WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulk d15n values

  1. d15N dynamics of ammonium and particulate nitrogen during the growth season of a eutrophic estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brabandere, Loreto; Brion, N.; Elskens, M.;

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (d15N) of suspended matter and ammonium in the freshwater stretch of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium) over a full year to investigate for seasonal evolution and possible co-variation between isotopic signatures. The d15N value of ammonium remained...... rather constant during winter (average = +11.4 pro mille) but increased significantly with the spring and summer bloom, reaching values as high as +70 pro mille. This enrichment of the ammonium pool in 15N coincided with significant ammonium depletion during summer period, suggesting a close causal...... relationship. Based on a semiclosed system approach we deduced an apparent fractionation factor associated with NH4+ utilization (i.e. combining effects of uptake and nitrification) of 18.4 pro mille (SE = 2.0 pro mille), which is similar to values reported in literature. Observed variations of ammonium d15N...

  2. Proton-detected 3D (15)N/(1)H/(1)H isotropic/anisotropic/isotropic chemical shift correlation solid-state NMR at 70kHz MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Yarava, Jayasubba Reddy; Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors offer a wealth of information for structural and dynamics studies of a variety of chemical and biological systems. In particular, CSA of amide protons can provide piercing insights into hydrogen-bonding interactions that vary with the backbone conformation of a protein and dynamics. However, the narrow span of amide proton resonances makes it very difficult to measure (1)H CSAs of proteins even by using the recently proposed 2D (1)H/(1)H anisotropic/isotropic chemical shift (CSA/CS) correlation technique. Such difficulties due to overlapping proton resonances can in general be overcome by utilizing the broad span of isotropic chemical shifts of low-gamma nuclei like (15)N. In this context, we demonstrate a proton-detected 3D (15)N/(1)H/(1)H CS/CSA/CS correlation experiment at fast MAS frequency (70kHz) to measure (1)H CSA values of unresolved amide protons of N-acetyl-(15)N-l-valyl-(15)N-l-leucine (NAVL).

  3. Vacuum Expectation Value Profiles of the Bulk Scalar Field in the Generalized Randall-Sundrum Model

    CERN Document Server

    Tofighi, A; Farokhtabar, A

    2015-01-01

    In the generalized Randall-Sundrum warped brane-world model the cosmological constant induced on the visible brane can be positive or negative. In this paper we investigate profiles of vacuum expectation value of the bulk scalar field under general Dirichlet andNeumann boundary conditions in the generalized warped brane-worldmodel.We showthat the VEVprofiles generally depend on the value of the brane cosmological constant. We find that the VEV profiles of the bulk scalar field for a visible brane with negative cosmological constant and positive tension are quite distinct fromthose of Randall-Sundrum model. In addition we show that the VEV profiles for a visible brane with large positive cosmological constant are also different from those of the Randall- Sundrum model.We also verify that Goldberger andWise mechanism can work under nonzero Dirichlet boundary conditions in the generalized Randall-Sundrum model.

  4. How Reliable is the Bulk δ13C value of Soil Organic Matter in Paleovegetational Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, P.; Rakshit, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon isotope ratios of soil/paleosol organic matter (δ13CSOM) have been used to reconstruct abundance of C3-C4 plants survived in the landscape as the δ13C value of C3 (-27‰) and C4 (-12.5 ‰) plants are distinctly different. In an attempt to reconstruct the abundance of C3 and C4 plants, δ13CSOM have been measured from three soil profiles developed on flood plain of the Gangetic plain, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India. Satellite images reveal that the investigated sediments have been deposited in an oxbow lake setting of the river Ganges. The total organic carbon content of the profile ranges from 0.9% to 0.1%. The δ13CSOM values mostly range from -19.2‰ to -22‰ except a rapid positive excursions of ~5‰ at 1.5 m depth showing enriched value (-14.2‰) in all the three profiles. Based on mass balance calculation using the δ13C values of C3 and C4 plants, the δ13CSOM in the Gangetic plain indicate presence of both C3 and C4 plants in the floodplain. However, characterization of alkanes separated from lipids extracted from the same soil organic matter reveals dominant preferences in short carbon chain (C14, C16, C18, C20) with a little preferences for higher chain (C29, C31, C33). Interestingly, n-alkanes at 1.5 m depth shows very high concentration in short chain n-alkanes. Since the lower chain n-alkane represents aquatic productivity or intense bacterial decomposition and higher chain indicates the contribution from C3-C4 plants, the data from the investigated sedimentary profile shows contribution mostly from aquatic vegetation with a little contribution from terrestrial plants. This implies that before using bulk δ13CSOM value for reconstruction of C3-C4 plants from soil/paleosol, characterization (molecular level) of soil organic matter is required

  5. Correlation between precipitation and geographical location of the δ2H values of the fatty acids in milk and bulk milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham, E.; Baisden, W. T.; Keller, E. D.; Hayman, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Frew, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) have become a tool for food traceability and authentication of agricultural products. The principle is that the isotopic composition of the produce is influenced by environmental and biological factors and hence exhibits a spatial differentiation of δ2H. This study investigates the variation in δ2H values of New Zealand milk, both in the bulk powder and individual fatty acids extracted from milk samples from dairy factories across New Zealand. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for relationships between δ2H of bulk milk powder, milk fatty acid and geographical location. Milk powder samples from different regions of New Zealand were found to exhibit patterns in isotopic composition similar to the corresponding regional precipitation associated with their origin. A model of δ2H in precipitation was developed based on measurements between 2007 and 2010 at 51 stations across New Zealand (Frew and Van Hale, 2011). The model uses multiple linear regressions to predict daily δ2H from 2 geographic and 5 rain-weighted climate variables from the 5 × 5 km New Zealand Virtual Climate Station Network (VCSN). To approximate collection radius for a drying facility the modelled values were aggregated within a 50 km radius of each dairy factory and compared to observed δ2H values of precipitation and bulk milk powder. Daily δ2H predictions for the period from August to December for the area surrounding the sample collection sites were highly correlated with the δ2H values of bulk milk powder. Therefore the δ2H value of milk fatty acids demonstrates promise as a tool for determining the provenance of milk powders and products where milk powder is an ingredient. Separation of milk powder origin to geographic sub-regions within New Zealand was achieved. Hydrogen isotope measurements could be used to complement traditional tracking systems in verifying point of origin.

  6. Resolving the bulk δ 15N values of ancient human and animal bone collagen via compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of constituent amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styring, Amy K.; Sealy, Judith C.; Evershed, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotope analysis is a fundamental tool in assessing dietary preferences and trophic positions within contemporary and ancient ecosystems. In order to assess more fully the dietary contributions to human tissue isotope values, a greater understanding of the complex biochemical and physiological factors which underpin bulk collagen δ 15N values is necessary. Determinations of δ 15N values of the individual amino acids which constitute bone collagen are necessary to unravel these relationships, since different amino acids display different δ 15N values according to their biosynthetic origins. A range of collagen isolates from archaeological faunal and human bone ( n = 12 and 11, respectively), representing a spectrum of terrestrial and marine protein origins and diets, were selected from coastal and near-coastal sites at the south-western tip of Africa. The collagens were hydrolysed and δ 15N values of their constituent amino acids determined as N-acetylmethyl esters (NACME) via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The analytical approach employed accounts for 56% of bone collagen nitrogen. Reconstruction of bulk bone collagen δ 15N values reveals a 2‰ offset from bulk collagen δ 15N values which is attributable to the δ 15N value of the amino acids which cannot currently be determined by GC-C-IRMS, notably arginine which comprises 53% of the nitrogen unaccounted for (23% of the total nitrogen). The δ 15N values of individual amino acids provide insights into both the contributions of various amino acids to the bulk δ 15N value of collagen and the factors influencing trophic position and the nitrogen source at the base of the food web. The similarity in the δ 15N values of alanine, glutamate, proline and hydroxyproline reflects the common origin of their amino groups from glutamate. The depletion in the δ 15N value of threonine with increasing trophic level indicates a fundamental difference between

  7. Reservoir age variations and stable isotope values of bulk sediment in a core from the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Olsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Peter;

    on radiocarbon dating of shells and on stable isotope measurements of bulk sediment from 7400 to 1300 cal BP. Reservoir ages in coastal waters and estuaries can differ considerably from the global model ocean. The seas around Denmark have a reservoir age of c. 400 years, while a hardwater effect of a few...... thousand years is possible for freshwater with a high content of dissolved carbonate. On the other hand, freshwater without a significant content of 14C-dead carbon does not have a reservoir age. In coastal waters, the different water sources mix and produce highly variable reservoir ages. Due to Holocene...... relative sea level fluctuations, caused by the interplay of eustatic sea level changes and isostasy, the Limfjord had varying connections to the sea. As the relative proportion of marine and fresh water varied with time, the reservoir age for the Limfjord is also expected to vary. Radiocarbon datings...

  8. Correlation of bulk sedimentary and compound-specific δ13C values indicates minimal pre-aging of n-alkanes in a small tropical watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Chad S.; Horn, Sally P.; Taylor, Zachary P.; Kerr, Matthew T.

    2016-08-01

    Inherent to sedimentary compound-specific isotopic proxies of paleoecological and paleoclimate change is the assumption that biomarkers are coeval with the surrounding sedimentary matrix. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of lake and nearshore marine sediments have indicated a potential offset between the ages of terrestrial biomarkers and their surrounding sediments that could confound efforts to establish strong chronological control for compound-specific isotopic data. We conducted high-resolution compound-specific δ13C analyses of n-alkanes (δ13Calkane) in a well-studied sediment core from Laguna Castilla, Dominican Republic, and compared the results to bulk sedimentary δ13C (δ13Cbulk), fossil pollen, and sediment geochemistry to assess potential 'pre-aging' of alkanes in the terrestrial environment prior to deposition. We found significant positive correlations between δ13Cbulk values and δ13Calkane values, indicating little or no temporal lag in the response of δ13Calkane values to vegetation change and thus little or no offset in the age of terrestrially-derived compounds and the organic fraction of the sedimentary matrix. While this study highlights the need for further research into the variables affecting age offsets between proxy data, we propose the comparison of δ13Cbulk and δ13Calkane values as a method to assess potential age offsets between compound-specific and other proxy datasets, particularly in small watersheds with sediment records containing a high proportion of allochthonous organic matter. This method is more available to researchers than obtaining numerous compound-specific radiocarbon analyses, which are costly and not a routine service offered by radiocarbon facilities.

  9. Bulk undercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  10. 基于极值理论的干散货运输市场运费风险测度%Measuring the freight risk in dry bulk market based on extreme value theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文明; 杨忠直

    2012-01-01

    基于极值理论(EVT)中的超阈值(POT)方法,利用广义帕累托分布(GPD)拟合干散货运费市场收益率损失的尾部情况,并利用在险价值(VaR)和条件在险价值(CVaR)来度量干散货运费风险.实证研究发现,基于EVT的VaR和CVaR能够更贴切地反映干散货运输市场的运费风险水平,且在不同显著性水平下,CVaR的有效性优于VaR.%This paper makes use of a generalized Pareto distribution(GPD)based on peaks over threshold(POT) model of extreme value theory(EVT)to fit the tail of loss rates in the dry bulk freight market.Also we use VaR and CVaR to measure the level of risk from freight rates.Empirical results show that VaR and CVaR based on EVT are more effective to reflect the freight risks.Meanwhile we find that CVaR is better than VaR at different levels of significance.

  11. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  12. An intrinsic mobility ceiling of Si bulk

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Castello, Nuria; Prades, Joan Daniel; Cirera, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We compute by Density Functional Theory-Non Equilibrium Green Functions Formalism (DFT-NEGFF) the conductance of bulk Si along different crystallographic directions. We find a ceiling value for the intrinsic mobility of bulk silicon of $8.4\\cdot10^6 cm^2/V\\cdot s$. We suggest that this result is related to the lowest effective mass of the $$ direction.

  13. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  14. Import and Export of Bulk Pharmaceuticals in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ According to customs statistics, the total import and export value of bulk pharmaceuticals (excluding chemical raw materials and bulk pesticides) in China was US$10.346 billion in 2006. The export value was US$7.482 billion - an increase of 22% over the 2005.

  15. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

  16. Utility of δ13C and C/N values of bulk sedimentary organic matter in the reconstruction of former sea levels and paleoenvironment, Luquillo Critical Zone, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. S.; Vane, C.; Horton, B. P.; Scatena, F. N.

    2012-12-01

    Reliable, quantitative proxies of former sea-level and paleoenvironmental change are critical in integrating geologic and historical records into predictive models in order to better understand the response of coastal systems to marine inundation. The defining characteristic of a sea-level proxy (or sea-level indicator) is that is must possess a systematic and quantifiable relationship to elevation with respect to the tidal frame. Microfossils (e.g. foraminifera, diatoms) are used to reconstruct Holocene sea level because of their potential for providing high-resolution archives; however, these biological proxies are somewhat limited due to spatial restrictions and poor preservation in the sedimentary record of temperate and more notably tropical environments. In this study, we aim to overcome the confines of existent indicators by adapting the use of stable carbon isotopes and carbon to nitrogen ratios of bulk sedimentary organic material to a tropical coastal setting. We sampled dominant vegetation and surface sediment along 8 transects taken through tidal flat, low mangrove, high mangrove, and freshwater zones from 4 sites located in Puerto Rico. We find unique ranges in δ13C and C/N corresponding to these environmental zones that exhibit a relationship to elevation within the tidal frame. Additionally, a 2.5 m core obtained from one of the sites demonstrates changes in δ13C and C/N representative of a shift in depositional environment from marine to terrestrial conditions that is in agreement with the change in lithology from grey organic-rich mud to brown mangrove peat and the foraminiferal assemblages observed down core. We also provide an assessment of post-depositional change in δ13C and C/N due to subaerial root penetration and microbial degradation from field experiments and find that these processes are related to water table depth. We compare our findings to studies employing this reconstruction technique in temperate settings, where salt marsh

  17. Iron - based bulk amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a structure characterization, thermal and soft magnetic properties analysis of Fe-based bulk amorphous materials in as-cast state and after crystallization process. In addition, the paper gives some brief review about achieving, formation and structure of bulk metallic glasses as a special group of amorphous materials.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glass in form of ribbons and rods. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. The thermal properties of the glassy samples were measured using differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The magnetic properties contained initial and maximum magnetic permeability, coercive force and magnetic after-effects measurements were determined by the Maxwell-Wien bridge and VSM methods.Findings: The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the studied as-cast bulk metallic glasses in form of ribbons and rods were amorphous. Two stage crystallization process was observed for studied bulk amorphous alloy. The differences of crystallization temperature between ribbons and rods with chosen thickness are probably caused by different amorphous structures as a result of the different cooling rates in casting process. The SEM images showed that studied fractures could be classified as mixed fractures with indicated two zones contained “river” and “smooth” areas. The changing of chosen soft magnetic properties (μr, Bs, Hc obtained for samples with different thickness is a result of the non-homogenous amorphous structure of tested metallic glasses. The annealing process in temperature range from 373 to 773 K causes structural relaxation of tested amorphous materials, which leads to changes in their physical properties. The qualitative

  18. Wormholes in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Mubasher

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the accretion of phantom energy with non-zero bulk viscosity onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. We have found that if the bulk viscosity is large then the mass of wormhole increases rapidly as compared to small or zero bulk viscosity.

  19. Extracting the bulk viscosity of the quark–gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the implications of a nonzero bulk viscosity coefficient on the azimuthal momentum anisotropy of ultracentral relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. We find that, with IP-Glasma initial conditions, a finite bulk viscosity coefficient leads to a better description of the flow harmonics in ultracentral collisions. We then extract optimal values of bulk and shear viscosity coefficients that provide the best agreement with flow harmonic coefficients data in this centrality class

  20. 论GDP、CPI与国民经济总价值TH及通货膨胀、紧缩率i%GDP, CPI and Total Value of National Economy (TH), Inflation, and Bulk Factor (i)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天华; 张宇

    2012-01-01

    本文通过使用“全面价值论”的观点,找到了国民经济总价值、剩余价值的实时计算指标及度量方法,也就是具体找到了GDP的完善化指标.给出了全面价值的价值规律指导下的国民经济全面协调发展的指路明灯.此外,通过全面价值论观点,还找到了符合通货膨胀或通货紧缩定义的“全部商品”的通货膨胀率或通货紧缩率计算公式,通过全部商品的通货膨胀率或通货紧缩率的具体计算,可以还原纸币本身的时间价值,使纸币起到实物货币的功能,成为根本治理通货膨胀、通货紧缩及金融危机的基本实操.%Through the use of a comprehensive theory, this article tries to find the real-time calculation indicators and measurement methods of the total value of the national economy, the residual value, namely perfection indicators of GDP. And give the guidance of the overall and coordinated development of national economy under the guidance of value law. In addition, through the full value, it also founds the definition of inflation or deflation, "all goods" rate of inflation or deflation rate is calculated, through specific calculation of all the goods and the rate of inflation or deflation rate, you can restore the value of paper money itself time, notes play the function of the physical currency, the practical operation of the fundamental control of inflation, deflation and financial crisis.

  1. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  2. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  3. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... assimilate movement includes an apoplasmic step, this mode is called apoplasmic loading. Well established is also the polymer-trap loading mode, where the phloem-transport sugars are raffinose-family oligomers in herbaceous plants. Also this mode depends on the investment of energy, here for sugar......Assimilates synthesized in the mesophyll of mature leaves move along the pre-phloem transport pathway to the bundle sheath of the minor veins from which they are loaded into the phloem. The present review discusses the most probable driving force(s) for the pre-phloem pathway, diffusion down...

  4. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  5. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PLUSH YARNS BULKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINEREANU Adam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  6. Realistic anomaly mediation with bulk gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple general framework for realistic models of supersymmetry breaking driven by anomaly mediation. We consider a 5-dimensional 'brane universe' where the visible and hidden sectors are localized on different branes, and the standard model gauge bosons propagate in the bulk. In this framework there can be charged scalar messengers that have contact interactions with the hidden sector, either localized in the hidden sector or in the bulk. These scalars obtain soft masses that feed into visible sector scalar masses at two loop order via bulk gauge interactions. This contribution is automatically flavor-blind, and can be naturally positive. If the messengers are in the bulk this contribution is automatically the same order of magnitude as the anomaly mediated contribution, independent of the brane spacing. If the messengers are localized to a brane the two effects are of the same order for relatively small brane spacings. The gaugino masses and A terms are determined completely by anomaly mediation. In order for anomaly mediation to dominate over radion mediation the radion must be is stabilized in a manner that preserves supersymmetry, with supergravity effects included. We show that this occurs in simple models. We also show that the mu problem can be solved by the vacuum expectation value of a singlet in this framework. (author)

  7. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe

    2016-06-01

    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  8. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger Gare - Algiers (Algeria)

    2009-02-15

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Advances in bulk port development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soros, P. (Soros Associates Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The article features several recently developed bulk ports which illustrate aspects of new technology or concepts in maritime transport. Low handling capacity bulk terminals at Ponta da Madeira, Brazil and Kooragang Island, Australia and the low-cost bulk port at Port of Corpus Christi, Texas are described. Operations at the ports of Pecket and Tocopilla in Chile, which had special technical problems, are mentioned. Coal terminals at Port Kembla, Australia and St. Johns River in Florid Jacksonville, Florida are featured as examples of terminals which had to be designed to meet high environmental standards. 13 refs., 2 figs., 14 photos.

  11. Bulk Nuclear Properties from Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Danielewicz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Extraction of bulk nuclear properties by comparing reaction observables to results from semiclassical transport-model simulations is discussed. Specific properties include the nuclear viscosity, incompressibility and constraints on the nuclear pressure at supranormal densities.

  12. Viscous hydrodynamics with bulk viscosity -- uncertainties from relaxation time and initial conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Huichao

    2009-01-01

    Bulk viscosity suppresses elliptic flow v_2, as does shear viscosity. It can thus not be neglected when extracting the shear viscosity from elliptic flow data. We here explore uncertainties in the bulk viscous contribution to viscous v_2 suppression that arise from presently uncontrolled uncertainties in the initial value of the bulk viscous pressure and its microscopic relaxation time.

  13. The temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus at 1 bar pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, J.; Laugier, A

    2006-01-01

    It is well established that the product of the volume coefficient of thermal expansion and the bulk modulus is nearly constant at temperatures higher than the Debye temperature. Using this approximation allows predicting the values of the bulk modulus. The derived analytical solution for the temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus has been applied to ten substances. The good correlations to the experiments indicate that the expression may be useful for substances for which bulk ...

  14. Cosmological Implications of QGP Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Anand, Sampurn; Bhatt, Jitesh R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of the hot QCD matter indicate that the bulk viscosity ($\\zeta$) of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) rises sharply near the critical point of the QCD phase transition. In this work, we show that such a sharp rise of the bulk viscosity will lead to an effective negative pressure near the critical temperature, $T_{c}$ which in turn drives the Universe to inflate. This inflation has a natural graceful exist when the viscous effect evanesce. We estimate that, depending upon the peak value of $\\zeta$, universe expands by a factor of $10$ to $80$ times in a very short span ($\\Delta t\\sim 10^{-8}$ seconds). Another important outcome of the bulk viscosity dominated dynamics is the cavitation of QGP around $T \\sim 1.5T_{c}$. This would lead to the phenomenon of formation of cavitation bubbles within the QGP phase. The above scenario is independent of the order of QCD phase transition. We delineate some of the important cosmological consequences of the inflation and the cavitation.

  15. Superconducting State Parameters of Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya M. Vora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Well recognized empty core (EMC pseudopotential of Ashcroft is used to investigate the superconducting state parameters viz; electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature TC, isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength NOV of some (Ni33Zr671 – xVx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 bulk amorphous alloys. We have incorporated five different types of local field correction functions, proposed by Hartree (H, Taylor (T, Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU, Farid et al. (F and Sarkar et al. (S to show the effect of exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. Very strong influence of the various exchange and correlation functions is concluded from the present study. The TC obtained from Sarkar et al. (S local field correction function are found an excellent agreement with available theoretical data. Quadratic TC equation has been proposed, which provide successfully the TC values of bulk amorphous alloys under consideration. Also, the present results are found in qualitative agreement with other such earlier reported data, which confirms the superconducting phase in the s bulk amorphous alloys.

  16. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  17. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wiranata, A.; M. Prakash

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature ari...

  18. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Wiranata, A

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature arise from particles which are neither extremely nonrelativistic nor extremely relativistic. Numerical results for a model binary mixture are reported.

