydrocarbons. The information obtained from these studies will help in the understanding of fundamental processes involved in a number of important catalytic reactions in the petrochemical and environmental areas.

  1. WFIRST: Surveying galactic halos within 10Mpc (United States)

    Courtney, Sol; Johnston, Kathryn; Sanderson, Robyn; WINGS Team


    Three aims of a WFIRST Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (WINGS) of stellar halos are: (i) to look at the global properties of the halos (e.g. radial profile and total content); (ii) to find and interpret structures that are signatures of accretion histories (including luminosity functions, merger rates and orbits); (iii) to find features at widest possible separations in order to constrain the distribution of dark matter. For all of the above purposes, the halos should be observed to the greatest radial extent possible. The extent to which this is possible or interesting will depend on expected densities of the stellar halos as well as contamination by background galaxies at faint magnitudes. This study “observes" the Bullock/Johnston stellar halo models as a guide for these expectations.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen stocks of an Arenosol under irrigated fruit orchards in semiarid Brazil Estoques de carbono e nitrogênio de um Neossolo Quartzarênico sob cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas na região do semi-árido do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi


    Full Text Available Soil organic matter accumulation provides benefits to soil productivity and reduces atmospheric carbon concentration. However, little is known about the accumulation of C and N by sandy soils under perennial irrigated crops in semiarid regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigated fruit orchard cultivation on the stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (N of an Arenosol/Quartzpsament from Paraipaba-CE, Semiarid Brazil. Soil samples were taken from irrigated orchards of banana (Musa ssp., cashew (Anacardium ocidentale, guava (Psidium guajava, bullock's heart (Annona reticulata, mango (Mangifera indica, and sapote (Manilkara zapota in the wetted-bulb and non-irrigated area between the plant rows. Additional samples were collected from adjacent areas under secondary Caatinga forest, and under a 2-year-old deforested area. Sampling depths were: 0-0.1, 0.1-0.2, and 0.2-0.4 m. The highest contents of SOC and N were found in the surface layer. The soil bulk density did not change in depth. The stocks of SOC and total N under secondary forest at 0-0.40 m layer were 27.6 and 2.4 Mg ha-1, respectively. Caatinga Forest conversion into fruit orchard cultivation led to a decrease of 5 to 23% and 4 to 21% on SOC and N stocks, respectively. Compared to other soil uses, sapote and bullock's heart contributed for a lower decrease of SOC and N stocks after deforestation. Guava, bullock's heart, mango and sapote contributed for improving the SOC stratification index.O acúmulo de matéria orgânica beneficia a produtividade do solo e reduz a concentração do carbono atmosférico. Entretanto, pouco é sabido a respeito do acúmulo de C e N em solos arenosos cultivados com culturas perenes irrigadas em regiões semi-áridas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas nos estoques de C e N de um Neossolo Quartzarênico em Paraipaba, CE. Foram coletadas amostras na linha e na

  3. Towards the Next Generation Air Quality Modeling System ... (United States)

    The community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is one of the most widely used air quality model worldwide; it is employed for both research and regulatory applications at major universities and government agencies for improving understanding of the formation and transport of air pollutants. It is noted, however, that air quality issues and climate change assessments need to be addressed globally recognizing the linkages and interactions between meteorology and atmospheric chemistry across a wide range of scales. Therefore, an effort is currently underway to develop the next generation air quality modeling system (NGAQM) that will be based on a global integrated meteorology and chemistry system. The model for prediction across scales-atmosphere (MPAS-A), a global fully compressible non-hydrostatic model with seamlessly refined centroidal Voronoi grids, has been chosen as the meteorological driver of this modeling system. The initial step of adapting MPAS-A for the NGAQM was to implement and test the physics parameterizations and options that are preferred for retrospective air quality simulations (see the work presented by R. Gilliam, R. Bullock, and J. Herwehe at this workshop). The next step, presented herein, would be to link the chemistry from CMAQ to MPAS-A to build a prototype for the NGAQM. Furthermore, the techniques to harmonize transport processes between CMAQ and MPAS-A, methodologies to connect the chemis

  4. Comparison of two different analytical methods for determination of aflatoxins in feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovska-Dimzoska Biljana


    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography - fluorescence detector and fluorometry (fluorescence spectrometry with previous immunoaffinity column clean-up, are two methods that are compared in order to evaluate their performances in determination of total aflatoxins content in feed. Method validation was established, linearity of the methods was checked, and a good coefficient of correlation was found for bought methods (0,9994 and 0,978 respectively. The limits of detection were 0,003 ng/ml (average for HPLC-FD method and 0,12 ng/ml for fluorometry. The accuracy of the methods was determined using reference materials with known concentration and spiked aflatoxins free samples. The recoveries were found to be 85,82% (average for HPLC-FD method and 56,75%, for fluorometry. Twenty feed concentrates for bullock and 20 feed concentrates for swine, were analyzed parallel with bought methods. The results are in correlation only in higher concentration range. For lower concentration range (below 1,0 μg/kg fluorometry shows limited sensitivity and selectivity. It was found that it is applicable only as a screening method for the prediction of aflatoxins. HPLC-FD method remains a method of choice for the analyst in order to achieved accurate and reliable results.

  5. Performance at slaughtering of Marchigiana beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Trombetta


    Full Text Available On a 766 heads sample of Marchigiana bullocks slaughtered in 2004-2006 at Senigallia’s Slaughterhouse main performance at slaughtering were recorded: identity, personal data, live weight, right hoof, right fore and hind limbs, head, tongue, skin, head skin, gross stomachs, empty rumen, gross intestines, stomach fat, thickness of skin, carcass and half weights, limb girth, SEUROP carcass and fatness scoring (using 3 subclasses. Avarage daily gain (ADG and percentages were computed. All statistics were performed on 726 males: means, correlations, multivariate analysis, variance components, heritability. Average slaughtering data were: age 598.8 ± 78.6 d, live weight 681.6 ± 81.1 kg, live ADG 1.154 ± 0.175 kg/d, carcass weight 424.9 ± 54.9 kg, gross dressing 62.29 ± 2.08%, net dressing 68.89 ± 1,89%, carcass ADG 0.719 ± 0.116 kg/d. Phenotypic correlations of live weight with SEUROP carcass evaluation and fatness have been equal to 47% and 26% while the correlations between ADG, SEUROP and fatness carcass evaluation have been equal to 41% and 37%. Following heritabilities were estimated: carcass weight 0.29, skin 0.62, head 0.34, SEUROP carcass evaluation 0.48.

