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Sample records for bulk glassy alloys

  1. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Makino, Akihiro; Mizushima, Takao

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  2. Similar and dissimilar friction welding of Zr-Cu-Al bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Park, Jung-Soo; Jung, Yoon-Chul; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    The friction welding of three kinds of Zr-Cu-Al bulk glassy alloys (BGAs) which show eutectic or hypoeutectic compositions to similar and dissimilar BGAs and crystalline metals has been tried. The shape and volume of the protrusion formed at the weld interface were investigated. In order to characterize the friction welded interface, micrographic observation and X-ray diffraction analysis on the weld cross-section were carried out. A successful joining of Zr-Cu-Al bulk glassy alloys to similar and dissimilar BGAs was achieved without occurrence of crystallizations at the weld interface through the precise control of friction conditions. In addition, the joining of Zr 50 Cu 40 Al 10 BGA to crystalline alloys was tried, but it was only successful for specific material combinations. The residual strength after welding of dissimilar BGAs was evaluated by the four-point bending test.

  3. Formation and Applications of Bulk Glassy Alloys in Late Transition Metal Base System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Shen Baolong

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent results of the formation, fundamental properties, workability and applications of late transition metal (LTM) base bulk glassy alloys (BGAs) developed since 1995. The BGAs were obtained in Fe-(Al,Ga)-(P,C,B,Si), Fe-(Cr,Mo)-(C,B), Fe-(Zr,Hf,Nb,Ta)-B, Fe-Ln-B(Ln=lanthanide metal), Fe-B-Si-Nb and Fe-Nd-Al for Fe-based alloys, Co-(Ta,Mo)-B and Co-B-Si-Nb for Co-based alloys, Ni-Nb-(Ti,Zr)-(Co,Ni) for Ni-based alloys, and Cu-Ti-(Zr,Hf), Cu-Al-(Zr,Hf), Cu-Ti-(Zr,Hf)-(Ni,Co) and Cu-Al-(Zr,Hf)-(Ag,Pd) for Cu-based alloys. These BGAs exhibit useful properties of high mechanical strength, large elastic elongation and high corrosion resistance. In addition, Fe- and Co-based glassy alloys have good soft magnetic properties which cannot be obtained for amorphous and crystalline type magnetic alloys. The Fe- and Ni-based BGAs have already been used in some application fields. These LTM base BGAs are promising as new metallic engineering materials

  4. Free volume and elastic properties changes in Cu-Zr-Ti-Pd bulk glassy alloy on heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Yavari, Alain Reza; Fukuhara, Mikio; Ota, Katsumi; Xie, Guoqiang; Vaughan, Gavin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    The variation of free volume and elastic properties of the Cu 55 Zr 30 Ti 10 Pd 5 glassy alloy on heating was studied. The structure changes on heating were studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetries. The studied glassy alloy shows a rather high Poisson's ratio exceeding 0.42 which is maintained after the structure relaxation and primary devitrification. Young's and Shear modules decrease upon primary devitrification while Bulk modulus exhibits a maximum after structural relaxation

  5. Mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B bulk glassy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Ahn; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Jung Han; Lee, Chong Soo; Namkung, Jung; Kim, Moon Chul

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of new Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based bulk glassy alloys were investigated. The suitability of the continuous roll casting method for the production of bulk metallic glass (BMG) sheets in such alloy systems was also examined. BMG samples (Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-W-Si-B) in amorphous strip, cylindrical, and sheet forms were prepared through melt spinning, copper mold casting, and twin roll strip casting, respectively. Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B alloy exhibited compressive strength of up to 2.93 GPa and plastic strain of about 1.51%. On the other hand, the Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, composite-type bulk sample with diameter of 2.0 mm showed remarkable compressive plastic strain of about 4.03%. The addition of zirconium was found to enhance the homogeneous precipitation of nanocrystalline less than 7 nm and to develop a hybrid-composite microstructure with increasing sample thickness. Twin roll strip casting was successfully applied to the fabrication of sheets in Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based BMGs. The combined characteristics of high mechanical properties and ease of microstructure control proved to be promising in terms of the future progress of structural bulk amorphous alloys

  6. Mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B bulk glassy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Ahn [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: keeahn@andong.ac.kr; Kim, Yong Chan [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Han [Center for Advanced Aerospace materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chong Soo [Center for Advanced Aerospace materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, Jung [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon Chul [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-25

    The mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of new Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based bulk glassy alloys were investigated. The suitability of the continuous roll casting method for the production of bulk metallic glass (BMG) sheets in such alloy systems was also examined. BMG samples (Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-W-Si-B) in amorphous strip, cylindrical, and sheet forms were prepared through melt spinning, copper mold casting, and twin roll strip casting, respectively. Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B alloy exhibited compressive strength of up to 2.93 GPa and plastic strain of about 1.51%. On the other hand, the Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, composite-type bulk sample with diameter of 2.0 mm showed remarkable compressive plastic strain of about 4.03%. The addition of zirconium was found to enhance the homogeneous precipitation of nanocrystalline less than 7 nm and to develop a hybrid-composite microstructure with increasing sample thickness. Twin roll strip casting was successfully applied to the fabrication of sheets in Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based BMGs. The combined characteristics of high mechanical properties and ease of microstructure control proved to be promising in terms of the future progress of structural bulk amorphous alloys.

  7. Physical properties of Zr50Cu40-xAl10Pdx bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wencka, M.; Jagodic, M.; Gradisek, A.; Kocjan, A.; Jaglicic, Z.; McGuiness, P.J.; Apih, T.; Yokoyama, Y.; Dolinsek, J.

    2010-01-01

    It was shown recently (Yokoyama et al. ) that the addition of a small amount of Pd to the Zr 50 Cu 40 Al 10 bulk glassy alloy (BGA) has a beneficial effect on fatigue-strength enhancement, where the composition Zr 50 Cu 37 Al 10 Pd 3 behaved in a resonant-like way by showing the highest fatigue limit of 1050 MPa and the minimum Vickers hardness. We performed a study of the magnetic properties, the specific heat, the electrical resistivity and the hydrogen-diffusion constant for a series of compositions Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x (x = 0-7 at.%), in order to determine their physical properties and to check for the influence of the Pd content on these properties. The Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x BGAs are nonmagnetic, conducting alloys, where the Pauli spin susceptibility of the conduction electrons is the only source of paramagnetism. The low-temperature specific heat indicates an enhancement of the conduction-electron effective mass m* below 5 K, suggesting that the Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x BGAs are not free-electron-like compounds. The electrical resistivities of the Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x BGAs amount to about 200 μΩ cm and show a small, negative temperature coefficient (NTC) with an increase from 300 to 2 K of 4%. The hydrogen self-diffusion constant D in hydrogen-loaded samples shows classical over-barrier-hopping temperature dependence and is of comparable magnitude to the related icosahedral and amorphous Zr 69.5 Cu 12 Ni 11 Al 7.5 hydrogen-storage alloys. No correlation between the investigated physical parameters and the Pd content of the samples could be observed.

  8. Co-based soft magnetic bulk glassy alloys optimized for glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diameter of 5 mm by conventional copper mould casting method. It reveals ... For example, Co43Fe20Ta5.5B31.5 glassy alloy with a ... coercive force (Hc) of 0.25 A m. −1 ..... [7] Lu Z P, Liu C T, Thompson J R and Porter W D 2004 Phys. Rev.

  9. Effect of high-order multicomponent on formation and properties of Zr-based bulk glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A., E-mail: ainouebmg@yahoo.co.jp [International Institute of Green Materials, Josai International University, Togane 283-8555 (Japan); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22254 (Saudi Arabia); Wang, Z.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Han, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Kong, F.L. [International Institute of Green Materials, Josai International University, Togane 283-8555 (Japan); Shalaan, E.; Al-Marzouki, F. [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22254 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • A multicomponent Zr{sub 55}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 6}Co{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}Cu{sub 6}Pd{sub 6}Ag{sub 5} bulk glassy alloy was formed. • The high-order multiplication suppression of the decrease in mechanical strength. • The BGAs show good corrosion resistance and slow growth rate of primary precipitates. - Abstract: We examined the formation, thermal stability, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of a multicomponent Zr{sub 55}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 6}Co{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}Cu{sub 6}Pd{sub 6}Ag{sub 5} bulk glassy alloy, with the aim of clarifying the effect of high-order multiplication of the number of components on their properties. The bulk glassy alloy rods of 2 and 6 mm in diameter were formed by suction casting even at the low total content of typical glass-forming 3-d late transition metals like Co, Ni and Cu. The Vickers hardness is different in the center region and in the outer surface region. The difference seems to reflect the relaxation level of glassy structure. The Young’s modulus and the compressive fracture strength are nearly the same for the base Zr{sub 55}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 5}Cu{sub 30} alloy in spite of the existence of immiscible atomic pairs. Moreover, the multicomponent alloy exhibits better corrosion resistance than that for the base alloy. The glassy phase changes to a supercooled liquid state at 720 K and then starts to crystallize at 754 K with a single exothermic peak, in contrast to the appearance of a wide supercooled liquid region for the base alloy. The primary crystalline phase precipitates with very short incubation time and very low growth rate, which are different from those for the base alloy. The extremely low growth rate of the crystallites is presumably due to the reduction of diffusivity of late transition metal elements resulting from multiplication. Thus, the high-order multiplication has the features of (1) the maintenance of high glass-forming ability even at the lower Co, Ni and Cu content and in the absence of

  10. Investigation of new type Cu-Hf-Al bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, E; Ronto, V; Solyom, J; Roosz, A

    2009-01-01

    In the last years new type Cu-Hf-Al ternary alloys were developed with high glass forming ability and ductility. The addition of Al to Cu-Hf alloys results in improvements in glass formation, thermal stability and mechanical properties of these alloys. We have investigated new Cu-based bulk amorphous alloys in Cu-Hf-Al ternary system. The alloys with Cu 49 Hf 42 Al 9 , Cu 46 Hf 45 Al 9 , Cu 50 Hf 42.5 Al 7.5 and Cu 50 Hf 45 Al 5 compositions were prepared by arc melting. The samples were made by centrifugal casting and were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. Thermodynamic properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and the structure of the crystallising phases by scanning electron microscopy. The determination of liquidus temperatures of alloys were measured by differential thermal analysis.

  11. Corrosion fatigue studies on a bulk glassy Zr-based alloy under three-point bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grell, Daniel; Wilkin, Yannic; Gostin, Petre F.; Gebert, Annett; Kerscher, Eberhard

    2016-12-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF) tests were carried out on bulk glassy Zr52.5Cu17.9Al10Ni14.6Ti5 (Vitreloy 105) samples under load-controlled three-point bending conditions with a load ratio of R = 0.1 in 0.01 M Na2SO4 + 0.01 M NaCl electrolyte. During cyclic testing, the bar-shaped specimens were polarized in situ at constant potentials and the current was monitored. Three different anodic potentials within the interval between the pitting potential EP and the repassivation potential ER, and three different load amplitudes were applied. In some cases, in situ microscopic observations revealed the formation of black corrosion products in the vicinity of the crack tip during anodic polarization. Fractographic analysis revealed a clear distinction between two modes of crack growth characterized by smooth dissolution induced regions on the one hand and slim fast fracture areas on the other hand. Both alternating features contributed to a broad striated corrosion fatigue fracture surface. Moreover, further fatigue tests were carried out under free corrosion conditions yielding additional information on crack initiation and crack propagation period by means of the open circuit potential (OCP) changes. Thereby, a slight increase in OCP was detected after rupture of the passive layer due to bare metal exposed to the electrolyte. The electrochemical response increased continuously according to stable crack propagation until fracture occurred. Finally, the fracture surfaces of the corrosion fatigue samples were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray with the objective of analyzing the elemental distribution after anodic dissolution. Interestingly, anodic polarization at a near repassivation potential of -50 mV vs. SCE (Saturated Calomel Electrode, E = 0.241 V vs. SHE, Standard Hydrogen Electrode) led to favorable effects on the fatigue lifetime. In conclusion, all results are conflated to a corrosion fatigue model for bulk glassy Vitreloy 105 under anodic polarization in chloride

  12. Formation, thermal stability and mechanical properties of bulk glassy alloys with a diameter of 20 mm in Zr-(Ti,Nb)-Al-Ni-Cu system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Zhang, Q.S.; Zhang, W.; Yubuta, K.; Son, K.S.; Wang, X.M.

    2009-01-01

    Bulk glassy alloy rods with a diameter of 20 mm were produced for Zr 61 Ti 2 Nb 2 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 17.5 and Zr 60 Ti 2 Nb 2 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 18.5 by a tilt casting method. The replacement of Zr by a small amount of Ti and Nb caused a distinct increase in the maximum diameter from 16 mm for Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 17.5 to 20 mm, accompanying the decrease in liquidus temperature and the increase in reduced glass transition temperature. The primary precipitation phase from supercooled liquid also shows a distinct change, i.e., from coexistent Zr 2 Cu, Zr 2 Ni and Zr 6 NiAl 2 phases for the 65%Zr alloy to an icosahedral phase for the 61%Zr and 60%Zr alloys. These results allow us to presume that the enhancement of the glass-forming ability is due to an increase in the stability of supercooled liquid against crystallization caused by the development of icosahedral short-range ordered atomic configurations. The 60%Zr specimens taken from the central and near-surface regions in the transverse cross section at the site which is 15 mm away from the bottom surface of the cast glassy rod with a diameter of 20 mm exhibit good mechanical properties under a compressive deformation mode, i.e., Young's modulus of 81 GPa, large elastic strain of 0.02, high yield strength of 1610 MPa and distinct plastic strain of 0.012. Besides, a number of shear bands are observed along the maximum shear stress plane on the peripheral surface near the final fracture site. The finding of producing the large scale Zr-based bulk glassy alloys exhibiting reliable mechanical properties is encouraging for future advancement of bulk glassy alloys as a new type of functional material. (author)

  13. Structural analysis of quaternary Se{sub 85−x}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 5}Ag{sub x} bulk glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rita, E-mail: reetasharma2012@gmail.com; Sharma, Shaveta; Kumar, Praveen; Chander, Ravi; Thangaraj, R.; Mian, M. [Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar (India)

    2015-08-28

    The physical properties of chalcogenide semiconductor have attracted much attention recently due to their applications in optical recording media and inorganic resist due to photo induced structural transformations observed in these materials. The bulk samples of Se{sub 85-x}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 5}Ag{sub x} system are prepared by melt-quenching technique. X-ray diffraction technique and RAMAN spectroscopy have been used to study the role of Ag additive on the amorphous/crystalline nature and molecular structure of Se{sub 85}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 5} glassy alloys. The phases Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, In-Sb and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has been observed by X-ray diffraction. The formation of AgInSe{sub 2} phase along with the enhancement in intensity has been observed with the Ag addition.Three bands observed by raman spectroscopy for Se85Sb10In5 are at 70 cm-1, 212cm-1 and 252cm-1. The formation of small bands up to wavenumber 188cm{sup -1} and shifting in second band along with the increase in intensity up to sample x=5 has been observed with the Ag addition. The enhancement in intensity in third band with Ag content has been observed.

  14. Glass formation ability, structure and magnetocaloric effect of a heavy rare-earth bulk metallic glassy Gd{sub 55}Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 20} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, C.-L. [Shanghai University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanchang Road 149, Zhabei District, 200072 Shanghai (China)], E-mail: jochollong@163.com; Xia Lei; Ding Ding; Dong Yuanda; Gracien, Ekoko [Shanghai University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanchang Road 149, Zhabei District, 200072 Shanghai (China)

    2008-06-30

    The glass formation ability, the structure and the magnetocaloric effect of the bulk metallic glassy Gd{sub 55}Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 20} alloy were investigated. Bulk metallic glassy (BMGs) alloys were prepared by a copper-mold casting method. The glass forming ability and their structure were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The XRD analysis revealed that the as-cast cylinder of Gd{sub 55}Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 20} alloy showed fully amorphous structure in 2 mm diameter. The DSC revealed that the bulk cylinder of the Gd{sub 55}Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 20} alloy showed a distinct glass transition temperature and a relatively wide supercooled liquid region before crystallization. SQUID investigated the magnetic properties and the entropy changes. The Curie temperature of Gd{sub 55}Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 20} BMGs alloy was about 130 K, but the maximum magnetic entropy changes(-{delta}S{sub M}) showed at about 125 K, a little lower than the Curie temperature 130 K. The reason could probably be due to the presence of a little amount of nanocrystalline particles between amorphous phases. The BMG alloy has the characteristic of second-order transition (SOT) on Arrott plots. The results showed that the amorphous sample had a relatively improved magnetocaloric effect, indicating that the amorphous alloy could be considered as a candidate for magnetic refrigeration applications in the temperature interval range of 100-200 K.

  15. Laser cladding to select new glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, L.L.O.; Afonso, C.R.M.; Kiminami, C.S.; Gargarella, P.; Ramasco, B.

    2016-01-01

    A new experimental technique used to analyze the effect of compositional variation and cooling rate in the phase formation in a multicomponent system is the laser cladding. This work have evaluated the use of laser cladding to discover a new bulk metallic glass (BMG) in the Al-Co-Zr system. Coatings with composition variation have made by laser cladding using Al-Co-Zr alloys powders and the samples produced have been characterized by X ray diffraction, microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results did not show the composition variation as expected, because of incomplete melting during laser process. It was measured a composition variation tendency that allowed the glass forming investigation by the glass formation criterion λ+Δh 1/2 . The results have showed no glass formation in the coating samples, which prove a limited capacity of Zr-Co-Al system to form glass (author)

  16. Bulk metallic glasses and high entropy alloys for reprocessing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Jayaraj, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in materials engineering have generated complex alloys that retain a glassy state in bulk form (bulk metallic glasses or BMGs) via ingot casting. High corrosion resistance is expected for BMGs (amorphous) as they are free from defects associated with the crystalline state such as grain boundaries, dislocations and stacking faults. Compared with conventional alloys containing one or two principal elements, the recently developed HEAs are usually composed of five or more elements with equimolar or near equimolar elemental fractions, which forms single solid solution phase. These HEAs exhibit excellent microstructural stability with better mechanical, wear and corrosion resistance properties as they are essentially single phase. Reprocessing of spent fuel from the fast breeder reactor involves the use of high concentration of (11.5 M) nitric acid under boiling conditions for the dissolution of the fuel. Conventional AISI type 304LSS and nitric acid grade 304L stainless steel would undergo inter-granular corrosion under these conditions and cannot be used for the fabrication of dissolver vessel. Currently titanium is used and zirconium alloys are proposed for future dissolver applications. Thus searching for newer materials with higher corrosion resistance suggests metallic glasses and HEAs for critical components of the dissolver application. Several Zr-based glassy alloys with different microstructural states and Ni-Nb based glassy alloys and TiZrHfNbTa HEA were cast and characterized for microstructure and corrosion resistance in nitric acid medium. From these studies, factors such as the corrosive environment (nitric acid, chloride and fluoride), and the presence of passivating elements in the alloy were emphasized for better corrosion resistance of BMGs and HEA. Attempts were also made to prepare coatings of Zr-and Ni-based glassy alloys on 304LSS by laser based deposition technique and their corrosion properties were evaluated. (author)

  17. Cap casting and enveloped casting techniques for Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 glassy alloy rod with 32 mm in diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Akihisa; Mund, Enrico; Schultz, Ludwig

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce centimetre-sized bulk glassy alloys (BMGs), various cast techniques have been developed. We succeed in the development of cap casting and enveloped casting technique to accomplish the fabrication of centimetre sized BMGs. The former has an advantage to increase cooling rate and the later has an advantage to joint another materials instead of welding. This paper presents the production of a glassy Zr 55 Cu 30 Ni 5 Al 10 alloy rod with a diameter of 32 mm and joined glassy Zr 55 Cu 30 Ni 5 Al 10 alloy parts with another materials for industrial applications.

  18. Electrical resistivity in Zr48Nb8Cu12Fe8Be24 glassy and crystallized alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, H. Y.; Tong, C. Z.; Zheng, P.

    2004-02-01

    The electrical resistivity of Zr48Nb8Cu12Fe8Be24 bulk metallic glassy and crystallized alloys in the temperature range of 4.2-293 K is investigated. It is found that the resistivity in glassy and crystallized states shows opposite temperature coefficients. For the metallic glass, the resistivity shows a negative logarithmic dependence at temperatures below 16 K, whereas it has more normal behavior for the crystallized alloy. At higher temperatures, the resistivity in both glassy and crystallized alloys shows dependence upon both T and T2, but the signs of the T and T2 terms are opposite. The results are interpreted in terms of scattering from two-level tunneling states in glasses and the generalized Ziman diffraction model.

  19. Resistivity and Passivity Characterization of Ni-Base Glassy Alloys in NaOH Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah M. Emran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistivity and passivation behavior of two Ni-base bulk metallic glasses, with the nominal composition of Ni70Cr21Si0.5B0.5P8C ≤ 0.1Co ≤ 1Fe ≤ 1 (VZ1 and Ni72.65Cr7.3-Si6.7B2.15C ≤ 0.06Fe8.2Mo3 (VZ2, in various concentrations of NaOH solutions were studied. The investigations involved cyclic polarization (CP, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM methods. Cyclic polarization measurements showed spontaneous passivation for both Ni-base glassy alloys at all alkaline concentrations, due to the presence of chromium as an alloying element that formed an oxide film on the alloy surface. The EIS analysis showed that the passive layers grown on the two Ni-base glassy alloy surfaces are formed by a double oxide layer structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM examinations of the electrode surface showed Cr, Ni, Fe, and O rich corrosion products that reduced the extent of corrosion damage. Atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging technique was used to evaluate the topographic and morphologic features of surface layers formed on the surface of the alloys.

  20. Metastability and thermophysical properties of metallic bulk glass forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, R.K.; Fecht, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The absence of crystallization over a wide time/temperature window can be used to produce bulk metallic glass by relatively slow cooling of the melt. For a number of alloys, including several multicomponent Zr-based alloys, the relevant thermodynamic and thermomechanical properties of the metastable glassy and undercooled liquid states have been measured below and above the glass transition temperature. These measurements include specific heat, viscosity, volume, and elastic properties as a function of temperature. As a result, it becomes obvious that the maximum undercooling for these alloys is given by an isentropic condition before an enthalpic or isochoric instability is reached. Alternatively, these glasses can also be produced by mechanical alloying, thus replacing the thermal disorder by static disorder and resulting in the same thermodynamic glass state. During heating through the undercooled liquid, a nanoscale phase separation occurs for most glasses as a precursor of crystallization

  1. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  2. Dielectric relaxation in glassy Se75In25− xPbx alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we report the effect of Pb incorporation in the dielectric properties of a-Se75In25 glassy alloy. The temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric constants and the dielectric losses in glassy Se75In25−Pb ( = 0, 5, 10 and 15) alloys in the frequency range (1 kHz–5 MHz) and temperature range ...

  3. Fabrication and nano-imprintabilities of Zr-, Pd- and Cu-based glassy alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Saidoh, Noriko; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of investigating nano-imprintability of glassy alloys in a film form, Zr 49 Al 11 Ni 8 Cu 32 , Pd 39 Cu 29 Ni 13 P 19 and Cu 38 Zr 47 Al 9 Ag 6 glassy alloy thin films were fabricated on Si substrate by a magnetron sputtering method. These films exhibit a very smooth surface, a distinct glass transition phenomenon and a large supercooled liquid region of about 80 K, which are suitable for imprinting materials. Moreover, thermal nano-imprintability of these obtained films is demonstrated by using a dot array mold with a dot diameter of 90 nm. Surface observations revealed that periodic nano-hole arrays with a hole diameter of 90 nm were successfully imprinted on the surface of these films. Among them, Pd-based glassy alloy thin film indicated more precise pattern imprintability, namely, flatter residual surface plane and sharper hole edge. It is said that these glassy alloy thin films, especially Pd-based glassy alloy thin film, are one of the promising materials for fabricating micro-machines and nano-devices by thermal imprinting.

  4. Relation between time-temperature transformation and continuous heating transformation diagrams of metallic glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Inoue, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    The time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams for the onset of devitrification of the Ge-Ni-La and Cu-Hf-Ti glassy alloys were calculated from the isothermal differential calorimetry data using an Arrhenius equation. The continuous heating transformation (CHT) diagrams for the onset of devitrification of the glassy alloys were subsequently recalculated from TTT diagrams. The recalculation method used for conversion of the TTT into CHT diagrams produces reasonable results and is not sensitive to the type of the devitrification reaction (polymorphous or primary transformation). The diagrams allow to perform a comparison of the stabilities of glassy alloys on a long-term scale. The relationship between these diagrams is discussed

  5. Ductile Bulk Aluminum-Based Alloy with Good Glass-Forming Ability and High Strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-Chao, Zhuo; Shu-Jie, Pang; Hui, Wang; Tao, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Based on a new approach for designing glassy alloy compositions, bulk Al-based alloys with good glass-forming ability (GFA) are synthesized. The cast Al 86 Si 0.5 Ni 4.06 Co 2.94 Y 6 Sc 0.5 rod with a diameter of 1 mm shows almost fully amorphous structure besides about 5% fcc-Al nucleated in the center of the rod. The bulk alloy with high Al concentration exhibits an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.18 GPa and maximum strength of 1.27 GPa as well as an obvious plastic strain of about 2.4% during compressive deformation. This light Al-based alloy with good GFA and mechanical properties is promising as a new high specific strength material with good deformability. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  6. Transformation of bulk alloys to oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Danni; Benson, Jim; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air. Fabricated separators based on aluminum oxide nanowires enhanced the safety and rate capabilities of lithium-ion batteries. The reported approach allows ultralow-cost scalable synthesis of 1D materials and membranes.

  7. Ideal solution behaviour of glassy Cu–Ti, Zr, Hf alloys and properties of amorphous copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristić, R.; Cooper, J.R.; Zadro, K.; Pajić, D.; Ivkov, J.; Babić, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ideal solution behaviour (ISB) is established in all Cu–Ti, Zr, Hf glassy alloys. • ISB enables reliable estimates for various properties of amorphous Cu. • ISB also impacts glass forming ability in these and probably other similar alloys. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of selected properties of amorphous (a) Cu–TE alloys (TE = Ti, Zr and Hf) has been performed. Data for average atomic volumes of a-Cu–Hf, Ti alloys combined with literature data show that ideal solution behaviour (Vegard’s law) extends over the whole glass forming range (GFR) in all a-Cu–TE alloys. This enables one to obtain an insight into some properties and probable atomic arrangements for both, a-TEs (Ristić et al., 2010) and a-Cu by extrapolation of the data for alloys. Indeed the atomic volumes and other properties studied for all a-Cu–TE alloys extrapolate to the same values for a-Cu. Depending on the property, these values are either close to those of crystalline (c) Cu, or are close to those for liquid (L) Cu. In particular, the electronic transport properties of a-Cu seem close to those of L-Cu, whereas the static properties, such as the density of states, and Young’s modulus, converge to those of c-Cu. The possible impact of these results on our understanding of a-Cu–TE alloys, including glass forming ability, is discussed

  8. Electronic Transport Behaviors due to Charge Density Waves in Ni-Nb-Zr-H Glassy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Umemori, Yoshimasa

    2013-11-01

    The amorphous Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloy containing subnanometer-sized icosahedral Zr5 Nb5Ni3 clusters exhibited four types of electronic phenomena: a metal/insulator transition, an electric current-induced voltage oscillation (Coulomb oscillation), giant capacitor behavior and an electron avalanche with superior resistivity. These findings could be excluded by charge density waves that the low-dimensional component of clusters, in which the atoms are lined up in chains along the [130] direction, plays important roles in various electron transport phenomena.

  9. Rotating speed effect on electronic transport behaviors of Ni–Nb–Zr–H glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Mikio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electronic transport behaviors of (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 100−y H y (0 ≤ y ≤ 15) glassy alloys, which produced by rotating (or quenching) speeds of 3000 and 10,000 rpm, have been studied as a function of hydrogen content. ► The resistivity for (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 97.8 H 2.2 alloy, produced by rotating speed of 10,000 rpm, displayed 0.1 nΩ cm, which is 0.01% of silver (1.62 μΩ cm) at room temperature, between 40 and 252 K. ► Supercooling of the molten alloy induces a superior ballistic conductor and a room-temperature Coulomb oscillation. - Abstract: The electronic transport behaviors of (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 100−y H y (0 ≤ y ≤ 15) glassy alloys, produced by rotating (or quenching) speeds of 3000 and 10,000 rpm, have been studied as a function of hydrogen content. These alloys show semiconducting, superior ballistic transport, superconducting and electric current-induced Coulomb oscillation, as hydrogen content increases. The resistivity for (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 97.8 H 2.2 alloy, produced by rotating speed of 10,000 rpm, displayed 0.1 nΩ cm, which is 0.01% of silver (1.62 μΩ cm) at room temperature, between 40 and 252 K. The Coulomb oscillation of the 10,000 rpm-(Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 95.2 H 4.8 alloy is about 4-fold larger than that of the 3000 rpm-(Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 91.1 H 8.9 alloy. Supercooling of the molten alloy induces a superior ballistic conductor and a room-temperature Coulomb oscillation at lower and higher hydrogen contents, respectively.

  10. Pressure-induced positive electrical resistivity coefficient in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, M.; Gangli, C.; Matsubayashi, K.; Uwatoko, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Measurements under hydrostatic pressure of the electrical resistivity of (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)100-xHx (x = 9.8, 11.5, and 14) glassy alloys have been made in the range of 0-8 GPa and 0.5-300 K. The resistivity of the (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)86H14 alloy changed its sign from negative to positive under application of 2-8 GPa in the temperature range of 300-22 K, coming from electron-phonon interaction in the cluster structure under pressure, accompanied by deformation of the clusters. In temperature region below 22 K, the resistivity showed negative thermal coefficient resistance by Debye-Waller factor contribution, and superconductivity was observed at 1.5 K.

  11. Cast bulk metallic glass alloys: prospects as wear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Shiflet, Gary J. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA)

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are single phase materials with unusual physical and mechanical properties. One intriguing area of possible use is as a wear material. Usually, pure metals and single phase dilute alloys do not perform well in tribological conditions. When the metal or alloy is lightweight, it is usually soft leading to galling in sliding situations. For the harder metals and alloys, their density is usually high, so there is an energy penalty when using these materials in wear situations. However, bulk metallic glasses at the same density are usually harder than corresponding metals and dilute single phase alloys, and so could offer better wear resistance. This work will discuss preliminary wear results for metallic glasses with densities in the range of 4.5 to 7.9 g/cc. The wear behavior of these materials will be compared to similar metals and alloys.

  12. Dielectric relaxation and AC conductivity studies of Se90Cd10−xInx glassy alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Shukla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chalcogenide glassy alloys of Se90Cd10−xInx (x = 2, 4, 6, 8 are synthesized by melt quench technique. The prepared glassy alloys have been characterized by techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX. Dielectric properties of Se90Cd10−xInx (x = 2, 4, 6, 8 chalcogenide glassy system have been studied using impedance spectroscopic technique in the frequency range 42 Hz to 5 MHz at room temperature. It is found that the dielectric constants ɛ′, dielectric loss factor ɛ″ and loss angle Tan δ depend on frequency. ɛ′, ɛ″ and loss angle Tan δ are found to be decreasing with the In content in Se90Cd10−xInx glassy system. AC conductivity of the prepared sample has also been studied. It is found that AC conductivity increases with frequency where as it has decreasing trend with increasing In content in Se–Cd matrix. The semicircles observed in the Cole–Cole plots indicate a single relaxation process.

  13. Phase separation and structure formation in gadolinium based liquid and glassy metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Junhee

    2014-01-01

    tailored both at microscopic and macroscopic length scales. This includes either droplet-like or interconnected microstructures at the microscopic level and glass-glass or glass-crystalline composites at the macroscopic level. Essential parameter for the quenched in microstructure is the temperature dependence of liquid-liquid phase separation, which is determined by the chemical composition of the alloy: on the one hand, earlier and/or later stages of spinodal decomposition or almost homogeneous glassy states are obtained if the critical temperature of miscibility gap T c is close to the glass transition temperature T g ; and on the one hand, coarsening and secondary precipitations of the liquids are obtained if T c is much higher than T g . Finally, the influence of the microstructure developed by phase separation on their magnetic properties had been investigated. The saturation magnetization σ S depends on the overall amount of Gd atoms in the alloys and is not remarkably affected by phase separation processes. The Curie temperature T Curie of the magnetic transition is influenced by the changed chemical composition of the Gd-rich glassy phases compared to that of monolithic Gd-Co-Al glasses.

  14. Glass-forming ability and crystallization behavior of some binary and ternary Ni-based glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Louzguina-Luzgina, Larissa V.; Xie Guoqiang; Li Song; Zhang Wei; Inoue, Akihisa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current paper is to study the influence of Ti, V, Nb, Al, Sn and Pd additions on the glass-forming ability, formation of a supercooled liquid region and a devitrification process of some Ni-Zr glassy alloys as well as to compare the results with those obtained for similar Cu-based alloys studied earlier. The Ni-based glassy alloys were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetries. Although the studied Ni-based alloys showed high values of the reduced glass-transition temperature of about 0.6, their glass-forming ability is quite low. This fact may be explained by low stability of the supercooled liquid against crystallization and formation of the equilibrium intermetallic compounds with a high growth rate compared to those observed in similar Cu-based alloys studied earlier. Relatively low thermal conductivity of Ni-based alloys is also found to be another factor limiting their glass-forming ability

  15. Study of short range order in alloy of glassy metals and effect of neutron irradiation on them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, S.; Banaee, N.; Salman, M.; Gupta, A.; Principi, G.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we have studied a series of glassy metals with composition Fe 78-x Ni x Si 8 B 14 with x=0, 15, 25,38,53, 58. We have used Moessbauer spectroscopy to get information about short range order and local structure in these alloys. The specimens are exposed to neutron irradiation to perturb local structure and their short range order. The hyperfine parameters obtained from spectra before and after n-irradiation and are compared

  16. Read/write characteristics of a new type of bit-patterned-media using nano-patterned glassy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Saidoh, Noriko; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Ishimaru, Manabu; Futamoto, Masaaki; Inoue, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports a feasibility study of new type bit-patterned-media using a nano-patterned glassy alloy template for ultra-high density hard disk applications. The prototype bit-patterned-media was prepared using a nano-hole array pattern fabricated on a Pd-based glassy alloy thin film and a Co/Pd multilayered film filled in the nano-holes. The prepared prototype bit-patterned-media had a smooth surface and isolated Co/Pd multilayer magnetic dots, where the average dot diameter, the average dot pitch and the average dot height were 30, 60 and 19 nm, respectively. MFM (magnetic force microscope) observation revealed that each dot was magnetized in a perpendicular direction and the magnetization could reverse when an opposite magnetic field was applied. Static read/write tester measurements showed that repeated writing and reading on isolated magnetic dots were possible in combination with conventional magnetic heads and high-accuracy positioning technologies. The present study indicates that the new type of bit-patterned-media composed of nano-hole arrays fabricated on glassy alloy film template and Co/Pd multilayer magnetic dots are promising for applications to next generation ultra-high density hard disk drives. - Highlights: ► Prototype BPM using a nano-hole array pattern of imprinted Pd-based glassy alloy thin film and Co/Pd multilayered film was set. ► The prototype BPM has smooth surface and isolated Co/Pd multilayer magnetic dots with an average dot diameter of 30 nm. ► Dots acted as perpendicular magnetic dot and were able to read, erase and write in a row by a usual perpendicular magnetic head.

  17. Electrochemical oxidation of methanol on Pt3Co bulk alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LJ. GOJKOVIC

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of methanol was investigated on a Pt3Co bulk alloy in acid solutions. Kinetic parameters such as transfer coefficient, reaction orders with respect to methanol and H+ ions and energy of activation were determined. It was found that the rate of methanol oxidation is significantly diminished by rotation of the electrode. This effect was attributed to the diffusion of formaldehyde and formic acid from the electrode surface. Stirring of the electrolyte also influenced the kinetic parameters of the reaction. It was speculated that the predominant reaction pathway and rate determining step are different in the quiescent and in the stirred electrolyte. Cobalt did not show a promoting effect on the rate of methanol oxidation on the Pt3Co bulk alloy with respect to a pure Pt surface.

  18. Outstanding resistance and passivation behaviour of new Fe-Co metal-metal glassy alloys in alkaline media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah M Emran

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of the oxide layers on two metal-metal glassy alloys, Fe78Co9Cr10Mo2Al1 (VX9and Fe49Co49V2 (VX50 (at.%, were studied using electrochemical techniques including electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic polarization (CP measurements. The morphology and composition of the alloy surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The corrosion rate and surface roughness of both alloys increased as the concentration of NaOH in aqueous solution was raised. The presence of some protective elements in the composition of the alloys led to the formation of a spontaneous passive layer on the alloy surface. The higher resistance values of both alloys were associated with the magnitude of the dielectric properties of the passive films formed on their surfaces. Both alloys are classified as having outstanding resistance to corrosion, which results from the formation of a passive film that acts as an efficient barrier to corrosion in alkaline solution.

  19. Electric resistivity and thermoelectricity of Ni-Nb-Zr and Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Inoue, Akihisa

    2010-09-01

    Electric resistivity ρ and thermoelectric power S of Ni 36Nb 24Zr 40 and (Ni 0.36Nb 0.24Zr 0.4) 90H 10 glassy alloys were investigated in temperature region between 1.5 and 300 K. After resistivity curves of both alloys increase gradually with decreasing temperature down to around 6 K, they dropped suddenly and then reached zero resistivity at 2.1 K, leading to superconductivity. Linear curve with negative TCR of ρ vs T2 and slight increase of S/ T in temperature region down to around 6 K clearly reveal Fermi-liquid phenomenon in electronic state for both alloys independent of hydrogen content.

  20. Electric resistivity and thermoelectricity of Ni-Nb-Zr and Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Inoue, Akihisa

    2010-01-01

    Electric resistivity ρ and thermoelectric power S of Ni 36 Nb 24 Zr 40 and (Ni 0.36 Nb 0.24 Zr 0.4 ) 90 H 10 glassy alloys were investigated in temperature region between 1.5 and 300 K. After resistivity curves of both alloys increase gradually with decreasing temperature down to around 6 K, they dropped suddenly and then reached zero resistivity at 2.1 K, leading to superconductivity. Linear curve with negative TCR of ρ vs T 2 and slight increase of S/T in temperature region down to around 6 K clearly reveal Fermi-liquid phenomenon in electronic state for both alloys independent of hydrogen content.

  1. Influences of hydrostatic pressure during casting and Pd content on as-cast phase in Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-Pd bulk alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hidemi; Inoue, Akihisa; Saida, Junji

    2004-01-01

    The influences of sample diameter (D), Pd content (x), and hydrostatic pressure (P) in a chamber during casting on the structure of as cast Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 17.5-x Pd x (x=10,17.5 at.%) bulk alloys were investigated. Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.5 Pd 10 and Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Pd 17.5 alloys (D=3 mm) cast in a vacuum chamber (P∼4.0x10 -3 Pa) were mainly of the tetragonal-Zr 2 Ni equilibrium phase and nanosize icosahedral primary phase, respectively, while the same alloys cast in inert argon gas at atmospheric pressure (P∼0.1 MPa) were of the single glassy phase. Due to the higher cooling rate obtained by decreasing the sample diameter (D=2 mm) even in the vacuum chamber, the Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Pd 17.5 alloy was still of the icosahedral phase, while the Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.5 Pd 10 alloy froze into a single glassy phase. These results indicate that the temperature- and time- transformation curves for the icosahedral and subsequent equilibrium phase formations in the alloy system shifts to a shorter time side with decreasing P, and the pressure sensitivity of the icosahedral phase formation increases with x

  2. Partially and fully de-alloyed glassy ribbons based on Au: Application in methanol electro-oxidation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschalidou, Eirini Maria, E-mail: epaschal@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS (Nanostructured Surfaces and Interfaces), Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125, Torino (Italy); Scaglione, Federico [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS (Nanostructured Surfaces and Interfaces), Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125, Torino (Italy); Gebert, Annett; Oswald, Steffen [Leibniz Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung IFW, Helmholtzstraße 20, 01069, Dresden (Germany); Rizzi, Paola; Battezzati, Livio [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS (Nanostructured Surfaces and Interfaces), Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125, Torino (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, electrochemical de-alloying of an amorphous alloy, Au{sub 40}Cu{sub 28}Ag{sub 7}Pd{sub 5}Si{sub 20}, cast in ribbon form by melt spinning, has been performed, obtaining self standing nanoporous materials suitable for use as electrodes for electrocatalytic applications. The de-alloying encompasses removal of less noble elements and the crystallization of Au, resulting in interconnected ligaments whose size and morphology are described as a function of time. Depending on de-alloying time, the crystals may contain residual amounts of Cu, Ag and Pd, as shown by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) in a basic solution. Current density peaks in the 0.16–0.28 V range (vs Ag/AgCl) indicate that the porous ribbons are active for the electro-oxidation of methanol. The partially de-alloyed samples, which still partially contain the amorphous phase because of the shorter etching times, have finer ligaments and display peaks at lower potential. However, the current density decreases rapidly during repeated potential scans. This is attributed to the obstruction of Au sites, mainly by the Cu oxides formed during the scans. The fully de-alloyed ribbons display current peaks at about 0.20 V and remain active for hundreds of scans at more than 60% of the initial current density. They can be fully re-activated to achieve the same performance levels after a brief immersion in nitric acid. The good activity is due to trapped Ag and Pd atoms in combination with ligament morphology. - Graphical abstract: Fine ligaments and pores made by de-alloying a glassy ribbon of a Au-based alloy, homogeneously produced across the thickness (25 μm) for studying methanol's electro-oxidation behavior. - Highlights: • Size and composition of nanoporous layers tailored in de-alloying Au-based glassy ribbons. • From amorphous precursor fine crystals occur in ligaments with residual Pd and Ag. • Fully de-alloyed

  3. Local atomic and electronic structure in glassy metallic alloys. Final report, March 1, 1979-May 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messmer, R.P.; Wong, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research results reported, represent the first coordinated experimental-theoretical effort to arrive at important local atomic and electronic structure information in glassy alloys. During the three years covered by the contract, significant experimental and theoretical developments have taken place both in the general technical community and at General Electric which have had an important impact on the approach to this problem. This is particularly true in the theoretical area where two important advances, the development of a general Xα-LCAO approach, and the development of a general and accurate effective potential approach for density functional methods, have allowed us to construct a new computational capability which combines these two advances. Two subsections briefly review the experimental and theoretical technical developments, respectively. These developments have changed initial perspectives regarding research on local atomic and electronic structure in glassy metallic alloys. Section II presents a synopsis of our accomplishments during the contract period and Section III contains a more detailed discussion of some of these accomplishments, namely those portions of the work which have been published or submitted for publication at the time of writing this final report

  4. Glassy Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik J.; Sibani, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The term glassy dynamics is often used to refer to the extremely slow relaxation observed in several types of many component systems. The time span needed to reach a steady, time independent, state will typically be far beyond experimentally accessible time scales. When melted alloys are cooled...... down they typically do not enter a crystalline ordered state. Instead the atoms retain the amorphous arrangement characteristic of the liquid high temperature phase while the mobility of the molecules decreases very many orders of magnitude. This colossal change in the characteristic dynamical time...

  5. Dielectric relaxation in glassy Se75In25−xPbx alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to their atomic percentages and were sealed in quartz ampoules (length ~5 cm and internal dia. ~8 mm) in vacuum ... samples were taken out by breaking the quartz ampoules. The glassy nature of the ... measured with the help of a calibrated copper–constantan thermocouple mounted very near to the sample, which could ...

  6. Study of electrical properties of glassy Se100–xTex alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    can be successfully explained by correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. ... The results show that bipolaron hopping dominates over single-polaron hopping in this glassy system. This .... where ∆E is the activation energy and σ0 is called the.

  7. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of hydrogen diffusion and electron tunneling in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niki, Haruo; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Oshiro, Morihito; Yogi, Mamoru [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Seki, Ichiro; Fukuhara, Mikio [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Using the Fourier transform of the echo envelope, the proton line shapes, spin-lattice relaxation time, and spin-spin relaxation time have been measured in a (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} glassy alloy at 1.83 T ({approx}78 MHz) and at temperatures between 1.8 and 300 K. First, the spectral line width decreases abruptly between 1.8 and 2.1 K. Next, it remains almost constant at 13 kHz up to {approx}150 K. Finally, the line width decreases as the temperature increases from {approx}150 to 300 K. The initial decrease in the spectral line width is ascribed to the distribution of the external field, which is caused by the penetration of vortices in the superconducting state. The subsequent leveling off in the spectral line width is ascribed to the dipole-dipole interaction between protons when hydrogen atoms are trapped into vacancies among the Zr-centered icosahedral Zr{sub 5}Ni{sub 5}Nb{sub 3} clusters. The final decrease in the spectral line width is ascribed to the motional narrowing of the width that is caused by the movement of hydrogen atoms. The temperature dependences of the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation time showed that at temperature above 150 K and the activation energy of 8.7 kJ/mol allowed the hydrogen atoms to migrate among the clusters. The distance between the hydrogen atoms is estimated to be 2.75 A. Hydrogen occupancies among clusters in the (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} glassy alloy play an important role in the diffusion behavior and in the electronic properties of this alloy.

  8. Fabrication and structure of bulk nanocrystalline Al-Si-Ni-mishmetal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuch, Jerzy; Cieslak, Grzegorz; Kulik, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Al-based alloys of structure consisting of nanosized Al crystals, embedded in an amorphous matrix, are interesting for their excellent mechanical properties, exceeding those of the commercial crystalline Al-based alloys. Recently discovered nanocrystalline Al alloys containing silicon (Si), rare earth metal (RE) and late transition metal (Ni), combine high tensile strength and good wear resistance. The aim of this work was to manufacture bulk nanocrystalline alloys from Al-Si-Ni-mishmetal (Mm) system. Bulk nanostructured Al 91-x Si x Ni 7 Mm 2 (x = 10, 11.6, 13 at.%) alloys were produced by ball milling of nanocrystalline ribbons followed by high pressure hot isostating compaction

  9. Effects of composition and microstructure of Pd-Cu-Si metallic glassy alloy thin films on hydrogen absorbing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Susumu; Kohara, Shinji; Onodera, Yohei; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Matsubara, Eiichiro

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of Pd-Cu-Si metallic glassy alloys for a hydrogen sensor were fabricated by a sputtering method. In order to find out the effect of the composition and the microstructure of them on the hydrogen absorbing property (the H 2 response), the structural parameters based on the short-range order (SRO) were measured. Additionally, the change of the structural parameters with hydrogen absorption was measured, and the correlations of the change with the H 2 response and the hydrogen induced linear expansion coefficient (LEC) were examined. The H 2 response decreased with increases in Si content and the structural parameters. These results can be explained by the positive effects of Si content and the structural parameters on the formation of a trigonal prism which is a structural unit of Pd-based amorphous alloys, and by the negative effect of the trigonal prism on absorbing hydrogen. From the observation of the elongation of the Pd-Pd atomic distance with absorbing hydrogen, H atoms are supposed to occupy the space between Pd atoms. The amount of the change in the Pd-Pd atomic distance showed the positive correlations with the H 2 response and the LEC. (author)

  10. A Practical Anodic and Cathodic Curve Intersection Model to Understand Multiple Corrosion Potentials of Fe-Based Glassy Alloys in OH- Contained Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y J; Wang, Y G; An, B; Xu, H; Liu, Y; Zhang, L C; Ma, H Y; Wang, W M

    2016-01-01

    A practical anodic and cathodic curve intersection model, which consisted of an apparent anodic curve and an imaginary cathodic line, was proposed to explain multiple corrosion potentials occurred in potentiodynamic polarization curves of Fe-based glassy alloys in alkaline solution. The apparent anodic curve was selected from the measured anodic curves. The imaginary cathodic line was obtained by linearly fitting the differences of anodic curves and can be moved evenly or rotated to predict the number and value of corrosion potentials.

  11. Study of oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr 65 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 has been studied in air environment at various temperatures in the temperature range 591–684 K using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The oxidation kinetics of the alloy in the amorphous phase obeys the parabolic rate law for oxidation ...

  12. Fabrication and mechanical behavior of bulk nanoporous Cu via chemical de-alloying of Cu–Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fei, E-mail: chenfei027@gmail.com [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen, Xi; Zou, Lijie; Yao, Yao; Lin, Yaojun; Shen, Qiang [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Lavernia, Enrique J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Zhang, Lianmeng, E-mail: lmzhang@whut.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2016-04-13

    We report on a study of the influence of microstructure on the mechanical behavior of bulk nanoporous Cu fabricated by chemical de-alloying of Cu{sub 50}Al{sub 50}, Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 60}, Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 67} and Cu{sub 30}Al{sub 70} (at%) alloys. The precursor Cu–Al alloys were fabricated using arc melting and bulk nanoporous Cu was obtained by subsequent de-alloying of Cu–Al alloys in 20 wt% NaOH aqueous solution at a temperature of 65 °C. We studied the microstructure of the precursor Cu–Al alloys, as well as that of the as de-alloyed bulk nanoporous Cu, using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. Moreover, the compressive strength of bulk nanoporous Cu was measured and the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties was studied. Our results show that the microstructure of bulk nanoporous Cu is characterized by bi-continuous interpenetrating ligament-channels with a ligament size of 130±20 nm (for Cu{sub 50}Al{sub 50}), 170±20 nm (for Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 60}) and 160±10 nm (for Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 67}). Interestingly the microstructure of de-alloyed Cu{sub 30}Al{sub 70} is bimodal with nanopores (100's nm) and interspersed featureless regions a few microns in size. The compressive strength increased with decreasing volume fraction of porosity; as porosity increased 56.3±2% to 73.9±2%, the compressive strength decreased from 17.18±1 MPa to 2.71±0.5 MPa.

  13. Synthesis of bulk nanocrystalline Pb-Sn-Te alloy under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, P W; Chen, L X; Jia, X; Ma, H A; Ren, G Z; Guo, W L; Liu, H J; Zou, G T

    2002-01-01

    Pb-Sn-Te bulk nanocrystalline (NC) materials are prepared successfully by quenching melts under high pressure. The mean particle size is about 100 nm and the crystal structure is NaCl type. The mechanism of formation of the bulk NC alloy is explained: there is an increasing of the nucleation rate and a decrease in the growth rate of nuclei with increase of pressure during the solidification processes. The thermoelectric properties of Pb-Sn-Te bulk NC alloy are enhanced. This method is promising for producing thermoelectric materials with improved high-energy conversion efficiency

  14. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollobrigida, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), I-10135 Torino (Italy); Borgatti, F. [CNR, Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G. [CNR, Istituto Officina dei Materiali (IOM), Lab. TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Tortora, L. [Laboratorio di Analisi di Superficie, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Università Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Stefani, G.; Offi, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy)

    2014-05-28

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  15. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollobrigida, V.; Basso, V.; Borgatti, F.; Torelli, P.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F.; Tortora, L.; Stefani, G.; Panaccione, G.; Offi, F.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  16. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lollobrigida, V.; Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F.; Borgatti, F.; Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G.; Tortora, L.; Stefani, G.; Offi, F.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  17. Oxidation behaviour of bulk W-Cr-Ti alloys prepared by mechanical alloying and HIPing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Rosales, C.; López-Ruiz, P.; Alvarez-Martín, S.; Calvo, A.; Ordás, N.; Koch, F.; Brinkmann, J.

    2014-01-01

    Self-passivating tungsten based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten when used as first wall armour of future fusion reactors, due to the formation of a protective oxide scale, preventing the formation of volatile and radioactive WO 3 in case of a loss of coolant accident with simultaneous air ingress. In this work results of isothermal oxidations tests at 800 and 1000 °C on bulk alloy WCr12Ti2.5 performed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by exposure to flowing air in a furnace are presented. In both cases a thin, dense Cr 2 O 3 layer is found at the outer surface, below which a Cr 2 WO 6 scale and Ti 2 CrO 5 layers alternating with WO 3 are formed. The Cr 2 O 3 , Cr 2 WO 6 and Ti 2 CrO 5 scales act as protective barriers against fast inward O 2− diffusion. The oxidation kinetics seems to be linear for the furnace exposure tests while for the TGA tests at 800 °C the kinetics is first parabolic, transforming into linear after an initial phase. The linear oxidation rates are 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than for pure W

  18. Oxidation behaviour of bulk W-Cr-Ti alloys prepared by mechanical alloying and HIPing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rosales, C., E-mail: cgrosales@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); López-Ruiz, P.; Alvarez-Martín, S.; Calvo, A.; Ordás, N. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Koch, F.; Brinkmann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Self-passivating tungsten based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten when used as first wall armour of future fusion reactors, due to the formation of a protective oxide scale, preventing the formation of volatile and radioactive WO{sub 3} in case of a loss of coolant accident with simultaneous air ingress. In this work results of isothermal oxidations tests at 800 and 1000 °C on bulk alloy WCr12Ti2.5 performed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by exposure to flowing air in a furnace are presented. In both cases a thin, dense Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is found at the outer surface, below which a Cr{sub 2}WO{sub 6} scale and Ti{sub 2}CrO{sub 5} layers alternating with WO{sub 3} are formed. The Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and Ti{sub 2}CrO{sub 5} scales act as protective barriers against fast inward O{sup 2−} diffusion. The oxidation kinetics seems to be linear for the furnace exposure tests while for the TGA tests at 800 °C the kinetics is first parabolic, transforming into linear after an initial phase. The linear oxidation rates are 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than for pure W.

  19. Crystallization processes in Ni-Ti-B glassy alloys of near-ternary-eutectic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, N.; Morris, D.G.; Stadelmann, P.

