WorldWideScience

Sample records for bullocks

  1. [Bullock cart

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, John Snowden, fl 1903

    2003-01-01

    Showing two bullocks pulling a covered cart along a street lined with stone buildings. Two boys can be seen watching in the foreground and a man is walking between the animals. Another man is walking on the far side of the road.

  2. Madeira. Bullock cart

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    229 x 175 mm. Showing two passengers seated in a characteristic Maderia bullock cart or sled, with two drivers standing beside the animals and two other figures seated on the steps in the background. Photograph taken in the 1880s.

  3. Bullock in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bob; Maclure, Stuart

    1976-01-01

    Recently, a number of people from different spheres of education attended a conference at the TES to discuss what impact the Bullock Report had made during its first year. To conclude this three part series, the authors reported on the conference and reflected on some of the issues raised in the discussion. (Editor/RK)

  4. Theodore Holmes Bullock

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, T H

    1996-01-01

    They tell me I was born on a sunny Sunday in May in Nanking, China, in 1915. I was the second of four children of Presbyterian missionary parents, Amasa Archibald Bullock and Ruth Beckwith, who had come to China in 1909, honeymooning on the way for six months in Europe and India. Several years before, father had answered a call for western teachers, published by the Empress; he spent a contract year in Chengtu, in western Szechuan, teaching chemistry, his major subject at U.C. Berkeley. He fe...

  5. Alan Bullock: Historian, Social Democrat and Chairman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caston, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study considers the influence on British education (particularly schools) of Alan Bullock, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University from 1969 to 1973 and distinguished contemporary historian. It quotes extensively from Bullock's own writings, including his developing personal views on education, and reflections on his own experiences. Following a…

  6. Bullock Refreshed: The Five Languages for Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Nigel

    1987-01-01

    Examines some of the reasons why the Bullock Report's recommendations for language instruction across the curriculum have not been fully implemented. Proposes a strategy using the "five languages" as a framework for a curriculum which may be more successful. (ARH)

  7. Teaching for Literacy: Reflections on the Bullock Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frances R. A., Ed.; Parker, Robert P., Jr., Ed.

    The 15 articles in this book focus upon the major literacy issues raised by the Bullock Committee in Great Britain and offer reflections upon these issues by United States and British educators who work daily with literacy problems. The articles cover the following topics: the Bullock Committee's work, providing for language growth in young…

  8. Entrepreneur for Equality: Governor Rufus Brown Bullock and the Politics of Race and Commerce in Post-Civil War Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age......Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age...

  9. Comparative economics of bullock and tractor use in Rajasthan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, D.; Joshi, B.R.; Taimni, V.

    1981-12-01

    Bullocks have traditionally been an important source of traction power in the agricultural sector of arid areas of western Rajasthan. The advent of the green revolution and massive allocation of planned resources for rapid agricultural development have generated sizable element of competition in the pattern of power use in farm sectors. This study has revealed a positive case for limited substitution of bullocks by tractors in the arid region and has further indicated that under the constrained availability of tractors, complete substitution of bullocks would result in wastage of the available power resource of the arid region. It has been inferred that a limited substitution of power use should be allowed in arid farms where the time of completing farm chores is the overriding consideration. Even this limited substitution will need a vigorous infra-structural development for meeting the input-demands created by the increased quantum of mechanical energy use.

  10. Lean color characteristics of bullock and steer beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Purser, D E; Smith, G C; Griffin, C L; Stiffler, D M; Savell, J W

    1992-02-01

    Twelve young bulls and 12 steers were slaughtered and the carcasses were fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Top rounds, bottom rounds, and rib eyes were vacuum-packaged and stored at 0 degrees C until 21 d postmortem. After subprimal storage, steaks were removed from each cut and displayed under simulated retail conditions for 3 d. Consumer panelists (n = 110) showed little difference in buying preference for top round, bottom round, and rib eye steaks from steers vs bullocks. Also, consumer panelists could not detect color differences between steaks from steers and bullocks. Experienced panelists (n = 6) detected brighter (P less than .05) muscle color for top round and rib eye steaks from steers but detected no difference in muscle color of bottom round steaks from bullocks and steers. Generally, overall desirability scores favored steaks from steer carcasses. This was particularly true of rib eye steaks. Sex-class of carcass did not affect aerobic plate counts of top round, bottom round, or rib eye steaks either before or after 3 d of retail display. Muscle pH was lower for top round and rib eye steaks from steer carcasses; however, the magnitude of this difference was not large enough to affect retail display stability. Muscle pH of bottom round steaks was not affected by sex-class. Although experienced panelists could detect differences in visual appearance of beef retail cuts from steers and bullocks, consumer panelists did not show a clear purchase preference for steer vs bullock beef. These data suggest that beef retail cuts from bullocks are acceptable in visual appearance.

  11. Energetics on bullock- and tractor-powered farms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.S.R.; Malik, R.K.; Gupta, R.R.; Rao, A.R.

    1983-10-01

    Data collected for 20 tubewell-irrigated farms of the Karnal district in North India have been analyzed for the energy inputs through animate and inanimate resources into farm equipment and machinery. All the inputs into equipment from mining to fabrication and maintenance, or as fodders to raise and maintain bullocks, have been taken into account with due weight given for scrap. Energy inputs due to agricultural equipment for a hectare of wheat crop are estimated at 38.7 GJ on bullock-powered farms, and 14.6 GJ on tractor-operated farms. 10 references, 6 tables.

  12. The Bullock Report: Some Implications for American Teachers & Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Gerald J.

    The Bullock Report, published in 1975, described English teaching practices in England and offered recommendations for improving those practices. This paper examines the background of the report and discusses topics in the report that are of particular interest to Americans, including the setting and monitoring of reading and writing standards,…

  13. A Language for Life (Report of the Bullock Committee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Derek, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The articles collected in this special issue of "Reading"offer a response to and elaboration of the report of the Bullock Committee on reading. An editorial introduction describes the focus and implications of the report and outlines the committee's main recommendations. Included in the discussion are the following articles:…

  14. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SALIVARY FISTULA IN A BULLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Kumar Maji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-descript bullock of six years of age and 225 kg of body weight was suffering from left parotid salivary fistula with huge loss of saliva. The loss of saliva was reduced (from 11ml/minute to 5ml/min. by pre-operative management of housing in silent area as well as withholding of food in addition to the use of antibiotic and other supportive therapy. Under Xylazine (0.1mg/kg I/M and local infiltration of 2% Lignocaine hydrochloride, following standard surgical protocol, the Stenson’s duct was identified and ligated after infusion of diluted Tincture Iodine into the duct (7mm in diameter towards the parotid gland. Post-operative follow up with antibiotics, withholding of feed with intravenous and successive oral fluid administration and management for a week hastened the healing and inactivation of the gland. The bullock was able to work normally afterwards.

  15. Cytotoxic principles of Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullock (Asclepiadaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, W H; Fong, H H; Tin-Wa, M; Farnsworth, N R

    1975-10-01

    Systematic fractionation of the cytotoxic extracts of the roots of Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullock (Asclepiadaceae) on silica gel column chromatography led to the isolation of three cardenolides: cymarin, strophanthidin, and a strophanthidin glycoside (XS-89). Also isolated during the investigation were beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside, a mixture of alpha- and beta-amyrins, a mixture of alkanols, and a mixture of plant sterols.

  16. Clinico-therapeutic management of Dimethoate-30% (Rogor poisoning in a non-descript bullock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Dhonde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A non-descript bullock suffering from dimethoate-30%(Rogor poisoning was treated using Inj. Dexamethasone, Inj. 2-PAM, Inj. B-complex and Sodium Bicarbonate alongwith fluid therapy, the bullock responded well to the therapy and survived. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(6.000: 178-179

  17. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SALIVARY FISTULA IN A BULLOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Asit Kumar Maji; Arindam Samanta

    2014-01-01

    A non-descript bullock of six years of age and 225 kg of body weight was suffering from left parotid salivary fistula with huge loss of saliva. The loss of saliva was reduced (from 11ml/minute to 5ml/min.) by pre-operative management of housing in silent area as well as withholding of food in addition to the use of antibiotic and other supportive therapy. Under Xylazine (0.1mg/kg I/M) and local infiltration of 2% Lignocaine hydrochloride, following standard surgical protocol, the ...

  18. Management of animal energy resources and the modernization of the bullock-cart system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaswamy, N.S.

    1979-01-01

    The significance of animal energy, especially in the transportation sector to the economies of India, China, Indonesia and other countries and the redesign of bullock-carts for more efficient use of animal energy are discussed. (LCL)

  19. Theodore H. Bullock: pioneer of integrative and comparative neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, G K H; Zupanc, M M

    2008-02-01

    Theodore H. Bullock (1905-2005) was a pioneer of integrative and comparative neurobiology and one of the founders of neuroethology. His work--distinguished by the tremendous number of different research themes and animal taxa studied--provided the basis for a comprehensive analysis of brain evolution. Among his major achievements are: one of the first physiological analyses of rhythmic central pattern generators; the first simultaneous recording from both the presynaptic and postsynaptic region of a chemical synapse; the demonstration of intercellular communication through graded potentials; and the discovery of two novel sensory organs formed by infrared receptors in pit vipers and electroreceptors in electric fish. He was also one of the first who applied computational tools to the analysis of complex neural signals and to perform a comparative analysis of cognitive events. His two-volume treatise "Structure and function in the nervous system of invertebrates" (with G. Adrian Horridge) remains the most comprehensive, authoritative review of this topic ever written. In addition to his research merits, his legacy is particularly based on his cosmopolitan way of thinking and acting, his large, worldwide school of students, and his committed advocacy for comparative and systems-oriented neurobiology.

  20. Lectin binding patterns in hyperplastic and metaplastic bullock prostate tissues after diethylstilbestrol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, P E; Barbeito, C G; Portiansky, E L; Gimeno, E J

    2004-03-06

    Hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia of the prostatic epithelium are conditions induced by oestrogens. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been banned from cattle used for beef production because of the health risks. The potential use of molecular markers for the detection of illegal oestrogen administration was evaluated by taking samples of prostatic tissue from control bullocks, bullocks which had been treated with oestrogens, and bullocks sacrificed 21 and 90 days after a single dose of DES. The expression of the glycoconjugates was examined by lectinhistochemistry and the lectin binding pattern was characterised in epithelium and connective tissue. In the animals sacrificed after 21 days there was an increase in the binding of one lectin (JAC) and there was an increase in the binding of one of the other lectins (DBA) in the animals sacrificed after 90 days. An increase in SWGA lectin staining was observed in the bullocks that had probably been treated with oestrogen and in the animals sacrificed 90 days after the inoculation with DES. There were also differences between the binding of SWGA in the control bullocks and the other groups.

  1. Sandy ja Hugh - paar või mitte? / Hugh Grant, Sandra Bullock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grant, Hugh, 1960-

    2003-01-01

    Romantilises komöödias "Kaks nädalat armumiseks" ("Two Weeks Notice"), režissöör Marc Lawrence, mängivad kaks kuulsat näitlejat. Staarid oma suhetest : Hugh Grant : "Sandra on geenius"; Sandra Bullock : "Oleme temaga nagu kaksikud!"

  2. Effects of prostaglandins and thromboxane analogues on bullock and dog iris sphincter preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y J; Jones, R L

    1982-05-01

    1 The bullock iris sphincter was contracted by low concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 16, 16-dimethyl PGE2 and 17,18,19,20-tetranor-16-p-chlorophenoxy PGE2. Other compounds with thromboxane-like actions, for example 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2, were also potent spasmogens, ZK 36374, a stable carbacyclin, was a partial agonist on the PGE-sensitive system of this tissue. 2 The thromboxane antagonist, EP 045, had little effect on the action of PGE2 and 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 on the bullock iris. 3 The dog iris sphincter was sensitive to PGF2 alpha but not to PGE2 and 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2. 4 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 had very low activity on the dog iris in contrast to its high activity on the bullock iris. The reverse was found with the 17,18,19,20-tetranor-16-m-trifluoromethylphenoxy analogue of PGF2 alpha (ICI 81008). This indicates a considerable selectivity of action of the two analogues. 5 The results are discussed in relation to the existing knowledge of prostanoid receptors.

  3. Merry Bullock : olulisim pärand Toomaselt, peale laste, oli see, et ta tõi mind Eestisse / Katrin Pauts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pauts, Katrin, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Vestlusest president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esimese abikaasa, psühholoog Merry Bullockiga. Vt. samas: Kirjutab Eestist raamatut. Merry Bullock kirjutab raamatut Siberisse küüditatud eestlastest; 24. veebruaril laulab kodus. Merry Bullock tähistab Eesti sünnipäeva Ameerikas

  4. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad G. Jamkhande; Wattamwar, Amruta S.

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthe...

  5. A Language for Life: The N.U.T.'s (National Union of Teachers) Commentary on the Bullock Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Union of Teachers, London (England).

    The report of the Bullock Committee of Enquiry was published in January 1975, under the title "A Language for Life," and presented extensive recommendations concerning all aspects of English teaching, including reading, writing, talking, and listening, the role of initial and inservice training, and monitoring of general levels of…

  6. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and essential oil, eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragoolpua, Y; Jatisatienr, A

    2007-12-01

    In this study, an extract from the flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and the essential oil, eugenol, were evaluated for their anti-herpes simplex virus properties on standard HSV-1(F), standard HSV-2(G) and ten HSV isolates. The plaque reduction assay showed that HSV-1(F), HSV-2(G), two HSV-1 isolates (2, 30) and four HSV-2 isolates (1, 2, 3, 21) were inhibited by E. caryophyllus. Only HSV-1 isolates 1 and 30 were inhibited by eugenol. Thus, strains or isolates of viruses may affect the range of inhibition. Moreover, particles of HSV standard strains were directly inactivated by E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The total virus yield of HSV standard strains and isolates at 30 h also declined after treatment with E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The E. caryophyllus extract exerted higher antiviral replication on HSV-2(G) than on HSV-1(F). The inhibition of the viral yield of HSV-1 isolates was higher than standard HSV-1(F) and standard HSV-2(G) was also inhibited more than most of the HSV-2 isolates. The anti-HSV activity of eugenol against HSV-1(F) and HSV isolates was stronger than with the E. caryophyllus crude extract. However, the percentage inhibition was more pronounced on HSV-1(F) than on HSV-2(G). Moreover, HSV-1(1) and HSV-2(1, 32) could not replicate when eugenol was included in the assay.

  7. Similar reproductive status and body size of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) attracted to carbon dioxide-baited canopy traps and a Jersey bullock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, D J; Hribar, L J; Foil, L D

    1992-11-01

    The reproductive status and body size of four Tabanus species collected from canopy traps baited with carbon dioxide and from a Jersey bullock were compared. Parity rates, sperm prevalence, stage of follicular development in terminal follicles of parous females, prevalence of females retaining eggs, average number of eggs retained in parous flies, and the body size of parous females did not differ significantly between sampling methods. Based on the presence of nulliparous host-seeking flies, Tabanus pallidescens Philip and T. wilsoni Pechuman can be added to the list of tabanids found to be anautogenous.

  8. BASEMAP, BULLOCK COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  9. DFIRM, BULLOCK COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  10. Desempenho de novilhos nelore suplementados em pasto durante época das águas Performance of crossbreed nelore bullock grazing supplemented during the raining seazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilker Dias Lima

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A procura por alimentos e derivados que não sejam utilizados na dieta humana ou na alimentação de animais monogástricos, juntamente com formas de suplementação, são aspectos importantes na busca de fontes alternativas para alimentação de ruminantes e redução no tempo de abate. Com este trabalho teve-se como objetivo avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes de concentrado na engorda de novilhos nelore suplementados em pasto durante o período das águas. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Vitorinha, de propriedade da Fundação de Apoio ao Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão/FAEPE, ligada à Universidade Federal de Lavras/UFLA, em Lavras, região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, entre os meses de janeiro a maio de 2001. Foram utilizados 24 animais mestiços nelores, machos, inteiros, com idade média de 17 meses e peso vivo médio de 308,0 kg. Durante o período experimental, os animais foram alojados em uma pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens, com área de 11,2 ha, com disponibilidade média de 5400 kg MS/ha no início do período. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de níveis crescentes de concentrado, calculados como percentual do peso vivo: T1- 0%; T2- 0,15%; T3- 0,30%; T4- 0,45%. O experimento foi delineado em blocos casualizados, com peso vivo inicial como fator de blocagem, sendo 6 blocos e 4 tratamentos, totalizando 24 parcelas experimentais. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se o software estatístico SISVAR (Sistema de Análise de Variância de Dados Balanceados. Não houve diferença significativa para ganho de peso diário (PThe demand for foods and its derivates that would not be used in the human diet or in the monogastric animals diet in addition with supplement forms are important aspects in the search for alternative sources for ruminant nutrition and reduction in the slaughtered time. This work had as objective to evaluate growing levels of concentrate in the fattening of nelore bullock gazing supplemented during the raining

  11. EFFECTS OF JADE SCREEN POWDER ON PERFORMANCE OF FATTENING BULLOCKS%玉屏风散对阉牛育肥效果和屠宰性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高权新; 宋恩亮; 吴公莹; 杨维仁; 刘晓牧; 万发春

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of Jade Screen Powder on performance of fattening bullocks, and the aim was to instruct the healthy cultivation of beef cattles.36 Fattening bullocks (Limousin cattle X Luxi cattle) which were healthy, about two years old and had similar weight were divided into four groups randomly.The four treatments were added with jade screen powder ( 0%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% per concentrate cattle feed ).All Cattles were weighed one time every 20 days.The 36 fattening bullocks were all slaughered after 60 days of feeding expriment.The addition of jade screen powder could increase the ADG, G: F, but there were no significant differences among the four groups (P>0.05 ).Slaughter rate , meat dereentage , loin eye muscle area, beef marbling, first quality cuts in the experimental groups were all better than that in the control group, but there were no significant differences among the four groups ( P > 0.05 ).The concent of crude protoin, crude fat in the level of 1% were all higher than that in the control group obviously ( P < 0.05), and the moisture content in the level of 1% was obviously lower than that in the control group(P <0.05 ).F:G was significant correlations with many carcass traits, so we can evaluate many catcass traits by F:G.%本试验旨在通过研究玉屏风散对育肥阉牛生产性能、屠宰性能及肉质的影响,以期探讨肉牛健康养殖技术.试验选用健康、体重相近(548+50 kg),年龄40月龄的"利×鲁"杂交一代育肥阉牛36头,随机分为四个组,分别按精料量的0%、1%、1.5%、2%添加玉屏风散,饲喂60d,每20d称重一次.试验60d后将36头牛全部屠宰,然后进行屠宰测定和肉质分析.试验结果表明:在日粮中添加玉屏风散有提高育肥阉牛日增重和饲料报酬的趋势,但是并不显著(P>0.05);试验组的屠宰率、净肉率、眼肌面积、大理石花纹、高档肉占活重皆优于对照组,但是差异不显著(P>0.05