  6. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  7. Dark matter haloes in modified gravity and dark energy: interaction rate, small- and large-scale alignment (United States)

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Winther, Hans A.; Mota, David F.; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan


    We study the properties of dark matter haloes in a wide range of modified gravity models, namely, f(R), DGP and interacting dark energy models. We study the effects of modified gravity and dark energy on the internal properties of haloes, such as the spin and the structural parameters. We find that f(R) gravity enhances the median value of the Bullock spin parameter, but could not detect such effects for DGP and coupled dark energy. f(R) also yields a lower median sphericity and oblateness, while coupled dark energy has the opposite effect. However, these effects are very small. We then study the interaction rate of haloes in different gravity and find that only strongly coupled dark energy models enhance the interaction rate. We then quantify the enhancement of the alignment of the spins of interacting halo pairs by modified gravity. Finally, we study the alignment of the major axes of haloes with the large-scale structures. The alignment of the spins of interacting pairs of haloes in DGP and coupled dark energy models show no discrepancy with GR, while f(R) shows a weaker alignment. Strongly coupled dark energy shows a stronger alignment of the halo shape with the large-scale structures.

  8. Perioperative simulation learning and post-registration development. (United States)

    Inch, Jessica

    Competence to practise in the perioperative environment requires specialist knowledge (Gillespie and Hamlin, 2009). Newly qualified staff in this environment can experience difficulty in making the transition into practice (Stratton, 2011) and often feel overwhelmed by the skills required (Callaghan, 2010). Simulation-based learning techniques are increasingly used by practice educators specifically within these environments (Cato and Murray, 2010) to aid with acquisition of skills, emergency care delivery, general post-registration development and also as a standardised indicator of 'competence' (Bullock et al, 2008; Cato and Murray, 2010). This article will consider the impact of this educational strategy on the learner's lifelong development following registration, and its position in relation to the widely accepted learning paradigms of Benner's 'Novice to Expert' and Maslow's 'Hierarchy of Needs'. Through discussion of the nature of education in the practice setting, the reader will be prompted to reconsider the actual value of simulation-based learning in the post-registration arena and how this may be used to redefine simulation in the clinical setting.

  9. The Hohmann-Parker Effect and its Consequences Measured by the Mars Science Laboratory on the Transfer from Earth to Mars (United States)

    Posner, A.; Odstrcil, D.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Elliott, H. A.; Frahm, R. A.; Hayes, J. J.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Christian, E. R.; Andrews, J.; Brinza, D.; Epperly, M. E.; Neal, K.; Seimetz, L.; Smith, K. D.; Tyler, Y.; Weigle, E.


    We show that a spacecraft launched from Earth towards Mars following a Hohmann minimum energy transfer trajectory has a strong tendency to remain well-connected magnetically to Earth, in the early phase of the transfer, or to Mars in the late phase, via the Parker spiral magnetic field. On the return trip, the spacecraft would remain reasonably well-connected first to Mars and later to Earth. Moreover, good magnetic connectivity occurs on all Hohmann transfers between neighboring planets in the inner solar system out to Mars. We call this hitherto unnamed circumstance the Hohmann-Parker effect. We show consequences of the effect by means of simultaneous cosmic radiation proxy observations made near Earth, near Mars, and at the Mars Science Laboratory on the transfer from Earth to Mars in 2011/2012. We support the observations with simulations of the large-scale magnetic field of the inner heliosphere during this period and compare the results with our predictions. The implications of the Hohmann-Parker effect are discussed. MSL RAD Science Team: R. Beaujean, S. Boettcher, M. Bullock, S. Burmeister, F. A. Cucinotta, B. Ehresmann, D. Grinspoon, J. Guo, D. M. Hassler, M.-H. Kim, J. Koehler, O. Kortmann, C. Martin-Garcia, S. C. R. Rafkin, G. Reitz, and R. F. Wimmer-Schweingruber SOHO EPHIN Science Team: B. Heber, R. Mueller-Mellin

  10. Bioinspired Design and Computational Prediction of Iron Complexes with Pendant Amines for the Production of Methanol from CO2 and H2. (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyang; Yang, Xinzheng


    Inspired by the active site structure of [FeFe]-hydrogenase, we built a series of iron dicarbonyl diphosphine complexes with pendant amines and predicted their potentials to catalyze the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol using density functional theory. Among the proposed iron complexes, [(P(tBu)2N(tBu)2H)FeH(CO)2(COOH)](+) (5COOH) is the most active one with a total free energy barrier of 23.7 kcal/mol. Such a low barrier indicates that 5COOH is a very promising low-cost catalyst for high-efficiency conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol under mild conditions. For comparison, we also examined Bullock's Cp iron diphosphine complex with pendant amines, [(P(tBu)2N(tBu)2H)FeHCp(C5F4N)](+) (5Cp-C5F4N), as a catalyst for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and obtained a total free energy barrier of 27.6 kcal/mol, which indicates that 5Cp-C5F4N could also catalyze the conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol but has a much lower efficiency than our newly designed iron complexes.

  11. [Osteogenesis imperfecta: Treatment and results of a case series]. (United States)

    Escribano-Rey, R J; Duart-Clemente, J; Martínez de la Llana, O; Beguiristáin-Gúrpide, J L


    To describe our experience in the management of patients with osteogenesis imperfect (OI). We conducted a retrospective study of a series of cases affected with OI treated in the Clínica Univesidad de Navarra from 1980 to 2007, with a mean follow up of 17.3 years (7-27 years). We collected descriptive data of the sample, the fractures and the deformities, and the treatments given. The complications presented and the functional outcomes at the end of follow-up were also reviewed. The sample included ten patients. Approximately two-thirds (65%) of fractures were sustained in the lower limbs. One patient received medical treatment only. Three patients had combined medical and surgical treatment. Some type of surgical treatment was performed on 6 patients. The most common surgery was the Sofield-Millar performed on 37 occasions, with a third of them requiring revision surgery due to migration of the nails. There were 17 episodes of re-fracture. Complications such as non-union, iatrogenic fractures, and infections, were also observed. The functional outcome, according to the Hoffer-Bullock scale, at the end of follow-up was grade I/II in 7 patients. Despite the need for multiple interventions and complications presented during follow up, the appropriate treatment of patients with OI can provide acceptable functional outcomes. Copyright © 2012 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Progress on Implementing Additional Physics Schemes into ... (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has a team of scientists developing a next generation air quality modeling system employing the Model for Prediction Across Scales – Atmosphere (MPAS-A) as its meteorological foundation. Several preferred physics schemes and options available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are regularly used by the USEPA with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to conduct retrospective air quality simulations. These include the Pleim surface layer, the Pleim-Xiu (PX) land surface model with fractional land use for a 40-class National Land Cover Database (NLCD40), the Asymmetric Convective Model 2 (ACM2) planetary boundary layer scheme, the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective parameterization with subgrid-scale cloud feedback to the radiation schemes and a scale-aware convective time scale, and analysis nudging four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA). All of these physics modules and options have already been implemented by the USEPA into MPAS-A v4.0, tested, and evaluated (please see the presentations of R. Gilliam and R. Bullock at this workshop). Since the release of MPAS v5.1 in May 2017, work has been under way to implement these preferred physics options into the MPAS-A v5.1 code. Test simulations of a summer month are being conducted on a global variable resolution mesh with the higher resolution cells centered over the contiguous United States. Driving fields for the FDDA and soil nudging are

  13. Jeans that fit: weighing the mass of the Milky Way analogues in the ΛCDM universe (United States)

    Kafle, Prajwal R.; Sharma, Sanjib; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Driver, Simon P.