  19. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Waga, I

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  20. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  1. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What is the...... value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections of...... morals and morality.2 The main question is then, what the use of `value' as the key-term in moral discourses means to morality as such. Accepting ethics as a part of morality - since one cannot be moral without sometimes reflecting on the validity of the morality employed andexperienced - I have...

  2. Adding value(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Most economic inquires revolve around agents making decisions. Getting the ‘best value’, it is assumed, drives such decisions: gaining most while risking least. This assumption has been debunked by showing that people does not always choose neither maximum benefit nor less risk (Kahneman & Tversky......, 1992). In response, behavioral economics (Camerer, 1999) has shown that agents have values other than optimization underpinning their decisions. Therefore, concerns arose regarding which values are guiding the agent but not about how such values became relevant for the agent. In this presentation, I...... will explore the consequences of shifting to the latter perspective, i.e. looking for the generative framework of values. Here I argue that economic behavior should also be seen as a sense-making process, guided by values that are chosen/rejected along with fellow human beings, in specific socio...

  3. Contact characteristics for YBCO bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Tomokazu; Sawa, Koichiro; Tomita, Masaru; Murakami, Masato

    2003-10-01

    We have studied the contact characteristics of two resin-impregnated YBCO (a composite of YBa 2Cu 3O y and Y 2BaCuO 5) bulk superconductors in mechanical contact. A switching phenomenon could be observed at a threshold current or a transfer current value in the V- I curves of the YBCO contact. The transfer current exceeded the previous value of 13.5 A at 77 K in the contact when the sample surfaces were carefully polished. The present results suggest that a pair of YBCO blocks might be applicable to the mechanical persistent current switch for superconducting magnetic energy storage and other superconducting systems run in a persistent current mode.

  4. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  5. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  6. Ideal bulk pressure of active Brownian particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Thomas; Jack, Robert L.

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which active matter might be described by effective equilibrium concepts like temperature and pressure is currently being discussed intensely. Here, we study the simplest model, an ideal gas of noninteracting active Brownian particles. While the mechanical pressure exerted onto confining walls has been linked to correlations between particles' positions and their orientations, we show that these correlations are entirely controlled by boundary effects. We also consider a definition of local pressure, which describes interparticle forces in terms of momentum exchange between different regions of the system. We present three pieces of analytical evidence which indicate that such a local pressure exists, and we show that its bulk value differs from the mechanical pressure exerted on the walls of the system. We attribute this difference to the fact that the local pressure in the bulk does not depend on boundary effects, contrary to the mechanical pressure. We carefully examine these boundary effects using a channel geometry, and we show a virial formula for the pressure correctly predicts the mechanical pressure even in finite channels. However, this result no longer holds in more complex geometries, as exemplified for a channel that includes circular obstacles.

  7. Gap-related trapped magnetic flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z., E-mail: zgdeng@gmail.co [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: {yields} Rectangular YBCO bulks to realize a compact combination. {yields} The gap effect was added to consider in the trapped flux density mapping. {yields} The trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulks is gap related. {yields} It is possible to estimate the total magnetic flux of bulk combinations. - Abstract: Aiming at examining the trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors for field-pole applications, three rectangular Y{sub 1.65}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) bulks with a possibly compact combination were employed to investigate the trapped-flux characteristics of single and combined bulks with a field-cooling magnetization (FCM) method. A gap-related dependence was found between them. At lower gaps of 1 mm and 5 mm, the peak trapped fields and total magnetic flux of combined bulks are both smaller than the additive values of each single bulk, which can be ascribed to the demagnetization influences of the field around the bulk generated by the adjacent ones. While, at larger gaps like 10 mm, the situation becomes reversed. The combined bulks can attain bigger peak trapped fields as well as total magnetic flux, which indicates that the magnetic field by the bulk combination can reach higher gaps, thanks to the bigger magnetic energy compared with the single bulk. The presented results show that, on one hand, it is possible to estimate the total trapped magnetic flux of combined bulks by an approximate additive method of each single bulk while considering a demagnetization factor; on the other hand, it also means that the performance of combined bulks will be superior to the addition of each single bulk at larger gaps, thus preferable for large-scaled magnet applications.

  8. Universe Models with Negative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, Iver

    2013-01-01

    The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics,...

  9. Preparation of fine-grained bulk materials in the Fe-Co system by shock compression

    CERN Document Server

    Mashimo, T; Huang, X S; Murata, H; Sakakibara, M

    2002-01-01

    Fine-grained bulk alloys with no crack in the 70:30 mol% Fe-Co system were prepared by means of shock compression of water-atomized powder and mechanical alloying (MA) treated ones. The grain size of the water-atomized bulk body was smaller (<=50 mu m) than that of the molten bulk body (about 100 mu m). The grain size decreased greatly with the MA treatment time, and ones for 21 h were estimated to be about 15 nm from the x-ray diffraction patterns. The coercivity value of the water-atomized bulk body was much larger than that of the molten bulk body. The coercivity value of the MA-treated bulk body increased with the MA treatment time, and then decreased, despite the very small grain size, probably due to the effect of ferromagnetic exchange interaction.

  10. Comparison of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of gill and white muscle tissue of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E.; Freitas, V.; Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J.J.; van der Veer, H.W.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (d13C, d15N) of fish gills for studies on fish feeding ecology was evaluated by comparing the d13C and d15N of gill tissue with the more commonly used white muscle tissue. To account for the effect of lipid content on the d13C signatures

  11. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  12. New fermions in the bulk

    CERN Document Server

    de Brito, K P S

    2016-01-01

    Spinor fields on 5-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds are classified, according to the geometric Fierz identities that involve their bilinear covariants. Based upon this classification that generalises the celebrated 4-dimensional Lounesto classification of spinor fields, new non-trivial classes of 5-dimensional spinor fields are, hence, found, with important potential applications regarding bulk fermions and their subsequent localisation on brane-worlds. In addition, quaternionic bilinear covariants are used to derive the quaternionic spin density, through the truncated exterior bundle. In order to accomplish a realisation of these new spinors, a Killing vector field is constructed on the horizon of 5-dimensional Kerr black holes. This Killing vector field is shown to reach the time-like Killing vector field at the spatial infinity, through a current 1-form density, constructed with the derived new spinor fields. The current density is, moreover, expressed as the f\\"unfbein components, assuming a condensed for...

  13. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    During amino acid starvation, cells undergo macroautophagy which is regarded as an unspecific bulk degradation process. Lately, more and more organelle-specific autophagy subtypes such as reticulophagy, mitophagy and ribophagy have been described and it could be shown, depending on the experimental...... setup, that autophagy specifically can remove certain subcellular components. We used an unbiased quantitative proteomics approach relying on stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to study global protein dynamics during amino acid starvation-induced autophagy. Looking...... at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  14. Microwave disinfestation of bulk timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Pedro Jose; Zona, Angela Tatiana; Sanchís, Raul; Balbastre, Juan Vicente; Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz, Eva Maria; Gordillo, Javier; de los Reyes, Elías

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a complete microwave system for bulk timber disinfestation is developed and tested. A commercial FEM simulator has been used to design the applicator, looking for structures providing uniform field distributions, which is a factor of capital relevance for a successful treatment. Special attention has also been given to the reduction of electromagnetic energy leakage. A dual polarized cylindrical applicator with a corrugated flange has been designed. The applicator has also been numerically tested emulating some real-life operating conditions. A prototype has been built using two low-cost magnetrons of 900 W and high power coaxial cables and it has been tested inside a shielded semianechoic chamber. The tests have been carried out in three stages: validation of the applicator design, determination of the lethal dosage as a function of the insect position and the maximum wood temperature allowed and statement of safe operation procedures. PMID:18351001

  15. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally

  16. Determination of Bulk Dimensional Variation in Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James F. Cuttino Dr. Edward P. Morse

    2005-04-14

    The purpose of this work is to improve the efficiency of green sand foundries so that they may continue to compete as the most cost-effective method of fabrication while meeting tightening constraints on near-net shape manufacturing. In order to achieve this objective, the study is divided into two major components. The first component concentrated on identifying which processes control surface finish on the castings and which provide potential reductions in variations. The second component identified metrological methods that effectively discern between the geometry of bulk material versus surface finish in order to more accurately determine the quality of a part. The research resulted in the determination of an empirical relationship relating pouring parameters to dimensional variation, with an R2 value of greater than 0.79. A significant difference in variations obtained from vertical vs. horizontal molding machines was also noticed. When analyzed separately, however, the resulting empirical relationships for horizontal and vertical machines had reduced R2 values, probably due to the reduced data sets. Significant parameters when considering vertical and horizontal molding machines together included surface roughness, pattern type, iron type, pouring rate, copper content, amount of Western Bentonite, and permeability.

  17. Studies of bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Raquel; McIntyre, Max; Tzolov, Marian

    We are studying bulk heterojunction solar cells that were fabricated using a mixture of PCPDTBT and PCBM­C60. The impedance data of the cells in dark responded like a simple RC circuit. The value of the dielectric constant derived from these results is consistent with the values reported in the literature for these materials. We are showing that the parallel resistance in the equivalent circuit of linear lump elements can be interpreted using the DC current­voltage measurements. The impedance spectra under light illumination indicated the existence of additional polarization. This extra feature can be described by a model that includes a series RC circuit in parallel with the equivalent circuit for a device in dark. The physical interpretation of the additional polarization is based on photo­generated charges getting trapped in wells, which have a characteristic relaxation time corresponding to the observed break frequency in the impedance spectra. We have studied the influence of the anode and cathode interface on this phenomena, either by using different interface materials, or by depositing the metal electrode while the substate is heated.

  18. Giant Enhancement of Internal Electric Field Boosting Bulk Charge Separation for Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Cai, Lejuan; Shang, Jian; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-06-01

    Incorporating carbon into Bi3 O4 Cl enhances its internal electric field by 126 times, which induces a bulk charge separation efficiency (ηbulk ) of 80%. This ultrahigh ηbulk value presents a state-of-the-art result in tuning the bulk charge separation. The generated C-doped Bi3 O4 Cl has a noble-metal- and electron-scavenger-free water-oxidation ability under visible light, which is difficult to achieve with most existing photocatalysts.

  19. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S Josephine

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  20. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  1. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  2. Diagnosis of Dry Bulk Shipping Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wendy Wu

    2009-01-01

    @@ A sudden severe winter for dry bulk shipping market Since the second half of last year,dry bulk shipping market experienced a sudden and dramatical change which caught everyone off guard in just a few months'time.As the wind vane of dry bulk shipping market,BDI index(Baltic index)has been climbing higher and higher from the middle of 2005.It began to nearly shoot up into the 2007.

  3. Bulk scalar field in DGP braneworld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Rizwan ul Haq

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulk scalar field in the braneworld cosmological scenario. The Friedmann equations and acceleration condition in presence of the bulk scalar field for a zero tension brane and cosmological constant are studied. In DGP model the effective Einstein equation on the brane is obtained with bulk scalar field. The rescaled bulk scalar field on the brane in the DGP model behaves as an effective four dimensional field, thus standard type cosmology is recovered. In present study of the DGP model, the late-time accelerating phase of the universe can be explained .

  4. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity

  5. Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)

    2015-07-15

    We consider a cosmological model dominated by bulk viscous matter with a total bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the velocity and acceleration of the expansion of the universe in such a way that ζ = ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1}(a)/(a) + ζ{sub 2}(a)/(a). We show that there exist two limiting conditions in the bulk viscous coefficients (ζ{sub 0}, ζ{sub 1}, ζ{sub 2}) which correspond to a universe having a Big Bang at the origin, followed by an early decelerated epoch and then making a smooth transition into an accelerating epoch. We have constrained the model using the type Ia Supernovae data, evaluated the best estimated values of all the bulk viscous parameters and the Hubble parameter corresponding to the two limiting conditions. We found that even though the evolution of the cosmological parameters are in general different for the two limiting cases, they show identical behavior for the best estimated values of the parameters from both limiting conditions. A recent acceleration would occur if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} > 1 for the first limiting conditions and if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} < 1 for the second limiting conditions. The age of the universe predicted by this model is found to be less than that predicted from the oldest galactic globular clusters. The total bulk viscosity seems to be negative in the past and becomes positive when z ≤ 0.8. So the model violates the local second law of thermodynamics. However, the model satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon throughout the evolution of the universe. We also made a statefinder analysis of the model and found that it is distinguishably different from the standard ΛCDM model at present, but it shows a de Sitter type behavior in the far future of the evolution. (orig.)

  6. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  7. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  8. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  9. Bulk amorphous metallic alloys: Synthesis by fluxing techniques and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi; Shen, Tongde; Schwarz, R.B.

    1997-05-01

    Bulk amorphous alloys having dimensions of at least 1 cm diameter have been prepared in the Pd-Ni-P, Pd-Cu-P, Pd-Cu-Ni-P, and Pd-Ni-Fe-P systems using a fluxing and water quenching technique. The compositions for bulk glass formation have been determined in these systems. For these bulk metallic glasses, the difference between the crystallization temperature T{sub x}, and the glass transition temperature T{sub g}, {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g}, ranges from 60 to 1 10 K. These large values of {Delta}T open the possibility for the fabrication of amorphous near net-shape components using techniques such as injection molding. The thermal, elastic, and magnetic properties of these alloys have been studied, and we have found that bulk amorphous Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 17.5}P{sub 20} has spin glass behavior for temperatures below 30 K. 65 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...... are fictional, value-driven concepts developed to promote dialogue with users about their values and how they may materialize with respect to interaction design in their everyday lives....

  11. Higher order bulk characteristic parameters of asymmetric nuclear matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The bulk parameters characterizing the energy of symmetric nuclear matter and the symmetry energy defined at normal nuclear density ρ0 provide important information on the equation of state (EOS) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. While significant progress has been made in determining some lower order bulk characteristic parameters, such as the energy E0(ρ0) and incompress ibility K0 of symmetric nuclear matter as well as the symmetry energy Esym(ρ0) and its slope parameter L, yet the higher order bulk characteristic parameters are still poorly known. Here, we analyze the correlations between the lower and higher order bulk char acteristic parameters within the framework of Skyrme Hartree-Fock energy density functional and then estimate the values of some higher order bulk characteristic parameters. In particular, we obtain J0 = (-355±95) MeV and I0 = (1473±680) MeV for the third order and fourth-order derivative parameters of symmetric nuclear matter at ρ0 and Ksym = (-100 ± 165) MeV, Jsym = (224 ± 385) MeV, Isym = (-1309 ± 2025) MeV for the curvature parameter, third-order and fourth-order derivative parameters of the symmetry energy at ρ0, using the empirical constraints on E0(ρ0), K0, Esym(ρ0), L, and the isoscalar and isovector nucleon effective masses. Furthermore, our results indicate that the three parameters E0(ρ0), K0, and J0 can reasonably characterize the EOS of symmetric nuclear matter up to 2ρ0 while the symmetry energy up to 2ρ0 can be well described by Esym(ρ0), L, and Ksym.

  12. Holographic representation of local bulk operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A; Lifschytz, G; Lowe, D A; Hamilton, Alex; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lorentzian AdS/CFT correspondence implies a map between local operators in supergravity and non-local operators in the CFT. By explicit computation we construct CFT operators which are dual to local bulk fields in the semiclassical limit. The computation is done for general dimension in global, Poincare and Rindler coordinates. We find that the CFT operators can be taken to have compact support in a region of the complexified boundary whose size is set by the bulk radial position. We show that at finite N the number of independent commuting operators localized within a bulk volume saturates the holographic bound.

  13. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hoyos; Bom Soo Kim; Yaron Oz

    2014-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical ...

  14. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  15. Bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons has been estimated within the framework of hadronic resonance gas model. We observe that the bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases faster with temperature for higher μB. The magnitude of ζ is more at high μB. This results will have crucial importance for fire-ball produced at low energy nuclear collisions (FAIR, NICA). We note that the bulk to shear viscosity ratio remains above the bound set by AdS/CFT

  16. Associations among milk quality indicators in raw bulk milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, J C F; Reinemann, D J; Ruegg, P L

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine characteristics and associations among bulk milk quality indicators from a cohort of dairies that used modern milk harvest, storage, and shipment systems and participated in an intensive program of milk quality monitoring. Bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC), coliform count (CC), and laboratory pasteurization count (LPC) were monitored between July 2006 and July 2007. Bulk milk samples were collected 3 times daily (n = 3 farms), twice daily (n = 6 farms), once daily (n = 4 farms), or once every other day (n = 3 farms). Most farms (n = 11) had direct loading of milk into tankers on trucks, but 5 farms had stationary bulk tanks. The average herd size was 924 cows (range = 200 to 2,700), and daily milk produced per herd was 35,220 kg (range = 7,500 to 105,000 kg). Thresholds for increased bacterial counts were defined according to the 75th percentile and were >8,000 cfu/mL for TBC, >160 cfu/mL for CC, and >or=310 cfu/mL for LPC. Means values were 12,500 (n = 7,241 measurements), 242 (n = 7,275 measurements), and 226 cfu/mL (n = 7,220 measurements) for TBC, CC, and LPC, respectively. Increased TBC was 6.3 times more likely for bulk milk loads with increased CC compared with loads containing fewer coliforms. Increased TBC was 1.3 times more likely for bulk milk with increased LPC. The odds of increased TBC increased by 2.4% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC in the same milk load. The odds of increased CC increased by 4.3% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC. The odds of increased CC increased by 1% for every 0.1 degrees C increase in the milk temperature upon arrival at the dairy plant (or at pickup for farms with bulk tank). Laboratory pasteurization count was poorly associated with other milk quality indicators. Seasonal effects on bacterial counts and milk temperature varied substantially among farms. Results of this study can be used to aid the interpretation and analysis of

  17. Second order closure for stratified convection: bulk region and overshooting

    CERN Document Server

    Biferale, L; Sbragaglia, M; Scagliarini, A; Toschi, F; Tripiccione, R

    2011-01-01

    The parameterization of small-scale turbulent fluctuations in convective systems and in the presence of strong stratification is a key issue for many applied problems in oceanography, atmospheric science and planetology. In the presence of stratification, one needs to cope with bulk turbulent fluctuations and with inversion regions, where temperature, density -or both- develop highly non-linear mean profiles due to the interactions between the turbulent boundary layer and the unmixed -stable- flow above/below it. We present a second order closure able to cope simultaneously with both bulk and boundary layer regions, and we test it against high-resolution state-of-the-art 2D numerical simulations in a convective and stratified belt for values of the Rayleigh number, up to Ra = 10^9. Data are taken from a Rayleigh-Taylor system confined by the existence of an adiabatic gradient.

  18. Controlled Topological Phases and Bulk-edge Correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yosuke

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a variation of the notion of topological phase reflecting metric structure of the position space. This framework contains not only periodic and non-periodic systems with symmetries in Kitaev's periodic table but also topological crystalline insulators. We also define the bulk and edge indices as invariants taking values in the twisted equivariant K-groups of Roe algebras as generalizations of existing invariants such as the Hall conductance or the Kane-Mele Z_2 -invariant. As a consequence, we obtain a new mathematical proof of the bulk-edge correspondence by using the coarse Mayer-Vietoris exact sequence. As a new example, we study the index of reflection-invariant systems.

  19. Ductile damage prediction in sheet and bulk metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreddine, Houssem; Labergère, Carl; Saanouni, Khemais

    2016-04-01

    This paper is dedicated to the presentation of an advanced 3D numerical methodology for virtual sheet and/or bulk metal forming simulation to predict the anisotropic ductile defects occurrence. First, the detailed formulation of thermodynamically-consistent fully coupled and fully anisotropic constitutive equations is given. The proposed constitutive equations account for the main material nonlinearities as the anisotropic plastic flow, the mixed isotropic and kinematic hardening and the anisotropic ductile damage under large inelastic strains. Second, the related numerical aspects required to solve the initial and boundary value problem (IBVP) are very briefly presented in the framework of the 3D finite element method. The global resolution schemes as well as the local integration schemes of the fully coupled constitutive equations are briefly discussed. Finally, some typical examples of sheet and bulk metal forming processes are numerically simulated using the proposed numerical methodology.

  20. Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-Worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herrera-Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust/generalized dark radiation on the brane-world and inhomogeneous dark radiation in the bulk as well are considered as exact dynamical collapse solutions. Based on the analysis on the inhomogeneous static exterior of a collapsing sphere of homogeneous dark radiation on the brane, the associated black string warped horizon is studied, as well as the 5D bulk metric near the brane. Moreover, the black string and the bulk are shown to be more regular upon time evolution, for suitable values for the dark radiation parameter in the model, by analyzing the soft physical singularities.

  1. The bulk radio expansion of Cassiopeia A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison, in the visibility plane, or radio observations of Cassiopeia A made at 151 MHz over a 2.3 yr interval indicates that the bulk of the radio emitting material has not been decelerated strongly

  2. 2MTF V. Cosmography, Beta, and the residual bulk flow

    CERN Document Server

    Springob, Christopher M; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Masters, Karen L; Macri, Lucas M; Koribalski, Baerbel S; Jones, D Heath; Jarrett, Tom H; Magoulas, Christina; Erdogdu, Pirin

    2015-01-01

    Using the Tully-Fisher relation, we derive peculiar velocities for the 2MASS Tully-Fisher Survey and describe the velocity field of the nearby Universe. We use adaptive kernel smoothing to map the velocity field, and compare it to reconstructions based on the redshift space galaxy distributions of the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) and the IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey (PSCz). With a standard $\\chi^2$ minimization fit to the models, we find that the PSCz model provides a better fit to the 2MTF velocity field data than does the 2MRS model, and provides a value of $\\beta$ in greater agreement with literature values. However, when we subtract away the monopole deviation in the velocity zeropoint between data and model, the 2MRS model also produces a value of $\\beta$ in agreement with literature values. We also calculate the `residual bulk flow': the component of the bulk flow not accounted for by the models. This is $\\sim 250$ km/s when performing the standard fit, but drops to $\\sim 150$ km/s for both...

  3. PHONON ECHOES IN BULK AND POWDERED MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Kajimura, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of phonon echoes in bulk and powdered materials are reviewed. Phonon echoes have been observed in many materials such as bulk piezoelectric crystals, paramagnets, glasses, doped semiconductors, and piezoelectric, magnetic, and metallic powders, etc. The echoes arise from a time reversal of the phase, like spin echoes, of a primary pulsed acoustic excitation due to a second acoustic or rf pulse. The phase reversal occurs through the nonlinear interactions o...