    1987-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics and mechanisms of three Ni-Ti-B glasses have been examined with a view to elucidating the roles of chemical composition and quenched structure on behaviour. Alloys of composition near a ternary-eutectic point have been chosen because they represent a real and complex situation where several crystalline phases may form simultaneously. Crystallization processes are analysed in terms of nucleation and growth stages. Different nucleation mechanisms seem to be best explained in terms of the short range ordered structure of the quenched glass. Analysis of crystal glass interface energies indicates that it is not this energy term which controls the nucleation of crystals on annealing. Crystal growth may involve a eutectic mechanism or a single-phase mechanism controlled by interface or matrix-diffusion kinetics. Crystallization is fastest when eutectic nucleation and growth occurs. Formation of the eutectic colony requires the initial formation of the phase of complex structure followed by the phase of simpler structure

  20. Bimodal microstructure and deformation of cryomilled bulk nanocrystalline Al-7.5Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Z.; Witkin, D.B.; Radmilovic, V.; Lavernia, E.J.; Nutt, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical properties and deformation response of bimodal structured nanocrystalline Al-7.5Mg alloy were investigated. Grain refinement was achieved by cryomilling of atomized Al-7.5Mg powders, and then cryomilled nanocrystalline powders blended with 15 and 30% unmilled coarse-grained powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing followed by extrusion to produce bulk nanocrystalline alloys. Bimodal bulk nanocrystalline Al-7.5Mg alloys, which were comprised of nanocrystalline grains separated by coarse-grain regions, show balanced mechanical properties of enhanced yield and ultimate strength and reasonable ductility and toughness compared to comparable conventional alloys and nanocrystalline metals. The investigation of tensile and hardness test suggests unusual deformation mechanisms and interactions between ductile coarse-grain bands and nanocrystalline regions

  1. Microstructural characterization of Mg-based bulk metallic glass and nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babilas, Rafał, E-mail: rafal.babilas@polsl.pl [Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18a St., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Nowosielski, Ryszard; Pawlyta, Mirosława [Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18a St., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Fitch, Andy [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS40220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Burian, Andrzej [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4 St., 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    New magnesium-based bulk metallic glasses Mg{sub 60}Cu{sub 30}Y{sub 10} have been prepared by pressure casting. Glassy alloys were successfully annealed to become nanocomposite containing 200 nm crystallites in an amorphous matrix. The microstructure of bulk glassy alloy and nanocomposite obtained during heat treatment was examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning and high-resolution electron microscopy. Metallic glass has been also studied to explain the structural characteristics by the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling based on the diffraction data. The HRTEM images allow to indicate some medium-range order (MRO) regions about 2–3 nm in size and formation of local atomic clusters. The RMC modeling results confirmed some kinds of short range order (SRO) structures. It was found that the structure of bulk metallic glass formed by the pressure casting is homogeneous. The composite material contained very small particles in the amorphous matrix. Homogeneous glassy alloy had better corrosion resistance than a composite containing nanocrystalline particles in a glassy matrix. - Highlights: • RMC modeling demonstrates some kinds of SRO structures in Mg-based BMGs. • HRTEM indicated MRO regions about 2–3 nm and SRO regions about 0.5 nm in size. • Mg-based glassy alloys were successfully annealed to become nanocomposite material. • Crystalline particles have spherical morphology with an average diameter of 200 nm. • Glassy alloy had higher corrosion resistance than a nanocomposite sample.

  2. Ceramic filters for bulk inoculation of nickel alloy castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work includes the results of research on production technology of ceramic filters which, besides the traditional filtering function, playalso the role of an inoculant modifying the macrostructure of cast nickel alloys. To play this additional role, filters should demonstratesufficient compression strength and ensure proper flow rate of liquid alloy. The role of an inoculant is played by cobalt aluminateintroduced to the composition of external coating in an amount from 5 to 10 wt.% . The required compression strength (over 1MPa isprovided by the supporting layers, deposited on the preform, which is a polyurethane foam. Based on a two-level fractional experiment24-1, the significance of an impact of various technological parameters (independent variables on selected functional parameters of theready filters was determined. Important effect of the number of the supporting layers and sintering temperature of filters after evaporationof polyurethane foam was stated.

  3. High strength and utilizable ductility of bulk ultrafine-grained Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, X. H.; Han, W. Z.; Huang, C. X.; Zhang, P.; Yang, G.; Wu, S. D.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2008-05-01

    Lack of plasticity is the main drawback for nearly all ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials, which restricts their practical applications. Bulk UFG Cu-Al alloys have been fabricated by using equal channel angular pressing technique. Its ductility was improved to exceed the criteria for structural utility while maintaining a high strength by designing the microstructure via alloying. Factors resulting in the simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility of UFG Cu-Al alloys are the formation of deformation twins and their extensive intersections facilitating accumulation of dislocations.

  4. Laser cladding to select new glassy alloys; Uso do metodo de revestimento por laser na selecao de novas ligas vitreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, L.L.O.; Afonso, C.R.M.; Kiminami, C.S.; Gargarella, P., E-mail: eomedranos@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Vilar, R. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Lisboa (Portugal); Ramasco, B. [Whirlpool Latin America, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    A new experimental technique used to analyze the effect of compositional variation and cooling rate in the phase formation in a multicomponent system is the laser cladding. This work have evaluated the use of laser cladding to discover a new bulk metallic glass (BMG) in the Al-Co-Zr system. Coatings with composition variation have made by laser cladding using Al-Co-Zr alloys powders and the samples produced have been characterized by X ray diffraction, microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results did not show the composition variation as expected, because of incomplete melting during laser process. It was measured a composition variation tendency that allowed the glass forming investigation by the glass formation criterion λ+Δh{sup 1/2}. The results have showed no glass formation in the coating samples, which prove a limited capacity of Zr-Co-Al system to form glass (author)

  5. Effects of B2 precipitate size on transformation-induced plasticity of Cu–Zr–Al glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, C.N. [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, J.C., E-mail: jacobc@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Li, J.B.; Jang, J.S.C. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, C.H. [Department of Mechanical and Electromechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nieh, T.G. [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • This paper addresses the effects of the CuZr B2 size and distribution on plasticity. • There is a critical size to induce the martensitic/twinning transformation. • An analytic model based on melt flow dynamics is settled. -- Abstract: To demonstrate the effect of processing on the microstructure and subsequent mechanical property of bulk metallic glasses, we prepared two alloys, Cu{sub 47.5}Zr{sub 47.5}Al{sub 5} and Cu{sub 47.5}Zr{sub 48}Al{sub 4}Co{sub 0.5}, using two different designs of suction mold – one with a sharp inlet and one with a blunt inlet. The two alloys have been demonstrated previously to be ductile via phase transformation of the B2 phase and twin formation during plastic deformation. Microstructures of the as-cast as well plastically deformed samples, in particular, the size and distribution of the B2 phase, were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Compressive tests were conducted on samples cast by different molds and their properties were found to closely correlate with the B2 morphology. Fluid dynamics during suction casting was also analyzed. Effects of Vena contracta, flow velocity, and Reynolds number were discussed and compared favorably with experimental observations.

  6. Bulk glass formation and crystallization in zirconium based bulk metallic glass forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savalia, R.T.; Neogy, S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2002-01-01

    The microstructures of Zr based metallic glasses produced in bulk form have been described in the as-cast condition and after crystallization. Various microscopic techniques have been used to characterize the microstructures. The microstructure in the as-cast condition was found to contain isolated crystals and crystalline aggregates embedded in the amorphous matrix. Quenched-in nuclei of crystalline phases were found to be present in fully amorphous regions. These glasses after crystallization gave rise to nanocrystalline solids. (author)

  7. Preparation and Properties of Mg-Cu-Y-Al bulk Amorphous Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Ohnuma, M.

    2000-01-01

    Bulk amorphous (Mg(1-gamma)Al(gamma))(60)CU(30)Y(10) alloys were prepared using a relatively simple technique of rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The temperature vs, time was recorded during the cooling and solidification process of the melt and compared with a spacial and tempo......Bulk amorphous (Mg(1-gamma)Al(gamma))(60)CU(30)Y(10) alloys were prepared using a relatively simple technique of rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The temperature vs, time was recorded during the cooling and solidification process of the melt and compared with a spacial...... temperatures in specimens containing a few percent Al. The alloy with no Al crystallises apparently without the formation of nanoparticles. The critical cooling rate for the formation of an amorphous Mg(60)CU(30)Y(10) specimen was determined experimentally by a combination of DSC data and temperature vs, time...

  8. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  9. Study of crystallization kinetics and structural relaxation behavior in phase separated Ag{sub 33}Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 50} glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen, E-mail: prafiziks@gmail.com [Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Nanotechnology Research Centre, DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kabir Nagar, Jalandhar 144008 (India); Yannopoulos, S.N. [Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (FORTH/ICE-HT), P.O. Box 1414, GR-26 504, Rio-Patras (Greece); Sathiaraj, T.S. [Department of Physics, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Thangaraj, R., E-mail: rthangaraj@rediffmail.com [Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2012-07-16

    We report on the crystallization processes and structure (crystal phases) of Ag{sub 33}Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 50} glassy alloy using differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction techniques, respectively. The devitrification that gives rise to the first exothermic peak results in the crystallization of Ag{sub 2}Se and Ag{sub 8}GeSe{sub 6} phases, while the growth of GeSe{sub 2} accompanied by the transformation of Ag{sub 8}GeSe{sub 6} to Ag{sub 2}Se phase occurs during the second crystallization process. Different theoretical models are used to elucidate various kinetic parameters for the crystallization transformation process in this phase separated system. With annealing below the glass transition temperature, an inverse behavior between the variation of the optical gap and the band tailing parameter is observed for the thermally evaporated films. These results are explained as the mixing of different clusters/species in the amorphous state and/or changes caused by structural relaxation of the glassy network for the thermally evaporated films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase separation in Ag{sub 33}Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 50} glassy alloy bordering two glass forming regions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformation of Ag{sub 8}GeSe{sub 6} {yields} Ag{sub 2}Se along with crystallization GeSe{sub 2} phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elucidation of various kinetic parameters for the crystalline transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural relaxation in thermally evaporated films by optical spectroscopy.

  10. EFFECT OF THE TEMPERATURE ON THE FRICTION AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF BULK AMORPHOUS ALLOY

    OpenAIRE

    DAWIT ZENEBE SEGU; PYUNG HWANG; SEOCK-SAM KIM

    2014-01-01

    The present paper report the results of an experimental investigation of the temperature effect on the sliding friction and wear properties of the bulk metallic glass (BMG). To improve the friction and wear properties of the BMG, the disk specimens were developed in the alloy system of Fe67.6C7.1Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cr2.3Mo2.6Al2Co1.0 using hot metal and industrial ferro-alloys. The friction and wear test was performed using flat-on-flat contact configuration of unidirectional tribometer and Si3N4 ce...

  11. Coupling between bulk ordering and surface segregation: from alloy surfaces to surface alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallis, Coralie

    1997-01-01

    -The knowledge of the alloy surfaces is of prime interest to understand their catalytic properties. On the one hand, the determination of the stability of the surface alloys depends very strongly on the behaviours of the A c B 1-c alloy surfaces. On the other hand, the knowledge of the kinetics of the formation-dissolution of surface alloys can allow to understand the equilibrium segregation isotherm. We have then studied the relation between the equilibrium surface segregation in an alloy A c B 1-c and the kinetics of dissolution of a few metallic layers of A/B and the inverse deposit. We have used an energetic model derived from the electronic structure (T.I.B.M.) allowing us to study the surface segregation both in the disordered state and in the ordered one. The kinetics of dissolution were studied using the kinetic version of this model (K.T.I.B.M.) consistent with the equilibrium model. To illustrate our study, we have chosen the Cu-Pd system, a model for the formation of surface alloys and for which a great number of studies, both experimental and theoretical, are in progress. We then have shown for the (111) surface of this system that the surface alloys obtained during the dissolution are related to the alloy surfaces observed for the equilibrium segregation. The Cu-Pd system is characteristic of systems which have a weak segregation energy. Then, we have performed an equivalent study for a system with a strong segregation energy. Our choice was directly put on the Pt-Sn system. The surface behaviour, both in equilibrium and during the kinetics of dissolution, is very different from the Cu-Pd case. In particular, we have found pure 2-D surface alloys. Finally, a quenched molecular dynamics study has allowed us to determine the relative stability of various possible surface superstructures. (author) [fr

  12. Formation and crystallization kinetics of Nd-Fe-B-based bulk amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Ge, Hongliang; Zhang, Pengyue; Li, Dongyun; Wang, Zisheng [China Jiliang University, Magnetism Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    In order to improve the glass-forming ability (GFA) of Nd-Fe-B ternary alloys to obtain fully amorphous bulk Nd-Fe-B-based alloy, the effects of Mo and Y doping on GFA of the alloys were investigated. It was found that the substitution of Mo for Fe and Y for Nd enhanced the GFA of the Nd-Y-Fe-Mo-B alloys. It was also revealed that the GFA of the samples was optimized by 4 at.% Mo doping and increased with theYcontent. The fully amorphous structures were all formed in the Nd{sub 6-x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} (x =1-5) alloy rods with 1.5 mm-diameter. After subsequent crystallization, the devitrified Nd{sub 3}Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} alloy rod exhibited a uniform distribution of grains with a coercivity of 364.1 kA/m. The crystallization behavior of Nd{sub 3}Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} BMG was investigated in isothermal situation. The Avrami exponent n determined by JAM plot is lower than 2.5, implying that the crystallization is mainly governed by a growth of particles with decreasing nucleation rate. (orig.)

  13. Critically designing today’s melt processed bulk magnesium alloys using boron rich nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramsothy, Muralidharan; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • B 4 C nanoparticles increased the tensile ductility of Mg–Al alloy to about 25%. • SiB 6 nanoparticles increased the tensile ductility of Mg–Zn alloy to about 23%. • ZrB 2 nanoparticles increased the tensile strength of Mg–RE alloy to above 400 MPa. • Hypothetically, 5–10% cold working could significantly increase tensile strength. • Hypothetically, 5–10% cold working could maintain tensile ductility above 10%. - Abstract: In this work, boron rich nanoparticles (B 4 C, SiB 6 and ZrB 2 ) were added to bulk melt processed Mg–Al, Mg–Zn and Mg–RE (Rare Earth) series contemporary magnesium alloys, respectively. The most obvious positive effect when adding B 4 C nanoparticles to the Mg–Al alloy was the significant increase in tensile ductility (to about 25%). Here, there was no significant change in grain size or crystallographic texture due to nanoparticle addition. However, it was observed that stacking faults formed more easily in the magnesium matrix due to nanoparticle addition. Also, it was observed that coarser nanoparticles broke down high strain zones (HSZs) during tensile deformation. The addition of SiB 6 to Mg–Zn alloy also resulted in similar significant increase in tensile ductility (to about 23%). Tensile deformation induced alignment of more rounded and spherical nanoparticles was observed. Stacking faults forming more easily in the alloy matrix was also observed. However, the formation of nanograins (nanoscale recrystallization) during room temperature tensile deformation was observed in this system. This implied that nanograin rotation during deformation was also responsible for the observed enhanced tensile ductility. When ZrB 2 was added to Mg–RE alloy, the tensile strength was significantly enhanced (yield strength >400 MPa) after thermal ageing. Here, the ZrB 2 nanoparticles induced the formation of thermal ageing resistant long period stacking/ordered (LPSO) nanograins and nanolayers in the Mg

  14. Optical and Electrical Characterization of Melt-Grown Bulk Indium Gallium Arsenide and Indium Arsenic Phosphide Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    spectrum, photoluminescence (PL), and refractive index measurements. Other methods such as infrared imagery and micro probe wavelength dispersing ...States. AFIT/DS/ENP/11-M02 OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT- GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ...CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT-GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ALLOYS Jean Wei, BS, MS Approved

  15. Temperature dependence of the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E. [University of Ibadan, Department of Physics, Ibadan (Nigeria); Azeez, A.A. [African University of Science and Technology, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2017-05-15

    The effects of temperature on the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys have been theoretically investigated, using a combination of self association model, Darken's thermodynamic equation for diffusion, empirical model for viscosity and a statistical mechanics model. The results from this study show that change in temperature resulted in cross-over effects in bulk and surface properties. We also found that with an increase in temperature, a pronounced asymmetry of viscosity isotherm is significantly reduced, and viscosity isotherm exhibited anomalous behaviour. Our results reveal that the homocoordination tendency in Zn-Cd liquid alloys is not strong and reduces with increasing temperature. The study further suggests a pronounced segregation of Cd-atoms at the surface of Zn-Cd liquid alloys and the extent of segregation reduces with temperature. We as well found that, in addition to the reported understanding that size-factor determines the compositional location of asymmetry of the viscosity isotherm, temperature is an operating parameter that has effect, not only on the composition of asymmetry, but also on the magnitude of asymmetry. In all the properties investigated, the most pronounced effect of temperature (52.9 %) is on the viscosity while the least effect (7.1 %) is on the surface tension. (orig.)

  16. Cluster-based bulk metallic glass formation in Fe-Si-B-Nb alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, C L; Wang, Q; Li, F W; Li, Y H; Wang, Y M; Dong, C [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, W; Inoue, A, E-mail: dong@dlut.edu.c [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass formations have been explored in Fe-B-Si-Nb alloy system using the so-called atomic cluster line approach in combination with minor alloying guideline. The atomic cluster line refers to a straight line linking binary cluster to the third element in a ternary system. The basic ternary compositions in Fe-B-Si system are determined by the inetersection points of two cluster lines, namely Fe-B cluster to Si and Fe-Si cluster to B, and then further alloyed with 3-5 at. % Nb for enhancing glass forming abilities. BMG rods with a diameter of 3 mm are formed under the case of minor Nb alloying the basic intersecting compositions of Fe{sub 8}B{sub 3}-Si with Fe{sub 12}Si-B and Fe{sub 8}B{sub 2}-Si with Fe{sub 9}Si-B. The BMGs also exhibit high Vickers hardness (H{sub v}) of 1130-1164 and high Young's modulous (E) of 170-180 GPa

  17. Crystallization Behavior of A Bulk Amorphous Mg62Cu26Y12 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shyue-Sheng; Chin, Tsung-Shune; Su, Kuo-Chang

    1994-07-01

    The crystallization temperature, the associated activation energy and the crystallized structure of a bulk amorphous Mg62Cu26Y12 alloy with a diameter of 2.5 mm were studied. It possesses a one-step crystallization behavior. The crystallization reaction was found to be represented by: AM(MG62Cu26Y12)→Mg2Cu+MgY+CuY+Mg, ( Tx=188°C, Eac=134 kJ/mol) where AM represents the amorphous state, T x the crystallization temperature at an infinitesimal heating rate, and E ac the associated activation energy. The amount of crystalline phases were found to be Mg2Cu:MgY:CuY=76:17:7. The Mg phase is identifiable only by high resolution electron microscopy, not by X-ray diffraction. The crystallization leads to a sharp rise in electrical resistivity which is reversed to those of iron-based amorphous alloys.

  18. Synthesis of carbon nanofibers by catalytic CVD of chlorobenzene over bulk nickel alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzhin, Roman M.; Bauman, Yuri I.; Volodin, Alexander M.; Mishakov, Ilya V.; Vedyagin, Aleksey A.

    2018-01-01

    Catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) of chlorobenzene over bulk nickel alloy (nichrome) was studied. The bulk Ni-containing samples being exposed to a contact with aggressive reaction medium undergo self-disintegration followed by growth of carbon nanofibers. This process, also known as a metal dusting, requires the simultaneous presence of chlorine and hydrogen sources in the reaction mixture. Molecule of chlorobenzene complies with these requirements. The experiments on CCVD were performed in a flow-through reactor system. The initial stages of nickel disintegration process were investigated in a closed system under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperature (RAPET) conditions. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies and ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied to examine the samples after their interaction with chlorobenzene. Introduction of additional hydrogen into the flow-through system was shown to affect the morphology of grown carbon nanofibers.

  19. Non-destructive identification of unknown minor phases in polycrystalline bulk alloys using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yiming, E-mail: yangyiming1988@outlook.com [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Liang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Yudan; Du, Guohao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yang, Sam [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Melbourne, VIC 3168 (Australia); Xiao, Tiqiao, E-mail: tqxiao@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Minor phases make considerable contributions to the mechanical and physical properties of metals and alloys. Unfortunately, it is difficult to identify unknown minor phases in a bulk polycrystalline material using conventional metallographic methods. Here, a non-destructive method based on three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) is developed to solve this problem. Simulation results demonstrate that this method is simultaneously able to identify minor phase grains and reveal their positions, orientations and sizes within bulk alloys. According to systematic simulations, the 3DXRD method is practicable for an extensive sample set, including polycrystalline alloys with hexagonal, orthorhombic and cubic minor phases. Experiments were also conducted to confirm the simulation results. The results for a bulk sample of aluminum alloy AA6061 show that the crystal grains of an unexpected γ-Fe (austenite) phase can be identified, three-dimensionally and nondestructively. Therefore, we conclude that the 3DXRD method is a powerful tool for the identification of unknown minor phases in bulk alloys belonging to a variety of crystal systems. This method also has the potential to be used for in situ observations of the effects of minor phases on the crystallographic behaviors of alloys. - Highlights: •A method based on 3DXRD is developed for identification of unknown minor phase. •Grain position, orientation and size, is simultaneously acquired. •A systematic simulation demonstrated the applicability of the proposed method. •Experimental results on a AA6061 sample confirmed the practicability of the method.

  20. Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys with iron contents as high as 82 at%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jin-Feng; Liu, Xue; Zhao, Shao-Fan; Ding, Hong-Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yao, Ke-Fu, E-mail: kfyao@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs) with high Fe contents are advantageous due to their high saturation magnetization and low cost. However, preparing Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents higher than 80 at% is difficult due to their poor glass forming abilities (GFA). In this study, an Fe{sub 81}P{sub 8.5}C{sub 5.5}B{sub 2}Si{sub 3} BAA with a diameter of 1 mm and a saturation magnetization of 1.56 T was successfully prepared using the fluxing and copper mold casting methods. In addition, by introducing a small amount of elemental Mo to the alloy, an Fe{sub 82}Mo{sub 1}P{sub 6.5}C{sub 5.5}B{sub 2}Si{sub 3} BAA rod with a diameter of 1 mm, a high saturation magnetization of 1.59 T, a high yield stress of 3265 MPa, and a clear plasticity of 1.3% was prepared in the same way. The cost effectiveness and good magnetic properties of these newly-developed Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents as high as 82 at% would be advantageous and promising for industrial applications. - Highlights: • Novel Fe-based BAA with no other metallic element except 81 at% Fe was prepared. • Fe-based bulk amorphous alloy (BAA) with the highest Fe content (82%) was prepared. • Very high saturation magnetization of 1.59 T has been achieved. • A new thought for designing Fe-based BAA with high Fe content was provided.

  1. Roles of Co element in Fe-based bulk metallic glasses utilizing industrial FeB alloy as raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyuan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses were fabricated by a conventional copper mold casting method using a kind of Fe-B industrial raw alloy. It is found that Fe-B-Y-Nb bulk metallic glass with 3 at% of Co addition possesses the best glass forming ability, thermal stability, hardness, magnetic property and anti-corrosion property. The hardness test result indicates a synchronically trend with glass-forming ability parameters. The excellent glass-forming ability and a combination of good mechanical and functional properties suggest that the alloys in this work might be good candidates for commercial use.

  2. Thermal behavior and melt fragility number of Cu100-x Zrx glassy alloys in terms of crystallization and viscous flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russew, K.; Stojanova, L.; Yankova, S.; Fazakas, E.; Varga, L. K.

    2009-01-01

    Six Cu100-xZrx amorphous alloys (x in the range 35.7 - 60 at. percent) were prepared via chill block melt spinning (CBMS) method under low pressure Helium atmosphere. Their crystallization and viscous flow behavior was studied with the aid of Perkin Elmer DSC 2C and Perkin Elmer TMS 2 devices, respectively. The viscous flow temperature dependencies at a heating rate of 20 K min-1 were interpreted on the basis of the f ree volume model. The DSC and TMS data were used to determine the fragility number m of Angell in three different ways as a function of alloy composition. It has been shown that the fragility number goes over a maximum and has a minimum at x very near to the alloy composition Cu64Zr36 in good agreement with the results of Donghua Xu et al. and Wang D et al. The experimental techniques and model interpretation used provide a tool for understanding the glass forming ability (GFA) and relaxation phenomena in metallic glasses.

  3. Thermal behavior and melt fragility number of Cu100-x Zrx glassy alloys in terms of crystallization and viscous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russew, K; Stojanova, L; Yankova, S; Fazakas, E; Varga, L K

    2009-01-01

    Six Cu 100-x Zr x amorphous alloys (x in the range 35.7 - 60 at. percent) were prepared via chill block melt spinning (CBMS) method under low pressure Helium atmosphere. Their crystallization and viscous flow behavior was studied with the aid of Perkin Elmer DSC 2C and Perkin Elmer TMS 2 devices, respectively. The viscous flow temperature dependencies at a heating rate of 20 K min -1 were interpreted on the basis of the f ree volume model. The DSC and TMS data were used to determine the fragility number m of Angell in three different ways as a function of alloy composition. It has been shown that the fragility number goes over a maximum and has a minimum at x very near to the alloy composition Cu 64 Zr 36 in good agreement with the results of Donghua Xu et al. and Wang D et al. The experimental techniques and model interpretation used provide a tool for understanding the glass forming ability (GFA) and relaxation phenomena in metallic glasses.

  4. Characterization of mechanically alloyed Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites containing carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.F. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, No. 2, Beining Road, Keelung (China); Lin, H.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, No.40, Sec. 3, Jhongshan N. Rd. Jhongshan District, Taipei 104 Taiwan (China); Lee, P.Y.

    2008-11-15

    This study explored the feasibility of preparing CNT/Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 28}Ni{sub 15}Sn{sub 7} bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites though powder metallurgy route. The CNT/Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 28}Ni{sub 15}Sn{sub 7} BMG composites were obtained by consolidating the 8h mechanically alloyed composite powders by vacuum hot pressing process. A significant increase in hardness (9.34 GPa) and fracture strength (1937 MPa) was achieved for the Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 28}Ni{sub 15}Sn{sub 7} BMG composites containing 12 vol. % CNT. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Observation of giant exchange bias in bulk Mn50Ni42Sn8 Heusler alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Suresh, K. G.

    2015-02-01

    We report a giant exchange bias (EB) field of 3520 Oe in bulk Mn50Ni42Sn8 Heusler alloy. The low temperature magnetic state of the martensite phase has been studied by DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements. Frequency dependence of spin freezing temperature (Tf) on critical slowing down relation and observation of memory effect in zero field cooling mode confirms the super spin glass (SSG) phase at low temperatures. Large EB is attributed to the strong exchange coupling between the SSG clusters formed by small regions of ferromagnetic order embedded in an antiferromagnetic (AFM) matrix. The temperature and cooling field dependence of EB have been studied and related to the change in unidirectional anisotropy at SSG/AFM interface. The training effect also corroborates with the presence of frozen (SSG) moments at the interface and their role in EB.

  6. Wetting behavior of molten In-Sn alloy on bulk amorphous and crystalline Cu40Zr44Al8Ag8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, G. F.; Zhang, H. F.; Li, H.; Hu, Z. Q.

    2007-01-01

    Using the sessile-drop method, the wettability of the molten In-Sn alloy on bulk amorphous and crystalline Cu 40 Zr 44 Al 8 Ag 8 alloy was studied at different temperatures. It was found that the equilibrium contact angle of In-Sn alloy melt on bulk amorphous substrate was smaller than that of the crystalline one. An intermetallic compound existed at the interface of In-Sn alloy on amorphous Cu 40 Zr 44 Al 8 Ag 8 , while no intermediate reaction layer was formed at the interface of In-Sn alloy on crystalline Cu 40 Zr 44 Al 8 Ag 8 in the temperature range studied

  7. Alloying effect on the room temperature creep characteristics of a Ti-Zr-Be bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pan; Wang, Sibo; Li, Fangwei; Wang, Xinyun

    2018-02-01

    The effect of alloying elements (e.g. Fe, Al, and Ni) on the room temperature creep behavior of a lightweight Ti41Zr25Be34 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was investigated via nanoindentation tests. The generalized Kelvin model was adopted to describe the creep curves. The strain rate sensitivity m has been derived as a measure of the creep resistance. The compliance spectrum and retardation spectrum were also derived. The results show that the creep resistance of Ti41Zr25Be34 alloy can be obviously improved with the addition of alloying elements, and the most effective element is found to be Al. The mechanism for enhancing the creep resistance was discussed in terms of the scale variation of the shear transformation zone induced by alloying.

  8. Effects of Nb and Si on densities of valence electrons in bulk and defects of Fe3Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文; 钟夏平; 黄宇阳; 熊良钺; 王淑荷; 郭建亭; 龙期威

    1999-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements have been performed in binary Fe3Al and Fe3Al doping with Nb or Si alloys. The densities of valence electrons of the bulk and microdefects in all tested samples have been calculated by using the positron lifetime parameters. Density of valence electron is low in the bulk of Fe3Al alloy. It indicates that, the 3d electrons in a Fe atom have strong-localized properties and tend to form covalent bonds with Al atoms, and the bonding nature in Fe3Al is a mixture of metallic and covalent bonds. The density of valence electron is very low in the defects of Fe3Al grain boundary, which makes the bonding cohesion in grain boundary quite weak. The addition of Si to Fe3Al gives rise to the decrease of the densities of valence electrons in the bulk and the grain boundary thus the metallic bonding cohesion. This makes the alloy more brittle. The addition of Nb to Fe3Al results in the decrease of the ordering energy of the alloy and increases the density of valence electron and th

  9. Glassy metals

    CERN Document Server

    Russew, Krassimir

    2016-01-01

    The topics discussed in this book focus on fundamental problems concerning the structural relaxation of amorphous metallic alloys, above all the possibility of studying it on the basis of viscous flow behavior and its relation to rheological anomalies, such as bend stress relaxation, thermal expansion, specific heat, density changes, and crystallization. Most relaxation studies deal with the relaxation changes of a single definite material property, and not with a wider spectrum of physical properties integrated into a common framework. This book shows that it is possible to describe these property changes on the basis of a more comprehensive theoretical understanding of their mechanism.

  10. A multi-component Zr alloy with comparable strength and Higher plasticity than Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, S.X.; Yin, L.X.; Ma, M.Z.; Jing, R.; Yu, P.F.; Zhang, Y.F.; Wang, B.A.; Liu, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr)-based bulk metallic glass possesses the highest potential as a structural material among metallic glasses. Although Zr-based bulk metallic glass exhibits extremely high strength, its potential application has been restricted by a number of issues, such as fragility, small size, difficult fabrication into different shapes and poisonous beryllium content, among others. In this paper, a Zr-based crystal alloy with comparable strength and higher plasticity than Zr-based bulk metallic glass is presented. The proposed Zr-based alloy has a tensile strength greater than 1600 MPa. That value is comparable to the 1500 MPa to 2000 MPa strength of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). The ductility in terms of elongation reached 6.2%; at the same time, the 1400 MPa tensile strength was retained. This phenomenon is not possible for Zr-based BMGs. XRD results show that the proposed ultrahigh-strength Zr-based crystal alloy has two-phase structures: an hcp-structured α phase and a bcc-structured β phase. The forged specimen exhibits a typical basket-weave microstructure, which is characterised by the interlaced plate α phase separated from the β phase matrix. Fine, short bar-shaped α phases precipitated along the original β grain boundary together with ultrafine dot-shaped α phases that presented inside the original β grain when the ageing temperature was between 500 °C and 525 °C. As the ageing temperature increased, the dot-shaped α phase grew into plate shapes, decreasing the material's strength and increasing its plasticity. The ultrafine dot-shaped and short bar-shaped α phases in the original β phase matrix are the main strengthening mechanisms of the ultrahigh-strength Zr-based crystal alloy.

  11. Influence of minor alloying additions on the glass-forming ability of Mg-Ni-La bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.; Figueroa, I.A.; Todd, I.

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses of Mg 60 Ni 23.6 Y x La (16.4-x) and Mg 65 Ni 20 Y x LaMM (15-x) with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 at.% have been produced by injection casting. For the La-containing alloy a maximum amorphous diameter of 4 mm for x = 0.5 and 0.75 was obtained. The LaMM-containing alloy showed a maximum amorphous diameter of 2 mm for x = 0 and 0.25 but decreased to 1 mm with further Y additions. The glass-forming ability of the Mg 60 Ni 23.6 La 16.4 alloy decreased when La is partially substituted by small amounts of small atoms (Si or B) or by large atoms (Y and Si).

  12. Direct and indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect in bulk and nanostructured Ni-Mn-In Heusler alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Mohammadreza; Aslani, Amir; Hosseinnia, Marjan; Bennett, Lawrence H.; Della Torre, Edward

    2018-05-01

    A systematic study of the magnetocaloric effect of a Ni51Mn33.4In15.6 Heusler alloy converted to nanoparticles via high energy ball-milling technique in the temperature range of 270 to 310 K has been performed. The properties of the particles were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and magnetometer techniques. Isothermal magnetic field variation of magnetization exhibits field hysteresis in bulk Ni51Mn33.4In15.6 alloy across the martensitic transition which significantly lessened in the nanoparticles. The magnetocaloric effects of the bulk and nanoparticle samples were measured both with direct method, through our state of the art direct test bed apparatus with controllability over the applied fields and temperatures, as well as an indirect method through Maxwell and thermodynamic equations. In direct measurements, nanoparticle sample's critical temperature decreased by 6 K, but its magnetocaloric effect enhanced by 17% over the bulk counterpart. Additionally, when comparing the direct and indirect magnetocaloric curves, the direct method showed 14% less adiabatic temperature change in the bulk and 5% less adiabatic temperature change in the nanostructured sample.

  13. Effects of configurational changes on electrical resistivity during glass-liquid transition of two bulk metal-alloy glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, D. P. B.; Johari, G. P., E-mail: joharig@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-12-14

    Consequences of increase in structural fluctuations on heating Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 30}P{sub 20} and Zr{sub 46.75}Ti{sub 8.25}Cu{sub 7.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 27.5} through their glass to liquid transition range were investigated by measuring the electrical resistivity, ρ, an electron scattering property. The temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR = (1/ρ) dρ/dT) of the liquid and glassy states is negative. The plots of their ρ against T in the T{sub g} (glass to liquid transition) range show a gradual change in the slope similar to the change observed generally for the plots of the density, elastic modulus, and refractive index. As fluctuations in the melt structure involve fewer configurations on cooling, ρ increases. In the energy landscape description, the melt's structure explores fewer minima with decrease in T, vibrational frequencies increase, and electron scattering and ρ increase. Plots of (−dρ/dT) against T resemble the plot of the specific heat of other glasses and show a sub-T{sub g} feature and a rapid rise at T near T{sub g}. Analysis shows that the magnitude of negative TCR is dominated by change in the phonon characteristics, and configurational fluctuations make it more negative. The TCR of the liquid and glassy states seems qualitatively consistent with the variation in the structure factor in Ziman's model for pure liquid metals as extended by Nagel to metal alloys and used to explain the negative TCR of a two-component metal glass.

  14. Crystallization-induced plasticity of Cu-Zr containing bulk amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok-Woo; Huh, Moo-Young; Fleury, Eric; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the parameter governing the plasticity observed in various Cu-Zr containing monolithic amorphous alloys. All the alloys were fully amorphous in their as-cast condition but exhibited different plastic strains. Microscopic observations of the quasi-statically compressed alloys showed abundant nanocrystallites in the amorphous matrices in the alloys that exhibited pronounced plasticity. On the other hand, insignificant changes in the microstructure were observed in the alloy that did not show plasticity. The mechanism for the formation of these deformation-induced nanocrystallites was examined from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and kinetics. The role of the deformation-induced nanocrystallites on the plasticity of the amorphous alloy was examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that compressive loading facilitates nanocrystallization in monolithic Cu-Zr containing amorphous alloys, resulting in plasticity. The parameter governing the plasticity in these monolithic Cu-Zr containing amorphous alloys lies in the activation energy for the overall crystallization process

  15. Tuning structural motifs and alloying of bulk immiscible Mo-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles by gas-phase synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still remains a formidable challenge. Hence, we present here a general methodology for gas phase synthesis of bimetallic NPs with distinctively different structural motifs ranging at a single particle level from a fully mixed alloy to core-shell, to onion (multi-shell), and finally to a Janus/dumbbell, with the same overall particle composition. These concepts are illustrated for Mo-Cu NPs, where the precise control of the bimetallic NPs with various degrees of chemical ordering, including different shapes from spherical to cube, is achieved by tailoring the energy and thermal environment that the NPs experience during their production. The initial state of NP growth, either in the liquid or in the solid state phase, has important implications for the different structural motifs and shapes of synthesized NPs. Finally we demonstrate that we are able to tune the alloying regime, for the otherwise bulk immiscible Mo-Cu, by achieving an increase of the critical size, below which alloying occurs, closely up to an order of magnitude. It is discovered that the critical size of the NP alloy is not only affected by controlled tuning of the alloying temperature but also by the particle shape.Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of rapidly quenched and as-cast bulk NdFeBCu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Ll, J.L.; Bustamante S, R.; Barthem, V.M.T.S.; Miranda, P.E.V. de

    2005-01-01

    A study of the structural and magnetic properties of as-cast and melt spun (x)Nd 2 Fe 14 B(100-x)Nd 70 Cu 30 alloys (x=10, 50 and 75%wt.) is presented. In as-cast alloys for x=10wt%. the formation of a high coercivity phase, referred to as N (T C =240 deg. C, i H C =4.9kOe) is found. N is a (Nd-Fe)-based phase with a Fe/Nd ratio lower than that of phase Nd 2 Fe 14 B (φ). It is suggested that this phase is related to the A 1 phase found in binary Nd-Fe alloys. In melt-spun alloys, at the same x value of 10wt%, another hard phase is found which is suggested to be the Nd 6 Fe 13 Cu δ-phase (T C =192 deg. C, i H C =4.8kOe). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs of the ribbons with x=10wt% shows the formation of nanograins with a non-uniform grain size distribution. In cast alloys with x=50 and 75wt% large slab-like grains of φ are formed, in the inter-granular region a Nd-Cu eutectic phase and Nd grains, are observed. High coercivities are obtained in ribbons with x=50wt% ( i H C =19.7kOe) and 75wt% ( i H C =13.0kOe). A slight reduction in the Curie temperature of the φ-phase with respect to the bulk value is found in these ribbons

  17. Magnetic characterisation of large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O superconductor–soft ferromagnetic alloy hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.P.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Kirsch, S.; Xu, Z.; Dennis, A.R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D.A.; Vanderheyden, B.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large grain, bulk YBaCuO superconductor (SC) combined with ferromagnetic elements. • The flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet in the remanent state. • The trapped field in the SC is enhanced by the presence of the ferromagnet. • The effects of the SC and the ferromagnet add when the ferromagnet is saturated. - Abstract: Large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) high temperature superconductors (HTS) have significant potential for use in a variety of practical applications that incorporate powerful quasi-permanent magnets. In the present work, we investigate how the trapped field of such magnets can be improved by combining bulk YBCO with a soft FeNi, ferromagnetic alloy. This involves machining the alloy into components of various shapes, such as cylinders and rings, which are attached subsequently to the top surface of a solid, bulk HTS cylinder. The effect of these modifications on the magnetic hysteresis curve and trapped field of the bulk superconductor at 77 K are then studied using pick-up coil and Hall probe measurements. The experimental data are compared to finite element modelling of the magnetic flux distribution using Campbell’s algorithm. Initially we establish the validity of the technique involving pick-up coils wrapped around the bulk superconductor to obtain its magnetic hysteresis curve in a non-destructive way and highlight the difference between the measured signal and the true magnetization of the sample. We then consider the properties of hybrid ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) structures. Hall probe measurements, together with the results of the model, establish that flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet, which acts, effectively, like a magnetic short circuit. Magnetic hysteresis curves show that the effects of the superconductor and the ferromagnet simply add when the ferromagnet is saturated fully by the applied field. The trapped field of the hybrid structure is always larger than that of the

  18. First-principles calculations of bulk and interfacial thermodynamic properties for fcc-based Al-Sc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asta, M.; Foiles, S.M.; Quong, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The configurational thermodynamic properties of fcc-based Al-Sc alloys and coherent Al/Al 3 Sc interphase-boundary interfaces have been calculated from first principles. The computational approach used in this study combines the results of pseudopotential total-energy calculations with a cluster-expansion description of the alloy energetics. Bulk and interface configurational-thermodynamic properties are computed using a low-temperature-expansion technique. Calculated values of the {100} and {111} Al/Al 3 Sc interfacial energies at zero temperature are, respectively, 192 and 226mJ/m 2 . The temperature dependence of the calculated interfacial free energies is found to be very weak for {100} and more appreciable for {111} orientations; the primary effect of configurational disordering at finite temperature is to reduce the degree of crystallographic anisotropy associated with calculated interfacial free energies. The first-principles-computed solid-solubility limits for Sc in bulk fcc Al are found to be underestimated significantly in comparison with experimental measurements. It is argued that this discrepancy can be largely attributed to nonconfigurational contributions to the entropy which have been neglected in the present thermodynamic calculations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on flow and fracture of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be bulk amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowhaphandu, P.; Montgomery, S.L.; Lewandowski, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent successes in producing bulk amorphous alloys have renewed interest in this class of materials. Although amorphous metallic alloys have been shown to exhibit strengths in excess of 2.0 GPa, most of the earlier studies on such materials were conducted on tape or ribbon specimens due to the high cooling rates required to achieve the amorphous structure. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the flow and fracture behavior of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be bulk metallic glass utilizing procedures successfully utilized on a range of structural materials, as reviewed recently. In general, few studies of this type have been conducted on metallic glasses, although thin ribbons (i.e., 300 microm thick) of a Pd-Cu-Si amorphous material tested with superimposed pressure have been reported previously. In particular, the effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure over levels ranging from 50 MPa to 575 MPa on the flow/fracture behavior of cylindrical tensile specimens were compared to the flow and fracture behavior of identical materials tested in uniaxial tension and compression. It is shown that changes in stress triaxiality, defined as σ m /bar σ, over the range of -0.33 to 0.33 produced a negligible effect on the fracture stress and fracture strain, while the orientation of the macroscopic fracture plane with respect to the loading axis was significantly affected by changes in σ m /bar σ

  20. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  1. High thermal shock resistance of the hot rolled and swaged bulk W–ZrC alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.M.; Liu, R.; Miao, S.; Yang, X.D. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, T., E-mail: zhangtao@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fang, Q.F.; Wang, X.P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, C.S., E-mail: csliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Lian, Y.Y. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Liu, X., E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-02-15

    The thermal shock (single shot) resistance and mechanical properties of the W–0.5wt% ZrC (WZC) alloys manufactured by ordinary sintering followed by swaging or rolling process were investigated. No cracks or surface melting were detected on the surface of the rolled WZC alloy plates after thermal shock at a power density of 0.66 GW/m{sup 2} for 5 ms, while primary intergranular cracks appear on the surface of the swaged WZC samples after thermal shock at a power density of 0.44 GW/m{sup 2} for 5 ms. Three point bending tests indicate that the rolled WZC alloy has a flexural strength of ∼2.4 GPa and a total strain of 1.8% at room temperature, which are 100% and 260% higher than those of the swaged WZC, respectively. The fracture energy density of the rolled WZC alloy is 3.23 × 10{sup 7} J/m{sup 3}, about 10 times higher than that of the swaged WZC (2.9 × 10{sup 6} J/m{sup 3}). The high thermal shock resistance of the rolled WZC alloys can be ascribed to their extraordinary ductility and plasticity. - Graphical abstract: (Left panel) surface morphology observed by optical microscope after a single pulse for 5 ms with various absorbed power densities at RT on the rolled WZC. (Right panel) curves of flexural stress versus strain at RT (a) and the calculated fracture energy (b) for the swaged WZC and rolled WZC alloys. - Highlights: • No cracks or surface melting were detected on the rolled WZC alloy samples after thermal shock at 0.66 GW/m{sup 2} for 5 ms. • Hot rolled WZC alloy plates exhibit a flexural strength of 2.4 GPa and a strain of 1.8% at RT. • The fracture energy of the rolled WZC alloy is 3.23 × 10{sup 7} J/m{sup 3} at RT, about 10 times higher than that of the swaged WZC. • A detailed analysis of the relationships between the mechanical properties and the thermal shock resistance is given.

  2. Investigation of Ti-Fe-Co bulk alloys with high strength and enhanced ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Louzguina-Luzgina, Larissa V.; Kato, Hidemi; Inoue, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    High-strength Ti-Fe-Co alloys were produced in the shape of arc-melted ingots with the dimensions of about 20-25mm in diameter and 7-10mm in height. The structure of the Ti-Fe-Co alloys (at Fe/Co ratio >1) studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy consisted of an ordered Pm3-bar m Ti(FeCo) compound and a disordered body-centered cubic Im3-bar m β-Ti solid solution. The optimization of the Ti-Fe-Co alloy composition is performed from the viewpoint of both high strength and ductility. The strongest Ti-Fe-Co alloys have a hypereutectic structure and exhibit a high strength of about 2000MPa and a plastic deformation of 15%. The high strength and ductility values can be achieved without using the injection mould casting or rapid solidification procedure. The deformation behavior and the fractography of Ti-Fe-Co alloys are studied in detail

  3. Effect of boron addition to the hard magnetic bulk Nd60Fe30Al10 amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, H.Z.; Li, Y.; Ding, J.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed study of the effect of boron addition to crystallinity, magnetic properties and thermal properties was carried out for alloys Nd 60-x Fe 30 Al 10 B x with x=0, 1, 3 and 5 produced by copper mold chill casting and melt-spinning. The cast rods of alloys Nd 60-x Fe 30 Al 10 B x were largely amorphous. Remanence up to 0.154 T and coercivity up to 355 kA/m were observed, which were higher than those of the bulk amorphous Nd 60 Fe 30 Al 10 rod of the same diameter. A step in hysteresis loop was observed for the hard magnetic cast rod and ribbon melt-spun at a low speed of 5 m/s of the alloys with boron addition. Consistent increase in the amplitude of the step and magnetic field (H) at which the step was observed as the boron content increased. A single magnetic phase with low coercivity was observed for fully amorphous ribbon melt-spun at high speed of 30 m/s. Full crystallization due to heat treatment resulted in transition of hard magnetic amorphous phase of Nd 55 Fe 30 Al 10 B 5 cast rod to paramagnetic crystalline phases. TEM results of the as-cast rods illustrated the existence of numerous minute Nd-crystallites in amorphous matrix

  4. Is Cu60Ti10Zr30 a bulk glass-forming alloy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Saida, J.; Kato, H.

    2003-01-01

    . Nanocrystals with a significant volume fraction are randomly distributed in the amorphous matrix. The copper element is enriched in nanocrystals while a slightly high zirconium content is found in the matrix. We classify that the Cu60Ti10Zr30 alloy prepared by both of the aforementioned methods...

  5. Self-passivating bulk tungsten-based alloys manufactured by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, P.; Ordás, N.; Lindig, S.; Koch, F.; Iturriza, I.; García-Rosales, C.

    2011-12-01

    Self-passivating tungsten-based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, which is at present the main candidate material for the first wall armour of future fusion reactors. WC10Si10 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) in a Planetary mill and subsequent hot isostatic pressing (HIP), achieving densities above 95%. Different MA conditions were studied. After MA under optimized conditions, a core with heterogeneous microstructure was found in larger powder particles, resulting in the presence of some large W grains after HIP. Nevertheless, the obtained microstructure is significantly refined compared to previous work. First MA trials were also performed on the Si-free system WCr12Ti2.5. In this case a very homogeneous structure inside the powder particles was obtained, and a majority ternary metastable bcc phase was found, indicating that almost complete alloying occurred. Therefore, a very fine and homogeneous microstructure can be expected after HIP in future work.

  6. Self-passivating bulk tungsten-based alloys manufactured by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Ruiz, P; Ordás, N; Iturriza, I; García-Rosales, C; Lindig, S; Koch, F

    2011-01-01

    Self-passivating tungsten-based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, which is at present the main candidate material for the first wall armour of future fusion reactors. WC10Si10 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) in a Planetary mill and subsequent hot isostatic pressing (HIP), achieving densities above 95%. Different MA conditions were studied. After MA under optimized conditions, a core with heterogeneous microstructure was found in larger powder particles, resulting in the presence of some large W grains after HIP. Nevertheless, the obtained microstructure is significantly refined compared to previous work. First MA trials were also performed on the Si-free system WCr12Ti2.5. In this case a very homogeneous structure inside the powder particles was obtained, and a majority ternary metastable bcc phase was found, indicating that almost complete alloying occurred. Therefore, a very fine and homogeneous microstructure can be expected after HIP in future work.

  7. Surface and bulk characterization of molten In and In-Sn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricci E.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work a double contribution to the characterization of molten In and In-Sn alloys considered as main components of an important class of lead free solder materials is shown: the study of the influence of oxygen on the capillary phenomena and the XRD investigation of the structure of liquid in a range of temperatures around that of liquidus. The surface tension behaviour of In-Sn binary alloys at different compositions, in terms of effective oxygen pressure, were compared with the data of pure In and the theoretical predictions, revealing that the lower oxidizability of indium was shown to control indium–tin alloys with a tin content up to about 80 at% , due to the presence of the most volatile oxide In2O. From the XRD spectra the radial distribution functions (RDF have been determined for each alloys. Experiments of High Temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD showed that atomic clustering forms in the melt immediately before the appearing of the first solid. The structure of clusters is correlated to that of solid.

  8. Flow and Fracture of Bulk Metallic Glass Alloys and their Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, K M; Suh, D; Howell, R; Asoka-Kumar, P; Dauskardt, R H

    2001-01-01

    The fracture and plastic deformation mechanisms of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be bulk metallic glass and a composite utilizing a crystalline reinforcement phase are reviewed. The relationship between stress state, free volume and shear band formation are discussed. Positron annihilation techniques were used to confirm the predicted increase in free volume after plastic straining. Strain localization and failure were examined for a wide range of stress states. Finally, methods for toughening metallic glasses are considered. Significant increases in toughness are demonstrated for a composite bulk metallic glass containing a ductile second phase which stabilizes shear band formation and distributes plastic deformation

  9. Bulk glass formation and crystallization in Zr54.5Cu20Al10Ni8Ti7.5 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neogy, S.; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Kumar, V.; Ranganathan, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present work was aimed at fabrication, characterization and crystallization of Zr 54.5 Cu 20 Al 10 Ni 8 Ti 7.5 bulk metallic glass. The glass forming alloy was made by arc melting and then subjected to copper mold casting into 3 mm diameter bulk glass rods. The as-cast microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  10. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-01-01

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi 2 composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al 8 Cr 5 and CrNi 2 chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  11. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-06-15

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi(2) composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al(8)Cr(5) and CrNi(2) chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  12. Two-fold origin of the deformation-induced ferromagnetism in bulk Fe60Al40 (at.%) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez, E; Surinach, S; Baro, M D; Sort, J; Liedke, M O; Fassbender, J; Nogues, J

    2008-01-01

    The transition from the atomically ordered B2-phase to the chemically disordered A2-phase and the concomitant deformation-induced ferromagnetism have been investigated in bulk polycrystalline Fe 60 Al 40 (at.%) alloys subjected to compression processes. A detailed correlation between structural, magnetic and mechanical properties reveals that the generated ferromagnetism depends on the stress level but is virtually independent of the loading rate. The mechanisms governing the induced ferromagnetism also vary as the stress level is increased. Namely, in the low-stress regime both lattice cell expansion and atomic intermixing play a role in the induced ferromagnetic behavior. Conversely, lattice expansion seems to become the main mechanism contributing to the generated ferromagnetism in the high-stress regime. Furthermore, a correlation is also observed between the order-disorder transition and the mechanical hardness. Hence, a combination of magnetic and mechanical measurements can be used, in synergetic manner, to investigate this deformation-induced phase transition.

  13. The Magnetization Reversal Processes Of Bulk (Nd, Y-(Fe, Co-B Alloy In The As-Quenched State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dośpiał M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetization reversal processes of bulk Fe64Co5Nd6Y6B19 alloy in the as-quenched state have been investigated. From the analysis of the initial magnetization curve and differential susceptibility versus an internal magnetic field it was deduced, that the main mechanism of magnetization reversal process is the pinning of domain walls at the grain’s boundaries of the Nd2Fe14B phase. Basing on the dependence of the reversible magnetization component as a function of magnetic field it was found that reversible rotation of a magnetic moment vector and motion of domain walls in multi-domain grains result in high initial values of the reversible component. The presence of at least two maxima on differential susceptibility of irreversible magnetization component in function of magnetic field imply existence of few pinning sites of domain walls in Fe64Co5Nd6Y6B19 alloy. The dominant interactions between particles have been determined on the basis of the Wohlfarth dependence. Such a behavior of Wohlfarth’s plot implies that the dominant interaction between grains becomes short range exchange interactions.

  14. Effect of Pore Size, Morphology and Orientation on the Bulk Stiffness of a Porous Ti35Nb4Sn Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sanchez, Carmen; McLaughlin, John; Bonallo, Ross

    2018-04-01

    The metal foams of a titanium alloy were designed to study porosity as well as pore size and shape independently. These were manufactured using a powder metallurgy/space-holder technique that allowed a fine control of the pore size and morphology; and then characterized and tested against well-established models to predict a relationship between porosity, pore size and shape, and bulk stiffness. Among the typically used correlations, existing power-law models were found to be the best fit for the prediction of macropore morphology against compressive elastic moduli, outperforming other models such as exponential, polynomial or binomial. Other traditional models such as linear ones required of updated coefficients to become relevant to metal porous sintered macrostructures. The new coefficients reported in this study contribute toward a design tool that allows the tailoring of mechanical properties through porosity macrostructure. The results show that, for the same porosity range, pore shape and orientation have a significant effect on mechanical performance and that they can be predicted. Conversely, pore size has only a mild impact on bulk stiffness.