    The spherical Jeans equation is a widely used tool for dynamical study of gravitating systems in astronomy. Here we test its efficacy in robustly weighing the mass of Milky Way analogues, given they need not be in equilibrium or even spherical. Utilizing Milky Way stellar halos simulated in accordance with ΛCDM cosmology by Bullock and Johnston (2005) and analysing them under the Jeans formalism, we recover the underlying mass distribution of the parent galaxy, within distance r/kpc ∈ [10, 100], with a bias of ˜12% and a dispersion of ˜14%. Additionally, the mass profiles of triaxial dark matter halos taken from the SURFS simulation, within scaled radius 0.2 < r/rmax < 3, are measured with a bias of ˜-2.4% and a dispersion of ˜10%. The obtained dispersion is not because of Poisson noise due to small particle numbers as it is twice the later. We interpret the dispersion to be due to the inherent nature of the ΛCDM halos, for example being aspherical and out-of-equilibrium. Hence the dispersion obtained for stellar halos sets a limit of about 12% (after adjusting for random uncertainty) on the accuracy with which the mass profiles of the Milky Way-like galaxies can be reconstructed using the spherical Jeans equation. This limit is independent of the quantity and quality of the observational data. The reason for a non zero bias is not clear, hence its interpretation is not obvious at this stage.

  14. Investigation of the role of environmental contamination in the occurrence of residues of the veterinary drug phenylbutazone in cattle. (United States)

    Barnes, Paul; Fodey, Terence L; Smyth, Wesley G; Crooks, Steven R H


    Phenylbutazone is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug licensed for use in horses to treat musculoskeletal disorders. It is not permitted in the European Union for use in animals destined for the food chain. Official statistics provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) show that 0.18% of bovines tested in the European Union between 2008 and 2014 for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were non-compliant, with phenylbutazone representing over 28% of these. Anecdotal evidence suggests animals that have not been treated with the drug may have produced non-compliant samples, possibly through some form of contamination. In this study, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometric detection was applied to bovine plasma samples to determine if detectable residues (CCα = 0.28 ng ml-1) may occur in untreated animals as a result of environmental contamination through normal farming practice. The study demonstrates that waste from animals treated with phenylbutazone, and spread on an area of pasture, can contaminate untreated bovines grazing the pasture many weeks later. It was determined that this contamination, which can persist over a significant period, may be due to the ingestion of as little as 30 μg phenylbutazone by a 500 kg bullock.

  15. Induction of Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells (T-47D) by Annona reticulata L. Leaves Methanolic Extracts. (United States)

    Roham, Pratiksha H; Kharat, Kiran R; Mungde, Priyanka; Jadhav, Mahadev A; Makhija, Surinder J


    Annona reticulata Linn. (Common name: Bullock's-heart) (Annonaceae family) is a semi-evergreen and small deciduous tree. The extracts of various parts of Annona reticulata L. have been reported as cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Annona reticulata L. leaves' methanolic extract (ARME) was prepared and used against the breast cancer cells. The breast cancer cells (T-47D) viability and IC50 were evaluated by Vybrant® MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Detection of phosphatidylserine on membranes of apoptotic cells was done by Attune flow cytometer. RNA transcripts were quantified in ARME treated and untreated cells. Finally, the Vybrant® FAM Poly Caspases assay kit was used for analysis of polycaspases activity in T-47D cells. The IC50 (5 ± 0.5 µg/mL) of the ARME was found against breast cancer cells (T-47D). The Paclitaxel was used as a control standard drug for the study. The downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax and Bak, and caspases activation suggested induction of apoptosis in T-47D cells by ARME through mitochondrial pathway. The cell cycle halted at G2/M phase in the ARME treated cells. The ARME was found to be effective against Breast cancer cells (T-47D).

  16. Desempenho de novilhos mestiços nelore suplementados em pastagem com diferentes níveis de concentrado no período seco do ano Levels of concentrate for grazing nelore crossbred steers in the dry period of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afranio Afonso Ferrari Baião


    Full Text Available No Brasil, a engorda de animais suplementados em pastagem na seca, nos últimos anos, representa a maior parte dos animais terminados nesta época do ano. Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes de concentrado na engorda de novilhos mestiços nelore, suplementados em pastagem no período seco do ano. O experimento foi realizado no Setor de Bovinocultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, entre os meses de junho a setembro de 2001. Foram utilizados 24 bovinos mestiços nelore, machos, inteiros, com idade média de 30 meses e peso vivo médio de 295 Kg. Durante o período experimental, os animais foram manejados em pastagem de Brachiaria brizanta cv. Maranducom área de 11,5 ha e disponibilidade média de 7,635 e 3,495 kgMS.ha-1, no início e no final do período, respectivamente. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de níveis crescentes de concentrado, calculados como percentual do peso vivo, como segue: T1 0,0%; T2 - 0,4%; T3 - 0,8%; T4.- 1,2%. O experimento foi delineado em blocos casualizados, com o peso vivo inicial como fator de blocagem, sendo 6 blocos e 4 tratamentos, totalizando 24 parcelas experimentais. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se o software estatístico Sistema de Análise de Variância de Dados Balanceados (SISVAR. Os resultados foram os seguintes: houve efeito significativo, com ajuste linear, dos níveis de concentrado no ganho de peso diário (PIn Brazil, the fattening of suplemented grazing animals in the last years accounted for most of the finishing animals in this time of the year. This work had the objective to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of concentrate in the fattening of crossbreed bullocks of Nelore breed grazing suplemented Brachiaria brizanta cv. Marandu pasture in the dry period of the year. The experiment was conducted in the Beef Cattle Division of the Animal Science Department at Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais, from June

  17. Characterizing Volcanic Eruptions on Venus: Some Realistic (?) Scenarios (United States)

    Stofan, E. R.; Glaze, L. S.; Grinspoon, D. H.


    When Pioneer Venus arrived at Venus in 1978, it detected anomalously high concentrations of SO2 at the top of the troposphere, which subsequently declined over the next five years. This decline in SO2 was linked to some sort of dynamic process, possibly a volcanic eruption. Observations of SO2 variability have persisted since Pioneer Venus. More recently, scientists from the Venus Express mission announced that the SPICAV (Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus) instrument had measured varying amounts of SO2 in the upper atmosphere; VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) measured no similar variations in the lower atmosphere (ESA, 4 April, 2008). In addition, Fegley and Prinn stated that venusian volcanoes must replenish SO2 to the atmosphere, or it would react with calcite and disappear within 1.9 my. Fegley and Tremain suggested an eruption rate on the order of approx 1 cubic km/year to maintain atmospheric SO2; Bullock and Grinspoon posit that volcanism must have occurred within the last 20-50 my to maintain the sulfuric acid/water clouds on Venus. The abundance of volcanic deposits on Venus and the likely thermal history of the planet suggest that it is still geologically active, although at rates lower than Earth. Current estimates of resurfacing rates range from approx 0.01 cubic km/yr to approx 2 cubic km/yr. Demonstrating definitively that Venus is still volcanically active, and at what rate, would help to constrain models of evolution of the surface and interior, and help to focus future exploration of Venus.