  4. The Effect of Bulk Depth and Irradiation Time on the Surface Hardness and Degree of Cure of Bulk-Fill Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahat F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: For many years, application of the composite restoration with a thickness less than 2 mm for achieving the minimum polymerization contraction and stress has been accepted as a principle. But through the recent development in dental material a group of resin based composites (RBCs called Bulk Fill is introduced whose producers claim the possibility of achieving a good restoration in bulks with depths of 4 or even 5 mm. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of irradiation times and bulk depths on the degree of cure (DC of a bulk fill composite and compare it with the universal type. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on two groups of dental RBCs including Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill and Tetric N Ceram Universal. The composite samples were prepared in Teflon moulds with a diameter of 5 mm and height of 2, 4 and 6 mm. Then, half of the samples in each depth were cured from the upper side of the mould for 20s by LED light curing unit. The irradiation time for other specimens was 40s. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water, the microhardness of the top and bottom of the samples was measured using a Future Tech (Japan- Model FM 700 Vickers hardness testing machine. Data were analyzed statistically using the one and multi way ANOVAand Tukey’s test (p = 0.050. Results: The DC of Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill in defined irradiation time and bulk depth was significantly more than the universal type (p < 0.001. Also, the DC of both composites studied was significantly (p < 0.001 reduced by increasing the bulk depths. Increasing the curing time from 20 to 40 seconds had a marginally significant effect (p ≤ 0.040 on the DC of both bulk fill and universal studied RBC samples. Conclusions: The DC of the investigated bulk fill composite was better than the universal type in all the irradiation times and bulk depths. The studied universal and bulk fill RBCs had an appropriate DC at the 2 and 4 mm bulk depths respectively and

  5. Characterization of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oils by bulk C, O, H, and fatty acid C stable isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Eva Katharina; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2010-07-14

    Rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) oils differing in cultivar, sites of growth, and harvest year were characterized by fatty acid concentrations and carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope analyses of bulk oils (delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), delta(18)O(bulk) values) and individual fatty acids (delta(13)C(FA)). The delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), and delta(18)O(bulk) values were determined by continuous flow combustion and high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS, TC-EA/IRMS). The delta(13)C(FA) values were determined using gas chromatography--combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). For comparison, other C(3) vegetable oils rich in linolenic acid (flax and false flax oils) and rich in linoleic acid (poppy, sunflower, and safflower oils) were submitted to the same chemical and isotopic analyses. The bulk and molecular delta(13)C values were typical for C(3) plants. The delta(13)C value of palmitic acid (delta(13)C(16:0)) and n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (delta(13)C(18:3n-3)) differed (p oils. Also within species, significant differences of delta(13)C(FA) were observed (p oil differed between cultivars (p oil and specific fatty acid stable isotope analysis might be useful in tracing dietary lipids differing in their origin.

  6. Value Investing

    OpenAIRE

    Kubínyi, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with value investing in the form defined by Benjamin Graham. In clarifying the theoretical aspects, particular attention is given to an intrinsic value of stocks and to its calculation methods. A way to overcome the deficiencies in the two most widely used models of calculation is introduced. It is value screening, which by defining of certain criteria makes an assumption of undervalued stocks. Then the investment approach of the most successful investor, Warren B...

  7. Processing of MnBi bulk magnets with enhanced energy product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Poudyal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report magnetic properties and microstructure of high energy-product MnBi bulk magnets fabricated by low-temperature ball-milling and warm compaction technique. A maximum energy product (BHmax of 8.4 MGOe and a coercivity of 6.2 kOe were obtained in the bulk MnBi magnet at room temperature. Magnetic characterization at elevated temperatures showed an increase in coercivity to 16.2 kOe while (BHmax value decreased to 6.8 MGOe at 400 K. Microstructure characterization revealed that the bulk magnets consist of oriented uniform nanoscale grains with average size about 50 nm.

  8. Direct measurement and prediction of bulk density on alluvial soils of central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Casanova; Elizabeth Tapia; Oscar Seguel; Osvaldo Salazar

    2016-01-01

    The significance of soil bulk density (ρ) as a key indicator of soil quality was examined in this study. Bulk density values obtained by direct methods (clod, cylinder, and excavation) with three sample sizes (small, medium, and large) were compared with those obtained by 10 published pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for two alluvial soils (a massive fine-textured Fluventic Haploxeroll and an aggregated, coarse-textured Fluventic Haploxerept) of central Chile. With the exception of small cylinde...

  9. Conformal embeddings and higher-spin bulk duals

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Dushyant

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that conformal embeddings can be used to construct non-diagonal modular invariants for affine lie algebras. This idea can be extended to construct infinite series of non-diagonal modular invariants for coset CFTs. In this paper, we systematically approach the problem of identifying higher-spin bulk duals for these kind of non-diagonal invariants. In particular, for a special value of the 't Hooft coupling, there exist a class of partition functions that have enhanced supersymmetry, which should be reflected in a bulk dual. As a illustration of this, we show that a partition function of a orthogonal group coset CFT has a $\\mathcal N=1$ supersymmetric higher-spin bulk dual, in the 't Hooft limit. We also propose that two of the series of CFT partition functions, obtained from conformal embeddings, are equal, generalising the well-known dual interpretation of the 3-state Potts model as a $\\frac{SU(2)_3 \\otimes SU(2)_1}{SU(2)_3}$ and also as a $\\frac{SU(3)_1 \\otimes SU(3)_1}{SU(3)_2}$ coset model...

  10. Thermocline bulk shear analysis in the northern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing

    2016-04-01

    Thermocline bulk shear is investigated in the northern North Sea using historical observations. The conventional bulk shear is modified to define a thermocline bulk shear (TBS), in order to better represent the shear across the thermocline. The TBS computed by observed currents is decomposed into components at different frequency bands. The near-inertial TBS is the largest component. Its dominance is significant during the period of high wind. It is formed by the wind-driven near-inertial current which has a distinct phase shift (˜180°) across the thermocline. A linear model is presented, which well simulates the observed near-inertial TBS, especially during the period of relatively strong wind. The semidiurnal TBS makes a secondary contribution to the total TBS. It is only slightly smaller than the near-inertial TBS when the wind is relatively weak. The large values of semidiurnal TBS are associated with semidiurnal currents which have a phase shift (˜30-40°) or a magnitude difference (˜5 cm/s) across the thermocline. The low-frequency (<0.7 cpd) TBS also makes an episodic contribution to the total. Its variation coincides with the Ekman transport during the period of relatively strong wind. The low-frequency TBS is mainly formed by an Ekman-like clockwise spiraling of velocity with depth or a distinct magnitude difference in velocities between upper and lower layers.

  11. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  12. Into the Bulk: A Covariant Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    I propose a general, covariant way of defining when one region is "deeper in the bulk" than another. This definition is formulated outside of an event horizon (or in the absence thereof) in generic geometries; it may be applied to both points and surfaces, and may be used to compare the depth of bulk points or surfaces relative to a particular boundary subregion or relative to the entire boundary. Using the recently proposed "lightcone cut" formalism, the comparative depth between two bulk points can be determined from the singularity structure of Lorentzian correlators in the dual field theory. I prove that, by this definition, causal wedges of progressively larger regions probe monotonically deeper in the bulk. The definition furthermore matches expectations in pure AdS and in static AdS black holes with isotropic spatial slices, where a well-defined holographic coordinate exists. In terms of holographic RG flow, this new definition of bulk depth makes contact with coarse-graining over both large distances ...

  13. Limits on hadron spectrum from bulk medium properties

    CERN Document Server

    Broniowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    We bring up the fact that the bulk thermal properties of the hadron gas, as measured on the lattice, preclude a very fast rising of the number of resonance states in the QCD spectrum, as assumed by the Hagedorn hypothesis, unless a substantial repulsion between hadronic resonances is present. If the Hagedorn growth continued above masses ~1.8 GeV, then the thermodynamic functions would noticeably depart from the measured lattice values at temperatures above 140 MeV, just below the transition temperature to quark-gluon plasma.

  14. Five-Dimensional Warped Geometry with a Bulk Scalar Field

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, M

    2001-01-01

    We explore the diversity of warped metric function in five-dimensional gravity including a scalar field and a 3-brane. We point out that the form of the function is determined by a parameter introduced here. For a particular value of the parameter, the warped metric function is smooth without having a singularity, and we show that the bulk cosmological constant have a upper bound and must be positive and that the lower bound of five-dimensional fundamental scale is controlled by both the brane tension and four-dimensional effective Planck scale. The general warp factor obtained here may relate to models inspired by SUGRA or M-theory.

  15. BEHAVIORS OF BULK METALLIC GLASS UNDER SHOCK LOADING

    OpenAIRE

    ATROSHENKO S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The high-strain-rate method of materials for dynamic strength investigations under micro and sub-microsecond durations of shock loads on the base of electrical explosion of conductors was developed. The experimental investigations of dynamic properties for bulk metallic glass on the base of Ti and Zr under shock loads of sub-microsecond duration (~0.5-0.7 μs) in the pressure range up to 12 GPa were carried out. The values of Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) and spall strength for these amorphous ...

  16. Fabrication of ternary Ca-Mg-Zn bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper describes the preparation, structure and thermal properties of ternary Ca-Mg-Zn bulk metallic glass in form of as-cast rods.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations on the ternary Ca-Mg-Zn glassy rods were conducted by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM which energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS.Findings: The X-ray diffraction investigations have revealed that the studied as-cast rod was amorphous. The fractures of studied alloy could be classified as mixed fracture with indicated “river” and “smooth” fractures. Both type of the fracture surfaces consist of weakly formed “river” and “shell” patterns and “smooth” regions. The “river” patterns are characteristic for metallic glassy alloys.Practical implications: The studied Ca-based bulk metallic glasses is a relatively new group of material. Ca-based bulk metallic glasses are applied for many applications in different elements. Ca-based bulk metallic glasses have many unique properties such as low density (~2.0 g/cm3, low Youn g’s modulus ( ~20 to 30 GPa. The elastic modulus of Ca-b ased BMGs is comparable to that of hum an bone s, and Ca, Mg, and Zn are biocompatible. These features make the Ca-Mg-Zn–based alloys attractive for use in biomedical applications.Originality/value: Fabrication of amorphous alloy in the form of rod ternary Ca-Mg-Zn alloy by pressure die casting method.

  17. Bulk ion heating with ICRF waves in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M. J., E-mail: mervi.mantsinen@bsc.es [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona (Spain); Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V. V.; Kappatou, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Odstrčil, T.; Tardini, G.; Bernert, M.; Dux, R.; Maraschek, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ryter, F.; Stober, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Nocente, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, CNR, Milano (Italy); Hellsten, T. [Dept. of Fusion Plasma Physics, EES, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Mantica, P.; Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, CNR, Milano (Italy); Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, Lyngby (Denmark); and others

    2015-12-10

    Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER and DEMO operation. This is of particular importance for the bulk ion heating capabilities of ICRF waves. Efficient bulk ion heating with the standard ITER ICRF scheme, i.e. the second harmonic heating of tritium with or without {sup 3}He minority, was demonstrated in experiments carried out in deuterium-tritium plasmas on JET and TFTR and is confirmed by ICRF modelling. This paper focuses on recent experiments with {sup 3}He minority heating for bulk ion heating on the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak with ITER-relevant all-tungsten PFCs. An increase of 80% in the central ion temperature T{sub i} from 3 to 5.5 keV was achieved when 3 MW of ICRF power tuned to the central {sup 3}He ion cyclotron resonance was added to 4.5 MW of deuterium NBI. The radial gradient of the T{sub i} profile reached locally values up to about 50 keV/m and the normalized logarithmic ion temperature gradients R/LT{sub i} of about 20, which are unusually large for AUG plasmas. The large changes in the T{sub i} profiles were accompanied by significant changes in measured plasma toroidal rotation, plasma impurity profiles and MHD activity, which indicate concomitant changes in plasma properties with the application of ICRF waves. When the {sup 3}He concentration was increased above the optimum range for bulk ion heating, a weaker peaking of the ion temperature profile was observed, in line with theoretical expectations.

  18. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  19. A diphoton resonance from bulk RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Recent LHC data hinted at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to any other Standard Model particles would be too low to be detected so far. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from but close to the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  20. Bulk fields from the boundary OPE

    CERN Document Server

    Guica, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has established an equality between the geodesic integral of a free bulk field in AdS and the contribution of the conformal descendants of its dual CFT primary operator to the OPE of two other operators inserted at the endpoints of the geodesic. Working in the context of AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$, we extend this relation to include all $1/N$ corrections to the bulk field obtained by dressing it with i) a $U(1)$ current and ii) the CFT stress tensor, and argue it equals the contribution of the Ka\\v{c}-Moody/the Virasoro block to the respective boundary OPE. This equality holds for a particular framing of the bulk field to the boundary that involves a split Wilson line.

  1. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainable......, that is, there exist composites with extreme bulk and shear moduli. For multiphase composites, they may or may not be attainable depending on phase moduli and volume fractions. Sufficient conditions of attainability of the bounds and various previously known and new types of optimal composites...... are described. Most of our new results are related to the two-dimensional problem. A numerical topology optimization procedure that solves the inverse homogenization problem is adopted and used to look for two-dimensional three-phase composites with a maximal effective bulk modulus. For the combination...

  2. A Diphoton Resonance from Bulk RS

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Recent LHC data hints at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to Higges and to any other Standard Model particles are so far too low to be detected. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. We argue that if the state is a scalar, some form of sequestering is likely to be necessary to naturally explain the suppressed scalar-Higgs interactions. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  3. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  4. First-principles investigation of diffusion behaviours of H isotopes: From W(110) surface into bulk and in bulk W

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yue-Lin; Lu Wei; Gao An-Yuan; Gui Li-Jiang; Zhang Ying

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion behaviours of hydrogen (H),deuterium (D),and tritium (T) from W(110) surface into bulk and in bulk W are investigated using first-principles calculations combined with simplified models.The diffusion energy barrier is shown to be 1.87 eV from W(110) surface to the subsurface,along with a much reduced harrier of 0.06 eV for the reverse diffusion process.After H enters into the bulk,its diffusion energy barrier with quantum correction is 0.19 eV.In terms of the diffusion theory presented by Wert and Zeuer,the diffusion pre-exponential factor of H is calculated to be 1.57×10-7 m2·s-1,and it is quantitatively in agreement with thc experimental value of 4.1×10-7 m2·s-1.Subsequently,according to mass dependence (√1/m) of H isotope effect,the diffusion pre-exponential factors of D and T are estimated to be 1.11x10-7 m2.s-1 and 0.91×10-7 m2.s-1,respectively.

  5. Radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolutionary development of a radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology is reviewed. The metal gate hardened CMOS status is summarized, including both radiation and reliability data. The development of a radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate process which was successfully implemented to a commercial microprocessor family and applied to a new, radiation-hardened, LSI standard cell family is also discussed. The cell family is reviewed and preliminary characterization data is presented. Finally, a brief comparison of the various radiation-hardened technologies with regard to performance, reliability, and availability is made

  6. Remedial investigations for quarry bulk wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy proposes, as a separate operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, to remove contaminated bulk wastes from the Weldon Spring quarry and transport them approximately four miles to the chemical plant portion of the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. The wastes will be held in temporary storage prior to the record of decision for the overall remedial action. The decision on the ultimate disposal of these bulk wastes will be included as part of the decision for management of the waste materials resulting from remedial action activities at the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. 86 refs., 71 figs., 83 tabs

  7. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Livine, Etera R; Terno, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales w...

  8. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Livine, Etera R

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales with the area. We show that in this regime we can fine tune the factor between entropy and area without changing the Immirzi parameter.

  9. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  11. A Stereoscopic Look into the Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-01-01

    We present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphism-invariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the "OPE blocks," contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimal surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space--the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow ...

  12. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro;

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...

  13. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization...

  14. Estimate of the Bulk Viscosity in the Cosmic Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Normann, Ben David

    2016-01-01

    We first give a review of recent works on bulk viscous cosmology. Then, we derive general solutions of the Friedmann equations when bulk viscosity is included in the energy-momentum tensor, both for a single-component and a multicomponent fluid, showing that these general solutions reduce to those found in the literature in special cases. We solve the energy conservation equation for the three cases $\\zeta$=const., $\\zeta\\propto \\sqrt{\\rho}$, and $\\zeta\\propto \\rho$, often studied in previous investigations, and find the best-fit values for the present day viscosity $\\zeta_0$ in each of the three cases. Taking into account constraints from thermodynamics we find, in agreement with previous works, that the present day viscosity is less than about $ 10^7~$Pa s. In fact the best fit values suggest $\\zeta_0\\sim 10^6$Pa s. We point out that this magnitude is acceptable from a hydrodynamic point of view. Altogether, we give preference to the model $\\zeta\\propto \\sqrt{\\rho}$, which by now seems to be widely accepted...

  15. GRBs have preferred jet opening angles and bulk Lorentz factors

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G; Salvaterra, R; Nava, L; Burlon, D; Tagliaferri, G; Campana, S; Covino, S; D'Avanzo, P; Melandri, A

    2012-01-01

    We recently found that Gamma Ray Burst energies and luminosities, in their comoving frame, are remarkably similar. This, coupled with the clustering of energetics once corrected for the collimation factor, suggests the possibility that all bursts, in their comoving frame, have the same peak energy E'peak (of the order of a few keV) and the same energetics of the prompt emission E'gamma (of the order of 2e48 erg). The large diversity of bursts energies is then due to the different bulk Lorentz factor Gamma and jet aperture angle theta_jet. We investigated, through a population synthesis code, what are the distributions of Gamma and theta_jet compatible with the observations. Both quantities must have preferred values, with log-normal best fitting distributions and ~ 275 and ~ 8.7 degree. Moreover, the peak values of the Gamma and theta_jet distributions must be related - theta_jet^2.5 Gamma =const: the narrower the jet angle, the larger the bulk Lorentz factor. We predict that ~6% of the bursts that point to...

  16. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with management IC, which incorporates a supply-independent bias circuitry, an active diode for low-dropout rectification, a bias-flip system for higher efficiency, and a trickle battery charger. The overall system does not require a pre-charged battery, and has power consumption of sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

  17. Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

  18. Testing of bulk tank milk for Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Stroger, U.; Bitsch, V.;

    2001-01-01

    of being test-negative in the third test round was 0.926 for a herd with 2 previous test-negative results. It was concluded that the investigated ELISA method was in general accordance with the cases of clinical S. Dublin infection recorded. and that the method has a potential for national screening......The usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was investigated as a simple method to screen for Salmonella Dublin infection in dairy herds, examining bulk tank milk samples for lipopolysaccharide (O:1,9,12) antibodies. The cut-off value for the ELISA on bulk tank milk was established...... based on individual milk samples (n = 2887) and bulk tank milk from 52 herds. Bulk tank milk samples (n = 5108) were collected from 1464 dairy herds located in 19 different areas. About 10% of the dairy herds in Denmark participated in the study. The percentage of herds changing from test...

  19. Anisotropy Effect on Levitation Performance of Bulk High-Tc Superconductors Above a Permanent Magnet Guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Liao, Xinglin; Jing, Hailian; Lin, Qunxu; Ma, Guangtong; Yen, Fei; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu

    The anisotropy properties of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) are taken into consideration for the application of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev systems, which are especially based on the different flux-trapping capabilities as well as critical current density, Jc, values between the growth section boundary (GSB) and the growth sections (GS) in bulk superconductors. By adjusting the angle between the GSB of bulk HTSCs and the strongest magnetic field position of a permanent magnet guideway (PMG), the levitation force and its relaxation processes are compared at different field-cooling conditions. Experimental results show that the levitation capability and the suppression of levitation force decay can be enhanced by optimizing the GS/GSB alignment of every bulk HTSC above the PMG. Meanwhile, our conclusions may provide references to other HTS maglev systems with small levitation gaps, i.e., superconducting magnetic bearings.

  20. Developing Value

    OpenAIRE

    Cowe, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Based on more than 240 real-life examples in over 60 countries, Developing Value is the first large-scale study analyzing the business case for sustainability in emerging markets, the opportunity for businesses to achieve benefits such as higher sales, reduced costs and lower risks from better corporate governance, improved environmental practices, and investments in social and economic de...

  1. Value Added

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  2. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  3. Face Value

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine C. Eckel; Ragan Petrie

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence of systematic heterogeneity in behavior by observable characteristics, such as what one would see in a face. We ask, is there informational value in knowing these characteristics in a strategic interaction? Subjects are given the opportunity to purchase a photograph of their partner in the play of a trust game. Not everyone purchases the photo, even at prices as low as $0.20. Senders (first movers in the game) have a more inelastic demand for pictures than responders...

  4. NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience are summarized. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is shown as one of the companies which are able to make NPPs industrial sites free from stored bulk equipment with its further utilization. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is the Russian Federation sole specialized metallic LLW (MLLW) treatment and utilization facility. Company's main objectives are waste predisposal volume reduction and treatment for the unrestricted release as a scrap. Leningrad NPP decommissioned main pumps and moisture separators/steam super heaters dismantling results are presented. Prospective fragmentation technologies (diamond and electro-erosive cutting) testing results are described. The electro-erosive cutting machine designed by 'ECOMET-S' JSC is presented. The fragmentation technologies implementation plans for nuclear industry are presented too. (author)

  5. Bulk and shear viscosity in Hagedorn fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses m <2 GeV obeys the first-order theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium of hadron resonances are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the in-medium thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosity and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo- and hydro-dynamics equations of state. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Bulk and Shear Viscosity in Hagedorn Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses $m<2\\,$GeV obeys the {\\it first-order} theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the {\\it in-medium} thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosities and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equlibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo and hydrodynamics equations of state.

  7. Bulk Locality and Boundary Creating Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a minimum requirement for CFT operators to be localized in the dual AdS. In any spacetime dimensions, we show that a general solution to the requirement is a linear superposition of operators creating spherical boundaries in CFT, with the dilatation by the imaginary unit from their centers. This generalizes the recent proposal by Miyaji et al. for bulk local operators in the three dimensional AdS. We show that Ishibashi states for the global conformal symmetry in any dimensions and with the imaginary dilatation obey free field equations in AdS and that incorporating bulk interactions require their superpositions. We also comment on the recent proposals by Kabat et al., and by H. Verlinde.