  15. Synthesis and mechanical properties of bulk Al{sub 76}Ni{sub 8}Ti{sub 8}Zr{sub 4}Y{sub 4} alloy fabricated by consolidation of mechanically alloyed amorphous powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinfu; Wang, Kun; Li, Zhendong; Wang, Xingfu; Wang, Dan; Han, Fusheng, E-mail: fshan@issp.ac.cn

    2015-05-25

    Graphical abstract: Different regions indentation morphologies under 50 g load consolidated at 723 K (left), nanohardness of the Al{sub 76}Ni{sub 8}Ti{sub 8}Zr{sub 4}Y{sub 4} alloy as a function consolidation temperature (right). It can be seen from the above figures that the consolidated sample presents white regions, and the microhardness in the white regions is a little lower than the matrix, which could be caused by the difference of the chemical composition and chemical bonding forces between them. Interestingly, the cracks were formed around the indentation periphery in the white regions, which are not shown in the matrix. The nanohardness of the bulk composites increased from 11.16 to 13.27 GPa with the consolidation temperature increasing, mechanical softening was also found in the present alloys. - Highlights: • Bulk amorphous–nanocrystalline Al-based alloys were prepared by HPS process. • The Vickers microhardness of bulk samples is in the range of 945–1177HV0.1. • The nanohardness agrees well with the Vickers hardness testing results. - Abstract: Mechanically alloyed amorphous Al{sub 76}Ni{sub 8}Ti{sub 8}Zr{sub 4}Y{sub 4} (at.%) alloy powder was consolidated by high-pressure sintering process. The influence of the consolidation temperature on the structure and mechanical properties of the consolidated bulk alloys was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vickers Hardness Tester and Nano Indenter. Structural investigations of the bulk materials revealed that most of the amorphous structure was retained after consolidation at 623 K, however, compaction at 723 K and 823 K caused crystallization of the amorphous phase with the appearance of white regions. The results also indicate that application of high pressure affected the crystallization products of the present alloy. Micro mechanical analysis showed that the microhardness of the bulk composites increased from 945HV{sub 0.1} to 1177HV

  16. Molecular dynamics study of the ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 bulk glass forming alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celtek M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and thermodynamic properties of a ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 metallic glass forming alloy in solid-liquid to glass phases were studied using molecular dynamics (MD method based on tight-binding (TB potentials. An atomic description of the melting, glass formation and crystallization process has been analyzed using different heating and cooling rates. The computed Glass Forming Ability (GFA parameters are in good agreement with experimental data. The structure analysis of the Cu50Ti25Zr25 based on molecular dynamics simulation will be also presented and compared with available MD results. We have also discussed the crystallization transition with two different interatomic potentials used in this work

  17. Ethanol electrooxidation on Pt-Sn and Pt-Sn-W bulk alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, D.M. dos; Hahn, F.; Leger, J.M.; Kokoh, K.B. [Universite de Poitiers, Poitiers Cedex (France). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). Equipe Electrocatalyse; Tremiliosi-Filho, G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Ethanol oxidation has been studied on Pt-Sn and Pt-Sn-W electrodes prepared in an arc-melting furnace. Different electrochemical techniques like cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to evaluate the catalytic activity of these materials. The electro-oxidation process was also investigated by in situ infrared reflectance spectroscopy in order to determine adsorbed intermediates and reaction products. Experimental results indicated that Pt-Sn and Pt-Sn-W alloys are able to oxidize ethanol mainly to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Adsorbed CO was also detected, demonstrating the viability of splitting the C-C bond in the ethanol molecule during the oxidation process. The adsorbed CO was further oxidized to CO{sub 2}.This reaction product was clearly detected by SNIFTIRS. Pt-Sn-W catalyst showed a better electrochemical performance than Pt-Sn that, in it turn, is better than Pt-alone. (author)

  18. Development and structural characterization of exchange-spring-like nanomagnets in (Fe,Co)-Pt bulk nanocrystalline alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisan, O.; Crisan, A.D.; Mercioniu, I. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Nicula, R. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Vasiliu, F., E-mail: fvasiliu@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-03-01

    FePt-based alloys are currently under scrutiny for their possible use as materials for perpendicular magnetic recording. Another possible application is in the field of permanent magnets without rare-earths, magnets that may operate at higher temperatures than the classic Nd–Fe–B magnets. Within this study, FeCoPt alloys prepared by rapid solidification from the melt are structurally and magnetically characterized. In the as-cast FeCoPt ribbons, a three-phase structure comprising well-ordered CoFePt and CoPt L1{sub 0} phases embedded in a disordered fcc FePt matrix was evidenced by XRD, HREM and SAED. Extended transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrates the incipient formation of ordered L1{sub 0} phases. X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the phase structure and to obtain the structural parameters of interest for L1{sub 0} ordering. In the as-cast state, the co-existence of hard magnetic CoFePt and CoPt L1{sub 0} tetragonal phases with the soft fcc FePt phase is obtained within a refined microstructure made of alternatively disposed grains (grain sizes from 1 to 7 nm). Following a thermal treatment of 1 h at 670 °C, the soft magnetic fcc matrix phase transforms to tetragonal L1{sub 0} phases (disorder–order transition). The resulting CoPt and CoFePt L1{sub 0} phases have grains of around 5–20 nm in size. In the as-cast state, magnetic measurements show a quite large remanence (0.75 T), close to the value of the parent L1{sub 0} FePt phase. Coercive fields of about 200 kA/m at 5 K were obtained, comparable with those reported for some FePt-based bulk alloys. Upon annealing both remanence and coercivity are increased and values of up to 254 kA/m at 300 K are obtained. The polycrystalline structure of the annealed FeCoPt samples, as well as the formation of multiple c-axis domains in different CoPt and CoFePt regions (which leads to a reduction of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy) may account for the observed coercive fields that are

  19. Homogeneous nucleation limit on the bulk formation of metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drehman, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Glassy Pd 82 Si 18 spheres, of up to 1 mm diameter, were formed in a drop tube filled with He gas. The largest spheres were successfully cooled to a glass using a cooling rate of less than 800 K/sec. Even at this low cooling rate, crystallization (complete or partial) was the result of heterogeneous nucleation at a high temperature, relative to the temperature at which copious homogeneous nucleation would commence. Bulk underscoring experiments demonstrated that this alloy could be cooled to 385 K below its eutectic melting temperature (1083 K) without the occurrence of crystallization. If heterogeneous nucleation can be avoided, it is estimated that a cooling rate of at most 100 K/sec would be required to form this alloy in the glassy state. Ingots of glassy Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 were formed from the liquid by cooling at a rate of only 1 K/sec. It was found that glassy samples of this alloy could be heated well above the glass transition temperature without the occurrence of rapid divitrification. This is a result due, in part of the low density of pre-existing nuclei, but, more importantly, due to the low homogeneous nucleation rate and the slow crystal growth kinetics. Based on the observed devitrification kinetics, the steady-state homogeneous nucleation rate is approximately 1 nuclei/cm 3 sec at 590 K (the temperature at which the homogeneous nucleation rate is estimated to be a maximum). Two iron-nickel based glass-forming alloys (Fe 40 Ni 40 P 14 B 6 and Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 , were not successfully formed into glassy spheres, however, microstructural examination indicates that crystallization was not the result of copious homogeneous nucleation. In contrast, glass forming iron based alloys (Fe 80 B 20 and Fe/sub 79.3/B/sub 16.4/Si/sub 4.0/C/sub 0.3/) exhibit copious homogeneous nucleation when cooled at approximately the same rate

  20. Glass Formation, Chemical Properties and Surface Analysis of Cu-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Inoue

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the influence of alloying elements Mo, Nb, Ta and Ni on glass formation and corrosion resistance of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs. In order to obtain basic knowledge for application to the industry, corrosion resistance of the Cu–Hf–Ti–(Mo, Nb, Ta, Ni and Cu–Zr–Ag–Al–(Nb bulk glassy alloy systems in various solutions are reported in this work. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis is performed to clarify the surface-related chemical characteristics of the alloy before and after immersion in the solutions; this has lead to a better understanding of the correlation between the surface composition and the corrosion resistance.

  1. Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tahmasbi Rad, Armin; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi 2 Te 3 ) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi 2 Te 3 were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (∼500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

  2. Evidence of an Intermediate Phase in bulk alloy oxide glass sysem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Boolchand, P.

    2011-03-01

    Reversibility windows have been observed in modified oxides (alkali-silicates and -germanates) and identified with Intermediate Phases(IPs). Here we find preliminary evidence of an IP in a ternary oxide glass, (B2 O3)5 (Te O2)95-x (V2O5)x , which is composed of network formers. Bulk glasses are synthesized across the 18% x 35 % composition range, and examined in Raman scattering, modulated DSC and molar volume experiments. Glass transition temperatures Tg (x) steadily decrease with V2O5 content x, and reveal the enthalpy of relaxation at Tg to show a global minimum in the 24% x < 27 range, the reversibility window (IP). Molar volumes reveal a minimum in this window. Raman scattering reveals a Boson mode, and at least six other vibrational bands in the 100cm-1 < ν < 1700cm-1 range. Compositional trends in vibrational mode strengths and frequency are established. These results will be presented in relation to glass structure evolution with vanadia content and the underlying elastic phases. Supported by NSF grant DMR 08-53957.

  3. Atomic-scale simulation study of some bulk and interfacial properties of iron aluminium ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Remy

    1997-01-01

    A semi-empirical potential was designed for B 2 and DO 3 iron aluminides and used to study point defects and grain boundaries in these compounds. At low temperature, departure from B 2 stoichiometry is accommodated with antisite defects; when T increases, iron vacancies appear and defects have a trend to form clusters, the structure of which is very sensitive to this departure. Our calculations, relying on T = 0 K formation energies, predict the nature of major defects, but lead to underestimated quantitative results, which may point out the essential role of atomic vibrations. In the stoichiometric B 2 compound, the diffusion of both species is induced by four-jump cycles involving iron vacancies. Although the agreement between our calculated activation energies and other experiments is good, the calculated diffusion coefficients are below the experimental ones. Here again, this discrepancy may be put down to the overlooking of phonon contributions. The second application concerns the atomic structures of the [001] (310) symmetric tilt grain boundary in the B 2 and DO 3 compounds. At low temperature, in the stoichiometric B 2 compound, we obtain an iron-rich single stable structure (pseudo-symmetric), whose structure is strongly influenced by the bulk composition (with intergranular segregation of the major element). In the stoichiometric DO 3 compound, many energetically equivalent structures exist, all being systematically aluminium-rich. The study of the B 2 grain boundary structure at high temperature shows a phase transition favouring a symmetric structure. Its high excess energy at low temperature emphasizes the influence of atomic vibrations in the interfacial properties of B 2 Fe-Al compounds. (author) [fr

  4. Bulk Shear-Wave Transduction Experiments Using Magnetostrictive Transducers with a Thin Fe-Co Alloy Patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Ha; Cho, Seung Hyun; Ahn, Bong Young; Kwon, Hyu Sang [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Recently, the results of many studies have clarified the successful performance of magnetostrictive transducers in which a ferromagnetic patch is used for the transduction of guided shear waves; this is because a thin ferromagnetic patch with strong magnetostriction is very useful for generating and detecting shear wave. This investigation deals with bulk shear wave transduction by means of magnetostriction; on the other hand, the existing studies have been focused on guided shear waves. A modular transducer was developed: this transducer comprised a coil, magnets, and a thin ferromagnetic patch that was made of Fe-Co alloy. Some experiments were conducted to verify the performance of the developed transducer. Radiation directivity pattern of the developed transducer was obtained, and a test to detect the damage on a side drill hole of a steel block specimen was carried out. From the results of these tests, the good performance of the transducer for nondestructive testing was verified on the basis of the signal-to-noise ratio and narrow beam directivity.

  5. Bulk synthesis by spray forming of Al–Cu–Fe and Al–Cu–Fe–Sn alloys containing a quasicrystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.C.; Huttunen-Saarivirta, E.; Cui, C.; Uhlenwinkel, V.; Schulz, A.; Mukhopadhyay, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 40 kg Bulk material spray formed based on Al–Cu–Fe and Al–Cu–Fe + Sn. • Deposited Al–Cu–Fe alloy showed single phase bulk quasicrystals(QC). • DSC, XRD and microscopic analyses were done to ascertain the QC nature. • Sn does not help in single phase quasicrystal formation in the deposit. • The possible structural evolution mechanisms have been discussed in detail. - Abstract: In this study, Al–Cu–Fe alloys without and with the addition of Sn and containing a quasicrystalline phase were spray deposited. The spray-deposited bulk materials were characterized in terms of microstructure and hardness. The results showed that the Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 alloy contains the icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (i-phase) along with the minor λ-Al 13 Fe 4 phase, whereas the Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 + Sn alloy contains five phases: the major i-phase and the crystalline phases of Sn, θ-Al 2 Cu, λ-Al 13 Fe 4 and β-AlFe(Cu) phases. These results have been corroborated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The hardness value of the Al–Cu–Fe alloy reached 10.5 GPa at 50 g load and then decreased steadily with increase in the applied load, while that for Al–Cu–Fe–Sn alloy it was originally somewhat lower, then decreased dramatically with slight increase in the applied load but stayed constant with further load increase. The hardness indentations in Al–Cu–Fe alloy introduced cracking in the material, whereas in the case of Al–Cu–Fe–Sn alloy the Sn-rich areas inhibited the crack growth. The present study provides an insight into the mechanism of phase and microstructural evolutions during spray forming of the studied alloys. Furthermore, the role of Sn in terms of microstructure and properties is highlighted

  6. Relation between calculated Lennard-Jones potential and thermal stability of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.; Bian, X.F.; Jiang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Two metallic bulk glasses, Cu 60 Zr 30 Ti 10 and Cu 47 Ti 33 Zr 11 Ni 8 Si 1 , with a diameter of 3 mm were prepared by copper mold casting method. Dilatometric measurement was carried out on the two glassy alloys to obtain information about the average nearest-neighbour distance r 0 and the effective depth of pair potential V 0 . By assuming a Lennard-Jones potential, r 0 and V 0 were calculated to be 0.28 nm and 0.16 eV for Cu 60 Zr 30 Ti 10 and 0.27 nm and 0.13 eV for Cu 47 Ti 33 Zr 11 Ni 8 Si 1 , respectively. It was found that the glassy alloy Cu 60 Zr 30 Ti 10 was more stable than Cu 47 Ti 33 Zr 11 Ni 8 Si 1 against heating from both experiment and calculation

  7. Relook on fitting of viscosity with undercooling of glassy liquids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur ... The present approach is on the modification of viscosity fitting of undercooled liquid as a function of ... behaviour of glassy alloys and organic and ionic compounds ...... the present method is applied to calculate the analytical solu-.

  8. Liquid -to-glass transition in bulk glass-forming Cu55-xZr45Agx alloys using molecular dynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celtek M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report results from molecular dynamics (MD studies concerning the microscopic structure of the ternary, bulk metallic glass-forming Cu55-x Zr45Agx (x=0,10,20 alloys using tight-binding potentials. Understanding of the nature of Glass Forming Ability (GFA of studied alloys, GFA parameters, glass transition temperature (T-g, melting temperature (T-m, reduced glass transition temperature (T-g/T-m, the supercooled liquid region and other parameters were simulated and compared with experiments. The computed pair distribution functions reproduce well experimental x-ray data of Inoue and co-workers. Structure analysis of the Cu-Zr-Ag alloy based on MD simulation will be also presented

  9. Effect of Ge addition on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekan, M.; Shabestari, S.G.; Gholamipour, R.; Seyedein, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the addition of a small amount of Ge on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of Cu 50 Zr 43 Al 7 (at.%) bulk metallic glass were studied. The Cu 50 Zr 43 Al 7 alloy has a surprising glass-forming ability (GFA), and the glassy rods up to 4 mm in diameter can be formed. Partial addition of Ge causes the crystalline phases precipitate in the glassy matrix of (Cu 50 Zr 43 Al 7 ) 100-x Ge x (x = 0, 1, 2) rods with a diameter of 4 mm. In uniaxial compression, Cu 50 Zr 43 Al 7 bulk metallic glass exhibit high strength of 1692 MPa and very limited plasticity of 0.05%. When Ge increases from 0 to 2 at.%, the strength decreases, but plastic strain increases about 2.5%. Fracture surface and shear bands of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  10. Strengthening mechanisms in a high-strength bulk nanostructured Cu–Zn–Al alloy processed via cryomilling and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Haiming; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2013-01-01

    A bulk nanostructured alloy with the nominal composition Cu–30Zn–0.8Al wt.% (commercial designation brass 260) was fabricated by cryomilling of brass powders and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) of the cryomilled powders, yielding a compressive yield strength of 950 MPa, which is significantly higher than the yield strength of commercial brass 260 alloys (∼200–400 MPa). Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that cryomilling results in an average grain diameter of 26 nm and a high density of deformation twins. Nearly fully dense bulk samples were obtained after SPS of cryomilled powders, with average grain diameter 110 nm. After SPS, 10 vol.% of twins is retained with average twin thickness 30 nm. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography studies demonstrate that the distribution of Al is highly inhomogeneous in the sintered bulk samples, and Al-containing precipitates including Al(Cu,Zn)–O–N, Al–O–N and Al–N are distributed in the matrix. The precipitates have an average diameter of 1.7 nm and a volume fraction of 0.39%. Quantitative calculations were performed for different strengthening contributions in the sintered bulk samples, including grain boundary, twin boundary, precipitate, dislocation and solid-solution strengthening. Results from the analyses demonstrate that precipitate and grain boundary strengthening are the dominant strengthening mechanisms, and the calculated overall yield strength is in reasonable agreement with the experimentally determined compressive yield strength

  11. Evolution of thermoelectric performance for (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloys from cutting waste powders to bulks with high figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xi‧an; Cai, Xin zhi; Han, Xue wu; Zhang, Cheng cheng; Rong, Zhen zhou; Yang, Fan; Li, Guang qiang

    2016-01-01

    Bi2Te3 based cutting waste powders from cutting wafers were firstly selected as raw materials to prepare p-type Bi2Te3 based thermoelectric (TE) materials. Through washing, reducing, composition correction, smelting and resistance pressing sintering (RPS) process, p-type (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloy bulks with different nominal stoichiometries were successfully obtained. The evolution of microstructure and TE performance for (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloys were investigated in detail. All evidences confirmed that most of contaminants from line cutting process such as cutting fluid and oxides of Bi, Sb or Te could be removed by washing, reducing and smelting process used in this work. The carrier content and corresponding TE properties could be adjusted effectively by appropriate composition correction treatment. At lastly, a bulk with a nominal stoichiometry of Bi0.44Sb1.56Te3 was obtained and its' dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was about 1.16 at 90 °C. The ZT values of Bi0.36Sb1.64Te3 and Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 alloy bulks could also reach 0.98 and 1.08, respectively. Different from the conventional recycling technology such as hydrometallurgy extraction methods, the separation and extraction of beneficial elements such as Bi, Sb and Te did not need to be performed and the Bi2Te3 based bulks with high TE properties could be directly obtained from the cutting waste powders. In addition, the recycling technology introduced here was green and more suitable for practical industrial application. It can improve material utilization and lower raw material costs of manufacturers.

  12. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid in Water into g-Valerolactone over Bulk Structure of Inexpensive Intermetallic Ni-Sn Alloy Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A bulk structure of inexpensive intermetallic nickel-tin (Ni-Sn alloys catalysts demonstrated highly selective in the hydrogenation of levulinic acid in water into g-valerolactone. The intermetallic Ni-Sn catalysts were synthesized via a very simple thermochemical method from non-organometallic precursor at low temperature followed by hydrogen treatment at 673 K for 90 min. The molar ratio of nickel salt and tin salt was varied to obtain the corresponding Ni/Sn ratio of 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, and 0.75. The formation of Ni-Sn alloy species was mainly depended on the composition and temperature of H2 treatment. Intermetallics Ni-Sn that contain Ni3Sn, Ni3Sn2, and Ni3Sn4 alloy phases are known to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for levulinic acid hydrogenation giving very excellence g-valerolactone yield of >99% at 433 K, initial H2 pressure of 4.0 MPa within 6 h. The effective hydrogenation was obtained in H2O without the formation of by-product. Intermetallic Ni-Sn(1.5 that contains Ni3Sn2 alloy species demonstrated very stable and reusable catalyst without any significant loss of its selectivity. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. Received: 26th February 2015; Revised: 16th April 2015; Accepted: 22nd April 2015  How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Astuti, M.D., Ghofur, A., Sembiring, K.C. (2015. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid in Water into g-Valerolactone over Bulk Structure of Inexpensive Intermetallic Ni-Sn Alloy Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 192-200. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8284.192-200Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8284.192-200  

  13. Evolution of thermoelectric performance for (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloys from cutting waste powders to bulks with high figure of merit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xi' an, E-mail: groupfxa@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); Cai, Xin zhi, E-mail: xzcwust@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); Han, Xue wu, E-mail: hanxuewu1990@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); Zhang, Cheng cheng, E-mail: zcc516990418@live.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); and others

    2016-01-15

    Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based cutting waste powders from cutting wafers were firstly selected as raw materials to prepare p-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based thermoelectric (TE) materials. Through washing, reducing, composition correction, smelting and resistance pressing sintering (RPS) process, p-type (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloy bulks with different nominal stoichiometries were successfully obtained. The evolution of microstructure and TE performance for (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloys were investigated in detail. All evidences confirmed that most of contaminants from line cutting process such as cutting fluid and oxides of Bi, Sb or Te could be removed by washing, reducing and smelting process used in this work. The carrier content and corresponding TE properties could be adjusted effectively by appropriate composition correction treatment. At lastly, a bulk with a nominal stoichiometry of Bi{sub 0.44}Sb{sub 1.56}Te{sub 3} was obtained and its' dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was about 1.16 at 90 °C. The ZT values of Bi{sub 0.36}Sb{sub 1.64}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 0.4}Sb{sub 1.6}Te{sub 3} alloy bulks could also reach 0.98 and 1.08, respectively. Different from the conventional recycling technology such as hydrometallurgy extraction methods, the separation and extraction of beneficial elements such as Bi, Sb and Te did not need to be performed and the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based bulks with high TE properties could be directly obtained from the cutting waste powders. In addition, the recycling technology introduced here was green and more suitable for practical industrial application. It can improve material utilization and lower raw material costs of manufacturers. - Graphical abstract: Three kinds of typical morphologies for the fractographs: typical lamellar structure, agglomerated submicron-sized granules and dispersed cubic particles from the initial cutting waste powders. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based wastes were directly selected as raw materials

  14. Evolution of thermoelectric performance for (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloys from cutting waste powders to bulks with high figure of merit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xi'an; Cai, Xin zhi; Han, Xue wu; Zhang, Cheng cheng

    2016-01-01

    Bi 2 Te 3 based cutting waste powders from cutting wafers were firstly selected as raw materials to prepare p-type Bi 2 Te 3 based thermoelectric (TE) materials. Through washing, reducing, composition correction, smelting and resistance pressing sintering (RPS) process, p-type (Bi,Sb) 2 Te 3 alloy bulks with different nominal stoichiometries were successfully obtained. The evolution of microstructure and TE performance for (Bi,Sb) 2 Te 3 alloys were investigated in detail. All evidences confirmed that most of contaminants from line cutting process such as cutting fluid and oxides of Bi, Sb or Te could be removed by washing, reducing and smelting process used in this work. The carrier content and corresponding TE properties could be adjusted effectively by appropriate composition correction treatment. At lastly, a bulk with a nominal stoichiometry of Bi 0.44 Sb 1.56 Te 3 was obtained and its' dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was about 1.16 at 90 °C. The ZT values of Bi 0.36 Sb 1.64 Te 3 and Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 alloy bulks could also reach 0.98 and 1.08, respectively. Different from the conventional recycling technology such as hydrometallurgy extraction methods, the separation and extraction of beneficial elements such as Bi, Sb and Te did not need to be performed and the Bi 2 Te 3 based bulks with high TE properties could be directly obtained from the cutting waste powders. In addition, the recycling technology introduced here was green and more suitable for practical industrial application. It can improve material utilization and lower raw material costs of manufacturers. - Graphical abstract: Three kinds of typical morphologies for the fractographs: typical lamellar structure, agglomerated submicron-sized granules and dispersed cubic particles from the initial cutting waste powders. - Highlights: • Bi 2 Te 3 based wastes were directly selected as raw materials for TE alloys. • Contaminants from cutting fluid and oxides could be effectively removed.

  15. Bulk amorphous alloys: Preparation and properties of (Mg0.98Al0.02)x(Cu0.75Y0.25)100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Ohnuma, M.

    2000-01-01

    New bulk amorphous quaternary alloys of the composition (Mg1-xAlx)(60)Cu30Y10 (x = 0 - 0.17) were recently reported by the authors and preliminary results of the influence of Al content on the ability to form a bulk amorphous phase were presented. In the present note we extend this work to look...... for the influence of the Mg-Al content on the glass forming ability by studying a range of compositions, (Mg0.98Al0.02)(x)(Cu0.75Y0.25)(100-x) for x = 60 - 80 at.%. As previously, the alloys were prepared by a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a wedge-shaped copper mould. This method...... provides a range of cooling rates within a single ingot during the solidification that link the slowly and rapidly cooled microstructure for each alloy composition. Hence, the maximum thickness of the amorphous part of the cast material will be a measure of the glass forming ability (GFA) of the particular...

  16. Glass formation and crystallization in Zr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G. K.

    2011-01-01

    Metallic glasses have come in to prominence in recent times because their nanocrystalline atomic arrangement imparts many useful and unusual properties to these metallic solids. Though these have been produced for the last four decades, the necessity of rapid solidification at cooling rates of 10 5 K/sec or higher for their production, have restricted their geometry to thin ribbons and prevented their application to many areas despite their excellent properties. It has been shown in recent investigations that, many Zr base multicomponent alloys can be obtained in glassy state by cooling at much lower rate typically 10 2 to 10 3 K/sec. This has enabled production of these alloys in the glassy stat in bulk. By now, bulk metallic glasses have been produced in Mg, Ln, Zr, Fe, Pd-Cu, Pd-Fe, Ti and Ni- based alloys. Production of these glasses in bulk has opened avenue for their application in many areas where their excellent mechanical properties an corrosion resistance can be exploited. The transformation of the amorphous phase in these alloys to one or more crystalline phases, is an interesting phase transformation and can lead to formation of crystals in a variety of morphologies and a wide range of crystal sizes, including nanometer size crystals or nanocrystals. The bulk amorphous alloys exhibit higher fracture stress, combined with higher hardness and lower young's modulus than those of any crystalline alloy. The Zr- and Ti-based bulk amorphous alloy exhibit high bending and flexural strength values which are typically 2.0 to 2.5 time higher than those for crystalline counterparts. The composites of bulk metallic glass containing crystalline phases have been found to have special properties. This has been demonstrated in the case of composites of bulk metallic glass and tungsten wires wit the glass forming the matrix. Such a composite has a very high impact strength and is especially suitable for application as an armour penetrator in various types of shells used

  17. An interatomic potential for studying CuZr bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paduraru, Anca; Kenoufi, Abdel; Bailey, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    -scale deformation events and may furthermore involve localization through formation of shear bands. In this paper, an Effective Medium Theory (EMT) potential optimized for modeling the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of CuZr bulk metallic glass is studied. The late transition metals crystallizing in close......The mechanical properties of BMGs are remarkably different from the ones of ordinary metallic alloys due to the atomic level disorder in the glassy state. Unlike crystalline materials plastic deformation in metallic glasses cannot be caused by lattice defects but takes place through atomic...

  18. Effect of Si addition on glass-forming ability and mechanical properties of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekan, M.; Shabestari, S.G.; Zhang, W.; Seyedein, S.H.; Gholamipour, R.; Makino, A.; Inoue, A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: The Cu 50 Zr 43 Al 7 alloy has a surprising GFA, and the glassy rods with diameter of 10 mm have been produced in this research. It has not been reported that the Cu-based glassy rods (Cu ≥ 50 at.%) to be produced with the critical diameter greater than 10 mm. The novelty of this research is that the glass formation has been improved and the critical diameter increased to 12 mm for the alloy having x = 1 with the addition of Si. Different criteria are used to evaluate the influence of Si content on the GFA, and the possible mechanisms involved in the achievement of this GFA are also discussed. - Abstract: The effect of Si addition on the glass-forming ability (GFA) and mechanical properties of (Cu 50 Zr 43 Al 7 ) 100-x Si x (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 at.%) alloys were investigated. The GFA of Cu 50 Zr 43 Al 7 alloy is improved by addition of a small amount of Si, and the critical diameter for glass formation increases from 10 mm for the alloy with x = 0-12 mm for the alloy with x = 1 when prepared using copper mold casting. Different criteria are used to evaluate the influence of Si content on the GFA, and the possible mechanisms involved in the achievement of this GFA are also discussed. In the uniaxial compression, the bulk glassy alloys exhibit a limited plastic strain of less than 1%, but the compressive fracture strength and Young's modulus were obtained in high values of 1969-2129 MPa and 101-144 GPa, respectively. Fracture surface and shear bands of samples were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  19. Structural relaxations in the bulk amorphous alloy Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 10}Ti{sub 3}Y{sub 6}B{sub 20}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Błoch, K., E-mail: 23kasia1@wp.pl; Nabiałek, M.; Gondro, J.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents studies of annealing effect on the disaccommodation phenomenon in bulk amorphous alloy Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 10}Ti{sub 3}Y{sub 6}B{sub 20}. The investigated sample was prepared by suction-casting method in the form of rod. The annealing process has been performed at temperature well below the crystallisation temperature. The amorphous structure has been confirmed using X-ray diffractometer. The susceptibility and its disaccommodation were determined using completely automated set up. The disaccommodation curve was decomposed into three elementary processes, each of them was described by Gaussian distribution of relaxation times. The obtained results indicate that the disaccommodation phenomenon in studied alloy is related with directional ordering of atom pairs near the free volumes; this is in agreement with H. Kronmüller's theorem.

  20. Influence of the mould on the size of A A 8090 alloy in the material melting bulk state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    1996-01-01

    Wedge like samples were casted into investment moulds of alumina and spodumen. The later were additionally coated with lithium, barium, magnesium and calcium fluorides and chlorides based salts and other special materials. It was used the 2,6% Li-containing alloy AA8090. The grain size was measured as a function of the wedge thickness nd mould material. The results showed a strong dependence of the grain size to the mould materials for the same cast conditions: pouring temperature, mould temperature and chemical composition of the alloy. The AA8090 alloy had no addition of titanium-boron based grain refiner. (author)

  1. Formation and properties of two-phase bulk metallic glasses by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guoqiang, E-mail: xiegq@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > Two-phase bulk metallic glasses with high strength and good soft magnetic properties as well as satisfying large-size requirements were produced by spark plasma sintering. > Effects of sintering temperature on thermal stability, microstructure, mechanical and magnetic properties were investigated. > Densified samples were obtained by the spark plasma sintering at above 773 K. - Abstract: Using a mixture of the gas-atomized Ni{sub 52.5}Nb{sub 10}Zr{sub 15}Ti{sub 15}Pt{sub 7.5} and Fe{sub 73}Si{sub 7}B{sub 17}Nb{sub 3} glassy alloy powders, we produced the two-phase bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and good soft magnetic properties as well as satisfying large-size requirements by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Two kinds of glassy particulates were homogeneously dispersed each other. With an increase in sintering temperature, density of the produced samples increased, and densified samples were obtained by the SPS process at above 773 K. Good bonding state among the Ni- and Fe-based glassy particulates was achieved.

  2. A new Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn bulk amorphous alloy with high glass-forming ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.J.; Shen, J.; Sun, J.F.; Yu, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of Sn substitution for Cu on the glass-forming ability was investigated in Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 42.5-x Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn x (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7) alloys by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. The alloy containing 5% Sn shows the highest glass-forming ability (GFA) among the Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn system. Fully amorphous rod sample with diameters up to 6 mm could be successfully fabricated by the copper mold casting Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 37.5 Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn 5 alloy. The activation energies for glass transition and crystallization for Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 37.5 Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn 5 amorphous alloy are both larger than those values for the Sn-free alloy. The enhancement in GFA and thermal stability after the partial replacement of Cu by Sn may be contributed to the strong atomic bonding nature between Ti and Sn and the increasing of atomic packing density. The amorphous Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 37.5 Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn 5 alloy also possesses superior mechanical properties

  3. Effect of Y additions on the solidification behavior of a copper mold cast CuZrAl alloy with high oxygen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coury, F.G.; Batalha, W.; Botta, W.J.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    Bulk glassy samples of the CuAlZr system were produced by copper mold casting in the form of wedges with different amounts of yttrium (0 , 0.3 and 2 at%) , the processing conditions led to high oxygen contents on the samples (1000ppm). A reportedly good glass-former composition was chosen as the base alloy, it’s nominal composition is Cu47Zr45Al8. This study aimed to understand the influence of oxygen and yttrium in the solidification of these alloys. The samples were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The sequence of formation of crystalline phases in these alloys was determined as a function of the different cooling rates inherent in the process. It was observed that the formation of CuZr2 phase was inhibited in samples with Y allowing the production of a fully glassy 8mm. (author)

  4. Effect of Mo-Fe substitution on glass forming ability, thermal stability, and hardness of Fe-C-B-Mo-Cr-W bulk amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, Hesham E.; Cheney, Justin L. [University of California, San Diego Materials Science and Engineering Program, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Vecchio, Kenneth S. [University of California, San Diego Department of NanoEngineering, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)], E-mail: kvecchio@ucsd.edu

    2008-08-25

    Amorphous Fe{sub 67-x}C{sub 10}B{sub 9}Mo{sub 7+x}Cr{sub 4}W{sub 3} (x = 1-7 at.%) plates with 640 {mu}m thickness were prepared by copper mold casting. The thermal properties and microstructural development during heat treatments were investigated by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The glass forming ability (GFA) and activation energy for crystallization have a distinct dependence on Mo content. Fe{sub 62}C{sub 10}B{sub 9}Mo{sub 12}Cr{sub 4}W{sub 3} is the best glass former in this study, demonstrating a supercooled liquid region, {delta}T{sub x} = 51 K, and an activation energy for crystallization, Q = 453 kJ/mol. The GFA of alloys in this system was governed by elastic strain optimization resulting directly from the variation in Mo content. Heat treatments were performed to demonstrate resistance to crystallization under typical processing conditions. Alloys in this system exhibited a three-phase evolution during crystallization. A second set of heat treatments was performed to identify each phase. Hardness data was collected at each of the heat treatment conditions, and a bulk metallic glasses (BMG)-derived composite containing a Mo-rich phase exhibited Vickers Hardness in excess of 2000. The fully amorphous alloys had an average hardness approaching 1500.

  5. A new Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn bulk amorphous alloy with high glass-forming ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shen, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: junshen@hit.edu.cn; Sun, J.F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yu, X.B. [Lab of Energy Science and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)]. E-mail: yuxuebin@hotmail.com

    2007-01-16

    The effect of Sn substitution for Cu on the glass-forming ability was investigated in Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 42.5-x}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn {sub x} (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7) alloys by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. The alloy containing 5% Sn shows the highest glass-forming ability (GFA) among the Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn system. Fully amorphous rod sample with diameters up to 6 mm could be successfully fabricated by the copper mold casting Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 37.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn{sub 5} alloy. The activation energies for glass transition and crystallization for Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 37.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn{sub 5} amorphous alloy are both larger than those values for the Sn-free alloy. The enhancement in GFA and thermal stability after the partial replacement of Cu by Sn may be contributed to the strong atomic bonding nature between Ti and Sn and the increasing of atomic packing density. The amorphous Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 37.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn{sub 5} alloy also possesses superior mechanical properties.

  6. New Ti-based Ti–Cu–Zr–Fe–Sn–Si–Ag bulk metallic glass for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Shujie; Liu, Ying; Li, Haifei; Sun, Lulu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Ti 47 Cu 38 Zr 7.5 Fe 2.5 Sn 2 Si 1 Ag 2 (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with a critical diameter of 7 mm was discovered. • The present BMG is the largest Ni- and Be-free Ti-based BMG containing low content of noble metal reported to date. • The glassy alloy possesses high specific strength, low Young’s modulus, and good corrosion resistance and bio-compatibility. • Combination of high glass-forming ability and good mechano- and bio-compatibility for the Ti-based BMG demonstrates the potential for use in biomedical applications. - Abstract: A novel Ni-free Ti 47 Cu 38 Zr 7.5 Fe 2.5 Sn 2 Si 1 Ag 2 (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with superior glass-forming ability, good mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility was discovered. The Ti-based BMG with a diameter of 7 mm can be prepared by copper mold casting and the supercooled liquid region was 52 K. Compressive strength, specific strength, Young’s modulus and microhardness of the Ti-based BMG were about 2.08 GPa, 3.2 × 10 5 N m/kg, 100 GPa and 588 Hv, respectively. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the Ti-based glassy alloy possesses higher corrosion resistance than Ti–6Al–4V alloy in a simulated body fluid environment. Attachment, spreading out and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the Ti-based BMG surface demonstrated the excellent biocompatibility. Mechanisms of the formation and properties for the Ti-based glassy alloy are also discussed. The combination of high glass-forming ability, excellent mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility demonstrates the potential of the Ni-free Ti-based BMG for use in biomedical applications

  7. Potentiodynamic polarization studies of bulk amorphous alloy Zr57Cu15.4Ni12.6Al10Nb5 and Zr59Cu20Ni8Al10Ti3 in aqueous HNO3 media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Poonam; Dhawan, Anil; Jayraj, J.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2013-01-01

    The potentiodynamic polarization studies were carried out on Zr based bulk amorphous alloy Zr 57 Cu 15.4 Ni 12.6 Al 10 Nb 5 and Zr 59 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 Ti 3 in solutions of 1 M, 6 M and 11.5 M HNO 3 aqueous media at room temperature. As received specimens of Zr 57 Cu 15.4 Ni 12.6 Al 10 Nb 5 (5 mm diameter rod) and Zr 59 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 Ti 3 (3 mm diameter rod) were polished with SiC paper before testing them for potentiodynamic polarization studies. The amorphous nature of the specimens was checked by X-ray diffraction. The bulk amorphous alloy Zr 59 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 Ti 3 shows the better corrosion resistance than Zr 57 Cu 15.4 Ni 12.6 Al 10 Nb 5 alloy in the aqueous HNO 3 media as the value of the corrosion current density (I corr ) for Zr 57 Cu 15.4 Ni 12.6 Al 10 Nb 5 alloy were found to be more than Zr 59 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 Ti 3 alloy in aqueous HNO 3 media. The improved corrosion resistance of Zr 59 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 Ti 3 alloy is possibly due to the presence of Ti and formation of TiO 2 during anodic oxidation. Both Zr based bulk amorphous alloys shows wider passive range at lower concentration of nitric acid and the passive region gets narrowed down with the increase in concentration. A comparison of data obtained from both the Zr-based bulk amorphous alloys is made and results are discussed in the paper. (author)

  8. Growth of a Copper-Gold Alloy Phase by Bulk Copper Electrodeposition on Gold Investigated by In Situ STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Møller, Per

    1995-01-01

    the potential in the double-layer charging region from 500 to -100 mV and back to 500 mV at a sweep rate of 1 mV/s in an acidified copper sulfate electrolyte (0.01M H2SO4, 0.01M CuSO4, and Millipore water). After completion of the first cycle the gold surface had recrystallized and nuclei of an alloy phase were...... in peak potential for the anodic current transient from E = 20 mV to E = -2 mV was observed after completion of four subsequent cycles of copper electrodeposition/dissolution. The shift is suggested to be equal to the change in potential of the working electrode owing to the formation of the alloy phase....

  9. Crystallization in Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk metallic glass under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Zhou, T.J.; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl

    2000-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the crystallization behavior of the bulk metallic glass-forming Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 alloy with a wide supercooled liquid region has been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature x-ray powder diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation......)], reporting a decrease of the crystallization temperature under pressure in a pressure range of 0-6 GPa for the bulk glass Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni9Be22.5C1 alloy. Compressibility with a volume reduction of approximately 22% at room temperature does not induce crystallization in the Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk...... glass alloy. This indicates that the densification effect induced by pressure in the pressure range investigated plays a minor role in the crystallization behavior of this bulk glass alloy. The different crystallization behavior of the carbon-free and the carbon-containing glassy alloys has been...

  10. Hyperfine interactions in dilute Se doped Fe{sub x}Sb{sub 1−x} bulk alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Mitesh, E-mail: miteshsarkar-msu@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Naveen [The M. S. University of Baroda, Department of Physics (India); Chawda, Mukesh [Polytechnic, The M. S. University of Baroda, Department of Applied Physics (India)

    2016-12-15

    Hyperfine Interaction technique like Moessbauer spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool to study the local probe interactions in Iron doped alloys and compounds. We report here the Moessbauer study of the effect of Fe concentration variations in dilute magnetic semiconducting Se{sub 0.004}Fe{sub x}Sb{sub 1−x} alloys for x = 0.002, 0.004 and 0.008. The materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), Neutron depolarization and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The FTIR result shows the semiconducting behavior of the alloys with band gap of 0.18 eV. From Moessbauer spectroscopy two magnetic sites (A and B) were observed. The value of hyperfine magnetic fields (HMF) of ∼ 308 kOe (site A) and 270 kOe (site B) was constant with increase in Fe concentration. A nonmagnetic interaction was also observed with quadrupole splitting (QS) of 1.26 mm/sec (site C) for x = 0.004 and x = 0.008. The Neutron depolarization studies indicate that the clusters of Fe or Fe based compounds having net magnetic moments with a size greater than 100 Å is absent.

  11. Observation of giant exchange bias in bulk Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 42}Sn{sub 8} Heusler alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Suresh, K. G., E-mail: suresh@iitb.ac.in [Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076 (India)

    2015-02-16

    We report a giant exchange bias (EB) field of 3520 Oe in bulk Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 42}Sn{sub 8} Heusler alloy. The low temperature magnetic state of the martensite phase has been studied by DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements. Frequency dependence of spin freezing temperature (T{sub f}) on critical slowing down relation and observation of memory effect in zero field cooling mode confirms the super spin glass (SSG) phase at low temperatures. Large EB is attributed to the strong exchange coupling between the SSG clusters formed by small regions of ferromagnetic order embedded in an antiferromagnetic (AFM) matrix. The temperature and cooling field dependence of EB have been studied and related to the change in unidirectional anisotropy at SSG/AFM interface. The training effect also corroborates with the presence of frozen (SSG) moments at the interface and their role in EB.

  12. FeNbB bulk metallic glass with high boron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, M.; Das, Jayanta; Eckert, Juergen [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 270016, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Hajlaoui, Khalil; Yavari, Alain Reza [LTPCM-CNRS, I.N.P. Grenoble, 1130 Rue de la Piscine, BP 75, F-38402 University Campus (France)

    2007-07-01

    Fe-based alloys able to form magnetic bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are of the type transition metal - metalloid and often contain 5 or more elements. Usually, the metalloid content is around 20 atomic %. Very recently, the Fe{sub 66}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 30} alloy was found to be able to form BMG by copper mold casting technique, despite its high metalloid content. Several composition with boron contents around 30 at. % or even higher were calculated since 1993 as possible compositions of the remaining amorphous matrix after the first stage of nanocrystallization of Finemet-type Fe{sub 77}Si{sub 14}B{sub 9} glassy ribbons with 0.5 to 1 atomic % Cu and a few percent Nb addition. Melt-spun ribbons of all calculated compositions were found to be glassy. The composition of the ternary Fe-based BMG investigated in the present study resulted as an optimization of all possibilities. The alloy is ferromagnetic with glass transition temperature T{sub g}=845 K, crystallisation temperature T{sub x}=876 K, liquidus temperature T{sub liq}=1451 K and mechanical strength of 4 GPa. The coercivity of as-cast samples is very low, around 1.5 A/m. The present contribution aims at discussing the thermal stability, mechanical and magnetic properties of the Fe{sub 66}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 30} BMG.

  13. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. I. Model and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegde, Ganesh, E-mail: ghegde@purdue.edu; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Klimeck, Gerhard, E-mail: gekco@purdue.edu [Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Boykin, Timothy [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Semi-empirical Tight Binding (TB) is known to be a scalable and accurate atomistic representation for electron transport for realistically extended nano-scaled semiconductor devices that might contain millions of atoms. In this paper, an environment-aware and transferable TB model suitable for electronic structure and transport simulations in technologically relevant metals, metallic alloys, metal nanostructures, and metallic interface systems are described. Part I of this paper describes the development and validation of the new TB model. The new model incorporates intra-atomic diagonal and off-diagonal elements for implicit self-consistency and greater transferability across bonding environments. The dependence of the on-site energies on strain has been obtained by appealing to the Moments Theorem that links closed electron paths in the system to energy moments of angular momentum resolved local density of states obtained ab initio. The model matches self-consistent density functional theory electronic structure results for bulk face centered cubic metals with and without strain, metallic alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures with high accuracy and can be used in predictive electronic structure and transport problems in metallic systems at realistically extended length scales.

  14. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. I. Model and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, Ganesh; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Klimeck, Gerhard; Boykin, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Semi-empirical Tight Binding (TB) is known to be a scalable and accurate atomistic representation for electron transport for realistically extended nano-scaled semiconductor devices that might contain millions of atoms. In this paper, an environment-aware and transferable TB model suitable for electronic structure and transport simulations in technologically relevant metals, metallic alloys, metal nanostructures, and metallic interface systems are described. Part I of this paper describes the development and validation of the new TB model. The new model incorporates intra-atomic diagonal and off-diagonal elements for implicit self-consistency and greater transferability across bonding environments. The dependence of the on-site energies on strain has been obtained by appealing to the Moments Theorem that links closed electron paths in the system to energy moments of angular momentum resolved local density of states obtained ab initio. The model matches self-consistent density functional theory electronic structure results for bulk face centered cubic metals with and without strain, metallic alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures with high accuracy and can be used in predictive electronic structure and transport problems in metallic systems at realistically extended length scales

  15. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. I. Model and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Ganesh; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    Semi-empirical Tight Binding (TB) is known to be a scalable and accurate atomistic representation for electron transport for realistically extended nano-scaled semiconductor devices that might contain millions of atoms. In this paper, an environment-aware and transferable TB model suitable for electronic structure and transport simulations in technologically relevant metals, metallic alloys, metal nanostructures, and metallic interface systems are described. Part I of this paper describes the development and validation of the new TB model. The new model incorporates intra-atomic diagonal and off-diagonal elements for implicit self-consistency and greater transferability across bonding environments. The dependence of the on-site energies on strain has been obtained by appealing to the Moments Theorem that links closed electron paths in the system to energy moments of angular momentum resolved local density of states obtained ab initio. The model matches self-consistent density functional theory electronic structure results for bulk face centered cubic metals with and without strain, metallic alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures with high accuracy and can be used in predictive electronic structure and transport problems in metallic systems at realistically extended length scales.

  16. Glassy selenium at high pressure: Le Chatelier's principle still works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhkin, V. V.; Tsiok, O. B.

    2017-10-01

    Selenium is the only easily vitrified elementary substance. Numerous experimental studies of glassy Se (g -Se) at high pressures show a large spread in the data on the compressibility and electrical resistivity of g -Se. Furthermore, H. Liu et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] have arrived at the surprising conclusion that the volume of glass increases during pressure-induced crystallization. We have performed high-precision measurements of the specific volume and electrical resistivity of glassy selenium (g -Se) at high hydrostatic pressures up to 9 GPa. The measured bulk modulus at normal pressure is B =(9.0 5 ±0.15 ) GPa and its pressure derivative is BP'=6.4 ±0.2 . In the pressure range P <3 GPa, glassy selenium has an anomalously large negative second derivative of the bulk modulus. The electrical resistivity of g -Se decreases almost exponentially with increasing pressure and reaches 20 Ω cm at a pressure of 8.75 GPa. The inelastic behavior and weak relaxation of the volume for g -Se begin at pressures above 3.5 GPa; the volume and logarithm of the electrical resistivity relax significantly (logarithmically with the time) at pressures above 8 GPa. Bulk measurements certainly indicate that the volume of g -Se glass in the crystallization pressure range is larger than the volumes of both appearing crystalline phases (by 2% and 4%). Therefore, the "volume expansion phenomenon" suggested in [H. Liu et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] is not observed, and the pressure-induced crystallization of glassy selenium is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.

  17. Convection Effects During Bulk Transparent Alloy Solidification in DECLIC-DSI and Phase-Field Simulations in Diffusive Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, F. L.; Song, Y.; Pereda, J.; Billia, B.; Tourret, D.; Debierre, J.-M.; Trivedi, R.; Karma, A.; Bergeon, N.

    2017-08-01

    To study the dynamical formation and evolution of cellular and dendritic arrays under diffusive growth conditions, three-dimensional (3D) directional solidification experiments were conducted in microgravity on a model transparent alloy onboard the International Space Station using the Directional Solidification Insert in the DEvice for the study of Critical LIquids and Crystallization. Selected experiments were repeated on Earth under gravity-driven fluid flow to evidence convection effects. Both radial and axial macrosegregation resulting from convection are observed in ground experiments, and primary spacings measured on Earth and microgravity experiments are noticeably different. The microgravity experiments provide unique benchmark data for numerical simulations of spatially extended pattern formation under diffusive growth conditions. The results of 3D phase-field simulations highlight the importance of accurately modeling thermal conditions that strongly influence the front recoil of the interface and the selection of the primary spacing. The modeling predictions are in good quantitative agreements with the microgravity experiments.

  18. Anisotropic microstructure and superelasticity of additive manufactured NiTi alloy bulk builds using laser directed energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimber, Beth A. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamilton, Reginald F., E-mail: rfh13@psu.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Keist, Jayme; Palmer, Todd A. [Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16804 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The microstructure and superelasticity in additive manufactured NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. Using elementally blended Ni and Ti powder feedstock, Ni-rich build coupons were fabricated via the laser-based directed energy deposition (LDED) technique. The build volumes were large enough to extract tensile and compressive test specimens from selected locations for spatially resolving microconstituents and the underlying stress-induced martensitic phase transformation (SIMT) morphology. In the as-deposited condition, X-ray diffraction identified the B2 atomic crystal structure of the austenitic parent phase in NiTi SMAs, and Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitates were the predominant microconstituent identified through scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure exhibited anisotropy, which was characterized by the Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitate morphology being coarsest nearest the substrate, while a finer morphology was observed farthest from the substrate. In-situ full-field deformation measurements calculated using digital image correlation confirmed that the SIMT predominately occurred in the finer precipitate morphology. Heat treatment reduced the degree of anisotropy, and DIC analysis revealed localized SIMT strains increased compared to the as-deposited condition.

  19. Use of portable X-ray fluorescence instrument for bulk alloy analysis on low corroded indoor bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šatović, D.; Desnica, V.; Fazinić, S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most often used non-destructive methods for elemental analysis when performing field measurements on bronze sculptures is X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis based on portable instrumentation. However, when performing routine in-situ XRF analysis on corroded objects obtained results are sometimes considerably influenced by the corrosion surface products. In this work the suitability of portable XRF for bulk analysis of low corroded bronzes, which were initially precisely characterized using sophisticated and reliable laboratory methods, was investigated and some improvements in measuring technique and data processing were given. Artificially corroded bronze samples were analyzed by a portable XRF instrument using the same methodology and procedures as when performing in-situ analysis on real objects. The samples were first investigated using sophisticated complementary laboratory techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, in order to gain precise information on the formation of the corrosion product layers and in-depth elemental profile of corrosion layers for different aging parameters. It has been shown that for corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm a portable XRF can yield very accurate quantification results. - Highlights: • XRF quantification is very accurate for bronze corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm. • Corrosion layer formation on bronze described in two phases. • Corrosion layers precisely characterized using PIXE, RBS and SEM. • Corrosion approximated as CuO for layer thickness calculations via X-ray attenuations • Increasingly lighter corrosion matrix may cause SnLα radiation intensity inversion

  20. Use of portable X-ray fluorescence instrument for bulk alloy analysis on low corroded indoor bronzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šatović, D., E-mail: dsatovic@alu.hr [Department of Conservation and Restoration, Academy of Fine Arts, Ilica 85, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Desnica, V. [Department of Conservation and Restoration, Academy of Fine Arts, Ilica 85, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fazinić, S. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-11-01

    One of the most often used non-destructive methods for elemental analysis when performing field measurements on bronze sculptures is X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis based on portable instrumentation. However, when performing routine in-situ XRF analysis on corroded objects obtained results are sometimes considerably influenced by the corrosion surface products. In this work the suitability of portable XRF for bulk analysis of low corroded bronzes, which were initially precisely characterized using sophisticated and reliable laboratory methods, was investigated and some improvements in measuring technique and data processing were given. Artificially corroded bronze samples were analyzed by a portable XRF instrument using the same methodology and procedures as when performing in-situ analysis on real objects. The samples were first investigated using sophisticated complementary laboratory techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, in order to gain precise information on the formation of the corrosion product layers and in-depth elemental profile of corrosion layers for different aging parameters. It has been shown that for corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm a portable XRF can yield very accurate quantification results. - Highlights: • XRF quantification is very accurate for bronze corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm. • Corrosion layer formation on bronze described in two phases. • Corrosion layers precisely characterized using PIXE, RBS and SEM. • Corrosion approximated as CuO for layer thickness calculations via X-ray attenuations • Increasingly lighter corrosion matrix may cause SnLα radiation intensity inversion.

  1. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Koetz, R; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  2. Glass-crystal transformation under non-isothermal conditions: Kinetic analysis of the Ag{sub 0.16}As{sub 0.38}Se{sub 0.46} glassy alloy by using a new theoretical method based on nucleation and growth processes, which depend on time as a power law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, J., E-mail: jose.vazquez@uca.e [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Apartado 40, 11510, Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Cardenas-Leal, J.L.; Garcia-G Barreda, D.; Gonzalez-Palma, R.; Lopez-Alemany, P.L.; Villares, P. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Apartado 40, 11510, Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    A theoretical method, which we have published in two previous works, has been applied to the study of the glass-crystal transformation of the Ag{sub 0.16}As{sub 0.38}Se{sub 0.46} semiconductor glass under non-isothermal conditions. This method allows one to obtain an evolution equation with temperature for the actual volume fraction, to calculate the kinetic parameters of the quoted transformation, to establish the thermal process type, to determine the dimensionality of the crystal growth and to evaluate the exponents of the power laws of the time-dependence both for the nucleation frequency and for the crystal growth rate in non-isothermal transformations. The quoted method assumes the concept of extended volume of the transformed material, the condition of randomly located nuclei and the supposition of mutual interference of regions growing from separated nuclei, considering moreover the case presented in the practice of a kinetic exponent with a value larger than 4. To study the quoted case it is proposed that both the nucleation frequency and the crystal growth rate depend on time as a power law. The above-mentioned Ag{sub 0.16}As{sub 0.38}Se{sub 0.46} glassy alloy presents two exothermic peaks. The second peak gives for the kinetic exponent a value large enough than 4 and it is necessary to resort to the hypotheses of the considered method to justify the unexpectedly high value of the kinetic exponent. Following the quoted method it has been found that the thermal process type is continuous nucleation with three-dimensional growth for the two peaks of crystallization of the studied alloy. Moreover, the experimental curve of the transformed fraction shows a satisfactory agreement with the theoretical curve corresponding to the considered method, confirming the reliability of the quoted method in order to analyze the transformation kinetics of the above-mentioned alloy.

  3. Zirconium based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.K.; Neogy, S.; Savalia, R.T.; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; Banerjee, S.

    2006-01-01

    Metallic glasses have come into prominence in recent times because their nanocrystalline atomic arrangement imparts many useful and unusual properties to these metallic solids. In this study, bulk glasses have been obtained in Zr based multicomponent alloy by induction melting these alloys in silica crucibles and casting these in form of rods 3 and 6 mm in diameter in a copper mould

  4. Glass formation, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of ternary Ho–Al–Co bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Li, Ran; Ji, Yunfei; Liu, Fanmao; Luo, Qiang; Zhang, Tao

    2012-01-01

    A ternary Ho–Al–Co system with high glass-forming ability (GFA) was developed and fully glassy rods with diameters up to 1 cm can be produced for the best glass former of Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 alloy. The thermal stability and low-temperature magnetic properties of the Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) were studied. The magnetic transition temperature of this alloy is ∼14 K as determined by the thermomagnetic measurement. Two indicators, i.e. isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔS M ) and the relative cooling power (RCP), were adopted to evaluate the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of the alloy under a low magnetic field up to 2 T, which can be generated by permanent magnets. The values of |ΔS M | and RCP are 7.98 J kg −1 K −1 and 191.5 J kg −1 , respectively. The Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 BMG with good MCE and high GFA provides an attractive candidate for magnetic refrigeration applications, like hydrogen liquefaction and storage. - Highlights: ► A ternary Ho–Al–Co BMG system with high glass-forming ability was developed. ► Fully glassy rods of Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 alloy were produced up to 1 cm in diameter. ► The thermal stability and magnetic properties of the BMG were evaluated. ► The BMG exhibits good magnetocaloric effect under a low magnetic field up to 2 T.