  12. Dieta com alto teor de gordura e desempenho de tourinhos de grupos genéticos diferentes em confinamento High-fat diet and feedlot performance of bullocks of different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Roberto Duarte Lopes Souza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho em confinamento de tourinhos de quatro grupos genéticos distintos tratados com dietas com diferentes teores de gordura. Foram utilizados nove animais Nelore, nove Caracu, dez ½ Caracu ¼ Angus ¼ Nelore e dez ½ Red Angus ¼ Caracu ¼ Nelore, com massa corporal inicial de 227±33 kg e dez meses de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois tratamentos nutricionais: baixo teor de gordura (3,15% de extrato etéreo e alto teor de gordura (7,28% de extrato etéreo. A ingestão de matéria seca (IMS foi quantificada durante 208 dias e as pesagens dos animais foram realizadas a cada 28 dias. Os animais alimentados com as dietas de alto e de baixo teor de gordura apresentaram resultados similares de ganho médio diário de peso (1,511x1,487 kg por dia, respectivamente e de eficiência alimentar (194x180 g de ganho por quilograma de MS ingerida, respectivamente; a IMS, em percentagem do peso vivo, foi menor nos animais alimentados com dieta de alto teor de gordura (2,25x2,40, respectivamente. Os animais cruzados apresentaram maior ganho de massa corporal e IMS que os Nelore. A dieta com alto teor de gordura pode ser utilizada em confinamento para melhorar o desempenho de tourinhos ½ Caracu ¼ Angus ¼ Nelore, pois é eficiente para reduzir a ingestão de matéria seca e não prejudica o ganho de massa corporal dos animais.This work aimed to evaluate the feedlot performance of bullocks of four distinct genetic groups receiving diets with different levels of fat. Nine Nelore; nine Caracu; ten ½ Caracu ¼ Angus ¼ Nelore and ten ½ Red Angus ¼ Caracu ¼ Nelore bullocks, with a mean initial weight of 227±33 kg and ten months of age, were randomly assigned to two nutritional treatments and fed either with low-fat (3.15% ether extract or high-fat diet (7.28% ether extract. Dry matter intake (DMI was quantified during 208 days and the animals were weighed every 28 days. Animals fed with the high-fat and

  13. 苏珊娜·普里查德《干活的阉牛》的生态解读%Eco - interpretation of Prichard′s Working Bullocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷馥源

    2015-01-01

    Working Bullocks is one of the representative works of Susannah Prichard. It is a product of the de-velopment and enrichment of Australian nationalist literature during the time of the two world wars. In this book, the primitive natural environment in west Australia and the living condition of lumberman after World War I are clearly displayed,as well as the physical and emotional trauma of lumberman. The ecological theory has provided a new approach to study the work. The research of the work will be carried out from three aspects:the personification of the nature,the criticism on anthropocentrism and the reflection on machinery production,revealing the close re-lationship between human and nature and the awe toward nature.%《干活的阉牛》是苏珊娜·普里查德的代表作之一,是两次世界大战期间澳大利亚文学在民族主义文学道路上继续发展和丰富的产物。该书展示了一战后西澳地区的原始自然环境和当地林业工人的生存状态,细腻地描写了伐木工人所经受的身体和心灵的双重创伤。生态理论为该作品的研究开辟了新的视角。本文从自然的拟人化,对人类中心主义的批判和对机器生产的反思三个方面展开分析,展示出人与自然不可分割的关联和对自然的敬畏。

  14. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Bullock County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  15. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING AND REDELINEATION SUBMISSION, BULLOCK COUNTY, AL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  16. DCS Hydrology Submittal for Bullock County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. The relationship between leadership and resistance to change within the higher education sector / Y. Bullock

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, Yolandé

    2012-01-01

    Adapting to change in a constantly changing environment is a challenge that organisations face on a daily basis. In order to stay competitive globally, the management of resistance to change becomes crucial. Research done on leadership reveals the very strong effect that leaders have on followers’ behaviours and attitudes and it is emphasized the role leadership plays in the implementation and supporting of change. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine whether a relationship betwee...

  18. Florida Men Sentenced for Poisoning Wildlife and Hunting Dogs in Bullock County

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Daryl Fischer of Seminole, Florida and Russell Taylor of Loxahatchee, Florida were sentenced on Tuesday, April 28, 2015, to terms of probation for improper use of the pesticide Aldicarb, which is marketed as Temik, announced the United Sta

  19. Comparative Slaughter Tests on Bullock of F2 Crossbreeding from Simmental and Mongolia and Mongolian Bullock%西×蒙F2代犍牛与蒙古犍牛屠宰对比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯琴朝克图; 斯琴巴特尔; 阿拉坦莎; 包毅; 毕力格巴特尔; 辛满喜; 白韬; 朱江; 阿荣; 刚普日布; 乌兰其其格; 任进义; 巴达玛莲花; 娜布其; 萨仁高娃

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]In this paper, the meat production performance effect of crossbreeding Simmen tal and Mongolian cattle was analyzed. [Method]Comparative slau an sire and F2 hybrids from Simmental and Mongolian cattle with weight, carcass weight and net meat weight of the F2 Mongolian cattle were 511.67 kg. 291.21 kg and 233.5 g 1 average live weight, carcass weight and net meat weight ghter test was 18 months old. carried between Mongoli- eneration with 18 months [Result]The average live age from Simmental and k9. Compared with the same age Mongolian sire, increased 131.67 kg. 80.28 kg and 64.32 kg,which were improved by 34.65%,38.06%,and 38.01% ; The average dressing percentage and net meat rate were improved 1.40~ and 1.12%, and the differences ment result of meat production performance was cattle. were significant ( P 〈0.01). [Conclusion]The improve- obvious for crossbreeding of Simmental and Mongolian cattle.%[目的]为探讨西门塔尔牛杂交改良蒙古牛的产肉性能及效果。[方法]对18月龄西×蒙F2代犍牛和蒙古犍牛进行屠宰对比试验。[结果]18月龄西×蒙F2代犍牛的平均活重、屠体重和净肉重分别达到511.67kg、291.21kg和233.51kg,较同月龄蒙古犍牛高出131.67kg、80.28kg和64.32kg;提高了34.65%、38.06%、和38.01%;差异均极显著(P〈0.01);18月龄西×蒙F2代犍牛的平均屠宰率和净肉率分别提高了1.40%和1.129/6,差异显著(P〈0.05)。[结论]利用西门塔尔牛杂交改良蒙古牛效果显著,可以明显提高蒙古牛产肉性能。

  20. Present status and future demand for energy for bullock-operated paddy-farms in Assam (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruah, D.C.; Das, P.K.; Dutta, P.K. [Assam Agricultural Univ., Jorhat (India). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2004-10-01

    The existing energy-use pattern, based on the prevailing cultivation practices and the optimal energy-demand based on the optimal mechanization strategy for animal operated paddy farms of Assam (India) were assessed. Two categories of paddy farms, i.e. with and without the use of chemical fertilizers were identified. Lower yield (1976 kg/ha) associated with a lower energy-input (5681 MJ/ha) was the characteristic feature of farms not using fertilizer in contrast to the higher yield (3165 kg/ha) and energy input (9290 MJ/ha) of fertilizer-user farms. Human and animal (as also chemical fertilizer for fertilizer-user farms) were the major energy sources under the existing practices contributing to more than 70% of the total energy-input. The optimal demand of energy to achieve a potential paddy yield of 6000 kg/ha was estimated as 11,168 MJ/ha comprising human, animal, diesel, and fertilizers as the major energy sources. Though the overall energy demand increased, the introduction of improved tillage implements could reduce the future optimal demand of animal energy for animal-operated paddy farms in Assam. (author)

  1. Why Pr. Bullock Is Not Entirely Right and Pr. Tullock Is Completely Wrong: The Case for Road Privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent A.H. Carnis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The private provision of road services and road privatisation has been extensively studied and has generated numerous debates among scholars. Block and Tullock exchanged on the possibility of having a completely privatised road system. Tullock defends the idea such a system is not viable, whereas Block shows a free market for road provision can be easily conceived.This article proposes a re-examination of this debate and defends a pragmatic and realist approach. Although it shares Block’s conclusions on the possibility of having a free market for road services, it justifies them on a different ground. In fact, the ‘physical obstacle’ argument is less important that it could be previously imagined but it reflects more a socialist tendency to pose the problem.

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Pentatropis capensis Linn. f. (Bullock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The observed effects were comparable with the standard drug-treated group thus demonstrating effective central analgesic and acute anti-inflammatory potentials of the P. capensis leaves aqueous extract and the observations substantiate its folklore use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  3. 黑白花奶公牛育肥饲养技术%Fattening Techniques of Chinese Holstein Bullock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亭; 孙芳; 姚凤君; 亓校英

    2003-01-01

    选择春季2~4月份出生的公牛犊,30~40日龄实施早期断奶;2~6月龄饲喂犊牛料+青贮饲料+苜蓿干草或犊牛料+酒糟+干草,6月龄体重150 180 kg;7~12月龄进入生长期,吊架子饲养,12月龄体重300 kg左右;13~18月龄进入畜肥期,450 500 kg体重出栏.屠宰率59.6%,净肉率42%,肉质细嫩多汁.

  4. Developing a code of ethics for academics. Commentary on 'Ethics for all: differences across scientific society codes' (Bullock and Panicker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B

    2003-04-01

    This article discusses the possibilities and pitfalls of constructing a code of ethics for university professors. Professional, educational, legal, and policy questions regarding the goals, format, and content of an academic ethics code are raised and a series of aspirational principles and enforceable standards that might be included in such a document are presented for discussion and debate.

  5. Simple technique for making dried persimmon from bullock's heart persimmon%牛心柿制作柿饼简易技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂平

    2006-01-01

    牛心柿是鲁南山区主栽的柿子品种,栽培面积3.7万亩,年产优质柿子4200万kg,该品种果实心脏形,顶部稍狭,果皮橙红色,皮较厚,果汁中等,浓甜味美,含可溶性固形物19%,出饼率高,是制作柿饼的优质原料,尤其适合家庭手工制作。用其制作出的柿饼含糖量高,甘甜可口,具有医疗保健价值。2002年以来,我们试验研究了牛心柿制作柿饼的简易技术,取得了较好效果。现将其制作工艺介绍如下。

  6. New combinations in African Sapindaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Vollesen, Kaj; Verdcourt, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    Three new combinations are formally made: Allophylus rubifolius (A. Rich.) Engl. var. alnifolius (Baker) Friis & Vollesen, Allophylus rubifolius (A. Rich.) Engl. var. rhusiphyllus (Balf.f.) Froos & Vollesen and Haplocoelum folosum (Hiern) Bullock subsp. mombasense (Bullock) Verdc....

  7. 76 FR 70078 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... . Installation Facility Source RACT Controls reduction (tpy) date W.J. Bullock Crucible furnaces.... Baghouse 3... 2009, W.J. Bullock and Sloss Mineral Wool in Jefferson County announced plans to cease...

  8. 76 FR 42140 - Public Availability of the Merit Systems Protection Board's FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    .../contact/contracting.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Veronica Bullock, Merit Systems Protection...; telephone 202-254-4406; e- mail veronica.bullock@mspb.gov . William D. Spencer, Clerk of the Board....

  9. 76 FR 70091 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Source RACT controls reduction Installation (tpy) date W.J. Bullock Crucible furnaces... Baghouse 3.891... continued reductions of local PM 2.5 emissions in the Birmingham Area. In late 2009, W.J. Bullock and...

  10. 7 CFR 54.17 - Official identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... class designation “Bullock,” “Veal,” “Calf,” “Lamb,” “Yearling Mutton,” or “Mutton,” constitutes a form... bullock carcasses will be identified with the class designation “Bull” and “Bullock,” respectively....

  11. 40 CFR 81.301 - Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... County Blount County Bullock County Butler County Calhoun County Chambers County Cherokee County Chilton... County Barbour County Bibb County Blount County Bullock County Butler County Calhoun County Chambers... Autauga County Baldwin County Barbour County Bibb County Blount County Bullock County Butler...

  12. Pharmacological investigation on nigrescigenin-a cardenolide from Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullock: comparative studies on cardiotonic effects of Parquetina nigrescens, g-strophanthin and noradrenaline in guinea-pig isolated atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datté, J Y; Ziegler, A

    2001-06-01

    The cardiotonic and catecholamine-like effects of Parquetina nigrescens extract-induced contractile force of guinea-pig left and right atria were investigated in-vitro. Isometric contractions were recorded. P. nigrescens extract, 5-150 microg mL(-1), increased the force of contraction dose dependently in electrically driven left atria. The concentration of P. nigrescens extract producing 50% of the maximal effect (EC50 value) was 7.5 microg mL(-1). The positive inotropic response differed from that of g-strophanthin by its high rate of onset and its complete reversibility upon removal of the extract from the incubation medium. In spontaneously beating right atrial muscle, P. nigrescens extract increased the rate of contractions. Its positive chronotropic and inotropic effects were partly antagonized by propranolol and atenolol indicating the presence of an adrenergic acting principle in P. nigrescens extract. In contrast, the inotropic response to P. nigrescens extract could not be completely suppressed by beta-blocking agents, suggesting that the force of contraction is not only increased by a sympathomimetic ingredient of P. nigrescens extract but also by the cardenolides known to be present in P. nigrescens.

  13. 非典型抗精神病药再普乐治疗精神分裂症的疗效和安全性研究%To study the Bullock treatment of schizophrenia to the efficacy and safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左文华; 李言禹; 陈方基

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨再普乐治疗精神分裂症的疗效和安全性.方法 对64例大样本再普乐开放性观察性临床试验的数据进行汇总.四项研究使用再普乐的剂量为5-30mg/d,疗程为6周.采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)以及简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)评定疗效;采用副反应量表(TESS)和Simpson-Angus量表评定不良反应.结果 64例患者中,有36例符合痊愈的标准,20例显著进步,6例进步,2例无变化.结论 再普乐治疗精神分裂症疗效良好,发生锥体外系副作用少,提倡临床使用再普乐治疗精神分裂症.

  14. 不同精粗比日粮对安格斯杂交阉牛生产性能的影响%Effect of Different Dietary Ratios of Concentrate to Roughage on Production Performance of Angus hybrid Bullock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵占强; 张振伟; 叶勇; 贾弟林; 张琪

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为了掌握不同日粮对安格斯杂交阉牛生产性能的影响.[方法]试验对采用不同精粗比的全混合日粮对舍饲条件下杂交阉牛的育肥效果和生产性能进行研究.[结果]表明:随着时间的增加,精粗比为67.1:32.9(粗蛋白12.86,消化能12.38MJ· kg-1)的全混合日粮对安格斯与秦川杂交阉牛的育肥效果优于精粗比为57.0:43.0(粗蛋白质11.92,消化能10.82 MJ·kg-1)和45.7:54.3(粗蛋白质11.29,消化能10.62MJ·kg-1).育肥杂交阉牛的增重得到显著提高,53 d育肥日增重1 019.47 g.[结论]说明在本试验条件下日粮的精粗比可有效提高安格斯牛与秦川牛杂交的育肥效果和生产性能.

  15. 玉屏风散对育肥阉牛血清抗氧化指标及生产性能的影响%Effects of Jade screen powder on serum antioxidant index and performance of fattening bullocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高权新; 杨维仁; 宋恩亮

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究玉屏风散对育肥阉牛血清抗氧化指标及生产性能的影响.[方法]选用健康无病、体质量相近、40月龄左右的"利×鲁"杂交一代育肥阉牛36头,随机分为4组.分别按精料质量的0.0%,1.0%,1.5%和2.0%添加玉屏风散,饲喂60 d,每20 d称体质量、采血1次,并记录每天的采食量和最高环境温度.[结果]玉屏风散可以显著提高育肥阉牛血清总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)以及谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性(P<0.05),显著降低阉牛血清中丙二醛(MDA)含量(P<0.05),从而防止因环境温度升高而引发的氧化应激.T-AOC、CAT、GSH-PX、SOD的活性相互旱强正相关(P<0.01),且皆与MDA含量呈负相关.玉屏风散可提高阉牛的日增体质量、胴体质量和屠宰率,降低干物质料质量比,且以1.5%添加量效果最佳.[结论]玉屏风散可以显著提高育肥阉牛血清抗氧化能力,并有一定的育肥效果.

  16. Primary Report on Feedlot Experimental Three-way Crossbred Bullock with Japanese Black Cattle%日本黑毛和牛三元杂交阉牛育肥试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    [目的]为探讨日本黑毛和牛三元杂交阉割牛的生产性能.[方法]利用14月龄和牛×利木赞×鲁西牛、和牛×西门塔尔×鲁西牛、和牛×夏洛莱×鲁西牛三个三元杂交组合开展试验,并对其生产性能进行测定和三元杂交育肥阉牛各5头进行育肥屠宰试验.[结果]结果表明,三元杂交阉牛的体重、肉用性能如屠宰率、净肉率等差异不显著(P>0.05),但在脂肪沉积能力方面,日本黑毛和牛作为高档肉牛生产的终端父本是合适的.[结论]根据综合生产性能表现,以和西本杂交组合为最好.