  18. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

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    Adepoju Tunde Joseph Ogunkunle


    Full Text Available The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB and haematinic (Haematol-B powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0, Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0, Mangifera indica L. (10.0, Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0, Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0, root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0, Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith E. A. Bruce (8.0, Parquetina nigrescens (Afz. Bullock (6.0, and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0, while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0, fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0, stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0, Khaya senegalensis (Desr. A. Juss (5.5, Mangifera indica (5.5, root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0, root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5, Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam. Zepern & Timler (5.5, and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5. In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  19. Diversity and genetic structure of the Mexican endemic epiphyte Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys (Bromeliaceae). (United States)

    González-Astorga, Jorge; Cruz-Angón, Andrea; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Vovides, Andrew P


    The monoecious, bird-pollinated epiphytic Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys is an endemic bromeliad of the tropical dry forests of Mexico with clonal growth. In the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve this species shows a host preference for Bursera copallifera (Sessé & Moc ex. DC) Bullock. As a result of deforestation in the study area, B. copallifera has become a rare tree species in the remaining forest patches. This human-induced disturbance has directly affected the population densities of T. achyrostachys. In this study the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation were assessed by comparing the genetic diversity, gene flow and genetic differentiation in six populations of T. achyrostachys in the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve, Mexico. Allozyme electrophoresis of sixteen loci (eleven polymorphic and five monomorphic) were used. The data were analysed with standard statistical approximations for obtaining diversity, genetic structure and gene flow. Genetic diversity and allelic richness were: HE = 0.21 +/- 0.02, A = 1.86 +/- 0.08, respectively. F-statistics revealed a deficiency of heterozygous plants in all populations (Fit = 0.65 +/- 0.02 and Fis = 0.43 +/- 0.06). Significant genetic differentiation between populations was detected (Fst = 0.39 +/- 0.07). Average gene flow between pairs of populations was relatively low and had high variation (Nm = 0.46 +/- 0.21), which denotes a pattern of isolation by distance. The genetic structure of populations of T. achyrostachys suggests that habitat fragmentation has reduced allelic richness and genetic diversity, and increased significant genetic differentiation (by approx. 40 %) between populations. The F-statistic values (>0) and the level of gene flow found suggest that habitat fragmentation has broken up the former population structure. In this context, it is proposed that the host trees of T. achyrostachys should be considered as a conservation priority, since they represent the

  20. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India. (United States)

    Raghu, V


    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference.

  1. Complex Engineered Systems: A New Paradigm (United States)

    Mina, Ali A.; Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    Human history is often seen as an inexorable march towards greater complexity — in ideas, artifacts, social, political and economic systems, technology, and in the structure of life itself. While we do not have detailed knowledge of ancient times, it is reasonable to conclude that the average resident of New York City today faces a world of much greater complexity than the average denizen of Carthage or Tikal. A careful consideration of this change, however, suggests that most of it has occurred recently, and has been driven primarily by the emergence of technology as a force in human life. In the 4000 years separating the Indus Valley Civilization from 18th century Europe, human transportation evolved from the bullock cart to the hansom, and the methods of communication used by George Washington did not differ significantly from those used by Alexander or Rameses. The world has moved radically towards greater complexity in the last two centuries. We have moved from buggies and letter couriers to airplanes and the Internet — an increase in capacity, and through its diversity also in complexity, orders of magnitude greater than that accumulated through the rest of human history. In addition to creating iconic artifacts — the airplane, the car, the computer, the television, etc. — this change has had a profound effect on the scope of experience by creating massive, connected and multiultra- level systems — traffic networks, power grids, markets, multinational corporations — that defy analytical understanding and seem to have a life of their own. This is where complexity truly enters our lives.


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    Ade, P.A.R.; Aikin, R.W.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S.J.; Bischoff, C.A.; Bock, J.J.; Bradford, K.J.; Brevik, J.A.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Dowell, C.D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J.P.; Fliescher, S.; Golwala, S.R.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hilton, G.C.; Hui, H.; Irwin, K.D.


    bicep2/KECK ARRAY. IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS P. A. R. Ade1, R. W. Aikin2, D. Barkats3, S. J. Benton4, C. A. Bischoff5, J. J. Bock2,6, K. J. Bradford5, J. A. Brevik2, I. Buder5, E. Bullock7Show full author list Published 2015 June 18 • © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 806, Number 2 Article PDF Figures Tables References Citations 273 Total downloads Cited by 6 articles Turn on MathJax Share this article Get permission to re-use this article Article information Abstract bicep2 and the Keck Array are polarization-sensitive microwave telescopes that observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the South Pole at degree angular scales in search of a signature of inflation imprinted as B-mode polarization in the CMB. bicep2 was deployed in late 2009, observed for three years until the end of 2012 at 150 GHz with 512 antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers, and has reported a detection of B-mode polarization on degree angular scales. The Keck Array was first deployed in late 2010 and will observe through 2016 with five receivers at several frequencies (95, 150, and 220 GHz). bicep2 and the Keck Array share a common optical design and employ the field-proven bicep1 strategy of using small-aperture, cold, on-axis refractive optics, providing excellent control of systematics while maintaining a large field of view. This design allows for full characterization of far-field optical performance using microwave sources on the ground. Here we describe the optical design of both instruments and report a full characterization of the optical performance and beams of bicep2 and the Keck Array at 150 GHz.

  3. Morphological and molecular description of Tenuisentis niloticus (Meyer, 1932) (Acanthocephala: Tenuisentidae) from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii: Arapaimidae), in Burkina Faso, with emendation of the family diagnosis and notes on new features, cryptic genetic diversity and histopathology. (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Evans, R Paul; Boungou, Magloire; Heckmann, Richard


    Specimens described as Rhadinorhynchus niloticus Meyer, 1932 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from two male specimens collected from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) in the Egyptian Nile were later redescribed in the genus Tenuisentis Van Cleave, 1936 (Tenuisentidae) based on 12 specimens collected from the same host species in the White Nile. That redescription basically distinguished the two genera based on five traits but did not actually provide a formal description. His account left out information about cerebral ganglion, lemnisci, some reproductive structures, eggs, proboscis hook dissymmetry and roots, size of trunk and a few other structures. We provide (i) the first complete description of this species enhanced by SEM, molecular, and histo-pathological studies; (ii) expand the existing descriptions; (iii) correct questionable accounts advanced by Van Cleave on the cement gland and the hypodermal giant nuclei; and (iv) add descriptions of new features such as the para-receptacle structure which we also report from Paratenuisentis Bullock & Samuel, 1975, the only other genus in Tenuisentidae Van Cleave, 1936. The subsequent description of a few more specimens from the same host collected in Mali was more informative yet incomplete and at variance with our specimens from Burkina Faso. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I; COI) and nuclear (18S ribosomal RNA) gene relationships uncovered a cryptic species complex containing two lineages. Based on our studies, the family diagnosis is emended. The acanthocephalan causes damage to the host intestine as depicted in histopathological sections. The invading worm can extend from the mucosal layer to the muscularis externa of the host with subsequent tissue necrosis, villi compression, haemorrhaging and blood loss.