  5. Thermodynamic picture of the glassy state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    A picture for the thermodynamics of the glassy state is introduced. It assumes that one extra parameter, the effective temperature, is needed to describe the glassy state. This explains the classical paradoxes concerning the Ehrenfest relations and the Prigogine-Defay ratio. As a second feature, the

  6. Low temperature thermal conductivities of glassy carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of glassy carbon in the temperature range 0.1 to 100 0 K appears to depend only on the temperature at which the material was pyrolyzed. The thermal conductivity can be related to the microscopic structure of glassy carbon. The reticulated structure is especially useful for thermal isolation at cryogenic temperatures

  7. Two-phase quasi-equilibrium in β-type Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Pauly, S.; Tang, M. Q.; Eckert, J.; Zhang, H. F.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of cast Ti/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) containing β-Ti still remains ambiguous. This is why to date the strategies and alloys suitable for producing such BMGCs with precisely controllable volume fractions and crystallite sizes are still rather limited. In this work, a Ti-based BMGC containing β-Ti was developed in the Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Be system. The glassy matrix of this BMGC possesses an exceptional glass-forming ability and as a consequence, the volume fractions as well as the composition of the β-Ti dendrites remain constant over a wide range of cooling rates. This finding can be explained in terms of a two-phase quasi-equilibrium between the supercooled liquid and β-Ti, which the system attains on cooling. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium allows predicting the crystalline and glassy volume fractions by means of the lever rule and we succeeded in reproducing these values by slight variations in the alloy composition at a fixed cooling rate. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium could be of critical importance for understanding and designing the microstructures of BMGCs containing the β-phase. Its implications on the nucleation and growth of the crystalline phase are elaborated. PMID:26754315

  8. Dynamics and Geometry of Icosahedral Order in Liquid and Glassy Phases of Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Shimono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The geometrical properties of the icosahedral ordered structure formed in liquid and glassy phases of metallic glasses are investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. We investigate the Zr-Cu alloy system as well as a simple model for binary alloys, in which we can change the atomic size ratio between alloying components. In both cases, we found the same nature of icosahedral order in liquid and glassy phases. The icosahedral clusters are observed in liquid phases as well as in glassy phases. As the temperature approaches to the glass transition point Tg, the density of the clusters rapidly grows and the icosahedral clusters begin to connect to each other and form a medium-range network structure. By investigating the geometry of connection between clusters in the icosahedral network, we found that the dominant connecting pattern is the one sharing seven atoms which forms a pentagonal bicap with five-fold symmetry. From a geometrical point of view, we can understand the mechanism of the formation and growth of the icosahedral order by using the Regge calculus, which is originally employed to formulate a theory of gravity. The Regge calculus tells us that the distortion energy of the pentagonal bicap could be decreased by introducing an atomic size difference between alloying elements and that the icosahedral network would be stabilized by a considerably large atomic size difference.

  9. Multilayered nanoclusters of platinum and gold: insights on electrodeposition pathways, electrocatalysis, surface and bulk compositional properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwizu, TS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical, surface and bulk compositional properties of multilayered nanoclusters of Pt and Au, electrochemically deposited on glassy carbon under conditions involving sequential surface–limited redox–replacement reactions (performed at open...

  10. Crystallization behavior and the thermal properties of Zr63Al7.5Cu17.5Ni10B2 bulk amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, J.S.C.; Chang, L.J.; Jiang, Y.T.; Wong, P.W.

    2003-01-01

    The ribbons of amorphous Zr 63 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 B 2 alloys with 0.1 mm thickness were prepared by melt spinning method. The thermal properties and micro structural development during the annealing of amorphous alloy have been investigated by a combination of differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, high-temperature optical microscope, X-ray diffractometry and TEM. The glass transition temperature for the Zr 63 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 B 2 alloys are measured about 645 K (372 C). This alloy also obtains a large temperature interval ΔT x about 63 K. Meanwhile, the calculated T rg for Zr 63 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 B 2 alloy presents the value of 0.57. The activation energy of crystallization for the alloy Zr 63 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 B 2 was about 370± 10 kJ/mole as determined by the Kissinger and Avrami plot, respectively. These values are about 20% higher than the activation energy of crystallization for the Zr 65 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 alloy (314 kJ/mol.). This implies that the boron additions exhibit the effect of improving the thermal stability for the Zr-based alloy. The average value of the Avrami exponent n were calculated to be 1.75±0.15 for Zr 63 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 B 2 alloy. This indicates that this alloy presents a crystallization process with decreasing nucleation rate. (orig.)

  11. New Ti-based Ti–Cu–Zr–Fe–Sn–Si–Ag bulk metallic glass for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Shujie; Liu, Ying; Li, Haifei; Sun, Lulu [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Yan [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Tao, E-mail: zhangtao@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Novel Ti{sub 47}Cu{sub 38}Zr{sub 7.5}Fe{sub 2.5}Sn{sub 2}Si{sub 1}Ag{sub 2} (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with a critical diameter of 7 mm was discovered. • The present BMG is the largest Ni- and Be-free Ti-based BMG containing low content of noble metal reported to date. • The glassy alloy possesses high specific strength, low Young’s modulus, and good corrosion resistance and bio-compatibility. • Combination of high glass-forming ability and good mechano- and bio-compatibility for the Ti-based BMG demonstrates the potential for use in biomedical applications. - Abstract: A novel Ni-free Ti{sub 47}Cu{sub 38}Zr{sub 7.5}Fe{sub 2.5}Sn{sub 2}Si{sub 1}Ag{sub 2} (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with superior glass-forming ability, good mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility was discovered. The Ti-based BMG with a diameter of 7 mm can be prepared by copper mold casting and the supercooled liquid region was 52 K. Compressive strength, specific strength, Young’s modulus and microhardness of the Ti-based BMG were about 2.08 GPa, 3.2 × 10{sup 5} N m/kg, 100 GPa and 588 Hv, respectively. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the Ti-based glassy alloy possesses higher corrosion resistance than Ti–6Al–4V alloy in a simulated body fluid environment. Attachment, spreading out and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the Ti-based BMG surface demonstrated the excellent biocompatibility. Mechanisms of the formation and properties for the Ti-based glassy alloy are also discussed. The combination of high glass-forming ability, excellent mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility demonstrates the potential of the Ni-free Ti-based BMG for use in biomedical applications.

  12. Thermal Barrier Coatings Resistant to Glassy Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Julie Marie

    Engineering of alloys has for years allowed aircraft turbine engines to become more efficient and operate at higher temperatures. As advancements in these alloy systems have become more difficult, ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), often yttria (7 wt %) stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), have been utilized for thermal protection. TBCs have allowed for higher engine operating temperatures and better fuel efficiency but have also created new engineering problems. Specifically, silica based particles such as sand and volcanic ash that enter the engine during operation form glassy deposits on the TBCs. These deposits can cause the current industrial 7YSZ thermal barrier coatings to fail since the glass formed penetrates and chemically interacts with the TBC. When this occurs, coating failure may occur due to a loss of strain tolerance, which can lead to fracture, and phase changes of the TBC material. There have been several approaches used to stop calcium-magnesium aluminio-silcate (CMAS) glasses (molten sand) from destroying the entire TBC, but overall there is still limited knowledge. In this thesis, 7YSZ and new TBC materials will be examined for thermochemical and thermomechanical performance in the presence of molten CMAS and volcanic ash. Two air plasma sprayed TBCs will be shown to be resistant to volcanic ash and CMAS. The first type of coating is a modified 7YSZ coating with 20 mol% Al2O3 and 5 mol% TiO2 in solid solution (YSZ+20Al+5Ti). The second TBC is made of gadolinium zirconate. These novel TBCs impede CMAS and ash penetration by interacting with the molten CMAS or ash and drastically changing the chemistry. The chemically modified CMAS or ash will crystallize into an apatite or anorthite phase, blocking the CMAS or ash from further destroying the coating. A presented mechanism study will show these coatings are effective due to the large amount of solute (Gd, Al) in the zirconia structure, which is the key to creating the crystalline apatite or

  13. Thermo-physical characterization of the Fe_6_7Mo_6Ni_3_._5Cr_3_._5P_1_2C_5_._5B_2_._5 bulk metallic glass forming alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochtler, Benedikt; Gross, Oliver; Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The iron-phosphorus based bulk metallic glass forming alloy Fe_6_7Mo_6Ni_3_._5Cr_3_._5P_1_2C_5_._5B_2_._5 is characterized with respect to its thermophysical properties, crystallization and relaxation behavior, as well as its viscosity. The alloy provides a high critical casting thickness of 13 mm, thus allowing for the casting of amorphous parts with a considerable size. Calorimetric measurements reveal the characteristic transformation temperatures, transformation enthalpies, and the specific heat capacity. The analyses show that no stable supercooled liquid region exists upon heating. The specific heat capacity data are used to calculate the enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy differences between the crystalline and the supercooled liquid state. The crystallization behavior of amorphous samples upon heating is analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction, and a time-temperature-transformation diagram is constructed. Dilatometry is used to determine the thermal expansion behavior. The equilibrium viscosity below the glass transition as well as volume relaxation behavior are measured by three-point beam bending and dilatometry, respectively, to assess the kinetic fragility. With a kinetic fragility parameter of D* = 21.3, the alloy displays a rather strong liquid behavior. Viscosity above the melting point is determined using electromagnetic levitation in microgravity on a reduced gravity aircraft in cooperation with the German Aerospace Center (DLR). These high-temperature viscosity data are compared with the low-temperature three-point beam bending measurements. The alloy displays a strong liquid behavior at low temperatures and a fragile behavior at high temperatures. These results are analogous to the ones observed in several Zr-based bulk metallic glass forming liquids, indicating a strong to fragile liquid-liquid transition in the undercooled liquid, which is obscured by crystallization.

  14. Thermoplastic deformation of ferromagnetic CoFe-based bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenguang; Hu, Renchao; Man, Qikui; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin

    2017-12-01

    The superplastic deformation behavior of the ferromagnetic Co31Fe31Nb8B30 bulk metallic glass (BMG) in the supercooled liquid region was investigated. At a given temperature, the BMG exhibits a Newtonian behavior at low strain rates but a non-Newtonian behavior at high strain rates. The high thermal stability of this glassy alloy system offers an enough processing window to thermoplastic forming (TPF), and the strong processing ability was examined by simple micro-replication experiments. It is demonstrated that the TPF formability on length scales ranging down to nanometers can be achieved in the selected experimental condition. Based on the analysis of deformation behavior, the nearly full density sample (i.e. nearly 100%), was produced from water-atomized glassy powders and consolidated by the hot-pressing technique. The sample exhibits good soft-magnetic and mechanical properties, i.e., low coercive force of 0.43 Oe, high initial permeability of 4100 and high Vickers hardness 1398. These results suggest that the hot-pressing process opens up possibilities for the commercial exploitation of BMGs in engineering applications.

  15. Glassy carbon coated graphite for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpeux S; Cacciaguerra T; Duclaux L

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the problems caused by the treatment of nuclear wastes, the molten salts breeder reactors are expected to a great development. They use a molten fluorinated salt (mixture of LiF, BeF 2 , ThF 4 , and UF 4 ) as fuel and coolant. The reactor core, made of graphite, is used as a neutrons moderator. Despite of its compatibility with nuclear environment, it appears crucial to improve the stability and inertness of graphite against the diffusion of chemicals species leading to its corrosion. One way is to cover the graphite surface by a protective impermeable deposit made of glassy carbon obtained by the pyrolysis of phenolic resin or polyvinyl chloride precursors. The main difficulty in the synthesis of glassy carbon is to create exclusively, in the primary pyrolysis product, a micro-porosity of about twenty Angstroms which closes later at higher temperature. Therefore, the evacuation of the volatile products occurring mainly between 330 and 600 C, must progress slowly to avoid the material to crack. In this study, the optimal parameters for the synthesis of glassy carbon as well as glassy carbon deposits on nuclear-type graphite pieces are discussed. Both thermal treatment of phenolic and PVC resins have been performed. The structure and micro-texture of glassy carbon have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and helium pycno-metry. Glassy carbon samples (obtained at 1200 C) show densities ranging from 1.3 to 1.55 g/cm 3 and closed pores with nano-metric size (∼ 5 to 10 nm) appear clearly on the TEM micrographs. Then, a thermal treatment to 2700 C leads to the shrinkage of the entangled graphene ribbons, in good agreement with the proposed texture model for glassy carbon. Glassy carbon deposits on nuclear graphite have been developed by an impregnation method. The uniformity of the deposit depends clearly on the surface texture and the chemistry of the graphite substrate. The deposit regions where

  16. Glassy carbon coated graphite for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeux, S.; Cacciaguerra, T.; Duclaux, L. [Orleans Univ., CRMD, CNRS, 45 (France)

    2005-07-01

    Taking into account the problems caused by the treatment of nuclear wastes, the molten salts breeder reactors are expected to a great development. They use a molten fluorinated salt (mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2}, ThF{sub 4}, and UF{sub 4}) as fuel and coolant. The reactor core, made of graphite, is used as a neutrons moderator. Despite of its compatibility with nuclear environment, it appears crucial to improve the stability and inertness of graphite against the diffusion of chemicals species leading to its corrosion. One way is to cover the graphite surface by a protective impermeable deposit made of glassy carbon obtained by the pyrolysis of phenolic resin [1,2] or polyvinyl chloride [3] precursors. The main difficulty in the synthesis of glassy carbon is to create exclusively, in the primary pyrolysis product, a micro-porosity of about twenty Angstroms which closes later at higher temperature. Therefore, the evacuation of the volatile products occurring mainly between 330 and 600 C, must progress slowly to avoid the material to crack. In this study, the optimal parameters for the synthesis of glassy carbon as well as glassy carbon deposits on nuclear-type graphite pieces are discussed. Both thermal treatment of phenolic and PVC resins have been performed. The structure and micro-texture of glassy carbon have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and helium pycno-metry. Glassy carbon samples (obtained at 1200 C) show densities ranging from 1.3 to 1.55 g/cm{sup 3} and closed pores with nano-metric size ({approx} 5 to 10 nm) appear clearly on the TEM micrographs. Then, a thermal treatment to 2700 C leads to the shrinkage of the entangled graphene ribbons (Fig 1), in good agreement with the proposed texture model for glassy carbon (Fig 2) [4]. Glassy carbon deposits on nuclear graphite have been developed by an impregnation method. The uniformity of the deposit depends clearly on the surface texture and the chemistry

  17. Annealing effects on the migration of ion-implanted cadmium in glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlatshwayo, T.T., E-mail: thulani.hlatshwayo@up.ac.za [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sebitla, L.D. [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Physics Department, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Njoroge, E.G.; Mlambo, M.; Malherbe, J.B. [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2017-03-15

    The migration behaviour of cadmium (Cd) implanted into glassy carbon and the effects of annealing on radiation damage introduced by ion implantation were investigated. The glassy carbon substrates were implanted with Cd at a dose of 2 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} and energy of 360 keV. The implantation was performed at room temperature (RT), 430 °C and 600 °C. The RT implanted samples were isochronally annealed in vacuum at 350, 500 and 600 °C for 1 h and isothermally annealed at 350 °C up to 4 h. The as-implanted and annealed samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Raman results revealed that implantation at room temperature amorphized the glassy carbon structure while high temperature implantations resulted in slightly less radiation damage. Isochronal annealing of the RT implanted samples resulted in some recrystallization as a function of increasing temperature. The original glassy carbon structure was not achieved at the highest annealing temperature of 600 °C. Diffusion of Cd in glassy carbon was already taking place during implantation at 430 °C. This diffusion of Cd was accompanied by significant loss from the surface during implantation at 600 °C. Isochronal annealing of the room temperature implanted samples at 350 °C for 1 h caused Cd to diffuse towards the bulk while isothermal annealing at 500 and 600 °C resulted in the migration of implanted Cd toward the surface accompanied by a loss of Cd from the surface. Isothermal annealing at 350 °C for 1 h caused Cd to diffuse towards the bulk while for annealing time >1 h Cd diffused towards the surface. These results were interpreted in terms of trapping and de-trapping of implanted Cd by radiation damage.

  18. Welding of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, many bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials with high specific strength, hardness and superior corrosion resistance have been developed and the maximum thickness of some Zr-based BMGs have reached several tenths of millimeters. Nevertheless, homogeneous glassy BMGs are not thick enough to be used for structural applications. In order to extend the engineering applications of BMG materials, BMG welding technologies needed to be developed. Specifically, the welding technologies of dissimilar materials such as BMG materials to crystalline alloys are to be developed. The functional use of the specific properties of each material in dissimilar material combination provides flexible design possibilities for products. In this project electron beam welding is employed to join BMG with BMG of different composition as well as with different crystalline materials (i.e. Hastealoy C-276, Inconel-625 and pure Ti metal). Defects free weld joint was achieved in BMG-BMG welding. Some cracks were produced in melt zone of BMG-Ti and BMG-Hastealoy C-276 welding while at joint they fuse properly with BMG. Inconel-625 could not properly weld with BMG. In all cases, hardness of melt zone was found to be higher than the base metals and the heat affected zone (HAZ). (author)

  19. Preparation and properties of Fe{sub 80−x}Ni{sub x}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Ma, XiuHua [School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046 (China); Li, Qiang, E-mail: qli@xju.edu.cn [School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046 (China); Zhang, Jijun [School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046 (China); Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Dong, Yaqiang; Chang, Chuntao [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 80−x}Ni{sub x}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} (x = 20–50 at.%) BMGs were prepared by fluxing and J-quenching techniques. • The highest GFA is reached at x = 40 and the corresponding critical diameter is up to 2.5 mm. • The present FeNi-based BMGs exhibit very large ε{sub p} and the ε{sub p} of Fe{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} BMG is 11.7%. • The present FeNi-based BMGs have much higher corrosion resistance than stainless steel. - Abstract: Bulk Fe{sub 80−x}Ni{sub x}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} (x = 20, 30, 40, 50 at.%) glassy alloy rods with the diameters of 1.0–2.5 mm were synthesized by combining fluxing technique and J-quenching technique. The glassy alloy rods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It is found that the range of supercooled liquid region (ΔT{sub x}) is 27–32 K. The saturation magnetization of Fe{sub 80−x}Ni{sub x}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} (x = 20, 30, 40, 50 at.%) bulk glassy alloys gradually decreases from 1.13 T to 0.58 T with increasing Ni content from x = 20 to x = 50. More importantly, the present quaternary FeNiPB bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) shows a significant plastic strain, in particular, the plastic strain of Fe{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} BMG reaches as high as 11.7%. The corrosion resistance of the present FeNiPB BMGs was studied by weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization curves and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the corrosion resistance of the present FeNiPB BMGs in 0.5 M NaCl and 1 M HCl solution increases with Ni content, and further the present FeNiPB BMGs exhibit larger E{sub corr} values and lower I{sub corr} values, i.e. higher corrosion resistances, than that of stainless steel.

  20. Mechanical spectroscopy study of the Cu36Zr59Al5 and Cu54Zr40Al6 amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Wilmar Barbosa Marques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical spectroscopy study of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glasses, was performed with two types of equipment: a Kê-type inverted torsion pendulum and an acoustic elastometer, working in the frequency ranges of Hz and kHz, respectively, with a heating rate of 1 K/min. The analysis of the anelastic relaxation shows similar spectra for both types of equipment resulting in internal friction patterns that vary with temperature and are not reproducible at each thermal cycle. The normalized of the square of the frequency changes from the first to later measurement cycles. These results indicate that the specimens of Cu-Zr-Al alloys were changing by mechanical relaxation, owing to the motion of atoms or clusters in the glassy state and possible "defects" produced during the processing of alloys.

  1. Short range ordering and microstructure property relationship in amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariq, A.

    2006-07-01

    A novel algorithm, ''Next Neighbourhood Evaluation (NNE)'', is enunciated during the course of this work, to elucidate the next neighbourhood atomic vicinity from the data, analysed using tomographic atom probe (TAP) that allows specifying atom positions and chemical identities of the next neighbouring atoms for multicomponent amorphous materials in real space. The NNE of the Pd{sub 55}Cu{sub 23}P{sub 22} bulk amorphous alloy reveals that the Pd atoms have the highest probability to be the next neighbours to each other. Moreover, P-P correlation corroborates earlier investigations with scattering techniques that P is not a direct next neighbour to another P atom. Analogous investigations on the Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}B{sub 20} metallic glass ribbons, in the as quenched state and for a state heat treated at 350 C for 1 hour insinuate a pronounced elemental inhomogeneity for the annealed state, though, it also depicts glimpse of a slight inhomogeneity for B distribution even for the as quenched sample. Moreover, a comprehensive microstructural investigation has been carried out on the Zr{sub 53}Co{sub 23.5}Al{sub 23.5} glassy system. TEM and TAP investigations evince that the as cast bulk samples constitutes a composite structure of an amorphous phase and crystalline phase(s). The crystallization is essentially triggered at the mould walls due to heterogeneous nucleation. The three dimensional atomic reconstruction maps of the volume analysed by TAP reveal a complex stereological interconnected network of two phases. The phase that is rich in Zr and Al concentration is depleted in Co concentration while the phase that is rich in Co concentration is depleted both in Zr and Al. Zr{sub 53}Co{sub 23.5}Al{sub 23.5} glassy splat samples exhibit a single exothermic crystallization peak contrary to the as cast bulk sample with a different T{sub g} temperature. A single homogeneous amorphous phase revealed by TEM investigations depicts that the faster cooling

  2. On the Potential of Bulk Metallic Glasses for Dental Implantology: Case Study on Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liens, Alethea; Etiemble, Aurélien; Rivory, Pascaline; Balvay, Sandra; Pelletier, Jean-Marc; Cardinal, Sandrine; Fabrègue, Damien; Kato, Hidemi; Steyer, Philippe; Munhoz, Tais; Adrien, Jerome; Courtois, Nicolas; Hartmann, Daniel J; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2018-02-06

    Ti 40 Zr 10 Cu 36 Pd 14 Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) appears very attractive for future biomedical applications thanks to its high glass forming ability, the absence of toxic elements such as Ni, Al or Be and its good mechanical properties. For the first time, a complete and exhaustive characterization of a unique batch of this glassy alloy was performed, together with ISO standard mechanical tests on machined implant-abutment assemblies. The results were compared to the benchmark Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Extra-Low-Interstitial) to assess its potential in dental implantology. The thermal stability, corrosion and sterilization resistance, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties were measured on samples with a simple geometry, but also on implant-abutment assemblies' prototypes. Results show that the glassy alloy exhibits a quite high thermal stability, with a temperature range of 38 °C between the glass transition and crystallization, a compressive strength of 2 GPa, a certain plastic deformation (0.7%), a hardness of 5.5 GPa and a toughness of 56 MPa.√m. Moreover, the alloy shows a relatively lower Young's modulus (96 GPa) than the Ti-6Al-4V alloy (110-115 GPa), which is beneficial to limit bone stress shielding. The BMG shows a satisfactory cytocompatibility, a high resistance to sterilization and a good corrosion resistance (corrosion potential of -0.07 V/SCE and corrosion current density of 6.0 nA/cm²), which may ensure its use as a biomaterial. Tests on dental implants reveal a load to failure 1.5-times higher than that of Ti-6Al-4V and a comparable fatigue limit. Moreover, implants could be machined and sandblasted by methods usually conducted for titanium implants, without significant degradation of their amorphous nature. All these properties place this metallic glass among a promising class of materials for mechanically-challenging applications such as dental implants.

  3. On the Potential of Bulk Metallic Glasses for Dental Implantology: Case Study on Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethea Liens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14 Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG appears very attractive for future biomedical applications thanks to its high glass forming ability, the absence of toxic elements such as Ni, Al or Be and its good mechanical properties. For the first time, a complete and exhaustive characterization of a unique batch of this glassy alloy was performed, together with ISO standard mechanical tests on machined implant-abutment assemblies. The results were compared to the benchmark Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Extra-Low-Interstitial to assess its potential in dental implantology. The thermal stability, corrosion and sterilization resistance, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties were measured on samples with a simple geometry, but also on implant-abutment assemblies’ prototypes. Results show that the glassy alloy exhibits a quite high thermal stability, with a temperature range of 38 °C between the glass transition and crystallization, a compressive strength of 2 GPa, a certain plastic deformation (0.7%, a hardness of 5.5 GPa and a toughness of 56 MPa.√m. Moreover, the alloy shows a relatively lower Young’s modulus (96 GPa than the Ti-6Al-4V alloy (110–115 GPa, which is beneficial to limit bone stress shielding. The BMG shows a satisfactory cytocompatibility, a high resistance to sterilization and a good corrosion resistance (corrosion potential of −0.07 V/SCE and corrosion current density of 6.0 nA/cm2, which may ensure its use as a biomaterial. Tests on dental implants reveal a load to failure 1.5-times higher than that of Ti-6Al-4V and a comparable fatigue limit. Moreover, implants could be machined and sandblasted by methods usually conducted for titanium implants, without significant degradation of their amorphous nature. All these properties place this metallic glass among a promising class of materials for mechanically-challenging applications such as dental implants.

  4. Frequency-dependent complex modulus at the glass transition in Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 bulk amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.L.; Li, Y.; Feng, Y.P.; Carter, W.C.

    2003-01-01

    We report frequency-dependent measurements of the dynamic elastic modulus of a Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 bulk amorphous phase near its glass transition temperature. The storage and loss moduli exhibit a structural relaxation similar to those observed by other characterization techniques. Parameters obtained by fitting to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation and the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts model exhibit similar behaviors to those other methods

  5. mwnts composite film modified glassy carbon electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: A poly p-aminosalicylic acid (Poly(p-ASA)) and multiwall carbon nanotubes. (MWCNTs) composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was constructed by casting the MWNTs on the GC electrode surface followed by electropolymerization of the p-ASA on the MWCNTs/GCE. The electrochemical behaviours ...

  6. Titanium and zirconium based wrought alloys and bulk metallic glasses for fluoride ion containing 11.5 M HNO3 medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraj, J.; Ningshen, S.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous reprocessing of plutonium-rich mixed oxide fuels require fluoride as a catalyst in boiling nitric acid for an effective dissolution of the spent fuel. The corrosion behavior of the candidate dissolver materials zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) and commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti grade 2) in boiling 11.5 M HNO 3 + 0.05 M NaF has been established. High corrosion rates were obtained for Zr- 4 and CP-Ti in nitric acid containing fluoride ions. Complexing the fluoride ions either with Al(NO 3 ) 3 or ZrO(NO 3 ) 2 aided in decreasing the corrosion rates of Zr-4 and CP-Ti. High corrosion resistance is claimed as one of the principal property of the amorphous alloy when compared to the crystalline alloy. Thus Ni 60 Nb 40 and Ni 60 Nb 30 Ta 10 amorphous ribbons were prepared and exposed in boiling 11.5 M HNO 3 and 11.5 M HNO 3 + 0.05 M NaF. In nitric acid these alloys did not show any sign of corrosion attack. XPS analysis confirmed that the passivity was due to the formation passive films of thickness ≈3 nm enriched with Nb 2 O 5 and of ≈1.5 nm enriched with both Nb 2 O 5 and Ta 2 O 5 on the respective surfaces of the ribbons. In boiling 11.5 M HNO 3 + 0.05 M NaF, severe corrosion attack was observed on Ni 60 Nb 40 ribbon, due to the instability of the oxide/metal interface. The Ni 60 Nb 30 Ta 10 amorphous ribbon exhibited corrosion resistance of at least an order of magnitude higher than that for Ni 60 Nb 40 ribbon

  7. The practical limits for enhancing magnetic property combinations for bulk nanocrystalline NdFeB alloys through Pr, Co and Dy substitutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.W. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (Singapore)]. E-mail: phylz@nus.edu.sg; Davies, H.A. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (Singapore)

    2007-06-15

    Pr, Co and Dy additions have been employed to improve the combinations of magnetic properties for nanocrystalline Nd {sub x} Fe{sub 94-} {sub x} B{sub 6} melt spun alloys. The dependences of the magnetic properties on the solute element concentrations have been extensively investigated and the relationships between the measured remanence, maximum energy product (BH){sub max} and intrinsic coercivity for several compositional series are discussed. The composition ranges for these elemental substitutions which can be used to achieve the highest values of (BH){sub max} are identified. It is found that, when we employ individual or combined substitutions of Pr and Dy for Nd and Co for Fe in NdFeB alloys with various RE:Fe ratios, the practical limit of (BH){sub max} lies in the range {approx}160-180 kJ/m{sup 3}, combined with a coercivity in the range {approx}400-800 kA/m.

  8. About the contrast of δ' precipitates in bulk Al-Cu-Li alloys in reflection mode with a field-emission scanning electron microscope at low accelerating voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Voisard, Frédéric; Gauvin, Raynald

    2017-11-01

    Characterising the impact of lithium additions in the precipitation sequence in Al-Li-Cu alloys is important to control the strengthening of the final material. Since now, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at high beam voltage has been the technique of choice to monitor the size and spatial distribution of δ' precipitates (Al 3 Li). Here we report on the imaging of the δ' phase in such alloys using backscattered electrons (BSE) and low accelerating voltage in a high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscope. By applying low-energy Ar + ion milling to the surface after mechanical polishing (MP), the MP-induced corroded layers were efficiently removed and permitted the δ's to be visible with a limited impact on the observed microstructure. The resulting BSE contrast between the δ's and the Al matrix was compared with that obtained using Monte Carlo modelling. The artefacts possibly resulting from the sample preparation procedure were reviewed and discussed and permitted to confirm that these precipitates were effectively the metastable δ's. The method described in this report necessitates less intensive sample preparation than that required for TEM and provides a much larger field of view and an easily interpretable contrast compared to the transmission techniques. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  9. Quasi-static and dynamic compressive deformation of a bulk nanolayered Ag–Cu eutectic alloy: Macroscopic response and dominant deformation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingstedt, O.T.; Eftink, B.; Lambros, J.; Robertson, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured multilayered material systems offer an attractive method of increasing material strength. This work examines the response of a bulk eutectic silver–copper material (Ag 60 Cu 40 , subscripts indicating atomic percent) which has a hierarchical structure of alternating Ag and Cu layers with thicknesses down to 50 nm. The hierarchical structure consists of two primary arrangements of layers, eutectic colonies of parallel layers, most commonly found at the material interior, and “grains” consisting of alternating Ag and Cu layers which emanate from a central region in a radial pattern, most commonly found at the material exterior surface. We show that the hierarchical structure causes a significant increase in the measured strength response when comparing the Ag 60 Cu 40 response to that of the constituent materials in their bulk nanograined or micrograined form. The deformation mechanisms of this material are studied under compressive loading over the quasi-static and dynamic regime (10 −3 –10 3 s −1 ) with strain between 5% and 50%

  10. High-performance Ag0.8Pb18+xSbTe20 thermoelectric bulk materials fabricated by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Heng; Li Jingfeng; Nan Cewen; Zhou Min; Liu Weishu; Zhang Boping; Kita, Takuji

    2006-01-01

    Polycrystalline Ag n Pb m SbTe m+2n thermoelectric materials, whose compositions can be described as Ag 0.8 Pb 18+x SbTe 20 were prepared using a combined process of mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Electric properties of the sintered samples with different Pb contents were measured from room temperature to 700 K. The maximum power factor of 1.766 mW/mK 2 was obtained at 673 K for the Ag 0.8 Pb 22 SbTe 20 sample, which corresponds to a high dimensionless figure of merit, ZT=1.37. This best composition is different from that reported before

  11. Thermonuclear reactor materials composed of glassy carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazumata, Yukio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the durability to plasma radiation by the use of glassy carbon as the structural materials for the first wall and the blanket in thermonuclear devices. Constitution: The glassy carbon (glass-like carbon) is obtained by forming specific organic substances into a predetermined configuration and carbonizing them by heat decomposition under special conditions. They are impermeable carbon material of 1.40 - 1.70 specific gravity, less graphitizable and being almost in isotropic crystal forms in which isotropic structure such as in graphite is scarcely observed. They have an extremely high hardness, are less likely to be damaged when exposed to radiation and have great strength and corrosion resistance. Accordingly, the service life of the reactor walls and the likes can remarkably be increased by using the materials. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Solvated electron structure in glassy matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, L.

    1981-01-01

    Current knowledge of the detailed geometrical structure of solvated electrons in aqueous and organic media is summarized. The geometry of solvated electrons in glassy methanol, ethanol, and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran is discussed. Advanced electron magnetic resonance methods and development of new methods of analysis of electron spin echo modulation patterns, second moment line shapes, and forbidden photon spin-flip transitions for paramagnetic species in these disordered systems are discussed. 66 references are cited

  13. Ab initio-based bulk and surface thermodynamics of InGaN alloys. Investigating the effects of strain and surface polarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, Andrew I.; Lymperakis, Liverios; Neugebauer, Joerg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The growth of high In content InGaN with sufficiently high crystal quality is challenging due to the differences in the GaN and InN thermodynamics. The surprisingly different thermodynamics is due to a complex competition between strain and chemistry and mediated by the different indium and gallium atomic radii as well as their different bonding enthalpies with nitrogen. In the present work, we investigate bulk and surface thermodynamics of molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N for the technologically relevant (0001) and (000 anti 1) growth planes by means of density functional theory calculations. Our calculations confirm that coherent growth fully suppresses phase separation through spinodal decomposition. However, the biaxial strain is found to have a marginal effect on the critical temperatures for In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N decomposition. Furthermore, the thermal stability of excess indium is found to be remarkably higher on N-polar surfaces than on the Ga-polar surfaces. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Comparing the mechanism of water condensation and evaporation in glassy aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, David L; Reid, Jonathan P; Lienhard, Daniel M; Krieger, Ulrich K

    2012-07-17

    Atmospheric models generally assume that aerosol particles are in equilibrium with the surrounding gas phase. However, recent observations that secondary organic aerosols can exist in a glassy state have highlighted the need to more fully understand the kinetic limitations that may control water partitioning in ambient particles. Here, we explore the influence of slow water diffusion in the condensed aerosol phase on the rates of both condensation and evaporation, demonstrating that significant inhibition in mass transfer occurs for ultraviscous aerosol, not just for glassy aerosol. Using coarse mode (3-4 um radius) ternary sucrose/sodium chloride/aqueous droplets as a proxy for multicomponent ambient aerosol, we demonstrate that the timescale for particle equilibration correlates with bulk viscosity and can be ≫10(3) s. Extrapolation of these timescales to particle sizes in the accumulation mode (e.g., approximately 100 nm) by applying the Stokes-Einstein equation suggests that the kinetic limitations imposed on mass transfer of water by slow bulk phase diffusion must be more fully investigated for atmospheric aerosol. Measurements have been made on particles covering a range in dynamic viscosity from  10(13) Pa s. We also retrieve the radial inhomogeneities apparent in particle composition during condensation and evaporation and contrast the dynamics of slow dissolution of a viscous core into a labile shell during condensation with the slow percolation of water during evaporation through a more homogeneous viscous particle bulk.

  15. Irradiation-induced defects in graphite and glassy carbon studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Kajino, M.; Kuwahara, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kuramoto, E.; Takenaka, M.

    1992-01-01

    ACAR and positron lifetime measurements have been made on, HOPG, isotropic fine-grained graphites, glassy carbons and C 60 /C 70 . HOPG showed a marked bimodal ACAR distribution along the c-axis. By irradiation of 1.0 X 10 19 fast neutrons/cm 2 remarkable narrowing in the ACAR curves and disappearance of the bimodal distribution were observed. Lifetime in HOPG increased from 225 psec to 289 psec (positron-lifetime in vacancies and their small clusters) by the irradiation. The irradiation on isotropic graphites and glassy carbons, however, gave slight narrowing in ACAR curves and decrease in lifetimes (360 psec → 300psec). This suggests irradiation-induced vacancy trapping in crystallites. In C 60 /C 70 powder two lifetime components were detected: τ 1 =177psec, τ 2 =403psec (I 2 =58%). The former is less than the bulk lifetime of HOPG, while the latter being very close to lifetimes in the isotropic graphites and glassy carbons. This and recent 2D-ACAR study of HOPG surface [15] strongly suggest free and defect surface states around ''soccer ball'' cages

  16. Atomic structure of Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} bulk metallic glass alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, X. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: huixd01@hotmail.com; Fang, H.Z.; Chen, G.L. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shang, S.L.; Wang, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Qin, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University - Southern Campus, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu, Z.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations were performed on the atomic configuration of Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} bulk metallic glass. The local structures were characterized in terms of structure factors (SF), pair correlation functions (PCF), coordinate numbers, bond pairs and Voronoi polyhedra. The glass transition temperature, generalized PCF and SF predicated by AIMD are in good agreement with the experimental data. Icosahedral short-range orders (ISRO) are found to be the most dominant, in view of the presence of the majority of bond pairs with 1551, 1541 and 1431, and Voronoi polyhedra with <0,3,6,1>, <0,2,8,1>, <0,0,12,0> and <0,2,8,4>. Icosahedral medium range orders (IMROs) are formed from icosahedra via the linkage of vertex-, edge-, face- and intercross-shared atoms. The glass structure on the nanometer scale is accumulated by polyhedra through an efficient packing mode. It is suggested that the extraordinary glass-forming ability of this alloy is essentially attributable to the formation of ISRO and IMRO, and the dense packing of atoms.

  17. Time evolution of quenched state and correlation to glassy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, K.; Kilic, A.; Altinkok, A.; Yetis, H.; Cetin, O.; Durust, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, dynamic changes generated by the driving current were studied in superconducting bulk polycrystalline YBCO sample via transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves). The evolution of nonlinear V-t curves was interpreted in terms of the formation of resistive and nonresistive flow channels and the spatial reorganization of the transport current in a multiply connected network of weak-link structure. The dynamic re-organization of driving current could cause an enhancement or suppression in the superconducting order parameter due to the magnitude of the driving current and coupling strength of weak-link structure along with the chemical and anisotropic states of the sample as the time proceeds. A nonzero voltage decaying with time, correlated to the quenched state, was recorded when the magnitude of initial driving current is reduced to a finite value. It was found that, after sufficiently long waiting time, the evolution of the quenched state could result in a superconducting state, depending on the magnitude of the driving current and temperature. We showed that the decays in voltage over time are consistent with an exponential time dependence which is related to the glassy state. Further, the effect of doping of organic material Bis dimethyl-glyoximato Copper (II) to YBCO could be monitored apparently via the comparison of the V-t curves corresponding to doped and undoped YBCO samples

  18. Bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi-Yim, H.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix were synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this letter, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Both ceramics and metals were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to a 30 vol% fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The glass transition of the amorphous matrix and the crystallization behavior of the composites were studied by calorimetric methods. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Spatially heterogeneous ages in glassy dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Horacio E.; Chamon, Claudio Chamon; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.; Iguain, Jose Luis; Kennett, Malcolm P.

    2003-09-01

    We construct a framework for the study of fluctuations in the nonequilibrium relaxation of glassy systems with and without quenched disorder. We study two types of two-time local correlators with the aim of characterizing the heterogeneous evolution in these systems: in one case we average the local correlators over histories of the thermal noise, in the other case we simply coarse-grain the local correlators obtained for a given noise realization. We explain why the noise-averaged correlators describe the fingerprint of quenched disorder when it exists, while the coarse-grained correlators are linked to noise-induced mesoscopic fluctuations. We predict constraints on the distribution of the fluctuations of the coarse-grained quantities. In particular, we show that locally defined correlations and responses are connected by a generalized local out-of-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation. We argue that large size heterogeneities in the age of the system survive in the long-time limit. A symmetry of the underlying theory, namely invariance under reparametrizations of the time coordinates, underlies these results. We establish a connection between the probabilities of spatial distributions of local coarse-grained quantities and the theory of dynamic random manifolds. We define, and discuss the behavior of, a two-time dependent correlation length from the spatial decay of the fluctuations in the two-time local functions. We characterize the fluctuations in the system in terms of their fractal properties. For concreteness, we present numerical tests performed on disordered spin models in finite and infinite dimensions. Finally, we explain how these ideas can be applied to the analysis of the dynamics of other glassy systems that can be either spin models without disorder or atomic and molecular glassy systems. (author)

  20. On the use of atomistic simulations to aid bulk metallic glasses structural elucidation with solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ary R; Rino, José P

    2017-08-24

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) experimental 27 Al metallic shifts reported in the literature for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were revisited in the light of state-of-the-art atomistic simulations. In a consistent way, the Gauge-Including Projector Augmented-Wave (GIPAW) method was applied in conjunction with classical molecular dynamics (CMD). A series of Zr-Cu-Al alloys with low Al concentrations were selected as case study systems, for which realistic CMD derived structural models were used for a short- and medium-range order mining. That initial procedure allowed the detection of trends describing changes on the microstructure of the material upon Al alloying, which in turn were used to guide GIPAW calculations with a set of abstract systems in the context of ssNMR. With essential precision and accuracy, the ab initio simulations also yielded valuable trends from the electronic structure point of view, which enabled an overview of the bonding nature of Al-centered clusters as well as its influence on the experimental ssNMR outcomes. The approach described in this work might promote the use of ssNMR spectroscopy in research on glassy metals. Moreover, the results presented demonstrate the possibility to expand the applications of this technique, with deeper insight into nuclear interactions and less speculative assignments.

  1. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( toluene-derived SOM after ammonia exposure at varied RHs. The results suggest that the production of light-absorbing nitrogen-containing compounds from multiphase reactions with ammonia was kinetically limited in the glassy organic matrix, which otherwise produce brown carbon. The results of this study have significant implications for production and optical properties of brown carbon in urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  2. The sorption induced glass transition in amorphous glassy polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.; Briels, Willem J.

    1999-01-01

    Sorption of CO2 in both the glassy and the rubbery state of an amorphous polyethylenelike polymer was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature was chosen such that the system was in its glassy state at low solute concentrations and its rubbery state at large solute

  3. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of glassy carbon for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Mortensen, Henrik Junge; Stenum, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    density increased with the plasma treatments. Adhesion test of the treated glassy carbon covered with cured epoxy showed cohesive failure, indicating strong bonding after the treatments. This is in contrast to the adhesion tests of untreated samples where the epoxy readily peeled off the glassy carbon....

  4. A comparative study of the density of defect states in bulk samples ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. Numerous potential applications of chalcogenide glasses are proposed in the civil, medi- cal and military areas [1–6]. ... rapidly by removing the ampoule from the furnace and dropping it to ice-cooled water. 2.2 Preparation of pellets and thin films. The glassy alloys of Se90Sb10 thus prepared are ground to a ...

  5. Carbon Alloys-Multi-functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Eiichi [MSL, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)], E-mail: yasuda.e.aa.@m.titech.ac.jp; Enami, Takashi; Hoteida, Nobuyuki [MSL, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Lanticse-Diaz, L.J. [University of the Philippines (Philippines); Tanabe, Yasuhiro [Nagoya University (Japan); Akatsu, Takashi [MSL, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2008-02-25

    Last decade after our proposal of the 'Carbon Alloys' concept, many different kinds of Carbon Alloys, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, graphene sheet with magnetism, semi-conducting BCN compounds, graphite intercalation compounds, exfoliated carbon fiber, etc. have been found and developed. To extend the concept further, it is important to make it into intelligent materials by incorporating multiple functions. One example of the multi-functionalization is the development of homo-atomic Carbon Alloys from glassy carbon (GC) that exhibits high electrical conductivity and low gas permeability after treatment at critical conditions. Glassy carbon underwent metamorphosis to graphite spheres at HIP condition, and improved resistance to oxidation after alloying with Ta. The other one is shape utilization of the nano-sized carbon by understanding the effect of its large surfaces or interfaces in nanotechnology treatment. Recently carbon nanofiber was produced by polymer blend technology (PB) which was proposed by Prof. A. Oya during the Carbon Alloy project and progressed into intelligent carbon nanofiber (CNF) materials. CNF is combined into the polymer composites which is a candidate material for the bipolar separator in fuel cell. The superior properties, i.e., high electrical conductivity, high modulus, high strength, etc., of the CNF is being utilized in the preparation of this polymer composite.

  6. Glass-ceramic coated Mg-Ca alloys for biomedical implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, J V; Antoniac, I; Fosca, M; De Bonis, A; Blajan, A I; Cotrut, C; Graziani, V; Curcio, M; Cricenti, A; Niculescu, M; Ortenzi, M; Teghil, R

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradable metals and alloys are promising candidates for biomedical bone implant applications. However, due to the high rate of their biodegradation in human body environment, they should be coated with less reactive materials, such, for example, as bioactive glasses or glass-ceramics. Fort this scope, RKKP composition glass-ceramic coatings have been deposited on Mg-Ca(1.4wt%) alloy substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition method, and their properties have been characterized by a number of techniques. The prepared coatings consist of hydroxyapatite and wollastonite phases, having composition close to that of the bulk target material used for depositions. The 100μm thick films are characterized by dense, compact and rough morphology. They are composed of a glassy matrix with various size (from micro- to nano-) granular inclusions. The average surface roughness is about 295±30nm due to the contribution of micrometric aggregates, while the roughness of the fine-texture particulates is approximately 47±4nm. The results of the electrochemical corrosion evaluation tests evidence that the RKKP coating improves the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca (1.4wt%) alloy in Simulated Body Fluid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanoindentation studies on Cu-Ti-Zr-Ni-Si-Sn bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Belger, A.; Paufler, P.; Kim, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    In the present investigation, Cu 47 Ti 33 Ni 6 Sn 2 Si 1 (numbers indicate at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG), fabricated by injection casting has been used for indentation experiments. Microindentation and nanoindentation tests were conducted to study the indentation responses of this material. The nanohardness and the Young's modulus were calculated following the standard procedure in literature. Around the indent, shear bands can be clearly observed under scanning electron microscopy examination. Atomic-force microscopy shows the pile of the material in a step-wise manner. The thinned sample near the indent shows the evolution of nanocrystals (∼20-30 nm) by transmission electron microscopy. During nanoindentation (in single- and multi-indent mode) experiments, the load-displacement P-h curves show displacement bursts, which are also known as pop-ins or serrations. The total displacement during indentation can be accounted for by sum total effect of the individual displacement of all the displacement-bursts observed in the P-h curve. Thus the plastic deformation of this glassy material appears to proceed in a discrete manner unlike ductile metallic alloys

  8. Early stage crystallization kinetics in metallic glass-forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heterogeneous nucleation may precede the homogeneous one in an alloy. • High kinetic constants and the nucleation rate at the initial stage. • Metallic glasses have heterogeneous nucleation sites which saturate later. -- Abstract: The crystallization kinetics and structural changes of a few metallic glassy alloys were monitored using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetry methods. Microstructural observations were used to estimate the nucleation and growth rates. A clear comparison of the differences in the crystallization kinetics in the metallic glassy samples is observed at the early and later crystallization stages

  9. Glassy slag from rotary hearth vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschenbach, R.C.; Simpson, M.D.; Paulson, W.S.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    Use of a Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) system for treating mixed wastes containing significant quantities of soil results in formation of a glassy slag which melts at significantly higher temperatures than the borosilicate glasses. The slag typically contains mostly crystalline material, frequently in an amorphous matrix, thus the appellation open-quotes glassy slag.close quotes Details of the PACT process are given. The process will be used for treating buried wastes from Pit 9 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and low-level mixed wastes from nuclear power plants in Switzerland. Properties of the slag after cooling to room temperature are reported, in particular the Product Consistency Test, for a number of different feedstocks. In almost all cases, the results compare favorably with conventional borosilicate glasses. In the PACT system, a transferred arc carries current from the plasma torch to a rotating molten bed of slag, which is the material being heated. Thus this transferred arc adds energy where it is needed - at and near the surface of the molten bath. Material is fed into the furnace through a sealed feeder, and falls into a rotating tub which is heated by the arc. Any organic material is quickly vaporized into the space above the slag bed and burned by the oxygen in the furnace. Metal oxides in the charge are melted into the slag. Metal in the feed tends to melt and collect as a separate phase underneath the slag, but can be oxidized if desired. When oxidized, it unites with other constituents forming a homogeneous slag

  10. Impedance aspect of charge storage at graphite and glassy carbon electrodes in potassium hexacyanoferrate (II redox active electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Magdić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of charge storage mechanisms at unmodified graphite vs. glassy carbon electrodes in acid sulphate supporting solution containing potassium hexacyanoferrate (II redox active electrolyte, have been revealed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and supported by cyclic voltammetry experiments. Reversible charge transfer of Fe(CN63-/4- redox reaction detected by assessment of CVs of glassy carbon electrode, is in impedance spectra indicated by presence of bulk diffusion impedance and constant double-layer/pseudocapacitive electrode impedance compared to that measured in the pure supporting electrolyte. Some surface retention of redox species detected by assessment of CVs of graphite electrode is in impedance spectra indicated by diffusion impedance coupled in this case by diminishing of double-layer/pseudo­capacitive impedance compared to that measured in the pure supporting electrolyte. This phenomenon is ascribed to contribution of additional pseudocapacitive impedance generated by redox reaction of species confined at the electrode surface.

  11. New model system in radiation cryochemistry:. hyperquenched glassy water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Janusz; Plonka, Andrzej; Hallbrucker, Andreas; Mayer, Erwin

    1999-08-01

    Radicals generated by high-energy irradiation of liquid water, short-lived at ambient temperature, can be studied at cryogenic temperatures after irradiating water and dilute aqueous solutions in their glassy states which can be obtained by so-called hyperquenching of the liquids at cooling rates of ˜10 6-10 7 K s -1. In the glassy states of hyperquenched dilute aqueous solutions there is no problem with phase separation and radiolysis of glassy water is quite distinct from radiolysis of polycrystalline ice obtained from liquid water on slow-cooling in liquid nitrogen.

  12. Formation of a glassy phase in ceramic-like coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazonova, M.V.; Gorbatova, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the synthesis directly in coatings of a borosilicate melt that could fill the role of glassy matrix, thereby avoiding fusion and processing of the glassy material. The effect of added boron on the formation of coatings based on molybdenum disilicide and tungsten disilicide in air at 900 degrees C is presented. Without an additive no coating forms; there is no adhesion to the graphite and a continuous film does not form. As a result of boron oxidation an easily fused glassy matrix forms, which bonds the molybdenum disilicide or tungsten disilicide particles together and ensures adhesion to the graphite

  13. Electrochemical oxidation of butein at glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesio, Alvaro Yamil; Robledo, Sebastián Noel; Fernández, Héctor; Zon, María Alicia

    2013-06-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of flavonoid butein is studied at glassy carbon electrodes in phosphate and citrate buffer solutions of different pH values, and 1M perchloric acid aqueous solutions by cyclic and square wave voltammetries. The oxidation peak corresponds to the 2e(-), 2H(+) oxidation of the 3,4-dihydroxy group in B ring of butein, given the corresponding quinone species. The overall electrode process shows a quasi-reversible behavior and an adsorption/diffusion mixed control at high butein bulk concentrations. At low butein concentrations, the electrode process shows mainly an adsorption control. Butein surface concentration values were obtained from the charge associated with the adsorbed butein oxidation peaks, which are in agreement with those values expected for the formation of a monolayer of adsorbate in the concentration range from 1 to 5μM. Square wave voltammetry was used to perform a full thermodynamic and kinetics characterization of the butein surface redox couple. Therefore, from the combination of the "quasi-reversible maximum" and the "splitting of the net square wave voltammetric peak" methods, values of (0.386±0.003) V, (0.46±0.04), and 2.7×10(2)s(-1) were calculated for the formal potential, the anodic transfer coefficient, and the formal rate constant, respectively, of the butein overall surface redox process in pH4.00 citrate buffer solutions. These results will be then used to study the interaction of butein, and other flavonoids with the deoxyribonucleic acid, in order to better understand the potential therapeutic applications of these compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EDTA modified glassy carbon electrode: Preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustuendag, Zafer; Solak, Ali Osman

    2009-01-01

    EDTA-phenoxyamide modified glassy carbon electrode (EDTA-GC) was prepared at a glassy carbon electrode by surface synthesis. In the first step, nitrophenyl was grafted to the glassy carbon (GC) surface via the electrochemical reduction of its tetraflouroborate diazonium salt. In the second step, nitrophenyl-modified electrode (NP-GC) was subjected to the cathodic potential scan to reduce the nitro to amine group. p-Aminophenyl modified glassy carbon electrode (AP-GC) was dipped into a EDTA solution containing 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethlyamino)propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as an activating agent. Thus formed ((2-anilino-2-oxoethyl){2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-ethyl}amino)acetic acid modified GC electrode was denoted as EDTA-GC and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complexation of the EDTA-GC surface with Pb 2+ ions was investigated if this electrode could be used as a metal sensor.

  15. Study of the mechanical and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 10}Zr{sub 5-x}Hf{sub x}W{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 20} (x = 0 or 3) bulk amorphous and crystalline alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabialek, Marcin G. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Szota, Michal [Institute of Materials Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Dospial, Marcin J.

    2010-05-15

    The microstructure, thermal stability, mechanical and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 10}Zr{sub 5-x}Hf{sub x}W{sub 2}Y{sub 2}B{sub 20} (where x = 0 or 3) bulk metallic glasses (BMG) and their crystalline equivalents were investigated. The crystalline materials were smelted on a copper mould using an electric arc; their amorphous equivalents were prepared using the induction suction casting method (ISC). All samples investigated were in the form of plates with dimensions of 10x10x0.5mm. From X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy, it was found that both investigated alloys prepared using this method have an amorphous structure. From magnetic measurements obtained by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), it was shown that all measured samples displayed soft magnetic properties with relatively high saturation of the magnetization. The thermal stability and glass-forming ability (GFA) for investigated alloys were derived from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. The measurements of mechanical properties for amorphous alloys were found to be better than those for crystalline alloys with the same atomic composition. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Comparison in processing routes by copper mold casting injection and suction in the Cu46Zr42Al7Y5 vitreous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalha, W.; Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    To expand the application of glassy metals, the development of processing routes and compositions that allow the production of parts with dimensions of millimeters or even centimeters, is very important. The present work aims the contribution to the technological development of processing routes for the production of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses. Wedge-shaped samples of Cu 46 Zr 42 Al 7 Y 5 (atom percent) chemical composition were processed using copper mold casting by suction and injection. Characterization was made combining scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The critical amorphous thickness obtained by those two different routes was carefully observed. The suction route allow obtaining the best results with critical amorphous thickness about 8 mm. This result was analyzed considering the different extrinsic parameters to the glass forming ability of the alloy. (author)

  17. Influence of ejection temperature on structure and glass transition behavior for Zr-based rapidly quenched disordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.H.; Inoue, A.; Kong, F.L.; Zhu, S.L.; Stoica, M.; Kaban, I.; Chang, C.T.; Shalaan, E.; Al-Marzouki, F.; Eckert, J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the influence of ejection liquid temperature (T el ) on the structure, thermal stability and crystallization of Zr−Al−Ni−Cu ribbons prepared by the melt-spinning technique. The increase in T el was found to cause the formation of an oxide phase on the ribbon surface, more loose atomic configurations, the absence of glass transition (GT) and supercooled liquid (SL) region, and the rise of crystallization temperature. The changes in the GT and SL region occur reversibly by controlling the T el . Neither the change in alloy composition except oxygen nor the difference in crystallized phases is seen. Their hardness increases significantly by the disappearance of GT and SL region. The reversible changes in the appearance and disappearance of GT and SL region was found for different Zr-based glassy ribbons, being independent of alloy compositions. The disappearance is presumably due to the change in atomic configurations from high-coordinated to less-coordinated atomic packing in the melt-spun ribbons by freezing high-temperature liquid. The observed phenomenon of the reversible changes provides a novel opportunity for deep understanding of mutual correlations among liquid structure, GT, stability of SL and bulk glass-forming ability for metallic alloys.