  17. EVALUACIÓN BIOINSECTICIDA DE EXTRACTOS DE BURSERA COPALLIFERA (D.C.) BULLOCK Y BURSERA GRANDIFOLIA (SCHLTDL.) ENGL. EN GUSANO COGOLLERO SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    L. Aldana Llanos; D.O. Salinas Sánchez; Ma.E. Valdés Estrada; M. Gutiérrez Ochoa; M.G. Valladares Cisneros

    2010-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó la actividad bioinsecticida de extractos orgánicos de Bursera copallifera y B. grandifolia sobre larvas L1 de Spodoptera frugiperda. Es probable que el extracto acetónico (500 ppm) de hojas de B. copallifera tenga actividad antialimentaria sobre el gusano cogollero al reducir en un 50% el peso larval a los 14 días. También produjo 47% de mortalidad larval, mientras que el extracto hexánico produjo un 44% de pupas deformes, y de la población que emergió, el 14% se des...

  18. 7 CFR 319.37-7 - Postentry quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) All except Canada, Europe, Japan, and Siberia. Pinus spp. (pine) (2-or-3 leaved) All except Canada..., cherimoya, sweetsop, sugarapple, soursop, bullock's heart, alligator apple, suncoya, ilama, guanabana,...

  19. Main: 1WHS [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e=Cbp2; Triticum Aestivum Serine Carboxypeptidase Ii (E.C.3.4.16.1) (Native Form) Serine Carboxypeptidase T.L.Bullock..., S.J.Remington T.L.Bullock, S.J.Remington Structure Of The Complex Of L-Benzylsuccinate With Wheat

  20. Ancient coastal transportation system along the Western Saurashtra coast: Evidence from Navibandar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    to the market by bullock carts and vice versa. In addition, bullock-cart marks were noticed on the rocky surface for a long distance up to the coast, Figure 3. Remains of a road on the western bank of the estuary of River Bhadar at Navibandar...

  1. A further note on the scientific name of Bullocks’ Oriole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R. Terry

    2015-01-01

    Chesser (2013) intended to introduce a justified emendation to Icterus bullockii under Article 32.5.1 of the Code (ICZN 1999), because the name honors both William Bullock, Sr., and William Bullock, Jr. However, the correction bullockorum is "incorrect" and therefore is an unjustified emendation (Article 33.2.3). Under the assumption that the name Bullock was latinized (cf. Article 31.1.1) to Bullockius (bullocki– + the nominative case ending –us) and therefore that the name bullockii comprises the stem bullocki– + the genitive case ending –i, the justified correction bullockiorum is required.

  2. 外源生长激素在延边黄牛上的试验研究(Ⅱ)--对育成牛(阉牛)生长性能的影响%Study of Exogenous Somatotropin on Yanbian Yellow Cattle (Ⅱ)-Effect on Growth Performance of Growing Cattles(Bullock)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严昌国; 金泽林; 王勇; 申泰澈; 洪丙周

    2004-01-01

    为阐明外源生长激素对延边黄牛育成牛的应用效果,本试验选用20头体重、月龄相近的延边黄牛育成牛(阉牛),按体重随机分为试验组和对照组.试验组每14 d注射1次生长激素(0.42/kg BW),对照组不注射,持续168 d,进行外源生长激素对延边黄牛育成牛生长性能的影响研究.结果表明,试验组的日增重(P<0.01)和饲料转化率(P<0.05)均高于对照组,饲料消化率两组间无差异.体尺方面,试验组的胸深(P<0.01)、体长(P<0.05)、胸宽(P<0.05)和胸围(P<0.05)增长量均高于对照组.

  3. Effects of Jade Screen Powder on Digestive Enzyme Activity in Gastro-intestinal Tract and Performance of Fattening Bullocks%玉屏风散对育肥阉牛胃肠道消化酶活性以及生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋恩亮; 高权新; 吴公莹; 杨维仁; 刘晓牧; 万发春

    2010-01-01

    研究玉屏风散对育肥阉牛胃肠道消化酶活性以及生产性能的影响.试验选用健康、体重相近(548±50 kg),40月龄的"利×鲁"杂交一代育肥阉牛36头,随机分为四个组,分别按精料量的0%、1%、1.5%、2%添加玉屏风散,饲喂60 d后屠宰.试验结果表明:在日粮中添加玉屏风散可以显著的提高育肥阉牛瘤胃纤维素酶、皱胃蛋白酶以及小肠中的胰蛋白酶、胰淀粉酶、胰脂肪酶的活性;在日粮中添加玉屏风散可以提高阉牛的日增重、胴体重、屠宰率、高档肉占活重的比率、净肉率,降低料重比,以1.5%添加组最佳,但各组间差异不显著(P>0.05).在日粮中添加玉屏风散可以显著提高育肥阉牛胃肠道消化酶的活性,并有提高育肥阉牛生产性能的趋势.

  4. Comparative Slaughter Test on Bullock of F2 Crossbreeding From Simmental and Mongolian Cattle with Frozen and Natural Mating%冷配西门塔尔杂种犍牛与本交杂种犍牛屠宰对比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯琴朝克图; 阿拉坦沙; 包毅; 斯琴巴特尔; 苏德斯琴; 白韬; 毕力格巴特尔; 辛满喜; 牛成福

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为了进一步了解冷配与本交两种配种方式对黄牛性能改良的影响,对比分析不同配种方式西×蒙杂交犍牛的产肉性能差异.[方法]对18月龄西×蒙F2代犍牛进行屠宰对比试验.[结果]冷配犍牛较本交犍牛宰前活重、屠体重和净肉重分别提高了15.05%、17.18%和17.29%.两组差异显著(P<0.05).两试验组产肉性能差异较大,但其它性能差异不明显.[结论]尽管改良程度相同,但不同配种方式所产后代产肉性能差异明显.

  5. Analysis of Regular Nutritional Components and Amino Acid Contents of Mongolia Bullock Muscle Grazed in Kubuqi Desert%库布齐沙漠常年放牧蒙古阉牛肌肉常规营养成分及氨基酸含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵称赫; 敖日格乐; 王纯洁; 刘文才; 姜晶; 张燕

    2015-01-01

    为了评价蒙古牛肉的肉质特性与营养价值,本研究选择6头4岁的常年放牧在库布齐沙漠的蒙古阉牛,进行了牛肉常规营养成分及氨基酸含量的测定分析.结果显示,牛肉中水分、粗蛋白质、粗脂肪、粗灰分、钙和磷含量分别为68.21%、22.60%、6.49%、2.69%、0.58%和0.55%;牛肉中总氨基酸含量为24.297 g/l00 g,必需氨基酸含量为10.265g/l00g,必需氨基酸的构成比例符合并超过FAO/WHO公布的标准.必需氨基酸占总氨基酸含量的42.25%,必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸比值为73.15%.功能性氨基酸中,鲜味氨基酸和甜鲜味氨基酸含量为总氨基酸的46.891%.另外,必需氨基酸中除缬氨酸之外其他氨基酸全部优于FAO/WHO规定的理想蛋白质模式,缬氨酸含量达到理想蛋白质的83.972%.因此,从牛肉的常规养分含量和氨基酸的营养价值方面来评定,蒙古牛肉属于营养全面的优质蛋白质食物.

  6. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative pla

  7. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration : evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, P.M. van; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.; Middleton, B.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative pla

  8. Десятка самых прибыльных актеров / Кая Коовит

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Коовит, Кая, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    10 kõige enam teenivat Hollywoodi näitlejat (Quigley Publishing' andmeil) on Denzel Washington, Shia LaBeouf, Brad Pitt, Meryl Streep, Tom Hanks, Robert Downey jr., George Clooney, Matt Damon, Johnny Depp ja Sandra Bullock

  9. Presidendipaari armastuse tee / Jaanus Hämarsoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hämarsoo, Jaanus

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja proua Evelin Ilvese tutvumisest, armastusest ja abielust. Juttu on ka T. H. Ilvese eelmisest abikaasast Merry Bullock'ist ja E. Ilvese eelmisest abikaasast Karli Lambotist

  10. Research in Scotland: An Annual Report, Part 2. Research and Development in Language in Education and University of Stirling Education Monographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottish Educational Studies, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This first report--necessarily a selective account--is an attempt to give a broad view of current developmental work in the field of language, increasingly a focus of concern in these post-bullock times. (Editor)

  11. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... affordable prices can attract businesses and jobs to a state or region, and higher health-insurance prices.... *Attorney of Record. FOR PLAINTIFF STATE OF MONTANA: Steve Bullock, Attorney General of Montana. James...

  12. Review of Vaccinia Virus and Baculovirus Viability Versus Virucides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Baculovirus. Numerous studies have investigated effects of UV light inactivation of baculoviruses (Bullock et al., 1970; Glen and Payne, 1984; Griego et...earth’s surface, virus inactivation in the field are due to wavelengths >290 nm ( Griego et al., 1985). Bullock et al. (1970) reported that 2-hr...mixture of visible and infrared light did not affect activity in bioassays. In a related study by Griego et al. (1985), monochromatic UV radiation at

  13. On the correct name of Icterus bullockii (Passeriformes: Icteridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R. Terry

    2013-01-01

    William Bullock was an Englishman who owned the Egyptian Hall (also known as the London Museum or Bullock’s Museum) at Piccadilly in London, a museum opened in 1812 to display his collection of antiquities, artifacts, and natural history specimens. Following the sale of Bullock’s collection in 1819, the Egyptian Hall served as an exhibition space. Bullock and his son, William Bullock, Jr., both enthusiastic naturalists, travelled in Mexico in 1822–1823, spending some six months together collecting natural history specimens and other artifacts for exhibition and investigating mining and other business opportunities (Costeloe 2006). The elder Bullock returned to London with the collections in 1823, but his son, while ostensibly managing the silver mine his father had purchased in Temascaltepec, outside of Mexico City, continued to travel in Mexico and collect specimens, often in the company of German naturalist Ferdinand Deppe (Costeloe 2006). William Bullock, Sr., meanwhile prepared the Mexican collection for exhibition at the Egyptian Hall. Twin exhibitions on ancient and modern Mexico opened, with much fanfare, in April 1824, and were a great success, remaining open until September 1825 (Costeloe 2006). Afterwards, the contents of the exhibitions were dispersed via auction, but not before Bullock had made the bird specimens available to English naturalist William Swainson for “recording this portion of his discoveries” (Swainson 1827: 365).

  14. Investigations at Antroli: A late Harappan site and maritime archaeological exploration on the coast of Navibandar, Saurashtra, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    interesting feature of the road is the bullock cart marks. The length of this road is about 150 meter. It is made over a shallow channel of estuary and this road was mainly used for transporting the goods from boat to the market by bullock cart and vice... under the category of urban settlement and may be a fishing hamlet on the Saurashtra coast. Pottery from Antroli is very similar to those reported from Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al., 2005) and Bhokhira (Gaur, et al., 2006) and major shapes include stud...

  15. Peso de carcaça e idade dos bovinos abatidos em Minas Gerais Carcass weight and age of bovines slaughtered in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baptista

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O peso médio da carcaça quente de 505.005 bovinos abatidos em Minas Gerais, de janeiro a dezembro de 1997, foi de 222,31kg. Esses bovinos repartiram-se por sete categorias, com os seguintes pesos médios de carcaça: touro 235,58kg, novilhão 236,31kg, novilho intermediário 235,32kg, novilho 237,64kg, vaca 176,90kg, novilhona 176,86kg e novilha 148,60kg. Com base nos pesos médios de carcaça quente de categorias próximas, tomadas duas a duas, novilhões, novilhos intermediários e novilhos foram mensalmente comparados entre si. Da mesma forma, as novilhonas foram comparadas com as vacas. Os novilhos apresentaram sempre peso médio de carcaça significativamente superior ao dos novilhos intermediários (P0,05. Setenta e três por cento dos bovinos abatidos tinham idade igual ou superior a quatro anos. Tendo-se como indicador o binômio idade-peso ao abate, constatou-se um ainda insuficiente progresso qualitativo na produção de bovinos de abate em Minas Gerais.The mean carcass weight of 505,005 bovines, slaughtered at Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from January to December 1997, was 222.31kg. The bovines, belonging to seven categories, had the following mean carcass weights: bull 235.58kg, old bullock 236.31kg, intermediate bullock 235.32kg, bullock 237.64kg, cow 176.90kg, old heifer 176.86kg and heifer 148.60kg. Regarding hot carcass, mean weight of each two close classes such as old bullocks, intermediate bullocks and bullocks were compared. Cows and old heifers were also compared. Bullocks, when compared to intermediate bullocks, always presented significant higher carcass, mean weight (P0.05. Seventy three percent of these bovines were four-year-old or over. Concerning age and weight at slaughter, no qualitative progress in cattle breeding in the State of Minas Gerais was observed.

  16. 心里一直有对方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOLDEN VILLAGE PICTURES

    2007-01-01

    好莱坞参考了韩国爱情片《时越爱》,翻拍出《THE LAKE HOUSE》,打出帅哥美女牌,并以 KEANU REEVES 和 SANDRA BULLOCK 自《SPEED》后,阔别12年再度合作为卖点之一。咪咪告诉你,KEANU REEVES 和 SANDRA BULLOCK 如何重新激出火花,如何看待凄美的爱情。

  17. Command Relationships of Active and National Guard Forces During Domestic Disaster Response in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    2nd ed. (Burlington, MA: Elservier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006), 88-89. 12United States Government, Department of Homeland Security, "National...Haddow, George D., and Jane A. Bullock. Introduction to Emergency Management. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Elservier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006. Johnson

  18. The sustainability of changes in agricultural technology: The carbon, economic and labour implications of mechanisation and synthetic fertiliser use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathorne-Hardy, Alfred

    2016-12-01

    New agricultural technologies bring multiple impacts which are hard to predict. Two changes taking place in Indian agriculture are a transition from bullocks to tractors and an associated replacement of manure with synthetic fertilisers. This paper uses primary data to model social, environmental and economic impacts of these transitions in South India. It compares ploughing by bullocks or tractors and the provision of nitrogen from manure or synthetic urea for irrigated rice from the greenhouse gas (GHG), economic and labour perspective. Tractors plough nine times faster than bullocks, use substantially less labour, with no significant difference in GHG emissions. Tractors are twice as costly as bullocks yet remain more popular to hire. The GHG emissions from manure-N paddy are 30 % higher than for urea-N, largely due to the organic matter in manure driving methane emissions. Labour use is significantly higher for manure, and the gender balance is more equal. Manure is substantially more expensive as a source of nutrients compared to synthetic nutrients, yet remains popular when available. This paper demonstrates the need to take a broad approach to analysing the sustainability impacts of new technologies, as trade-offs between different metrics are common.

  19. High-resolution screening combined with HPLC–HRMS–SPE–NMR for identification of fungal plasma membrane H+-ATPase inhibitors from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Kenneth; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Johannesen, Ane;

    2014-01-01

    -high-resolution fungal PM H+-ATPase inhibition screening, and, on the basis of these results, Haplocoelum foliolosum (Hiern) Bullock and Sauvagesia erecta L. were selected for investigation by high-resolution fungal PM H+-ATPase inhibition screening. Structural analysis performed by high-performance liquid...

  20. Main: 1WHT [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ock, S.J.Remington T.L.Bullock, S.J.Remington Structure Of The Complex Of L-Benzyls...e=Cbp2; Triticum Aestivum Serine Carboxypeptidase Ii (E.C.3.4.16.1) Complexed With L-Benzylsuccinate Serine Carboxypeptidase T.L.Bull

  1. Uus kui hästi unustatud vana : Raamaturida / Arno Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Arno, 1950-

    1995-01-01

    Waugh, Evelyn. Must murjan; Mirbeau, Octave. Toaneitsi päevik; Ödmann, Malin. Mõisa saladus; Dragt, Tonke. Kiri kuningale; Duncker, Dora. Louis XIV armuidüll; Lessing, Doris. Viies laps; Bullock, Michael. Kaev ja teisi jutte; Kaksteist Eesti Kirja

  2. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  3. Workshop on Higher-Order Spectral Analysis Held at Vail, Colorado on 28- 30 June 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-28

    various session chairmen and to Anna Aleska. Gloria Bullock, Cathy Mon- tana, and Linda Varilla. We are also indebted to David Dob- ’,on Of McGregor and...State University Pullman , WA 99164-2752 ABSTRACT that many degrees of freedom can be obtained without losing stationarity. This combination of many

  4. The sail wing windmill and its adaptation for use in rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    An 8 meter-diameter prototype sail wing windmill is reported that uses a one meter-diameter bullock cartwheel to which three bamboo poles are latched in a triangular pattern with overlapping ends, to form the airframe for cloth sails. This device lifts 300 pounds to a height of 20 feet in one minute in a 10 mph wind.

  5. Congressional Budget Committees and Their Impact on the Department of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    exhibit the rare example of a great nation, abounding in all the means of happiness and security, altogether free from debt.൤ 25Charles Bullock, "The...feet, the Administration furiously attacked him through other members of Congress and in the press. Eventually, the president and the chairman of the

  6. Chaotic Electron Motion Caused by Sidebands in Free Electron Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-27

    AL 35807-3801 Dr. D. L. Bullock Dr. David Cartwright Optical Sciences Department Los Alamos National Laboratory TRW Space and Technology Group E527...Nashville, TN 37235 Dr. Darwin Ho L-477 Dr. K. Halbach Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory P. 0. Box 808 University of

  7. 77 FR 18173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Alabama Pearlshell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... climate change on these eight mussels and on the critical habitat we are proposing. (6) Whether our..., Florida; and Barbour, Bullock, Butler, Coffee, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Escambia, Geneva, Henry...) timber management, agriculture, and grazing; and (6) oil wells/drilling. Based on discussions with...