  8. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denlinger, Jonathan; Clack, Jules A.; Allen, James W.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Poirier, Derek M.; Olson, Cliff G.; Sarrao, John L.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2002-08-01

    Complementary angle-resolved photoemission and bulk-sensitive k-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of divalent hexaborides reveal a >1 eV X-point gap between the valence and conduction bands, in contradiction to the band overlap assumed in several models of their novel ferromagnetism. This semiconducting gap implies that carriers detected in transport measurements arise from defects, and the measured location of the bulk Fermi level at the bottom of the conduction band implicates boron vacancies as the origin of the excess electrons. The measured band structure and X-point gap in CaB6 additionally provide a stringent test case for proper inclusion of many-body effects in quasi-particle band calculations.

  9. Brane plus Bulk Supersymmetry in Ten Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, E A; Ortín, Tomas; Roest, D; Van Proeyen, A

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a generalized form of IIA/IIB supergravity depending on all R-R potentials C^(p) (p=0,1,...,9) as the effective field theory of Type IIA/IIB superstring theory. For the IIA case we explicitly break this R-R democracy to either p=5 which allows us to write a new bulk action that can be coupled to N=1 supersymmetric brane actions. The case of 8-branes is studied in detail using the new bulk & brane action. The supersymmetric negative tension branes without matter excitations can be viewed as orientifolds in the effective action. These D8-branes and O8-planes are fundamental in Type I' string theory. A BPS 8-brane solution is given which satisfies the jump conditions on the wall. As an application of our results we derive a quantization of the mass parameter and the cosmological constant in string units.

  10. Surface-Bulk Vibrational Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Covert, Paul A; Jarisz, Tasha A; Chan, Chantelle; Hore, Dennis K

    2016-05-01

    Homo- and heterospectral correlation analysis are powerful methods for investigating the effects of external influences on the spectra acquired using distinct and complementary techniques. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy is a selective and sensitive probe of surface structure changes, as bulk molecules are excluded on the basis of symmetry. However, as a result of this exquisite specificity, it is blind to changes that may be occurring in the solution. We demonstrate that correlation analysis between surface-specific techniques and bulk probes such as infrared absorption or Raman scattering may be used to reveal additional details of the adsorption process. Using the adsorption of water and ethanol binary mixtures as an example, we illustrate that this provides support for a competitive binding model and adds new insight into a dimer-to-bilayer transition proposed from previous experiments and simulations. PMID:27058265

  11. Bulk entropy in loop quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livine, Etera R. [Laboratoire de Physique ENS Lyon, CNRS UMR 5672, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)], E-mail: etera.livine@ens-lyon.fr; Terno, Daniel R. [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)], E-mail: dterno@physics.mq.edu.au

    2008-05-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), we generalize previous boundary state counting for black hole entropy [E.R. Livine, D.R. Terno, Quantum black holes: Entropy and entanglement on the horizon, Nucl. Phys. B 741 (2006) 131, (gr-qc/0508085)] to a full bulk state counting. After suitable gauge fixing, we show how to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region of space (the 'black hole') with fixed boundary conditions. This allows to study in detail the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area and to identify a holographic regime for LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales with the area. In this regime we can fine tune the factor between entropy and area without changing the Immirzi parameter.

  12. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Helena, E-mail: hpardo@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Divine Khan, Ngwashi [Mantfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Faccio, Ricardo [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araujo-Moreira, F.M. [Grupo de Materiais e Dispositivos-CMDMC, Departamento de Fisica e Engenharia Fisica, UFSCar, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos SP (Brazil); Fernandez-Werner, Luciana [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-08-15

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm{sup -1} showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  13. Material profile influences in bulk-heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Roehling, J.D.; Rochester, C.W.; Ro, H.W.; Wang, P.; Majewski, J; Batenburg, Joost; Arslan, I; Delongchamp, D.M.; Moulé, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualitatively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fulleren...

  14. Superconducting RF cavities film of bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The successful operation of LEP2 has demonstrated the feasibility of using on a large scale copper accelerating cavities coated with a thin superconducting niobium film. Yet other existing or planned installations such as CEBAF and TESLA, rely instead on the bulk niobium technology. The reason is a wide spread belief that the film technology would suffer from fundamental limitations preventing high gradients to be reached...

  15. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Reluctance motors with bulk HTS material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years we have successfully designed, built and tested several reluctance motors with YBCO bulk material incorporated into the rotor, working at 77 K. Our last motor type SRE150 was tested up to 200 kW. The aim of our investigations is the construction of motors with extremely high power density and dynamics. In comparison to conventional motor types the advantage of HTS reluctance motors with respect to size and dynamics could be demonstrated. Some fields of possible future applications will be described. These motors show a significant improvement in performance using high quality HTS bulk elements in the rotor. Until now the motor parameters have been limited by the current density which could be obtained in the bulk material at 77 K and by the geometric dimensions of the segments available. Therefore we expect further improvements in the case of these materials. Since the total motor including stator and rotor is working at low temperature we have to optimize the windings and the magnetic circuit to these operation conditions. A new design of a 200 kW motor in order to achieve increased power density and the theoretical results of our calculations will be shown

  17. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-01-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation–best described as an atomic scale ripple–was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain. PMID:27640724

  18. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Singh

    2008-07-01

    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model. The `gamma' function is defined in such a way that it describes a unified solution of early evolution of the Universe for inflationary and radiation-dominated phases. The fluid has only bulk viscous term and the coefficient of bulk viscosity is taken to be proportional to some power function of the energy density. The complete general solutions have been given through three cases. For flat space, power-law as well as exponential solutions are found. The problem of how the introduction of viscosity affects the appearance of singularity, is briefly discussed in particular solutions. The deceleration parameter has a freedom to vary with the scale factor of the model, which describes the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  19. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-09-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation–best described as an atomic scale ripple–was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain.

  20. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L; Tucker, Garritt J; Barsoum, Michel W

    2016-01-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation-best described as an atomic scale ripple-was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain. PMID:27640724

  1. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  2. Dietary variation within and between populations of northeast Atlantic killer whales Orcinus orca inferred from d13C and d15N analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Vester, Heike; Vikingsson, Gisli A.;

    2012-01-01

    Epidermal skin samples from eastern North Atlantic killer whales, Orcinus orca, were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. From those, compar- isons within a data set of 17 samples collected from Tysfjord, Norway, in November suggested that diet is relatively specialized during...

  3. Leaf d15N as a physiological indicator of the responsiveness of N2-fixing alfalfa plants to elevated [CO2], temperature and low water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia eAriz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural 15N/14N isotope composition (δ15N of a tissue is a consequence of its N source and N physiological mechanisms in response to the environment. It could potentially be used as a tracer of N metabolism in plants under changing environmental conditions, where primary N metabolism may be complex, and losses and gains of N fluctuate over time. In order to test the utility of δ15N as an indicator of plant N status in N2-fixing plants grown under various environmental conditions, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were subjected to distinct conditions of [CO2] (400 versus 700 mol mol-1, temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4ºC and water availability (fully watered versus water deficiency - WD. As expected, increased [CO2] and temperature stimulated photosynthetic rates and plant growth, whereas these parameters were negatively affected by WD. The determination of δ15N in leaves, stems, roots and nodules showed that leaves were the most representative organs of the plant response to increased [CO2] and WD. Depletion of heavier N isotopes in plants grown under higher [CO2] and WD conditions reflected decreased transpiration rates, but could also be related to a higher N demand in leaves, as suggested by the decreased leaf N and total soluble protein (TSP contents detected at 700 mol mol-1 [CO2] and WD conditions. In summary, leaf δ15N provides relevant information integrating parameters which condition plant responsiveness (e.g. photosynthesis, TSP, N demand and water transpiration to environmental conditions.

  4. Effects of boron nutrition and water stress on nitrogen fixation, seed d15N and d13C daynamics, and seed composition in soybean cultivars differing in maturities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water stress is a major abiotic stress factor, resulting in a major yield loss and poor seed quality. Little information is available on the effects of B nutrition on seed composition under water stress. Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutr...

  5. Feeding and migration habits of white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes: Lamnidae) from Isla Guadalupe inferred by analysis of stable isotopes d15N and d 13C

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Jaime-Rivera; Javier Caraveo-Patiño; Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla; Felipe Galván-Magaña

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope composition of marine top predators tissues provides insight information of its trophic ecology and migratory behavior. Previous reports have shown that dermal tissues could record longer patterns of hunting and movement. Based on this, the aim of this study was to describe the feeding and migratory habits of the white shark from Isla Guadalupe, using stable isotopic analysis of dermis. We considered a small subset of many possible prey taxa that the sharks could have eaten thr...

  6. Disentangling surface, bulk, and space-charge-layer conductivity in Si(111)-(7x7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, J.W.; Kallehauge, J.F.; Hansen, Torben Mikael;

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach for extracting genuine surface conductivities is presented and illustrated using the unresolved example of Si(111)-(7x7). Its temperature-dependent conductivity was measured with a microscopic four point probe between room temperature and 100 K. At room temperature the measured......), irrespective of bulk doping. This abrupt transition is interpreted as the switching from bulk to surface conduction, an interpretation which is supported by a numerical model for the measured four point probe conductance. The value of the surface conductance is considerably lower than that of a good metal....... conductance corresponds to that expected from the bulk doping level. However, as the temperatures is lowered below approximate to 200 K, the conductance decreases by several orders of magnitude in a small temperature range and it saturates at a low temperature value of approximate to 4x10(-8) Omega(-1...

  7. Use of thermal neutron reflection method for chemical analysis of bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A., E-mail: papppa@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Csikai, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Institute of Experimental Physics, University Debrecen (IEP), 4010 Debrecen-10, Pf. 105 (Hungary)

    2014-09-11

    Microscopic, σ{sub β}, and macroscopic, Σ{sub β}, reflection cross-sections of thermal neutrons averaged over bulk samples as a function of thickness (z) are given. The σ{sub β} values are additive even for bulk samples in the z=0.5–8 cm interval and so the σ{sub βmol}(z) function could be given for hydrogenous substances, including some illicit drugs, explosives and hiding materials of ∼1000 cm{sup 3} dimensions. The calculated excess counts agree with the measured R(z) values. For the identification of concealed objects and chemical analysis of bulky samples, different neutron methods need to be used simultaneously. - Highlights: • Check the proposed analytical expression for the description of the flux. • Determination of the reflection cross-sections averaged over bulk samples. • Data rendered to estimate the excess counts for various materials.

  8. Thermal properties of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of paper is presentation of results bulk metallic glasses thermal properties such as temperatures typical for glassy transition and thermal conductivity. Design/methodology/approach: Investigations were realized for Fe36Co36B19.2Si4.8Nb4 samples with dimension 3 mm in diameter. Bulk test pieces were fabricated by copper mold casting method. Thermal analysis of master alloy (DTA and samples in as-cast state (DSC was realized. For amorphous structure confirmation the X-ray diffraction phase analysis (XRD was realized. Additionally scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs were performed in order to structure analysis. Thermal conductivity was determined by prototype measuring station.Findings: The XRD and SEM analysis confirmed amorphous structure of samples. Broad diffraction “halo” was observed for every testing piece. Fracture morphology is smooth with many “veins” on the surface, which are characteristic for glassy state. DTA analysis confirmed eutectic chemical composition of master alloy. Thermal conductivity measurements proved that both samples have comparable thermal conductivity.Practical implications: The FeCo-based bulk metallic glasses have attracted great interest for a variety application fields for example precision machinery materials, electric applications, structural materials, sporting goods, medical devices. Thermal conductivity is useful and important property for example computer simulation of temperature distribution and glass forming ability calculation.Originality/value: The obtained results confirm the utility of applied investigation methods in the thermal and structure analysis of examined amorphous alloys. Thermal conductivity was determined using the prototype measuring station, which is original issue of the paper. In future, the measuring station will be expanded for samples with different dimensions.

  9. STUDY ON THE BULK DENSITY OF HIGH CONSISTENCY PULP AND ENGINEERING APPLICATION IN THE BLEACHING TOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Fu Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available From experimental simulation of the process of high consistency pulp moving in a bleaching tower, the aerated bulk density and packed bulk density were measured and studied by using a self-made experimental system. The scattered experimental data – pressure p, and bulk density difference, which was between packed bulk density and aerated bulk density (ρ-ρ0 – were fitted by using Matlab software, and some good-fitting regression curves and equations were obtained. The results showed there was a break point W in the regression curves; within the range of pressure between zero and W the relationship between (ρ-ρ0 and p was a linear function, while for pressure between W and 70000 the relationship was a power function. To effectively meet with the bleaching response for the different kinds and different consistencies of pulp in the tower, by using the fitting regression equations combined with the expressions of average bulk density and pressure in the tower caused by gravity-driven pulp, two equations for average packed density ρa were deduced with the aim of deciding the maximum volume value of the tower, in agreement with the sizes of the towers presently used by major companies.

  10. A smooth and differentiable bulk-solvent model for macromolecular diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for modeling the bulk solvent in macromolecular diffraction data based on Babinet’s principle is presented. The proposed models offer the advantage of differentiability with respect to atomic coordinates. Inclusion of low-resolution data in macromolecular crystallography requires a model for the bulk solvent. Previous methods have used a binary mask to accomplish this, which has proven to be very effective, but the mask is discontinuous at the solute–solvent boundary (i.e. the mask value jumps from zero to one) and is not differentiable with respect to atomic parameters. Here, two algorithms are introduced for computing bulk-solvent models using either a polynomial switch or a smoothly thresholded product of Gaussians, and both models are shown to be efficient and differentiable with respect to atomic coordinates. These alternative bulk-solvent models offer algorithmic improvements, while showing similar agreement of the model with the observed amplitudes relative to the binary model as monitored using R, Rfree and differences between experimental and model phases. As with the standard solvent models, the alternative models improve the agreement primarily with lower resolution (>6 Å) data versus no bulk solvent. The models are easily implemented into crystallographic software packages and can be used as a general method for bulk-solvent correction in macromolecular crystallography

  11. Materials preparation and magnetization of Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Difan; Miki, Motohiro; Zhang, Yufeng; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-05-01

    The paper reports on recent achievements in the preparation and magnetization of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTS). The melt-growth of HTS bulks has technically stabilized due to the use of buffer materials with a seed crystal and modified infiltration to supply a rich liquid phase during growth. This modified growth technology was adapted as our standard processing method. This paper describes some new aspects of both field cooling and pulsed field magnetization processes. Pulsed field magnetization uses waveform control that feeds back the transient flux around the top-center of the bulks and traps a field of 1.63 T, which is more than 90% of the field cooling value. This was achieved by applying a single step pulsed field at a liquid nitrogen temperature. For practical applications, the magnetization under a static magnetic field that is tilted from the crystallographic c-axis was investigated at liquid nitrogen temperature. The trapped flux component perpendicular to the bulk surface remains strong up to θ = 30° inclination, compared to the procedure along the axis. Information about HTS bulks is considered to be important for machine applications using bulk HTS as cryo-permanent magnets.

  12. Using measurements of the cosmic bulk flow to constrain f(R) Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Jacob; Parkinson, David

    2016-10-01

    As an alternate explanation for the cosmic acceleration, f(R) theories of gravity can predict an almost identical expansion history to standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM), yet make very different predictions for the growth of cosmological structures. Measurements of the cosmic bulk flow provide a method for determining the strength of gravity over the history of structure formation. We use the modified gravity N-body code ECOSMOG to simulate dark matter particles and make predictions for the bulk flow magnitude in both ΛCDM and f(R) gravity. With the peculiar velocities output by ECOSMOG, we determine the bulk flow at depths ranging from 20 to 50 h-1Mpc, following the redshift and sky distribution of the 2MASS Tully-Fisher survey (2MTF). At each depth, we find that the ΛCDM and fR0 = 10-5 simulations produce bulk flow measurements that are consistent with ΛCDM predictions and the 2MTF survey at a 1σ level. We also find that adopting an f(R) strength of fR0 = 10-3 predict a much larger value for the bulk flow, which disagree with ΛCDM predictions at all depths considered. We conclude that fR0 must be constrained to a level no greater than 10-4 to agree with bulk flow measurements.

  13. Cohesion and device reliability in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali

    2012-04-01

    The fracture resistance of P3HT:PC 60BM-based photovoltaic devices are characterized using quantitative adhesion and cohesion metrologies that allow identification of the weakest layer or interface in the device structure. We demonstrate that the phase separated bulk heterojunction layer is the weakest layer and report quantitative cohesion values which ranged from ∼1 to 20 J m -2. The effects of layer thickness, composition, and annealing treatments on layer cohesion are investigated. Using depth profiling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the resulting fracture surfaces, we examine the gradient of molecular components through the thickness of the bulk heterojunction layer. Finally, using atomic force microscopy we show how the topography of the failure path is related to buckling of the metal electrode and how it develops with annealing. The research provides new insights on how the molecular design, structure and composition affect the cohesive properties of organic photovoltaics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Melt processing of bulk high Tc superconductors and their application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, M.; Oyama, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Gotoh, S.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1991-03-01

    The authors report a melt-powder-melt-growth (MPMG) process which results in high Jc for bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. The Y-Ba-Cu-O pellets or powders are melt quenched. The quenched plates are crushed into powder and mixed well. The powder is then compacted into desired shapes, remelted, and slowly cooled in a thermal gradient. When the starting composition is changed from the 1:2:3 stoichiometry toward the Y2BaCuO5(211) rich region, the 211 inclusions can be dispersed in the YBa2Cu3O(x) matrix, which contributes to increases in both flux pinning force and fracture toughness. A Jc value exceeding 3 x 108 A/sq m has been achieved at 77 K and 1 T. Another attractive feature of the MPMG process is that other components such as fine Ag powders can be added during solid-state mixing. Fine dispersion of Ag particles can effectively reduce the amount of cracking. MPMG-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O with Ag doping can levitate a mass of 3-kg at 1-mm height using a repulsive force against a 0.4-T magnet. A noncontacting rotation device such as a magnetic bearing can be made utilizing bulk high-Jc materials. A superconducting permanent magnet is also a promising candidate for future application. MPMG-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O can generate 0.25 T at 77 K.

  15. Phenomenological theory of bulk diffusion in metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvil'deev, V. N.; Smirnova, E. S.

    2016-07-01

    Phenomenological description of bulk diffusion in oxide ceramics has been proposed. Variants of vacancy and vacancy-free diffusion models have been considered. In the vacancy models, ion migration is described as a fluctuation with the formation of a "liquid corridor," along which the diffusion ion transport in a "melt" is performed, or, as a fluctuation with the formation of an "empty corridor," in which the ion motion proceeds without activation. The vacancy-free model considers a fluctuation with the formation of a spherical liquid region whose sizes correspond to the first coordination sphere. It has been shown that both the vacancy models work in cubic metal oxides and the vacancy-free model is effective for describing diffusion in oxides having a noncubic structure. Detailed comparison of the models developed has been performed. It has been shown that the values of the activation energies for diffusion of metal and oxygen ions agree with the published data on bulk diffusion in stoichiometric oxide ceramics.

  16. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of carbon steel with bulk coating holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With epoxy coal tar as the coating material, the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Q235 with different kinds of bulk coating holidays has been investigated with EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) in a 3.5vol% NaCl aqueous solution.The area ratio of bulk coating holiday to total coating area of steel is 4.91%. The experimental results showed that at free corrosionpotential, the corrosion of carbon steel with disbonded coating holiday is heavier than that with broken holiday and disbonded & broken holiday with time; Moreover, the effectiveness of Cathodic Protection (CP) of carbon steel with broken holiday is better than that with disbonded holiday and disbonded & broken holiday on CP potential -850 mV (vs CSE). Further analysis indicated that the two main reasons for corrosion are electrolyte solution slowly penetrating the coating, and crevice corrosion at steel/coating interface near holidays. The ratio of impedance amplitude (Z) of different frequency to minimum frequency is defined as K value. The change rate of K with frequency is related to the type of coating holiday.

  17. The desorptivity model of bulk soil-water evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Available models of bulk evaporation from a bare-surfaced soil are difficult to apply to field conditions where evaporation is complicated by two main factors: rate-limiting climatic conditions and redistribution of soil moisture following infiltration. Both factors are included in the "desorptivity model', wherein the evaporation rate during the second stage (the soil-limiting stage) of evaporation is related to the desorptivity parameter, A. Analytical approximations for A are presented. The approximations are independent of the surface soil moisture. However, calculations using the approximations indicate that both soil texture and soil moisture content at depth significantly affect A. Because the moisture content at depth decreases in time during redistribution, it follows that the A parameter also changes with time. Consequently, a method to calculate a representative value of A was developed. When applied to field data, the desorptivity model estimated cumulative evaporation well. The model is easy to calculate, but its usefulness is limited because it requires an independent estimate of the time of transition between the first and second stages of evaporation. The model shows that bulk evaporation after the transition to the second stage is largely independent of climatic conditions.

  18. Lattice constant and hardness of InSb:Bi bulk crystals grown by vertical directional solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Dilip; Deshpande, Manisha; Choudhary, Rashmi; Gadkari, Dattatray

    2016-05-01

    Ingots of the Bi doped InSb (InSb1-xBix) bulk semiconductor crystals were grown by specially designed Vertical Directional Solidification (VDS) technique. Substrates of seven crystals grown with various composition values of x (0 ≤ x 0.05.

  19. Levitation performance of YBCO bulk in different applied magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: asclab@asclab.cn; Wang, S.Y.; Jing, H.; Zheng, J.; Jiang, M.; Wang, J.S. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2008-07-01

    The maglev performance of bulk high-T{sub c} superconductor (HTS) is investigated above three different types of permanent magnet guideways (PMGs). The main difference among these PMGs is the method used to concentrate the magnetic flux. The experimental results indicate that the levitation force depends only in part on the peak value of the magnetic field. The variation of the vertical component of the magnetic field (B{sub z}), and the structure of the magnetic field are also responsible for the levitation force. These results imply that the permanent magnet with high coercive force is better at concentrating flux th an iron. The conclusions contribute in a very helpful way to the design and optimization of PMGs for HTS maglev systems.

  20. Evolution of bulk damage initiation in DKDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher W.; McMillian, T. H.; Staggs, Mike C.; Radousky, Harry B.; Demos, Stavros G.

    2003-05-01

    We investigate the evolution of laser-induced damage initiated in the bulk of DKDP crystals using in-situ microscopy. Experimental results indicate that at peek fluences greater than 10 J/cm2, damage sites are formed with increasing number as a function of the laser fluence. Following plasma formation, cracks are observed which grow in size for tens of seconds after the termination of the laser pulse. Subsequent irradiation leads to modest increase in size only during the initial 2-5 pulses. Experimental results suggest that there is also relaxation of the stresses adjacent to a damage site for several hours after initial damage.