  18. Time effects and glassy state behaviour in superconducting Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinkok, A.; Yetis, H.; Olutas, M.; Kilic, K.; Kilic, A.

    2007-01-01

    The quenched disorder in the moving entity is investigated in a polycrystalline bulk sample of Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) by slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) on long time scales. The time evolution of sample voltage (V-t curve) are correlated to spatial reorganization of the driving current together with increasing or decreasing of resistive and non-resistive flow channels in a multiple connected network. In addition, it is shown that the voltage decays appearing in V-t curves are characterized by an exponential time dependence which is analogous to the glassy state relaxation

  19. Treatment of early glassy cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Tae Jin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical findings, treatment, and outcome of patients with glassy cell carcinoma of cervix. We reviewed all cases of glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix confirmed and treated at the Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, between January 1993 and December 2005. There were 7 cases with histopathologically confirmed gassy cell carcinoma. A tumor was diagnosed as glassy cell carcinoma if over 50% of the tumor cell type displayed glassy cell features. Six patients with stage IB had radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic node dissection, and 2 of them received adjuvant external pelvic irradiation with concurrent chemotherapy. Remaining one patient with stage IIA had curative concurrent chemoradiotherapy with external pelvic irradiation and brachytherapy. There were 7 patients diagnosed as glassy cell carcinoma among the 3,745 (0.2%) patients of carcinoma of uterine cervix. The mean age of 7 patients was 44 years with range of 35 to 53 years of age. The most frequent symptom was vaginal bleeding (86%). By the punch biopsy undertaken before treatment of 7 cases, 2 only cases could diagnose as glassy cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, but remaining of them confirmed by surgical pathological examination. The mean follow up duration was 73 months with range of 13 to 150 months. All 7 patients were alive without disease after treatment. Glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that demonstrates an aggressive biologic behavior. However for early-stage disease, we may have more favorable clinical outcome with radical surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy

  20. Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5 by Containerless Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Shinichi; Kentei Yu, Yu; Kumar, Vijaya; Kameko, Masashi

    Many efforts have been devoted to forming bulk glass from the melt of ferroelectric crystalline materials without adding any network-forming oxides such as SiO2 due to the potential for producing transparent glass ceramics with high dielectric constant and enhanced piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electro-optic use. The containerless processing is an attractive synthesis tech-nique as it can prevent melt contamination, minimize heterogeneous nucleation, and allow melt to achieve deep undercooling for forming metastable and glassy materials. We have fabricated a new ferroelectric materiel BaTi2 O5 [1] as bulk glass from melt by us-ing containerless processing and studied the phase relationship between microstructure and ferroelectric properties of BaTi2 O5 [2]. The structures of glassy and metastable crystalline BaTi2 O5 fabricated by the containerless pro-cessing were comprehensively investigated by combined X-ray and neutron diffractions, XANES analyses and computer simulations [3]. The 3-dimensional atomic structure of glassy BaTi2 O5 (g-BaTi2 O5 ), simulated by Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling on diffraction data, shows that extremely distorted TiO5 polyhedra interconnected with both corner-and edge-shared oxy-gen, formed a higher packing density structure than that of conventional silicate glass linked with only corner-sharing of SiO4 polyhedra. In addition, XANES measurement reveales that five-coordinated TiO5 polyhedra were formable in the crystallized metastable a-and b-BaTi2 O5 phases. The structure of metastable b-BaTi2 O5 was solved by ab initio calculation, and refined by Rietveld refinement as group Pnma with unit lattices a = 10.23784 ˚, b = 3.92715 ˚, c A A = 10.92757 A ˚. Our results show that the glass-forming ability enhanced by containerless pro-cessing, not by `strong glass former', fabricated new bulk oxide glasses with peculiar structures and properties. The intermediate-range structure of g-BaTi2 O5 and the crystalline structure of

  1. Au55, a stable glassy cluster: results of ab initio calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Vollath

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Structure and properties of small nanoparticles are still under discussion. Moreover, some thermodynamic properties and the structural behavior still remain partially unknown. One of the best investigated nanoparticles is the Au55 cluster, which has been analyzed experimentally and theoretically. However, up to now, the results of these studies are still inconsistent. Consequently, we have carried out the present ab initio study of the Au55 cluster, using up-to-date computational concepts, in order to clarify these issues. Our calculations have confirmed the experimental result that the thermodynamically most stable structure is not crystalline, but it is glassy. The non-crystalline structure of this cluster was validated by comparison of the coordination numbers with those of a crystalline cluster. It was found that, in contrast to bulk materials, glass formation is connected to an energy release that is close to the melting enthalpy of bulk gold. Additionally, the surface energy of this cluster was calculated using two different theoretical approaches resulting in values close to the surface energy for bulk gold. It shall be emphasized that it is now possible to give a confidence interval for the value of the surface energy.

  2. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  3. Thermodynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    1998-03-01

    The behavior of metastable water at low temperatures is unusual. The isothermal compressibility, the isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of the thermal expansion coefficient increase sharply upon supercooling, and structural relaxation becomes extremely sluggish at temperatures far above the glass transition(Angell, C.A., Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem., 34, 593, 1983)(Debenedetti, P.G., Metastable Liquids. Concepts and Principles, Princeton University Press, 1996). Water has two distinct glassy phases, low- and high-density amorphous ice (LDA, HDA). The transition between LDA and HDA is accompanied by sharp volume and enthalpy changes, and appears to be first-order(Mishima, O., L.D.Calvert, and E. Whalley, Nature, 314, 76, 1985)(Mishima, O., J. Chem. Phys., 100, 5910, 1994). The understanding of these observations in terms of an underlying global phase behavior remains incomplete(Speedy, R.J., J. Phys. Chem., 86, 982, 1982)(Poole, P.H., F. Sciortino, U. Essman, and H.E. Stanley, Nature, 360, 324, 1992)(Sastry, S., P.G. Debenedetti, F. Sciortino, and H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E, 53, 6144, 1996)(Tanaka, H., Nature, 380, 328, 1996)(Xie, Y., K.F. Ludwig, G. Morales, D.E. Hare, and C.M. Sorensen, Phys. Rev. Lett., 71, 2050, 1993). Microscopic theories and computer simulations suggest several scenarios that can reproduce some experimental observations. Interesting and novel ideas have resulted from this body of theoretical work, such as the possibility of liquid-liquid immiscibility in a pure substance(Poole, P.H., F.Sciortino, T.Grande, H.E. Stanley, and C.A. Angell, Phys. Rev. Lett., 73, 1632, 1994)(Roberts, C.J., and P.G. Debenedetti, J. Chem. Phys., 105, 658, 1996)(Roberts, C.J., P.G. Debenedetti, and A.Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 4386, 1996)(Harrington, S., R. Zhang, P.H. Poole, F. Sciortino, and H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. Lett., 78, 2409, 1997). In this talk I will review the experimental facts, discuss their theoretical interpretation, and identify key

  4. Grain-boundary, glassy-phase identification and possible artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Y.K.; Carter, C.B.; Sklad, P.; Bentley, J.

    1985-01-01

    Specimen artifacts such as grain boundary grooving, surface damage of the specimen, and Si contamination are shown experimentally to arise from the ion milling used in the preparation of transmission electron microscopy specimens. These artifacts in polycrystalline, ceramic specimens can cause clean grain boundaries to appear to contain a glassy phase when the dark-field diffuse scattering technique, the Fresnel fringe technique, and analytical electron microscopy (energy dispersive spectroscopy) are used to identify glassy phases at a grain boundary. The ambiguity in interpreting each of these techniques due to the ion milling artifacts will be discussed from a theoretical view point and compared to experimental results obtained for alumina

  5. Palladium diffusion into bulk copper via the (100) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, E; Kellogg, G L [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Sun, J; Pohl, K [Department of Physics and Materials Science Program, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2009-08-05

    Using low-energy electron microscopy, we measure the diffusion of Pd into bulk Cu at the Cu(100) surface. Interdiffusion is tracked by measuring the dissolution of the Cu(100)-c(2 x 2)-Pd surface alloy during annealing (T>240 deg. C). The activation barrier for Pd diffusion from the surface alloy into the bulk is determined to be (1.8 +- 0.6) eV. During annealing, we observe the growth of a new layer of Cu near step edges. Under this new Cu layer, dilute Pd remaining near the surface develops a layered structure similar to the Cu{sub 3}Pd L 1{sub 2} bulk alloy phase.

  6. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors.

  7. EDTA modified glassy carbon electrode: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustuendag, Zafer [Dumlupinar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Kuetahya (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Degol Street, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: osolak@science.ankara.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    EDTA-phenoxyamide modified glassy carbon electrode (EDTA-GC) was prepared at a glassy carbon electrode by surface synthesis. In the first step, nitrophenyl was grafted to the glassy carbon (GC) surface via the electrochemical reduction of its tetraflouroborate diazonium salt. In the second step, nitrophenyl-modified electrode (NP-GC) was subjected to the cathodic potential scan to reduce the nitro to amine group. p-Aminophenyl modified glassy carbon electrode (AP-GC) was dipped into a EDTA solution containing 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethlyamino)propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as an activating agent. Thus formed ((2-anilino-2-oxoethyl){l_brace}2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-ethyl{r_brace}amino)acetic acid modified GC electrode was denoted as EDTA-GC and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complexation of the EDTA-GC surface with Pb{sup 2+} ions was investigated if this electrode could be used as a metal sensor.

  8. Thermodynamic behavior of glassy state of structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2008-08-01

    Thermodynamic properties of amorphous pharmaceutical forms are responsible for enhanced solubility as well as poor physical stability. The present study was designed to investigate the differences in thermodynamic parameters arising out of disparate molecular structures and associations for four structurally related pharmaceutical compounds--celecoxib, valdecoxib, rofecoxib, and etoricoxib. Conventional and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry were employed to study glass forming ability and thermodynamic behavior of the glassy state of model compounds. Glass transition temperature of four glassy compounds was in a close range of 327.6-331.8 K, however, other thermodynamic parameters varied considerably. Kauzmann temperature, strength parameter and fragility parameter showed rofecoxib glass to be most fragile of the four compounds. Glass forming ability of the compounds fared similar in the critical cooling rate experiments, suggesting that different factors were determining the glass forming ability and subsequent behavior of the compounds in glassy state. A comprehensive understanding of such thermodynamic facets of amorphous form would help in rationalizing the approaches towards development of stable glassy pharmaceuticals.

  9. Glassy carbon supercapacitor: 100,000 cycles demonstrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Schnyder, B; Koetz, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A 5 V glassy carbon capacitor stack was built consisting of four bipolar and two end-plate electrodes. More than 100,000 charging/discharging cycles were applied to test the stability of the double-layer capacitor. Low and high frequency resistances were measured as a function of the number of cycles. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  10. Playback interference of glassy-winged sharp shooter communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal communication is vital to reproduction, particularly for securing a mate. Insects commonly communicate by exchanging vibrational signals that are transmitted through host plants. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, a pl...

  11. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; van den Hurk, Remko; Cao, Yong; Du, Rongbing; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yiyu; McDermott, Mark T; Evoy, Stephane

    2016-03-14

    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors.

  12. Electrochemical and microstructural characterization of platinum supported on glassy carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the electrochemical oxidation of glassy carbon on the deposition of platinum particles and the electrocatalytic activity of platinum supported on oxidized glassy carbon were studied for methanol oxidation in H2SO4 solution. Platinum was potentiostatically deposited from H2SO4 + 6mM H2PtCl6 solution. Glassy carbon was anodically polarized in 1 M NaOH at 1.41 V (SCE for 35 and 95 s and in 0.5 M H2SO4 at 2V (SCE for 35; 95 s and 2.25 V for 35 and 95 s. Electrochemical treatment of the GC support leads to a better distribution of platinum on the substrate and has remarkable effect on the activity. The activity of the Pt/GCox electrode for methanol oxidation is larger than that of polycrystalline Pt and by more than one order of magnitude larger than that of a Pt/GC electrode. This increase in activity indicates the pronounced role of the organic residues of the GC support on the properties of Pt particles deposited on glassy carbon.

  13. A study of nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode (Aunano/GCE) was employed for the determination of trace chromium(VI). To prepare Aunano/GCE, the GCE was immersed into KAuCl4 solution and electrodeposition was conducted at the potential of -0.4 V (vs Ag/AgCl) for 600 s. Scanning electron microscopy ...

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of niclosamide at a glassy carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyclic voltammetry, square-wave voltammetry and controlled potential electrolysis have been used to study the electrochemical oxidation behaviour of niclosamide at a glassy carbon electrode. The number of electrons transferred, the wave characteristics, the diffusion coefficient and reversibility of the reactions have been ...

  15. Permeation of Mixed Penetrants through Glassy Polymer Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-15

    and LOPE. Also, ESCA was used in conjunction with plasma etching to determine the effects of the gas phase fluorine concentration and fluorination...at 35 3C. ARD-AISS5 65 PERMEATION OF MIXED PENETRANTS THROUGH GLASSY POLYMER 213 MENBRANES (U) NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV AT RALEIGH R T CHERN ET AL. 15

  16. Equation-free dynamic renormalization in a glassy compaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Kevrekidis, I. G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2006-01-01

    Combining dynamic renormalization with equation-free computational tools, we study the apparently asymptotically self-similar evolution of void distribution dynamics in the diffusion-deposition problem proposed by Stinchcombe and Depken [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 125701 (2002)]. We illustrate fixed point and dynamic approaches, forward as well as backward in time; these can be used to accelerate simulators of glassy dynamic phenomena

  17. Equation-free dynamic renormalization in a glassy compaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Kevrekidis, I. G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2006-07-01

    Combining dynamic renormalization with equation-free computational tools, we study the apparently asymptotically self-similar evolution of void distribution dynamics in the diffusion-deposition problem proposed by Stinchcombe and Depken [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 125701 (2002)]. We illustrate fixed point and dynamic approaches, forward as well as backward in time; these can be used to accelerate simulators of glassy dynamic phenomena.

  18. Elastic properties of superconducting bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of this thesis the elastic properties of a superconducting bulk metallic glass between 10 mK and 300 K were first investigated. In order to measure the entire temperature range, in particular the low temperature part, new experimental techniques were developed. Using an inductive readout scheme for a double paddle oscillator it was possible to determine the internal friction and the relative change of sound velocity of bulk metallic glasses with high precision. This allowed for a detailed comparison of the data with different models. The analysis focuses on the low temperature regime where the properties of glassy materials are governed by atomic tunneling systems as described by the tunneling model. The influence of conduction electrons in the normal conducting state and quasiparticles in the superconducting state of the glass were accounted for in the theoretical description, resulting in a good agreement over a large temperature range between measured data and prediction of the tunneling model. This allowed for a direct determination of the coupling constant between electrons and tunneling systems. In the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc the data can only be described if a modified distribution function of the tunneling parameters is applied.

  19. Pressure-induced transformations in computer simulations of glassy water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Janet; Starr, Francis W.; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    Glassy water occurs in at least two broad categories: low-density amorphous (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) solid water. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to study the transformations of glassy water using the ST2 model. Specifically, we study the known (i) compression-induced LDA-to-HDA, (ii) decompression-induced HDA-to-LDA, and (iii) compression-induced hexagonal ice-to-HDA transformations. We study each transformation for a broad range of compression/decompression temperatures, enabling us to construct a "P-T phase diagram" for glassy water. The resulting phase diagram shows the same qualitative features reported from experiments. While many simulations have probed the liquid-state phase behavior, comparatively little work has examined the transitions of glassy water. We examine how the glass transformations relate to the (first-order) liquid-liquid phase transition previously reported for this model. Specifically, our results support the hypothesis that the liquid-liquid spinodal lines, between a low-density and high-density liquid, are extensions of the LDA-HDA transformation lines in the limit of slow compression. Extending decompression runs to negative pressures, we locate the sublimation lines for both LDA and hyperquenched glassy water (HGW), and find that HGW is relatively more stable to the vapor. Additionally, we observe spontaneous crystallization of HDA at high pressure to ice VII. Experiments have also seen crystallization of HDA, but to ice XII. Finally, we contrast the structure of LDA and HDA for the ST2 model with experiments. We find that while the radial distribution functions (RDFs) of LDA are similar to those observed in experiments, considerable differences exist between the HDA RDFs of ST2 water and experiment. The differences in HDA structure, as well as the formation of ice VII (a tetrahedral crystal), are a consequence of ST2 overemphasizing the tetrahedral character of water.

  20. Simultaneous measurements of bulk moduli and particle dynamics in a sheared colloidal glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Michael V.; Eisenmann, Christoph; Kim, Chanjoong; Weitz, David A.

    2007-03-01

    We present a novel study of glassy colloidal systems, using a stress-controlled rheometer in conjunction with a confocal microscope. This experimental setup combines the measurement of bulk moduli, using conventional rheology, with the ability to track the motion of individual particles, through confocal microscopy techniques. We explore the response of the system to applied shear, by simultaneously monitoring the macroscopic relaxation and microscopic particle dynamics, under conditions from the quiescent glass to a shear-melted liquid.

  1. The fluctuation field and anomalous magnetic viscosity in commercial NdFeB alloys, AlNiCo and the bulk amorphous ferromagnets Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 30}Al{sub 10} and Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 20}Co{sub 10}Al{sub 10}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collocott, S.J. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)], E-mail: stephen.collocott@csiro.au; Dunlop, J.B. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    The fluctuation field, H{sub f}, is a useful parameter for characterising any ferromagnetic material that displays hysteresis, as it is a measure of the thermally activated rate processes that govern magnetisation reversals. Anomalous magnetic viscosity, i.e. nonmonotonic behaviour of the time dependent magnetisation, where the magnetisation is seen to increase, reach a peak, and then decrease, has been observed on both the upper and lower branches of minor loops or recoil curves in some ferromagnetic materials. Parameters relevant to the Preisach model are discussed as to their usefulness in predicting anomalous magnetic viscosity in ferromagnetic materials. This is done with reference to measurements of H{sub f} and the time dependent magnetisation in commercial NdFeB alloys, AlNiCo and the bulk amorphous ferromagnets Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 30}Al{sub 10} and Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 20}Co{sub 10}Al{sub 10}.

  2. Structural features in Ni-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylkalykova, R.B.; Kveglis, L.I.; Rakhimova, U.A.; Nasokhova, Sh.B.; Tazhibaeva, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the work is study of structural transformations under diverse memory effect in Ni-Al alloys. Examination were conducted in following composition samples: Ni -75 at.% and Al - 25 at.%. The work is devoted to clarification reasons both formation atom-ordered structures in inter-grain boundaries of bulk samples under temperature action and static load. Revealed inter-grain inter-boundary layers in Ni-Al alloy both bulk and surface state have complicated structure

  3. Crystallisation of glassy phases in nitride ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaemi, S.; Swain, M.V.; Bell, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    The covalent nature of Si-N bond, as well as providing its chemical inertness, high hardness and strength, reduces its sinterability and inhibits production of fully dense Si 3 N 4 . Metal oxides are therefore added as sintering aids to achieve a fully dense body. They combine with the surface and present or added silica to form a low temperature liquid silicate. Liquid phase sintering occurs by a solution-precipitation mechanism, where the starting α-Si 3 N 4 powder dissolves in the liquid silicate and is precipitated as β-Si 3 N 4 . This liquid silicate solidifies, forming an amorphous grain boundary phase which degrades the high-temperature mechanical properties. Grain boundary sliding can be prevented and hence the high-temperature mechanical properties improved by increasing the softening point of the intergranular phase. This is done either by altering the glass composition to increase its softening point or by crystallizing the glass to a more refractory phase by post sinter heat treatment. In this study the latter technique is employed. The following results are reported. Addition of alumina increased the bulk density of samples in the Y-Si-O-N system. investigated. Increasing density was accompanied by improved mechanical properties. Crystallisation of amorphous phased improved the mechanical properties of various samples while hardness values increased with increasing annealing time. Microcracks caused by stresses induced as a result of glass crystallisation, can cause the failure of samples. Different specific volumes of crystallized materials can cause stresses that will eventually cause the material to fail. Complete crystallisation of glass in the materials investigated, resulted in increased density, hardness and toughness. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  4. Hydrogen storage alloys for nickel/metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Nobuhiro; Sakai, Tetsuo; Myamura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Uehara, Itsuki [Osaka National Research Inst. (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    Efforts to improve performance of metal hydride electrodes such as substitution of alloy components, heat treatment, and surface treatment intended to change surface and bulk structure of hydrogen storage alloys, mainly LaNi{sub 5} based alloys, are reviewed. The importance of control of morphology is emphasized. (author)

  5. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  6. Voltammetric quantitation of nitazoxanide by glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports voltammetric reduction of nitazoxanide in Britton–Robinson (B–R buffer by cyclic and square-wave voltammetry at glassy carbon electrode. A versatile fully validated voltammetric method for quantitative determination of nitazoxanide in pharmaceutical formulation has been proposed. A squrewave peak current was linear over the nitazoxanide concentration in the range of 20–140 µg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ was calculated to be 5.23 μg/mL and 17.45 μg/mL, respectively. Keywords: Nitazoxanide, Squarewave voltammetry, Glassy carbon electrode, Pharmaceutical formulation

  7. Comparison in processing routes by copper mold casting injection and suction in the Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 42}Al{sub 7}Y{sub 5} vitreous alloy; Comparacao entre as rotas de processamento por fundicao com injecao e com succao da liga vitrea Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 42}Al{sub 7}Y{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalha, W.; Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    To expand the application of glassy metals, the development of processing routes and compositions that allow the production of parts with dimensions of millimeters or even centimeters, is very important. The present work aims the contribution to the technological development of processing routes for the production of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses. Wedge-shaped samples of Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 42}Al{sub 7}Y{sub 5} (atom percent) chemical composition were processed using copper mold casting by suction and injection. Characterization was made combining scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The critical amorphous thickness obtained by those two different routes was carefully observed. The suction route allow obtaining the best results with critical amorphous thickness about 8 mm. This result was analyzed considering the different extrinsic parameters to the glass forming ability of the alloy. (author)

  8. A wrinkling-based method for investigating glassy polymer film relaxation as a function of film thickness and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Young; Douglas, Jack F; Stafford, Christopher M

    2017-10-21

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of thin polymer films at temperatures below the bulk glass transition T g by first compressing polystyrene films supported on a polydimethylsiloxane substrate to create wrinkling patterns and then observing the slow relaxation of the wrinkled films back to their final equilibrium flat state by small angle light scattering. As with recent relaxation measurements on thin glassy films reported by Fakhraai and co-workers, we find the relaxation time of our wrinkled films to be strongly dependent on film thickness below an onset thickness on the order of 100 nm. By varying the temperature between room temperature and T g (≈100 °C), we find that the relaxation time follows an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence to a good approximation at all film thicknesses investigated, where both the activation energy and the relaxation time pre-factor depend appreciably on film thickness. The wrinkling relaxation curves tend to cross at a common temperature somewhat below T g , indicating an entropy-enthalpy compensation relation between the activation free energy parameters. This compensation effect has also been observed recently in simulated supported polymer films in the high temperature Arrhenius relaxation regime rather than the glassy state. In addition, we find that the film stress relaxation function, as well as the height of the wrinkle ridges, follows a stretched exponential time dependence and the short-time effective Young's modulus derived from our modeling decreases sigmoidally with increasing temperature-both characteristic features of glassy materials. The relatively facile nature of the wrinkling-based measurements in comparison to other film relaxation measurements makes our method attractive for practical materials development, as well as fundamental studies of glass formation.

  9. Wear behaviour of Zr-based in situ bulk metallic glass matrix ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based bulk metallic glasses; in situ composites; ductile phase; wear behaviours. 1. Introduction ... crystalline alloys [2], which led to an abnormal phenomenon that the wear ... of BMGs does not follow the empirical Archard's wear equa- tion which ...

  10. Thermodynamic Modeling of Gas Transport in Glassy Polymeric Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Matteo; Sarti, Giulio Cesare

    2017-08-19

    Solubility and permeability of gases in glassy polymers have been considered with the aim of illustrating the applicability of thermodynamically-based models for their description and prediction. The solubility isotherms are described by using the nonequilibrium lattice fluid (NELF) (model, already known to be appropriate for nonequilibrium glassy polymers, while the permeability isotherms are described through a general transport model in which diffusivity is the product of a purely kinetic factor, the mobility coefficient, and a thermodynamic factor. The latter is calculated from the NELF model and mobility is considered concentration-dependent through an exponential relationship containing two parameters only. The models are tested explicitly considering solubility and permeability data of various penetrants in three glassy polymers, PSf, PPh and 6FDA-6FpDA, selected as the reference for different behaviors. It is shown that the models are able to calculate the different behaviors observed, and in particular the permeability dependence on upstream pressure, both when it is decreasing as well as when it is increasing, with no need to invoke the onset of additional plasticization phenomena. The correlations found between polymer and penetrant properties with the two parameters of the mobility coefficient also lead to the predictive ability of the transport model.

  11. Quasi-equilibrium in glassy dynamics: an algebraic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, Silvio; Parisi, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    We study a chain of identical glassy systems in a constrained equilibrium, where each bond of the chain is forced to remain at a preassigned distance to the previous one. We apply this description to mean-field glassy systems in the limit of a long chain where each bond is close to the previous one. We show that this construction defines a pseudo-dynamic process that in specific conditions can formally describe real relaxational dynamics for long times. In particular, in mean-field spin glass models we can recover in this way the equations of Langevin dynamics in the long time limit at the dynamical transition temperature and below. We interpret the formal identity as evidence that in these situations the configuration space is explored in a quasi-equilibrium fashion. Our general formalism, which relates dynamics to equilibrium, puts slow dynamics in a new perspective and opens the way to the computation of new dynamical quantities in glassy systems. (paper)

  12. Criticality in Bulk Metallic Glass Constituent Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Rodrigo Miguel Ojeda; Graedel, T. E.; Pekarskaya, Evgenia; Schroers, Jan

    2017-11-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which readily form amorphous phases during solidification, are increasingly being used in first applications of watch components, electronic casings, and sporting goods. The compositions of BMGs typically include four to six elements. Various political and geological factors have recently led to supply disruptions for several metals, including some present in BMG compositions. In this work, we assess the "criticality" of 22 technologically interesting BMG compositions, compare the results with those for three common engineering alloy groups, and derive recommendations for BMG composition choices from a criticality perspective. The criticality of BMGs is found to be generally much higher compared with those for the established engineering alloys. Therefore, criticality concerns should also be considered in the choice between existing and developing novel BMGs.

  13. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  14. Time effects and glassy state behaviour in superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinkok, A.; Yetis, H.; Olutas, M.; Kilic, K. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Kilic, A. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: kilic_a@ibu.edu.tr

    2007-10-01

    The quenched disorder in the moving entity is investigated in a polycrystalline bulk sample of Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) by slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) on long time scales. The time evolution of sample voltage (V-t curve) are correlated to spatial reorganization of the driving current together with increasing or decreasing of resistive and non-resistive flow channels in a multiple connected network. In addition, it is shown that the voltage decays appearing in V-t curves are characterized by an exponential time dependence which is analogous to the glassy state relaxation.

  15. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. II. Application—Effect of quantum confinement and homogeneous strain on Cu conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Ganesh; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Charles, James; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    The Semi-Empirical tight binding model developed in Part I Hegde et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 123703 (2014)] is applied to metal transport problems of current relevance in Part II. A systematic study of the effect of quantum confinement, transport orientation, and homogeneous strain on electronic transport properties of Cu is carried out. It is found that quantum confinement from bulk to nanowire boundary conditions leads to significant anisotropy in conductance of Cu along different transport orientations. Compressive homogeneous strain is found to reduce resistivity by increasing the density of conducting modes in Cu. The [110] transport orientation in Cu nanowires is found to be the most favorable for mitigating conductivity degradation since it shows least reduction in conductance with confinement and responds most favorably to compressive strain.

  16. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. II. Application—Effect of quantum confinement and homogeneous strain on Cu conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, Ganesh; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Charles, James; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The Semi-Empirical tight binding model developed in Part I Hegde et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 123703 (2014)] is applied to metal transport problems of current relevance in Part II. A systematic study of the effect of quantum confinement, transport orientation, and homogeneous strain on electronic transport properties of Cu is carried out. It is found that quantum confinement from bulk to nanowire boundary conditions leads to significant anisotropy in conductance of Cu along different transport orientations. Compressive homogeneous strain is found to reduce resistivity by increasing the density of conducting modes in Cu. The [110] transport orientation in Cu nanowires is found to be the most favorable for mitigating conductivity degradation since it shows least reduction in conductance with confinement and responds most favorably to compressive strain

  17. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. II. Application—Effect of quantum confinement and homogeneous strain on Cu conductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegde, Ganesh, E-mail: ghegde@purdue.edu; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Charles, James; Klimeck, Gerhard, E-mail: gekco@purdue.edu [Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-03-28

    The Semi-Empirical tight binding model developed in Part I Hegde et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 123703 (2014)] is applied to metal transport problems of current relevance in Part II. A systematic study of the effect of quantum confinement, transport orientation, and homogeneous strain on electronic transport properties of Cu is carried out. It is found that quantum confinement from bulk to nanowire boundary conditions leads to significant anisotropy in conductance of Cu along different transport orientations. Compressive homogeneous strain is found to reduce resistivity by increasing the density of conducting modes in Cu. The [110] transport orientation in Cu nanowires is found to be the most favorable for mitigating conductivity degradation since it shows least reduction in conductance with confinement and responds most favorably to compressive strain.

  18. A Study of the effect of gamma radiation on some alloy materials for use as dosimetry systems and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-kader, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Alloys are metallic materials consisting of two or more elements combined in such a way that they cannot be readily separated by physical means. More than 90% of metals used are in the form of alloys. Alloys can be divided into two types: ferrous and non- ferrous. In metallurgy, a nonferrous metal is any metal that is not ferrous, including alloys, that does not contain iron in appreciable amounts. Groups of inorganic glassy materials which always contain one or more of the chalcogen elements S, Se or Te, in conjunction with more electropositive elements as As, Sb and Bi, are recognized as chalcogenide glasses but Ferroalloy refers to various alloys of iron with a high proportion of one or more other elements, for example ferrotitanium alloy. Chalcogenide glasses are generally less robust, more weakly bonded materials than oxide glasses. Glasses were prepared from Ge, Se, As and Te elements with purity 99.999%.These glasses are reactive at high temperature with oxygen. Therefore, synthesis was accomplished in evacuated clean silica tubes. The tubes were washed by distilled water, and then dried in a furnace whose temperature was about 100 degree C. The weighted materials were introduced into the cleaned silica tubes and then evacuated to about 10 -4 torr and sealed. The sealed tubes were placed inside the furnace and the temperature of the furnace was raised gradually up to 900 degree C within 1 hour and kept constant for 10 hours. Moreover, shaking of the constituent materials inside the tube in the furnace was necessary for realizing the homogeneity of the composition. After synthesis, the tube was quenched into ice water. The glassy ingots could be obtained by drastic quenching. Then materials were removed from the tubes and kept in dry atmosphere. Thin films of the selected compositions were prepared by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum 10 -4 torr with constant thickness 100 nm. Ferrotitanium alloy is prepared by the reduction of rutile and ilmenite

  19. Superductile bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, K.F.; Ruan, F.; Yang, Y.Q.; Chen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (<2%) at room temperature. We report a newly developed Pd-Si binary bulk metallic glass, which exhibits a uniform plastic deformation and a large plastic engineering strain of 82% and a plastic true strain of 170%, together with initial strain hardening, slight strain softening and final strain hardening characteristics. The uniform shear deformation and the ultrahigh plasticity are mainly attributed to strain hardening, which results from the nanoscale inhomogeneity due to liquid phase separation. The formed nanoscale inhomogeneity will hinder, deflect, and bifurcate the propagation of shear bands

  20. Characterization of the surface redox process of adsorbed morin at glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesio, Alvaro Yamil; Granero, Adrian Marcelo; Fernandez, Hector; Zon, Maria Alicia

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetics of the adsorption of morin (MOR) on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in 0.2 mol dm -3 phosphate buffer solutions (PBS, pH 7.00) was studied by both cyclic (CV) and square wave (SWV) voltammetries. The Frumkin adsorption isotherm was the best to describe the specific interaction of MOR with GC electrodes. The SWV allowed to characterize the thermodynamic and kinetics of surface quasi-reversible redox couple of MOR, using the combination of the 'quasi-reversible maximum' and the 'splitting of SW net peaks' methods. Average values obtained for the formal potential and the anodic transfer coefficient were (0.27 ± 0.02) V and (0.59 ± 0.09), respectively. Moreover, a value of formal rate constant (k s ) of 87 s -1 for the overall two-electron redox process was calculated. The SWV was also employed to generate calibration curves, which were linear in the range MOR bulk concentration (c MOR *) from 1.27 x 10 -7 to 2.50 x 10 -5 mol dm -3 . The lowest concentration experimentally measured for a signal to noise ratio of 3:1 was 1.25 x 10 -8 mol dm -3 (3 ppb).

  1. Formation of Ti--Zr--Cu--Ni bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.H.; Johnson, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Formation of bulk metallic glass in quaternary Ti--Zr--Cu--Ni alloys by relatively slow cooling from the melt is reported. Thick strips of metallic glass were obtained by the method of metal mold casting. The glass forming ability of the quaternary alloys exceeds that of binary or ternary alloys containing the same elements due to the complexity of the system. The best glass forming alloys such as Ti 34 Zr 11 Cu 47 Ni 8 can be cast to at least 4-mm-thick amorphous strips. The critical cooling rate for glass formation is of the order of 250 K/s or less, at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the best ternary alloys. The glass transition, crystallization, and melting behavior of the alloys were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The amorphous alloys exhibit a significant undercooled liquid region between the glass transition and first crystallization event. The glass forming ability of these alloys, as determined by the critical cooling rate, exceeds what is expected based on the reduced glass transition temperature. It is also found that the glass forming ability for alloys of similar reduced glass transition temperature can differ by two orders of magnitude as defined by critical cooling rates. The origins of the difference in glass forming ability of the alloys are discussed. It is found that when large composition redistribution accompanies crystallization, glass formation is enhanced. The excellent glass forming ability of alloys such as Ti 34 Zr 11 Cu 47 Ni 8 is a result of simultaneously minimizing the nucleation rate of the competing crystalline phases. The ternary/quaternary Laves phase (MgZn 2 type) shows the greatest ease of nucleation and plays a key role in determining the optimum compositions for glass formation. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Oxygen reduction reaction of Pt–In alloy: Combined theoretical and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pašti, Igor A.; Gavrilov, Nemanja M.; Baljozović, Miloš; Mitrić, Miodrag; Mentus, Slavko V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Upon DFT prediction of improved electrocatalytic activity of Pt–In alloys toward ORR, the alloy Pt-10 at% In was synthesized on glassy carbon disc, simultaneously with pure Pt reference catalyst. Improved catalytic activity of the alloy was evidenced by voltammetry on RDE in 0.1 mol dm −3 KOH solution. -- Highlights: •The adsorption of O atoms on Pt–In alloys model surfaces was investigated by DFT. •The improvement of catalytic activity toward ORR was predicted by DFT. •Pt-10 at% In alloy was synthesized on glassy carbon disk surface. •By voltammetry on RDE improvement of activity toward ORR was evidenced. -- Abstract: By means of the density functional theory (DFT) calculations, using the adsorption energy of oxygen on single crystal surfaces as criterion, it was predicted that the alloying of Pt with In should improve kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). To prove this, the Pt–In alloy having nominal composition Pt 9 In was synthesized by heating H 2 PtCl 6 –InCl 3 mixture in hydrogen stream. The XRD characterization confirmed that Pt–In alloy was formed. The electrochemical measurements by rotating disk technique in alkaline 0.1 mol dm −3 KOH solution evidenced faster ORR kinetics for factor 2.6 relative to the one on pure platinum. This offers the possibility of searching for new ORR electrocatalysts by alloying platinum with p-elements

  3. Some Recent Developments in Structure and Glassy Behavior of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2012-02-01

    We have used ARVO developed by us to find that the ratio of volume and surface area of proteins in Protein Data Bank distributed in a very narrow region [1]. Such result is useful for the determination of protein 3D structures. It has been widely known that a spin glass model can be used to understand the slow relaxation behavior of a glass at low temperatures [2]. We have used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that polymer chains with neighboring monomers connected by rigid bonds can relax very slowly and show glassy behavior [3]. We have also found that native collagen fibrils show glassy behavior at room temperatures [4]. The results of [3] and [4] about the glassy behavior of polymers or proteins are useful for understanding the mechanism for a biological system to maintain in a non-equilibrium state, including the ancient seed [5], which can maintain in a non-equilibrium state for a very long time. (1) M.-C. Wu, M. S. Li, W.-J. Ma, M. Kouza, and C.-K. Hu, EPL, in press (2011); (2) C. Dasgupta, S.-K. Ma, and C.-K. Hu. Phys. Rev. B 20, 3837-3849 (1979); (3) W.-J. Ma and C.-K. Hu, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 79, 024005, 024006, 054001, and 104002 (2010), C.-K. Hu and W.-J. Ma, Prog. Theor. Phys. Supp. 184, 369 (2010); S. G. Gevorkian, A. E. Allahverdyan, D. S. Gevorgyan and C.-K. Hu, EPL 95, 23001 (2011); S. Sallon, et al. Science 320, 1464 (2008).

  4. Shear-transformation-zone theory of linear glassy dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchbinder, Eran; Langer, J S

    2011-06-01

    We present a linearized shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory of glassy dynamics in which the internal STZ transition rates are characterized by a broad distribution of activation barriers. For slowly aging or fully aged systems, the main features of the barrier-height distribution are determined by the effective temperature and other near-equilibrium properties of the configurational degrees of freedom. Our theory accounts for the wide range of relaxation rates observed in both metallic glasses and soft glassy materials such as colloidal suspensions. We find that the frequency-dependent loss modulus is not just a superposition of Maxwell modes. Rather, it exhibits an α peak that rises near the viscous relaxation rate and, for nearly jammed, glassy systems, extends to much higher frequencies in accord with experimental observations. We also use this theory to compute strain recovery following a period of large, persistent deformation and then abrupt unloading. We find that strain recovery is determined in part by the initial barrier-height distribution, but that true structural aging also occurs during this process and determines the system's response to subsequent perturbations. In particular, we find by comparison with experimental data that the initial deformation produces a highly disordered state with a large population of low activation barriers, and that this state relaxes quickly toward one in which the distribution is dominated by the high barriers predicted by the near-equilibrium analysis. The nonequilibrium dynamics of the barrier-height distribution is the most important of the issues raised and left unresolved in this paper.

  5. Positronics of radiation-induced effects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Kozyukhin, S. A.; Shpotyuk, M.; Ingram, A.; Szatanik, R.

    2015-01-01

    Using As 2 S 3 and AsS 2 glasses as an example, the principal possibility of using positron annihilation spectroscopy methods for studying the evolution of the free volume of hollow nanoobjects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors exposed to radiation is shown. The results obtained by measurements of the positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of the annihilation line in reverse chronological order are in full agreement with the optical spectroscopy data in the region of the fundamental absorption edge, being adequately described within coordination defect-formation and physical-aging models

  6. Positronics of radiation-induced effects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Scientific Research Company “Carat” (Ukraine); Kozyukhin, S. A., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Shpotyuk, M. [Scientific Research Company “Carat” (Ukraine); Ingram, A. [Opole Technical University (Poland); Szatanik, R. [Opole University (Poland)

    2015-03-15

    Using As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsS{sub 2} glasses as an example, the principal possibility of using positron annihilation spectroscopy methods for studying the evolution of the free volume of hollow nanoobjects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors exposed to radiation is shown. The results obtained by measurements of the positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of the annihilation line in reverse chronological order are in full agreement with the optical spectroscopy data in the region of the fundamental absorption edge, being adequately described within coordination defect-formation and physical-aging models.

  7. Dynamical singularities of glassy systems in a quantum quench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2012-11-01

    We present a prototype of behavior of glassy systems driven by quantum dynamics in a quenching protocol by analyzing the random energy model in a transverse field. We calculate several types of dynamical quantum amplitude and find a freezing transition at some critical time. The behavior is understood by the partition-function zeros in the complex temperature plane. We discuss the properties of the freezing phase as a dynamical chaotic phase, which are contrasted to those of the spin-glass phase in the static system.

  8. Crystal-like nature of acoustic excitations in glassy ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matic, A.; Engberg, D.; Boerjesson, L.; Masciovecchio, C.; Santucci, S.C.; Monaco, G.; Verbeni, R.

    2004-01-01

    We report on inelastic x-ray scattering experiments on crystalline and glassy phases of ethanol in order to directly compare the influence of disorder on high frequency acoustic excitations. We find that both the dispersion and the line-width of the longitudinal acoustic excitations in the glass are the same as in the polycrystal in the reciprocal space portion covering the 1st and 2nd Brillouin zones. The structural disorder is found to play little role apart from an intrinsic angular averaging, and the nature of these excitations must essentially be the same in both glass and poly crystal

  9. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  10. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  11. Dynamics of polymers in the bulk state by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Kaji, Keisuke; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Inoue, Kazuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamics of polymers in the bulk state was studied by quasi- and inelastic neutron scattering techniques in the time range of 10 -13 to 10 -10 s. The present work can be classified into three parts: (i) dynamics in the glassy, state, (ii) dynamics near the glass transition and (iii) dynamics in the molten state. In the first section, we discuss the low energy excitation in glassy polymers, which is an origin of anomalous thermal properties of amorphous materials at low temperatures. In the next section, we study dynamics of amorphous polymers near the glass transition which is one of the current topics of solid state physics as well as polymer physics. It was found that two modes of motion appear near the glass transition in the energy ranges near 1 meV and of 10-30μeV. These fast and slow modes arising ca. 50K below T g and just above T g , respectively, are discussed from viewpoints of molecular basis. In the last section, dynamics in the molten state is investigated by focusing on the mechanism of local conformational transition of polymer chains. The results are analyzed in terms of jump diffusion model with damped vibrational motions and compared with the Kramers' rate theory. (author)

  12. Glass forming ability and mechanical properties of Zr50Cu42Al8 bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, L; Chan, K C; Wang, G; Liu, L

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report that Zr 50 Cu 42 Al 8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) exhibits excellent glass forming ability and mechanical properties. Zr 50 Cu 42 Al 8 glassy rods with a diameter of 3 mm were prepared using conventional copper mould suction casting. The glassy rod exhibits a modulus of about 115 GPa and a fracture strength of about 2 GPa, and, as compared with other large-scale BMGs, it has excellent room-temperature plasticity of up to 20% under compression. The fracture mechanism of the rod was investigated by microstructural investigations, and it was found that the large plasticity of the as-cast rod is closely related to the in situ formation of nano-crystalline particles embedded in the amorphous matrix.

  13. Multiscale simulations of PS-SiO2 nanocomposites: from melt to glassy state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathioudakis, I G; Vogiatzis, G G; Tzoumanekas, C; Theodorou, D N

    2016-09-28

    The interaction energetics, molecular packing, entanglement network properties, segmental dynamics, and elastic constants of atactic polystyrene-amorphous silica nanocomposites in the molten and the glassy state are studied via molecular simulations using two interconnected levels of representation: (a) a coarse-grained one, wherein each polystyrene repeat unit is mapped onto a single "superatom" and the silica nanoparticle is viewed as a solid sphere. Equilibration at all length scales at this level is achieved via connectivity-altering Monte Carlo simulations. (b) A united-atom (UA) level, wherein the polymer chains are represented in terms of a united-atom forcefield and the silica nanoparticle is represented in terms of a simplified, fully atomistic model. Initial configurations for UA molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are obtained by reverse mapping well-equilibrated coarse-grained configurations. By analysing microcanonical UA MD trajectories, the polymer density profile is studied and the polymer is found to exhibit layering in the vicinity of the nanoparticle surface. An estimate of the enthalpy of mixing between polymer and nanoparticles, derived from the UA simulations, compares favourably against available experimental values. The dynamical behaviour of polystyrene (in neat and filled melt systems) is characterized in terms of bond orientation and dihedral angle time autocorrelation functions. At low concentration in the molten polymer matrix, silica nanoparticles are found to cause a slight deceleration of the segmental dynamics close to their surface compared to the bulk polymer. Well-equilibrated coarse-grained long-chain configurations are reduced to entanglement networks via topological analysis with the CReTA algorithm, yielding a slightly lower density of entanglements in the filled than in the neat systems. UA melt configurations are glassified by MD cooling. The elastic moduli of the resulting glassy nanocomposites are computed through an

  14. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B. Appa; Kumar, E. Ramesh; Kumari, K. Rajani; Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-01-01

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag 2 O−[(1−x)B 2 O 3 −xTeO 2 ] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO 2 as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10 −2 S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries

  15. New model system in radiation cryochemistry. Hyperquenched glassy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plonka, A.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Since the radical generated by high-energy irradiation of liquid water are short-lived at ambient temperature, they are often studied at cryogenic temperatures after irradiating either crystalline ice or highly concentrated aqueous electrolyte solution glasses. While these studies provided a wealth of information, they also bear disadvantages in that further reactions of these radicals may not be those occurring in liquid water because of formation of other radicals from the solute in the case of the electrolyte solution glass and/or perturbation of the water structure by the solute. Furthermore, in slow-cooled aqueous solutions where ice is formed and phase separation of the solute occurs, the radicals trapped in the ice compartments are unable to interact with solutes because these are dissolved in the 'freeze-concentration' regions. These problems can in principle be overcome by investigating water and dilute aqueous solutions in their glassy states which can be obtained by rapid quenching of the liquids. Glassy water can now routinely be made in gram-quantities by so-called 'hyperquenching' of micrometer-sized water droplets on a solid cryoplate. The cooling rates are of the order of 10 6 - 10 7 K s -1 . Our results show that indeed in the hyperquenched dilute aqueous solutions there is no problem with phase separation and radiolysis of hyperquenched water is quite distinct from radiolysis of polycrystalline ice obtained from liquid water quenched in the liquid nitrogen

  16. Characterisation of bulk solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGlinchey [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2005-07-01

    Handling of powders and bulk solids is a critical industrial technology across a broad spectrum of industries, including minerals processing. With contributions from leading authors in their respective fields, this book provides the reader with a sound understanding of the techniques, importance and application of particulate materials characterisation. It covers the fundamental characteristics of individual particles and bulk particulate materials, and includes discussion of a wide range of measurement techniques, and the use of material characteristics in design and industrial practice. Contents: Characterising particle properties; Powder mechanics and rheology; Characterisation for hopper and stockpile design; Fluidization behaviour; Characterisation for pneumatic conveyor design; Explosiblility; 'Designer' particle characteristics; Current industrial practice; and Future trends. 130 ills.

  17. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of synthetic polymers in bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of high-resolution NMR of solid polymers; High-resolution NMR of glassy amorphous polymers; Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of semicrystalline polymers; Conformational analysis of polymers of solid-state NMR; High-resolution NMR studies of oriented polymers; High-resolution solid-state NMR of protons in polymers; and Deuterium NMR of solid polymers. This work brings together the various approaches for high-resolution NMR studies of bulk polymers into one volume. Heavy emphasis is, of course, given to 13C NMR studies both above and below Tg. Standard high-power pulse and wide-line techniques are not covered

  18. Micromegas in a bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giomataris, I.; De Oliveira, R.; Andriamonje, S.; Aune, S.; Charpak, G.; Colas, P.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer, E.; Giganon, A.; Rebourgeard, Ph.; Salin, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  19. How mechanical behavior of glassy polymers enables us to characterize melt deformation: elastic yielding in glassy state after melt stretching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Qing; Zhao, Zhichen; Tsige, Mesfin; Zheng, Yexin

    Fast melt deformation well above the glass transition temperature Tg is known to produce elastic stress in an entangled polymer due to the chain entropy loss at the length scale of the network mesh size. Here chains of high molecular weight are assumed to form an entanglement network so that such a polymer behaves transiently like vulcanized rubber capable of affine deformation. We consider quenching a melt-deformed glassy polymer to well below Tg to preserve the elastic stress. Upon heating such a sample to Tg, the sample can return to the shape it took before melt deformation. This is the basic principle behind the design of all polymer-based shape-memory materials. This work presents intriguing evidence based on both experiment and computer simulation that the chain network, deformed well above Tg, can drive the glassy polymer to undergo elastic yielding. Our experimental systems include polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate; the molecular dynamics simulation is based on Kremer-Grest bead-spring model. National Science Foundation (DMR-1444859 and DMR-1609977).

  20. Comparison of mechanical behavior between bulk and ribbon Cu-based metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, W.H.; Liu, F.X.; Wang, Y.D.; Zhang, H.F.; Choo, H.; Liaw, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    As-cast bulk and as-spun ribbon Cu 60 Zr 30 Ti 10 metallic glasses were characterized using differential-scanning calorimetry and instrumented nanoindentation. Two alloys show a significant difference in the amount of free volume, which is attributed to the difference in a cooling rate, while exhibiting a similar serrated plastic flow. Atomic-force-microscopy observations demonstrate the pile-ups containing shear bands around the indents in both alloys. The as-cast bulk alloy has higher hardness and elastic modulus than the as-spun ribbon alloy. The difference in the strengths of two alloys may be related to the different amount of free volume. The strength seems to be more sensitive to a cooling rate during solidification than the plastic-flow behavior in the Cu 60 Zr 30 Ti 10

  1. Elastic properties of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in supercooled liquid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiyama, N.; Inoue, A.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2001-01-01

    In situ ultrasonic measurements for the Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in three states: Glassy solid, supercooled liquid, and crystalline, have been performed. It is found that velocities of both longitudinal and transverse waves and elastic moduli (shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus......, and Lame parameter), together with Debye temperature, gradually decrease with increasing temperature through the glass transition temperature as the Poisson's ratio increases. The behavior of the velocity of transverse wave vs. temperature in the supercooled liquid region could be explained by viscosity...

  2. A consequence of local equilibration and heterogeneity in glassy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, Ludovic

    2003-01-01

    The existence of a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem observed in simulations and experiments performed in various glassy materials is related to the concepts of local equilibration and heterogeneity in space. Assuming the existence of a dynamic coherence length scale up to which the system is locally equilibrated, we extend previous generalizations of the FDT relating static to dynamic quantities to the physically relevant domain where asymptotic limits of large times and sizes are not reached. The formulation relies on a simple scaling argument and thus does not have the character of a theorem. Extensive numerical simulations support this proposition. Our results quite generally apply to systems with slow dynamics, independently of the space dimensionality, the chosen dynamics or the presence of disorder

  3. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.R.D.; Gericke, D.O.; Wunsch, K.; Cammarata, M.; Fritz, D.; Glenzer, S.H.; Heimann, P.; Lee, H.J.; Lemke, H.; Nagler, B.; Zhu, D.; Galtier, E.; Moinard, A.; Rosmej, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid. (authors)

  4. Mechanical Properties for Reliability Analysis of Structures in Glassy Carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Despite its good physical properties, the glassy carbon material is not widely used, especially for structural applications. Nevertheless, its transparency to particles and temperature resistance are interesting properties for the applications to vacuum chambers and components in high energy physics. For example, it has been proposed for fast shutter valve in particle accelerator [1] [2]. The mechanical properties have to be carefully determined to assess the reliability of structures in such a material. In this paper, mechanical tests have been carried out to determine the elastic parameters, the strength and toughness on commercial grades. A statistical approach, based on the Weibull’s distribution, is used to characterize the material both in tension and compression. The results are compared to the literature and the difference of properties for these two loading cases is shown. Based on a Finite Element analysis, a statistical approach is applied to define the reliability of a structural component in gl...

  5. In situ nanocalorimetry of thin glassy organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gutierrez, E.; Garcia, G.; Lopeandía, A. F.; Fraxedas, J.; Clavaguera-Mora, M. T.; Rodríguez-Viejo, J.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we describe the design and first experimental results of a new setup that combines evaporation of liquids in ultrahigh vacuum conditions with in situ high sensitivity thermal characterization of thin films. Organic compounds are deposited from the vapor directly onto a liquid nitrogen cooled substrate, permitting the preparation and characterization of glassy films. The substrate consists of a microfabricated, membrane-based nanocalorimeter that permits in situ measurements of heat capacity under ultrafast heating rates (up to 105 K/s) in the temperature range of 100-300 K. Three glass forming liquids—toluene, methanol, and acetic acid—are characterized. The spikes in heat capacity related to the glass-transition temperature, the fictive temperature and, in some cases, the onset temperature of crystallization are determined for several heating rates.

  6. Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, B.; Chang, I.T.H.; Knight, P.; Vincent, A.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Multicomponent alloys containing several components in equal atomic proportions have been manufactured by casting and melt spinning, and their microstructures and properties have been investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffractrometry and microhardness measurements. Alloys containing 16 and 20 components in equal proportions are multiphase, crystalline and brittle both as-cast and after melt spinning. A five component Fe 20 Cr 20 Mn 20 Ni 20 Co 20 alloy forms a single fcc solid solution which solidifies dendritically. A wide range of other six to nine component late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys exhibit the same majority fcc primary dendritic phase, which can dissolve substantial amounts of other transition metals such as Nb, Ti and V. More electronegative elements such as Cu and Ge are less stable in the fcc dendrites and are rejected into the interdendritic regions. The total number of phases is always well below the maximum equilibrium number allowed by the Gibbs phase rule, and even further below the maximum number allowed under non-equilibrium solidification conditions. Glassy structures are not formed by casting or melt spinning of late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys, indicating that the confusion principle does not apply, and other factors are more important in promoting glass formation

  7. Space-charge-limited conduction in Se 90 Sb 4 Ag 6 glassy alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Chalcogenide glasses; Meyer–Neldel rule; SCLC; pre-exponential factor. ... found to be field dependent. Pre-exponential factor is found to depend on the activation energy and obeys Meyer–Neldel rule. ... Current Issue Volume 41 ...