  4. Water EducaTion for Alabama's Black Belt (WET Alabama): Facilitating Scientific Understanding of the Hydrologic Cycle in Low-Resource Schools (United States)

    Wolf, L. W.; Lee, M.; Stone, K.


    Youth, as future citizens, play an important role in obtaining and maintaining water resources. Water EducaTion for Alabama's Black Belt (WET Alabama) provides off-campus environmental and water-education activities designed to increase the appreciation, knowledge, conservation, and protection of water resources by middle-school teachers and children from predominantly African-American families in some of Alabama's poorest counties. The project is structured around a variety of indoor and outdoor activities held at two field sites, Auburn University's E. V. Smith Center in Macon County and the Robert G. Wehle Nature Center in Bullock County located in Alabama's "Black Belt" region, a region in which the prosperity of local communities is low. The educational activities provide an engaging laboratory and field experience for children from rural schools that lack scientific facilities and equipment. Both hosting centers have easy access to surface water (ponds, wetlands, streams) and offer facilities for basic hydrologic experiments (e.g., aquifer models, permeameter, water quality). The E.V. Smith site has access to groundwater through pairs of nested wells. Educational activities are designed to help students and teachers visualize groundwater flow and its interaction with surface water in an aquifer tank model; compare the hydrologic properties (porosity and permeability) of different aquifer materials (sands, gravels, and clays); learn about groundwater purging and sampling; and assess water quality and flow direction in the field. Simple exercises demonstrate (1) the balance of recharge and discharge, (2) the effects of flooding, drought and pumping, and (3) movement of contaminants through aquifers. A set of ready-to-teach laboratory exercises and tutorials address goals specified by the State of Alabama science curriculum for grades 6 to 8. The ultimate goal of Project WET Alabama is to help students and teachers from resource-poor schools become knowledgeable

  5. Design approaches to experimental mediation. (United States)

    Pirlott, Angela G; MacKinnon, David P


    Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i.e., the relationship between the mediating and dependent variables is correlational. Although researchers likely know that correlational studies pose a risk of confounding, this problem seems forgotten when thinking about experimental designs randomly assigning participants to levels of the independent variable and measuring the mediator (i.e., "measurement-of-mediation" designs). Experimentally manipulating the mediator provides an approach to solving these problems, yet these methods contain their own set of challenges (e.g., Bullock, Green, & Ha, 2010). We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in children and animals and characterization of an unusual G10P[15] strain associated with bovine diarrhea in south India. (United States)

    Rajendran, Priya; Kang, Gagandeep


    Rotaviruses are enteric pathogens causing acute, watery, dehydrating diarrhea in various host species, including birds and mammals. This study collected data on the disease burden and strain prevalence of Group A rotavirus in animals and humans in Vellore and investigated interspecies transmission by comparison of circulating genotypes. Stool samples from children aged less than 5 years, admitted to the hospital between January 2003 and May 2006 for diarrhea and diarrheal samples from animals that were collected from a veterinary clinic and several dairy farms near Vellore between February 2007 and May 2008 were processed and subjected to RNA extraction and reverse-transcription PCR for genotyping of VP7 and VP4. Of 394 children with diarrhea, 158 (40%) were positive for rotavirus and the common G types identified were G1 (47, 29.7%), G2 (43, 27.2%), G9 (22, 13.9%), G10 (2, 1.2%), G12 (1, 0.6%) and mixed infections (27, 17.8%). The common P types were P[4] accounting for 57 (36%) samples, P[8] 57 (36%), P[11] 3 (1.8%) and P[6] 2 (1.2%). Of 627 animals, 35 (1 bullock, 2 goats, 32 cows) were found to be infected with rotavirus (5.5%). The common G types identified in order of frequency were G6 (17, 48.5%), G2 (10, 28%), G10 (4, 11%), G8 (2, 5.7%) and mixed infections (2, 5.7%). The common P types were P[6] accounting for 16 (46%) samples, P[4] 7 (20%), P[1] 3 (8.5%) and P[8] 3 (8.5%). An unusual P type P[15] was seen in one sample in combination with G10. The finding of G2 infections which are rarely identified in animals implies anthroponotic transmission since this genotype is predominantly associated with infection in humans. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Suitability and Economic Viability of Light Weight Mechanical Power Sources for Mechanizing Hill Farming (United States)

    Vatsa, Dinesh Kumar; Singh, Sukhbir


    Farm power and equipment role was established in agriculture beyond doubt for sustainable development but hill farming is still facing shortage of farm power and matching equipment for timely and precisely operations. A study was carried out on performance evaluation of different light weight power tillers/weeders designated as P1, P2, P3 and P4 under dry and wet land conditions to meet out the demand of farm power for mechanizing hill agriculture, particularly under small and irregular shaped terraces having high vertical intervals where it is difficult to operate commercially available power tillers. Four power tillers in the horse power range of 3.0-7.0 hp manufactured and marketed by Indian firms were tested in silty-clay-loam soil at the HPKV farm, Palampur, India. The results showed that the depth of operation was less than 80 mm with P1, P2 as well as P3 power tiller after two passes of rotary at soil moisture content of 16.4% whereas, it was 102 mm with P4. The average effective field capacity was 0.055, 0.051, 0.042 and 0.060 ha/h under dry land conditions with P1, P2, P3 and P4, respectively whereas in wetland condition the capacity was 0.042, 0.038 and 0.05 with P1, P2, and P4, respectively. P3 power tiller could not be possible to test under wet land conditions due to less ground clearance of the engine. The cost of repair and maintenance was observed to be very high in case of P1, P2 and P3 power tillers due to the occurrence of frequent breakdowns. It was construed from the study that the power tillers up to 5 hp are not suitable for seed-bed preparation but it could be used as weeder for interculture operations in wide row spaced crops. However, P4 power tiller performed better than other models under different conditions. There was saving of 50-66% in time and 66-75% cost of operation observed with different makes of power tillers as compared to bullock ploughing.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Bursera copallifera. (United States)

    Columba-Palomares, M F María C; Villareal, Dra María L; Acevedo Quiroz, M C Macdiel E; Marquina Bahena, M C Silvia; Álvarez Berber, Dra Laura P; Rodríguez-López, Dra Verónica


    The plant species Bursera copallifera (DC) bullock is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. The leaves of this plant can be prepared as an infusion to treat migraines, bronchitis, and dental pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts from the stems, stem bark, and leaves of B. copallifera, which was selected based on the knowledge of its traditional use. We evaluated the ability of extracts to inhibit mouse ear inflammation in response to topical application of 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The extracts with anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated for their inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activities of the organic extracts were evaluated using the sulforhodamine B assay. The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems (HAS) exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity of 54.3% (0.5 mg/ear), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the dichloromethane-methanol extract from the leaves (DMeL) was 55.4% at a dose of 0.1 mg/ear. Methanol extract from the leaves (MeL) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 = 4.4 μg/mL), hydroalcoholic extract of leaves, and DMeL also reduce the enzyme activity, (IC50 = 6.5 μg/mL, IC50 = 5.7 μg/mL), respectively, from stems HAS exhibit activity at the evaluated concentrations (IC50 =6.4 μg/mL). The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity against a breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, IC50 = 0.90 μg/mL), whereas DMeL exhibited an IC50 value of 19.9 μg/mL. In conclusion, extracts from leaves and stems inhibited cyclooxygenase-1, which is the target enzyme for nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs, and some of these extracts demonstrated substantial antiproliferative effects against the MCF7 cell line. These results validate the traditional use of B. copallifera.