  1. Hubble Parameter in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Wahba, M

    2009-01-01

    We discuss influences of bulk viscosity on the Early Universe, which is modeled by Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and Einstein field equations. We assume that the matter filling the isotropic and homogeneous background is relativistic viscous characterized by ultra-relativistic equations of state deduced from recent lattice QCD simulations. We obtain a set of complicated differential equations, for which we suggest approximate solutions for Hubble parameter $H$. We find that finite viscosity in Eckart and Israel-Stewart fluids would significantly modify our picture about the Early Universe.

  2. Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of 235U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. We have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, 235U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. The bulk composition of exo-planets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensicke, Boris; Dufour, Patrick; Farihi, Jay; Jura, Michael; Kilic, Mukremin; Melis, Carl; Veras, Dimitri; Xu, Siyi; Zuckerman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Priorities in exo-planet research are rapidly moving from finding planets to characterizing their physical properties. Of key importance is their chemical composition, which feeds back into our understanding of planet formation. For the foreseeable future, far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of white dwarfs accreting planetary debris remains the only way to directly and accurately measure the bulk abundances of exo-planetary bodies. The exploitation of this method is limited by the sensitivity of HST, and significant progress will require a large-aperture space telescope with a high-throughput ultraviolet spectrograph.

  4. Neutron moisture gage for bulk material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desing and operation of neutron moisture gage of bulk materials intended for the determination of moisture of coke, agglomerated charge, and iron ore concentrate in black metallurgy is described. The moisture gage operates both under ''measurement'' and ''calibration'' conditions, contains a fast neutron source, and two groups of slow neutron detectors. Technical and economic efficiency of the moisture gage utilization consists in the improved accuracy of moisture detection at the expense of more accurate calibration, optimum arrangement of the carriage in a hopper, and stabilization of detector temperature. The device service is also simplified

  5. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  6. Failure by fracture in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, C.M.A.; Alves, Luis M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin;

    2015-01-01

    under loading conditions different from those found in conventional tests for bulk formability based on cylindrical,tapered and flanged specimens.The new formability test consists of expanding rings of various wall thicknesses with a stepped conical punch and allows investigating the onset of failure...... by cracking under three-dimensional states of stress subjected to various magnitudes of stress triaxiality.The presentation is supported by finite element analysis and experimentation in aluminium AA2030-T4 and results show that failure by fracture under three-dimensional loading conditions can be easily...

  7. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains t...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  8. Temperature Dependence of Interatomic Separation and Bulk Modulus for Alkali Halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan

    2016-07-01

    The values of interatomic separation r with the change of temperature T for seven alkali halides have been investigated with the help of an isobaric equation of state. The calculated results are used to predict the values of bulk modulus at different temperatures. The results are compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical results and are further discussed in view of recent research in the field of high temperature physics.

  9. Determination of critical current density in melt-processed HTS bulks from levitation force measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kordyuk, A. A.; Nemoshkalenko, V.V.; Viznichenko, R. V.; Habisreuther, T.; Gawalek, W.

    1999-01-01

    A simple approach to describe the levitation force measurements on melt-processed HTS bulks was developed. A couple of methods to determine the critical current density $J_c$ were introduced. The averaged $ab$-plane $J_c$ values for the field parallel to this plane were determined. The first and second levitation force hysteresis loops calculated with these $J_c$ values coincide remarkably well with the experimental data.

  10. Production, Properties and Applications of Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Akihisa Inoue

    2000-01-01

    A review is given of recent work concerned with the production method, the characteristic properties(1) Bulk amorphous system; (2) Mechanical and magnetic properties of bulkamorphous alloys; (3)application of bulk amorphous alloys.

  11. Effect of rare earth substitution in cobalt ferrite bulk materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulai, G., E-mail: georgiana.bulai@uaic.ro [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Diamandescu, L. [National Institute of Material Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 07125 Bucharest (Romania); Dumitru, I.; Gurlui, S. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Feder, M. [National Institute of Material Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 07125 Bucharest (Romania); Caltun, O.F. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-09-15

    The study was focused on the influence of small amounts of rare earth (RE=La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) addition on the microstructure, phase content and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite bulk materials. The X-Ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the spinel structure but also the presence of secondary phases of RE oxides or orthoferrite in small percentages (up to 3%). Density measurements obtained by Archimedes method revealed a ~1 g cm{sup −3} decrease for the RE doped cobalt ferrite samples compared with stoichiometric one. Both the Mössbauer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrocopy analysis results confirmed the formation of the spinel phase. The saturation magnetization and coercive field values of the doped samples obtained by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry were close to those of the pure cobalt ferrite. For magnetostrictive property studies the samples were analyzed using the strain gauge method. Higher maximum magnetostriction coefficients were found for the Ho, Ce, Sm and Yb doped cobalt ferrite bulk materials as related to the stoichiometric CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample. Moreover, improved strain derivative was observed for these samples but at higher magnetic fields due to the low increase of the coercive field values for doped samples. - Highlights: • Substitution by a large number of rare earth elements was investigated. • First reported results on magnetostriction measurements of RE doped cobalt ferrite. • The doped samples presented an increased porosity and a decreased grain size. • Increased magnetostrctive response was observed for several doped samples.

  12. Constructing local bulk observables in interacting AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel; Lowe, David A

    2011-01-01

    Local operators in the bulk of AdS can be represented as smeared operators in the dual CFT. We show how to construct these bulk observables by requiring that the bulk operators commute at spacelike separation. This extends our previous work by taking interactions into account. Large-N factorization plays a key role in the construction. We show diagrammatically how this procedure is related to bulk Feynman diagrams.

  13. Molecular Intercalation and Cohesion of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2013-01-17

    The phase separated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer in BHJ polymer:fullerene organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) are mechanically weak with low values of cohesion. Improved cohesion is important for OPV device thermomechanical reliability. BHJ devices are investigated and how fullerene intercalation within the active layer affects cohesive properties in the BHJ is shown. The intercalation of fullerenes between the side chains of the polymers poly(3,3″′-didocecyl quaterthiophene) (PQT-12) and poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT) is shown to enhance BHJ layer cohesion. Cohesion values range from ≈1 to 5 J m -2, depending on the polymer:fullerene blend, processing conditions, and composition. Devices with non-intercalated BHJ layers are found to have significantly reduced values of cohesion. The resulting device power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are also investigated and correlated with the device cohesion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  15. Enhancing bulk superconductivity by engineering granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, James; García García, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The quest for higher critical temperatures is one of the main driving forces in the field of superconductivity. Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that quantum size effects in isolated nano-grains can boost superconductivity with respect to the bulk limit. Here we explore the optimal range of parameters that lead to an enhancement of the critical temperature in a large three dimensional array of these superconducting nano-grains by combining mean-field, semiclassical and percolation techniques. We identify a broad range of parameters for which the array critical temperature, TcArray, can be up to a few times greater than the non-granular bulk limit, Tc 0. This prediction, valid only for conventional superconductors, takes into account an experimentally realistic distribution of grain sizes in the array, charging effects, dissipation by quasiparticles and limitations related to the proliferation of thermal fluctuations for sufficiently small grains. For small resistances we find the transition is percolation driven. Whereas at larger resistances the transition occurs above the percolation threshold due to phase fluctuations. JM acknowledes support from an EPSRC Ph.D studentship, AMG acknowledges support from EPSRC, grant No. EP/I004637/1, FCT, grant PTDC/FIS/111348/2009 and a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant PIRG07-GA-2010-268172.

  16. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1-x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  17. Characterization of bulk superconductors through EBSD methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka, M. R.; Koblischka-Veneva, A.

    2003-10-01

    The application of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique to bulk high- Tc superconductors is presented and reviewed. Due to the ceramic nature and the complex crystallographic unit cells of the perovskite-type high- Tc superconductors, the EBSD analysis is not yet as common as it deserves. We have successfully performed EBSD analysis on a variety of high- Tc compounds and samples including polycrystalline YBCO (pure and doped by alkali metals), melt-textured YBCO, thin and thick films of YBCO; the “green phase” Y 2BaCuO 5, thin film and melt-textured NdBa 2Cu 3O x and Bi-2212 single crystals and tapes. It is shown that the surface preparation of the samples is crucial due to the small information depth (up to 100 nm) of the EBSD technique. High quality Kikuchi patterns are the requirement in order to enable the automated EBSD mapping, which yields phase distributions, individual grain orientations and the misorientation angle distribution. The results can be presented in form of mappings, as charts, and as pole figures. These informations are required for a better understanding of the growth mechanism(s) of bulk high- Tc superconductors intended for applications.

  18. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  19. 7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Print and bulk packaging rooms. 58.313 Section 58.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related...

  20. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6802 - Bulk delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulk delivery vehicles. 56.6802 Section 56.6802... § 56.6802 Bulk delivery vehicles. No welding or cutting shall be performed on a bulk delivery vehicle until the vehicle has been washed down and all explosive material has been removed. Before welding...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6802 - Bulk delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulk delivery vehicles. 57.6802 Section 57.6802...-Surface and Underground § 57.6802 Bulk delivery vehicles. No welding or cutting shall be performed on a bulk delivery vehicle until the vehicle has been washed down and all explosive material has...

  3. Bulk forming of industrial micro components in conventional metals and bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer;

    2007-01-01

    For production of micro components in large numbers, forging is an interesting and challenging process. The conventional metals like silver, steel and aluminum often require multi-step processes, but high productivity and increased strength justify the investment. As an alternative, bulk metallic...

  4. Flux pinning effect in a melt textured YBCO bulk evaluated by using tension measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Ho; Ahmad, Dawood; Kim, Byoung Joo; Cha, Myoungsik; Yang, Ho Soon; Kim, Young Cheol; Ko, Rock Kil; Jeong, Dae Young

    2013-01-01

    Research on the flux pinning effect in type-II superconductors has usually been focused on microor nanosize pinning centers, and mm-sized pinning centers have been relatively less studied. In order to investigate the flux pinning effect caused by mm-sized pinning centers, we introduce a tension measurement method in this research. A cm-sized melt-textured YBCO bulk, in which holes with a 2 mm diameter are made, is prepared. The YBCO bulk is field-cooled by using a strong magnet in liquid nitrogen, and the bulk and the magnet are separated from each other. Then, an attractive force ( f a ) between them is generated, and f a is detected by using a tension measuring device. As the distance ( d) between them is increased, f a increases at short distance and decreases at long distance, showing a maximum value, f am , at a specific distance. The measurement of f a is stopped when d reaches a value defined as the breaking distance ( d bk ), as if a `string' between the magnet and the YBCO bulk is broken. As the number of holes ( n) made in the YBCO bulk increases from 1 to 6, f am and d bk increase, in spite of the superconducting volume loss. f am and d bk for n ≥ 7 converge to nearly constant values, which are smaller than the values for n = 6. This means that the critical current density can be calculated by using f am or d bk for a sufficient number of holes.

  5. Computing bulk and shear viscosities from simulations of fluids with dissipative and stochastic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gerhard; Schmid, Friederike

    2016-05-01

    Exact values for bulk and shear viscosity are important to characterize a fluid, and they are a necessary input for a continuum description. Here we present two novel methods to compute bulk viscosities by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of steady-state systems with periodic boundary conditions — one based on frequent particle displacements and one based on the application of external bulk forces with an inhomogeneous force profile. In equilibrium simulations, viscosities can be determined from the stress tensor fluctuations via Green-Kubo relations; however, the correct incorporation of random and dissipative forces is not obvious. We discuss different expressions proposed in the literature and test them at the example of a dissipative particle dynamics fluid.

  6. Estimation of Gibbs free energy difference in Pd-based bulk metallic glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Anhui; Xiong Xiang; Liu Yong; Tan JingYing; Zhou Yong; An Weike

    2008-01-01

    A new thermodynamic expression for Gibbs free energy difference 4G between the under-cooled Iiquid and the corresponding crystals of bulk metallic glasses was derived.The newly proposed expression always gives results in fairly good agreement with experimental values over entire temperature range between the fusion temperature Tm and the glass transition temperature Tg of Pd40Ni40P20,Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 and Pd43Cu27Ni10P20,which possess different heat capacities.However,the TS and KN expressions cannot always provide results in good agreement with the experimental values.In addition.the deviations between the experimental values and the △G calculated by the proposed expression at Tg are smaller than those given by other expressions for all the bulk metallic glasses studied.

  7. A route to transparent bulk metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2012-07-23

    Hypothetical compounds based on a sapphire host are investigated with respect to their structural as well as electronic features. The results are obtained by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. A quarter of the Al atoms in Al 2O 3 is replaced by a 4d transition metal M ion, with d 0 to d 9 electronic configuration. We perform structure optimizations for all the compounds and analyze the electronic states. Due to the sizeable band gap of the Al 2O 3 host, we can identify promising candidates for transparent bulk metals. We explain the mechanisms leading to this combination of materials properties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Bulk semiconducting scintillator device for radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael

    2016-08-30

    A bulk semiconducting scintillator device, including: a Li-containing semiconductor compound of general composition Li-III-VI.sub.2, wherein III is a Group III element and VI is a Group VI element; wherein the Li-containing semiconductor compound is used in one or more of a first mode and a second mode, wherein: in the first mode, the Li-containing semiconductor compound is coupled to an electrical circuit under bias operable for measuring electron-hole pairs in the Li-containing semiconductor compound in the presence of neutrons and the Li-containing semiconductor compound is also coupled to current detection electronics operable for detecting a corresponding current in the Li-containing semiconductor compound; and, in the second mode, the Li-containing semiconductor compound is coupled to a photodetector operable for detecting photons generated in the Li-containing semiconductor compound in the presence of the neutrons.

  9. Bulk disk resonator based ultrasensitive mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of developing an innovative label-free sensor for multiarrayed biodetection applications, we present a novel bulk resonator based mass sensor. The sensor is a polysilicon disk which shows a Q-factor of 6400 in air at 68.8 MHz, resulting in mass resolutions down in the femtogram...... range. The sensor has been characterized in terms of sensitivity both for distributed mass detection, performing six consecutive depositions of e-beam evaporated Au, and localized mass detection, depositing approximately 7.5 pg of Pt/Ga/C three times consecutively with a Focused Ion Beam system....... The sensor has an extremely high distributed mass to frequency shift sensitivity of 60104 Hzcm2/¿g and shows a localized mass to frequency sensitivity up to 4405 Hz/pg with a localized mass resolution down to 15 fg. The device has been fabricated with a new microfabrication process that uses only two...

  10. Tuneable film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorgian, Spartak Sh; Vorobiev, Andrei K

    2013-01-01

    To handle many standards and ever increasing bandwidth requirements, large number of filters and switches are used in transceivers of modern wireless communications systems. It makes the cost, performance, form factor, and power consumption of these systems, including cellular phones, critical issues. At present, the fixed frequency filter banks based on Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) are regarded as one of the most promising technologies to address performance -form factor-cost issues. Even though the FBARs improve the overall performances the complexity of these systems remains high.  Attempts are being made to exclude some of the filters by bringing the digital signal processing (including channel selection) as close to the antennas as possible. However handling the increased interference levels is unrealistic for low-cost battery operated radios. Replacing fixed frequency filter banks by one tuneable filter is the most desired and widely considered scenario. As an example, development of the softwa...

  11. Holographic bulk viscosity: GPR vs EO

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Kiritsis, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Recently Eling and Oz (EO) proposed a formula for the holographic bulk viscosity, in arXiv:1103.1657, derived from the null horizon focusing equation. This formula seems different from that obtained earlier by Gubser, Pufu and Rocha (GPR) in arXiv:0806.0407 calculated from the IR limit of the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor. The two were shown to agree only for some simple scaling cases. We point out that the two formulae agree in two non-trivial holographic theories describing RG flows. The first is the strongly coupled N=2* gauge theory plasma. The second is the semi-phenomenological model of Improved Holographic QCD.

  12. Forming of bulk metallic glass microcomponents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wert, John A.; Thomsen, Christian; Jensen, Rune Debel;

    2009-01-01

    The present article considers forward extrusion, closed-die forging and backward extrusion processes for fabrication of individual microcomponents from two bulk metallic glass (BMG) compositions: Mg60Cu30Y10 and Zr44Cu40Ag8Al8. Two types of tooling were used in the present work: relatively massive...... die sets characteristic of cold forming operations for crystalline metals and lightweight die sets adapted to the special characteristics of BMGs. In addition to demonstrating that microcomponents of several geometries can be readily fabricated from BMGs, rheological properties are combined...... with crystallization kinetics to formulate a generally applicable method that can guide selection of optimal forming parameters. Finally, the use of particulate-based lubricants for BMG forming is shown to result in individual lubricant particles becoming mechanically locked into the BMG surface. (C) 2008 Elsevier B...

  13. Vortices in superconducting bulk, films and SQUIDs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ernst Helmut Brandt

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the ideal periodic vortex lattice in bulk superconductors and in films of any thickness can be calculated from Ginzburg-Landau theory by an iteration method using Fourier series. The London theory yields general analytic expressions for the magnetic field and energy of arbitrary arrangements of straight or curved vortex lines. The elasticity of the vortex lattice is highly nonlocal. The magnetic response of superconductors of realistic shapes like thin and thick strips and disks or thin rectangular plates or films, containing pinned vortices, can be computed within continuum theory by solving an integral equation. A useful example is a thin square with a central hole and a radial slit, used as superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

  14. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  15. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes;

    2014-01-01

    %-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all......Plants create sugar in the mesophyll cells of their leaves by photosynthesis. This sugar, mostly sucrose, has to be loaded via the bundle sheath into the phloem vascular system (the sieve elements), where it is distributed to growing parts of the plant. We analyze the feasibility of a particular...... loading mechanism, active symplasmic loading, also called the polymer trap mechanism, where sucrose is transformed into heavier sugars, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the intermediary-type companion cells bordering the sieve elements in the minor veins of the phloem. Keeping the heavier sugars from...

  16. Combustion of bulk titanium in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A. F.; Moulder, J. C.; Runyan, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The combustion of bulk titanium in one atmosphere oxygen is studied using laser ignition and several analytical techniques. These were high-speed color cinematography, time and space resolved spectra in the visible region, metallography (including SEM) of specimens quenched in argon gas, X-ray and chemical product analyses, and a new optical technique, the Hilbert transform method. The cinematographic application of this technique for visualizing phase objects in the combustion zone is described. The results indicate an initial vapor phase reaction immediately adjacent to the molten surface but as the oxygen uptake progresses the evaporation approaches the point of congruency and a much reduced evaporation rate. This and the accumulation of the various soluble oxides soon drive the reaction zone below the surface where gas formation causes boiling and ejection of particles. The buildup of rutile cuts off the oxygen supply and the reaction ceases.

  17. Evaluation of Radiopacity of Bulk-fill Flowable Composites Using Digital Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcin, B; Gumru, B; Peker, S; Ovecoglu, H S

    2016-01-01

    New flowable composites that may be bulk-filled in layers up to 4 mm are indicated as a base beneath posterior composite restorations. Sufficient radiopacity is one of the several important requirements such materials should meet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of bulk-fill flowable composites and to provide a comparison with conventional flowable composites using digital imaging. Ten standard specimens (5 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) were prepared from each of four different bulk-fill flowable composites and nine different conventional flowable composites. Radiographs of the specimens were taken together with 1-mm-thick tooth slices and an aluminum step wedge using a digital imaging system. For the radiographic exposures, a storage phosphor plate and a dental x-ray unit at 70 kVp and 8 mA were used. The object-to-focus distance was 30 cm, and the exposure time was 0.2 seconds. The gray values of the materials were measured using the histogram function of the software available with the system, and radiopacity was calculated as the equivalent thickness of aluminum. The data were analyzed statistically (pcomposites showed significantly higher radiopacity values in comparison with those of enamel, dentin, and most of the conventional flowable composites (pcomposites was as follows: Venus Bulk Fill (Heraeus Kulzer) ≥ X-tra Base (Voco) > SDR (Dentsply DeTrey) ≥ Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE). To conclude, the bulk-fill flowable restorative materials, which were tested in this study using digital radiography, met the minimum standard of radiopacity specified by the International Standards Organization.

  18. Evaluation of Radiopacity of Bulk-fill Flowable Composites Using Digital Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcin, B; Gumru, B; Peker, S; Ovecoglu, H S

    2016-01-01

    New flowable composites that may be bulk-filled in layers up to 4 mm are indicated as a base beneath posterior composite restorations. Sufficient radiopacity is one of the several important requirements such materials should meet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of bulk-fill flowable composites and to provide a comparison with conventional flowable composites using digital imaging. Ten standard specimens (5 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) were prepared from each of four different bulk-fill flowable composites and nine different conventional flowable composites. Radiographs of the specimens were taken together with 1-mm-thick tooth slices and an aluminum step wedge using a digital imaging system. For the radiographic exposures, a storage phosphor plate and a dental x-ray unit at 70 kVp and 8 mA were used. The object-to-focus distance was 30 cm, and the exposure time was 0.2 seconds. The gray values of the materials were measured using the histogram function of the software available with the system, and radiopacity was calculated as the equivalent thickness of aluminum. The data were analyzed statistically (p SDR (Dentsply DeTrey) ≥ Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE). To conclude, the bulk-fill flowable restorative materials, which were tested in this study using digital radiography, met the minimum standard of radiopacity specified by the International Standards Organization. PMID:27045286

  19. Convergence of electronic bands for high performance bulk thermoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yanzhong; Shi, Xiaoya; LaLonde, Aaron; Wang, Heng; Chen, Lidong; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric generators, which directly convert heat into electricity, have long been relegated to use in space-based or other niche applications, but are now being actively considered for a variety of practical waste heat recovery systems-such as the conversion of car exhaust heat into electricity. Although these devices can be very reliable and compact, the thermoelectric materials themselves are relatively inefficient: to facilitate widespread application, it will be desirable to identify or develop materials that have an intensive thermoelectric materials figure of merit, zT, above 1.5 (ref. 1). Many different concepts have been used in the search for new materials with high thermoelectric efficiency, such as the use of nanostructuring to reduce phonon thermal conductivity, which has led to the investigation of a variety of complex material systems. In this vein, it is well known that a high valley degeneracy (typically ≤6 for known thermoelectrics) in the electronic bands is conducive to high zT, and this in turn has stimulated attempts to engineer such degeneracy by adopting low-dimensional nanostructures. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to direct the convergence of many valleys in a bulk material by tuning the doping and composition. By this route, we achieve a convergence of at least 12 valleys in doped PbTe(1-x)Se(x) alloys, leading to an extraordinary zT value of 1.8 at about 850 kelvin. Band engineering to converge the valence (or conduction) bands to achieve high valley degeneracy should be a general strategy in the search for and improvement of bulk thermoelectric materials, because it simultaneously leads to a high Seebeck coefficient and high electrical conductivity.