  8. Topological structure and mechanics of glassy polymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Robert M; Sirk, Timothy W

    2017-11-22

    The influence of chain-level network architecture (i.e., topology) on mechanics was explored for unentangled polymer networks using a blend of coarse-grained molecular simulations and graph-theoretic concepts. A simple extension of the Watts-Strogatz model is proposed to control the graph properties of the network such that the corresponding physical properties can be studied with simulations. The architecture of polymer networks assembled with a dynamic curing approach were compared with the extended Watts-Strogatz model, and found to agree surprisingly well. The final cured structures of the dynamically-assembled networks were nearly an intermediate between lattice and random connections due to restrictions imposed by the finite length of the chains. Further, the uni-axial stress response, character of the bond breaking, and non-affine displacements of fully-cured glassy networks were analyzed as a function of the degree of disorder in the network architecture. It is shown that the architecture strongly affects the network stability, flow stress, onset of bond breaking, and ultimate stress while leaving the modulus and yield point nearly unchanged. The results show that internal restrictions imposed by the network architecture alter the chain-level response through changes to the crosslink dynamics in the flow regime and through the degree of coordinated chain failure at the ultimate stress. The properties considered here are shown to be sensitive to even incremental changes to the architecture and, therefore, the overall network architecture, beyond simple defects, is predicted to be a meaningful physical parameter in the mechanics of glassy polymer networks.

  9. Boron ion irradiation induced structural and surface modification of glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalijadis, Ana; Jovanović, Zoran; Cvijović-Alagić, Ivana; Laušević, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of boron into glassy carbon was achieved by irradiating two different types of targets: glassy carbon polymer precursor and carbonized glassy carbon. Targets were irradiated with a 45 keV B 3+ ion beam in the fluence range of 5 × 10 15 –5 × 10 16 ions cm −2 . For both types of targets, the implanted boron was located in a narrow region under the surface. Following irradiation, the polymer was carbonized under the same condition as the glassy carbon samples (at 1273 K) and examined by Raman spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, hardness and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Structural analysis showed that during the carbonization process of the irradiated polymers, boron is substitutionally incorporated into the glassy carbon structure, while for irradiated carbonized glassy carbon samples, boron irradiation caused an increase of the sp 3 carbon fraction, which is most pronounced for the highest fluence irradiation. Further analyses showed that different nature of boron incorporation, and thus changed structural parameters, are crucial for obtaining glassy carbon samples with modified mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties over a wide range

  10. Bulk ordering and surface segregation in Ni50Pt50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourovskii, L.P.; Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    in the bulk compare well with experimental data. The surface-alloy compositions for the (111) and (110) facets above the ordering transition temperature are also found to be in a good agreement with experiments. It is demonstrated that the segregation profile at the (110) surface of NiPt is mainly caused...... by the unusually strong segregation of Pt into the second layer and the interlayer ordering due to large chemical nearest-neighbor interactions....

  11. Optical characteristics of jewellery gold alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Mahmood bin Mat Yunus; Zainal Abidin bin Talib; Maarof bin Moksin; Abdul Fatah bin Awang Mat

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the reflection of various sample of gold alloys were made over the wavelength range 400-800 nm. Samples were measured using a single beam spectrophotometer at 45 deg. angle of incidence. In this measurement no attempt was made to obtain the optical constants of the samples. The results showed that there were significant differences between bulk and thick samples, with sufficient spectra difference between different composition of the alloys

  12. Devitrification behavior and glass-forming ability of Cu-Zr-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Xie, Guoqiang; Zhang, Wei; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an influence of Ag addition on the glass-forming ability and devitrification behavior of Cu-Zr glassy alloys on heating. The crystallization kinetics and structure changes in Cu 45 Zr 45 Ag 10 and Cu 35 Zr 45 Ag 20 glassy alloys on heating were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetry methods. Based on the results obtained one can assume that the improvement of the glass-forming ability of the Cu-Zr alloys by the addition of Ag is connected with a particular crystallization mechanism and a higher reduced glass-transition temperature of the Cu 45 Zr 45 Ag 10 ternary alloy compared to the binary Cu 55 Zr 45 counterpart. As observed in the present work crystallization of the Cu-Zr-Ag alloys is found to cause embitterment of the samples and should be avoided as these alloys are considered to be used as structural materials. The Cu 35 Zr 45 Ag 20 alloy shows possible submicron-scale phase separation upon annealing

  13. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  14. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  15. Fe-based bulk metallic glasses used for magnetic shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serban, Va; Codrean, C; UTu, D [Politehnica University of Timisoara, Depart for Materials Science and Welding, 1, M. Viteazu Bvd., 300222, Timisoara (Romania); ErcuTa, A, E-mail: serban@mec.upt.r [West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Physics, 4, Vasile Parvan Bdv., Timisoara 300223 (Romania)

    2009-01-01

    The casting in complex shapes (tubular) and the main magnetic properties of bulk metallic glasses (BMG) alloys from the ferromagnetic Fe-Cr-Ni-Ga-P-Si-C system, with a small addition of Ni (3%) were studied. Samples as rods and sockets having the thickness up to 1 mm were obtained from master alloys by melt injection by low cooling rates into a Cu mold and annealed in order to ensure adequate magnetic requirements. The structure was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the basic magnetic properties (coercivity, magnetic remanence, initial susceptibility, etc.) were determined by conventional low frequency induction method. The experimental investigations on producing of BMG ferromagnetic alloys with 3% Ni show the possibility to obtain magnetic shields of complex shape with satisfactory magnetic properties. The presence of Ni does not affect the glass forming ability, but reduce the shielding capacity.

  16. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-10-17

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Ductile fracture surface morphology of amorphous metallic alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miskuf, J; Csach, K; Ocelik, [No Value; Bengus, VZ; Tabachnikova, ED; Duhaj, P; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1999-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of ductile failure of two types bulk amorphous metallic alloys were studied using quantitative and qualitative fractographic analysis. The observed fractographic behaviour of ductile failure in comparison with the ductile failure of amorphous alloy ribbons shows signs of the same

  18. First-principles study on the effect of alloying elements on the elastic deformation response in β-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouda, Mohammed K.; Gepreel, Mohamed A. H.; Nakamura, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical deformation response of hypothetical β-titanium alloys was investigated using first-principles calculation technique under periodic boundary conditions. Simulation was carried out on hypothetical 54-atom supercell of Ti–X (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Al, and Sn) binary alloys. The results showed that the strength of Ti increases by alloying, except for Cr. The most effective alloying elements are Nb, Zr, and Mo in the current simulation. The mechanism of bond breaking was revealed by studying the local structure around the alloying element atom with respect to volume change. Moreover, the effect of alloying elements on bulk modulus and admissible strain was investigated. It was found that Zr, Nb, and Mo have a significant effect to enhance the admissible strain of Ti without change in bulk modulus

  19. Stability of bulk metallic glass structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    2003-06-18

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub (80-x)}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  20. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co Alloy Synthesis by High Speed Electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Jamaliah; Christian, Chukwuekezie; Gaius, Eyu

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposition of nanocrystals is economically and technologically viable production path for the synthesis of pure metals and alloys both in coatings and bulk form. The study presents nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloy synthesis by high speed electrodeposition. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys coatings were prepared by direct current (DC) and deposited directly on steel and aluminum substrates without any pretreatment, using high speed electrodeposition method. The influence of the electrolysis par...

  1. Calix[6]arene mono-diazonium salt synthesis and covalent immobilization onto glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannizzo, Caroline; Jasmin, Jean-Philippe; Vautrin-Ul, Christine; Chausse, Annie; Wagner, Mathieu; Doizi, Denis; Lamouroux, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This Letter describes the fast synthesis of a mono-aminated calix[6]arene. The immobilization of this macrocycle onto glassy carbon electrodes via diazonium salt chemistry and the electrochemical characterization of the grafted organic layer are also reported. (authors)

  2. Determination of Volatility and Element Fractionation in Glassy Fallout Debris by SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Todd L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tenner, Travis Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bonamici, Chloe Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollington, Anthony Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The purpose of this report is to characterize glassy fallout debris using the Trinity Test and then characterize the U-isotopes of U3O8 reference materials that contain weaponized debris.

  3. Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Xu, Y.; Deng, Z.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.; Morita, M.; Teshima, H.

    2010-12-01

    We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa2Cu3O7 - d (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

  4. Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Xu, Y; Deng, Z; Izumi, M [Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Hayakawa, H [Kitano Seiki Co. Ltd, 7-17-3, Chuo, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0024 (Japan); Morita, M; Teshima, H, E-mail: d082025@kaiyodai.ac.j [Nippon Steel Co. Ltd, 20-1, Shintomi, Huttsu-shi, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-d} (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

  5. Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoniazid by a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly (Eriochrome Black T)

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Asadpour-Zeynali; Venus Baghalabadi

    2017-01-01

    In this work poly eriochrome black T (EBT) was electrochemically synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode as electrode modifier. On the modified electrode, voltammetric behavior of isoniazid (INH) was investigated. The poly (EBT)-modified glassy carbon electrode has excellent electrocatalytic ability for the electrooxidation of isoniazid. This fact was appeared as a reduced overpotential of INH oxidation in a wide operational pH range from 2 to 13. It has been found that the catalytic peak ...

  6. Electrical properties of carbon nanotubes modified GaSe glassy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hana; Khan, Zubair M. S. H.; Islam, Shama; Rahman, Raja Saifu; Husain, M.; Zulfequar, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we report the investigation of the effect of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) addition on the electrical properties of GaSe Glassy system. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss of GaSe glassy system are found to increase on CNT addition. The conductivity of GaSe glasy systems is also found to increase on CNT addition. This behavior is attributed to the excellent conduction properties of Carbon Nanotube.

  7. Nonswelling alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-12-23

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses.

  8. Nonswelling alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses

  9. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  10. Positron annihilation study of graphite, glassy carbon and C60/C70 fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Masayuki; Kajino, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Sadae; Iwata, Tadao; Kuramoto, Eiichi; Takenaka, Minoru.

    1992-01-01

    ACAR (Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation) and positron lifetime measurements have been made on, HOPG (Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite), isotropic fine-grained graphite, glassy carbons and C 60 /C 70 powder. HOPG showed marked bimodality along the c-axis and anisotropy in ACAR momentum distribution, which stem from characteristic annihilation between 'interlayer' positrons and π-electrons in graphite. ACAR curves of the isotropic graphite and glassy carbons are even narrower than that of HOPG perpendicular to the c-axis. Positron lifetime of 420 and 390 - 480 psec, much longer than that of 221 psec in HOPG, were observed for the isotropic graphite and glassy carbons respectively, which are due to positron trapping in structural voids in them. Positron lifetime and ACAR width (FWHM) can be well correlated to void sizes (1.7 to 5.0 nm) of glassy carbons which have been determined by small angle neutron (SAN) scattering measurements. ACAR curves and positron lifetime of C 60 /C 70 powder agree well with those of glassy carbons. This shows that positron wave functions extend, as in the voids of glassy carbons, much wider than open spaces of the octahedral interstices of the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure of C 60 crystal and strongly suggests positron trapping in the 'soccer ball' vacancy. Possible positron states in the carbon materials are discussed with a simple model of void volume-trapping. Preliminary results on neutron irradiation damage in HOPG are also presented. (author)

  11. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  12. Evaluation of interface characterization and adhesion of glass ceramics to commercially pure titanium and gold alloy after thermal- and mechanical-loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ccahuana Vasqueza, Vanessa Zulema; Ozcan, Mutlu; Kimpara, Estevao Tomomitsu

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of thermal- and mechanical-cycling on the shear bond strength of three low-fusing glassy matrix dental ceramics to commercial pure titanium (cpTi) when compared to conventional feldspathic ceramic fused to gold alloy. Methods. Metallic frameworks

  13. Ageing, fragility and the reversibility window in bulk alloy glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, S; Georgiev, D G; Boolchand, P; Micoulaut, M

    2005-01-01

    Non-reversing relaxation enthalpies (ΔH nr ) at glass transitions T g (x) in the P x Ge x Se 1-2x ternary display wide, sharp and deep global minima (∼0) in the 0.09 g s become thermally reversing. In this reversibility window, glasses are found not to age, in contrast to ageing observed for fragile glass compositions outside the window. Thermal reversibility and lack of ageing seem to be paradigms of self-organization which molecular glasses share with protein structures which repetitively and reversibly change conformation near T g and the folding temperature respectively. (letter to the editor)

  14. Structural and mechanical properties of glassy water in nanoscale confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Thomas G; Giovambattista, Nicolás; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the structure and mechanical properties of glassy water confined between silica-based surfaces with continuously tunable hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity by computing and analyzing minimum energy, mechanically stable configurations (inherent structures). The structured silica substrate imposes long-range order on the first layer of water molecules under hydrophobic confinement at high density (p > or = 1.0 g cm(-3)). This proximal layer is also structured in hydrophilic confinement at very low density (p approximately 0.4 g cm(-3)). The ordering of water next to the hydrophobic surface greatly enhances the mechanical strength of thin films (0.8 nm). This leads to a substantial stress anisotropy; the transverse strength of the film exceeds the normal strength by 500 MPa. The large transverse strength results in a minimum in the equation of state of the energy landscape that does not correspond to a mechanical instability, but represents disruption of the ordered layer of water next to the wall. In addition, we find that the mode of mechanical failure is dependent on the type of confinement. Under large lateral strain, water confined by hydrophilic surfaces preferentially forms voids in the middle of the film and fails cohesively. In contrast, water under hydrophobic confinement tends to form voids near the walls and fails by loss of adhesion.

  15. Network approach towards understanding the crazing in glassy amorphous polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Sudarkodi; Vivek-Ananth, R. P.; Sreejith, R. P.; Mangalapandi, Pattulingam; Hassanali, Ali A.; Samal, Areejit

    2018-04-01

    We have used molecular dynamics to simulate an amorphous glassy polymer with long chains to study the deformation mechanism of crazing and associated void statistics. The Van der Waals interactions and the entanglements between chains constituting the polymer play a crucial role in crazing. Thus, we have reconstructed two underlying weighted networks, namely, the Van der Waals network and the entanglement network from polymer configurations extracted from the molecular dynamics simulation. Subsequently, we have performed graph-theoretic analysis of the two reconstructed networks to reveal the role played by them in the crazing of polymers. Our analysis captured various stages of crazing through specific trends in the network measures for Van der Waals networks and entanglement networks. To further corroborate the effectiveness of network analysis in unraveling the underlying physics of crazing in polymers, we have contrasted the trends in network measures for Van der Waals networks and entanglement networks in the light of stress-strain behaviour and voids statistics during deformation. We find that the Van der Waals network plays a crucial role in craze initiation and growth. Although, the entanglement network was found to maintain its structure during craze initiation stage, it was found to progressively weaken and undergo dynamic changes during the hardening and failure stages of crazing phenomena. Our work demonstrates the utility of network theory in quantifying the underlying physics of polymer crazing and widens the scope of applications of network science to characterization of deformation mechanisms in diverse polymers.

  16. Dielectric studies of molecular motions in glassy and liquid nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, K [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Ziolo, J [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Ngai, K L [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375-5320 (United States)

    2006-06-21

    The dielectric permittivity and loss spectra of glassy and liquid states of nicotine have been measured over the frequency range 10{sup -2}-10{sup 9} Hz. The relaxation spectra are similar to common small molecular glass-forming substances, showing the structural {alpha}-relaxation and its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein {beta}-relaxation. The {alpha}-relaxation is well described by the Fourier transform of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts stretched exponential function with an approximately constant stretch exponent that is equal to 0.70 as the glass transition temperature is approached. The dielectric {alpha}-relaxation time measured over 11 orders of magnitude cannot be described by a single Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman-Hesse equation. The most probable Johari-Goldstein {beta}-relaxation time determined from the dielectric spectra is in good agreement with the primitive relaxation time of the coupling model calculated from parameters of the structural {alpha}-relaxation. The shape of the dielectric spectra of nicotine is compared with that of other glass-formers having about the same stretch exponent, and they are shown to be nearly isomorphic. The results indicate that the molecular dynamics of nicotine conform to the general pattern found in other glass-formers, and the presence of the universal Johari-Goldstein secondary relaxation, which plays a role in the crystallization of amorphous pharmaceuticals.

  17. Electrochemical determination of mesotrione at organoclay modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga Wagheu, Josephine; Forano, Claude; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Tonle, Ignas K; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Mousty, Christine

    2013-01-15

    A natural Cameroonian smectite-type clay (SaNa) was exchanged with cationic surfactants, namely cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) and didodecyldimethyl ammonium (DDA) modifying its physico-chemical properties. The resulting organoclays that have higher adsorption capacity for mesotrione than the pristine SaNa clay, have been used as modifiers of glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical detection of this herbicide by square wave voltammetry. The stripping performances of SaNa, SaCTA and SaDDA modified electrodes were therefore evaluated and the experimental parameters were optimized. SaDDA gives the best results in deoxygenated acetate buffer solution (pH 6.0) after 2 min accumulation under open circuit conditions. Under optimal conditions, the reduction current is proportional to mesotrione concentration in the range from 0.25 to 2.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.26 μM. The fabricated electrode was also applied for the commercial formulation CALLISTO, used in European maize market. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phonon activity and intermediate glassy phase of YVO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, Nestor E.; Piamonteze, Cinthia; Tolentino, Helio C.N.; Alonso, Jose Antonio; Martinez-Lope, Maria Jesus; Casais, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    We show that in YVO 3 additional hard phonons gradually become zone center infrared active below ∼210 K, verifying that a lattice phase transition takes place at about that temperature. Their gradual increment in intensity between ∼210 and ∼77 K is associated with a 'glassy' behavior found in the temperature-dependent V K edge pseudoradial distribution. This translates into an increase in the Debye-Waller factors ascribed to the appearance of V local structural disorder below ∼150 K. Conflicts between various ordering mechanisms in YVO 3 bring up similarities of the intermediate phase to known results in dielectric incommensurate systems, suggesting the formation of commensurate domains below 116 K, the onset temperature of G-type antiferromagnetism. We propose that ∼210 and ∼77 K be understood as the temperatures where the commensurate-incommensurate and incommensurate-commensurate 'lock-in' phase transitions take place. We found support for this interpretation in the inverted λ shapes of the measured heat capacity and in the overall temperature dependence of the hard phonons

  19. Dissociative electron attachment to methylhalides in 3-methylhexane glassy matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, K.; Irie, M.; Yoshida, H.

    1976-01-01

    Dissociative electron attachment reaction to CH 3 I, CH 3 Cl and CH 3 F in a 3-methylhexane glassy matrix was studied by determining the yield of trapped electrons and that of methyl radicals immediately after γ irradiation at 77 K as a function of the scavenger concentration. The efficiency of conversion from the trapped electrons to the methyl radicals was also studied by photobleaching the trapped electrons. The results obtained are (1) the dissociative electron attachment occurs to CH 3 F, for which the gas phase data indicate that the reaction is endothermic by 1.2 eV, during either the γ irradiation or the photobleaching, and (2) CH 3 F is relatively less efficient in scavenging photo-liberated electrons than in scavenging the electrons during the γ irradiation, whereas CH 3 I and CH 3 Cl are efficient scavengers for both the electrons. The dependence of the yields of the trapped electrons and the methyl radicals is discussed in terms of the electron-tunnelling mechanism and the epithermal electron-scavenging mechanism. (author)

  20. Activation of glassy carbon electrodes by photocatalytic pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanli, Onur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Onar, A. Nur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)], E-mail: nonar@omu.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid photocatalytic pretreatment procedure that removes contaminants from glassy carbon (GC) surfaces. The effectiveness of TiO{sub 2} mediated photocatalytic pretreatment procedure was compared to commonly used alumina polishing procedure. Cyclic voltammetric and chronocoulometric measurements were carried out to assess the changes in electrode reactivity by using four redox systems. Electrochemical measurements obtained on photocatalytically treated GC electrodes showed a more active surface relative to polished GC. In cyclic voltammograms of epinephrine, Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene redox systems, higher oxidation and reduction currents were observed. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sup o}) were calculated for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene which were greater for photocatalytic pretreatment. Chronocoulometry was performed in order to find the amount of adsorbed methylene blue onto the electrode and was calculated as 0.34 pmol cm{sup -2} for photocatalytically pretreated GC. The proposed photocatalytic GC electrode cleansing and activating pretreatment procedure was more effective than classical alumina polishing.

  1. Preparation and characterization of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses in form of plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilarczyk, Wirginia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zr-based BMGs in form of plate was successful produced by die pressure casting method. • Many techniques have been used to characterize the structure of Zr 55 Cu 30 Ni 5 Al 10 alloy. • The calculated GFA parameters show that the alloy exhibits satisfactory GFA. • The studies reveal that tested as-cast Zr-based alloy is in amorphous state. - Abstract: Zr-based bulk metallic glasses present an interesting combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. During the last decade, intensive progress has been made and a number of applications have been suggested for these materials. In order to successfully apply these materials, it is necessary to accurately characterize their structure, thermal stability and other properties accurately. The aim of the presented work is the manufacturing, examination of the structure of selected Zr-based bulk metallic alloys and confirmation of an amorphous structure using X-ray analysis, microscopic observation and thermal analysis. In this work, the Zr-based bulk metallic glasses in form of plate was successful produced by die pressure casting method. Designed scientific station for casting zirconium based amorphous alloys in the form of plates and rods with selected dimensions is in our university a comprehensive method for achieving amorphous materials which enables us to maintain repeatability of as-cast samples with the amorphous structure and the assumed dimensions range. The diffraction pattern and exothermic reaction as well as the fracture surface morphology reveal that studied as-cast Zr-based alloy is in amorphous state. The calculated GFA parameters show that the alloy exhibits satisfactory glass-forming ability in form of studied plate. These obtained values can suggest that studied alloys are suitable materials for further planned practical application at welding process. The success of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses production in form of plate with obtained sizes is important for future

  2. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...... thermoelastic coefficients and age hardenable low expansion alloys....

  3. Glassy aerosols with a range of compositions nucleate ice heterogeneously at cirrus temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA is likely to exist in a semi-solid or glassy state, particularly at low temperatures and humidities. Previously, it has been shown that glassy aqueous citric acid aerosol is able to nucleate ice heterogeneously under conditions relevant to cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. In this study we test if glassy aerosol distributions with a range of chemical compositions heterogeneously nucleate ice under cirrus conditions. Three single component aqueous solution aerosols (raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA and levoglucosan and one multi component aqueous solution aerosol (raffinose mixed with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate were studied in both the liquid and glassy states at a large cloud simulation chamber. The investigated organic compounds have similar functionality to oxidised organic material found in atmospheric aerosol and have estimated temperature/humidity induced glass transition thresholds that fall within the range predicted for atmospheric SOA. A small fraction of aerosol particles of all compositions were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously in the deposition mode at temperatures relevant to the TTL (<200 K. Raffinose and HMMA, which form glasses at higher temperatures, nucleated ice heterogeneously at temperatures as high as 214.6 and 218.5 K respectively. We present the calculated ice active surface site density, ns, of the aerosols tested here and also of glassy citric acid aerosol as a function of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi. We also propose a parameterisation which can be used to estimate heterogeneous ice nucleation by glassy aerosol for use in cirrus cloud models up to ~220 K. Finally, we show that heterogeneous nucleation by glassy aerosol may compete with ice nucleation on mineral dust particles in mid-latitudes cirrus.

  4. Elaboration and characterisation of Pd-Cr alloys for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleymane, B.; Fouda-Onana, F.; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie

    2008-07-01

    Palladium (Pd) alloys have been considered as alternative catalyst cathodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, particularly in liquid fuel cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ORR on various Pd-Cr alloys. Pd-Cr alloys were deposited on glassy carbon support and the electrocatalytic parameters for the ORR were determined in acid medium. The effect of the Pd-Cr alloy deposition parameters on its composition and electrocatalytic behaviour were determined. The study showed that there is a relationship between the composition of the alloy and the power of the Pd and Cr cathode. The parameters of the ORR were correlated to the alloy chemical and physical properties. EDS and XPS analysis revealed a segregation of Cr in the alloy.The variation of the work function (W) of the alloy with the alloy composition has shown a minimum value of W of 0.287 for a composition of the alloy of 70 per cent of Pd and 30 per cent of Cr. The electrochemically active surface area and the exchange current density of the ORR indicated that the mechanism of the ORR on Pd-Cr is similar to that on platinum. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Two Glass Transitions Associated to Different Dynamic Disorders in the Nematic Glassy State of a Non-Symmetric Liquid Crystal Dimer Dopped with γ-Alumina Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Berart, Sergio; López, David O.; Salud, Josep; Diego, José Antonio; Sellarès, Jordi; Robles-Hernández, Beatriz; de la Fuente, María Rosario; Ros, María Blanca

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the nematic glassy state of the non-symmetric LC dimer α-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yloxy)-ω-(1-pyrenimine-benzylidene-4′-oxy) undecane is studied by means of calorimetric and dielectric measurements. The most striking result of the work is the presence of two different glass transition temperatures: one due to the freezing of the flip-flop motions of the bulkier unit of the dimer and the other, at a lower temperature, related to the freezing of the flip-flop and precessional motions of the cyanobiphenyl unit. This result shows the fact that glass transition is the consequence of the freezing of one or more coupled dynamic disorders and not of the disordered phase itself. In order to avoid crystallization when the bulk sample is cooled down, the LC dimer has been confined via the dispersion of γ-alumina nanoparticles, in several concentrations.

  6. Nanocrystalline Al-based alloys - lightweight materials with attractive mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuch, J; Cieslak, G; Dimitrov, H; Krasnowski, M; Kulik, T

    2009-01-01

    In this study, several ways of bulk nanocrystalline Al-based alloys' production by high-pressure compaction of powders were explored. The effect of chemical composition and compaction parameters on the structure, quality and mechanical properties of the bulk samples was studied. Bulk nanocrystalline Al-Mm-Ni-(Fe,Co) alloys were prepared by ball-milling of amorphous ribbons followed by consolidation. The maximum microhardness (540 HV0.1) was achieved for the samples compacted at 275 deg. C under 7.7 GPa (which resulted in an amorphous bulk) and nanocrystallised at 235 deg. C for 20 min. Another group of the produced materials were bulk nanocrystalline Al-Si-(Ni,Fe)-Mm alloys obtained by ball-milling of nanocrystalline ribbons and consolidation. The hardness of these samples achieved the value five times higher (350HV) than that of commercial 4xxx series Al alloys. Nanocrystalline Al-based alloys were also prepared by mechanical alloying followed by hot-pressing. In this group of materials, there were Al-Fe alloys containing 50-85 at.% of Al and ternary or quaternary Al-Fe-(Ti, Si, Ni, Mg, B) alloys. Microhardness of these alloys was in the range of 613 - 1235 HV0.2, depending on the composition.

  7. Structure and transformation behaviour of a rapidly solidified Al-Y-Ni-Co-Pd alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V.; Inoue, A.

    2005-01-01

    An as-solidified structure and transformation behaviour on heating of the rapidly solidified Al-Y-Ni-Co-Pd alloy was studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning and isothermal calorimetries. The Al-Y-Ni-Co-Pd ribbon samples have been produced by the melt spinning technique and heat treated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The addition of Pd to Al-Y-Ni-Co alloys caused disappearance of the supercooled liquid region as well as the formation of the highly dispersed primary α-Al nanoparticles about 3-7 nm in size homogeneously embedded in the glassy matrix upon solidification. An extremely high density of precipitates of the order of 10 24 m -3 is obtained. These particles start growing at the temperature below a glass-transition temperature. The results presented in this paper indicate that some of so-called 'marginal' glass-formers in as-solidified state are actually not glassy alloys with pre-existed nuclei but crystal-glassy nanocomposites

  8. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Diffusion coefficients of tracers in glassy polymer systems prepared by gamma radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonge, M.P.; Gilbert, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion-controlled reactions are common in free radical polymerisation reactions, especially in glassy polymer matrices. Such reactions commonly have an important influence on the polymerisation process and final polymer properties. For example, the dominant growth-stopping event (bimolecular termination) is generally diffusion-controlled. In glassy polymer systems, where molecular mobility is very low, the chain growth mechanism (propagation) may become diffusion-controlled. At present, the mechanism for propagation in glassy polymers is poorly understood, but it is expected by the Smoluchowski expression applied to propagation to depend strongly on the diffusion coefficient of monomer. The objective of this study is to measure reliable diffusion coefficients of small tracer molecules in glassy polymers, and compare these with propagation rate coefficients in similar systems, by the prediction above. Samples were initially prepared in a sealed sampled cell containing monomer, inert diluent, and tracer dye. After irradiation for several days, complete conversion of monomer to polymer can be obtained. The diffusion coefficients for two tracer dyes have been measured as a function of weight fraction polymer glassy poly(methyl methacrylate) samples

  10. Muonium hyperfine parameters in Si1-x Ge x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Philip; Lichti, Roger; Cottrell, Stephen; Yonenaga, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    We present studies of muonium behaviour in bulk, Czochralski-grown Si 1- x Ge x alloy material, focusing in particular on the hyperfine parameter of the tetrahedral muonium species. In contrast to the bond-centred species, the hyperfine parameter of the tetrahedral-site muonium centre (Mu T ) appears to vary non-linearly with alloy composition. The temperature dependence of the Mu T hyperfine parameter observed in low-Ge alloy material is compared with that seen in pure Si, and previous models of the Mu T behaviour in Si are discussed in the light of results from Si 1- x Ge x alloys

  11. Zr-Cu-Ni-Al bulk metallic glasses with superhigh glass-forming ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.J.; Qu, D.D.; Huang, Y.J.; Liss, K.-D.; Wei, X.S.; Xing, D.W.; Shen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Zr-Cu-Ni-Al quaternary amorphous alloy compositions with varying glass-forming ability are developed by an efficient method of proportional mixing of binary eutectics. The critical diameter of the glassy sample is improved from 6 mm for Zr 53 Cu 18.7 Ni 12 Al 16.3 to 14 mm for Zr 50.7 Cu 28 Ni 9 Al 12.3 by straightforwardly adjusting the eutectic unit's coefficients. The drastic improvement in GFA is attributed to balancing the chemical affinities of the Zr, Cu, Ni and Al components in the melt prior to solidification which makes the precipitation of competing crystalline phases more difficult. As the glass-forming ability increases, the concentration of Cu in the alloys exhibits a same trend. Based on synchrotron radiation high-energy X-ray diffraction analysis and Miracle's structural model, it is envisioned that the substitution of additional Cu atoms for Zr atoms in the investigated alloys stabilizes the efficient cluster packing structure of the amorphous alloys, leading to the pronounced increase in their glass-forming ability

  12. Electrochemical functionalization of glassy carbon electrode by reduction of diazonium cations in protic ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul, Galyna; Ruiz, Carlos Alberto Castro; Rochefort, Dominic; Brooksby, Paula A.; Bélanger, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Protic ionic liquid based on 2-methoxypyridine and trifluoroacetic acid was used as electrolyte for the functionalization of a glassy carbon electrode surface by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated 4-chlorobenzene diazonium and 4-nitrobenzene diazonium cations. The diazonium cations were synthesized in an electrochemical cell by reaction of the corresponding amines with NaNO 2 dissolved in protic ionic liquid. The resulting electrografted organic layers exhibit similar properties to those layers obtained by the derivatization from isolated diazonium salts dissolved in protic ionic liquid. Functionalized glassy carbon electrode surfaces were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Atomic force microscopy thickness measurements revealed that, in our experimental conditions, the use of protic ionic liquid led to the formation of film with a thickness of about 1.5 nm. It is also demonstrated that the nitrobenzene chemisorbed on glassy carbon electrode or dissolved in protic ionic liquid undergoes electrochemical conversion to hydroxyaminobenzene

  13. Temporal disconnectivity of the energy landscape in glassy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempesis, Nikolaos; Boulougouris, Georgios C.; Theodorou, Doros N.

    2013-03-01

    An alternative graphical representation of the potential energy landscape (PEL) has been developed and applied to a binary Lennard-Jones glassy system, providing insight into the unique topology of the system's potential energy hypersurface. With the help of this representation one is able to monitor the different explored basins of the PEL, as well as how - and mainly when - subsets of basins communicate with each other via transitions in such a way that details of the prior temporal history have been erased, i.e., local equilibration between the basins in each subset has been achieved. In this way, apart from detailed information about the structure of the PEL, the system's temporal evolution on the PEL is described. In order to gather all necessary information about the identities of two or more basins that are connected with each other, we consider two different approaches. The first one is based on consideration of the time needed for two basins to mutually equilibrate their populations according to the transition rate between them, in the absence of any effect induced by the rest of the landscape. The second approach is based on an analytical solution of the master equation that explicitly takes into account the entire explored landscape. It is shown that both approaches lead to the same result concerning the topology of the PEL and dynamical evolution on it. Moreover, a "temporal disconnectivity graph" is introduced to represent a lumped system stemming from the initial one. The lumped system is obtained via a specially designed algorithm [N. Lempesis, D. G. Tsalikis, G. C. Boulougouris, and D. N. Theodorou, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 204507 (2011), 10.1063/1.3663207]. The temporal disconnectivity graph provides useful information about both the lumped and the initial systems, including the definition of "metabasins" as collections of basins that communicate with each other via transitions that are fast relative to the observation time. Finally, the two examined

  14. Influence of carbides and microstructure of CoCrMo alloys on their metallic dissolution resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Vidal, C; Casabán-Julián, L; Herraiz-Cardona, I; Igual-Muñoz, A

    2013-12-01

    CoCrMo alloys are passive and biocompatible materials widely used as joint replacements due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Electrochemical behaviour of thermal treated CoCrMo alloys with different carbon content in their bulk alloy composition has been analysed. Both the amount of carbides in the CoCrMo alloys and the chemical composition of the simulated body fluid affect the electrochemical properties of these biomedical alloys, thus passive dissolution rate was influenced by the mentioned parameters. Lower percentage of carbon in the chemical composition of the bulk alloy and thermal treatments favour the homogenization of the surface (less amount of carbides), thus increasing the availability of Cr to form the oxide film and improving the corrosion resistance of the alloy. © 2013.

  15. Immobilization of DNA at Glassy Ccarbon Electrodes: A Critical Study of Adsorbed Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Rivas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a critical study of the nucleic acid layer immobilized atglassy carbon electrodes. Different studies were performed in order to assess the nature of theinteraction between DNA and the electrode surface. The adsorption and electrooxidation of DNAdemonstrated to be highly dependent on the surface and nature of the glassy carbon electrode. TheDNA layer immobilized at a freshly polished glassy carbon electrode was very stable even afterapplying highly negative potentials. The electron transfer of potassium ferricyanide, catechol anddopamine at glassy carbon surfaces modified with thin (obtained by adsorption under controlledpotential conditions and thick (obtained by casting the glassy carbon surface with highly concentratedDNA solutions DNA layers was slower than that at the bare glassy carbon electrode, although thiseffect was dependent on the thickness of the layer and was not charge selective. Raman experimentsshowed an important decrease of the vibrational modes assigned to the nucleobases residues,suggesting a strong interaction of these residues with the electrode surface. The hybridization ofoligo(dG21 and oligo(dC21 was evaluated from the guanine oxidation signal and the reduction of theredox indicator Co(phen33+ . In both cases the chronopotentiometric response indicated that thecompromise of the bases in the interaction of DNA with the electrode surface is too strong, preventingfurther hybridization. In summary, glassy carbon is a useful electrode material to detect DNA in adirect and very sensitive way, but not to be used for the preparation of biorecognition layers by directadsorption of the probe sequence on the electrode surface for detecting the hybridization event.

  16. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  17. TEM of nanostructured metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnthaler, H.P.; Waitz, T.; Rentenberger, C.; Mingler, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructuring has been used to improve the mechanical properties of bulk metals and alloys. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including atomic resolution is therefore appropriate to study these nanostructures; four examples are given as follows. (1) The early stages of precipitation at RT were investigated in an Al-Mg-Si alloy. By high resolution TEM it is shown that the precipitates lie on (0 0 1) planes having an ordered structure. (2) In Co alloys the fronts of martensitic phase transformations were analysed showing that the transformation strains are very small thus causing no surface relief. (3) Re-ordering and recrystallization were studied by in situ TEM of an Ni 3 Al alloy being nanocrystalline after severe plastic deformation. (4) In NiTi severe plastic deformation is leading to the formation of amorphous shear bands. From the TEM analysis it is concluded that the amorphization is caused by plastic shear instability starting in the shear bands

  18. A Generic Model for Prediction of Separation Performance of Olefin/Paraffin Mixture by Glassy Polymer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ghoreyshi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The separation of olefin/paraffin mixtures is an important process in petrochemical industries, which is traditionally performed by low temperature distillation with a high-energy consumption, or complex extractive distillationand adsorption techniques. Membrane separation process is emerging as an alternative for traditional separation processes with respect to low energy and simple operation. Investigations made by various researchers on polymeric membranes it is found that special glassy polymers render them as suitable materials for olefin/paraffin mixture separation. In this regard, having some knowledge on the possible transport mechanism of these processes would play a significant role in their design and applications. In this study, separation behavior of olefin/paraffin mixtures through glassy polymers was modeled by three different approaches: the so-called dual transport model, the basic adsorption-diffusion theory and the general Maxwell-Stefan formulation. The systems chosen to validate the developed transport models are separation of ethane-ethylene mixture by 6FDA-6FpDA polyimide membrane and propane-propylene mixture by 6FDA-TrMPD polyimide membrane for which the individual sorption and permeation data are available in the literature. Acritical examination of dual transport model shows that this model fails clearly to predict even the proper trend for selectivities. The adjustment of pemeabilities by accounting for the contribution of non-selective bulk flow in the transport model introduced no improvement in the predictability of the model. The modeling results based on the basic adsorption-diffusion theory revealed that in this approach only using mixed permeability data, an acceptable result is attainable which fades out the advantages of predictibility of multicomponent separation performance from pure component data. Finally, the results obtained from the model developed based on Maxwell-Stefan formulation approach show a

  19. Elastic properties of aspirin in its crystalline and glassy phases studied by micro-Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Sei; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic waves propagating along the direction perpendicular to the (1 0 0) cleavage plane of aspirin crystal were investigated using micro-Brillouin spectroscopy from which C11, C55 and C66 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic waves could be explained by normal anharmonic lattice models, while the transverse acoustic waves showed an abnormal increase in the hypersonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating their coupling to local remnant dynamics. The sound velocity as well as the attenuation of the longitudinal acoustic waves of glassy aspirin showed a substantial change at ˜235 K confirming a transition from glassy to supercooled liquid state in vitreous aspirin.

  20. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Amare, Meareg; Aklog, Senait

    2017-01-01

    Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6 ? 10?6 to 100 ? 10?6?mol?L?1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3?s/slope) of 0....

  1. SUPERNOVA SHOCK-WAVE-INDUCED CO-FORMATION OF GLASSY CARBON AND NANODIAMOND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Rhonda [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; Chisholm, Matthew F [ORNL; Heck, Phillipp [The Field Museum, Chicago, IL; Alexander, Conel [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Nittler, Larry [Carnegie Institution of Washington

    2011-01-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) was the first extrasolar dust phase to be identified in meteorites. However, the 2 nm average size of the NDs precludes isotopic analysis of individual particles, and thus their origin(s) remains controversial. Using electron microscopy with subnanometer resolution, we show that ND separates from the Allende and Murchison meteorites are actually a two-phase mixture of ND and glassy carbon. This phase mixture is likely the product of supernova shock-wave transformation of pre-formed organics in the interstellar medium (ISM). The glassy carbon ND mixture is also a plausible contributor to the 2175 extinction feature in the diffuse ISM.

  2. SUPERNOVA SHOCK-WAVE-INDUCED CO-FORMATION OF GLASSY CARBON AND NANODIAMOND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, Rhonda M.; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Heck, Philipp R.; Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) was the first extrasolar dust phase to be identified in meteorites. However, the 2 nm average size of the NDs precludes isotopic analysis of individual particles, and thus their origin(s) remains controversial. Using electron microscopy with subnanometer resolution, we show that ND separates from the Allende and Murchison meteorites are actually a two-phase mixture of ND and glassy carbon. This phase mixture is likely the product of supernova shock-wave transformation of pre-formed organics in the interstellar medium (ISM). The glassy carbon-ND mixture is also a plausible contributor to the 2175 A extinction feature in the diffuse ISM.

  3. Effects of nymphal diet and adult feeding on allocation of resources to glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter is an invasive insect capable of transmitting the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Pre-oviposition periods of laboratory reared glassy-winged sharpshooters are variable. Here, two questions were addressed: does nymphal diet affect pre-oviposition period and how d...

  4. Superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to superconductors having high critical currents. The superconductor described comprises an alloy consisting of a matrix of a Type II superconductor which is a homogeneous mixture of 50 to 95 at.% Pb and 5 to 40 at.%Bi and/or 10 to 50 at.%In. Dispersed in the matrix is a material to provide pinning centres comprising from 0.01% to 20% by volume of the alloy; this material is a stable discontinuous phase of discrete crystalline particles of Cu, Mn, Te, Se, Ni, Ca, Cr, Ce, Ge or La, either in the form of the element or a compound with a component of the matrix. These particles should have an average diameter of not more than 2μ. A method for making this alloy is described. (U.K.)

  5. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, M D; Fujishiro, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB 2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet–superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed. (topical review)

  6. Pareto-optimal alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bligaard, Thomas; Johannesson, Gisli Holmar; Ruban, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    Large databases that can be used in the search for new materials with specific properties remain an elusive goal in materials science. The problem is complicated by the fact that the optimal material for a given application is usually a compromise between a number of materials properties and the ......Large databases that can be used in the search for new materials with specific properties remain an elusive goal in materials science. The problem is complicated by the fact that the optimal material for a given application is usually a compromise between a number of materials properties...... and the cost. In this letter we present a database consisting of the lattice parameters, bulk moduli, and heats of formation for over 64 000 ordered metallic alloys, which has been established by direct first-principles density-functional-theory calculations. Furthermore, we use a concept from economic theory......, the Pareto-optimal set, to determine optimal alloy solutions for the compromise between low compressibility, high stability, and cost....

  7. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Shattuck, Mark D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics and Benjamin Levich Institute, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); O’Hern, Corey S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate R{sub c}, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. R{sub c} (or the corresponding critical casting thickness d{sub c}) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small R{sub c} < 10{sup −2} K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large R{sub c} > 10{sup 10} K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with R{sub c} approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for

  8. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  9. Concentration and electrode material dependence of the voltammetric response of iodide on platinum, glassy carbon and boron-doped diamond in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, Cameron L.; Bond, Alan M.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.; Mahon, Peter J.; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The electro-oxidation of iodide has been investigated as a function of concentration using steady-state microelectrode voltammetry, transient cyclic voltammetry and linear-sweep semi-integral voltammetry on platinum, glassy carbon and boron-doped diamond electrodes in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. Two oxidation processes are observed on all of the investigated electrode materials, with the first being assigned to the oxidation of iodide to triiodide (confirmed by UV/visible spectroscopy) and the second being attributed to the oxidation of triiodide to iodine. Iodide oxidation is kinetically more facile on platinum compared to glassy carbon or boron-doped diamond. At elevated bulk iodide concentrations, the nucleation and growth of sparingly soluble electrogenerated iodine at the electrode surface was observed and imaged in situ using optical microscopy. The diffusion coefficient of iodide was determined to be 2.59 (±0.04) × 10 −7 cm 2 s −1 and independent of the bulk concentration of iodide. The steady-state iodide oxidation current measured at a platinum microelectrode was found to be a linear function of iodide concentration, as expected if there are no contributions from non-Stokesian mass-transport processes (electron hopping and/or Grotthuss-type exchange) under the investigated conditions

  10. Research activities of biomedical magnesium alloys in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Gu, Xuenan

    2011-04-01

    The potential application of Mg alloys as bioabsorable/biodegradable implants have attracted much recent attention in China. Advances in the design and biocompatibility evaluation of bio-Mg alloys in China are reviewed in this paper. Bio-Mg alloys have been developed by alloying with the trace elements existing in human body, such as Mg-Ca, Mg-Zn and Mg-Si based systems. Additionally, novel structured Mg alloys such as porous, composited, nanocrystalline and bulk metallic glass alloys were tried. To control the biocorrosion rate of bio-Mg implant to match the self-healing/regeneration rate of the surrounding tissue in vivo, surface modification layers were coated with physical and chemical methods.

  11. Bulk viscosity and cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesham, A.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent interesting paper, Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera (Nuovo Cimento B, 109(1994) 1317) have derived several solutions with bulk viscosity in homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. They also discussed the properties of these solutions. In this paper the authors relate the solutions of Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera by simple transformations to previous solutions published in the literature, showing that all the solutions can be derived from the known existing ones. Drawbacks to these approaches of studying bulk viscosity are pointed out, and better approaches indicated

  12. Statistics of energy levels and zero temperature dynamics for deterministic spin models with glassy behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degli Esposti, M.; Giardinà, C.; Graffi, S.; Isola, S.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the zero-temperature dynamics for the infinite-range, non translation invariant one-dimensional spin model introduced by Marinari, Parisi and Ritort to generate glassy behaviour out of a deterministic interaction. It is argued that there can be a large number of metastable (i.e.,

  13. Egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae); a vector of Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rates of spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens are a function of vector abundance. Despite this, factors affecting population growth rates of insects that transmit plant pathogens have received limited attention. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) feeds on xylem-sap and ...

  14. Modification of glassy carbon surfaces by atmospheric pressure cold plasma torch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik Junge; Kusano, Yukihiro; Leipold, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The effect of plasma treatment on glassy carbon (GC) surfaces was studied with adhesion improvement in mind. A newly constructed remote plasma source was used to treat GC plates. Pure He and a dilute NH3/He mixture were used as feed gases. Optical emission spectroscopy was performed for plasma to...

  15. Physical ageing in the above-bandgap photoexposured glassy arsenic selenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozdras, A [Faculty of Physics of Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole, PL-45370 (Poland); Golovchak, R [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine); Shpotyuk, O [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine)

    2007-08-15

    Physical ageing induced by above-bandgap light illumination is studied in glassy As-Se using differential scanning calorimetry. It is shown that measurable effect like to known short-term physical ageing is observed only in Se-rich glasses. The kinetics of this effect is compared with that caused by natural storage in a dark.

  16. Physical ageing in the above-bandgap photoexposured glassy arsenic selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozdras, A; Golovchak, R; Shpotyuk, O

    2007-01-01

    Physical ageing induced by above-bandgap light illumination is studied in glassy As-Se using differential scanning calorimetry. It is shown that measurable effect like to known short-term physical ageing is observed only in Se-rich glasses. The kinetics of this effect is compared with that caused by natural storage in a dark

  17. Voltammetric pH sensing using carbon electrodes: glassy carbon behaves similarly to EPPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Compton, Richard G

    2014-09-21

    Developing and building on recent work based on a simple sensor for pH determination using unmodified edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG) electrodes, we present a voltammetric method for pH determination using a bare unmodified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. By exploiting the pH sensitive nature of quinones present on carbon edge-plane like sites within the GC, we show how GC electrodes can be used to measure pH. The electro-reduction of surface quinone groups on the glassy carbon electrode was characterised using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and optimised with square-wave voltammetry (SWV) at 298 K and 310 K. At both temperatures, a linear correlation was observed, corresponding to a 2 electron, 2 proton Nernstian response over the aqueous pH range 1.0 to 13.1. As such, unmodified glassy carbon electrodes are seen to be pH dependent, and the Nernstian response suggests its facile use for pH sensing. Given the widespread use of glassy carbon electrodes in electroanalysis, the approach offers a method for the near-simultaneous measurement and monitoring of pH during such analyses.

  18. Playback of natural vibrational signals in vineyard trellis for mating disruption of glassy-winged sharpshooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a vector of Xylella fastidiosa, an important bacterial pathogen of several crops in the Americas and Europe. Mating communication of this and many other cicadellid pests involves the exchange of substrate-...

  19. Cytochrome C Dynamics at Gold and Glassy Carbon Surfaces Monitored by in Situ Scanning Tunnel Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Møller, Per; Pedersen, Marianne Vind

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the absorption of cytochrome c on gold and glassy carbon substrates by in situ scanning tunnel microscopy under potentiostatic control of both substrate and tip. Low ionic strength and potential ranges where no Faradaic current flows were used. Cyt c aggregates into flat...

  20. Formulation of thermodynamics for the glassy state : Configurational energy as a modest source of energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Glass is an under-cooled liquid that very slowly relaxes towards the equilibrium crystalline state. Its energy balance is ill understood, since it is widely believed that the glassy state cannot be described thermodynamically. However, the classical paradoxes involving the Ehrenfest relations and

  1. Gas Permeation Related to the Moisture Sorption in Films of Glassy Hydrophilic Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F. L.; Kok, P. J. A. Hartman; Frijlink, H. W.; Vromans, H.; Maarschalk, K. Van Der Voort

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate the effect of integral sorption of moisture on gas permeation in glassy hydrophilic polymers. The oxygen and the simultaneous moisture sorption into various hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films were measured under a wide range of relative humidities

  2. Ice cloud processing of ultra-viscous/glassy aerosol particles leads to enhanced ice nucleation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation potential of airborne glassy aqueous aerosol particles has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 247 and 216 K. Four different solutes were used as proxies for oxygenated organic matter found in the atmosphere: raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA, levoglucosan, and a multi-component mixture of raffinose with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate. Similar to previous experiments with citric acid aerosols, all particles were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously before reaching the homogeneous freezing threshold provided that the freezing cycles were started well below the respective glass transition temperatures of the compounds; this is discussed in detail in a separate article. In this contribution, we identify a further mechanism by which glassy aerosols can promote ice nucleation below the homogeneous freezing limit. If the glassy aerosol particles are probed in freezing cycles started only a few degrees below their respective glass transition temperatures, they enter the liquid regime of the state diagram upon increasing relative humidity (moisture-induced glass-to-liquid transition before being able to act as heterogeneous ice nuclei. Ice formation then only occurs by homogeneous freezing at elevated supersaturation levels. When ice forms the remaining solution freeze concentrates and re-vitrifies. If these ice cloud processed glassy aerosol particles are then probed in a second freezing cycle at the same temperature, they catalyse ice formation at a supersaturation threshold between 5 and 30% with respect to ice. By analogy with the enhanced ice nucleation ability of insoluble ice nuclei like mineral dusts after they nucleate ice once, we refer to this phenomenon as pre-activation. We propose a number of possible explanations for why glassy aerosol particles that have re

  3. Chemical and electrical characterisation of the segregation of Al from a CuAl alloy (90%:10% wt) with thermal anneal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, C., E-mail: conor.byrne2@mail.dcu.ie [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Brady, A.; Walsh, L.; McCoy, A.P.; Bogan, J. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); McGlynn, E. [School of Physical Sciences, National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Rajani, K.V. [School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Hughes, G. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Physical Sciences, National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2016-01-29

    A copper–aluminium (CuAl) alloy (90%:10% wt) has been investigated in relation to segregation of the alloying element Al, from the alloy bulk during vacuum anneal treatments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were used to track the surface enrichment of Al segregating from the alloy bulk during in situ ultra-high vacuum anneals. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) indicates a build-up of Al at the surface of the annealed alloy relative to the bulk composition. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) CuAl/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures show a shift in flatband voltage upon thermal anneal consistent with the segregation of the Al to the alloy/SiO{sub 2} interface. Electrical four point probe measurements indicate that the segregation of Al from the alloy bulk following thermal annealing results in a decrease in film resistivity. X-ray diffraction data shows evidence for significant changes in crystal structure upon annealing, providing further evidence for expulsion of Al from the alloy bulk. - Highlights: • CuAl alloy (90%:Al 10% wt) deposited and vacuum annealed • XPS and SIMS data show segregation of Al from the alloy bulk. • Chemical changes seen indicate the reduction of Cu oxide and growth of Al Oxide. • Electrical measurements indicate a chemical change at the metal/SiO{sub 2} interface. • All data consistent with Cu diffusion barrier layer formed.

  4. Thermal expansion: Metallic elements and alloys. [Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Kirby, R. K.; Taylor, R. E.; Desai, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    The introductory sections of the work are devoted to the theory of thermal expansion of solids and to methods for the measurement of the linear thermal expansion of solids (X-ray methods, high speed methods, interferometry, push-rod dilatometry, etc.). The bulk of the work is devoted to numerical data on the thermal linear expansion of all the metallic elements, a large number of intermetallics, and a large number of binary alloy systems and multiple alloy systems. A comprehensive bibliography is provided along with an index to the materials examined.

  5. Auger electron spectroscopy of alloy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overbury, S.H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1975-03-01

    Regular solution models are used to predict surface segregation of the constituent of lowest surface free energy in homogeneous multicomponent systems. Analysis of the Auger electron emission intensities from alloys yield the surface composition and the depth distribution of the composition near the surface. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) studies of the surface composition of the Ag--Au and Pb--In systems have been carried out as a function of bulk composition and temperature. Although these alloys have very different regular solution parameters their surface compositions are predictable by the regular solution models. (U.S.)

  6. High Electrocatalytic Performance of CuCoNi@CNTs Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode towards Methanol Oxidation in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina A. Hamza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-precious multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs—supported metal oxide electrocatalyst was developed for methanol electrooxidation in alkaline medium. The catalyst was fabricated by simultaneous electrodeposition of copper-cobalt-nickel ternary nanostructures (CuCoNi on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with CNTs. The proposed electrode was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The electrochemical behavior and the electrocatalytic performance of the suggested electrode towards the oxidation of methanol were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV, and chronoamperometry (CA in alkaline medium. Several parameters were investigated, e.g., deposition time, potential scan rate, etc. Compared to Cu, Co, or Ni mono electrocatalysts, the electrode based on ternary-metals exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards methanol electrooxidation. For instance, CuCoNi@CNTs/GCE has shown at least 2.5 times electrocatalytic activity and stability compared to the mono eletrocatalysts. Moreover, the present study found that the optimized loading level is 1500 s of simultaneous electrodeposition. At this loading level, it was found that the relation between the Ip/ν1/2 function and scan rate gives the characteristic features of a catalytic process. The enhanced activity and stability of CuCoNi@CNTs/GCE was attributed to (i a synergism between three metal oxides coexisting in the same structure; (ii the presence of CNTs as a support for the metal oxides, that offers high surface area for the deposited tertiary alloy and suppresses the aggregation and sintering of the metals oxide with time; as well as (iii the increase of the conductivity of the deposited semiconducting metal oxides.

  7. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  8. Bulk viscosity of molecular fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Frederike; Matar, Omar K.; Müller, Erich A.

    2018-05-01

    The bulk viscosity of molecular models of gases and liquids is determined by molecular simulations as a combination of a dilute gas contribution, arising due to the relaxation of internal degrees of freedom, and a configurational contribution, due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. The dilute gas contribution is evaluated using experimental data for the relaxation times of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. The configurational part is calculated using Green-Kubo relations for the fluctuations of the pressure tensor obtained from equilibrium microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. As a benchmark, the Lennard-Jones fluid is studied. Both atomistic and coarse-grained force fields for water, CO2, and n-decane are considered and tested for their accuracy, and where possible, compared to experimental data. The dilute gas contribution to the bulk viscosity is seen to be significant only in the cases when intramolecular relaxation times are in the μs range, and for low vibrational wave numbers (<1000 cm-1); This explains the abnormally high values of bulk viscosity reported for CO2. In all other cases studied, the dilute gas contribution is negligible and the configurational contribution dominates the overall behavior. In particular, the configurational term is responsible for the enhancement of the bulk viscosity near the critical point.