  9. Short-term losses and long-term gains: The non-native species Austrominius modestus in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve (United States)

    Gallagher, M. C.; Culloty, S. C.; Davenport, J.; Harman, L.; Jessopp, M. J.; Kerrigan, C.; Murray, C.; O'Riordan, R. M.; McAllen, R.


    The non-native barnacle species Austrominius modestus was first recorded in Ireland, close to Lough Hyne marine nature reserve in 1957. This species was not recorded inside the Lough until 1980, but by 2001 was the dominant intertidal barnacle within the reserve. It has been suggested that increases in the abundance of this species at other locations in Europe may be linked to increasing sea surface temperatures, and that A. modestus is an ;ecological sleeper;. Despite an overall trend for increasing sea surface temperatures, this long term warming is punctuated by extreme events such as severely cold winters. A. modestus is warm water adapted, and has been recorded to decrease in abundance following cold winters. The winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 were amongst the coldest recorded in Ireland in past decades. In the present study, higher levels of mortality were recorded for A. modestus than native barnacle species in Lough Hyne following these cold winters. Additionally, this species was recorded at lower abundances at the majority of sites surveyed in Lough Hyne in 2011 compared with 2009. Despite this, A. modestus remains the dominant barnacle species in the Lough and monitoring the recruitment of intertidal barnacles within Lough Hyne during 2014-2015 revealed that A. modestus was the most abundant recruit at study sites, both in removal plots and in the pre-existing community. The year-round breeding of A. modestus in addition to the closed nature of the Lough promotes A. modestus within the reserve. Despite this, native barnacle species continue to persist in Lough Hyne, though generally at low abundances, with the exception of exposed locations such as the Rapids and Bullock Island where natives outnumber A. modestus. The future intertidal barnacle community within the Lough is likely to be dominated by A. modestus with Chthamalus montagui and C. stellatus being abundant at sites which are not suitable for A. modestus. While the consequences of this are

  10. Influence of tillage in soil penetration resistance variability in an olive orchard (United States)

    López de Herrera, Juan; Herrero Tejedor, Tomas; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Tarquis, Ana M.


    Soil attributes usually present a high degree of spatial variation due to a combination of physical, chemical, biological or climatic processes operating at different scales. The quantification and interpretation of such variability is a key issue for site-specific soil management (Brouder et al., 2001). The usual geostatistical approach studies soil variability by means of the semi-variograms. However, recently a multiscaling approach has been applied on the determination of the scaling data properties (Kravechenko et al., 1999; Caniego et al., 2005; Tarquis et al., 2008). This work focus in the multifractal analysis as a way to characterize the variability of field data in a case study of soil penetrometer resistance (SPR) in two olive orchards, one applying tillage for 20 years and the other one non. The field measurements and soil data were obtained at the village of Puebla de Almenara (Cuenca, Spain) (39o 47'42.37'N, 2o 49'29.23'W) with 869 m of elevation approximately. The characteristic of the soil at the surface is classified as clay loam texture according to Guidelines for soil description of FAO. The soil consists of clays and red silts with some clusters of limestone's and sands. Two transect data were collected from 128 points between the squared of the olive tree, tillage and no tillage area, for SPR readings with a sampling interval of 50 cm. In each sampling, readings were obtained from 0 cm till 20 cm of depth, with an interval of 5 cm. The multifractal spectrum for each area and depth was estimated showing a characteristic pattern and differentiating both treatments. References Brouder, S., Hofmann, B., Reetz, H.F., 2001. Evaluating spatial variability of soil parameters for input management. Better Crops 85, 8-11. Kravchenko, A.N., Boast, C.W., Bullock, D.G., 1999. Multifractal analysis of soil spatial variability. Agron. J. 91, 1033-1041. Caniego, F.J., R. Espejo, M.A. Martín, F. San José, 2005. Multifractal scaling of soil spatial variability

  11. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers. (United States)

    Moore, M C; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E


    The 2011 National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10% of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Carcass evaluation for the cooler assessment of this study revealed the following traits and frequencies: sex classes of steer (63.5%), heifer (36.4%), cow (0.1%), and bullock (0.03%); dark cutters (3.2%); blood splash (0.3%); yellow fat (0.1%); calloused rib eye (0.05%); overall maturities of A (92.8%), B (6.0%), and C or greater (1.2%); estimated breed types of native (88.3%), dairy type (9.9%), and Bos indicus (1.8%); and country of origin of United States (97.7%), Mexico (1.8%), and Canada (0.5%). Certified or marketing program frequencies were age and source verified (10.7%), ≤A(40) (10.0%), Certified Angus Beef (9.3%), Top Choice (4.1%), natural (0.6%), and Non-Hormone-Treated Cattle (0.5%); no organic programs were observed. Mean USDA yield grade (YG) traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (374.0 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.3 cm), LM area (88.8 cm2), and KPH (2.3%). Frequencies of USDA YG distributions were YG 1, 12.4%; YG 2, 41.0%; YG 3, 36.3%; YG 4, 8.6%; and YG 5, 1.6%. Mean USDA quality grade (QG) traits were USDA quality grade (Select(93)), marbling score (Small(40)), overall maturity (A(59)), lean maturity (A(54)), and skeletal maturity (A(62)). Frequencies of USDA QG distributions were Prime, 2.1%; Choice, 58.9%; Select, 32.6%; and Standard or less, 6.3%. Marbling score distribution was Slightly Abundant or greater, 2.3%; Moderate, 5.0%; Modest, 17.3%; Small, 39.7%; Slight, 34.6%; and Traces or less, 1.1%. Carcasses with QG of Select or greater and YG 3 or less represented 85.1% of the sample. This is the fifth benchmark study measuring targeted carcass characteristics, and information from this survey will continue to help drive progress in the beef industry. Results will

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Jurassic coals from the Gheshlagh mine, Eastern Alborz

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    Gholam Hossein Shamanian