  8. Spreading Depressions as Secondary Insults after Traumatic Injury to the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, depolarisations with depression periods longer than 10 min had worse outcomes at discharge and the rate of...is a novel process involved in ischaemic damage in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Brain 2009; 132: 1866–81. 17 Nakamura H, Strong... Pediatrics ), Harvard Medical School and Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA 1 Hartings JA, Bullock MR, Okonkwo DO, et al. Spreading

  9. A Review of Central Nervous System (CNS)/Cognitive Effects Due to Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Ecklund, J., Parks, S., Prusaczyk, K ., Januszkiewicz , A., Long, J., & Ling, G. (2005). Blast-Induced neuropathological changes in Sus scroffa...M. S., Rice, A. C., Clausen, T., Rice, L. K ., Barabnova, A., Bullock, R., & Hamm, R. J. (2002). Repeated mild brain injuries result in cognitive...Engl J Med, 352(13), 1335-42. 16 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Dodd, K . T., Mundie, T. G., Lagutchik

  10. Advanced MRI in Acute Military TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (Stam et al., 2006), schizophrenia (Micheloyannis et al., 2006) and epilepsy (Ponten et al., 2007). Taking advantage of the...3 T. Magn. Reson. Imaging 31, 201–211. Doppenberg, E.M.R., Bullock, R., 1997. Clinical neuro -protection trials in severe traumatic brain injury...026113. Nichols, T.E., Holmes, A.P., 2001. Nonparametric permutation tests for functional neuro - imaging: a primer with examples. Hum. Brain Mapp. 15

  11. Literature Review of Military Related Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display...19a. NAME OF RESONSIBLE PERSON Dr Steve Bullock a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified 19b...Litts DA, Talcott GW, Feig JC, Caine ED. Risk of Suicide and Related Adverse Outcomes After Exposure to a Suicide Prevention Programme in the US Air

  12. Сандра Баллок поблагодарила Алара Кивило / Тийт Туумалу

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Туумалу, Тийт, 1971-

    2010-01-01

    Näitleja Sandra Bullock tänas oma Filminäitlejate Gildi Auhindade (American Screen Actors Guild Awards) tseremoonia tänukõnes ka operaator Alar Kivilod. Artiklis Kanadas sündinud ja Los Angeleses töötavast eesti päritolu filmioperaatorist ning lähemalt tema ühest südamelähedasemast tööst, filmist "Taking Chance" (USA 2009)

  13. Domestic Violence Prior to and During Pregnancy within a Selected Military Population and its Relationship to Depressive Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Jefferson Davis Highway Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...1996 Nurse Manager : David Grant Medical Center OB/GYN Clinic Travis Air Force Base, CA 1992-1994 Charge Nurse: David Grant Medical Center...weight infant, fetal injury, preeclampsia , preterm labor, preterm delivery, hemorrhage, impaired bonding, and delayed postpartum recovery (Bullock et

  14. Multi-Phase Galaxy Formation and Quasar Absorption Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Maller, Ariyeh H.

    2005-01-01

    The central problem of galaxy formation is understanding the cooling and condensation of gas in dark matter halos. It is now clear that to match observations this requires further physics than the simple assumptions of single phase gas cooling. A model of multi-phase cooling (Maller & Bullock 2004) can successfully account for the upper cutoff in the masses of galaxies and provides a natural explanation of many types of absorption systems (Mo & Miralda-Escude 1996). Absorption systems are our...

  15. Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 13th Paris Cosmology Colloquium

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The 13th Chalonge Paris Cosmology Colloquium was held at the historic Perrault building of Observatoire de Paris on 23-25 July 2009. The Colloquium was held in the spirit of the Chalonge School, putting together real cosmological and astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach in the framework of the Standard Model of the Universe. Peter Biermann, James Bullock, Claudio Destri, Hector de Vega, Massimo Giovannini, Sasha Kashlinsky, Eiichiro Komatsu, Anthony Lasenby and Norma G. Sanc...

  16. Correcting Blindness In the Nerve Center: How To Improve Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Bullock, and Damon P. Coppola, Introduction to Emergency Management, 5th edition (Oxford, UK : Butterworth-Heinemann, 2014), 181. 12 FEMA, Developing and...Rand McNally, 1965), 1144. 58 Donella H. Meadows, Thinking in Systems: A Primer (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green , 2008), 10. 25...achieved until after 10 days.78 Sandy forced thousands into shelters, taxed the resources and capabilities of state and local governments and

  17. 一幅青年魔鬼艺术家的肖像(上)评诺曼·梅勒《林中城堡》约翰·马克斯维尔·库切(John Maxwell Coetzee)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王想

    2007-01-01

    @@ 阿兰·布洛克(Alan Bullock)在他的双传记《希特勒和斯大林:并行人生》(Hitler and Stalin:Parallel Lives)里,描述了这两个20世纪最残暴的政治领袖的成长经历.书中并排地重印了幼年斯大林及幼年阿道夫分别于1889年和1899年拍摄的照片,照片上的他们都只有10岁左右.

  18. Chronological age and breed-type effects on carcass characteristics and palatability of bull beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R R; Smith, G C; Cross, H R; Savell, J W; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1986-01-01

    Bulls (n = 115) of four slaughter ages (9, 12, 15 or 18 months) and of 15 genotypes were studied. In this analysis, each bullock was assigned to one of four breed groups-British and British crosses, Brahman and Brahman crosses. Jersey and Jersey crosses or Holstein and Holstein crosses. Slaughter age had an (P Brahman-type bulls had higher shear force values (P Brahman-type carcasses were assigned the lowest numerical ratings for juiciness. Breed-type had a greater effect on tenderness of bull beef than did chronological age.

  19. 78 FR 15602 - Annual Update to Fee Schedule for the Use of Government Lands by Hydropower Licensees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... County Fee/acre/Yr Alabama Autauga $53.06 Baldwin 89.12 Barbour 48.00 Bibb 61.16 Blount 87.24 Bullock 55... 83.18 Washington 82.12 Georgia Appling 69.84 Atkinson 73.43 Bacon 70.10 Baker 66.20 Baldwin 62.82.... Helena 79.93 St. James 68.22 St. John the Baptist.. 75.65 St. Landry 51.62 St. Martin 63.23 St. Mary...

  20. Regional Development Impacts Multi-Regional - Multi-Industry Model (MRMI) Users Manual,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    names of Input and output files that have to he attached for the model to run. Input files consist of: (a) a - coff f I f trit f i I e f or tI mdol I...Office & shop equipment 36,000 TOTAL 230,100 pj - I Th- I~..’.;.. .... . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .....,’ ’ - " . , -) . . -.. ... .... .i...AL E: -no re 01101 AL o : .’c er>’ NONSMSA COUNTIES 01005 AL Ba r ur 01011 A-L Bullock 01013 AL Butler 01031 AL Coffee 01037 AL Coosa 01039 AL C-oy

  1. The management and welfare of working animals: identifying problems, seeking solutions and anticipating the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul Rahman, S; Reed, K

    2014-04-01

    Working animals, mainly equids, camelids and bovids, are draught animals that perform transport and traction activities. In developed countries technological development has resulted in animal power being minimised, however, in developing countries most agricultural operations are still being conducted by animals, and animal welfare is a major concern. Inadequate knowledge and inappropriate attitudes and practices regarding the management and welfare of working animals are the main contributory factors to welfare problems. The paper highlights the situation of working animals in developing countries, especially those of equids in Africa and Asia and bullocks in India, which are examined as examples. There is much room for improvement in the welfare of working animals, via the provision of basic veterinary care, technical advice on health and husbandry, including foot care, improved design and maintenance of harnesses and other equipment, and the development of appropriate policies and legislation. The paper discusses the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health in addressing these issues.

  2. Probing Milky Way's hot gas halo density distribution using the dispersion measure of pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Nugaev, Emin Ya; Zhezher, Yana V

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies indicates a significant amount of ionized gas in a form of the hot gas halo around the Milky Way. The halo extends over the region of 100 kpc and may be acountable for the missing baryon mass. In this paper we calculate the contribution of the proposed halo to the dispersion measure (DM) of the pulsars. The Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW), Maller & Bullock (MB) and Feldmann, Hooper & Gnedin (FHG) density distibutions are considered for the gas halo. The data set includes pulsars with the distance known independently from the DM, e.g. pulsars in globular clusters, LMC, SMC and pulsars with known parallax. The results exclude the NFW distribution for the hot gas, while the more realistic MB and FHG models are compatible with the observed dispersion measure.

  3. Recognizing Small-Circuit Structure in Two-Qubit Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Shende, V V; Markov, I L; Shende, Vivek V.; Bullock, Stephen S.; Markov, Igor L.

    2003-01-01

    This work describes numerical tests which determine whether a two-qubit quantum computation has an atypically simple quantum circuit. Specifically, we describe forumulae, written in terms of matrix coefficients, characterizing operators implementable with exactly zero, one, or two controlled-not gates with all other gates being local unitary. Circuit diagrams are provided in each case. We expect significant impact in physical implementations where controlled-not's are more difficult than one-qubit computations. Our results can be contrasted with those by Zhang et al., Bullock and Markov, Vidal and Dawson, and Shende et al. In these works, small quantum circuits are achieved for arbitrary two-qubit operators, and the latter two prove three controlled-not's suffice. However, unitary operators with the sort of structure described above may not be detected. Our work provides results similar to those by Song and Klappenecker but for a wider range of operators.

  4. Probing Milky Way's hot gas halo density distribution using the dispersion measure of pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhezher, Ya. V.; Nugaev, E. Ya.; Rubtsov, G. I.

    2016-03-01

    A number of recent studies indicates a significant amount of ionized gas in a form of the hot gas halo around the Milky Way. The halo extends over the region of 100 kpc and may be acountable for the missing baryon mass. In this paper we calculate the contribution of the proposed halo to the dispersion measure (DM) of the pulsars. The Navarro, Frenk, and White (NFW), Maller and Bullock (MB), and Feldmann, Hooper, and Gnedin (FHG) density distibutions are considered for the gas halo. The data set includes pulsars with the distance known independently from the DM, e.g., pulsars in globular clusters, LMC, SMC and pulsars with known parallax. The results exclude the NFW distribution for the hot gas, while the more realisticMB and FHG models are compatible with the observed dispersion measure.

  5. Performance, carcass characteristics and gain cost of feedlot cattle fed a high level of concentrate and different feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding cattle with isoprotein and isoenergetic diets, with and without the addition of polyclonal antibody preparation (PAP, yeasts (YST or monensin sodium (MON on performance, carcass characteristics and gain cost in feedlot. Ninety-five 20-month old bullocks (323.3±21.8 kg were distributed in 25 pens. The completely randomized experimental design had a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement and the treatments were replicated 5 times. There was no effect of MON for DMI throughout the feedlot period; however, MON reduced the dry matter intake (DMI in g/kg of BW in the first 28 days when compared with the other treatments. The gain cost decreased with MON addition in relation to the other treatments. Inclusion of YST decreased average daily gain (ADG, final body weight, hot carcass weight, carcass weight, gain to feed ratio and DMI in g/kg body weight, worsening feed conversion and increasing the gain cost in the feeding periods. Inclusion of PAP increased ADG and decreased the gain cost, besides improving feed conversion. For MON and PAP, a difference was found for kidney-pelvic fat and kidney-pelvic fat per 100 kg of hot carcass weight. For MON and YST, there was a difference in ADG, feed conversion, gain cost and carcass yield and kidney-pelvic fat per 100 kg of hot carcass. Treatment YST worsened performance in relation to the non-supplemented treatments. Feeding PAP to animals did not influence performance and carcass characteristics of bullocks in feedlot negatively. Thus, PAP shows potential to substitute MON in cattle feeding using isoprotein and isoenergetic diets.

  6. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin. Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant.

  7. Carbon and nitrogen stocks of an Arenosol under irrigated fruit orchards in semiarid Brazil Estoques de carbono e nitrogênio de um Neossolo Quartzarênico sob cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas na região do semi-árido do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter accumulation provides benefits to soil productivity and reduces atmospheric carbon concentration. However, little is known about the accumulation of C and N by sandy soils under perennial irrigated crops in semiarid regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigated fruit orchard cultivation on the stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (N of an Arenosol/Quartzpsament from Paraipaba-CE, Semiarid Brazil. Soil samples were taken from irrigated orchards of banana (Musa ssp., cashew (Anacardium ocidentale, guava (Psidium guajava, bullock's heart (Annona reticulata, mango (Mangifera indica, and sapote (Manilkara zapota in the wetted-bulb and non-irrigated area between the plant rows. Additional samples were collected from adjacent areas under secondary Caatinga forest, and under a 2-year-old deforested area. Sampling depths were: 0-0.1, 0.1-0.2, and 0.2-0.4 m. The highest contents of SOC and N were found in the surface layer. The soil bulk density did not change in depth. The stocks of SOC and total N under secondary forest at 0-0.40 m layer were 27.6 and 2.4 Mg ha-1, respectively. Caatinga Forest conversion into fruit orchard cultivation led to a decrease of 5 to 23% and 4 to 21% on SOC and N stocks, respectively. Compared to other soil uses, sapote and bullock's heart contributed for a lower decrease of SOC and N stocks after deforestation. Guava, bullock's heart, mango and sapote contributed for improving the SOC stratification index.O acúmulo de matéria orgânica beneficia a produtividade do solo e reduz a concentração do carbono atmosférico. Entretanto, pouco é sabido a respeito do acúmulo de C e N em solos arenosos cultivados com culturas perenes irrigadas em regiões semi-áridas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas nos estoques de C e N de um Neossolo Quartzarênico em Paraipaba, CE. Foram coletadas amostras na linha e na

  8. Architecture of the Andromeda galaxy: a quantitative analysis of clustering in the inner stellar halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, P. R.; Sharma, S.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Lewis, G. F.; Driver, S. P.

    2017-02-01

    We present a quantitative measurement of the amount of clustering present in the inner ˜30 kpc of the stellar halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). For this we analyse the angular positions and radial velocities of the carefully selected planetary nebulae in the M31 stellar halo. We study the cumulative distribution of pairwise distances in angular position and line-of-sight velocity space, and find that the M31 stellar halo contains substantially more stars in the form of close pairs as compared to that of a featureless smooth halo. In comparison to a smoothed/scrambled distribution, we estimate that the clustering excess in the M31 inner halo is roughly 40 per cent at maximum and on average ˜20 per cent. Importantly, comparing against the 11 stellar halo models of Bullock & Johnston, which were simulated within the context of the ΛCDM (Λ cold dark matter) cosmological paradigm, we find that the amount of substructures in the M31 stellar halo closely resembles that of a typical ΛCDM halo.

  9. Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 13th Paris Cosmology Colloquium

    CERN Document Server

    de Vega, H J

    2010-01-01

    The 13th Chalonge Paris Cosmology Colloquium was held at the historic Perrault building of Observatoire de Paris on 23-25 July 2009. The Colloquium was held in the spirit of the Chalonge School, putting together real cosmological and astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach in the framework of the Standard Model of the Universe. Peter Biermann, James Bullock, Claudio Destri, Hector de Vega, Massimo Giovannini, Sasha Kashlinsky, Eiichiro Komatsu, Anthony Lasenby and Norma G. Sanchez present here their highlights of the Colloquium. The summary and conclusions by H. J. de Vega, M. C. Falvella and N. G. Sanchez stress among other points: (i) the primordial CMB fluctuations are almost gaussian, large primordial non-gaussianity and large running index are strongly disfavored. The primordial graviton ratio r is predicted in the effective theory of inflation to be between 0.021 and 0.053, at reach of the next CMB observations. (ii) Dark energy observations are consistent with the cosmological constant. ...

  10. Bioinspired Design and Computational Prediction of Iron Complexes with Pendant Amines for the Production of Methanol from CO2 and H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyang; Yang, Xinzheng

    2016-03-17

    Inspired by the active site structure of [FeFe]-hydrogenase, we built a series of iron dicarbonyl diphosphine complexes with pendant amines and predicted their potentials to catalyze the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol using density functional theory. Among the proposed iron complexes, [(P(tBu)2N(tBu)2H)FeH(CO)2(COOH)](+) (5COOH) is the most active one with a total free energy barrier of 23.7 kcal/mol. Such a low barrier indicates that 5COOH is a very promising low-cost catalyst for high-efficiency conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol under mild conditions. For comparison, we also examined Bullock's Cp iron diphosphine complex with pendant amines, [(P(tBu)2N(tBu)2H)FeHCp(C5F4N)](+) (5Cp-C5F4N), as a catalyst for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and obtained a total free energy barrier of 27.6 kcal/mol, which indicates that 5Cp-C5F4N could also catalyze the conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol but has a much lower efficiency than our newly designed iron complexes.

  11. Asymptotically Optimal Quantum Circuits for d-level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, S S; O'Leary, D P; Brennen, Gavin K.; Bullock, Stephen S.; Leary, Dianne P. O'

    2004-01-01

    As a qubit is a two-level quantum system whose state space is spanned by |0>, |1>, so a qudit is a d-level quantum system whose state space is spanned by |0>,...,|d-1>. Quantum computation has stimulated much recent interest in algorithms factoring unitary evolutions of an n-qubit state space into component two-particle unitary evolutions. In the absence of symmetry, Shende, Markov and Bullock use Sard's theorem to prove that at least C 4^n two-qubit unitary evolutions are required, while Vartiainen, Moettoenen, and Salomaa (VMS) use the QR matrix factorization and Gray codes in an optimal order construction involving two-particle evolutions. In this work, we note that Sard's theorem demands C d^{2n} two-qudit unitary evolutions to construct a generic (symmetry-less) n-qudit evolution. However, the VMS result applied to virtual-qubits only recovers optimal order in the case that d is a power of two. We further construct a QR decomposition for d-multi-level quantum logics, proving a sharp asymptotic of Theta(d...

  12. Angular Momentum in the Formation of Disk Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-Jian; SHU Cheng-Gang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Within the current framework of disk galaxy formation, we discuss the resulted surface-density profiles according to the theoretical angular momentum distributions (AMDs) presented by Bullock et al. [Astrophys. J.555 (2001) 240(B01)] for the ACDM cosmology in both spherical and cylindric coordinates. It is found that the derived surface density distribution of a disk in the outer region is in general similar to an exponential disk for both the theoretical AMDs. In the central region, the results from both the theoretical AMDs are inconsistent with observations whatever the disk bar-instability is taken into account or not. The cylindric form of the theoretical AMD leads to the bar-instability more easily for a give galaxy than that for spherical AMD, which could result in a more massive bulge. After comparing the model predictions with our Milky Way galaxy, we find that the theoretical AMDs predict larger mass fractions of baryons with low angular momentum than the observed ones, which would lead to the disk sizes to be smaller. Two possible processes which could solve the angular momentum problem are discussed.