  20. Correlations between critical parameters and bulk properties of nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lourenço, O; Dutra, M; Delfino, A

    2016-01-01

    The present work starts by providing a clear identification of correlations between critical parameters ($T_c$, $P_c$, $\\rho_c$) and bulk quantities at zero temperature of relativistic mean-field models (RMF) presenting third and fourth order self-interactions in the scalar field $\\sigma$. Motivated by the nonrelativistic version of this RMF model, we show that effective nucleon mass ($M^*$) and incompressibility ($K_o$), at the saturation density, are correlated with $T_c$, $P_c$, and $\\rho_c$, as well as, binding energy and saturation density itself. We verify agreement of results with previous theoretical ones regarding different hadronic models. Concerning recent experimental data of the symmetric nuclear matter critical parameters, our study allows a prediction of $T_c$, $P_c$ and $\\rho_c$ compatible with such values, by combining them, through the correlations found, with previous constraints related to $M^*$ and $K_o$. An improved RMF parametrization, that better agrees with experimental values for $T_...

  1. Performance and applications of quench melt-growth bulk magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariki, S.; Teshima, H.; Morita, M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the progress in quench melt-growth (QMG) bulk magnets, developed by the Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, which consist of single crystalline RE123 phase and finely dispersed RE211 particles. QMG bulks can trap high magnetic fields. The field-trapping ability of QMG bulks is largely increased with an improvement in its J c and size, promising the realization of various applications such as flywheel energy-storage systems, ship motors, NMR/MRI spectrometers, wind-power generators and so on. Intensive research has revealed that the optimal RE element is different depending on application requirements. Gd-QMG bulk is the most promising material for several high-field engineering applications. The trapped magnetic field of Gd-QMG bulk 60 mm in diameter at 77 K is twice as large as that of Y-QMG bulk with a similar size due to its excellent J c properties. The large Gd-based QMG bulks up to 150 mm in diameter are fabricated by incorporating the RE compositional gradient method. Compact NMR/MRI spectrometers are one of the promising applications of bulk superconductors. Eu-QMG bulks are suitable for NMR magnets. NMR applications require extremely homogeneous magnetic fields. In the Eu-system, the small paramagnetic moment of a Eu ion compared to a Gd ion improves the field homogeneity in the bulk. For the application of current leads, Dy-based QMG is available by utilizing a low thermal conductivity.

  2. Evaluation of the Radiopacities of Bulk-fill Restoratives Using Two Digital Radiography Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, E; Yasa, B; Aglarci, O S; Ertas, E T

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the radiopacity values of bulk-fill restoratives by using two digital radiography systems. Nine bulk-fill restoratives and a conventional composite were used in the study. Six disc-shaped specimens were prepared from each of these materials, three each at thicknesses of 1 mm and 2 mm, and tooth slices with these same thicknesses were obtained. As a control, an aluminum step wedge varying in thickness from 0.5 to 10 mm in was used. Three specimens of each of the materials, together with the tooth slice and the aluminum step wedge, were placed over a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor and a storage photostimulable phosphor (PPS) plate system and exposed using a dental x-ray unit. The images were analyzed using a software program to measure the mean gray values (MGVs). Five measurements were obtained from each of the restorative materials, the enamel, the dentin, and the stepwedge. The MGVs were converted to the equivalent aluminum thicknesses. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the differences among the groups. A Tukey test was applied for pairwise comparisons (psystem showed significantly higher radiopacity values than the PSP system. In conclusion, all investigated bulk-fill restoratives passed the International Organization for Standardization and American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association requirements for radiopacity values when evaluated with the two digital radiography systems.

  3. Stable isotope composition of bulk and secondary carbonates from the Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence in Sutto, Hungary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koeniger, Paul; Barta, Gabriella; Thiel, Christine;

    2014-01-01

    , and microscale secondary (authigenic) carbonates (calcified root cells, carbonate coatings, hypocoatings, and earthworm biospheroids) and concretions at 10 cm resolution were analysed to interpret stable isotope variations. Isotope values of bulk samples were in the range of 2.6 parts per thousand to -13.9 parts......, secondary carbonates showed more depleted values than bulk samples. Calcified root cells have the most depleted isotope composition with mean values of -16.0 parts per thousand and -11.8 parts per thousand for delta C-13 and 8180, respectively. Results indicate that loess and paleosol secondary carbonates...... or vegetation. Secondary carbonates are more reliable than bulk samples because of their direct connection to the host strata. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved....

  4. Bulk transfer coefficients of the atmospheric momentum and sensible heat over desert and Gobi in arid climate region of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Qiang(张强); WEI; Guoan(卫国安); HUANG; Ronghui(黄荣辉); CAO; Xiaoyan(曹晓彦)

    2002-01-01

    By utilizing the data of the intensive observation period (May-June, 2000) of Dunhuang land-surface process field experiment that belongs to "Land-atmosphere Interactive Field Experiment over Arid Region of Northwest China", the bulk momentum transfer coefficient Cd and bulk sensible heat transfer coefficient Ch between surface and atmosphere over desert and Gobi in the arid region are determined according to three different methods. The result shows that, though these bulk transfer coefficients are different, they are in the same order. Especially, the means of Cd and Ch are close. Moreover, through analyzing the wind direction, the interference of the building near the observational station with the data is eliminated. From this, the relation between the bulk transfer coefficients and the bulk Richardson number and the range of the typical values of the bulk transfer coefficients over desert and Gobi in the typical arid region are obtained.

  5. A CFT Perspective on Gravitational Dressing and Bulk Locality

    CERN Document Server

    Lewkowycz, Aitor; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the construction of local bulk operators in AdS/CFT with special focus on gravitational dressing and its consequences for bulk locality. Specializing to 2+1-dimensions, we investigate these issues via the proposed identification between bulk operators and cross-cap boundary states. We obtain explicit expressions for correlation functions of bulk fields with boundary stress tensor insertions, and find that they are free of non-local branch cuts but do have non-local poles. We recover the HKLL recipe for restoring bulk locality for interacting fields as the outcome of a natural CFT crossing condition. We show that, in a suitable gauge, the cross-cap states solve the bulk wave equation for general background geometries, and satisfy a conformal Ward identity analogous to a soft graviton theorem, Virasoro symmetry, the large N conformal bootstrap and the uniformization theorem all play a key role in our derivations.

  6. Gravitational potential wells and the cosmic bulk flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Abhinav; Feldman, Hume A; Watkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The bulk flow is a volume average of the peculiar velocities and a useful probe of the mass distribution on large scales. The gravitational instability model views the bulk flow as a potential flow that obeys a Maxwellian Distribution. We use two N-body simulations, the LasDamas Carmen and the Horizon Run, to calculate the bulk flows of various sized volumes in the simulation boxes. Once we have the bulk flow velocities as a function of scale, we investigate the mass and gravitational potential distribution around the volume. We found that matter densities can be asymmetrical and difficult to detect in real surveys, however, the gravitational potential and its gradient may provide better tools to investigate the underlying matter distribution. This study shows that bulk flows are indeed potential flows and thus provides information on the flow sources. We also show that bulk flow magnitudes follow a Maxwellian distribution on scales $>10\\ h^{-1}$Mpc.

  7. Gravitational potential wells and the cosmic bulk flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuyu; Kumar, Abhinav; Feldman, Hume; Watkins, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The bulk flow is a volume average of the peculiar velocities and a useful probe of the mass distribution on large scales. The gravitational instability model views the bulk flow as a potential flow that obeys a Maxwellian Distribution. We use two N-body simulations, the LasDamas Carmen and the Horizon Run, to calculate the bulk flows of various sized volumes in the simulation boxes. Once we have the bulk flow velocities as a function of scale, we investigate the mass and gravitational potential distribution around the volume. We found that matter densities can be asymmetrical and difficult to detect in real surveys, however, the gravitational potential and its gradient may provide better tools to investigate the underlying matter distribution. This study shows that bulk flows are indeed potential flows and thus provides information on the flow sources. We also show that bulk flow magnitudes follow a Maxwellian distribution on scales > 10h-1 Mpc.

  8. Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehling, John D.; Rochester, Christopher W.; Ro, Hyun W.; Wang, Peng; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Batenburg, Kees J.; Arslan, Ilke; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Moule, Adam J.

    2014-10-01

    he morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualita-tively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fullerene concentration throughout the thickness of the film for all measurements. However, the abso-lute vertical concentration of fullerene is quantitatively different for the three measurements. The origin of the quantitative measurement differences is discussed. The authors thank Luna Innovations, Inc. for donating the endohedral fullerenes used in this study and Plextronics for the P3HT. They are gratefully thank the National Science Foundation Energy for Sustainability Program, Award No. 0933435. This work benefited from the use of the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Los Alamos National Laboratory under DOE Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. This research was also supported in part by Laboratory Directed Research & Development program at PNNL. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  9. Failure Prediction in Bulk Metal Forming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen Topa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important concern in metal forming is whether the desired deformation can be accomplished without defects in the final product. Various ductile fracture criteria have been developed and experimentally verified for a limited number of cases of metal forming processes. These criteria are highly dependent on the geometry of the workpiece and cannot be utilized for complicated shapes without experimental verification. However, experimental work is a resource hungry process. This paper proposes the ability of finite element analysis (FEA software such as LS-DYNA to pinpoint the crack-like flaws in bulk metal forming products. Two different approaches named as arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH formulations were adopted. The results of the simulations agree well with the experimental work and a comparison between the two formulations has been carried out. Both approximation methods successfully predicted the flow of workpiece material (plastic deformation. However ALE method was able to pinpoint the location of the flaws.

  10. Casimir effect in dielectrics: Bulk energy contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent series of papers, Schwinger discussed a process that he called the dynamical Casimir effect. The key essence of this effect is the change in zero-point energy associated with any change in a dielectric medium. (In particular, if the change in the dielectric medium is taken to be the growth or collapse of a bubble, this effect may have relevance to sonoluminescence.) The kernel of Schwinger close-quote s result is that the change in Casimir energy is proportional to the change in the volume of the dielectric, plus finite-volume corrections. Other papers have called into question this result, claiming that the volume term should actually be discarded, and that the dominant term remaining is proportional to the surface area of the dielectric. In this paper, which is an expansion of an earlier Letter on the same topic, we present a careful and critical review of the relevant analyses. We find that the Casimir energy, defined as the change in zero-point energy due to a change in the medium, has at leading order a bulk volume dependence. This is in full agreement with Schwinger close-quote s result, once the correct physical question is asked. We have nothing new to say about sonoluminescence itself. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Photoelectron spectroscopy bulk and surface electronic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Suga, Shigemasa

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is now becoming more and more required to investigate electronic structures of various solid materials in the bulk, on surfaces as well as at buried interfaces. The energy resolution was much improved in the last decade down to 1 meV in the low photon energy region. Now this technique is available from a few eV up to 10 keV by use of lasers, electron cyclotron resonance lamps in addition to synchrotron radiation and X-ray tubes. High resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now widely applied to band mapping of materials. It attracts a wide attention from both fundamental science and material engineering. Studies of the dynamics of excited states are feasible by time of flight spectroscopy with fully utilizing the pulse structures of synchrotron radiation as well as lasers including the free electron lasers (FEL). Spin resolved studies also made dramatic progress by using higher efficiency spin detectors and two dimensional spin detectors. Polarization depend...

  12. Bulk viscous cosmology: statefinder and entropy

    CERN Document Server

    He, X

    2006-01-01

    The statefinder diagnostic pair is adopted to differentiate viscous cosmology models and it is found that the trajectories of these viscous cosmology models on the statefinder pair $s-r$ plane are quite different from those of the corresponding non-viscous cases. Particularly for the quiessence model, the singular properties of state parameter $w=-1$ are obviously demonstrated on the statefinder diagnostic pair planes. We then discuss the entropy of the viscous / dissipative cosmology system which may be more practical to describe the present cosmic observations as the perfect fluid is just a global approximation to the complicated cosmic media in current universe evolution. When the bulk viscosity takes the form of $\\zeta=\\zeta_{1}\\dot{a}/a$($\\zeta_{1}$ is constant), the relationship between the entropy $S$ and the redshift $z$ is explicitly given out. We find that the entropy of the viscous cosmology is always increasing and consistent with the thermodynamics arrow of time for the universe evolution. With t...

  13. Thermodynamic properties of bulk and confined water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallamace, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.mallamace@unime.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Corsaro, Carmelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Mallamace, Domenico [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Università di Messina, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino [IPCF-CNR, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Stanley, H. Eugene [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The thermodynamic response functions of water display anomalous behaviors. We study these anomalous behaviors in bulk and confined water. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the configurational specific heat and the transport parameters in both the thermal stable and the metastable supercooled phases. The data we obtain suggest that there is a behavior common to both phases: that the dynamics of water exhibit two singular temperatures belonging to the supercooled and the stable phase, respectively. One is the dynamic fragile-to-strong crossover temperature (T{sub L} ≃ 225 K). The second, T{sup *} ∼ 315 ± 5 K, is a special locus of the isothermal compressibility K{sub T}(T, P) and the thermal expansion coefficient α{sub P}(T, P) in the P–T plane. In the case of water confined inside a protein, we observe that these two temperatures mark, respectively, the onset of protein flexibility from its low temperature glass state (T{sub L}) and the onset of the unfolding process (T{sup *})

  14. On methods of estimating cosmological bulk flows

    CERN Document Server

    Nusser, Adi

    2015-01-01

    We explore similarities and differences between several estimators of the cosmological bulk flow, $\\bf B$, from the observed radial peculiar velocities of galaxies. A distinction is made between two theoretical definitions of $\\bf B$ as a dipole moment of the velocity field weighted by a radial window function. One definition involves the three dimensional (3D) peculiar velocity, while the other is based on its radial component alone. Different methods attempt at inferring $\\bf B$ for either of these definitions which coincide only for a constant velocity field. We focus on the Wiener Filtering (WF, Hoffman et al. 2015) and the Constrained Minimum Variance (CMV,Feldman et al. 2010) methodologies. Both methodologies require a prior expressed in terms of the radial velocity correlation function. Hoffman et al. compute $\\bf B$ in Top-Hat windows from a WF realization of the 3D peculiar velocity field. Feldman et al. infer $\\bf B$ directly from the observed velocities for the second definition of $\\bf B$. The WF ...

  15. Recent developments of film bulk acoustic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junning; Liu, Guorong; Li, Jie; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) experienced skyrocketing development in the past 15 years, owing to the explosive development of mobile communication. It stands out in acoustic filters mainly because of high quality factor, which enables low insertion loss and sharp roll off. Except for the massive application in wireless communication, FBARs are also promising sensors because of the high sensitivity and readily integration ability to miniaturize circuits. On the ground of summarizing FBAR’s application in wireless communication as filters and in sensors including electronic nose, bio field, and pressure sensing, this paper review the main challenges of each application faced. The number of filters installed in the mobile phone has being grown explosively, which leads to overcrowded bands and put harsh requirements on component size and power consumption control for each unit. Data flow and rate are becoming increasingly demanding as well. This paper discusses three promising technical strategies addressing these issues. Among which coupled resonator filter is given intense attention because it is able to vigorously reduce the filter size by stacking two or more resonators together, and it is a great technique to increase data flow and rate. Temperature compensation methods are discussed considering their vital influence on frequency stability. Finally, materials improvement and novel materials exploration for band width modulation, tunable band acquisition, and quality factor improvement are discussed. The authors appeal attention of the academic society to bring AlN epitaxial thin film into the FBAR fabrication and have proposed a configuration to implement this idea.

  16. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  17. On methods of estimating cosmological bulk flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, Adi

    2016-01-01

    We explore similarities and differences between several estimators of the cosmological bulk flow, B, from the observed radial peculiar velocities of galaxies. A distinction is made between two theoretical definitions of B as a dipole moment of the velocity field weighted by a radial window function. One definition involves the three-dimensional (3D) peculiar velocity, while the other is based on its radial component alone. Different methods attempt at inferring B for either of these definitions which coincide only for the case of a velocity field which is constant in space. We focus on the Wiener Filtering (WF) and the Constrained Minimum Variance (CMV) methodologies. Both methodologies require a prior expressed in terms of the radial velocity correlation function. Hoffman et al. compute B in Top-Hat windows from a WF realization of the 3D peculiar velocity field. Feldman et al. infer B directly from the observed velocities for the second definition of B. The WF methodology could easily be adapted to the second definition, in which case it will be equivalent to the CMV with the exception of the imposed constraint. For a prior with vanishing correlations or very noisy data, CMV reproduces the standard Maximum Likelihood estimation for B of the entire sample independent of the radial weighting function. Therefore, this estimator is likely more susceptible to observational biases that could be present in measurements of distant galaxies. Finally, two additional estimators are proposed.

  18. Nanocomposite RE-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposite oxide high-temperature bulk superconductors can be used as quasi-magnets. Thanks to the recent progress of material processing, quasi-magnet with 26 mm diameter can generate a large field of 17.6 T at 26 K. These results are highly attractive for applications, involving levitation of permanent magnets on the bulk superconductors. Indeed, several other applications such as motors and magnetic resonance microscope using bulk superconductors have been proposed and demonstrated. In ...

  19. Can local bulk effects explain the galactic dark matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari-Fard, Malihe; Sepangi, Hamid R, E-mail: m.heydarifard@mail.sbu.ac.ir, E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    We obtain the virial theorem within the context of a brane-world model without mirror symmetry or any form of junction condition. Taking a constant curvature bulk (neglecting non-local bulk effects), the local bulk effects generate a geometrical mass, contributing to the gravitational energy which may be used to explain the virial mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. We fix the parameters of this model in agreement with observational data.

  20. Can local bulk effects explain the galactic dark matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari-Fard, Malihe; Sepangi, Hamid R.

    2008-01-01

    We obtain the virial theorem within the context of a brane-world model without mirror symmetry or any form of junction condition. Taking a constant curvature bulk (neglecting non-local bulk effects), the local bulk effects generate a geometrical mass, contributing to the gravitational energy which may be used to explain the virial mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. We fix the parameter of this model in agreement with observational data.

  1. Bulk flow scaling for turbulent channel and pipe flows

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xi; She, Zhen-Su

    2016-01-01

    We report a theory deriving bulk flow scaling for canonical wall-bounded flows. The theory accounts for the symmetries of boundary geometry (flat plate channel versus circular pipe) by a variational calculation for a large-scale energy length, which characterizes its bulk flow scaling by a simple exponent, i.e. $m=4$ for channel and 5 for pipe. The predicted mean velocity shows excellent agreement with several dozen sets of quality empirical data for a wide range of the Reynolds number (Re), with a universal bulk flow constant $\\kappa\\approx0.45$. Predictions for dissipation and turbulent transport in the bulk flow are also given, awaiting data verification.

  2. Locality, bulk equations of motion and the conformal bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order 1/N^2. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. We then impose the condition that the bulk operators constructed in different channels agree, and hence give rise to a well-defined bulk operator. We refer to this condition as the "bulk bootstrap." We argue and explicitly show in some examples that the bulk bootstrap leads to some of the same results as the regular conformal bootstrap. In fact the bulk bootstrap provides an easier way to determine some CFT data, since it does not require knowing the form of the conformal blocks. This analysis clarifies previous results on the relation between bulk locality and the bootstrap for theories with a 1/N expansion, and it identifies a simple and direct way in which OPE coefficients and anomalous dimensions deter...

  3. Optimization of processing conditions towards high trapped fields in MgB{sub 2} bulks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, M., E-mail: miryala1@shibaura-it.ac.jp [Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Inoue, K. [Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Koblischka, M.R. [Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Campus C 6 3, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Tomita, M. [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Murakami, M. [Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Bulk MgB{sub 2} samples were prepared via solid state reaction at various sintering temperatures. • The J{sub c} value at 10 K and 0 T was 2.60 × 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}. • A pinning force analysis for the samples sintered at 775 °C revealed a non-scaling behavior. • The trapped field results showed that processing temperature is the key to improving TF values. - Abstract: The present investigation focuses on the effects of various sintering temperatures on the critical current densities and the trapped field values of disk-shaped bulk MgB{sub 2} superconductors fabricated with a simple solid state reaction. The samples were prepared by varying the sintering temperature from 750 to 950 °C in pure Ar atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that single phase and homogenous MgB{sub 2} bulks are produced in using sintering temperatures in the range of 750–825 °C. The samples sintered at 775 °C showed the highest critical current density (J{sub c}) values of 250 kA/cm{sup 2} at 10 K and 181 kA/cm{sup 2} at 20 K in self field. We also measured the trapped field values at 20 K for bulk MgB{sub 2} samples 20 mm in diameter and 7 mm in thickness, sintered at temperatures in the range of 700–950 °C with the same sintering duration of 3 h. Almost all the samples exhibited the trapped field values higher than 1 T, which shows the high potential of sintered MgB{sub 2} bulk materials as trapped field magnets. The highest value of 1.51 T at 20 K was achieved in the MgB{sub 2} sample sintered at 775 °C, reflecting its high pinning performance and homogeneous microstructure.

  4. On the correct choice of equivalent circuit for fitting bulk impedance data of ionic/electronic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Miguel A.; Masó, Nahum; West, Anthony R.

    2016-04-01

    Bulk conductivity data of ionically and electronically conducting solid electrolytes and electronic ceramics invariably show a frequency dependence that cannot be modelled by a single-valued resistor. To model this, common practice is to add a constant phase element (CPE) in parallel with the bulk resistance. To fit experimental data on a wide variety of materials, however, it is also essential to include the limiting, high frequency permittivity of the material in the equivalent circuit. Failure to do so can lead to incorrect values for the sample resistance and CPE parameters and to an inappropriate circuit for materials that are electrically heterogeneous.