    Full Text Available Introduction The Alborz structural zone in northern Iran is the host of a number of important coal deposits. The Gheshlagh coal mine is one of them, which is located 35 km southeast of Azadshahr. Coal bearing strata in the Gheshlagh mining district occur in the middle part of the Lower Jurassic Shemshak Formation which consists mainly of shales, siltstones and sandstones. The Geshlagh coals have a low sulfur content and a low ash yield. The ash content of coal and its geochemical character depends on the environment of deposition and subsequent geological history (Yazdi and Esmaeilnia, 2004. The purpose of this study was to investigate the texural and mineralogical characteristcs of the Ghashlagh coals and to identify the geochemistry of the major and trace elements and their relationship to specific mineralogical components. These results are necessary to improve the understanding of coal characterization and to relate the mineralogy of different materials to their potential for producing acidic or alkaline mine waters associated with mining and preparation processes. Materials and methods About 20 samples were collected from the main coal seams. These samples were taken from fresh faces of the mine to avoid weathered surfaces and get fresh samples. The petrography of the samples was carried out by the conventional microscopic methods at the Golestan University. Mineralogical analyses were done by a X-ray diffractometer equipped with a CuKα tube and monochrometer (XRD Philips PW 1800 at the Kansaran Binaloud Company. The coal samples were initially crushed to less than 200 μm and homogenized. Then, 50 g from each sample was heated to 525 oC according to the United States Geological Survey procedure(Bullock et al., 2002. The concentration of the major and trace elements in the resulting ash samples was determined using a wavelength Xray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF Philips PW1480 at the Kansaran Binaloud Company. Results The Coal

  13. Revisión de los factores de riesgo y los programas de prevención de la lesión del ligamento cruzado anterior en fútbol femenino: propuesta de prevención. [Review risk factors and prevention programs of the anterior cruciate ligament injury in female football: prevention proposal].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Romero-Moraleda


    with 606 and 228 articles respectively. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 articles were selected for study. For any knee injury risk factors are a previous injury, fatigue and muscle strength imbalance between hamstrings and the quadriceps muscle (McCall y col., 2014. In the case of ACL injury studies focus on causes like the Q angle, the valgus knee, the genu recurvatum, the pronator foot and the external tibial torsion among others. In addition, the ACL of women is smaller in length and has smaller cross section than the ACL of men (Sutton y Bullock, 2013. Prevention programs included training the core, propioception, flexibility, motor control, learn technique and eccentric work (McCall y col., 2014; Myer y col., 2012; Stevenson y col., 2014; Sugimoto y col., 2014. In conclusion, the specific risk factors for this injury in women are presented with the effectiveness shown in the different preventive programs analyzed. The prevention programs analyzed include improvements for neuromuscular strength, stretching, plyometry, balance, core and correction of the technique of jump landing and changes of direction.

  14. Ground water in folded Cretaceous sandstone of the Bhachau area, Kutch, India, with reference to the Kandla Port water supply (United States)

    Taylor, George C.; Osa, H.M.; Mitra, A.; Sen, B.N.


    of the Upper Bhuj series that has been assigned to the Early Cretaceous. The soft friable sandstone of the Upper Bhuj series constitutes the most productive ground-water reservoir in the Bhachau area. At present (1955) there are nine irrigated tracts for which water is obtained from dug wells less than 90 feet deep in the Upper Bhuj. These wells are worked by bullocks and 'motes' (leather bags) at withdrawal rates ranging from about 6,000 to 24,000imperial gallons per day; however, many existing individual wells if equipped with mechanical pumps are capable of yielding 100,000 gallons per day. The Deccan trap of Late Cretaceous to Eocene age occurs in a sequence of basaltic lava flows in the Bhachau area, but trap dikes, sills and plugs that are common in other parts of Kutch have not been observed in the area. Laterite of probable Eocene age is extensive at the top of the Deccan trap, and in places where the lava flows are thin the parent rock has been almost completely lateritized. The Deccan lava flows or the laterite, where the trap is absent, rest disconformably on the Upper Bhuj. No wells have been observed in the Deccan trap of the Bhachau area, but it is possible that locally small supplies of good water may be obtained from these rocks. The Tertiary sediments, which are assigned to the Manchhar series of Pliocene age, generally rest on the laterite or the Deccan trap ; but where both are absent, the Manchhar rests directly on the Upper Bhuj. The Manchhar series includes massive reddish-brown gypseous clay shales, laminated gray siltstones, some limestone, mottled sandstone, and laterite trap gravel. Only meager supplies of brackish water are obtained from wells in these sediments. Along the channels of Kotwala, Dalwala, Kageshwar, and Kara Vokras are narrow bands of unconsolidated coarse sand with fine gravel of Quaternary age. No wells were observed in these deposits, but it is possible that locally they may contain small supplies of bracki

  15. Reseñas

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    HC Reseñas


    Full Text Available TILLY, CHARLES Coerción, capital y los Estados europeos. 990-1990 Madrid, Alianza, 1992 BREUILLY, JOHN Labour and Liberalism in Nineteenth Century Europe. Essays in comparative history Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1992 CARNERO ARBAT, TERESA (ed. Modernización, desarrollo político y cambio social Madrid, Alianza Universidad, 1992 PRADOS DE LA ESCOSURA, LEANDRO y ZAMAGNI, VERA (eds. El desarrollo económico en la Europa del Sur: España e Italia en perspectiva histórica Madrid, Alianza, 1992 WINOCK, MICHEL Le Socialisme en France et en Europe, XIX-XX siècle Paris, Le Seuil, «Points-Histoire», 1992 BULLOCK, ALAN Hitler and Stalin: Parallel lives Nueva York, Knopf, 1992 PONTING, CLIVE Historia verde del mundo Barcelona, Paidós, 1992 DELEAGE, JEAN PAUL Historia de la Ecología Barcelona, Icaria, 1993 TAMAMES, RAMON La reconquista del Paraíso. Más allá de la utopía Madrid, Temas de Hoy, 1993 FONTANA, JOSEP La Historia después delfín de la historia Barcelona, Crítica, 1992 CHARTIER, ROGER EL mundo como representación. Historia cultural entre práctica y representación Barcelona, Gedisa, 1992 GRANJA, JOSÉ LUIS DE LA y REIG TAPIA, ALBERTO (eds. Manuel Tuñón de Lara, El compromiso con la historia. Su vida y su obra Bilbao, Universidad del País Vasco, 1993 NORA, PIERRE (dir. Les lieux de mémoires. III. Les France. 1 Conflits et Partages. 2. Traditions. 3. De l'archive à l'emblème Paris, Gallimard, 1992 AGULHON, MAURICE y BONTE, PIERRE Marianne. Les visages de la République Gallimard, 1992 THÉBAUD, FRANÇOISE (dir. Historia de las mujeres. El siglo XX Madrid, Editorial Taurus, 1993 KITCHEN, MARTIN El período de entreguerras en Europa Madrid, Alianza Universidad, 1992 AFERS full de recerca i pensament. Nació i nacionalisme a l'Europa Central i Oriental n° 14, Vol. VII, Catarroja, 1992 GUEREÑA, JEAN-LOUIS; FELL, EVEMARIE; AYMES, JEAN-RENE (Eds. L'Université en Espagne et en Amérique Latine du Moyen Age a nos jours