  13. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  14. Social network analysis in encouraging role-players in the beef market to take breeding decisions: a methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Martino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to apply the social network analysis (SNA to the Italian Romagnola beef meat market in order to better understand the interrelationships of the supply chain. Knowledge of the market exchange system is very important in order to be able to choose the most suitable breeding approach. The analysis was carried out using data concerning the heifers exchanged during the year 2008 within the framework of the activities of the Italian consortium of white bullock producers of the central Apennine region of Italy (Vitellone Bianco dell’Appennino Centrale. The social network analysis shows that very few of the possible links between the agents are used and that this leads to a lack of competitiveness. At the same time, the agents have shown themselves able to place themselves at the most important points along the supply chain. Furthermore, the results of the analysis show the need for a stronger farming phase with a greater emphasis on the farmers, given that, from an economic point of view, they are the most important role-players.

  15. Comparison of two different analytical methods for determination of aflatoxins in feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovska-Dimzoska Biljana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography - fluorescence detector and fluorometry (fluorescence spectrometry with previous immunoaffinity column clean-up, are two methods that are compared in order to evaluate their performances in determination of total aflatoxins content in feed. Method validation was established, linearity of the methods was checked, and a good coefficient of correlation was found for bought methods (0,9994 and 0,978 respectively. The limits of detection were 0,003 ng/ml (average for HPLC-FD method and 0,12 ng/ml for fluorometry. The accuracy of the methods was determined using reference materials with known concentration and spiked aflatoxins free samples. The recoveries were found to be 85,82% (average for HPLC-FD method and 56,75%, for fluorometry. Twenty feed concentrates for bullock and 20 feed concentrates for swine, were analyzed parallel with bought methods. The results are in correlation only in higher concentration range. For lower concentration range (below 1,0 μg/kg fluorometry shows limited sensitivity and selectivity. It was found that it is applicable only as a screening method for the prediction of aflatoxins. HPLC-FD method remains a method of choice for the analyst in order to achieved accurate and reliable results.

  16. Revisão da subfamília Atactorhynchinae Petrotschenko, 1956 (Acanthocephala - Neoechinorhynchidae A review of Atactorhynchinae Petrotschenko, 1956 (Acanthocephala, Neoechinorhynchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dely Noronha

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho é feita a revisão da subfamília Atactorhynchinae Petrostschenko, 1956. Para o gênero Floridosentis Ward, 1953, o estudo é baseado em exemplares do material tipo, além de outros encontrados parasitnando três peixes do gênero Mugil (Parati, provenientes de Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro. Quanto ao gênero Atactorhynchus Chandler, 1935, o nosso estudo foi baseado na descrição original de Chandler e do trabalho de Golvan sobre a classe dos Eoacanthocephala (Van Cleave, 1936.In this paper, the authors revise the sub-family Atactorhynchinae Petrotschenko, 1956, after studying types of Floridosentis mugilis (Machado Filho, 1951 and material recovered from intestine of Mugil sp. from Cabo Frio, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. They confirm what was suggested by Bullock, 1962, about a new combination for the type species of Floridosentis Ward, 1953. For this reason, they make F. elongatus, synonym of F. mugilis Machado Filho, 1951. Besides they also enlarge the subfamily diagnosis and add a table showing the maind differences between the two genera under Atactorhynchinae Petrotschenko, 1956.

  17. 方言电视节目于民族语言文化生态保护之意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔梅; 李江梅

    2008-01-01

    从生态环境的角度看语言,是国外许多从事濒危语言研究的学者对语言关注的角度。语言生态环境借自于自然生态学,指的是语言也有生存的环境问题:同自然界的生态平衡一样,语言的存在也必须有适当的环境。生态环境的定义是:“所有生物、植物、微生物与环境中的物理和化学因素的相互所用所组成的系统。”(Bullock et al.1988)它研究和强调的是有机体与环境辩证统一的关系。人类生态独有的特性就是将人类族群里的结构和组合,和其所在的地域环境连接起来,形成互动。

  18. The statistics of LCDM Halo Concentrations

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Angelo F; Bett, Philip; Cole, Shaun; Navarro, Julio F; Frenk, Carlos S; White, Simon D M; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    We use the Millennium Simulation (MS) to study the statistics of LCDM halo concentrations at z = 0. Our results confirm that the average halo concentration declines monotonically with mass; a power-law fits well the concentration-mass relation for over 3 decades in mass, up to the most massive objects to form in a LCDM universe (~ 10^15 h^-1 Msol). This is in clear disagreement with the predictions of the model proposed by Bullock et al. for these rare objects, and agrees better with the original predictions of Navarro, Frenk, & White. The large volume surveyed, together with the unprecedented numerical resolution of the MS, allow us to estimate with confidence the distribution of concentrations and, consequently, the abundance of systems with unusual properties. About one in a hundred cluster haloes (M200 >~ 3x10^14 h^-1 Msol) have concentrations exceeding c200 = 7.5, a result that may be used to interpret the likelihood of unusually strong massive gravitational lenses, such as Abell 1689, in the LCDM co...

  19. On Universal Gate Libraries and Generic Minimal Two-qubit Quantum Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Shende, V V; Bullock, S S; Shende, Vivek V.; Markov, Igor L.; Bullock, Stephen S.

    2003-01-01

    We show how to implement exactly an arbitrary two-qubit unitary operation in several universal gate libraries using the smallest possible number of gates. To this end, we prove that n-qubit circuits using CNOT and one-qubit gates require at least ceil((4^n - 3n -1)/4) CNOT gates in the worst case. For two-qubit operators, this yields a lower bound of three gates, which we match with an upper bound of three gates. Using quantum circuit identities, we improve an earlier lower bound of 17 elementary gates by Bullock and Markov to 18, and their upper bound of 23 elementary gates to 18. We also improve upon the generic circuit with six CNOT gates by Zhang et al. (our circuit uses three), and that by Vidal and Dawson with 11 basic gates (we use 10). Given the available results, it appears that some universal gate libraries are at a disadvantage, at least in the sense that no construction is known to produce smallest possible circuits.

  20. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors.

  1. Dwarf Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Pierre; Valenzuela, O; Gottlöber, S

    2003-01-01

    We use N-body simulations to study properties of dwarf halos with virial masses in the range 10^7-10^9 Msun/h. Unlike recent reported results, we find that the density profiles of relaxed dwarf halos are well fitted by the NFW profile and do not have cores. We estimate the distribution of concentrations for halos in mass range that covers six orders of magnitude from 10^7 Msun/h to 10^13 Msun/h, and find that the data are well reproduced by the model of Bullock et al. (2001). We predict that present-day isolated dwarf halos should have a very large median concentration of ~ 35. For halos with masses that range from 4.6 x 10^9 Msun/h to 10^13 Msun/h we measure the subhalo circular velocity function and find that they are similar when normalized to the circular velocity of the parent halo. We compute the halo mass function and the halo spin parameter distribution and find that the former is very well reproduced by the Sheth and Tormen model while the latter is well fitted by a lognormal distribution with lambda...

  2. 获翻译诗歌奖青年翻译 张文武

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>张文武简介:1979年生于安徽灵璧,2004年毕业于安徽大学中文系,文学硕士;曾任教师、出版社编辑、网站总编;大学期间开始接触中外现代派诗歌,接触尼采等人的作品,崇尚直觉——内心和自然的神秘契合,2006年开始诗歌翻译,主要译有查尔斯·布可夫斯基(CharlesBukowski)、詹姆斯·赖特(James Wright)、梭罗(Henrv DavidThoreau)、泰德·休斯(Ted Hughes)、迈克尔·布洛克(MichaelBullock)、罗伯特·布莱(Robert Bly)等人的诗作;现居北京。

  3. The Hohmann-Parker Effect and its Consequences Measured by the Mars Science Laboratory on the Transfer from Earth to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, A.; Odstrcil, D.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Elliott, H. A.; Frahm, R. A.; Hayes, J. J.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Christian, E. R.; Andrews, J.; Brinza, D.; Epperly, M. E.; Neal, K.; Seimetz, L.; Smith, K. D.; Tyler, Y.; Weigle, E.

    2013-12-01

    We show that a spacecraft launched from Earth towards Mars following a Hohmann minimum energy transfer trajectory has a strong tendency to remain well-connected magnetically to Earth, in the early phase of the transfer, or to Mars in the late phase, via the Parker spiral magnetic field. On the return trip, the spacecraft would remain reasonably well-connected first to Mars and later to Earth. Moreover, good magnetic connectivity occurs on all Hohmann transfers between neighboring planets in the inner solar system out to Mars. We call this hitherto unnamed circumstance the Hohmann-Parker effect. We show consequences of the effect by means of simultaneous cosmic radiation proxy observations made near Earth, near Mars, and at the Mars Science Laboratory on the transfer from Earth to Mars in 2011/2012. We support the observations with simulations of the large-scale magnetic field of the inner heliosphere during this period and compare the results with our predictions. The implications of the Hohmann-Parker effect are discussed. MSL RAD Science Team: R. Beaujean, S. Boettcher, M. Bullock, S. Burmeister, F. A. Cucinotta, B. Ehresmann, D. Grinspoon, J. Guo, D. M. Hassler, M.-H. Kim, J. Koehler, O. Kortmann, C. Martin-Garcia, S. C. R. Rafkin, G. Reitz, and R. F. Wimmer-Schweingruber SOHO EPHIN Science Team: B. Heber, R. Mueller-Mellin

  4. Indirect Dark Matter detection from Dwarf satellites: joint expectations from astrophysics and supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Gregory D.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Strigari, Louis E. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Trotta, Roberto, E-mail: gmartine@uci.edu, E-mail: bullock@uci.edu, E-mail: mkapling@uci.edu, E-mail: strigari@stanford.edu, E-mail: r.trotta@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, Astrophysics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-01

    We present a general methodology for determining the gamma-ray flux from annihilation of dark matter particles in Milky Way satellite galaxies, focusing on two promising satellites as examples: Segue 1 and Draco. We use the SuperBayeS code to explore the best-fitting regions of the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) parameter space, and an independent MCMC analysis of the dark matter halo properties of the satellites using published radial velocities. We present a formalism for determining the boost from halo substructure in these galaxies and show that its value depends strongly on the extrapolation of the concentration-mass (c(M)) relation for CDM subhalos down to the minimum possible mass. We show that the preferred region for this minimum halo mass within the CMSSM with neutralino dark matter is ∼ 10{sup −9}–10{sup −6} M{sub s}un. For the boost model where the observed power-law c(M) relation is extrapolated down to the minimum halo mass we find average boosts of about 20, while the Bullock et al (2001) c(M) model results in boosts of order unity. We estimate that for the power-law c(M) boost model and photon energies greater than a GeV, the Fermi space-telescope has about 20% chance of detecting a dark matter annihilation signal from Draco with signal-to-noise greater than 3 after about 5 years of observation.

  5. Assessment of an oxfendazole pulsed release bolus for control of parasitic gastroenteritis in calves in a rotational grazing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G B

    1987-10-17

    A group of 71 Friesian bullocks, aged six to nine months, vaccinated against lungworm, were randomly allocated on a liveweight basis to two groups of 40 and 31 animals. At turn-out each calf in the group of 40 calves was dosed orally with a pulsed release bolus designed to deliver five doses of oxfendazole at regular intervals during a period of up to 130 days, the first dose being released about 21 days after administration. The group treated with the bolus grazed 2.4 ha and the control group grazed 3.6 ha of permanent pasture for six weeks before having additional access to similar areas of silage aftermath. The control group was treated 99 days after turn-out and when they were housed with fenbendazole (7.5 mg/kg). Faecal worm egg counts, plasma pepsinogen activities, pasture larval counts and liveweights were recorded fortnightly. Significant reductions in worm egg counts and plasma pepsinogen activities were recorded in the calves dosed with the pulsed release bolus together with significant improvements in the liveweight of younger calves compared with control animals. Pasture larval counts were lower in the fields grazed by animals treated with the bolus.

  6. Lode-gold mineralization in the Tanami region, northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, David L.; Vandenberg, Leon; Wygralak, Andrew S.; Mernagh, Terrence P.; Bagas, Leon; Crispe, Andrew; Lambeck, Alexis; Cross, Andrew; Fraser, Geoff; Williams, Nick; Worden, Kurt; Meixner, Tony; Goleby, Bruce; Jones, Leonie; Lyons, Pat; Maidment, David

    2007-01-01

    The Tanami region of northern Australia has emerged over the last two decades as the largest gold-producing region in the Northern Territory. Gold is hosted by epigenetic quartz veins in sedimentary and mafic rocks, and by sulfide-rich replacement zones within iron formation. Although limited, geochronological data suggest that most mineralization occurred at about 1,805-1,790 Ma, during a period of extensive granite intrusion, although structural relationships suggest that some deposits predate this period. There are three main goldfields in the Tanami region: the Dead Bullock Soak goldfield, which hosts the world-class Callie deposit; The Granites goldfield; and the Tanami goldfield. In the Dead Bullock Soak goldfield, deposits are hosted by carbonaceous siltstone and iron formation where a late (D5) structural corridor intersects an early F1 anticlinorium. In The Granites goldfield, deposits are hosted by highly sheared iron formation and are interpreted to predate D5. The Tanami goldfield consists of a large number of small, mostly basalt-hosted deposits that probably formed at a high structural level during D5. The D5 structures that host most deposits formed in a convergent structural regime with σ 1 oriented between E-W and ENE-WSW. Structures active during D5 include NE-trending oblique thrust (dextral) faults and ESE-trending (sinistral) faults that curve into N- to NNW-trending reverse faults localized in supracrustal belts between and around granite complexes. Granite intrusions also locally perturbed the stress field, possibly localizing structures and deposits. Forward modeling and preliminary interpretations of reflection seismic data indicate that all faults extend into the mid-crust. In areas characterized by the N- to NW-trending faults, orebodies also tend to be N- to NW-trending, localized in dilational jogs or in fractured, competent rock units. In areas characterized by ESE-trending faults, the orebodies and veins tend to strike broadly east

  7. Screening, cloning and sequence analysis of the differential expression genes in Longissimus dorsi of Yanbian Yellow Cattle%延边黄牛背最长肌差异表达基因的筛选、克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田万年; 张守发; 李香子; 高青山; 金鑫; 严昌国

    2011-01-01

    应用引物复性控制技术筛选肌内脂肪含量差异极显著的延边黄牛背最长肌组织差异表达基因,寻找与肌内脂肪沉积的相关候选基因.文章选取30头28月龄延边黄牛阉牛的背最长肌组织测定肌内脂肪含量,选取肌内脂肪含量差异极显著的最高和最低各3头组成RNA池,采用引物复性控制技术,分析了两组个体背最长肌组织差异表达基因.利用20对随机引物差异显示扩增下,共获得12条ESTs(片段大小为200 ~ 890 bp),其中8个为已知的ESTs分别与细胞骨架形成、细胞因子信号转导、蛋白质合成、能量代谢和其他功能的差异基因,4个未知的ESTs.结果表明,应用引物复性控制技术筛选得到了12个可能参与了肌内脂肪沉积调控的ESTs,为进一步筛选肌内脂肪沉积相关的基因奠定了基础.%Annealing control primer (ACP) system was applied to find candidate genes related to lipidosis in muscle of Yanbian yellow cattle by screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Longissimus dorsi, which had significant difference on intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Thirty steers, aged at 28 month-bullocks were selected to measure the IMF content in L. Dorsi. Two groups of bullocks (three heads per group) with the highest and the lowest contents of IMF were selected to build a RNA pool, and DEGs of two groups were analyzed by ACP system. Twelve DEGs were identified and sequenced by amplification with 20 arbitrary primers (fragment sizes were 200-890 bp). In these genes, eight were already known as functional groups of cytoskeleton, cytokine signal transduction, protein synthesis, energy metabolismand, and others, four were unknown. All the 12 ESTs were screened by ACP system, which may participated in regulating on lipidosis in muscle. This study established a foundation for further screening of lipidosis related genes.

  8. A naturalistic study of children and their parents in family learning courses in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlund, Karen; Gennaro, Eugene; Dobbert, Marion

    During the 1960s and 1970s a number of family learning projects evolved, most of which focused on pre-schoolers and their parents. The goal of some of these programs was to provide enjoyable, structured experiences in which parents and their children learned together. Recently, a number of institutions have been sponsoring enrichment science classes or learning experiences for parents and older children. The study described here is based on a project funded by the National Science Foundation (DISE No. 07872) which was attempting to show that it was possible to increase scientific literacy of two different age groups by simultaneously exposing parents and their middle school children to short courses in science. The project is an outgrowth of a study previously reported (Gennaro, Bullock, & Alden, 1980) carried out at the Minnesota Zoological Gardens. The study is based on data obtained during the first two years of the project and used various data gathering procedures such as the use of questionnaires, interviews, observations, and cognitive testing. It was found that children register for the courses primarily because of interest in the subject matter of the courses and that parents register because of their desire to nurture the child and the child's interest in the subject matter of the course. Both parents and children made significant gains in learning as measured by subject matter tests. Participants reported that the experience was both enjoyable and valuable. Children's attitudes toward their parents and the course were significantly higher if the children perceived a highly cooperative learning environment with their parents. Parents who scored in the medium or high range on the pretest had significantly more interactions with their children concerning information about course tasks than those who scored low on the pretest.

  9. A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  10. Probing the Anisotropy of the Milky Way Gaseous Halo-II: Sightline toward Mrk 509

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Mathur, S.; Krongold, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Hot, million degree gas appears to pervade the Milky Way halo, containing a large fraction of the Galactic missing baryons. This circumgalactic medium (CGM) is probed effectively in X-rays, both in absorption and in emission. The CGM also appears to be anisotropic, so we have started a program to determine CGM properties along several sightlines by combining absorption and emission measurements. Here we present the emission measure close to the Mrk 509 sightline using new Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. We also present new analysis and modeling of Chandra HETG spectra to constrain the absorption parameters. The emission measure in this sightline is high, EM = 0.0165 ± 0.0008 ± 0.0006 cm‑6 pc, five times larger than the average. The observed O vii column density N(O vii) = 2.35+/- 0.4× {10}16 cm‑2, however, is close to the average. We find that the temperature of the emitting and absorbing gas is the same: logT(K) = 6.33 ± 0.01 and logT(K) = 6.33 ± 0.16 respectively. We fit the observed column density and emission measure with a β-model density profile. The central density is constrained to be between n 0 = 2.8–6.0 × 10‑4 cm‑3 and the core radius of the density profile has a lower limit of 40 kpc. This shows that the hot gas is mostly in the CGM of the galaxy, not in the Galactic disk. Our derived density profile is close to the Maller & Bullock profile for adiabatic gas in hydrostatic equilibrium with an NFW dark-matter potential well. Assuming this density profile, the minimum mass of the hot CGM is 3.2× {10}10 M ⊙.