  5. Xerophilic mycopopulations of teas in bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available d.o.o., Novi Sad AU Krunić Vesna J. AF EKOLd.o.o., Novi Sad KW teas % mould contamination % thermal treatment KR nema Other the water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world today. They are used for ages, in the beginning as refreshing drinks, and later more for their healing properties. Teas have been demonstrated to show antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Considering that the teas, during the production, are not treated with any temperature, there is high risk for contamination with different type of microorganisms, especially with moulds. Moulds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes and under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, moulds grow on many commodities including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, herbs and spices. Most of them are potential producers of mycotoxins which present a real hazard to human health. The aim of this work was to investigate total mould count and to identify moulds isolated from teas in bulk, than from teas treated with hot, sterile, distilled water and from the tea filtrates. Tested teas were peppermint, sage, yarrow, black tea, bearberry, lemon balm, mixture of teas from Zlatibor. In teas in balk was observed high contamination with different kinds of moulds (1.84-4.55 cfu/g, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. lovaniensis, A niger, A. phoenicus, A. repens, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The most frequent were species from Aspergillus and Eurotium genera. Thermal treatment with hot, sterile, distilled water reduced the number of fungal colonies. Aspergillus awamori was the most resistant and appeared in six samples of filtrates of tea, Aspergillus niger in one sample and Penicillium chrysogenum in one sample.

  6. Bulk limited conduction in electroluminescent polymer devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. J.; Weaver, M. S.; Lidzey, D. G.; Bradley, D. D. C.

    1998-12-01

    The current-voltage (J-V) characteristics of ITO/polymer film/Al or Au structures of poly(phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and a dialkoxy PPV copolymer have been recorded for a range of different film thickness d and temperatures T. At high applied bias all the characteristics can be fitted over a given range to a power law J=KVm, where m increases with decreasing T, log(K) is proportional to m, and K is proportional to d-α m, where α˜2 (ITO/polymer film/Al devices) and ˜1 (ITO/polymer film/Au devices). Different single carrier space charge limited conduction theories have been used to try and explain this behavior. The analytical theory in which the carrier density is decreased by an exponential trap distribution lying below effectively isoelectronic transport states is in good agreement, but cannot explain the thickness dependence of the ITO/polymer film/Au devices and can be criticized as being physically unreasonable. A numerical analysis in which the mobility has the field and temperature dependence found for hopping transport in disordered systems is also in good agreement, but can only fit a small range of J and cannot explain the magnitude of K, the temperature dependence of m or the abrupt change in slope in the J-V characteristics with increasing bias. Mixed models are equally good but cannot explain the deviations from experiment. We consider that further experimental studies of carrier mobilities and the nature of the traps present in such materials is required to distinguish between these models and resolve the nature of bulk limited conduction in conjugated polymers.

  7. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, L. H.; Huang, X.; Ling, Z.

    2015-09-01

    Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones) mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs) at atomic scale.

  8. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs at atomic scale.

  9. Bulk and surface energetics of crystalline lithium hydride: Benchmarks from quantum Monte Carlo and quantum chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Binnie, S. J.; Nolan, S. J.; Drummond, Neil; Alfe`, D.; Allan, N. L; Manby, F. R.; Gillan, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We show how accurate benchmark values of the surface formation energy of crystalline lithium hydride can be computed by the complementary techniques of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) and wavefunction-based molecular quantum chemistry. To demonstrate the high accuracy of the QMC techniques, we present a detailed study of the energetics of the bulk LiH crystal, using both pseudopotential and all-electron approaches. We show that the equilibrium lattice parameter agrees with experiment to within 0.03...

  10. Impact of Improved Solar Forecasts on Bulk Power System Operations in ISO-NE (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B.M.

    2014-11-01

    The diurnal nature of solar power is made uncertain by variable cloud cover and the influence of atmospheric conditions on irradiance scattering processes. Its forecasting has become increasingly important to the unit commitment and dispatch process for efficient scheduling of generators in power system operations. This presentation is an overview of a study that examines the value of improved solar forecasts on Bulk Power System Operations.

  11. Exact solutions of a Flat Full Causal Bulk viscous FRW cosmological model through factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo-Pérez, O.; Belinchón, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the classical flat full causal bulk viscous FRW cosmological model through the factorization method. The method shows that there exists a relationship between the viscosity parameter $s$ and the parameter $\\gamma$ entering the equations of state of the model. Also, the factorization method allows to find some new exact parametric solutions for different values of the viscous parameter $s$. Special attention is given to the well known case $s=1/2$, for which the cosmological model adm...

  12. Lower critical field measurements in NbN bulk and thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, M. P.; Deis, D. W.; Gavaler, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Low-field magnetization measurements were made at 4.2 K on thin-film and bulk NbN samples by using a vibrating-sample Foner magnetometer with a 50-kG superconducting solenoid. Values of the lower and upper critical fields are calculated, using magnetization curves as the basis. The significance of the Pauli spin paramagnetism and spin-orbit scattering in these materials is discussed.

  13. Electrochemical and Numerical Studies of Surface, Grain-Boundary and Bulk Copper Diffusion Into Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric Todd

    Surface, grain-boundary, and bulk chemical diffusivities of copper into gold were measured by chronoamperometry -potentiometry applied to Cu|CuCl |Au solid state galvanic cells at 300-400^circC. The cells were constructed using a novel vapor deposition technique which is described. The automated data acquisition techniques utilizing unique hardware and custom designed software are also presented. Chronoamperometry and a two electrode limited potential cyclic voltammetry technique were comparatively used to determine cell capacitance and resistance. Both gave similar RC values at lower temperatures but diverged from each other at higher temperatures. Electron hole conductivity of CuCl could not be determined from intercept values in the chronoamperometry Cottrell analysis. The partial molar enthalpy and entropy of mixing copper into gold were determined from Emf vs temperature vs composition measurements of Cu|CuCl |Au-Cu alloy cells. The results support the regular solution model of mixing with interaction energy parameter {bf{cal Q}} = 10kJ. Diffusion coefficients were calculated from the chronoamperometry-potentiometry time/flux/concentration data in two ways: via the Cottrell equation, for an average diffusion coefficient; and via a simplex and finite difference program for the simultaneous determination of surface, grain-boundary, and bulk diffusion coefficients. This program was run on a MASPAR MP-2 massively parallel computer. The surface and grain-boundary diffusivities were numerically determinable in single and polycrystalline cathodes at short diffusion times. Bulk diffusivity was determinable at short and long diffusion times and agreed with previous data. Surface diffusivity was two orders of magnitude larger than the bulk with lower activation energy. Grain -boundary diffusivity was one order of magnitude larger than the bulk with similar activation energy. The Cottrell equation was only valid at very long diffusion times due to the transient interface

  14. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzikova, N. I.; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  15. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Polzikova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonator (HBAR formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  16. Probing bulk flow with nearby SNe Ia data

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, Stephen; Johnson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We test the isotropy of the local Universe using low redshift Supernova data from various catalogs and the non-parametric method of smoothed residuals. Using a recently developed catalog which combines Supernova data from various surveys, we show that the isotropic hypothesis of a Universe with zero velocity perturbation can be rejected with moderate significance, with $p$-value $\\sim 0.07$ out to redshift $z < 0.045$. We estimate the direction of maximal anisotropy on the sky for various pre-existing catalogs and show that it remains relatively unaffected by the light curve fitting procedure. However the recovered direction is biased by the underlying distribution of data points on the sky. We estimate both the uncertainty and bias in the direction by creating mock data containing a randomly oriented bulk flow and using our method to reconstruct its direction. We conclude that the inhomogeneous nature of the data introduces a directional bias in galactic latitude of approximately $|\\Delta b_{\\rm max}| \\si...

  17. T-Duality Simplifies Bulk-Boundary Correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Varghese; Thiang, Guo Chuan

    2016-07-01

    Recently, we introduced T-duality in the study of topological insulators. In this paper, we study the bulk-boundary correspondence for three phenomena in condensed matter physics, namely, the quantum Hall effect, the Chern insulator, and time reversal invariant topological insulators. In all of these cases, we show that T-duality trivializes the bulk-boundary correspondence.

  18. 7 CFR 58.211 - Packaging room for bulk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging room for bulk products. 58.211 Section 58... Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.211 Packaging room for bulk products. A separate room or area shall... dust within the packaging room and where needed, a dust collector shall be provided and...

  19. Advanced and new developments in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb;

    2000-01-01

    Increasing demands to manufacturing industry of faster, better and cheaper production has intensified the research and development of bulk metal forming. The present paper gives examples on European industrial research on secondary bulk metal forming processes. The R&D follows three lines of appr...

  20. Calculation of structurally related properties of bulk and surface Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-consistent pseudopotential method is applied to study the bulk and surface structurally related properties of Si. Equilibrium configurations are determined by minimizing the total energy of the system; the calculated bulk properties and the surface relaxation of Si are found to be in good agreement with experiment. The surface energy and the surface reconstruction of Si are briefly discussed

  1. Synthesizing Bulk Density for Soils with Abundant Rock Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, K. R.; Chadwick, O. A.

    1994-01-01

    Bulk density is a fundamental soil property that is difficult to determine for gravelly to extremely gravelly soils because results vary significantly with sample volume. For such coarse soils, the representative volume (for whole-soil bulk density) should be large, but guidelines for selecting an appropriate sample volume do not exist.

  2. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or...

  3. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... remediation waste. The proposed reinterpretation is ] in response to questions EPA received about the... regarding PCB bulk product and PCB remediation waste under regulations promulgated at 40 CFR part 761....

  4. An Approach to Calculate Mineralś Bulk Moduli KS from Chemical Composition and Density ρ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, S.; Schilling, F. R.; Mueller, B.; Drüppel, K.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of minerals are fundamental parameters for technical and geotechnical applications and an important research topic towards a better understanding of the Eart&hacute;s interior. Published elastic properties, chemical composition, and density data of 86 minerals (total of 258 data including properties of minerals at various p, T conditions) were collected into a database. It was used to test different hypotheses about relationships between these properties (e.g. water content in minerals and their Poisson's ratio). Furthermore, a scheme to model the average elastic properties, i.e. the bulk modulus KS, based on mineral density and composition was developed. Birc&hacute;s law, a linearity between density ρ and wave velocity (e.g. vp.), is frequently used in seismic and seismology to derive density of the Eart&hacute;s interior from seismic velocities. Applying the compiled mineral data contradicts the use of a simple velocity-density relation (e.g. Gardneŕs relation, 1974). The presented model-approach to estimate the mineralś bulk moduli Ks (as Voigt-Reuss-Hill average) is based on the idea of pressure-temperature (p-T) dependent ionś bulk moduli. Using a multi-exponential regression to ascertain the ionś bulk moduli and by applying an exponential scaling with density ρ, their bulk moduli could be modelled. As a result, > 88 % of the 258 bulk moduli data are predicted with an uncertainty of < 20 % compared to published values. Compared to other models (e.g. Anderson et al. 1970 and Anderson & Nafe 1965), the here presented approach to model the bulk moduli only requires the density ρ and chemical composition of the mineral and is not limited to a specific group of minerals, composition, or structure. In addition to this, by using the pressure and temperature dependent density ρ(p, T), it is possible to predict bulk moduli for varying p-T conditions. References:Gardner, G.H.F, Gardner, L.W. and Gregory, A.R. (1974). Geophysics, 39, No. 6

  5. Stability of bulk metallic glass structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    2003-06-18

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub (80-x)}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  6. Origin of cosmological constant from Bulk manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem about cosmological constant is a difficult and important problem, people even don't know what it is really originated from. In this letter, the authors show up a kind of origin of the cosmological constant from the viewpoint of some extra dimensional spaces, obtain different values of the cosmological constant under different circumstances, acquire the evolution function with time t. And we achieve a cosmological constant that may be fitted with modern astronomic observation. (authors)

  7. Strain rate sensitivity studies on bulk nanocrystalline aluminium by nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varam, Sreedevi; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V., E-mail: kvrse@uohyd.ernet.in; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2014-02-05

    Nanocrystalline aluminium powder synthesized using high energy ball milling process was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The studies indicated the powder having an average grain size of ∼42 nm. The consolidation of the powder was carried out by high-pressure compaction using a uni-axial press at room temperature by applying a pressure of 1.5 GPa. The cold compacted bulk sample having a density of ∼98% was subjected to nanoindentation which showed an average hardness and elastic modulus values of 1.67 ± 0.09 GPa and 83 ± 8 GPa respectively at a peak force of 8000 μN and a strain rate of 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Achieving good strength along with good ductility is challenging in nanocrystalline metals. When enough sample sizes are not available to measure ductility and other mechanical properties as per ASTM standards, as is the case with nanocrystalline materials, nanoindentation is a very promising technique to evaluate strain rate sensitivity. Strain rate sensitivity is a good measure of ductility and in the present work it is measured by performing indentation at various loads with varying loading rates. Strain rate sensitivity values of 0.024–0.054 are obtained for nanocrystalline Al which are high over conventional coarse grained Al. In addition, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) image of the indent shows that there is some plastically flown region around the indent suggesting that this nanocrystalline aluminium is ductile.

  8. Buoyancy and Pressure Effects on Bulk Metal-Oxygen Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; McKnight, C.; Branch, M. C.; Daily, J. W.; Friedman, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The combustion behavior of metal-oxygen reactions if a weakly buoyant environment is studied to understand the rate-controlling mechanisms in the homogeneous and heterogeneous combustion of bulk metals. Cylindrical titanium and magnesium specimens are ignited in pure-oxygen at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 atm. Reduced gravity is obtained from an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. A weakly buoyant environment is generated at low pressures under normal gravity and also at 1 atm under reduced gravity (0.01g). The similarity between these two experimental conditions comes from the p(exp 2)g buoyancy scale extracted from the Grashof number. Lower propagation rates of the molten interface on titanium samples are found at progressively lower pressures at 1 g. These rates are compared to theoretical results from heat conduction analyses with a diffusion/convection controlled reaction. The close agreement found between experimental and theoretical values indicate the importance values indicate the importance of natural convection enhanced oxygen transport on combustion rates. For magnesium, progressively longer burning times are experienced at lower pressures and 1 g. Under reduced gravity conditions at 1 atm, a burning time twice as long as in 1 g is exhibited. However, in this case, the validity of the p(exp 2)g buoyancy scale remains untested due to the inability to obtain steady gas-phase burning of the magnesium sample at 0.1 atm. Nevertheless, longer burning times and larger flame standoff distance at low pressures and at low gravity points to a diffusion/convection controlled reaction.

  9. Renormalization group approach to causal bulk viscous cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renormalization group method is applied to the study of homogeneous and flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker type universes, filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid. The starting point of the study is the consideration of the scaling properties of the gravitational field equations, the causal evolution equation of the bulk viscous pressure and the equations of state. The requirement of scale invariance imposes strong constraints on the temporal evolution of the bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time, thus leading to the possibility of obtaining the bulk viscosity coefficient-energy density dependence. For a cosmological model with bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the Hubble parameter, we perform the analysis of the renormalization group flow around the scale-invariant fixed point, thereby obtaining the long-time behaviour of the scale factor

  10. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  11. Bulk viscosity of spin-one color superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' d, Basil A.

    2009-08-27

    The bulk viscosity of several quark matter phases is calculated. It is found that the effect of color superconductivity is not trivial, it may suppress, or enhance the bulk viscosity depending on the critical temperature and the temperature at which the bulk viscosity is calculated. Also, is it found that the effect of neutrino-emitting Urca processes cannot be neglected in the consideration of the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter. The results for the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter are used to calculate the r-mode instability window of quark stars with several possible phases. It is shown that each possible phase has a different structure for the r-mode instability window. (orig.)

  12. Temperature dependence of bulk viscosity in water using acoustic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, M J; Povey, M J W

    2010-01-01

    Despite its fundamental role in the dynamics of compressible fluids, bulk viscosity has received little experimental attention and there remains a paucity of measured data. Acoustic spectroscopy provides a robust and accurate approach to measuring this parameter. Working from the Navier-Stokes model of a compressible fluid one can show that the bulk viscosity makes a significant and measurable contribution to the frequency-squared acoustic attenuation. Here we employ this methodology to determine the bulk viscosity of Millipore water over a temperature range of 7 to 50 degrees Celsius. The measured attenuation spectra are consistent with the theoretical predictions, while the bulk viscosity of water is found to be approximately three times larger than its shear counterpart, reinforcing its significance in acoustic propagation. Moreover, our results demonstrate that this technique can be readily and generally applied to fluids to accurately determine their temperature dependent bulk viscosities.

  13. The Effect of Bulk Density on Emission Behavior of Soil at Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric constant and dielectric loss (ε′ and ε″ of different soil samples with bulk densities varying from 1.3 to 2.0 gm/cm3 are determined at a single microwave frequency 9.78 GHz and at temperature 37.0°C. Different bulk densities of same soil are achieved by filling the wave guide cell with an equal volume but a different mass of soil. Further, ε′ and ε″ of these soil samples are also estimated by semiempirical model and compared with the experimental results. The values of ε′ and ε″ increase as bulk density of the soil increases. In view of microwave remote sensing, the Fresnel reflectivity of soil is computed from the knowledge of the complex dielectric constant and the surface boundary condition. Using Kirchhoff’s reciprocity theorem the microwave emissivity is estimated from Fresnel reflectivity of the surface. It is observed that the microwave emission from the soil surface inhibits as bulk density of soil increases. Further, the roughness of soil surface has been taken into consideration in the emissivity computation and observed that the emissivity increases with increasing roughness of the soil surface.

  14. Thermal properties measurement of dry bulk materials with a cylindrical three layers device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Y.; Degiovanni, A.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a new method dedicated to thermal properties (conductivity and diffusivity) measurement of dry bulk materials including powders. The cylindrical three layers experimental device (brass/bulk material/stainless steel) and the principle of the measurement method based on a crenel thermal excitation are presented. The one-dimensional modeling of the system is used for a sensitivity analysis and to calculate the standard deviation of the estimation error. Experimental measurements are carried out on three bulk materials: glass beads, cork granules, and expanded polystyrene beads. The estimated thermal properties are compared with the values obtained by other measurement methods. Results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions: both thermal conductivity and diffusivity can be estimated with a good accuracy for low density material like cork granules or expanded polystyrene beads since only thermal diffusivity can be estimated for heavier materials like glass beads. It is finally shown that this method like all transient methods is not suited to the thermal characterization of wet bulk materials.

  15. Revised Thickness of the Lunar Crust from GRAIL Data: Implications for Lunar Bulk Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Nimmo, Francis; Kiefer, Walter S.; Melosh, H. Jay; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Asmar, Sami W.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Watkins, Michael W.; Williams, James G.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution gravity data from GRAIL have yielded new estimates of the bulk density and thickness of the lunar crust. The bulk density of the highlands crust is 2550 kg m-3. From a comparison with crustal composition measured remotely, this density implies a mean porosity of 12%. With this bulk density and constraints from the Apollo seismic experiment, the average global crustal thickness is found to lie between 34 and 43 km, a value 10 to 20 km less than several previous estimates. Crustal thickness is a central parameter in estimating bulk lunar composition. Estimates of the concentrations of refractory elements in the Moon from heat flow, remote sensing and sample data, and geophysical data fall into two categories: those with refractory element abundances enriched by 50% or more relative to Earth, and those with abundances the same as Earth. Settling this issue has implications for processes operating during lunar formation. The crustal thickness resulting from analysis of GRAIL data is less than several previous estimates. We show here that a refractory-enriched Moon is not required

  16. Flux jumps in high-J c MgB2 bulks during pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, H.; Mochizuki, H.; Naito, T.; Ainslie, M. D.; Giunchi, G.

    2016-03-01

    Pulsed field magnetization (PFM) of a high-J c MgB2 bulk disk has been investigated at 20 K, in which flux jumps frequently occur for high pulsed fields. Using a numerical simulation of the PFM procedure, we estimated the time dependence of the local magnetic field and temperature during PFM. We analyzed the electromagnetic and thermal instability of the high-J c MgB2 bulk to avoid flux jumps using the time dependence of the critical thickness, d c(t), which shows the upper safety thickness to stabilize the superconductor magnetically, and the minimum propagation zone length, l m(t), to obtain dynamical stability. The values of d c(t) and l m(t) change along the thermally-stabilized direction with increasing temperature below the critical temperature, T c. However, the flux jump can be qualitatively understood by the local temperature, T(t), which exceeds T c in the bulk. Finally, possible solutions to avoid flux jumps in high-J c MgB2 bulks are discussed.

  17. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick, E-mail: mark.taylor@mq.edu.au

    2015-05-15

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m{sup 2}/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m{sup 2}/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m{sup 2}, more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m{sup 2} used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m{sup 2}) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m{sup 2}/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear — even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection. - Graphical abstract: Post-play hand wipe, Headland Park, Townsville, Australia. - Highlights: • Bulk mineral port

  18. Characterization of bulk ultrafine grained and nanocrystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Manish

    Thermal stability in bulk ultra fine grained (UFG) 5083 Al that exhibited initial grain size of 305 nm, and that was processed by gas atomization followed by cryomilling, consolidation and extrusion, and in bulk nanocrystalline (nc) Ni, initial grain size of 15 and 20 nm, prepared by electrodeposition was investigated. In both the materials, two grain growth regimes were identified: a low temperature region and a high temperature region. In the low temperature regime, relatively low activation energy was found: 25 +/- 5 kJ/mol for UFG 5083 Al and 11 +/- 3 kJ/mol for nc-Ni. It is suggested that this low activation energy represents the energy for the reordering of thermodynamically non-equilibrium grain boundaries in the UFG and nc-materials. In the high temperature regime the value of activation energy for UFG 5083 Al (124 +/- 5 kJ/mol) lies in between that for grain boundary diffusion and lattice diffusion of polycrystalline Al. For nc-Ni an approximate activation energy of 105 +/- 3 kJ/mol, which is close to the activation energy for grain boundary diffusion in polycrystalline Ni, was measured. The value of the grain growth exponent, n, for both the materials (deduced from the grain growth data) were higher than the value of 2 predicted from elementary grain growth theories. The discrepancy was attributed to the operation of strong pinning forces on boundaries during the annealing treatment. An examination of the microstructure suggests that the origin of the pinning forces is most likely related to the presence of impurities and dispersion-particles on the grain boundaries. Creep and ductility behavior of UFG 5083 Al were also studied in the temperature range of 523 K-648 K in the present investigation. The curve of ductility as a function of strain rate shows the presence of a maximum that shifts to higher strain rates with increasing temperature. An analysis of the experimental data indicates that the true stress exponent is about 2, and that the ductility

  19. Comparison of bulk and n-alkane PETM carbon isotope trends from the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczynski, A. A.; McInerney, F. A.; Kraus, M. J.; Wing, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a period of abrupt, short-term, and large-scale global warming fueled by a large release of isotopically light carbon, is recorded in terrestrial and marine carbonates and organic carbon as a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Here we present a composite stable carbon isotope record from n-alkanes and four bulk organic carbon records from individual sections spanning the PETM interval in the Cabin Fork area of the southeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. The n-alkane curve shows an abrupt, negative shift in δ13C values, an extended CIE body, and a rapid recovery to pre-PETM δ13C values. While the bulk organic carbon records show similarly abrupt negative shifts in δ13C values, the CIE appears to be compressed as well as smaller in magnitude, and the return to more positive δ13C values is often more gradual. Furthermore, the stratigraphic thickness of the most negative CIE values and the pattern of the recovery phase are not consistent among the four bulk organic carbon records. The discrepancy between the bulk organic matter and n-alkane CIE may arise because of changes in soil organic matter cycling during the PETM. Bulk soil organic matter δ13C values are influenced by degradation and selective preservation whereas n-alkanes are resistant to diagenesis. Variations in sediment accumulation rates across the basin may be responsible for the differences between the four bulk organic carbon δ13C records. Sites with extended CIE bodies likely present more complete isotope records with greater time resolution and less time averaging than those with reduced CIEs. The shape of the high-resolution n-alkane curve presented here is similar to the newest 3He-based timescale for the PETM using data from Walvis Ridge, IODP site 1266 (Murphy et al., 2010). The most significant difference between this revised PETM timescale and previously published age models is the allocation of time within the PETM event. Murphy et

  20. Characterization of the sedimentary organic matter preserved in Messel oil shale by bulk geochemistry and stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauersachs, T.; Schouten, S.; Schwark, L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a 150 m thick drill core section of Messel oil shale using bulk geochemical and stable isotope techniques in order to determine the organic matter sources and the environmental conditions that prevailed during the deposition of the lacustrine sequence. High Corg values (on average 27

  1. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of PrMnO3 Bulk and Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite PrMnO3(PMO) had been prepared in bulk by solid state reaction and thin films on corning glass, fused silica and MgO (100) glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique. SEM micrographs show that grains with size 2∼3 μm is observed in bulk PMO while thin films PMO show strongly connected grain structure with particle size that not larger than 100 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all samples are in single phase with orthorhombic crystal structure. Bulk PMO sample had lattice strain of 0.134% which is the lowest value among others. However, larger lattice strain was observed in thin film samples due to lattice mismatch between film-substrate and caused the MnO6 to deform. All samples shown paramagnetic or antiferromagnetic behavior, enhancement in magnetization value occurred for all PMO grew as film. We believe that larger lattice strain favor the grain growth of PMO towards more order phase. In summary, formation of structure and microstructure of thin film PMO depends on type of substrate used and it affect the magnetic property.