  9. Stress-induced magnetic anisotropy in nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, L.K.; Gercsi, Zs.; Kovacs, Gy.; Kakay, A.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2003-01-01

    Stress-annealing experiments were extended to both nanocrystalline alloy families, Finemet and Nanoperm (Hitperm), and, for comparison, to amorphous Fe 62 Nb 8 B 30 alloy. For both Finemet and bulk amorphous, stress-annealing results in a strong induced transversal anisotropy (flattening of hysteresis loop) but yields longitudinal induced anisotropy (square hysteresis loop) in Nanoperm and Hitperm. These results are interpreted in terms of back-stress theory

  10. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Haidong; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications. PMID:28788539

  11. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of surface segregation in Pd–Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Feng; He, Xiang; Chen, Zhao-Xu; Huang, Yu-Gai

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of surface composition and atomic arrangement is prerequisite for understanding of catalytic properties of an alloy catalyst. Gaining such knowledge is rather difficult, especially for those possessing surface segregation. Pd–Cu alloy is used in many fields and possesses surface segregation. In this paper kinetic Monte Carlo method is used to explore the surface composition and structure and to examine the effects of bulk composition and temperature on the surface segregation of Pd–Cu alloys. It is shown that the segregation basically completes within 900 s at 500 K. Below 900 K and within 20 min the enriched surface Cu atoms mainly come from the top five layers. For the first time we demonstrate that there exists a “bulk-inside flocking” or clustering phenomenon (the same component element congregates in bulk) in Pd–Cu alloys. Our results indicate that for alloys with higher Cu content there are small Pd ensembles like monomers, dimers and trimers with contiguous subsurface Pd atoms. - Highlights: • Kinetic Monte Carlo was first used to study surface segregation of Pd–Cu alloys. • Bulk-inside flocking (the same component element congregates in bulk) was observed. • Small Pd ensembles with contiguous subsurface Pd exist on surfaces of Cu-rich alloys

  12. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of surface segregation in Pd–Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Feng [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, Nanjing University (China); He, Xiang [Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Chen, Zhao-Xu, E-mail: zxchen@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, Nanjing University (China); Huang, Yu-Gai [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, Nanjing University (China); JiangSu Second Normal University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-11-05

    The knowledge of surface composition and atomic arrangement is prerequisite for understanding of catalytic properties of an alloy catalyst. Gaining such knowledge is rather difficult, especially for those possessing surface segregation. Pd–Cu alloy is used in many fields and possesses surface segregation. In this paper kinetic Monte Carlo method is used to explore the surface composition and structure and to examine the effects of bulk composition and temperature on the surface segregation of Pd–Cu alloys. It is shown that the segregation basically completes within 900 s at 500 K. Below 900 K and within 20 min the enriched surface Cu atoms mainly come from the top five layers. For the first time we demonstrate that there exists a “bulk-inside flocking” or clustering phenomenon (the same component element congregates in bulk) in Pd–Cu alloys. Our results indicate that for alloys with higher Cu content there are small Pd ensembles like monomers, dimers and trimers with contiguous subsurface Pd atoms. - Highlights: • Kinetic Monte Carlo was first used to study surface segregation of Pd–Cu alloys. • Bulk-inside flocking (the same component element congregates in bulk) was observed. • Small Pd ensembles with contiguous subsurface Pd exist on surfaces of Cu-rich alloys.

  13. Determining the critical relative humidity at which the glassy to rubbery transition occurs in polydextrose using an automatic water vapor sorption instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoda; Carter, Brady P; Schmidt, Shelly J

    2011-01-01

    developing food processes and products. However, despite its extreme usefulness, the Tg, a key element of the FPS approach, remains a challenging parameter to routinely measure in amorphous food materials, especially complex materials. This research demonstrates that RHc values, obtained at constant temperature using an automatic water vapor sorption instrument, can be used to detect the glassy to rubbery transition and are similar to the Tg values obtained at constant %RH, especially considering the very different approaches of these 2 methods--a transition from surface adsorption to bulk absorption (water vapor sorption) versus a step change in the heat capacity (DSC thermal method).

  14. Impact of the structural state on the mechanical properties in a Zr–Co–Al bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, J.C.; Pelletier, J.M.; Esnouf, C.; Liu, Y.; Kato, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Atomic mobility in metallic glass was studied by DMA, HRTEM and nanoindentation. • Physical ageing and crystallization reduce the atomic mobility. • Plastic deformation, i.e. cold-rolling enhances the atomic mobility. • Atomic mobility in glassy materials can be described by quasi-point defects model. - Abstract: This paper reports on the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and nanoindentation technique to investigate atomic mobility in Zr 56 Co 28 Al 16 bulk metallic glass in the as-cast state, after thermal annealing and after cold rolling. From the DMA results together with nanoindentation data point of view, the atomic mobility is significantly modified by the thermo-mechanical history. On the one hand, atomic mobility in bulk metallic glass is reduced after physical aging or crystallization. On the other hand, the atomic mobility in metallic glass is enhanced by cold rolling. To analyze the atomic mobility in amorphous materials, a physical theory is introduced. This model invoked the concept of quasi-point defects, which correspond to the density fluctuations in the glassy materials. Correlated movements of atoms are assisted by these quasi-point defects and the correlation factor χ is connected to the concentration of these “defects” in metallic glasses: (i) physical aging and crystallization decreases the parameter χ and (ii) the concentration of defects augments via plastic deformation (i.e. cold-rolling), suggesting that the correlation factor χ reflects the atomic mobility for glassy materials in a quantitative manner. This correlation bridges the gap between the mechanical properties on macroscopic scale and atomic mobility in microstructural regions in metallic glasses

  15. Selective substitution in orbital domains of a low doped manganite: an investigation from Griffiths phenomenon and modification of glassy features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, K; Banerjee, A

    2009-01-01

    An effort is made to study the contrast in magnetic behavior resulting from minimal disorder introduced by substitution of 2.5% Ga or Al in Mn site of La 0.9 Sr 0.1 MnO 3 . It is considered that Ga or Al selectively create disorder within the orbital domains or on its walls, causing enhancement of Griffiths phase (GP) singularity for the former and disappearance of it in the latter case. It is shown that Ga replaces Mn 3+ , which is considered to be concentrated within the domains, whereas Al replaces Mn 4+ , which is segregated on the hole-rich walls, without causing any significant effect on structure or ferromagnetic transition temperatures. Thus, it is presumed that the effect of disorder created by Ga extends across the bulk of the domain having correlation over a similar length scale, resulting in enhancement of the GP phenomenon. In contrast, the effect of disorder created by Al remains restricted to the walls, resulting in the modification of the dynamics arising from the domain walls and suppresses the GP. Moreover, contrasting features are observed in the low temperature region of the compounds; a re-entrant spin-glass-like behavior is observed in the Ga-doped sample, while the observed characteristics for the Al-doped sample are ascribed only to modified domain wall dynamics with the absence of any glassy phase. Distinctive features in third-order susceptibility measurements reveal that the magnetic ground state of the entire series comprises of orbital domain states. These observations bring out the role of the nature of disorder on the GP phenomenon and also reconfirms the character of self-organization in low doped manganites.

  16. 21 CFR 872.3070 - Dental amalgam, mercury, and amalgam alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam, mercury, and amalgam alloy. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3070 Dental amalgam, mercury... elemental mercury, supplied as a liquid in bulk, sachet, or predosed capsule form, and amalgam alloy...

  17. Antisite-defect-induced surface segregation in ordered NiPt alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourovskii, L.V.; Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    alloys corresponds to the (111) truncation of the bulk L1(0) ordered structure. However, the (111) surface of the nickel deficient Ni49Pt51 alloy is strongly enriched by Pt and should exhibit the pattern of the 2x2 structure. Such a drastic change in the segregation behavior is due to the presence...

  18. Mechanically driven phase separation and corresponding microhardness change in Cu60Zr20Ti20 bulk metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Q.P.; Li, J.F.; Zhou, Y.H.

    2005-01-01

    Rolling deformation of bulk Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glass has been performed at cryogenic temperature. The specimens exhibit excellent ductility, and are rolled up to 97% reduction in thickness without fracture. Crystallization is suppressed during the deformation, however, phase separation is obse...... is observed in the glassy matrix when the thickness reduction exceeds 89%. Once the phase separation occurs, the microhardness of the specimen increases drastically, indicating the existence of work hardening by severe plastic deformation of the metallic glass.......Rolling deformation of bulk Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glass has been performed at cryogenic temperature. The specimens exhibit excellent ductility, and are rolled up to 97% reduction in thickness without fracture. Crystallization is suppressed during the deformation, however, phase separation...

  19. Electrochemical investigations of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction using graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes and a comparison to the performance of SWCNTs modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ruma; Gamare, Jayashree; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kamat, J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of aqueous electrochemistry of Plutonium on graphene modified electrode. • Graphene is best electrocatalytic material for Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple among the reported modifiers viz. reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and SWCNT’s. • The electrochemical reversibility of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple improves significantly on graphene modified electrode compared to previously reported rGO & SWCNTs modified electrodes • Donnan interaction between plutonium species and graphene surface offers a possibility for designing a highly sensitive sensor for plutonium • Graphene modified electrode shows higher sensitivity for the determination of plutonium compared to glassy carbon and single walled carbon nanotube modified electrode - Abstract: The work reported in this paper demonstrates for the first time that graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Gr/GC) show remarkable electrocatalysis towards Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction and the results were compared with that of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified GC (SWCNTs/GC) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Graphene catalyzes the exchange of current of the Pu(IV)/Pu(III) couple by reducing both the anodic and cathodic overpotentials. The Gr/GC electrode shows higher peak currents (i p ) and smaller peak potential separation (ΔE p ) values than the SWCNTs/GC and GC electrodes. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k s ), charge transfer coefficients (α) and the diffusion coefficients (D) involved in the electrocatalytic redox reaction were determined. Our observations show that graphene is best electrocatalytic material among both the SWCNTs and GC to study Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction.

  20. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  1. The effect of the solidification mode on eutectic structure in Fe-C-V alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fras, E.; Guzik, E.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine such a chemical composition of Fe-C-V alloys which would ensure the formation of perfectly eutectic structures as well as to investigate the eutectic morphology of these alloys when undergoing bulk and directional solidification. Attempts have been done to get in situ composites from Fe-C-V alloys. The adopted testing methods as well as obtained results are described in detail. (H.M.)

  2. Micromechanical modeling of tungsten-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hao [Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Li Ke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, TAMU 3123, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)]. E-mail: keli@tamu.edu; Subhash, Ghatu [Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Kecskes, Laszlo J. [Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Dowding, Robert J. [Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Micromechanics models are developed for tungsten (W)-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) matrix composites employing the Voronoi tessellation technique and the finite element (FE) method. The simulation results indicate that the computed elastic moduli are close to those measured in the experiments. The predicted stress-strain curves agree well with their experimentally obtained counterparts in the early stage of the plastic deformation. An increase in the W volume fraction leads to a decrease in the yield stress and an increase in the Young's modulus of the composite. In addition, contours of equivalent plastic strain for increasing applied strains provide an explanation why shear bands were observed in the glassy phase, along the W/BMG interface, and in the W phase of failed W/BMG composite specimens.

  3. Studies of the Action of Grain-Refining Particles in Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, P.; Greer, A. L.

    Crystallization from a melt and from a metallic glass both occur in an undercooled liquid. In this way identical nucleation mechanisms can operate in the two cases. However, in metallic glasses, unlike conventional solidification at low undercooling, the low atomic mobility permits the resolution and microscopical study of nucleation processes on added particles. Conventional aluminium grain-refiner based on Al-Ti-B has been used to obtain nucleant particles embedded in a glassy matrix of Al85Y8Ni5Co2 (at%). During crystallization from the glassy state, nucleation and growth of α-Al can be observed on TiB2 particles coated with a layer of Al3Ti Empirical relations found in casting practice of Al-alloys, such as excess Ti necessary for grain refinement, can be related to the observed nucleation mechanism, which is found to be very sensitive to both crystallographic and chemical factors.

  4. Theory of activated glassy dynamics in randomly pinned fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Anh D.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2018-02-01

    We generalize the force-level, microscopic, Nonlinear Langevin Equation (NLE) theory and its elastically collective generalization [elastically collective nonlinear Langevin equation (ECNLE) theory] of activated dynamics in bulk spherical particle liquids to address the influence of random particle pinning on structural relaxation. The simplest neutral confinement model is analyzed for hard spheres where there is no change of the equilibrium pair structure upon particle pinning. As the pinned fraction grows, cage scale dynamical constraints are intensified in a manner that increases with density. This results in the mobile particles becoming more transiently localized, with increases of the jump distance, cage scale barrier, and NLE theory mean hopping time; subtle changes of the dynamic shear modulus are predicted. The results are contrasted with recent simulations. Similarities in relaxation behavior are identified in the dynamic precursor regime, including a roughly exponential, or weakly supra-exponential, growth of the alpha time with pinning fraction and a reduction of dynamic fragility. However, the increase of the alpha time with pinning predicted by the local NLE theory is too small and severely so at very high volume fractions. The strong deviations are argued to be due to the longer range collective elasticity aspect of the problem which is expected to be modified by random pinning in a complex manner. A qualitative physical scenario is offered for how the three distinct aspects that quantify the elastic barrier may change with pinning. ECNLE theory calculations of the alpha time are then presented based on the simplest effective-medium-like treatment for how random pinning modifies the elastic barrier. The results appear to be consistent with most, but not all, trends seen in recent simulations. Key open problems are discussed with regard to both theory and simulation.

  5. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  6. Simulation studies of GST phase change alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    In order to help drive post-Moore's Law technology development, switching processes involving novel materials, in particular, GeSbTe (GST) alloys are being investigated for use in memory and eFuse applications. An anneal/quench thermal process crystallizes/amorphosizes a GST alloy which then has a low/high resistance and thereby forms a readable/writeable bit; for example, a ``one'' might be the low resistance, conducting crystalline state and a ``zero'' might be the high resistance, glassy state. There are many open questions about the precise nature of the structural transitions and the coupling to electronic structure changes. Computational and experimental studies of the effect of pressure on the GST materials were initiated in order to probe the physics behind the thermal switching process. A new pathway to reversible phase change involving pressure-induced structural metal insulator transitions was discovered. In a binary GS system, a room-temperature, direct, pressure-induced transformation from the high resistance amorphous phase to the low resistance crystalline phase was observed experimentally while the reverse process under tensile load was demonstrated via ab initio MD simulations performed on IBM's Blue Gene/L enabled by massively parallel software. Pressure induced transformations of the ternary material GST-225 (Ge2Sb2Te5) were, also, examined In the talk, the behavior of the two systems will be compared and insight into the nature of the phase change given.

  7. Preparation and characterization of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses in form of plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarczyk, Wirginia, E-mail: wirginia.pilarczyk@polsl.pl

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Zr-based BMGs in form of plate was successful produced by die pressure casting method. • Many techniques have been used to characterize the structure of Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 5}Al{sub 10} alloy. • The calculated GFA parameters show that the alloy exhibits satisfactory GFA. • The studies reveal that tested as-cast Zr-based alloy is in amorphous state. - Abstract: Zr-based bulk metallic glasses present an interesting combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. During the last decade, intensive progress has been made and a number of applications have been suggested for these materials. In order to successfully apply these materials, it is necessary to accurately characterize their structure, thermal stability and other properties accurately. The aim of the presented work is the manufacturing, examination of the structure of selected Zr-based bulk metallic alloys and confirmation of an amorphous structure using X-ray analysis, microscopic observation and thermal analysis. In this work, the Zr-based bulk metallic glasses in form of plate was successful produced by die pressure casting method. Designed scientific station for casting zirconium based amorphous alloys in the form of plates and rods with selected dimensions is in our university a comprehensive method for achieving amorphous materials which enables us to maintain repeatability of as-cast samples with the amorphous structure and the assumed dimensions range. The diffraction pattern and exothermic reaction as well as the fracture surface morphology reveal that studied as-cast Zr-based alloy is in amorphous state. The calculated GFA parameters show that the alloy exhibits satisfactory glass-forming ability in form of studied plate. These obtained values can suggest that studied alloys are suitable materials for further planned practical application at welding process. The success of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses production in form of plate with obtained sizes is

  8. Interatomic spacing distribution in multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda-Caraballo, I.; Wróbel, J.S.; Dudarev, S.L.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology to compute the distribution of interatomic distances in highly concentrated multicomponent alloys is proposed. By using the unit cell parameter and bulk modulus of the elements involved, the method accurately describes the distortion in the lattice produced by the interaction of the different atomic species. To prove this, density functional theory calculations have been used to provide the description of the lattice in a monophasic BCC MoNbTaVW high entropy alloy and its five sub-quaternary systems at different temperatures. Short-range order is also well described by the new methodology, where the mean error in the predicted atomic coordinates in comparison with the atomistic simulations is in the order of 1–2 pm over all the compositions and temperatures considered. The new method can be applied to tailor solid solution hardening, highly dependent on the distribution of interatomic distances, and guide the design of new high entropy alloys with enhanced properties

  9. General aspects of surface alloy formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbreiter, Andreas; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Roetter, Ralf T.; Hoster, Harry E.; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Berko, Andras

    2010-07-01

    Surface confined alloys are excellent model systems for studies of structure-property relationships of bimetallic surfaces. They are formed by deposition of a guest metal B onto a substrate A, followed by annealing to a temperature, where place exchange between adatoms and atoms from the underlying surface layer becomes possible and diffusion into the bulk is sufficiently slow. We exemplarily confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy for PtRu/Ru(0001), PdRu/Ru(0001), AuPt/Pt(111), AgPt/Pt(111), and AgPd/Pd(111), surface alloys are obtained for systems where metal B has a negative surface segregation energy within metal A. By exchanging A and B, however, AB surface alloys are most likely overgrown by metal B, which we demonstrate for RuPt/Pt(111) in comparison to PtRu/Ru(0001).

  10. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co Alloy Synthesis by High Speed Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaliah Idris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of nanocrystals is economically and technologically viable production path for the synthesis of pure metals and alloys both in coatings and bulk form. The study presents nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloy synthesis by high speed electrodeposition. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys coatings were prepared by direct current (DC and deposited directly on steel and aluminum substrates without any pretreatment, using high speed electrodeposition method. The influence of the electrolysis parameters, such as cathodic current density and temperature at constant pH, on electrodeposition and microstructure of Ni-Co alloys were examined. A homogeneous surface morphology was obtained at all current densities of the plated samples, and it was evident that the current density and temperature affect the coating thickness of Ni-Co alloy coatings.

  11. Diffusion slowdown in the nanostructured liquid Ga-Sn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podorozhkin, Dmitri Y.; Charnaya, Elena V.; Lee, Min Kai; Chang, Lieh-Jeng; Haase, Juergen; Michel, Dieter; Kumzerov, Yurii A.; Fokin, Alexsandr V.

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion of gallium in liquid Ga-Sn alloy embedded into different porous silica matrices was studied by NMR. Spin relaxation was measured for two gallium isotopes, 71 Ga and 69 Ga, at two magnetic fields. Pronounced rise of quadrupole contribution to relaxation was observed for the nanostructured alloy which increased with decreasing the pore size. The correlation time of atomic mobility was evaluated and found to be much larger than in the relevant bulk melt which evidenced a pronounced diffusion slowdown in the Ga-Sn alloy under nanoconfinement. It is shown that the diffusion was slower by a factor of 30 for the alloy within 7 nm pores. The spectral densities of electric field gradients at zero frequency were found to double for the finest pores. The Knight shift was found to decrease but slightly for the nanostructured alloy. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Hierarchical nanoporous platinum-copper alloy for simultaneous electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dianyun; Fan, Dawei; Wang, Jinping; Xu, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical nanoporous PtCu alloy was fabricated by two-step dealloying of a PtCuAl precursor alloy followed by annealing. The new alloy possesses interconnected hierarchical network architecture with bimodal distributions of ligaments and pores. It exhibits high electrochemical activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) at working potentials of 0.32, 0.47 and 0.61 V (vs. a mercury sulfate reference electrode), respectively. The new alloy was placed on a glassy carbon electrode and then displayed a wide linear response to AA, DA, and UA in the concentration ranges from 25 to 800 μM, 4 to 20 μM, and 10 to 70 μM, respectively. The lower detection limits are 17.5 μM, 2.8 µM and 5.7 μM at an S/N ratio of 3. (author)

  13. Local atomic structure of Zr-Cu and Zr-Cu-Al amorphous alloys investigated by EXAFS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonowicz, J.; Pietnoczka, A.; Zalewski, W.; Bacewicz, R.; Stoica, M.; Georgarakis, K.; Yavari, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Coordination number, interatomic distances and mean square atomic displacement in Zr-Cu and Zr-Cu-Al glasses. → Icosahedral symmetry in local atomic structure. → Deviation from random mixing behavior resulting from Al addition. - Abstract: We report on extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) study of rapidly quenched Zr-Cu and Zr-Cu-Al glassy alloys. The local atomic order around Zr and Cu atoms was investigated. From the EXAFS data fitting the values of coordination number, interatomic distances and mean square atomic displacement were obtained for wide range of compositions. It was found that icosahedral symmetry rather than that of corresponding crystalline analogs dominates in the local atomic structure of Zr-Cu and Zr-Cu-Al amorphous alloys. Judging from bonding preferences we conclude that addition of Al as an alloying element results in considerable deviation from random mixing behavior observed in binary Zr-Cu alloys.

  14. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine at overoxidized polypyrrole film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Mir Reza [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouyban, Abolghasem [Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: asadpour@tabrizu.ac.ir

    2007-06-20

    Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine (HZ) was studied on an overoxidized polypyrrole (OPPy) modified glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The OPPy-modified glassy carbon electrode has very high catalytic ability for electrooxidation of HZ, which appeared as a reduced overpotential in a wide operational pH range of 5-10. The overall numbers of electrons involved in the catalytic oxidation of HZ, the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining and diffusion coefficient of HZ were estimated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. It has been shown that using the OPPy-modified electrode, HZ can be determined by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with limit of detection 36 and 3.7 {mu}M, respectively. The results of the analysis suggest that the proposed method promises accurate results and could be employed for the routine determination of HZ.

  15. Connection between NMR and electrical conductivity in glassy chalcogenide fast ionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The work documented in this thesis follows the traditional order. In this chapter a general discussion of ionic conduction and of glassy materials are followed by a brief outline of the experimental techniques for the investigation of fast ionic conduction in glassy materials, including NMR and impedance spectroscopy techniques. A summary of the previous and present studies is presented in the last section of this introductory chapter. The details of the background theory and models are found in the Chapter II, followed by the description of the experimental details in Chapter III. Chapter IV of the thesis describes the experimental results and the analysis of the experimental observations followed by the conclusions in chapter V

  16. Orbital physics in sulfur spinels: ordered, liquid and glassy ground states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettgen, N; Hemberger, J; Fritsch, V; Krimmel, A; Muecksch, M; Nidda, H-A Krug von; Lunkenheimer, P; Fichtl, R; Tsurkan, V; Loidl, A

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of magnetization M(T, H), heat capacity C(T), NMR lineshift K(T) and linewidth Δ(T), neutron scattering S(Q, ω, T) and broadband dielectric spectroscopy ε(ω, T) provide experimental evidence of the different orbital ground states in the cubic sulfur spinels under investigation. In all compounds, the tetrahedrally coordinated Jahn-Teller ions Fe 2+ are characterized by a degeneracy of the orbital degrees of freedom. Particularly, we found a long-range orbital ordering in polycrystalline (PC) FeCr 2 S 4 , and a glassy freezing of the orbital degrees of freedom in FeCr 2 S 4 (single crystals) (SCs). In contrast, FeSc 2 S 4 belongs to the rare class of spin-orbital liquids, where quantum fluctuations accompanying the glassy freezing of the orbitals suppress long-range magnetic order

  17. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton–Robinson (BR buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB and Tween 20 was studied. Among these surfactants SLS showed significant enhancement in reduction peak. The cathodic peak currents were directly proportional to the concentration of midazolam with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Keywords: Midazolam, Voltammetry, Surfactant, Glassy carbon electrode, Parenteral dosage form

  18. Formation of glassy carbon structure and its change under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurolenkin, E.I.; Lopato, Yu.S.; Virgil' ev, Yu.S.; Khakimova, D.K.; Aksenov, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The changes of glassy carbon structure, which is prepared of phenol-formaldehyde and furfurol-phenol-formaldehyde resins in the process of irradiation with 5.3x10/sup 20/ cm/sup -2/ neutron fluence with the energy E>0.18 MeV in the temperature range of 90-540 deg C are studied. It is established the irradiation results in the shrinkage of the samples. The compression of the samples increases with the irradiation temperature and neutron fluence. The thermal annealing does not result in the restoration of the volume of samples. The sample shrinkage, caused by more compact package of globular structures and the destruction of film structures, decrease gas permeability of glassy carbon.

  19. Studies on Photodarkening Effect in Glassy As2S3 Using High Field NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Parameswar; Su, Tining; Taylor, Craig; Reyes, Arneil; Kuhns, Phil; Moulton, William; Sullivan, N. S.

    2001-03-01

    Photodarkening, or the shift of the optical absorption edge to smaller energies after excitation with light whose energy is near that of the optical band edge, has been studied in many chalcogenide glasses for many years. Recently we have conducted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of 75As in glassy As2S3 at 17T . We compared the 75As NMR lineshape in glassy As2S3 before and after irradiation at 77K. After irradiation at 514.5 nm for 230 hours with 170 mW/cm2 there is a subtle change in the NMR lineshape. This change is reversible on annealing at 200 C for 1.75 hours. We will discuss the implications of this result based on NMR lineshape analysis using an exact solution of the spin 3/2 Hamiltonian

  20. A TPD-MS study of glassy carbon surfaces oxidized by CO2 and O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILA D. LAUSEVIC

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-programmed desorption (TPD method combined with mass spectrometric (MS analysis has been applied to investigate the surface properties of carbon materials. The apparatus consisting of a temperature-programmed furnace and a quadrupole mass spectrometer was constructed in order to characterize the surface of differently treated glassy carbon samples. In this work, samples of glassy carbon exposed to air, CO2 and O2 were examined. The desorption of H2O, CO and CO2, as major products, indicated the presence of different oxide groups. The amount of these groups for all samples was calculated. It is concluded that oxidation affects the nature and the amount of the surface oxide groups and contributes to their increased stability.

  1. Different glassy states, as indicated by a violation of the generalized Cauchy relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, J K [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL), Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Britz, T [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL), Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Coutre, A le [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL), Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Baller, J [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL), Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Possart, W [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Pharmazie und Werkstoffwissenschaften 8.15, Gebaeude 22, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Alnot, P [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL), Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Sanctuary, R [Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg, Departement des Sciences, Laboratoire 1.19, 162a Avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2003-07-01

    Using Brillouin spectroscopy as a probe for high-frequency clamped acoustic properties, a shear modulus c{sub 44}{sup {infinity}} can be measured in addition to the longitudinal modulus c{sub 11}{sup {infinity}} already well above the thermal glass transition. On slow cooling of the liquid through the thermal glass transition temperature T{sub g}, both moduli show a kink-like behaviour and the function c{sub 11}{sup {infinity}} = c{sub 11}{sup {infinity}}(c{sub 44}{sup {infinity}}) follows a generalized Cauchy relation (gCR) defined by the linear relation c{sub 11}{sup {infinity}} = 3c{sub 44}{sup {infinity}} + constant, which completely hides the glass transition. In this work we show experimentally that on fast cooling this linear transformation becomes violated within the glassy state, but that thermal ageing drives the elastic coefficients towards the gCR, i.e. towards a unique glassy state.

  2. Pseudobinary glassy compositions (AsSex)1-y(AsTex)y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mously, M.K.; El Dem, M.B.

    1987-09-01

    The ternery glassy composition of the general formula (AsSe x ) 1-y (AsTe x ) y can be considered as a pseudobinary system at x=1, 3/2 and 5/2 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. The results of DTA, electrical conductivity measurements, density of such glasses as well as the X-ray diffraction of the crystallized samples have been used to confirm this point of view and to explain the presence of new phases not shown in the simple binary systems As-Se and As-Te. The possibility of transformation of the glassy network from partially polymerized state MCN (molecular cluster network) to completely polymerized state CRN (continuous random network) by mixing two structural units was also discussed. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Definition and preparation of glassy matrices by innovating processes to confine radioactive wastes and industrial toxic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncouyoux, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The confinement by vitrification of high-level radioactive wastes is studied in the CEA for fifteen years. These studies have lead to the preparation of glassy matrices by innovating processes. These processes can be applied to non-radioactive toxic materials treatment too. In this work are more particularly described the glassy matrix long-dated behaviour and the different vitrification processes used (by direct induction in cold crucible, by transferred arc plasma). (O.L.). 1 tab

  4. Advanced smart tungsten alloys for a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Tan, X.; Schmitz, J.; Mao, Y.; Coenen, J. W.; Bram, M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.

    2017-06-01

    The severe particle, radiation and neutron environment in a future fusion power plant requires the development of advanced plasma-facing materials. At the same time, the highest level of safety needs to be ensured. The so-called loss-of-coolant accident combined with air ingress in the vacuum vessel represents a severe safety challenge. In the absence of a coolant the temperature of the tungsten first wall may reach 1200 °C. At such a temperature, the neutron-activated radioactive tungsten forms volatile oxide which can be mobilized into atmosphere. Smart tungsten alloys are being developed to address this safety issue. Smart alloys should combine an acceptable plasma performance with the suppressed oxidation during an accident. New thin film tungsten-chromium-yttrium smart alloys feature an impressive 105 fold suppression of oxidation compared to that of pure tungsten at temperatures of up to 1000 °C. Oxidation behavior at temperatures up to 1200 °C, and reactivity of alloys in humid atmosphere along with a manufacturing of reactor-relevant bulk samples, impose an additional challenge in smart alloy development. First exposures of smart alloys in steady-state deuterium plasma were made. Smart tungsten-chroimium-titanium alloys demonstrated a sputtering resistance which is similar to that of pure tungsten. Expected preferential sputtering of alloying elements by plasma ions was confirmed experimentally. The subsequent isothermal oxidation of exposed samples did not reveal any influence of plasma exposure on the passivation of alloys.

  5. Fine kinetics of natural physical ageing in glassy As10Se90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balitska, V.; Golovchak, R.; Kozdras, A.; Shpotyuk, O.

    2014-01-01

    Sigmoid behavior of natural physical ageing in glassy As 10 Se 90 reveals multi-step-wise growing kinetics of enthalpy losses. Phenomenological description of this kinetics can be adequately developed in terms of first-order relaxation processes, tending atomic structure from initial towards more thermodynamically equilibrium state. This kinetics is shown to obey characteristic stretched exponential behavior originated from a number of growing steps, attributed to the interconnected processes of chalcogen chain alignment and cooperative shrinkage of glass network

  6. Modified positron annihilation model for glassy-like As2Se3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozdras, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Kovalskiy, A.; Filipecki, J.

    2005-01-01

    An approach to structural characterization of chalcogenide glasses based on the study of void distribution is discussed. The results of positron annihilation lifetime spectra measurements for glassy As 2 Se 3 are compared with nano-void distribution data obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. In this consideration perspectives to involve the parameters of nano-voids calculated from the first sharp diffraction peak in the frame work of known Elliott's model are analyzed. (author)

  7. Solute induced relaxation in glassy polymers: Experimental measurements and nonequilibrium thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minelli, Matteo; Doghieri, Ferruccio

    2014-01-01

    Data for kinetics of mass uptake from vapor sorption experiments in thin glassy polymer samples are here interpreted in terms of relaxation times for volume dilation. To this result, both models from non-equilibrium thermodynamics and from mechanics of volume relaxation contribute. Different kind of sorption experiments have been considered in order to facilitate the direct comparison between kinetics of solute induced volume dilation and corresponding data from process driven by pressure or temperature jumps

  8. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  9. Synergetic effects in CO adsorption on Cu-Pd(111) alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2001-01-01

    We present density functional calculations for the interaction of CO on different Cu-Pd(111) bulk and surface alloys. The modification of the adsorption properties with respect to hose of the adsorption on pure Cu(111) and Pd(111) is described in terms of changes in the adsorption sites...... and the change of the electronic structure occurring upon alloying. The presence of cooperative, synergetic. effects is found to be important specially for Cu-rich bulk alloys. In this case. a larger adsorption energy is found for the inactive component than for the pure inactive system. This activation induces...

  10. A neutron-X-ray, NMR and calorimetric study of glassy Probucol synthesized using containerless techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.K.R.; Benmore, C.J.; Tailor, A.N.; Tumber, S.K.; Neuefeind, J.; Cherry, B.; Yarger, J.L.; Mou, Q.; Weber, W.; Byrn, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Acoustic levitation was used to make phase-pure glassy forms of pharmaceutical compounds. • Neutrons, X-rays and NMR were used to characterize the glasses. • The glass comprised of slightly distorted molecules packed in a random network. • Potential for new drug synthesis routes is discussed. - Abstract: Acoustic levitation was used to trap 1–3 mm diameter drops of Probucol and other pharmaceutical materials in containerless conditions. Samples were studied in situ using X-ray diffraction and ex situ using neutron diffraction, NMR and DSC techniques. The materials were brought into non-equilibrium states by supersaturating solutions or by supercooling melts. The glass transition and crystallization temperatures of glassy Probucol were 29 ± 1 and 71 ± 1 °C respectively. The glassy form was stable with a shelf life of at least 8 months. A neutron/X-ray difference function of the glass showed that while molecular sub-groups remain rigid, many of the hydrogen correlations observed in the crystal become smeared out in the disordered material. The glass is principally comprised of slightly distorted Form I Probucol molecules with disordered packing rather than large changes in the individual molecular structure. Avoiding surface contact-induced nucleation provided access to highly non-equilibrium phases and enabled synthesis of phase-pure glasses

  11. Generation of fine hydromagmatic ash by growth and disintegration of glassy rinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    The deposits of mafic hydromagmatic eruptions are more fine grained and variable in vesicularity than dry magmatic deposits. Blocky, equant shapes of many hydromagmatic clasts also contrast with droplet, thread, and bubble wall morphology of dry magmatic fragments. Small (disintegration of glassy rinds on pyroclast surfaces as they deform within turbulent flows. This process, termed "turbulent shedding", may occur during the expansion phase of vapor explosions or during turbulent but nonexplosive mixing of magma with water, steam, or water sprays. The occurrence of turbulent shedding and the resulting fragment sizes depend on the timescale for rind growth and the timescale between disturbances that remove or disintegrate glassy rinds. Turbulent shedding is directly observable in some small littoral jets at Kilauea. Calculations suggest that, in the presence of liquid water or water sprays, glassy rinds having a thickness of microns to millimeters should form in milliseconds to seconds. This is similar to the timescale between turbulent velocity fluctuations that can shred lava globules and remove such rinds. The fraction of a deposit consisting of fine ash should increase with the duration of this process: Large-scale Surtseyan jets generate hundreds or thousands of shedding events; bubble bursts or tephra jets at Kilauea's coast may produce only a few.

  12. Electrochemically modified sulfisoxazole nanofilm on glassy carbon for determination of cadmium(II) in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Atar, Necip; Solak, Ali Osman; Uzun, Lokman; Üstündağ, Zafer

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Sulfisoxazole was grafted onto glassy carbon electrode. • The electrode was characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. • It has been used for the determination of Cd(II) ions in real samples in very low concentrations. -- Abstract: Sulfisoxazole (SO) was grafted to glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via the electrochemical oxidation of SO in acetonitrile solution containing 0.1 M tetrabutylammoniumtetra-fluoroborate (TBATFB). The prepared electrode was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ellipsometric thickness of SO nanofilm at the glassy carbon surface was obtained as 14.48 ± 0.11 nm. The stability of the SO modified GCE was studied. The SO modified GCE was also utilized for the determination of Cd(II) ions in water samples in the presence of Pb(II) and Fe(II) by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The linearity range and the detection limit of Cd(II) ions were 1.0 × 10 −10 to 5.0 × 10 −8 M and 3.3 × 10 −11 M (S/N = 3), respectively

  13. Graphene oxide-mediated electrochemistry of glucose oxidase on glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrignanò, Silvia; Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Sadeghi, Sheila J

    2016-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes in the presence of graphene oxide (GO) as a model system for the interaction between GO and biological molecules. Lyotropic properties of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) were used to stabilize the enzymatic layer on the electrode surface resulting in a markedly improved electrochemical response of the immobilized GOD. Transmission electron microscopy images of the GO with DDAB confirmed the distribution of the GO in a two-dimensional manner as a foil-like material. Although it is known that glassy carbon surfaces are not ideal for hydrogen peroxide detection, successful chronoamperometric titrations of the GOD in the presence of GO with β-d-glucose were performed on glassy carbon electrodes, whereas no current response was detected upon β-d-glucose addition in the absence of GO. The GOD-DDAB-GO system displayed a high turnover efficiency and substrate affinity as a glucose biosensor. The simplicity and ease of the electrode preparation procedure of this GO/DDAB system make it a good candidate for immobilizing other biomolecules for fabrication of amperometric biosensors. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Direct electron transfer from glucose oxidase immobilized on a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, Behzad; Tabrizi, Mahmoud Amouzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase was observed on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode. → A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed at the formal potential of approximately -0.439 V. → The apparent electron transfer rate constant was measured to be 5.27 s -1 . → A mechanism for the observed direct electron transfer reaction was proposed, which consists of a two-electron and a two-proton transfer. - Abstract: A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed for the direct electron transfer (DET) reaction of an immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode at the formal potential (E o ') of -0.439 V versus Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl. The electron transfer rate constant (k s ) was calculated to be 5.27 s -1 . The dependence of E o ' on pH indicated that the direct electron transfer of the GOx was a two-electron transfer process, coupled with two-proton transfer. The results clearly demonstrate that the nano-porous glassy carbon electrode is a cost-effective and ready-to-use scaffold for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor.

  15. Direct electron transfer from glucose oxidase immobilized on a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, Behzad, E-mail: haghighi@iasbs.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabrizi, Mahmoud Amouzadeh [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > A direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase was observed on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode. > A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed at the formal potential of approximately -0.439 V. > The apparent electron transfer rate constant was measured to be 5.27 s{sup -1}. > A mechanism for the observed direct electron transfer reaction was proposed, which consists of a two-electron and a two-proton transfer. - Abstract: A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed for the direct electron transfer (DET) reaction of an immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode at the formal potential (E{sup o}') of -0.439 V versus Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl. The electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) was calculated to be 5.27 s{sup -1}. The dependence of E{sup o}' on pH indicated that the direct electron transfer of the GOx was a two-electron transfer process, coupled with two-proton transfer. The results clearly demonstrate that the nano-porous glassy carbon electrode is a cost-effective and ready-to-use scaffold for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor.

  16. Protection of nuclear graphite toward fluoride molten salt by glassy carbon deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardet, V.; Gomes, S.; Delpeux, S.; Dubois, M.; Guerin, K.; Avignant, D.; Renaudin, G.; Duclaux, L.

    2009-01-01

    Molten salt reactor represents one of the promising future Generation IV nuclear reactors families where the fuel, a liquid molten fluoride salt, is circulating through the graphite reactor core. The interactions between nuclear graphite and fluoride molten salt and also the graphite surface protection were investigated in this paper by powder X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray microanalysis. Nuclear graphite discs were covered by two kinds of protection deposit: a glassy carbon coating and a double coating of pyrolitic carbon/glassy carbon. Different behaviours have been highlighted according to the presence and the nature of the coated protection film. Intercalation of molten salt between the graphite layers did not occur. Nevertheless the molten salt adhered more or less to the surface of the graphite disc, filled more or less the graphite surface porosity and perturbed more or less the graphite stacking order at the disc surface. The behaviour of unprotected graphite was far to be satisfactory after two days of immersion of graphite in molten salt at 500 deg. C. The best protection of the graphite disc surface, with the maximum of inertness towards molten salt, has been obtained with the double coating of pyrolitic carbon/glassy carbon

  17. Potentiometric application of boron- and phosphorus-doped glassy carbon electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN V. LAUSEVIC

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Acomparative study was carried out of the potentiometric application of boronand phosphorus-doped and undoped glassy carbon samples prepared at the same heat treatment temperature (HTT 1000°C. The electrochemical activities of the obtained electrode materials were investigated on the example of argentometric titrations. It was found that the electrochemical behaviour of the doped glassy carbon samples are very similar to a Sigri (undoped glassy carbon sample (HTT 2400°C. The experiments showed that the potentiometric response depends on the polarization mode, the nature of the sample, the pretreatment of the electrode surface, and the nature of the supporting electrolyte. The amounts of iodide, bromide, and of chloridewere determined to be 1.27 mg, 0.80 mg and 0.54 mg, respectively, with a maximum relative standard deviation of less than 1.1%. The obtained results are in good agreement with the results of comparative potentiometric titrations using a silver indicator electrode. The titrationmethod was applied to the indirect determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride, i.e., vitamin B6.

  18. Glassy slags as novel waste forms for remediating mixed wastes with high metal contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Ebert, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing a glassy slag final waste form for the remediation of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes with high metal contents. This waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. This work indicates that glassy slag shows promise as final waste form because (1) it has similar or better chemical durability than high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses, (2) it can incorporate large amounts of metal wastes, (3) it can incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components (boron and alkalis), (4) it has less stringent processing requirements (e.g., viscosity and electric conductivity) than glass waste forms, (5) its production can require little or no purchased additives, which can result in greater reduction in waste volume and overall treatment costs. By using glassy slag waste forms, minimum additive waste stabilization approach can be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than those amenable only to glass waste forms

  19. Gold nanoparticles directly modified glassy carbon electrode for non-enzymatic detection of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Gang; Shu, Honghui; Ji, Kai [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); Oyama, Munetaka [Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Liu, Xiong [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); He, Yunbin, E-mail: ybhe@hubu.edu.cn [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2014-01-01

    This work describes controllable preparation of gold nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrodes by using the seed mediated growth method, which contains two steps, namely, nanoseeds attachment and nanocrystals growth. The size and the dispersion of gold nanoparticles grown on glassy carbon electrodes could be easily tuned through the growth time based on results of field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Excellent electrochemical catalytic characteristics for glucose oxidation were observed for the gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (AuNPs/GC), resulting from the extended active surface area provided by the dense gold nanoparticles attached. It exhibited a wide linear range from 0.1 mM to 25 mM with the sensitivity of 87.5 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} and low detection limit down to 0.05 mM for the sensing of glucose. The common interfering species such as chloride ion, ascorbic acid, uric acid and 4-acetamidophenol were verified having no interference effect on the detection of glucose. It is demonstrated that the seed mediated method is one of the facile approaches for fabricating Au nanoparticles modified substrates, which could work as one kind of promising electrode materials for the glucose nonenzymatic sensing.

  20. A neutron-X-ray, NMR and calorimetric study of glassy Probucol synthesized using containerless techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.K.R., E-mail: rweber@anl.gov [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL 60004 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Benmore, C.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Tailor, A.N.; Tumber, S.K. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL 60004 (United States); Neuefeind, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Cherry, B. [Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Yarger, J.L. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Mou, Q. [Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Weber, W. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Byrn, S.R. [Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-10-16

    Highlights: • Acoustic levitation was used to make phase-pure glassy forms of pharmaceutical compounds. • Neutrons, X-rays and NMR were used to characterize the glasses. • The glass comprised of slightly distorted molecules packed in a random network. • Potential for new drug synthesis routes is discussed. - Abstract: Acoustic levitation was used to trap 1–3 mm diameter drops of Probucol and other pharmaceutical materials in containerless conditions. Samples were studied in situ using X-ray diffraction and ex situ using neutron diffraction, NMR and DSC techniques. The materials were brought into non-equilibrium states by supersaturating solutions or by supercooling melts. The glass transition and crystallization temperatures of glassy Probucol were 29 ± 1 and 71 ± 1 °C respectively. The glassy form was stable with a shelf life of at least 8 months. A neutron/X-ray difference function of the glass showed that while molecular sub-groups remain rigid, many of the hydrogen correlations observed in the crystal become smeared out in the disordered material. The glass is principally comprised of slightly distorted Form I Probucol molecules with disordered packing rather than large changes in the individual molecular structure. Avoiding surface contact-induced nucleation provided access to highly non-equilibrium phases and enabled synthesis of phase-pure glasses.

  1. Violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in glassy systems: basic notions and the numerical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisanti, A; Ritort, F

    2003-01-01

    This review reports on the research done during past years on violations of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) in glassy systems. It is focused on the existence of a quasi-fluctuation-dissipation theorem (QFDT) in glassy systems and the current supporting knowledge gained from numerical simulation studies. It covers a broad range of non-stationary aging and stationary driven systems such as structural glasses, spin glasses, coarsening systems, ferromagnetic models at criticality, trap models, models with entropy barriers, kinetically constrained models, sheared systems and granular media. The review is divided into four main parts: (1) an introductory section explaining basic notions related to the existence of the FDT in equilibrium and its possible extension to the glassy regime (QFDT), (2) a description of the basic analytical tools and results derived in the framework of some exactly solvable models, (3) a detailed report of the current evidence in favour of the QFDT and (4) a brief digression on the experimental evidence in its favour. This review is intended for inexpert readers who want to learn about the basic notions and concepts related to the existence of the QFDT as well as for the more expert readers who may be interested in more specific results. (topical review)

  2. Occurrence of particle debris field during focused Ga ion beam milling of glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Qin [Centre for Industrial Photonics, Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Alan Reece Building, 17 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); O' Neill, William, E-mail: wo207@eng.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Industrial Photonics, Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Alan Reece Building, 17 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    To explore the machining characteristics of glassy carbon by focused ion beam (FIB), particles induced by FIB milling on glassy carbon have been studied in the current work. Nano-sized particles in the range of tens of nanometers up to 400 nm can often be found around the area subject to FIB milling. Two ion beam scanning modes - slow single scan and fast repetitive scan - have been tested. Fewer particles are found in single patterns milled in fast repetitive scan mode. For a group of test patterns milled in a sequence, it was found that a greater number of particles were deposited around sites machined early in the sequence. In situ EDX analysis of the particles showed that they were composed of C and Ga. The formation of particles is related to the debris generated at the surrounding areas, the low melting point of gallium used as FIB ion source and the high contact angle of gallium on glassy carbon induces de-wetting of Ga and the subsequent formation of Ga particles. Ultrasonic cleaning can remove over 98% of visible particles. The surface roughness (R{sub a}) of FIB milled areas after cleaning is less than 2 nm.

  3. Occurrence of particle debris field during focused Ga ion beam milling of glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qin; O'Neill, William

    2010-01-01

    To explore the machining characteristics of glassy carbon by focused ion beam (FIB), particles induced by FIB milling on glassy carbon have been studied in the current work. Nano-sized particles in the range of tens of nanometers up to 400 nm can often be found around the area subject to FIB milling. Two ion beam scanning modes - slow single scan and fast repetitive scan - have been tested. Fewer particles are found in single patterns milled in fast repetitive scan mode. For a group of test patterns milled in a sequence, it was found that a greater number of particles were deposited around sites machined early in the sequence. In situ EDX analysis of the particles showed that they were composed of C and Ga. The formation of particles is related to the debris generated at the surrounding areas, the low melting point of gallium used as FIB ion source and the high contact angle of gallium on glassy carbon induces de-wetting of Ga and the subsequent formation of Ga particles. Ultrasonic cleaning can remove over 98% of visible particles. The surface roughness (R a ) of FIB milled areas after cleaning is less than 2 nm.

  4. Electrochemical pre anodization of glassy carbon electrode and application to determine chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truc, Nguyen Minh; Mortensen, John; Anh, Nguyen Ba Hoai

    2008-01-01

    This paper suggested a method to enhance the performance of carbon electrodes for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP). The sensitivity and the reproducibility of the carbon electrodes could be enhanced easily by electrochemical pretreatment. Some kinds of carbon material were studied including glassy carbon, graphite carbon and pyrolytic carbon. Numerous kinds of supporting electrolyte have been tried. For glassy carbon electrode, the acidic solution, H 2 SO 4 5 mM, resulted in best performance at pretreated voltage of +2.1V (vs. Ag/ AgCl) in duration of 250 second. However, for graphite and pyrolytic carbon electrodes, the phosphate buffer solution pH 6.0 gave the best performance at +1.7V (vs. Ag/ AgCl) in duration of 20 seconds. The detection limit could be at very low concentration of CAP: 0.8 ng/ ml for glassy carbon electrode, 3.5 ng/ ml for graphite carbon electrode. The method was successful applied to aqua-agriculture water sample and milk sample with simple extraction as well as direct ointment sample analysis. (author)

  5. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    During amino acid starvation, cells undergo macroautophagy which is regarded as an unspecific bulk degradation process. Lately, more and more organelle-specific autophagy subtypes such as reticulophagy, mitophagy and ribophagy have been described and it could be shown, depending on the experimental...... at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  6. Novel pre-alloyed powder processing of modified alnico 8: Correlation of microstructure and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I. E., E-mail: andersoni@ameslab.gov; Kassen, A. G.; White, E. M. H.; Zhou, L.; Tang, W.; Palasyuk, A.; Dennis, K. W.; McCallum, R. W.; Kramer, M. J. [Ames Laboratory (USDOE), Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Progress is reviewed on development of an improved near-final bulk magnet fabrication process for alnico 8, as a non-rare earth permanent magnet with promise for sufficient energy density and coercivity for electric drive motors. This study showed that alnico bulk magnets in near-final shape can be made by simple compression molding from spherical high purity gas atomized pre-alloyed powder. Dwell time at peak sintering temperature (1250 °C) greatly affected grain size of the resulting magnet alloys. This microstructure transformation was demonstrated to be useful for gaining partially aligned magnetic properties and boosting energy product. While a route to increased coercivity was not identified by these experiments, manufacturability of bulk alnico magnet alloys in near-final shapes was demonstrated, permitting further processing and alloy modification experiments that can target higher coercivity and better control of grain anisotropy during grain growth.

  7. Laser alloying of aluminium to improve surface properties - MSSA 2010

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available and microstructure of the surface without affecting the bulk properties of the material. The process involves melting the substrate surface and injecting the powder of the alloying material into the melt pool. Process parameters such as laser power, beam spot size...

  8. Peculiarities of phase transformation in Ni3Fe powder alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzhdin, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ordering process in sintered powder alloy Ni 3 Fe by normal and high temperatures was studied. Thermal stresses connected with porosity level of material effect on transformation peculiarities. The changes of electric conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus during transformation were studied. The analysis of this changes was made

  9. Microhardness of bulk-fill composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fil (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and ...

  10. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  11. Studies of alloy structures and properties. Annual summary report, December 1, 1976--December 1, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duwez, P.

    1977-01-01

    Brief summaries of research activities in the following areas are given: superconductivity to ferromagnetism in amorphous Gd--La--Au alloys; magnetic regimes in amorphous Ni--Fe--P--B alloys; electronic and magnetic properties of amorphous Fe--P--B alloys; critical phenomena and magnetic properties of amorphous gadolinium based ferromagnets; Kondo effect, spin correlations, and superconductivity in amorphous alloys doped with magnetic impurities; flux pinning by crystalline phase precipitates embedded in an amorphous superconducting matrix; kinetics of crystallization of amorphous alloys; properties of the flux lattice in amorphous superconductors; low temperature calorimeter; low temperature heat capacity of metastable superconductors; thermal relaxation effects and crystallization of amorphous alloys; fundamental studies of amorphous superconductors using superconductive tunneling; low temperature calorimetry of bulk amorphous metals; and mictomagnetism in amorphous alloys

  12. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  13. Effect of compositional dependence on physical and optical parameters of Te{sub 17}Se{sub 83−x}Bi{sub x} glassy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Pankaj, E-mail: pks_phy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, HP 173234 (India); El-Bana, M.S.; Fouad, S.S. [Nano-Science and Semiconductor Laboratories, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Sharma, Vineet [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, HP 173234 (India)

    2016-05-15

    In the present paper we have studied the effect of Bi addition on the physical and optical properties of thermally evaporated Te{sub 17}Se{sub 83−x}Bi{sub x} thin films. With Bi addition the density, mean coordination number, mechanical constraints, glass transition temperature increases. The other parameters theoretical energy gap, lone pair electron, deviation from stoichiometry decreases. Transmission spectra have been taken in the spectral range 400 nm–2500 nm using ultraviolet–visible–near infrared spectrophotometer. The fundamental absorption edge shifts towards longer wavelength with Bi incorporation. Optical energy gap and linear refractive index have been determined using transmission spectra. A good correlation has been drawn between the optical and theoretical parameters. Using linear optical parameters, the nonlinear optical susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index have been estimated. - Highlights: • Physical and optical parameters have been analyzed for Te{sub 17}Se{sub 83−x}Bi{sub x} glassy alloys. • The addition of Bi leads to decrease of average heat of atomization and cohesive energy. • The optical band gap decreases with increasing Bi content. • The third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index show an increase with increase in the Bi content.

  14. Amorphous Metallic Alloys: Pathways for Enhanced Wear and Corrosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Ayyagari; Felix Wu, H.; Arora, Harpreet; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-11-01

    Amorphous metallic alloys are widely used in bulk form and as coatings for their desirable corrosion and wear behavior. Nevertheless, the effects of heat treatment and thermal cycling on these surface properties are not well understood. In this study, the corrosion and wear behavior of two Zr-based bulk metallic glasses were evaluated in as-cast and thermally relaxed states. Significant improvement in wear rate, friction coefficient, and corrosion penetration rate was seen for both alloys after thermal relaxation. A fully amorphous structure was retained with thermal relaxation below the glass transition. There was an increase in surface hardness and elastic modulus for both alloys after relaxation. The improvement in surface properties was explained based on annihilation of free volume.

  15. Nanoscale shape-memory alloys for ultrahigh mechanical damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, Jose; Nó, Maria L; Schuh, Christopher A

    2009-07-01

    Shape memory alloys undergo reversible transformations between two distinct phases in response to changes in temperature or applied stress. The creation and motion of the internal interfaces between these phases during such transformations dissipates energy, making these alloys effective mechanical damping materials. Although it has been shown that reversible phase transformations can occur in nanoscale volumes, it is not known whether these transformations have a sample size dependence. Here, we demonstrate that the two phases responsible for shape memory in Cu-Al-Ni alloys are more stable in nanoscale pillars than they are in the bulk. As a result, the pillars show a damping figure of merit that is substantially higher than any previously reported value for a bulk material, making them attractive for damping applications in nanoscale and microscale devices.