  11. NÍVEIS SÉRICOS DE PBI EM BOVINOS MESTIÇOS HOLANDÊS-ZEBU DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS PBI SERUM LEVELS IN CROSSBRED HOLSTEIN-ZEBU BOVINES IN THE GOIÁS STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Silveira Fichtner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram analisados 71 hemossoros de bovinos mestiços holandês-zebu, procedentes de cinco municípios da micro-região Mato-Grosso de Goiás. Os autores observaram que os valores obtidos para o gado mestiço holandês-zebu não diferem dos parâmetros fisiológicos estabelecidos pelos investigadores consultados, que trabalharam com gado de origem européia. As diferenças ocorridas poderão ser atribuídas a condições diversas, como por exemplo, as em que se desenvolveram o presente trabalho. Concluímos que, nas condições em que se realizou o presente trabalho, com animais em regime de campo, o gado mestiço holandês-zebu apresenta a importante característica de não aumentar a atividade de sua tireóide, em comparação com o gado de origem européia, apesar de habitar uma região onde as necessidades de dissipação do calor e de circulação sangüínea são mais intensas.

    It was analyzed 71 blood serum of crossbreed zebu from 5 counties of e specific region in the State of Goiás, Brazil. PBI serum levels were (in mg/100 ml of serum: calves 3.6 +/- 0.88; bullock 3.4 +/- 1.04 and cows 3.3 +/- 1.35.

  12. The kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich tomography - II. Probing the circumgalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jiawei; Fang, Taotao

    2016-06-01

    We propose the use of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect to probe the circumgalactic medium (CGM), with the aid of a spectroscopic survey covering the same area of a SZ survey. It is possible to design an optimal estimator of the kSZ effect of the CGM with a matched filter, and to construct the cross-correlation between the estimator and the peculiar velocity recovered from the galaxy survey, which can be measured by stacking a number of galaxies. We investigate two compelling profiles for the CGM - the Maller-Bullock (MB) profile and the β profile - and we estimate the detectability against the synergy of a fiducial galaxy survey with number density 10-3 h3 Mpc-3 and an Atacama Cosmology Telescope-like SZ survey. We show that the shape of the filter does not change much with redshift for the β profile, while there are significant side lobes at z < 0.1 for the MB profile. By stacking ˜104 Milky Way-size haloes around z ˜ 0.5, we can obtain ≳1σ signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for both profiles. The S/N increases with decreasing redshift before it reaches a maximum (˜7.5 at z ≃ 0.12 for the MB profile and ˜19 at z ≃ 0.03 for the β profile). Because of the large beam size, a Planck-like cosmic microwave background survey can marginally detect the kSZ signal by stacking the same number of galaxies at z < 0.1. The search for the CGM in realistic surveys will involve dividing the galaxies into subsamples with similar redshift and mass of host haloes, and scaling the results presented here to obtain the S/N.

  13. Tres metazoos parásitos de la cojinoba Seriolella violacea Guichenot (Pisces, Centrolophidae, Callao, Perú Three metazoan parasites of palm ruff Seriolella violacea Guichenot (Pisces, Centrolophidae, Callao, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A research of parasitefauna of 50 palm ruff Seriolella violacea Guichenot, 1816 from Ventanilla Fishmarket, Callao, Peru, between July and October 2001 and necropsied to study parasite infracommunities was conducted. Of the fishes collected, 21 were females and 29 males. Male showed a standard length between 21-95 cm (52.6 ± 24.9 and female between 18-96 cm (43.2 ± 21.1 and was not found differences between both sexes. 358 specimens of parasite were collected in total during all the survey, with a mean abundance of 7.2 ± 3.2 (2-18. The mean parasite species richness 1.2 (1-3 was not correlated with standard body length. All hosts were parasited. Forty-two hosts (84% showed infection with 1 parasite species, and eight (16% had 2 parasite species. Three parasite species: Paraeurysorchis sarmientoi (Tantaleán, 1974 (Monogenea (Prevalence = 14%, mean Intensity = 1, mean abundance = 0.14, Neobothriocephalus aspinosus Mateo & Bullock, 1966 (Cestoda (Prevalence = 100%; mean Intensity = 7.02, mean abundance = 7.02 and Lernanthropus trachuri (Brian, 1903 (Copepoda (Prevalence = 2%, mean Intensity = 1, mean abundance = 0.02 were found. Neobothriocephalus aspinosus had an overdispersed distribution and was the dominant species. An effect of sex and standard length with prevalence and mean abundance of infection of P. sarmientoi and N. aspinosus were not found. Paraeurysorchis sarmientoi showed the most prevalence of infection in the second gill-arch. Finally, we included a complete list of all metazoan parasites of S. violacea reported from Peru.

  14. 利用中间砧解决阿蒂莫耶番荔枝与圆滑番荔枝嫁接不亲和试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭松兴; 王援泉; 黄旭明; 杨帅; 叶耀雄; 陈永辉; 王泽槐; 谢正生

    2011-01-01

    阿蒂莫耶番荔枝Annona atemoya Hort.对水淹胁迫敏感,而圆滑番荔枝A glabra耐淹水性强,是理想的耐水淹砧木.但二者存在嫁接不亲和问题.本研究以圆滑番荔枝(代号G)做基砧,阿蒂莫耶番荔枝African Pride品种×牛心番荔枝Areticulata的杂交种(代号AR)做中间砧,取阿蒂莫耶番荔枝4个品种African Pride(代号AP)、Paxton(代号P)、Pink's Mammoth(代号PM)和Bullock Heart(代号BH)的1年生枝条做接穗,用切接法嫁接.结果表明,不同品种间的切接成活率没有差异,其中,AP/AR/G(接穗/中间砧/基砧)的春季和夏季嫁接成活率分别为83.7%和77.9%,嫁接苗在苗圃和3年的田间种植中,生长均表现正常,说明利用AR中间砧可很好地解决阿蒂莫耶番荔枝与圆滑番荔枝嫁接不亲和的问题.研究还表明,夏季嫁接时,用春季采集的AP番荔枝1年生枝梢做接穗的成活率(77.9%)明显高于用当季成熟春梢做接穗的成活率(38.1%).

  15. The pairwise velocity difference of over 2000 BHB stars in the Milky Way halo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Xiang Xue; Hans-Walter Rixm; Gang Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Models of hierarchical galaxy formation predict that the extended stellar halos of galaxies like our Milky Way show a great deal of sub-structure,arising from disrupted satellites.Spatial sub-structure is directly observed,and has been quantified,in the Milky Way's stellar halo.Phase-space conservation implies that there should be sub-structure in position-velocity space.Here,we aim to quantify such position-velocity sub-structure,using a state-of-the art data set having over 2000 blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars with photometry and spectroscopy from SDSS.For stars in dynamically cold streams ("young"streams),we expect that pairs of objects that are physically close also have similar velocities.Therefore,we apply the well-established "pairwise velocity difference" (PVD)statistic (△r),where we expect to drop for small separations △r.We calculate the PVD for the SDSS BHB sample and find (△r)≈ const.,i.e.no such signal.By making mock-observations of the simulations by Bullock & Johnston and applying the same statistic,we show that for individual,dynamically young streams,or assemblages of such streams,drops for small distance separations △r,as qualitatively expected.However,for a realistic complete set of halo streams,the pair-wise velocity difference shows no signal,as the simulated halos are dominated by "dynamically old" phase-mixed streams.Our findings imply that the sparse sampling and the sample sizes in SDSS DR6 are still insufficient to use the position-velocity sub-structure for a stringent quantitative data-model comparison.Therefore,alternate statistics must be explored and much more densely sampled surveys,dedicated to the structure of the Milky Way,such as LAMOST,are needed.

  16. bicep2/ KECK ARRAY . IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P.A.R.; Aikin, R.W.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S.J.; Bischoff, C.A.; Bock, J.J.; Bradford, K.J.; Brevik, J.A.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Dowell, C.D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J.P.; Fliescher, S.; Golwala, S.R.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hilton, G.C.; Hui, H.; Irwin, K.D.

    2015-06-18

    bicep2/KECK ARRAY. IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS P. A. R. Ade1, R. W. Aikin2, D. Barkats3, S. J. Benton4, C. A. Bischoff5, J. J. Bock2,6, K. J. Bradford5, J. A. Brevik2, I. Buder5, E. Bullock7Show full author list Published 2015 June 18 • © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 806, Number 2 Article PDF Figures Tables References Citations 273 Total downloads Cited by 6 articles Turn on MathJax Share this article Get permission to re-use this article Article information Abstract bicep2 and the Keck Array are polarization-sensitive microwave telescopes that observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the South Pole at degree angular scales in search of a signature of inflation imprinted as B-mode polarization in the CMB. bicep2 was deployed in late 2009, observed for three years until the end of 2012 at 150 GHz with 512 antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers, and has reported a detection of B-mode polarization on degree angular scales. The Keck Array was first deployed in late 2010 and will observe through 2016 with five receivers at several frequencies (95, 150, and 220 GHz). bicep2 and the Keck Array share a common optical design and employ the field-proven bicep1 strategy of using small-aperture, cold, on-axis refractive optics, providing excellent control of systematics while maintaining a large field of view. This design allows for full characterization of far-field optical performance using microwave sources on the ground. Here we describe the optical design of both instruments and report a full characterization of the optical performance and beams of bicep2 and the Keck Array at 150 GHz.

  17. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepoju Tunde Joseph Ogunkunle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB and haematinic (Haematol-B powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0, Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0, Mangifera indica L. (10.0, Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0, Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0, root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0, Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith E. A. Bruce (8.0, Parquetina nigrescens (Afz. Bullock (6.0, and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0, while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0, fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0, stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0, Khaya senegalensis (Desr. A. Juss (5.5, Mangifera indica (5.5, root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0, root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5, Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam. Zepern & Timler (5.5, and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5. In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  18. The redshift dependence of the structure of massive Λ cold dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Navarro, Julio F.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian; Neto, Angelo F.

    2008-06-01

    We use two very large cosmological simulations to study how the density profiles of relaxed Λ cold dark matter dark haloes depend on redshift and on halo mass. We confirm that these profiles deviate slightly but systematically from the NFW form and are better approximated by the empirical formula, d logρ/d logr ~ rα, first used by Einasto to fit star counts in the Milky Way. The best-fitting value of the additional shape parameter, α, increases gradually with mass, from α ~ 0.16 for present-day galaxy haloes to α ~ 0.3 for the rarest and most massive clusters. Halo concentrations depend only weakly on mass at z = 0, and this dependence weakens further at earlier times. At z ~ 3 the average concentration of relaxed haloes does not vary appreciably over the mass range accessible to our simulations (M >~ 3 × 1011h-1Msolar). Furthermore, in our biggest simulation, the average concentration of the most massive, relaxed haloes is constant at ~ 3.5-4 for 0 Frenk & White. With their original parameters, the NFW prescription overpredicts halo concentrations at high redshift. This shortcoming can be reduced by modifying the definition of halo formation time, although the evolution of the concentrations of Milky Way mass haloes is still not reproduced well. In contrast, the much-used revisions of the NFW prescription by Bullock et al. and Eke, Navarro & Steinmetz predict a steeper drop in concentration at the highest masses and stronger evolution with redshift than are compatible with our numerical data. Modifying the parameters of these models can reduce the discrepancy at high masses, but the overly rapid redshift evolution remains. These results have important implications for currently planned surveys of distant clusters.

  19. Complex Engineered Systems: A New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Ali A.; Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    Human history is often seen as an inexorable march towards greater complexity — in ideas, artifacts, social, political and economic systems, technology, and in the structure of life itself. While we do not have detailed knowledge of ancient times, it is reasonable to conclude that the average resident of New York City today faces a world of much greater complexity than the average denizen of Carthage or Tikal. A careful consideration of this change, however, suggests that most of it has occurred recently, and has been driven primarily by the emergence of technology as a force in human life. In the 4000 years separating the Indus Valley Civilization from 18th century Europe, human transportation evolved from the bullock cart to the hansom, and the methods of communication used by George Washington did not differ significantly from those used by Alexander or Rameses. The world has moved radically towards greater complexity in the last two centuries. We have moved from buggies and letter couriers to airplanes and the Internet — an increase in capacity, and through its diversity also in complexity, orders of magnitude greater than that accumulated through the rest of human history. In addition to creating iconic artifacts — the airplane, the car, the computer, the television, etc. — this change has had a profound effect on the scope of experience by creating massive, connected and multiultra- level systems — traffic networks, power grids, markets, multinational corporations — that defy analytical understanding and seem to have a life of their own. This is where complexity truly enters our lives.

  20. Estado de conocimiento del orden Ephemeroptera en la Patagonia Current knowledge of Patagonian Ephemeroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pessacq

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento actual del orden Ephemeroptera en la Patagonia se debe en gran parte a la labor original y compilatoria de M.L. Pescador, W.L. Peters y E. Domínguez, llevada a cabo en la década del 80 del siglo pasado. Se suman a ésta, importantes contribuciones que han conducido a un adecuado conocimiento del grupo en la cordillera norte y centro de la Patagonia, aunque menor en la zona austral de esta región (Santa Cruz y Tierra del Fuego y las áreas de estepa. Merced al trabajo de campo realizado en 80 sitios de muestreo relevados en el marco del "Darwin Initiative Project" en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, se incluyen aquí nuevos registros para la Argentina (Hapsiphlebia anastomosis Demoulin, la región Andina (Apobaetis Day y la provincia de Río Negro (Chaquihua bullocki (Navás, Andesiops ardua (Lugo-Ortíz & McCafferty, Murphyella needhami Lestage y Dactylophlebia carnulenta Pescador & Peters. Con estos registros, la riqueza de Ephemeroptera de la Patagonia alcanza 43 especies y 24 géneros, de las cuales 33 (en 20 géneros se conocen para la Argentina.The current knowledge of the Patagonian Ephemeroptera is due to the original and compiling work by M.L. Pescador, W.L. Peters and E. Domínguez during last Century's 80´s . Besides, other previous publications exist that contributed to achieve a reasonable knowledge of its taxonomy for the norhtern and central Patagonian Andes, though poor for the southernmost mountain areas (Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces and the steppe. From the field work carried in 80 collecting sites during the development of the "Darwin Initiative Project" in the Nahuel Huapi Nacional Park, some species are recorded for the first time in Argentina (Hapsiphlebia anastomosis Demoulin, the Andean region (Apobaetis Day and the province of Río Negro (Chaquihua bullock (Navás, Andesiops ardua (Lugo-Ortíz & McCafferty, Murphyella needhami Lestage, Dactylophlebia carnulenta Pescador & Peters. With

  1. Joint Multifractal Analysis of penetration resistance variability in an olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Herrera, Juan; Herrero-Tejedor, Tomas; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Villeta, Maria; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2016-04-01

    Spatial variability of soil properties is relevant for identifying those zones with physical degradation. We used descriptive statistics and multifractal analysis for characterizing the spatial patterns of soil penetrometer resistance (PR) distributions and compare them at different soil depths and soil water content to investigate the tillage effect in soil compactation. The study was conducted on an Inceptisol dedicated to olive orchard for the last 70 years. Two parallel transects of 64 m were selected as different soil management plots, conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT). Penetrometer resistance readings were carried out at 50 cm intervals within the first 20 cm of soil depth (López de Herrera et al., 2015a). Two way ANOVA highlighted that tillage system, soil depth and their interaction are statistically significant to explain the variance of PR data. The comparison of CT and NT results at different depths showed that there are significant differences deeper than 10 cm but not in the first two soil layers. The scaling properties of each PR profile was characterized by τ(q) function, calculated in the range of moment orders (q) between -5 and +5 taken at 0.5 lag increments. Several parameters were calculated from this to establish different comparisons (López de Herrera et al., 2015b). While the multifractal analysis characterizes the distribution of a single variable along its spatial support, the joint multifractal analysis can be used to characterize the joint distribution of two or more variables along a common spatial support (Kravchenko et al., 2000; Zeleke and Si, 2004). This type of analysis was performed to study the scaling properties of the joint distribution of PR at different depths. The results showed that this type of analysis added valuable information to describe the spatial arrangement of depth-dependent penetrometer data sets in all the soil layers. References Kravchenko AN, Bullock DG, Boast CW (2000) Joint multifractal

  2. Correlation Analysis on Polymorphism of SLC27A1 Gene and Its Relationships with Meat Quality Trait in Chinese Simmental Taihang Group%中国西门塔尔太行类群牛肉质性状与SLC27A1基因多态性关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜忠; 王曦; 张元庆; 杨效民; 王栋才; 靳光; 李博; 徐芳; 程景

    2016-01-01

    为探索SLC27A 1基因对牛肉质性状的影响,选取中国西门塔尔牛太行类群牛公牛、阉牛各20头为研究对象,采用PCR法分析SLC27A 1的基因遗传多态性.检测到SNP位点为S5650:T>C,该位点存在有3种基因型,其中CC基因型频率较高(62.5%),TT基因型频率最低(12.5%).采用GLM对肉质相关性状与SLC27A 1基因进行关联分析,结果表明,剪切力、肉色a、肉色b表型中,CC与TT及CT与TT差异均极显著(P0.05),阉牛与公牛间对肉质的弹性与咀嚼性差异显著(PC位点突变对中国西门塔尔牛太行类群肉质性状存在一定的遗传效应.%20 bulls and bullocks were chosen respectively as the research object in Chinese Simmental Taihang group to ex-plore SLC27A 1 genetic influence on beef quality traits. Genetic polymorphism of SLC27A 1 was analyzed by PCR. One T→C mutation was detected at 5650 bp of SLC27A 1 gene. There are three kinds of genotype in the loci, CC, TT and CT. And the CC genotype frequency was higher (62.5%), TT genotype frequency lowest (12.5%). The relationships between the geno-types and meat quality traits were analyzed by GLM. The results showed the difference was significant (P C locus mutation of the SLC27A1 gene maybe have some ge-netic effect on meat trait in Chinese Simmental TaiHang group.