  16. Dos obras de Welton Becket (EE. UU.

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    Becket, Welton


    en él se pueden celebrar competiciones deportivas y gimnásticas, espectáculos musicales, cinematográficos y circenses e incluso exposiciones, reuniones y congresos. La entrada, desde la plaza, se realiza a través de una galería acristalada que rodea al edificio y que comunica con el corredor interior que circunda la pista. Tiene capacidad para más de 11.000 plazas, si bien hay unas plataformas telescópicas que se despliegan en el nivel de la pista, y sillas portátiles que la aumentan hasta un total de 16.500 plazas. El edificio está cubierto por una armadura de acero, limitada exteriormente con un amplio voladizo metálico. Todo el sistema va apoyado sobre 32 grandes pilares de hormigón, en forma de U, que quedan manifestados en el exterior de la fachada. El Coliseo cuenta con instalaciones de iluminación y sonido del tipo teatral, con lo que se consigue adecuarlo a cada una de las distintas manifestaciones. Bajo la plaza adyacente se ha dispuesto una gran sala de exposiciones subterránea, que complementa al Coliseo. Tiene una superficie de más de 5.700 m2, que se puede subdividir en espacios más pequeños, de acuerdo con las necesidades, por medio de paneles plegables. Centro comercial de Bullock´s en Norhtridge. La principal característica de este gran almacén es su total tratamiento a modo de escenario para las diversas mercancías que en él se exponen. Por otra parte, su diseño ha roto con el molde tradicional en forma de caja, típico de estos edificios, sustituyéndolo por un volumen poliédrico de efecto más dinámico. En él se ha dado tanta importancia a los espacios arquitectónicos como al sistema de iluminación y a la decoración. Así, mediante los distintos efectos luminosos, se consigue resaltar o quitar importancia a las diversas zonas, mientras que los adornos y las formas arquitectónicas limitan, diferenciando, las distintas áreas de exposición de artículos. Un sistema ornamental y de particiones móviles dotan al conjunto

  17. Mustiscaling Analysis applied to field Water Content through Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature sensing measurements (United States)

    Benitez Buelga, Javier; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sanchez, Raul; Gil, Maria; Tarquis, Ana M.


    signal variation, or to see at which scales signals are most correlated. This can give us an insight into the dominant processes An alternative to both of the above methods has been described recently. Relative entropy and increments in relative entropy has been applied in soil images (Bird et al., 2006) and in soil transect data (Tarquis et al., 2008) to study scale effects localized in scale and provide the information that is complementary to the information about scale dependencies found across a range of scales. We will use them in this work to describe the spatial scaling properties of a set of field water content data measured in an extension of a corn field, in a plot of 500 m2 and an spatial resolution of 25 cm. These measurements are based on an optics cable (BruggSteal) buried on a ziz-zag deployment at 30cm depth. References Bird, N., M.C. Díaz, A. Saa, and A.M. Tarquis. 2006. A review of fractal and multifractal analysis of soil pore-scale images. J. Hydrol. 322:211-219. Kravchenko, A.N., R. Omonode, G.A. Bollero, and D.G. Bullock. 2002. Quantitative mapping of soil drainage classes using topographical data and soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:235-243. Lark, R.M., A.E. Milne, T.M. Addiscott, K.W.T. Goulding, C.P. Webster, and S. O'Flaherty. 2004. Scale- and location-dependent correlation of nitrous oxide emissions with soil properties: An analysis using wavelets. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55:611-627. Lark, R.M., S.R. Kaffka, and D.L. Corwin. 2003. Multiresolution analysis of data on electrical conductivity of soil using wavelets. J. Hydrol. 272:276-290. Lark, R. M. and Webster, R. 1999. Analysis and elucidation of soil variation using wavelets. European J. of Soil Science, 50(2): 185-206. Mandelbrot, B.B. 1982. The fractal geometry of nature. W.H. Freeman, New York. Percival, D.B., and A.T. Walden. 2000. Wavelet methods for time series analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK. Tarquis, A.M., N.R. Bird, A.P. Whitmore, M.C. Cartagena, and

  18. EDITORIAL: Environmental justice: a critical issue for all environmental scientists everywhere (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn


    when an issue of water contamination becomes an issue of environmental injustice? How do we measure the impacts of environmental harm today on future generations? How do we measure the distribution of multiple or cumulative impacts on poorer groups? How do we quantify the responsibility of richer citizens in the world for the environmental harms distributed unequally to the poorer citizens? The papers in this focus issue do not answer all these questions, but we hope that this theme will recur in Environmental Research Letters and that more environmental scientists will begin to frame their analyses around the critical issues of distributions of environmental harms and benefits. References [1] United Nations Environment Programme 2007 Global Environmental Outlook 2007 (Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme) [2] UNICEF 2005 The State of the World's Children 2005 (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [3] World Resources Institute 2002 Wastes Produced from Industrialised Countries available from [4] Stephens C and Stair P 2007 Charting a new course for urban public health State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future ed L Stark (New York: W W Norton) pp 134 48 [5] Lee K N 2007 An urbanizing world State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future ed L Stark (New York: W W Norton) pp 3 22 [6] United States Environmental Protection Agency 2003 Environmental Justice available from [7] Stephens C, Bullock S and Scott A 2001 Environmental justice: rights and mean to a healthy environment for all Special Briefing Paper Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Global Environmental Change Programme (Brighton: ESRC Global Environmental Change Programme, University of Sussex) p 3 available from [8] United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Access to Information 1999 Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters

  19. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    stimulate further research on this critical subject. The study of climate involves much more than understanding atmospheric processes. This subtlety is particularly appreciated for Earth, where chemical cycles, geology, ocean influences, and biology are considered in most climate models. In Part IV, Surface and Interior, we look at the role that geochemical cycles, volcanism, and interior mantle processes play in the stability and evolution of terrestrial planetary climates. There is one vital commonality between the climates of all the planets of the solar system: Regardless of the different processes that dominate each of the climates of Earth, Mars, Venus, and Titan, they are all ultimately forced by radiation from the same star, albeit at variable distances. In Part V, Solar Influences, we discuss how the Sun's early evolution affected the climates of the terrestrial planets, and how it continues to control the temperatures and compositions of planetary atmospheres. This will be of particular interest as models of exoplanets, and the influences of much different stellar types and distances, are advanced by further observations. Comparisons of atmospheric and climate processes between the planets in our solar system has been a focus of numerous conferences over the past decade, including the Exoclimes conference series. In particular, this book project was closely tied to a conference on Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets that was held in Boulder, Colorado, on June 25-28, 2012. This book benefited from the opportunity for the author teams to interact and obtain feedback from the broader community, but the chapters do not in general tie directly to presentations at the conference. The conference, which was organized by a diverse group of atmospheric and climate scientists led by Mark Bullock and Lori Glaze, sought to build connections between the various communities, focusing on synergies and complementary capabilities. Discussion panels at the end of most