  16. Observation of glassy state relaxation during annealing of frozen sugar solutions by X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kyuya; Tamiya, Shinri; Do, Gabsoo; Kono, Shinji; Ochiai, Takaaki

    2018-06-01

    Glassy phase formation in a frozen product determines various properties of the freeze-dried products. When an aqueous solution is subjected to freezing, a glassy phase forms as a consequence of freeze-concentration. During post-freezing annealing, the relaxation of the glassy phase and the ripening of ice crystals (i.e. Ostwald ripening) spontaneously occur, where the kinetics are controlled by the annealing and glass transition temperatures. This study was motivated to observe the progress of glassy state relaxation separate from ice coarsening during annealing. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe a frozen and post-freezing annealed solutions by using monochromatized X-ray from the synchrotron radiation. CT images were successfully obtained, and the frozen matrix were analyzed based on the gray level values that were equivalent to the linear X-ray attenuation coefficients of the observed matters. The CT images obtained from rapidly frozen sucrose and dextrin solutions with different concentrations gave clear linear relationships between the linear X-ray attenuation coefficients values and the solute concentrations. It was confirmed that the glassy state relaxation progressed as increasing annealing time, and this trend was larger in the order of the glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze-concentrated phase. The sucrose-water system required nearly 20 h of annealing time at -5 °C for the completion of the glassy phase relaxation, whereas dextrin-water systems required much longer periods because of their higher glass transition temperatures. The trends of ice coarsening, however, did not perfectly correspond to the trends of the relaxation, suggesting that the glassy phase relaxation and Ostwald ripening would jointly control the ice crystal growth/ripening kinetics, and the dominant mechanism differed by the annealing stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of friction welding process of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyung Seop; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Bulk Metallic Glasses(BMG) with good mechanical properties have problems that engineering application fields have been limited because of limitation of the alloy size. In order to solving this problem, the friction welding of BMG has been tried using the superplastic-like deformation behavior under the supercooled liquid region. The apparatus for friction welding test was designed and constructed using pneumatic cylinder and gripper based on a conventional lathe. Friction welding have been tried to combination of same BMG alloy and crystalline alloys. The results of welding test were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, measurement of hardness and mechanical properties test. In order to obtain the optimized welding test conditions the temperature of friction interface was measured using Infrared thermal imager

  18. High-entropy bulk metallic glasses as promising magnetic refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Juntao; Huo, Lishan; Li, Jiawei; Men, He; Wang, Xinmin; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Li, Run-Wei; Inoue, Akihisa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Ho 20 Er 20 Co 20 Al 20 RE 20 (RE = Gd, Dy, and Tm) high-entropy bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs) with good magnetocaloric properties are fabricated successfully. The HE-BMGs exhibit a second-order magnetic phase transition. The peak of magnetic entropy change (ΔS M pk ) and refrigerant capacity (RC) reaches 15.0 J kg −1 K −1 and 627 J kg −1 at 5 T, respectively, which is larger than most rare earth based BMGs. The heterogeneous nature of glasses also contributes to the large ΔS M pk and RC. In addition, the magnetic ordering temperature, ΔS M pk and RC can be widely tuned by alloying different rare earth elements. These results suggest that the HE-BMGs are promising magnetic refrigerant at low temperatures

  19. Bulk handling benefits from ICT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The efficiency and accuracy of bulk handling is being improved by the range of management information systems and services available today. As part of the program to extend Richards Bay Coal Terminal, Siemens is installing a manufacturing execution system which coordinates and monitors all movements of raw materials. The article also reports recent developments by AXSMarine, SunGuard Energy, Fuelworx and Railworx in providing integrated tools for tracking, managing and optimising solid/liquid fuels and rail car maintenance activities. QMASTOR Ltd. has secured a contract with Anglo Coal Australia to provide its Pit to Port.net{reg_sign} and iFuse{reg_sign} software systems across all their Australians sites, to include pit-to-product stockpile management. 2 figs.

  20. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.; Holmes, R.J.; Mathew, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  1. Design of multi materials combining crystalline and amorphous metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, A.; Ragani, J.; Liu, Y.; Gravier, S.; Suéry, M.; Blandin, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Elaboration of multi materials associating metallic glasses and conventional crystalline alloys by co-deformation performed at temperatures close to the glass transition temperature of the metallic glasses. ► Elaboration of filamentary metal matrix composites with a core in metallic glass by co extrusion. ► Sandwich structures produced by co-pressing. ► Detection of atomic diffusion from the glass to the crystalline alloys during the processes. ► Good interfaces between the metallic glasses and the crystalline alloys, as confirmed by mechanical characterisation. - Abstract: Multi materials, associating zirconium based bulk metallic glasses and crystalline metallic alloys like magnesium alloys or copper are elaborated by co-deformation processing performed in the supercooled liquid regions (SLR) of the bulk metallic glasses. Two processes are investigated: co-extrusion and co-pressing. In the first case, filamentary composites with various designs can be produced whereas in the second case sandwich structures are obtained. The experimental window (temperature, time) in which processing can be carried out is directly related to the crystallisation resistance of the glass which requires getting information about the crystallisation conditions in the selected metallic glasses. Thermoforming windows are identified for the studied BMGs by thermal analysis and compression tests in their SLR. The mechanical properties of the produced multi materials are investigated thanks to specifically developed mechanical devices and the interfaces between the amorphous and the crystalline alloys are characterised.

  2. Development of microstructure in thermomechanical processing of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Saibaba, N.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium based alloys are used for the manufacture of fuel tubes pressure tubes calandria tubes and other components of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRS). In single or two phase zirconium alloy system a variety of microstructure can be generated by suitable heat treatments by the process of equilibrium and non equilibrium phase transformations Microstructure can also be modified by alloying with α and β stabilizers. The microstructure in Zr alloys could be single hexagonal phase (α alloys) two phase bcc and hexagonal (α + β alloys) phase, single metastable martensitic microstructure and β with ω phase. The microstructural and micro textural evolution during thermo mechanical treatments depends strongly on such initial microstructure. Hot extrusion is a significant bulk deformation step which decides the initial microstructure of the alloy. It is carried out at elevated temperature i e above the recrystallization temperature, which enable imposition of large strains in single step. This deformation causes a significant change in the microstructure of the material and depends on extrusion process parameters such as temperature, strain rate (Ram speed), reduction ratio etc. In the present paper development of microstructures, microtexture and texture have been examined. An attempt is also made to optimise the hot working parameters for different Zirconium alloys with help of these studies. (author)

  3. Anomalies in the Thermophysical Properties of Undercooled Glass-Forming Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, Robert W.; Rogers, Jan R.; Kelton, Kenneth F.; Gangopadhyay, Anup

    2008-01-01

    The surface tension, viscosity, and density of several bulk metallic glass-forming alloys have been measured using noncontact techniques in the electrostatic levitation facility (ESL) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. All three properties show unexpected behavior in the undercooled regime. Similar deviations were previously observed in titanium-based quasicrystal-forming alloys,but the deviations in the properties of the glass-forming alloys are much more pronounced. New results for anomalous thermophysical properties in undercooled glass-forming alloys will be presented and discussed.

  4. Stability of Bulk Metallic Glass Structure. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Williams, D. B.

    2003-06-01

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub 80-x}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  5. Designing new biocompatible glass-forming Ti75-x Zr10 Nbx Si15 (x = 0, 15) alloys: corrosion, passivity, and apatite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Somayeh; Oswald, Steffen; Gostin, Petre Flaviu; Helth, Arne; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Calin, Mariana; Schultz, Ludwig; Eckert, Jürgen; Gebert, Annett

    2016-01-01

    Glass-forming Ti-based alloys are considered as potential new materials for implant applications. Ti75 Zr10 Si15 and Ti60 Zr10 Nb15 Si15 alloys (free of cytotoxic elements) can be produced as melt-spun ribbons with glassy matrix and embedded single β-type nanocrystals. The corrosion and passivation behavior of these alloys in their homogenized melt-spun states have been investigated in Ringer solution at 37°C in comparison to their cast multiphase crystalline counterparts and to cp-Ti and β-type Ti-40Nb. All tested materials showed very low corrosion rates as expressed in corrosion current densities icorr  alloys passive states in a wide potential range. This corresponds to low passive current densities ipass  = 2 ± 1 µA/cm(2) based on the growth of oxide films with thickness d alloys is beneficial for stable surface passivity. The addition of Nb does not only improve the glass-forming ability and the mechanical properties but also supports a high pitting resistance even at extreme anodic polarization up to 4V versus SCE were oxide thickness values of d ∼35 nm are reached. With regard to the corrosion properties, the Nb-containing nearly single-phase glassy alloy can compete with the β-type Ti-40Nb alloy. SBF tests confirmed the ability for formation of hydroxyapatite on the melt-spun alloy surfaces. All these properties recommend the new glass-forming alloys for application as wear- and corrosion-resistant coating materials for implants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Alloying element's substitution in titanium alloy with improved oxidation resistance and enhanced magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ang-Yang, E-mail: ayyu@imr.ac.cn; Wei, Hua; Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui

    2017-01-15

    First-principles method is used to characterize segregation and magnetic properties of alloyed Ti/TiO{sub 2}interface. We calculate the segregation energy of the doped Ti/TiO{sub 2} interface to investigate alloying atom's distribution. The oxidation resistance of Ti/TiO{sub 2} interface is enhanced by elements Fe and Ni but reduced by element Co. Magnetism could be produced by alloying elements such as Co, Fe and Ni in the bulk of titanium and the surface of Ti at Ti/TiO{sub 2} interface. The presence of these alloying elements could transform the non-magnetic titanium alloys into magnetic systems. We have also calculated the temperature dependence of magnetic permeability for the doped and pure Ti/TiO{sub 2} interfaces. Alloying effects on the Curie temperature of the Ti/TiO{sub 2} interface have been elaborated. - Highlights: • We consider the segregation of alloying atoms on the Ti(101¯0)/TiO{sub 2}(100) interface. • Alloying the Ti//TiO{sub 2} interface with Fe and Ni has a great advantage of improving the oxidation resistance. • Fe, Co and Nican enhance the magnetic properties of the investigated system. • The variation of permeability with temperature has been presented.

  7. Effect of glassy carbon properties on the electrochemical deposition of platinum nano-catalyst and its activity for methanol oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA TERZIC

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the properties of glassy carbon on the deposition of platinum particles and the electrocatalytic activity of platinum supported on glassy carbon (GC/Pt for methanol oxidation in alkaline and acidic solutions were studied. Platinum was potentiostatically deposited on two glassy carbon samples, thermally treated at different temperatures, which were either polished or anodicaly polarised in acid (GCOX-AC/Pt and in alkali (GCOX-AL/Pt. Anodic polarisation of glassy carbon, either in alkaline or acidic solution, enhances the activity of both types of GC/Pt electrodes for methanol oxidation. The activity of the catalysts follows the change in the properties of the glassy carbon support upon anodic treatment. The specific activity of the GCOX-AL/Pt electrode for this reaction in alkali is increased only a few times in comparison with the activity of the GC/Pt one. On the other hand, the specific activity of the GCOX-AC/Pt electrode for methanol oxidation in acid is about one order of magnitude higher than that of the GC/Pt electrode. The role of the substrate on the properties of catalyst is discussed in detail.

  8. Norepinephrine-modified glassy carbon electrode for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, H.R.; Memarzadeh, F.; Ardakani, M. Mazloum; Namazian, M.; Golabi, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation of norepinephrine (NE) on a preactivated glassy carbon electrode leads to the formation of a deposited layer of about 4.2 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 at the surface of the electrode. The electron transfer rate constant, k s , and charge transfer coefficient, α, for electron transfer between the electrode and immobilized NE film were calculated as 44 s -1 and 0.46, respectively. The NE-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibited good electrocatalytic properties towards ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) with an overpotential of about 475 mV lower than that of the bare electrode. The electrocatalytic response was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, amperometry and rotating disk voltammetry. The overall number of electrons involved in the catalytic oxidation of AA and the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining step are 2 and 1, respectively. The rate constant for the catalytic oxidation of AA was evaluated by RDE voltammetry and an average value of k h was found to be 8.42 x 10 3 M -1 s -1 . Amperometric determination of AA in stirred solution exhibits a linear range of 2.0-1300.0 μM (correlation coefficient 0.9999) and a detection limit of 0.076 μM. The precision of amperometry was found to be 1.9% for replicate determination of a 49.0 μM solution of AA (n = 6). In differential pulse voltammetric measurements, the NE-modified glassy carbon electrode can separate the AA and uric acid (UA) signals. Ascorbic acid oxidizes at more negative potential than UA. Also, the simultaneous determination of UA and AA is achieved at the NE-modified electrode

  9. The electrocatalytical reduction of m-nitrophenol on palladium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qiaofang; Diao Guowang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The deposition of palladium on a GC electrode was performed by cyclic voltammetry. ► SEM images showed palladium nanoparticles deposited on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. ► The Pd/GC electrode can effectively catalyze m-nitrophenol in aqueous media. ► The reduction of m-nitrophenol on the Pd/GC electrode depended on potential and pH. ► XPS spectra of the Pd/GC electrodes demonstrated the presence of palladium. - Abstract: Palladium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (Pd/GC) were prepared via the electrodeposition of palladium on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode using cyclic voltammetry in different sweeping potential ranges. The scanning electron microscope images of palladium particles on the GC electrodes indicate that palladium particles with diameters of 20–50 nm were homogeneously dispersed on the GC electrode at the optimal deposition conditions, which can effectively catalyze the reduction of m-nitrophenol in aqueous solutions, but their catalytic activities are strongly related to the deposition conditions of Pd. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of the Pd/GC electrode confirmed that 37.1% Pd was contained in the surface composition of the Pd/GC electrode. The cyclic voltammograms of the Pd/GC electrode in the solution of m-nitrophenol show that the reduction peak of m-nitrophenol shifts towards the more positive potentials, accompanied with an increase in the peak current compared to the bare GC electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pd/GC electrode is affected by pH values of the solution. In addition, the electrolysis of m-nitrophenol under a constant potential indicates that the reduction current of m-nitrophenol on the Pd/GC electrode is approximately 20 times larger than that on the bare GC electrode.

  10. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  11. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  12. Non-Gaussian nature of glassy dynamics by cage to cage motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorselaars, Bart; Lyulin, Alexey V.; Michels, M. A. J.; Karatasos, K.

    2007-01-01

    A model based on a single Brownian particle moving in a periodic effective field is used to understand the non-Gaussian dynamics in glassy systems of cage escape and subsequent recaging, often thought to be caused by a heterogeneous glass structure. The results are compared to molecular-dynamics simulations of systems with varying complexity: quasi-two-dimensional colloidlike particles, atactic polystyrene, and a dendritic glass. The model nicely describes generic features of all three topologically different systems, in particular around the maximum of the non-Gaussian parameter. This maximum is a measure for the average distance between cages

  13. Fine kinetics of natural physical ageing in glassy As{sub 10}Se{sub 90}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balitska, V. [Institute of Materials, Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202 Stryjska Str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Lviv State University of Vital Activity Safety, 35, Kleparivska Str., Lviv 79007 (Ukraine); Golovchak, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37044 (United States); Kozdras, A. [Faculty of Physics of Opole Technical University, 75, Ozimska Str., Opole 45370 (Poland); Shpotyuk, O., E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua [Institute of Materials, Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202 Stryjska Str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, Czestochowa 42201 (Poland)

    2014-02-01

    Sigmoid behavior of natural physical ageing in glassy As{sub 10}Se{sub 90} reveals multi-step-wise growing kinetics of enthalpy losses. Phenomenological description of this kinetics can be adequately developed in terms of first-order relaxation processes, tending atomic structure from initial towards more thermodynamically equilibrium state. This kinetics is shown to obey characteristic stretched exponential behavior originated from a number of growing steps, attributed to the interconnected processes of chalcogen chain alignment and cooperative shrinkage of glass network.

  14. Polymorphic ethyl alcohol as a model system for the quantitative study of glassy behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H E; Schober, H; Gonzalez, M A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Bermejo, F J; Fayos, R; Dawidowski, J [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Ramos, M A; Vieira, S [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    The nearly universal transport and dynamical properties of amorphous materials or glasses are investigated. Reasonably successful phenomenological models have been developed to account for these properties as well as the behaviour near the glass-transition, but quantitative microscopic models have had limited success. One hindrance to these investigations has been the lack of a material which exhibits glass-like properties in more than one phase at a given temperature. This report presents results of neutron-scattering experiments for one such material ordinary ethyl alcohol, which promises to be a model system for future investigations of glassy behaviour. (author). 8 refs.

  15. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, BrittonâRobinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl ...

  16. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton–Robinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl ...

  17. Electrocatalytic performance of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction at graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ruma; Gamare, J.S.; Kamat, J.V.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the analytical perspectives of graphene modified electrode utilising commercially available graphene, which is well characterised, completely free from surfactants and has not been purposely oxidised or treated. We compare and critically contrast the electro-analytical performance of graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes (Gr/GC) with that of unmodified GC electrode towards Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction, monitoring of which has considerable importance in a plethora of areas where electrochemistry is conveniently and beneficially utilised for determination of nuclear fuels

  18. Encoding Gaussian Curvature in Glassy and Elastomeric Liquid Crystal Solids (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    attention to director fields of the form n = cosψ(x2) ê1 + sinψ(x2) ê2, whose alignment angle field varies only with respect to one of the...λ−2 − λ2ν)/L2 < 0. (Online version in colour .) For a fixed two-dimensional metric, the problem of identifying equilibrium configurations that...length of 10 mm. (b) Positive (left) and negative (right) Gaussian curvature in 15µm thick glassy LC solid film at 175◦C. (Online version in colour .) (b

  19. Magnetic and anomalous magnetic viscosity in the bulk amorphous ferromagnet Pr58Fe24Al18 and partially amorphous ferromagnet Pr60Fe24Al16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collocott, S.J.; Dunlop, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    A number of ferromagnetic Pr-Fe-Al alloys have been prepared by argon arc melting and quenching into a copper mould. The alloy of composition Pr 58 Fe 24 Al 18 is identified as being amorphous (bulk metallic glass or bulk amorphous ferromagnet), and a range of magnetic measurements have been performed to explore differences and similarities between it and a partially amorphous alloy, containing a significant crystalline fraction, Pr 60 Fe 24 Al 16 . For both alloys, measurements of the irreversible susceptibility, and magnetic viscosity on the major hysteresis loop are reported. From the magnetic viscosity data, the fluctuation field is determined. The behaviour of the anomalous magnetic viscosity (non-monotonic behaviour of the magnetic viscosity, where the magnetisation as a function of time is seen to increase, reach a peak, and then decrease), on the recoil curve that leads to the dc demagnetised state is investigated. Both alloys display non-monotonic behaviour. After dc demagnetisation, spontaneous remagnetisation is observed in both alloys, and some comments are made on the thermal remagnetisation behaviour of the amorphous alloy. The anomalous magnetic viscosity is interpreted in the context of the Preisach model, as it predicts a simple functional relationship between the time taken to reach a peak and the applied magnetic field. The experimental data for both alloys is in good agreement with this prediction.

  20. Non-repeatability of large plasticity for Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Weiming [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, School of Sciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Sun, Baoan [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zhao, Yucheng, E-mail: zhaoyc1972@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, School of Sciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, Qiang [School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046 (China); Hou, Long; Luo, Ning [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, School of Sciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Dun, Chaochao [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Zhao, Chengliang [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Ma, Zhanguo [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, School of Sciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Liu, Haishun, E-mail: liuhaishun@126.com [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, School of Sciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Shen, Baolong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Serrated flow is an essential characteristic of the plastic deformation of metallic glasses. Under restricted loading conditions, the formation and expansion of shear bands act as the serrated flow of stress-strain curves in metallic glasses. In this work, serrated flows in Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}P{sub 13}C{sub 7} glassy samples with different plasticity were studied. The distribution histogram shows a monotonically decreasing trend during the initial deformation stage (i.e., the plastic deformation in the range of 0–8%), whereas in the following deformation stage (i.e., a plastic deformation of 8–14%), the stress drop frequency distribution presents both a monotonically decreasing distribution and a peak shape similar to chaotic dynamics. It is shown that the spatial evolution behavior of shear bands in Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}P{sub 13}C{sub 7} metallic glasses evolved from self-organized critical to chaotic dynamics in the form of serrated flow, which reveals the origin of discrete plasticity of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses. This study has potential applications for understanding the plastic deformation mechanism. - Highlights: • Two-stage deformation mechanism in Fe-based bulk metallic glasses. • Distribution of the stress drop amplitude is significantly different at two stages. • The stages are related to multiple shear bands and discrete plasticity.

  1. Non-repeatability of large plasticity for Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Weiming; Sun, Baoan; Zhao, Yucheng; Li, Qiang; Hou, Long; Luo, Ning; Dun, Chaochao; Zhao, Chengliang; Ma, Zhanguo; Liu, Haishun; Shen, Baolong

    2016-01-01

    Serrated flow is an essential characteristic of the plastic deformation of metallic glasses. Under restricted loading conditions, the formation and expansion of shear bands act as the serrated flow of stress-strain curves in metallic glasses. In this work, serrated flows in Fe_5_0Ni_3_0P_1_3C_7 glassy samples with different plasticity were studied. The distribution histogram shows a monotonically decreasing trend during the initial deformation stage (i.e., the plastic deformation in the range of 0–8%), whereas in the following deformation stage (i.e., a plastic deformation of 8–14%), the stress drop frequency distribution presents both a monotonically decreasing distribution and a peak shape similar to chaotic dynamics. It is shown that the spatial evolution behavior of shear bands in Fe_5_0Ni_3_0P_1_3C_7 metallic glasses evolved from self-organized critical to chaotic dynamics in the form of serrated flow, which reveals the origin of discrete plasticity of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses. This study has potential applications for understanding the plastic deformation mechanism. - Highlights: • Two-stage deformation mechanism in Fe-based bulk metallic glasses. • Distribution of the stress drop amplitude is significantly different at two stages. • The stages are related to multiple shear bands and discrete plasticity.

  2. The local structure nature for a Ti-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yiqiang; Huang, Yongjiang; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Dongjun; Shen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The directional bonds in TiZrNiCuBe bulk metallic glass are primarily comprised of Be-Ni and Be-Cu bonds. ► A coefficient η could be extracted from Raman scattering to characterize the glass forming ability. ► The weak directional bonds dependent on Be could increase the localized electrons, facilitating the glass forming ability. - Abstract: In the present work, the local atomic structures of a Be-containing Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) have been characterized using electron spectrum for chemical analysis and Raman scattering, including directional bonds and medium range order. It might suggest that a coefficient could be extracted from Raman scattering to characterize the glass forming ability (GFA), which could be employed to interpret the enhanced GFA by Be addition of Ti-based BMG. Additionally, compared with the crystallized sample, the glassy sample exhibits larger average bond length and larger content of local bond distortion using Raman scattering.

  3. Hypervelocity impact on Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, W.; Huang, Y.J.; Pang, B.J.; Shen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hypervelocity impact experiments were performed on a bulk metallic glass. → Morphology of the bullet hole presents three different regions. → The post-impact samples keep glassy structure. → Mechanical properties of the post-impact samples were studied by nanoindentation. → Mechanical properties of the post-impact samples were discussed by free-volume model. - Abstract: In this study, the hypervelocity impact experiments were performed on Zr 51 Ti 5 Ni 10 Cu 25 Al 9 bulk metallic glass using a two-stage light gas gun. The morphologies of the bullet holes exhibit three different regions: melting area, vein-pattern area, and radiating core feature area, suggesting that various regions experience different stress states during the hypervelocity impact. For the post-impact samples, the nano-hardness increases and plastic deformability decreases both with the increase in the distance from the bullet hole and with the decrease in the impact velocity, which is discussed by means of spherical stress wave theory and free-volume model.

  4. Evidence of a Transition Layer between the Free Surface and the Bulk

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2018-02-21

    The free surface, a very thin layer at the interface between polymer and air, is considered the main source of the perturbations in the properties of ultrathin polymer films, i.e., nanoconfinement effects. The structural relaxation of such a layer is decoupled from the molecular dynamics of the bulk. The free surface is, in fact, able to stay liquid even below the temperature where the polymer resides in the glassy state. Importantly, this surface layer is expected to have a very sharp interface with the underlying bulk. Here, by analyzing the penetration of n-hexane into polystyrene films, we report on the existence of a transition region, not observed by previous investigations, extending for 12 nm below the free surface. The presence of such a layer permits reconciling the behavior of interfacial layers with current models and has profound implications on the performance of ultrathin membranes. We show that the expected increase in the flux of the permeating species is actually overruled by nanoconfinement.

  5. Evidence of a Transition Layer between the Free Surface and the Bulk

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Tempelman, Kristianne; Napolitano, Simone; Benes, Nieck E.

    2018-01-01

    The free surface, a very thin layer at the interface between polymer and air, is considered the main source of the perturbations in the properties of ultrathin polymer films, i.e., nanoconfinement effects. The structural relaxation of such a layer is decoupled from the molecular dynamics of the bulk. The free surface is, in fact, able to stay liquid even below the temperature where the polymer resides in the glassy state. Importantly, this surface layer is expected to have a very sharp interface with the underlying bulk. Here, by analyzing the penetration of n-hexane into polystyrene films, we report on the existence of a transition region, not observed by previous investigations, extending for 12 nm below the free surface. The presence of such a layer permits reconciling the behavior of interfacial layers with current models and has profound implications on the performance of ultrathin membranes. We show that the expected increase in the flux of the permeating species is actually overruled by nanoconfinement.

  6. Elastic properties of superconducting bulk metallic glasses; Elastische Eigenschaften von supraleitenden massiven metallischen Glaesern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Marius

    2015-07-01

    Within the framework of this thesis the elastic properties of a superconducting bulk metallic glass between 10 mK and 300 K were first investigated. In order to measure the entire temperature range, in particular the low temperature part, new experimental techniques were developed. Using an inductive readout scheme for a double paddle oscillator it was possible to determine the internal friction and the relative change of sound velocity of bulk metallic glasses with high precision. This allowed for a detailed comparison of the data with different models. The analysis focuses on the low temperature regime where the properties of glassy materials are governed by atomic tunneling systems as described by the tunneling model. The influence of conduction electrons in the normal conducting state and quasiparticles in the superconducting state of the glass were accounted for in the theoretical description, resulting in a good agreement over a large temperature range between measured data and prediction of the tunneling model. This allowed for a direct determination of the coupling constant between electrons and tunneling systems. In the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc the data can only be described if a modified distribution function of the tunneling parameters is applied.

  7. Evidence of a Transition Layer between the Free Surface and the Bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Tempelman, Kristianne; Napolitano, Simone; Benes, Nieck E

    2018-03-15

    The free surface, a very thin layer at the interface between polymer and air, is considered the main source of the perturbations in the properties of ultrathin polymer films, i.e., nanoconfinement effects. The structural relaxation of such a layer is decoupled from the molecular dynamics of the bulk. The free surface is, in fact, able to stay liquid even below the temperature where the polymer resides in the glassy state. Importantly, this surface layer is expected to have a very sharp interface with the underlying bulk. Here, by analyzing the penetration of n-hexane into polystyrene films, we report on the existence of a transition region, not observed by previous investigations, extending for 12 nm below the free surface. The presence of such a layer permits reconciling the behavior of interfacial layers with current models and has profound implications on the performance of ultrathin membranes. We show that the expected increase in the flux of the permeating species is actually overruled by nanoconfinement.

  8. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  9. Manufacturing and testing of self-passivating tungsten alloys of different composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calvo

    2016-12-01

    Bulk W-15Cr, W-10Cr-2Ti and W-12Cr-0.5Y alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying followed by can encapsulation and HIP. This route resulted in fully dense materials with nano-structured grains. The ability of Ti and especially of Y to inhibit grain growth was observed in the W-10Cr-2Ti and W-12Cr-0.5Y alloys. Besides, Y formed Y-rich oxide nano-precipitates at the grain boundaries, and is thus expected to improve the mechanical behaviour of the Y-containing alloy. Isothermal oxidation tests at 800 ºC (1073K and oxidation tests under accident-like conditions revealed that the W-12Cr-0.5Y alloy exhibits the best oxidation behaviour of all alloys, especially in the accident-like scenario. Preliminary HHF tests performed at GLADIS indicated that the W-10Cr-2Ti alloy is able to withstand power densities of 2 MW/m2 without significant damage of the bulk structure. Thermo-shock tests at JUDITH-1 to simulate mitigated disruptions resulted in chipping of part of the surface of the as-HIPed W-10Cr-2Ti alloy. An additional thermal treatment at 1600 °C (1873K improves the thermo-shock resistance of the W-10Cr-2Ti alloy since only crack formation is observed.

  10. Electronic structure of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenreich, H.; Schwartz, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    The description of electronic properties of binary substitutional alloys within the single particle approximation is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on a didactic exposition of the equilibrium properties of the transport and magnetic properties of such alloys. Topics covered include: multiple scattering theory; the single band alloy; formal extensions of the theory; the alloy potential; realistic model state densities; the s-d model; and the muffin tin model. 43 figures, 3 tables, 151 references

  11. Longitudinal and bulk viscosities of expanded rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheri, Ali Hossein Mohammad; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K

    2003-01-01

    First three non-vanishing sum rules for the bulk and longitudinal stress auto-correlation functions have been evaluated for liquid Rb at six thermodynamic states along the liquid-vapour coexistence curve. The Mori memory function formalism and the frequency sum rules have been used to calculate bulk and longitudinal viscosities. The results thus obtained for the ratio of bulk viscosity to shear viscosity have been compared with experimental and other theoretical predictions wherever available. The values of the bulk viscosity have been found to be more than the corresponding values of the shear viscosity for all six thermodynamic states investigated here

  12. Nanopatterned Bulk Metallic Glass Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Emily R; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Yu, Roy; Corona, Sydney L; Li, Jinyang; Vaddiraju, Sagar; Legassey, Allen; Loye, Ayomiposi; Balestrini, Jenna; Solly, Dawson A; Schroers, Jan; Taylor, André D; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Herzog, Raimund I; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2017-12-22

    Nanopatterning as a surface area enhancement method has the potential to increase signal and sensitivity of biosensors. Platinum-based bulk metallic glass (Pt-BMG) is a biocompatible material with electrical properties conducive for biosensor electrode applications, which can be processed in air at comparably low temperatures to produce nonrandom topography at the nanoscale. Work presented here employs nanopatterned Pt-BMG electrodes functionalized with glucose oxidase enzyme to explore the impact of nonrandom and highly reproducible nanoscale surface area enhancement on glucose biosensor performance. Electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric voltammetry (AV) were completed to compare the performance of 200 nm Pt-BMG electrodes vs Flat Pt-BMG control electrodes. Glucose dosing response was studied in a range of 2 mM to 10 mM. Effective current density dynamic range for the 200 nm Pt-BMG was 10-12 times greater than that of the Flat BMG control. Nanopatterned electrode sensitivity was measured to be 3.28 μA/cm 2 /mM, which was also an order of magnitude greater than the flat electrode. These results suggest that nonrandom nanotopography is a scalable and customizable engineering tool which can be integrated with Pt-BMGs to produce biocompatible biosensors with enhanced signal and sensitivity.

  13. Aspects of silicon bulk lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, P. T.

    1985-01-01

    The best lifetimes attained for bulk crytalline silicon as a function of doping concentrations are analyzed. It is assumed that the dopants which set the Fermi level do not contribute to the recombination traffic which is due to the unknown defect. This defect is assumed to have two charge states: neutral and negative, the neutral defect concentration is frozen-in at some temperature T sub f. The higher doping concentrations should include the band-band Auger effect by using a generalization of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism. The generalization of the SRH mechanism is discussed. This formulation gives a straightforward procedure for incorporating both band-band and band-trap Auger effects in the SRH procedure. Two related questions arise in this context: (1) it may sometimes be useful to write the steady-state occupation probability of the traps implied by SRH procedure in a form which approximates to the Fermi-Dirac distribution; and (2) the effect on the SRH mechanism of spreading N sub t levels at one energy uniformly over a range of energies is discussed.

  14. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  15. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  16. Materials Properties Database for Selection of High-Temperature Alloys and Concepts of Alloy Design for SOFC Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z Gary; Paxton, Dean M.; Weil, K. Scott; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2002-11-24

    To serve as an interconnect / gas separator in an SOFC stack, an alloy should demonstrate the ability to provide (i) bulk and surface stability against oxidation and corrosion during prolonged exposure to the fuel cell environment, (ii) thermal expansion compatibility with the other stack components, (iii) chemical compatibility with adjacent stack components, (iv) high electrical conductivity of the surface reaction products, (v) mechanical reliability and durability at cell exposure conditions, (vii) good manufacturability, processability and fabricability, and (viii) cost effectiveness. As the first step of this approach, a composition and property database was compiled for high temperature alloys in order to assist in determining which alloys offer the most promise for SOFC interconnect applications in terms of oxidation and corrosion resistance. The high temperature alloys of interest included Ni-, Fe-, Co-base superal

  17. The Relation Between Alloy Chemistry and Hot-Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Talia, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    Hot cracking is a problem in welding 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. Weld wire additives seem to reduce the problem. This study proposes a model intended to clarify the way alloying elements affect hot-cracking. The brittle temperature range of an alloy extends wherever the tensile stress required to move the meniscus of the liquid film at the grain/dendrite boundaries is less than the bulks flow stress Sigma(sub B) of the grains: 2gamma/delta alloys outgas.) If the above condition is not met, the grains deform under stress and the liquid film remains in place. Curves of 2gamma/delta and sigma(sub B) vs. temperature in the range just below the melting temperature determine the hot cracking susceptibility of an alloy. Both are zero at onset of solidification. sigma(sub B) rises as the thermal activation of the slip mechanism is reduced. 2gamma/delta rises as the film thickness delta which can be estimated from the Scheil equation, drops. But, given an embrittled alloy, whether the alloy actually cracks is determined by the strain imposed upon it in the embrittled condition. A critical strain is estimated, Epsilon(sub C) on the order of Epsilon(sub C) is approximately delta/l where L = grain size and where the the volume increment due to the strain, concentrated at the liquid film, is on the order of the liquid film volume. In the early 80's an empirical critical strain cracking envelope Epsilon(sub C)(T) was incorporated into a damage criterion to estimate the effect of welding parameters on the formation of microfissures in a superalloy with good results. These concepts, liquid film decoherence vs. grain bulk deformation and critical strain, form the key elements of a quantitative theory of hot-cracking applicable for assessing the effect of alloying elements on hot-cracking during welding.

  18. Effect of Si addition on the glass-forming ability of a NiTiZrAlCu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, W.Z.; Shen, J.; Sun, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Si addition on the glass-forming ability (GFA) of a NiTiZrAlCu alloy was investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The maximum diameter of glassy rods increased from 0.5 mm for the Ni 42 Ti 20 Zr 25 Al 8 Cu 5 alloy (the base alloy) to 2.5 mm for the Ni 42 Ti 20 Zr 21.5 Al 8 Cu 5 Si 3.5 alloy and to 3 mm for the Ni 42 Ti 19 Zr 22.5 Al 8 Cu 5 Si 3.5 alloy, when prepared by using the copper mould casting. The GFA of the alloys can be assessed by the reduced glass transition temperature T rg (=T g /T l ) and a newly proposed parameter, δ(=T x /T l - T g ). An addition of a proper amount of Si and a minor substitution of Ti with Zr can enhance the GFA of the base alloy by suppressing the formation of primary Ni(TiZr) and (TiZr)(CuAl) 2 phases and inducing the composition close to eutectic

  19. Influence of Y, Gd and Sm on the glass forming ability and thermal crystallization of aluminum based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Danez, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Al-based amorphous alloys represent an important family of metals and a great scientific activity has been devoted to determine the main features of both glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in order to have a comprehensive framework aimed at potential technological applications. Nowadays, it is well known that the best Al-based amorphous alloys are formed in ternary systems such as Al- RE-TM, where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal. This paper presents results of research in Al 85 Ni 10 RE 5 alloys (RE = Y, Gd and Sm). Amorphous ribbons were processed by melt-spinning under the same conditions and subsequently characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show appreciable micro structural differences as function of the rare earth, thus crystal is obtained for Y, nano-glassy for Gd and, fully amorphous structure for Sm. (author)

  20. Structural characterization and aging of glassy pharmaceuticals made using acoustic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmore, Chris J; Weber, J K R; Tailor, Amit N; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Mou, Qiushi; Weber, Warner; Neuefeind, Joerg; Byrn, Stephen R

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report the structural characterization of several amorphous drugs made using the method of quenching molten droplets suspended in an acoustic levitator. (13) C NMR, X-ray, and neutron diffraction results are discussed for glassy cinnarizine, carbamazepine, miconazole nitrate, probucol, and clotrimazole. The (13) C NMR results did not find any change in chemical bonding induced by the amorphization process. High-energy X-ray diffraction results were used to characterize the ratio of crystalline to amorphous material present in the glasses over a period of 8 months. All the glasses were stable for at least 6 months except carbamazepine, which has a strong tendency to crystallize within a few months. Neutron and X-ray pair distribution function analyses were applied to the glassy materials, and the results were compared with their crystalline counterparts. The two diffraction techniques yielded similar results in most cases and identified distinct intramolecular and intermolecular correlations. The intramolecular scattering was calculated based on the crystal structure and fit to the measured X-ray structure factor. The resulting intermolecular pair distribution functions revealed broad-nearest and next-nearest neighbor molecule-molecule correlations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1290-1300, 2013. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Diazonium Chemistry for the Bio-Functionalization of Glassy Nanostring Resonator Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resonant glassy nanostrings have been employed for the detection of biomolecules. These devices offer high sensitivity and amenability to large array integration and multiplexed assays. Such a concept has however been impaired by the lack of stable and biocompatible linker chemistries. Diazonium salt reduction-induced aryl grafting is an aqueous-based process providing strong chemical adhesion. In this work, diazonium-based linker chemistry was performed for the first time on glassy nanostrings, which enabled the bio-functionalization of such devices. Large arrays of nanostrings with ultra-narrow widths down to 10 nm were fabricated employing electron beam lithography. Diazonium modification was first developed on SiCN surfaces and validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Similarly modified nanostrings were then covalently functionalized with anti-rabbit IgG as a molecular probe. Specific enumeration of rabbit IgG was successfully performed through observation of downshifts of resonant frequencies. The specificity of this enumeration was confirmed through proper negative control experiments. Helium ion microscopy further verified the successful functionalization of nanostrings.

  2. Diazonium Chemistry for the Bio-Functionalization of Glassy Nanostring Resonator Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Du, Rongbing; Cao, Yong; Mohammad, Mohammad A; Dew, Steven K; McDermott, Mark T; Evoy, Stephane

    2015-07-30

    Resonant glassy nanostrings have been employed for the detection of biomolecules. These devices offer high sensitivity and amenability to large array integration and multiplexed assays. Such a concept has however been impaired by the lack of stable and biocompatible linker chemistries. Diazonium salt reduction-induced aryl grafting is an aqueous-based process providing strong chemical adhesion. In this work, diazonium-based linker chemistry was performed for the first time on glassy nanostrings, which enabled the bio-functionalization of such devices. Large arrays of nanostrings with ultra-narrow widths down to 10 nm were fabricated employing electron beam lithography. Diazonium modification was first developed on SiCN surfaces and validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Similarly modified nanostrings were then covalently functionalized with anti-rabbit IgG as a molecular probe. Specific enumeration of rabbit IgG was successfully performed through observation of downshifts of resonant frequencies. The specificity of this enumeration was confirmed through proper negative control experiments. Helium ion microscopy further verified the successful functionalization of nanostrings.

  3. Novel electroanalysis of hydroxyurea at glassy carbon and gold electrode surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti M. Naik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and a novel electroanalysis of hydroxyurea (HU drug at glassy carbon and gold electrode was investigated for the first time using cyclic, linear sweep and differential pulse voltammetric techniques. The oxidation of HU was irreversible and exhibited a diffusion controlled process on both electrodes. The oxidation mechanism was proposed. The dependence of the current on pH, the concentration, nature of buffer, and scan rate was investigated to optimize the experimental conditions for the determination of HU. It was found that the optimum buffer pH was 7.0, a physiological pH. In the range of 0.01 to 1.0 mM, the current measured by differential pulse voltammetry showed a linear relationship with HU concentration with limit of detection of 0.46 µM for glassy carbon electrode and 0.92 µM for gold electrode. In addition, reproducibility, precision and accuracy of the method were checked as well. The developed method was successfully applied to HU determination in pharmaceutical formulation and human biological fluids. The method finds its applications in quality control laboratories and pharmacokinetics.

  4. New Scenario of Dynamical Heterogeneity in Supercooled Liquid and Glassy States of 2D Monatomic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoang, Vo; Teboul, Victor; Odagaki, Takashi

    2015-12-24

    Via analysis of spatiotemporal arrangements of atoms based on their dynamics in supercooled liquid and glassy states of a 2D monatomic system with a double-well Lennard-Jones-Gauss (LJG) interaction potential, we find a new scenario of dynamical heterogeneity. Atoms with the same or very close mobility have a tendency to aggregate into clusters. The number of atoms with high mobility (and size of their clusters) increases with decreasing temperature passing over a maximum before decreasing down to zero. Position of the peak moves toward a lower temperature if mobility of atoms in clusters is lower together with an enhancement of height of the peak. In contrast, the number of atoms with very low mobility or solidlike atoms (and size of their clusters) has a tendency to increase with decreasing temperature and then it suddenly increases in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature leading to the formation of a glassy state. A sudden increase in the number of strongly correlated solidlike atoms in the vicinity of a glass transition temperature (Tg) may be an origin of a drastical increase in viscosity of the glass-forming systems approaching the glass transition. In fact, we find that the diffusion coefficient decays exponentially with a fraction of solidlike atoms exhibiting a sudden decrease in the vicinity of the glass transition region.

  5. Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoniazid by a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly (Eriochrome Black T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Asadpour-Zeynali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work poly eriochrome black T (EBT was electrochemically synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode as electrode modifier. On the modified electrode, voltammetric behavior of isoniazid (INH was investigated. The poly (EBT-modified glassy carbon electrode has excellent electrocatalytic ability for the electrooxidation of isoniazid. This fact was appeared as a reduced overpotential of INH oxidation in a wide operational pH range from 2 to 13. It has been found that the catalytic peak current depends on the concentration of INH and solution pH. The number of electrons involved in the rate determining step was found 1. The diffusion coefficient of isoniazid was also estimated using chronoamperometry technique. The experimental results showed that the mediated oxidation peak current of isoniazid is linearly dependent on the concentration of isoniazid in the ranges of 8.0 × 10-6 – 1.18 × 10-3 M and 2.90 × 10-5 M – 1.67× 10-3 M with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and amperometry methods, respectively. The detection limits (S/N = 3 were found to be 6.0 μM and 16.4 μM by DPV and amperometry methods, respectively. This developed method was applied to the determination of isoniazid in tablet samples with satisfactory results.

  6. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meareg Amare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6×10-6 to 100×10-6 mol L−1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3 s/slope of 0.99925 and 8.37×10-7 mol L−1, respectively, supplemented by recovery results of 93.79–102.17% validated the developed method. An attempt was made to determine the caffeine content of aqueous coffee extracts of Ethiopian coffees grown in four coffee cultivating localities (Wonbera, Wolega, Finoteselam, and Zegie and hence to evaluate the correlation between users preference and caffeine content. In agreement with reported works, caffeine contents (w/w% of 0.164 in Wonbera coffee; 0.134 in Wolega coffee; 0.097 in Finoteselam coffee; and 0.089 in Zegie coffee were detected confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of caffeine in a complex matrix environment. The result indicated that users’ highest preference for Wonbera and least preference for Zegie cultivated coffees are in agreement with the caffeine content.

  7. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Meareg; Aklog, Senait

    2017-01-01

    Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6 × 10 -6 to 100 × 10 -6  mol L -1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3 s/slope) of 0.99925 and 8.37 × 10 -7  mol L -1 , respectively, supplemented by recovery results of 93.79-102.17% validated the developed method. An attempt was made to determine the caffeine content of aqueous coffee extracts of Ethiopian coffees grown in four coffee cultivating localities (Wonbera, Wolega, Finoteselam, and Zegie) and hence to evaluate the correlation between users preference and caffeine content. In agreement with reported works, caffeine contents (w/w%) of 0.164 in Wonbera coffee; 0.134 in Wolega coffee; 0.097 in Finoteselam coffee; and 0.089 in Zegie coffee were detected confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of caffeine in a complex matrix environment. The result indicated that users' highest preference for Wonbera and least preference for Zegie cultivated coffees are in agreement with the caffeine content.

  8. Electrochemical behavior of cysteine at a CuGeO3 nanowires modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yongping; Pei Lizhai; Chu Xiangfeng; Zhang Wangbing; Zhang Qianfeng

    2010-01-01

    A CuGeO 3 nanowire modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveal that electron transfer through nanowire film is facile compared with that of bare glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode exhibited a novel electrocatalytic behavior to the electrochemical reactions of L-cysteine in neutral solution, which was not reported previously. Two pairs of semi-reversible electrochemical peaks were observed and assigned to the processes of oxidation/reduction and adsorption/desorption of cysteine at the modified electrode, respectively. The electrochemical response of cysteine is poor in alkaline condition and is enhanced greatly in acidic solution, suggesting that hydrogen ions participate in the electrochemical oxidation process of cysteine. The intensities of two anodic peaks varied linearly with the concentration of cysteine in the range of 1 x 10 -6 to 1 x 10 -3 mol L -1 , which make it possible to sensitive detection of cysteine with the CuGeO 3 nanowire modified electrode. Furthermore, the modified electrode exhibited good reproducibility and stability.

  9. On the spherical nanoindentation creep of metallic glassy thin films at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.H.; Ye, J.H. [Institution of Micro/Nano-Mechanical Testing Technology & Application, College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Feng, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics (LNM), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ma, Y., E-mail: may@zjut.edu.cn [Institution of Micro/Nano-Mechanical Testing Technology & Application, College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2017-02-08

    Metallic glassy thin films with eight kind of compositions were successfully prepared on Si substrate by magnetron sputtering. The room-temperature creep tests were performed at plastic regions for each sample relying on spherical nanoindetation. The creep deformations were studied by recording the total creep displacement and strain after 2000 s holding. More pronounced creep deformation was observed in the sample with lower glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). Strain rate sensitivity (SRS) was then calculated from the steady-state creep and exhibited a negative correlation with increasing T{sub g}. It is suggested that creep mechanism of the nano-sized metallic glass was T{sub g}-dependent, according to the demarcation of SRS values. Based on the obtained SRS, shear transformation zone (STZ) size in each sample could be estimated. The results indicated that an STZ involves about 25–60 atoms for the employed eight samples and is strongly tied to T{sub g}. The characteristic of STZ size in metallic glassy thin films was discussed in terms of applied method and deformation modes.

  10. Nitric Oxide Detection with Glassy Carbon Electrodes Coated with Charge-different Polymer Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Lei

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace amounts of nitric oxide (NO have been determined in aqueous phosphate buffersolutions (pH=7.4 by using a glassy carbon electrode coated with three charge-different polymerfilms. The glassy carbon electrode was coated first with negatively charged Nafion film containingtetrakis(pentafluorophenylporphyrin iron(III chloride (Fe(IIITPFPP as the NO oxidation catalyst,and then with positively charged poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PADDAand with neutral poly(dimethylsiloxane (silicone at the outermost layer. This polymer-coatedelectrode showed an excellent selectivity towards NO against possible concomitants in blood such asnitrite, ascorbic acid, uric acid, and dopamine. All current ratios between each concomitant and NOat the cyclic voltammogram was in 10-3 ~ 10-4. This type of electrode showed a detection limit of80 nM for NO. It was speculated from the electrochemical study in methanol that high-valent oxoiron(IV of Fe(TPFPP participated in the catalytic oxidation of NO.

  11. Influence of surface morphology on methanol oxidation at a glassy carbon-supported Pt catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STEVANOVIC

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Platinum supported on glassy carbon (GC was used as a model system for studying the influence of the surface morphology of a Pt catalyst on methanol oxidation in alkaline and acidic solutions. Platinum was deposited by the potential step method on GC samples from H2SO4 + H2PtCl6 solution under the same conditions with loadings from 10 to 80 mg cm-2. AFM and STM images of the GC/Pt electrodes showed that the Pt was deposited in the form of 3D agglomerates composed of spherical particles. Longer deposition times resulted in increased growth of Pt forms and a decrease in the specific area of the Pt. The real surface area of Pt increased with loading but the changes were almost negligible at higher loadings. Nevertheless, both the specific and mass activity of platinum supported on glassy carbon for methanol oxidation in acidic and in alkaline solutions exhibit a volcanic dependence with respect to the platinum loading. The increase in the activity can be explained by the increasing the particle size with the loading and thus an increase in the contiguous Pt sites available for adsorption and decomposition of methanol. However, the decrease in the activity of the catalyst with further increase of loading and particle size after reaching the maximum is related to the decrease of active sites available for methanol adsorption and their accessibility as a result of more close proximity and pronounced coalescence of the Pt particles.

  12. Temperature and frequency response of conductivity in Ag2S doped chalcogenide glassy semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Swarupa; Das, Anindya Sundar; Roy, Madhab; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2018-06-01

    The electric conductivity of chalcogenide glassy semiconductor xAg2S-(1-x)(0.5S-0.5Te) has been presented here as a function of temperature and frequency. Formation of different nanocrystallites has been confirmed from X-ray diffraction study. It is also noteworthy that average size of nanocrystallites decreases with the increase of dislocation density. Dc conductivity data have been interpreted using Mott's model and Greaves's model in low and high temperature regions respectively. Ac conductivity above the room temperature has been analyzed using Meyer-Neldel (MN) conduction rule. It is interestingly noted that Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) model is the most appropriate conduction mechanism for x = 0.35, where pairs of charge carrier are considered to hop over the potential barrier between the sites via thermal activation. To interpret experimental data for x = 0.45, modified non-overlapping small polaron tunnelling (NSPT) model is supposed to be appropriate model due to tunnelling through grain boundary. The conductivity spectra at various temperatures have been analyzed using Almond-West Formalism (power law model). Scaling of conductivity spectra reveals that electrical relaxation process of charge carriers (polaron) is temperature independent but depends upon the composition of the present chalcogenide glassy system.

  13. Structural and surface changes in glassy carbon due to strontium implantation and heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odutemowo, O. S.; Malherbe, J. B.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Njoroge, E. G.; Erasmus, R.; Wendler, E.; Undisz, A.; Rettenmayr, M.

    2018-01-01

    There are still questions around the microstructure of glassy carbon (GC), like the observation of the micropores. These were proposed to explain the low density of GC. This paper explains the effect of ion bombardment (200 keV Sr+, 1 × 1016 Sr+/cm2 at RT) on the microstructure of GC. TEM and AFM show that micropores in pristine GC are destroyed leading to densification of GC from 1.42 g/cm3 to 2.03 g/cm3. The amorphisation of glassy carbon was also not complete with graphitic strands embedded within the GC. These were relatively few, as Raman analysis showed that the Sr implantation resulted in a typical amorphous Raman spectrum. Annealing of the sample at 900 °C only resulted in a slight recovery of the GC structure. AFM and SEM analysis showed that the surface of the sample became rougher after Sr implantation. The roughness increased after the sample was annealed at 600 °C due to segregation of Sr towards the surface of the GC. SEM measurements of a sample with both implanted and un-implanted edges after annealing at 900 °C, showed that the high temperature heat treatment did not affect the surface topography of un-irradiated GC.

  14. Compressibility of Ir-Os alloys under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusenko, Kirill V.; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Gromilov, Sergey A.; Kurnosov, Alexander V.; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Hanfland, Michael; Smaalen, Sander van; Margadonna, Serena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • fcc- and hcp-Ir-Os alloys were prepared from single-source precursors. • Their atomic volumes measured at ambient conditions using powder X-ray diffraction follow nearly linear dependence. • Compressibility of alloys have been studied up to 30 GPa at room temperature in diamond anvil cells. • Their bulk moduli increase with increasing osmium content. - Abstract: Several fcc- and hcp-structured Ir-Os alloys were prepared from single-source precursors in hydrogen atmosphere at 873 K. Their atomic volumes measured at ambient conditions using powder X-ray diffraction follow nearly linear dependence as a function of composition. Alloys have been studied up to 30 GPa at room temperature by means of synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells. Their bulk moduli increase with increasing osmium content and show a deviation from linearity. Bulk modulus of hcp-Ir 0.20 Os 0.80 is identical to that of pure Os (411 GPa) within experimental errors. Peculiarities on fcc-Ir 0.80 Os 0.20 compressibility curve indicate possible changes of its electronic properties at ∼20 GPa

  15. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  16. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  17. On the bulk viscosity of relativistic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.

    1978-01-01

    An expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient in terms of the trace of the hydrodynamic energy-stress tensor is derived from the Kubo formula. This, along with a field-theoretic model of an interacting system of scalar particles, suggests that at high temperatures the bulk viscosity tends to zero, contrary to the often quoted resuls of Iso, Mori and Namiki. (author)

  18. Bulk-viscosity-driven asymmetric inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waga, I.; Lima, J.A.S.; Portugal, R.

    1987-01-01

    A primordial net bosinic charge is introduced in the context of the bulk-viscosity-driven inflationary models. The analysis is carried through a macroscopic point of view in the framework of the causal thermodynamic theory. The conditions for having exponetial and generalized inflation are obtained. A phenomenological expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient is also derived. (author) [pt

  19. High-strength Ti Alloy Prepared via Promoting Interstitial-Carbon Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo-Young; Lee, Jae-Chul [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Se-Hyun [KITECH, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Feasibility studies are performed to determine the suitability of a novel simple synthesis technique for fabricating a new Ti alloy with improved strength and ductility, while exhibiting lower cell toxicity. Through consolidating pure Ti powders under a C atmosphere at elevated temperatures, a bulk form of the Ti alloy, in which a quantifiable amount of C is dissolved, is synthesized. While the alloy is free from toxic elements such as Al and V, the strength and ductility of the developed alloy are comparable to, or better than, those of its commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy counterpart. In this study, the method to design the alloy, its synthesis, and the resultant properties are reported.

  20. Electroless synthesis of 3 nm wide alloy nanowires inside Tobacco mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, Sinan; Kern, Klaus; Bittner, Alexander M; Hahn, Kersten; Kopold, Peter; Kadri, Anan; Wege, Christina

    2012-01-01

    We show that 3 nm wide cobalt–iron alloy nanowires can be synthesized by simple wet chemical electroless deposition inside tubular Tobacco mosaic virus particles. The method is based on adsorption of Pd(II) ions, formation of a Pd catalyst, and autocatalytic deposition of the alloy from dissolved metal salts, reduced by a borane compound. Extensive energy-filtering TEM investigations at the nanoscale revealed that the synthesized wires are alloys of Co, Fe, and Ni. We confirmed by high-resolution TEM that our alloy nanowires are at least partially crystalline, which is compatible with typical Co-rich alloys. Ni traces bestow higher stability, presumably against corrosion, as also known from bulk CoFe. Alloy nanowires, as small as the ones presented here, might be used for a variety of applications including high density data storage, imaging, sensing, and even drug delivery. (paper)