  3. 肝移植术后患者并发精神障碍的影响因素及护理对策%Influential factors and nursing measures for mental disorders after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁葵; 李绮慈

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influential factors and nursing measures for mental disorders after liver transplantation. Methods Seventy-two patients had undergone liver transplantation and thirty-eight of them affected mental disorders and 34 of them did not. The mental disorder group and the non-mental disorder group were compared in terms of sex, age, mechanical ventilation time, pressure percentage mean of arterial pressure, intraoperative blood loss, duration of operation time, ICU stay time, postoperative pain duration and degree, Bullock complex (tacrolimus, FK506) blood drug concentration, history of preoperative hepatic encephalopathy, postoperative use of sedatives, postoperative constraint, postoperative metabolic abnormalities and disorders and infection. The plain logistic regression analysis was used to abstract the risk factors for mental disorders. Results The independent influential factors for the complicated mental disorders included the mean arterial pressure lower than that of pressure percentage> 20%, postoperative pain duration > 5 h and score by the numerical rating scale ( NRS ) > 4 , FK506 blood drug concentration> 13 ng/mL, postoperative abnormality, disturbance of metabolism and infection (P 20%以上、术后疼痛持续时间>5 h及疼痛数字评分法(numerical rating scale, NRS)>4分、FK506血药浓度>13 ng/mL、术后代谢异常或障碍、术后感染是肝移植术后患者并发精神障碍的独立危险因素(均P<0.01). 结论 肝移植术后患者并发精神障碍发生率高,患者血压情况、术后疼痛持续时间及程度、FK506血药浓度、术后代谢异常或障碍、术后感染是肝移植术后患者并发精神障碍的危险因素.提供亲情护理、有效控制血压、做好术后镇痛、监测药物浓度、维持内环境稳定、预防感染对降低肝移植术后患者并发精神障碍具有重要意义.

  4. 自制启闭安药物鞋垫配合靶向超声中药导入治疗慢性前列腺增生的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Qibian Drug Insoles with Targeted Ultrasound Chinese into Treatment of Chronic Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    写国斌; 何光荣; 钱文年; 任培虎; 曾志秀

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察自制启闭安药物鞋垫配合靶向超声中药导入治疗慢性前列腺增生的临床疗效.方法:将100例患者随机分为治疗组、对照组.对照组口服特拉唑嗪、普乐安,治疗组连续使用启闭安药物鞋垫1周后换垫一双,同时利用超声药物导入仪进行药物导入治疗,1次/d,30 min/次.2组均以治疗2周为1个疗程.结果:总有效率治疗组为100.00%,对照组为76.00%,2组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:自制启闭安药物鞋垫配合靶向超声中药导入治疗慢性前列腺增生的临床疗效显著.%Objective:To observe,e clinical efficacy of chronic BPH by the self-nade QiBi an shoe with targeted ultrasound of hang treatnent. Methods:100 patients were randonly divided into treatnent ,group and observation group. The control ,gmroup was treated with terazosin,bullock security, treatnent group was treated with QiBian with 1 consecutive weeks after the insole pad for a pair,while taking advantage of ultrasonic instruments for dr,ag import drugs into, 1/d,30 main/times.2 weeks were as a comrse of treatmnent. Results:The total effective rate of treatnent group was 100.00%,in the control ,group was 92.8%,there was significantly difference(P<0.01).Conclusion:There was significant clinical efficacy by the self-made QiBian shoe tmrgeted ultrasound medichne into t of chronic prostatic hyperplasia.

  5. The statistics of Λ CDM halo concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Angelo F.; Gao, Liang; Bett, Philip; Cole, Shaun; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    We use the Millennium Simulation (MS) to study the statistics of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) halo concentrations at z = 0. Our results confirm that the average halo concentration declines monotonically with mass; the concentration-mass relation is well fitted by a power law over three decades in mass, up to the most massive objects that form in a ΛCDM universe (~ 1015h-1Msolar). This is in clear disagreement with the predictions of the model proposed by Bullock et al. for these rare objects, and agrees better with the original predictions of Navarro, Frenk & White. The large volume surveyed, together with the unprecedented numerical resolution of the MS, allows us to estimate with confidence the distribution of concentrations and, consequently, the abundance of systems with unusual properties. About one in a hundred cluster haloes (M200 >~ 3 × 1014h-1Msolar) have concentrations exceeding c200 = 7.5, a result that may be useful in interpreting the likelihood of unusually strong massive gravitational lenses, such as Abell 1689, in the ΛCDM cosmogony. A similar fraction of about 1 per cent of galaxy-sized haloes (M200 ~ 1012h-1Msolar) have c200 < 4.5 and this could be relevant to models that attempt to reconcile the ΛCDM cosmology with rotation curves of low surface brightness galaxies by appealing to haloes of unexpectedly low concentration. We find that halo concentrations are independent of spin once haloes manifestly out of equilibrium have been removed from the sample. Compared to their relaxed brethren, the concentrations of out-of-equilibrium haloes tend to be lower and have more scatter, while their spins tend to be higher. A number of previously noted trends within the halo population are induced primarily by these properties of unrelaxed systems. Finally, we compare the result of predicting halo concentrations using the mass assembly history of the main progenitor with predictions based on simple arguments regarding the assembly time of all progenitors

  6. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10% of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Carcass evaluation for the cooler assessment of this study revealed the following traits and frequencies: sex classes of steer (63.5%), heifer (36.4%), cow (0.1%), and bullock (0.03%); dark cutters (3.2%); blood splash (0.3%); yellow fat (0.1%); calloused rib eye (0.05%); overall maturities of A (92.8%), B (6.0%), and C or greater (1.2%); estimated breed types of native (88.3%), dairy type (9.9%), and Bos indicus (1.8%); and country of origin of United States (97.7%), Mexico (1.8%), and Canada (0.5%). Certified or marketing program frequencies were age and source verified (10.7%), ≤A(40) (10.0%), Certified Angus Beef (9.3%), Top Choice (4.1%), natural (0.6%), and Non-Hormone-Treated Cattle (0.5%); no organic programs were observed. Mean USDA yield grade (YG) traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (374.0 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.3 cm), LM area (88.8 cm2), and KPH (2.3%). Frequencies of USDA YG distributions were YG 1, 12.4%; YG 2, 41.0%; YG 3, 36.3%; YG 4, 8.6%; and YG 5, 1.6%. Mean USDA quality grade (QG) traits were USDA quality grade (Select(93)), marbling score (Small(40)), overall maturity (A(59)), lean maturity (A(54)), and skeletal maturity (A(62)). Frequencies of USDA QG distributions were Prime, 2.1%; Choice, 58.9%; Select, 32.6%; and Standard or less, 6.3%. Marbling score distribution was Slightly Abundant or greater, 2.3%; Moderate, 5.0%; Modest, 17.3%; Small, 39.7%; Slight, 34.6%; and Traces or less, 1.1%. Carcasses with QG of Select or greater and YG 3 or less represented 85.1% of the sample. This is the fifth benchmark study measuring targeted carcass characteristics, and information from this survey will continue to help drive progress in the beef industry. Results will

  7. 冻融对早胜牛肉品质及微细结构的影响%Effects of Freezing-thawing on Muscle Quality and Microstructure of Zaosheng Cattle Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依木古丽; 蔡勇; 陈士恩; 申晓荣

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effects of repetitive freezing-thawing on beef quality, 2. 0-2. 5 years old bullock Zaosheng cattle were selected, longissimus dorsi (LD) were collected and cut into 6 samples randomly, weighted and vacuum packed and repetitively freezing-thawing different times, then thawing loss (TL) , cooking loss (CL) , water loss(WL) , shear force(SF) , pH and microstructure were studied. The results showed that compared with fresh beef, repetitive freezing-thawing significantly increased the TL and CL; WL were increased significantly after freezing-thawing once; SF were significantly increased when freezing-thawing twice and then decreased; Freezing-thawing increased the spaee between muscle fiber, confused fiber bundles, and shortened sarcomere, vacuolated structure formation in the mitochondria, blurred even disappeared Z disc. The results demonstrated that repetitive freezingthawing seriously damaged the structure of beef and declined the muscle quality of Zaosheng cattle.%为探讨反复冻融对早胜牛肉品质的影响,选取2.0~2.5岁阉割牛背最长肌,随机分成6组,称重,真空包装,进行不同次数的反复冷冻-解冻试验,分别榆测原料肉解冻损失、煮制损失、失水率、熟肉剪切力及pH,并观察原料肉显微超微结构的变化.结果显示,随着反复冻融次数的增加,原料肉解冻损失和煮制损失极显著增加,失水率只在第1次冻融后显著增加,剪切力先显著增加后再降低,pH随着冻融次数增加而显著降低,肌纤维结构混乱,肌束及肌原纤维间隙增加,肌节略微缩短,线粒体肿胀、空泡样变,Z线错位排列,甚至溶解、消失.结果表明,反复冻融严重破坏了早胜牛肉的组织结构,显著降低了肉品质.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Bursera copallifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columba-Palomares, M. F. María C.; Villareal, Dra. María L.; Acevedo Quiroz, M. C. Macdiel E.; Marquina Bahena, M. C. Silvia; Álvarez Berber, Dra. Laura P.; Rodríguez-López, Dra. Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Background: The plant species Bursera copallifera (DC) bullock is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. The leaves of this plant can be prepared as an infusion to treat migraines, bronchitis, and dental pain Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts from the stems, stem bark, and leaves of B. copallifera, which was selected based on the knowledge of its traditional use. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the ability of extracts to inhibit mouse ear inflammation in response to topical application of 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The extracts with anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated for their inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activities of the organic extracts were evaluated using the sulforhodamine B assay. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems (HAS) exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity of 54.3% (0.5 mg/ear), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the dichloromethane-methanol extract from the leaves (DMeL) was 55.4% at a dose of 0.1 mg/ear. Methanol extract from the leaves (MeL) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 = 4.4 μg/mL), hydroalcoholic extract of leaves, and DMeL also reduce the enzyme activity, (IC50 = 6.5 μg/mL, IC50 = 5.7 μg/mL), respectively, from stems HAS exhibit activity at the evaluated concentrations (IC50 =6.4 μg/mL). The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity against a breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, IC50 = 0.90 μg/mL), whereas DMeL exhibited an IC50 value of 19.9 μg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, extracts from leaves and stems inhibited cyclooxygenase-1, which is the target enzyme for nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs, and some of these extracts demonstrated substantial antiproliferative effects against the MCF7 cell line. These results validate the traditional use of B. copallifera. PMID:26664022

  9. Efeito do colágeno na maciez da carne de bovinos de distintos grupos genéticos = Collagen effects in meat tenderness of bovines of different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Morales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do colágeno na maciez da carne de animais de diferentes grupos genéticos produzidos no sistema de produção do novilho superprecoce. Foram utilizados bezerros machos inteiros da raça Nelore, mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Aberdeen Angus e mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Simental. Após abate e resfriamento por 24 horas, foram retiradas amostras do músculo Longissimus dorsi, na região entre a 11a e a 13a costela, sendo que uma amostra foi congelada e as demais maturadas por 7 e 14 dias. Nãohouve diferença significativa (P>0,01 entre os grupos genéticos para a quantidade e a solubilidade de colágeno e a força de cisalhamento. A quantidade e a solubilidade do colágeno não comprometeram a maciez da carne, indiferentemente do grupo genético utilizado e do tempo postmortem, tornando vantajosa a opção de se abaterem animais jovens.The aim of work was to analyze the collagen effect in meat tenderness of animals of different genetic groups produced by very young bullock production system. Male calves Nellore purebred, ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus and ½ Nellore x ½ Simmental crossbred were used.After slaughter and cooling for 24 hours Longissimus dorsi samples were removed, between 11th and 13th ribs, one sample was frozen and the others ageing for 7 and 14 days. There was no difference (P>0,01 between genetic groups for amount and heat soluble collagen andshear force values. The amount and solubility collagen don’t compromised the meat tenderness, indifferent of the genetic group used and postmortem period, becoming the early slaughter an advantageous option for meat production with desirable characteristics.

  10. Efeito do colágeno na maciez da carne de bovinos de distintos grupos genéticos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.664 Collagen effects in meat tenderness of bovines of different genetic groups - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Nunes de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do colágeno na maciez da carne de animais de diferentes grupos genéticos produzidos no sistema de produção do novilho superprecoce. Foram utilizados bezerros machos inteiros da raça Nelore, mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Aberdeen Angus e mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Simental. Após abate e resfriamento por 24 horas, foram retiradas amostras do músculo Longissimus dorsi, na região entre a 11a e a 13a costela, sendo que uma amostra foi congelada e as demais maturadas por 7 e 14 dias. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,01 entre os grupos genéticos para a quantidade e a solubilidade de colágeno e a força de cisalhamento. A quantidade e a solubilidade do colágeno não comprometeram a maciez da carne, indiferentemente do grupo genético utilizado e do tempo postmortem, tornando vantajosa a opção de se abaterem animais jovens.The aim of work was to analyze the collagen effect in meat tenderness of animals of different genetic groups produced by very young bullock production system. Male calves Nellore purebred, ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus and ½ Nellore x ½ Simmental crossbred were used. After slaughter and cooling for 24 hours Longissimus dorsi samples were removed, between 11th and 13th ribs, one sample was frozen and the others ageing for 7 and 14 days. There was no difference (p > 0,01 between genetic groups for amount and heat soluble collagen and shear force values. The amount and solubility collagen don’t compromised the meat tenderness, indifferent of the genetic group used and postmortem period, becoming the early slaughter an advantageous option for meat production with desirable characteristics.

  11. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Jurassic coals from the Gheshlagh mine, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Shamanian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Alborz structural zone in northern Iran is the host of a number of important coal deposits. The Gheshlagh coal mine is one of them, which is located 35 km southeast of Azadshahr. Coal bearing strata in the Gheshlagh mining district occur in the middle part of the Lower Jurassic Shemshak Formation which consists mainly of shales, siltstones and sandstones. The Geshlagh coals have a low sulfur content and a low ash yield. The ash content of coal and its geochemical character depends on the environment of deposition and subsequent geological history (Yazdi and Esmaeilnia, 2004. The purpose of this study was to investigate the texural and mineralogical characteristcs of the Ghashlagh coals and to identify the geochemistry of the major and trace elements and their relationship to specific mineralogical components. These results are necessary to improve the understanding of coal characterization and to relate the mineralogy of different materials to their potential for producing acidic or alkaline mine waters associated with mining and preparation processes. Materials and methods About 20 samples were collected from the main coal seams. These samples were taken from fresh faces of the mine to avoid weathered surfaces and get fresh samples. The petrography of the samples was carried out by the conventional microscopic methods at the Golestan University. Mineralogical analyses were done by a X-ray diffractometer equipped with a CuKα tube and monochrometer (XRD Philips PW 1800 at the Kansaran Binaloud Company. The coal samples were initially crushed to less than 200 μm and homogenized. Then, 50 g from each sample was heated to 525 oC according to the United States Geological Survey procedure(Bullock et al., 2002. The concentration of the major and trace elements in the resulting ash samples was determined using a wavelength Xray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF Philips PW1480 at the Kansaran Binaloud Company. Results The Coal

  12. Effects of β-Carotene on Performance, Antioxidant Function, Blood Physiological Indices and Meat Quality of Beef Cattle%β-胡萝卜素对肉牛生产性能、抗氧化功能、血液生理指标和肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕宇霖; 万发春; 姜淑贞; 刘晓牧; 杨在宾

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of different lev- els of β-carotene on performance, antioxidant function, blood physiological indices and meat quality of beef cattle.One hundred and twenty healthy Simmental crossbred bullocks with similar weight of (381.00 ± 26.01) kg were randomly divided into four groups with 30 bullocks in each group.Beef cattle in control group were fed a basal diet, and those in experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 600, 1 200 and 1 800 mg /d β-carotene, respectively, during 10 days of pre-experiment and 90 days of formal experiment. The results showed as follows: 1) no significant differences in final weight, average daily gain and dry matter intake were found in beef cattle received different dietary supplemental levels of β-carotene (P >0.05).2) Compared with control group, serum glutathione (GSH) content and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in 1 200 mg /d β-carotene experimental group were significantly increased (P0.05).In conclusion, dietary supplementation of β-carotene can significantly affect antioxidant function, blood physiological indices and meat quality of beef cattle, and the optimal supplemental level is 1 200 mg /d under conditions in the present study.%本试验旨在研究饲粮添加不同水平的β-胡萝卜素对肉牛生产性能、抗氧化功能、血液生理指标和肉品质的影响。选用体况良好、平均体重为(381.00±26.01) kg的西门塔尔杂交阉牛120头,随机分为4组,每组30头,对照组饲喂基础饲粮,试验组饲喂在基础饲粮中分别添加600、1200和1800 mg/d β-胡萝卜素的试验饲粮。预试期10 d,正试期90 d。结果表明:1)饲粮添加不同水平的β-胡萝卜素对末重、平均日增重和干物质采食量的影响均不显著( P>0.05)。2)与对照组相比,1200 mg/d β-胡萝卜素试验组显著提高了血清谷胱甘肽( GSH)

  13. Population distribution and threats to sustainable management of selected non-timber forest products in tropical lowland rainforests of south western Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimoh S.O.; Amusa T.O.; I.O.Azeez

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled harvesting of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) poses a serious risk of extermination to several of these species in Nigeria.Yet,there is a paucity of information on the distribution,population status and sustainable management of NTFPs in most of the tropical lowland rainforests.We,therefore,assessed the population,distribution and threats to sustainable management of NTFPs within the tropical lowland rainforests of Omo and Shasha Forest Reserves,south western Nigeria.Data were obtained through inventory surveys on five top priority species including:bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O'Rorke) Baill),African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull.Arg.) Hutch.& Dalziel syn.Plukenetia conophora),chew-stick (Massularia acuminata (G.Don) Bullock),fever bark (Annickia chlorantha Setten & P.J.Maas syn.Enantia chloranta) and bush pepper (Piper guineense Schumach.& Thonn.).Purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used for the inventory.Each forest reserve was stratified into three,viz:less disturbed natural forest (for areas that have been rested for at least ten years),recently disturbed natural forest (for areas that have suffered one form of human perturbation or the other in the last five years),and plantation forest (for areas carrying forest plantation).Data were collected from eighteen 10 m ×500 m belt transects located in the above strata.The species were generally fewer in both plantation and recently disturbed natural forest than the less disturbed natural forest,suggesting that forest disturbances (habitat modification) for other uses may have an effect on the occurrence and densities of the NTFPs.Exceptions to this trend were found for P.guineense and T.conophorum,which were fairly common in both plantation and recently disturbed natural forest.Among three tree NTFP species (i.e.I.gabonensis,M.acuminata and A.chlorantha),only I.gabonensis showed a significant difference in overall DBH size classes for both

  14. Revisión de los factores de riesgo y los programas de prevención de la lesión del ligamento cruzado anterior en fútbol femenino: propuesta de prevención. [Review risk factors and prevention programs of the anterior cruciate ligament injury in female football: prevention proposal].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Romero-Moraleda

    2017-04-01

    with 606 and 228 articles respectively. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 articles were selected for study. For any knee injury risk factors are a previous injury, fatigue and muscle strength imbalance between hamstrings and the quadriceps muscle (McCall y col., 2014. In the case of ACL injury studies focus on causes like the Q angle, the valgus knee, the genu recurvatum, the pronator foot and the external tibial torsion among others. In addition, the ACL of women is smaller in length and has smaller cross section than the ACL of men (Sutton y Bullock, 2013. Prevention programs included training the core, propioception, flexibility, motor control, learn technique and eccentric work (McCall y col., 2014; Myer y col., 2012; Stevenson y col., 2014; Sugimoto y col., 2014. In conclusion, the specific risk factors for this injury in women are presented with the effectiveness shown in the different preventive programs analyzed. The prevention programs analyzed include improvements for neuromuscular strength, stretching, plyometry, balance, core and correction of the technique of jump landing and changes of direction.

  15. National Beef Quality Audit-2000: survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D R; Roebert, D L; Bates, P K; Schmidt, T B; Hale, D S; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Brooks, J C; Morgan, J B; Montgomery, T H; Belk, K E; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2000 was conducted to assess the current status ofthe quality and consistency of U.S. fed steers and heifers. Between May and November 2000, survey teams assessed hide condition (n = 43,415 cattle for color, brands, mud/manure), bruises (n = 43,595 carcasses), offal and carcass condemnation (n = 8,588 cattle), and carcass quality and yield information (n = 9,396 carcasses) in 30 U.S. beef packing plants. Hide colors were black (45.1%), red (31.0%), yellow (8.0%), Holstein (5.7%), gray (4.0%), white (3.2%), brown (1.7%), and brindle (1.3%). Brand frequencies were no (49.3%), one (46.2%), and two or more (4.4%), and brands were located on the butt (36.3%), side (13.7%), and shoulder (3.6%). Most cattle had no (18.0%) or a small amount (55.8%) of mud/manure on their hides, and they had no (77.3%) horns. Most carcasses (53.3%) were not bruised, 30.9% had one bruise, and 15.8% had multiple bruises. Bruise location and incidence were round (14.9%), loin (25.9%), rib (19.4%), chuck (28.2%), and brisket, flank, and plate (11.6%). Condemnation item and incidence were liver (30.3%), lungs (13.8%), tripe (11.6%), heads (6.2%), tongues (7.0%), and carcasses (0.1%). Carcass evaluation revealed these traits and frequencies: steer (67.9%), heifer (31.8%), and bullock (0.3%) sex-classes; dark-cutters (2.3%); A (96.6%), B (2.5%), and C or older (0.9%) overall maturities; and native (90.1%), dairy-type (6.9%), and Bos indicus (3.0%) breed-types. Mean USDA yield grade traits were USDA yield grade (3.0), carcass weight (356.9 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.2 cm), longissimus muscle area (84.5 cm2), and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (2.4%). USDA yield grades were Yield Grade 1 (12.2%), Yield Grade 2 (37.4%), Yield Grade 3 (38.6%), Yield Grade 4 (10.4%), and Yield Grade 5 (1.3%). Mean USDA quality grade traits were USDA quality grade (Select85), marbling score (Small23), overall maturity (A66), lean maturity (A65), and skeletal maturity (A67). Marbling

  16. Chemical reactions between Venus' surface and atmosphere - An update. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    hypothetical early Venus with a water-rich atmosphere. Martin et al. [13] investigated the fate of weathered rock when heated (by igneous or impact events). Our understanding of Venus' geological history is stymied by a lack of data - spacecraft observations of and/or at its surface. VMC on VEx may continue to provide new data on surface emissivity, but their interpretation is inherently ambiguous. Laboratory experiments seem the most promising approach - attempting to quantify rates of weathering and thus volcanism [3], and (with luck) framing significant problems that can be directly answered by spacecraft observations. [1] Fegley B.Jr. et al. (1997) In Venus II. U. Ariz. Press. p. 591. [2] Helbert J. et al. (2008) GRL 35, L11201. [3] Smrekar S.E et al. (2010) Science 328, 605-608. [4] Basilevsky A.T. et al. (2012) Icarus 217, 434-450. [5] Marcq E. et al. (2013) Nature Geoscience 6, 25-28. [6] Kane S.R. et al. (2013) Astrophysical J. 770, L20. [7] Schaefer L. & Fegley B.Jr. (2011) Astrophysical J. 729, 6. [8] Treiman A.H. & Bullock M.A. (2012) Icarus 217, 534-541. [9] Aveline D.C. et al. (2011) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 42, Abstr. #2165. [10] Fegley B.Jr. & Prinn R.G. (1989) Nature 337, 55-58. [11] Kohler E. et al. (2012) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 43, Abstr. #2749. [12] Berger G. & Aigouy T. (2011) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 42, Abstr. #1660. [13] Martin A.M. et al. (2012) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 331-332, 291-304.

  17. Laser detection method for cotton orientation in robotic cotton picking%面向采摘机器人的棉花激光定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 刘思瑶; 卢伟; 顾宝兴; 朱镕杰; 朱宏超

    2014-01-01

    In order to detect cotton’s position on a plant, a laser measurement experiment was designed, which included a crossgirder, and beneath which a model LMS291-S05 laser scanner produced by SICK Co., Ltd was fixed. Then the three-dimensional coordinate values of a single cotton plant can be measured with the devices mentioned above, and the acquired distance image was furthermore processed with computer image processing technology and pattern recognition theory and also with the agronomic characteristics of cotton taken into consideration. The sampling interval of the laser sensor on axis X and axis Y was both 0.004 m, and the sampled points formed a image that illustrated the distance from the laser sensor to the plant surface point cloud. For the purpose of removing the unneeded background of the plant in the image, the acquired plant distance image was first processed with binaryzation at the threshold value of 0.9 m, because that 0.9 m happened to be the longest distance from the laser sensor to the bottom part of the cotton plant surface according to the measured data. Observing the cotton plant’s morphological characters in the formerly binarized image, and it was not hard to find out that the cotton part in the image appeared to be circular with a large area, while the stalk part in the image was thin and tiny. On this basis, morphology opening operations were carried out toward the edge of the bimarized image with the structural elements from a circle whose radius ranges from 0.01 m to 0.02 m, which is the usual width of a cotton stalk, in order to remove the unneeded cotton stalk background and extract the binary image of cotton. After a series of comparisons among different distances namely Euclidean, Mahalanobis, Bullock, and Minkowski distances, and considering that the pixel gray value was one-dimensional data, the distance between pixels was found to be insensitive to computing methods. The similarity between pixels in the image was calculated with

  18. Reseñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HC Reseñas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available TILLY, CHARLES Coerción, capital y los Estados europeos. 990-1990 Madrid, Alianza, 1992 BREUILLY, JOHN Labour and Liberalism in Nineteenth Century Europe. Essays in comparative history Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1992 CARNERO ARBAT, TERESA (ed. Modernización, desarrollo político y cambio social Madrid, Alianza Universidad, 1992 PRADOS DE LA ESCOSURA, LEANDRO y ZAMAGNI, VERA (eds. El desarrollo económico en la Europa del Sur: España e Italia en perspectiva histórica Madrid, Alianza, 1992 WINOCK, MICHEL Le Socialisme en France et en Europe, XIX-XX siècle Paris, Le Seuil, «Points-Histoire», 1992 BULLOCK, ALAN Hitler and Stalin: Parallel lives Nueva York, Knopf, 1992 PONTING, CLIVE Historia verde del mundo Barcelona, Paidós, 1992 DELEAGE, JEAN PAUL Historia de la Ecología Barcelona, Icaria, 1993 TAMAMES, RAMON La reconquista del Paraíso. Más allá de la utopía Madrid, Temas de Hoy, 1993 FONTANA, JOSEP La Historia después delfín de la historia Barcelona, Crítica, 1992 CHARTIER, ROGER EL mundo como representación. Historia cultural entre práctica y representación Barcelona, Gedisa, 1992 GRANJA, JOSÉ LUIS DE LA y REIG TAPIA, ALBERTO (eds. Manuel Tuñón de Lara, El compromiso con la historia. Su vida y su obra Bilbao, Universidad del País Vasco, 1993 NORA, PIERRE (dir. Les lieux de mémoires. III. Les France. 1 Conflits et Partages. 2. Traditions. 3. De l'archive à l'emblème Paris, Gallimard, 1992 AGULHON, MAURICE y BONTE, PIERRE Marianne. Les visages de la République Gallimard, 1992 THÉBAUD, FRANÇOISE (dir. Historia de las mujeres. El siglo XX Madrid, Editorial Taurus, 1993 KITCHEN, MARTIN El período de entreguerras en Europa Madrid, Alianza Universidad, 1992 AFERS full de recerca i pensament. Nació i nacionalisme a l'Europa Central i Oriental n° 14, Vol. VII, Catarroja, 1992 GUEREÑA, JEAN-LOUIS; FELL, EVEMARIE; AYMES, JEAN-RENE (Eds. L'Université en Espagne et en Amérique Latine du Moyen Age a nos jours

  19. Dos obras de Welton Becket (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becket, Welton

    1974-02-01

    en él se pueden celebrar competiciones deportivas y gimnásticas, espectáculos musicales, cinematográficos y circenses e incluso exposiciones, reuniones y congresos. La entrada, desde la plaza, se realiza a través de una galería acristalada que rodea al edificio y que comunica con el corredor interior que circunda la pista. Tiene capacidad para más de 11.000 plazas, si bien hay unas plataformas telescópicas que se despliegan en el nivel de la pista, y sillas portátiles que la aumentan hasta un total de 16.500 plazas. El edificio está cubierto por una armadura de acero, limitada exteriormente con un amplio voladizo metálico. Todo el sistema va apoyado sobre 32 grandes pilares de hormigón, en forma de U, que quedan manifestados en el exterior de la fachada. El Coliseo cuenta con instalaciones de iluminación y sonido del tipo teatral, con lo que se consigue adecuarlo a cada una de las distintas manifestaciones. Bajo la plaza adyacente se ha dispuesto una gran sala de exposiciones subterránea, que complementa al Coliseo. Tiene una superficie de más de 5.700 m2, que se puede subdividir en espacios más pequeños, de acuerdo con las necesidades, por medio de paneles plegables. Centro comercial de Bullock´s en Norhtridge. La principal característica de este gran almacén es su total tratamiento a modo de escenario para las diversas mercancías que en él se exponen. Por otra parte, su diseño ha roto con el molde tradicional en forma de caja, típico de estos edificios, sustituyéndolo por un volumen poliédrico de efecto más dinámico. En él se ha dado tanta importancia a los espacios arquitectónicos como al sistema de iluminación y a la decoración. Así, mediante los distintos efectos luminosos, se consigue resaltar o quitar importancia a las diversas zonas, mientras que los adornos y las formas arquitectónicas limitan, diferenciando, las distintas áreas de exposición de artículos. Un sistema ornamental y de particiones móviles dotan al conjunto

  20. Organic Carbon Exists in Mars Meteorites: where is it on the Martian Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David; Clemett, Simon; Gibson, Everett; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Wentworth, Susan

    ). Nature 314, 248-250. [4] Wright I.P. et al. (1989) Nature 340, 220-222. [5] Grady M.M. et al. (1994) Meteor.Planet. Sci. 24, 469. [6] McKay D.S. et al. (1996) Science 273, 924-930. [7] Clemett S.J. et al., Faraday Discuss. 109, 417-436. [8] Jull A.T.J. et al. (2000) GCA 64, 3763-3772. [9] Fisk M.R. et al., (2005) LPSC XXXVI, Abst. 2275. [10] Fisk M.R. et al., (2006) Astrobiology,, [11]Westall, F. et. al, ( 2000) Proc. SPIE., [12] McKay D.S. et al. (2006) LPSC XXXVII, [13] E.K. Gibson, Jr. et. al (2006) LPSC XXXVII, [14] Sephton M.A. (2002) Planet. Space Sci. 50, 711-716. ,[15] Swindle T.D. and E.K. Olson (2004) Meteor. Planet. Sci. 39, 755-766. [16] Romanek C.R. et al., (1998) Meteor. Planet. Sci. 33, 775-784. [17] Zent, A. P. 92001) Proc. SPIE, 108-119, V4495. [18] Stoker, C. R. and Bullock, M. A. (1997) JGR, V102, E5, P. 10881-10888.

  1. EDITORIAL: Environmental justice: a critical issue for all environmental scientists everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2007-10-01

    when an issue of water contamination becomes an issue of environmental injustice? How do we measure the impacts of environmental harm today on future generations? How do we measure the distribution of multiple or cumulative impacts on poorer groups? How do we quantify the responsibility of richer citizens in the world for the environmental harms distributed unequally to the poorer citizens? The papers in this focus issue do not answer all these questions, but we hope that this theme will recur in Environmental Research Letters and that more environmental scientists will begin to frame their analyses around the critical issues of distributions of environmental harms and benefits. References [1] United Nations Environment Programme 2007 Global Environmental Outlook 2007 (Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme) [2] UNICEF 2005 The State of the World's Children 2005 (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [3] World Resources Institute 2002 Wastes Produced from Industrialised Countries available from www.wri.org [4] Stephens C and Stair P 2007 Charting a new course for urban public health State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future ed L Stark (New York: W W Norton) pp 134 48 [5] Lee K N 2007 An urbanizing world State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future ed L Stark (New York: W W Norton) pp 3 22 [6] United States Environmental Protection Agency 2003 Environmental Justice available from www.epa.gov/compliance/environmentaljustice/ [7] Stephens C, Bullock S and Scott A 2001 Environmental justice: rights and mean to a healthy environment for all Special Briefing Paper Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Global Environmental Change Programme (Brighton: ESRC Global Environmental Change Programme, University of Sussex) p 3 available from www.foe.co.uk/resource/reports/environmental_justice.pdf [8] United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Access to Information 1999 Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters

  2. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    stimulate further research on this critical subject. The study of climate involves much more than understanding atmospheric processes. This subtlety is particularly appreciated for Earth, where chemical cycles, geology, ocean influences, and biology are considered in most climate models. In Part IV, Surface and Interior, we look at the role that geochemical cycles, volcanism, and interior mantle processes play in the stability and evolution of terrestrial planetary climates. There is one vital commonality between the climates of all the planets of the solar system: Regardless of the different processes that dominate each of the climates of Earth, Mars, Venus, and Titan, they are all ultimately forced by radiation from the same star, albeit at variable distances. In Part V, Solar Influences, we discuss how the Sun's early evolution affected the climates of the terrestrial planets, and how it continues to control the temperatures and compositions of planetary atmospheres. This will be of particular interest as models of exoplanets, and the influences of much different stellar types and distances, are advanced by further observations. Comparisons of atmospheric and climate processes between the planets in our solar system has been a focus of numerous conferences over the past decade, including the Exoclimes conference series. In particular, this book project was closely tied to a conference on Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets that was held in Boulder, Colorado, on June 25-28, 2012. This book benefited from the opportunity for the author teams to interact and obtain feedback from the broader community, but the chapters do not in general tie directly to presentations at the conference. The conference, which was organized by a diverse group of atmospheric and climate scientists led by Mark Bullock and Lori Glaze, sought to build connections between the various communities, focusing on synergies and complementary capabilities. Discussion panels at the end of most

  3. Measuring the degree of life quality satisfaction of old neighborhoods of Aran and Bidgol County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shaterian

    2012-01-01

    University.Beth, K. (2005 beyond of customer satisfaction, translation: Saeed Mahdavi, Publications of Management and Planning Organization.Biderman, A. D. (1974, Social indicators. In: Clewett, Robert L. and Olson, Jerry C. Whence and Whither in Social Indicators and Marketing Chicago: American Marketing Association.Bullock, B. S. and Susie, J. (2004, An Analysis of Technology Use and. Quality of Life in a Rural West Texas Community:Austin University of Texas.Fardro, M. (2001, The Economic and social bases of cultural goods, cultural thesis master's degree, Allameh Tabatabai University.Ge, J. Hokao, K. (2006, Research on Residential Lifestyles in Japanese Cities from the Viewpoints of Residential Preference, Residential Choice and Residential Satisfaction, J. Landscape and Urban Planning, 78, pp.165-178.Glover, D. Shylaf A. and Tavakoli, M. (2005, Sociology of knowledge and science, translation: Shapur Bhyan and others, Samt Publication.Hagt, P. (2001 Geography A Modern Synthesis, Translation: Shapur Goudarzi-Nejad first vol 1, Samt Publication.Haji Nejad, A. (2011, study Of individual variables that influence the environmental quality of life of citizens' satisfaction: case study compared the tissue of old and new shiraz city, Journal of Geography and Development, No. 17.Harvey, A. S. (1997, Time Use Analysis in Quality-of-Life Studies. Journal of Development in Quality-of-Life Studies.Vol. 1, No.3.hayati, Z. (2003 Study of job satisfaction of staff Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Shiraz, Shiraz University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol.19, No.1.Hekmatnia, H & Mousavi, M. (2008, measure satisfaction levels and factors affecting the citizens case study city of Yazd, Journal of Geography and Development, No. 9.Housing and Urban Development in Isfahan (2002, plan of the city Aran and Bidgol, Vol.1. Huntington, S. (1992, Political order in changing societies, translation: Mohsen triad, nai Publication.Hyraskar, JK (2010, Introduction to fundamentals of urban