  2. Degree of Conversion and BisGMA, TEGDMA, UDMA Elution from Flowable Bulk Fill Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Lempel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of conversion (DC and the released bisphenol A diglycidyl ether dimethacrylate (BisGMA, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA monomers of bulk-fill composites compared to that of conventional flowable ones were assessed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Four millimeter-thick samples were prepared from SureFil SDR Flow (SDR, X-tra Base (XB, Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF and two and four millimeter samples from Filtek Ultimate Flow (FUF. They were measured with micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine the DC% of the top and the bottom surfaces. The amount of released monomers in 75% ethanol extraction media was measured with HPLC. The differences between the top and bottom DC% were significant for each material. The mean DC values were in the following order for the bottom surfaces: SDR_4mm_20s > FUF_2mm_20s > XB_4mm_20s > FBF_4mm_20s > XB_4mm_10s > FBF_4mm_10s > FUF_4mm_20s. The highest rate in the amount of released BisGMA and TEGDMA was found from the 4 mm-thick conventional flowable FUF. Among bulk-fills, FBF showed a twenty times higher amount of eluted UDMA and twice more BisGMA; meanwhile, SDR released a significantly higher amount of TEGDMA. SDR bulk-fill showed significantly higher DC%; meanwhile XB, FBF did not reach the same level DC, as that of the 2 mm-thick conventional composite at the bottom surface. Conventional flowable composites showed a higher rate of monomer elution compared to the bulk-fills, except FBF, which showed a high amount of UDMA release.

  3. Fe-based bulk metallic glasses prepared by centrifugal casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The work presents a casting method, structure characterization and analysis of chosen properties of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses in as-cast state.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe72B20Si4Nb4, Fe36Co36B19Si5Nb4, Fe43Co14Ni14B20Si5Nb4 metallic glasses in form of rings. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. The crystallization behaviour of the studied alloys was examined by differential thermal analysis (DTA. The soft magnetic property examinations of tested materials contained initial magnetic permeability and measurements of magnetic permeability relaxation.Findings: The XRD and TEM investigations revealed that the studied as-cast bulk glassy samples in forms of ring were amorphous for all tested alloys. The SEM images showed that fractures of studied rings indicated two structurally different zones, which contained “river” patterns and “smooth” areas. The samples of studied alloys presented two stage crystallization process, which was observed for all tested rings with different thickness. The changes of crystallization temperatures versus the thickness of the glassy samples were stated. The magnetic permeability relaxation, which is directly proportional to the microvoids concentration in amorphous structure decreased with increase of sample thickness. These results could be assumed as the change of amorphous structure in function of thickness.Practical implications: The centrifugal casting method is very simple, useful and effective method to produce bulk amorphous materials in the form of rings or tubes.Originality/value: The preparation of bulk metallic glasses in the form of rings for three different Fe-based alloy systems is very important for the future progress in research and practical applications of iron-based bulk amorphous materials.

  4. Degree of Conversion and BisGMA, TEGDMA, UDMA Elution from Flowable Bulk Fill Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempel, Edina; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Bálint; Szalma, József; Tóth, Ákos; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Varga, Zoltán; Böddi, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    The degree of conversion (DC) and the released bisphenol A diglycidyl ether dimethacrylate (BisGMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) monomers of bulk-fill composites compared to that of conventional flowable ones were assessed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four millimeter-thick samples were prepared from SureFil SDR Flow (SDR), X-tra Base (XB), Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF) and two and four millimeter samples from Filtek Ultimate Flow (FUF). They were measured with micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine the DC% of the top and the bottom surfaces. The amount of released monomers in 75% ethanol extraction media was measured with HPLC. The differences between the top and bottom DC% were significant for each material. The mean DC values were in the following order for the bottom surfaces: SDR_4mm_20s > FUF_2mm_20s > XB_4mm_20s > FBF_4mm_20s > XB_4mm_10s > FBF_4mm_10s > FUF_4mm_20s. The highest rate in the amount of released BisGMA and TEGDMA was found from the 4 mm-thick conventional flowable FUF. Among bulk-fills, FBF showed a twenty times higher amount of eluted UDMA and twice more BisGMA; meanwhile, SDR released a significantly higher amount of TEGDMA. SDR bulk-fill showed significantly higher DC%; meanwhile XB, FBF did not reach the same level DC, as that of the 2 mm-thick conventional composite at the bottom surface. Conventional flowable composites showed a higher rate of monomer elution compared to the bulk-fills, except FBF, which showed a high amount of UDMA release. PMID:27213361

  5. Molecular detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine raw milk samples obtained directly from bulk tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Acácia Orieth; Cortez, Adriana; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2012-08-01

    Mastitis is the most common infectious disease affecting dairy cattle; in addition, it remains the most economically important disease of dairy industries around the world. Streptococcus agalactiae, a contagious pathogen associated with subclinical mastitis, is highly infectious. This bacterium can cause an increase in bulk tank bacterial counts (BTBC) and bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC). The microbiological identification of S. agalactiae in samples from bulk tanks is an auxiliary method to control contagious mastitis. Thus, there are some limitations for time-consuming cultures or identification methods and additional concerns about the conservation and transport of samples. Bulk tank samples from 247 dairy farms were cultured and compared through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), directed to 16S rRNA genes of S. agalactiae, followed by BTBC and S. agalactiae isolation. The mean value of BTBC was 1.08×10(6) CFU mL(-1) and the bacterium was identified through the microbiological method in 98 (39.7%; CI(95%)=33.8-45.9%) and through PCR in 110 (44.5%; CI(95%)=38.5-50.8%) samples. Results indicated sensitivity of 0.8571±0.0353 (CI(95%)=0.7719-0.9196) and specificity of 0.8255±0.0311 (CI(95%)=0.7549-0.8827). The lack of significant difference between microbiological and molecular results (κ=0.6686±0.0477 and CI(95%)=0.5752-0.7620) indicated substantial agreement between the methods. This suggests that PCR can be used for bulk tank samples to detect contagious mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.

  6. Optimization and Performance Analysis of Bulk-Driven Differential Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarpreet kaur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for high-speed digital circuits at low power consumption. This paper presents a design of input stage of Operational Amplifier i.e cascode differential amplifier using a standard 65nm CMOS Technology.A comparison betweem gate-driven, bulk-driven and cascode bulk driven bulk-driven differential amplifier is described. The Results demonstrate that CMMR is 83.98 dB, 3-dB Bandwidth is 1.04 MHz. The circuit dissipate power of 28uWunder single supply of 1.0V.

  7. Engineering nanostructural routes for enhancing thermoelectric performance: bulk to nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar eMohanraman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectricity is a very important physical property, especially its significance in heat-electricity conversion. If thermoelectric devices can be effectively applied to the recovery of the renewable energies, such as waste heat and solar energy, the energy shortage and global warming issues may be greatly relieved. This review focusses recent developments on the thermoelectric performance of a low-dimensional material, bulk nanostructured materials, conventional bulk materials etc. Particular emphasis is given on, how the nanostructure in nanostructured composites, confinement effects in one-dimensional nanowires and doping effects in conventional bulk composites plays an important role in ZT enhancement.

  8. Bulk sound velocity of porous materials at high pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿华运; 吴强; 谭华; 蔡灵仓; 经福谦

    2002-01-01

    A correction of Walsh's method for bulk sound velocity calculation for shocked porous materials is accomplishedbased on the Wu-Jing thermodynamic equation of state. The corrected bulk velocities for solid and porous sampleswith low porosities are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data published previously. On the basisof this corrected equation, the influence of thermoelectrons on the bulk velocity of shocked materials is discussed indetail at pressures of 50, 70 and 200 GPa. Some interesting phenomena are revealed, which seem to be the uniquefeatures of a dynamic-pressure-loading process and could not be found in static experiments.

  9. Alternative technology of nanoparticles consolidation in the bulk material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOLKOV Georgiy Michailovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical bases and technological principles of single-stages nanoparticles conso-lidation into bulk material were offered. The theory was implemented on the model system of carbon-carbon in the process of high-temperature pyrolysis of hydrocar-bons. The bulk carbon nanomaterial with unique technical properties was produced. That made it possible to create engineering products which technical characteristics are higher than the existing level in the world. The proposed theory can be adapted to other gas-phase, liquid phase and secondary crystallization processes to create bulk nanomaterials of another chemical composition with no less unique properties.

  10. Bulk Local States and Crosscaps in Holographic CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In a weakly coupled gravity theory in the anti-de Sitter space, local states in the bulk are linear superpositions of Ishibashi states for a crosscap in the dual conformal field theory. The superposition structure can be constrained either by the microscopic causality in the bulk gravity or the bootstrap condition in the boundary conformal field theory. We show, contrary to some expectation, that these two conditions are not compatible to each other in the weak gravity regime. We also present an evidence to show that bulk local states in three dimensions are not organized by the Virasoro symmetry.

  11. Unipolar memristive switching in bulk positive temperature coefficient ceramic thermistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongya; Wang, Caihui; Fu, Hua; Zhou, Ji; Zheng, Shuzhi

    2016-01-01

    A memristive switching phenomena was investigated in macroscale bulk positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermosensitive ceramics. (BaxSr1-x)TiO3, which is a well-known PTC thermistor, was taken as an example to analyze the memristive behavior of those macroscale bulk ceramics. Hysteretic current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, which are the features of memristor were obtained. The origin of the effect is attributed to the PTC thermosensitive characteristic of the bulk ceramics, and a switching mechanism driven by competing field-driven heat generation and heat dissipation was proposed.

  12. Spontaneous localization of bulk fields: the six-dimensional case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories with d=6 bulk and d=4 brane fields charged under a U(1) gauge symmetry. Radiatively induced Fayet-Iliopoulos terms lead to an instability of the bulk fields. We compute the profile of the bulk zero modes and observe the phenomenon of spontaneous localization towards the position of the branes. While this mechanism is quite similar to the d=5 case, the mass spectrum of the excited Kaluza-Klein modes shows a crucial difference

  13. Negative Effects of Sludge Bulking in Membrane Bio-Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; HUANG Zhi; REN Nanqi; MENG Qingjuan

    2006-01-01

    Sludge bulking property of membrane bio-reactor was investigated in this study through contrast research. When the sludge bulking appeared, the removal efficiency of COD in membrane bio-reactor increased slightly through the function of filamentous bacteria. However, the negative effects of the higher net water-head differential pressures, the high block rate of membrane pore and the great quantity of filamentous bacteria at the external surface presented at the same time. Thus, plenty of methods should be performed to control sludge bulking once it happened in membrane bio-reactor.

  14. Theoretical evaluation of bulk viscosity: Expression for relaxation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Mohammad Zaheri, Ali; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K.

    2007-10-01

    A theoretical calculation of bulk viscosity has been carried out by deriving an expression for the relaxation time which appears in the formula for bulk viscosity derived by Okumura and Yonezawa. The expression involved a pair distribution function and interaction potential. Numerical results have been obtained over a wide range of densities and temperatures for Lennard-Jones fluids. It is found that our results provide a good description of bulk viscosity as has been judged by comparing the results with nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results. In addition, our results demonstrate the importance of the multiparticle correlation function.

  15. Eco Issues in Bulk Materials Handling Technologies in Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Zrnić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with eco issues in bulk materials handling in ports. Solid, free-flowing materials are said to be in bulk. Bulk materials handling is very difficult, because it incorporates all the features of liquids, gasses and mass solids. Energy efficiency, dust emissions in nearby environment, dust explosions, jamming, noise, handling of hazardous materials and protection of materials from contamination are issues that will be considered in this paper. Here are also presented possible solutions for some of these issues

  16. Engineering Nanostructural Routes for Enhancing Thermoelectric Performance: Bulk to Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraman, Rajeshkumar; Lan, Tian-Wey; Hsiung, Te-Chih; Amada, Dedi; Lee, Ping-Chung; Ou, Min-Nan; Chen, Yang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectricity is a very important phenomenon, especially its significance in heat-electricity conversion. If thermoelectric devices can be effectively applied to the recovery of the renewable energies, such as waste heat and solar energy, the energy shortage, and global warming issues may be greatly relieved. This review focusses recent developments on the thermoelectric performance of a low-dimensional material, bulk nanostructured materials, conventional bulk materials etc. Particular emphasis is given on, how the nanostructure in nanostructured composites, confinement effects in one-dimensional nanowires and doping effects in conventional bulk composites plays an important role in ZT enhancement. PMID:26913280

  17. Corporate Governance: Stakeholder Value Versus Shareholder Value

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard Charreaux; Philippe Desbrières

    2001-01-01

    Unsatisfied with the dominating shareholders'view, that we find unfitted to build a relevant theory of corporate governance, we propose an enlarged definition of the value which may be called, the stakeholder value. This definition and the associated measure are supposed to be more fitted to the stakeholder view of the firm and more relevant to understand the value creation and sharing mechanisms.

  18. Value representations: a value based dialogue tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard

    2011-01-01

    the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  19. Introducing the Bulking Factor to Quantify Clogging in Petroleum Formation Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, E. D.; Mays, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of both fluid and particle interactions in porous media is important for applications in groundwater hydrology, carbon sequestration, water filtration, and petroleum reservoir characterization. In particular, petroleum reservoir damage costs $10 billion annually, according to the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Petroleum reservoir damage, also called formation damage, results from various operations related to oil and gas production, including drilling, completions, and production phases. In this study, an extension to the widely applied Kozeny-Carman equation will be used to explore the characteristics of a dimensionless clogging parameter called the bulking factor, which was first introduced by Ojha and Graham in the 1990s. This present study will explore the tendency for fines, also called colloids, to cause clogging in initially clean porous media. Analysis proceeds using a mathematical model in which the dimensionless bulking factor is used to extend the widely utilized Kozeny-Carman equation to account for other clogging factors that are not correlated with the volume of deposited fines. The velocity dependence of the bulking factor is illustrated by considering several experimental studies from the literature that use a variety of porosities, fluids, colloid diameters and types, filter materials, and flow velocities. The filtration data sets had porosity from 35% to 46%, filter material diameters from 163 μm to 1400 μm, and colloid diameters from 0.10 μm to 8.00 μm. The filter materials were uniform sand, glass beads, or Clementine silica. Results indicate that with increasing velocity, the bulking factor decreases for all of the experiments analyzed. This correlation indicates that when other variables are held constant, filtration experiments conducted at higher flow velocity result in less clogging, at least for the case of initially clean porous media. Fitted values of the bulking factor were also correlated with the Peclet

  20. Numerical calculation of trapped magnetic field for square multiple bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydiner, A., E-mail: alevaydiner@gmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Yanmaz, E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-11-01

    In this work, the trapped magnetic field was calculated for square bulk superconductors using the sand-pile model and Biot-Savart law. The numerical simulation of the trapped magnetic field was performed varying the sample dimensions, distance between the sample surface and observation point. In addition the magnetic field characteristics of superconducting bulk arrangement in an array was determined. The trapped magnetic field was found to be depending on the sample dimensions and distance between the sample and observation point. It is observed that, when the distance from the surface is larger, the value of the trapped magnetic field decreases, but the variation of the trapped magnetic field becomes small due to averaging the distribution of the trapped magnetic field.

  1. Climatic features of the Mediterranean Sea detected by the analysis of the longwave radiative bulk formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Schiano

    Full Text Available Some important climatic features of the Mediterranean Sea stand out from an analysis of the systematic discrepancies between direct measurements of longwave radiation budget and predictions obtained by the most widely used bulk formulae. In particular, under clear-sky conditions the results show that the surface values of both air temperature and humidity over the Mediterranean Sea are larger than those expected over an open ocean with the same amount of net longwave radiation. Furthermore, the twofold climatic regime of the Mediterranean region strongly affects the downwelling clear-sky radiation. This study suggests that a single bulk formula with constant numerical coefficients is unable to reproduce the fluxes at the surface for all the seasons.

    Key words: Meteorology and Atmospheric dynamics (radiative processes – Oceanography: general (marginal and semienclosed seas; marine meteorology

  2. Balloon and core sampling for determining bulk density of alluvial desert soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraski, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Samples were collected from major strata in the upper 5 m of an alluvial soil profile in the Amargosa Desert of southern Nevada to compare rubber-balloon and drive-core bulk-density measurement methods. Outside the range of fine-soil texture, where soil consistency was either very loose or very hard, the core method appeared to sample inaccurately, resulting in bulk-density values less than those determined by the balloon method. Under the severe sampling conditions encountered, large decreases in the relative accuracy of the core method were not directly related to rock-fragment content, but were related to extremes in the cohesiveness of the strata sampled. -from Author

  3. The Value of Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  4. Bulk modification of PDMS microchips by an amphiphilic copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2007-09-01

    A simple and rapid bulk-modification method based on adding an amphiphilic copolymer during the fabrication process was employed to modify PDMS microchips. Poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) was used as the additive substance. Compared to the native PDMS microchips, both the contact angle and the EOF of the bulk-modified PDMS microchips decreased. The effects of the additive loading and the pH on the EOF were investigated in detail. The bulk-modified PDMS microchips exhibited reproducible and stable EOF behavior. The application of the bulk-modified PDMS microchips was also studied and the results indicated that they could be successfully used to separate amino acids and to suppress protein adsorption.

  5. Bulk metallic glass for low noise fluxgate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The team of Prime Photonics, Virginia Tech, and Utron Kinetics propose to demonstrate a method for fabrication of a bulk, amorphous, cobalt-rich material that...

  6. Diagnosis of mediastinal bulk disease in Hodgkin patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographic determination of mediastinal bulk in Hodgkin disease is confusing, with numerous methods having been proposed. The authors have evaluated with chest radiography and thoracic CT 76 patients with mediastinal Hodgkin disease. Seventy-four (97%) had bulk disease as determined by at least one method. Patients were categorized according to clinical stage and symptoms, the pattern of nodal involvement, the presence of extension (E disease), and response to treatment; a subset of 37 patients was isolated. These individuals had radiographically and clinically more severe disease that responded less favorably to treatment.The average mediastinal mass diameter in these patients was 11.0 cm, the thoracic ratio 36.6%, and the tumor area 138 cm2. However, no method currently used to define bulk disease would consistently define all of these 37 patients with a poorer prognosis and outcome. The radiographic diagnosis of mediastinal bulk disease in patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin disease should be done with caution

  7. Control over magnetic properties in bulk hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Christian; Quesada, Adrian; Saerbeck, Thomas; Rubia, Miguel Angel De La; Garcia, Miguel Angel; Fernandez, Jose Francisco; Schuller, Ivan K.; UCSD Collaboration; Instituto de Ceramica, Madrid Collaboration; Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble Collaboration

    We present control of coercivity and remanent magnetization of a bulk ferromagnetic material embedded in bulk vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) by using a standard bulk synthesis procedure. The method generalizes the use of structural phase transitions of one material to control structural and magnetic properties of another. A structural phase transition (SPT) in the V2O3 host material causes magnetic properties of Ni to change as function of temperature. The remanent magnetization and the coercivity are reversibly controlled by the SPT without additional external magnetic fields. The reversible tuning shown here opens the pathway for controlling the properties of a vast variety of magnetic hybrid bulk systems. This Work is supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science, U.S. Department of Energy, BES-DMS funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Science, DMR under grant DE FG02 87ER-45332.

  8. 27 CFR 19.588 - Construction of bulk conveyances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... compartment) shall be so arranged that it can be completely drained. (3) Each tank car or tank truck shall... device, for carrying required marks or brands shall be provided on each bulk conveyance. (6)...

  9. Bulk metallic glasses: A new class of engineering materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joysurya Basu; S Ranganathan

    2003-06-01

    Bulk glass-forming alloys have emerged over the past fifteen years with attractive properties and technological promise. A number of alloy systems based on lanthanum, magnesium, zirconium, palladium, iron, cobalt and nickel have been discovered. Glass-forming ability depends on various factors like enthalpy of mixing, atomic size and multicomponent alloying. A number of processes is available to synthesise bulk metallic glasses. The crystallisation behaviour and mechanical properties of these alloys pose interesting scientific questions. Upon crystallisation many of these glasses transform to bulk nanocrystals and nanoquasicrystals. A detailed study of the structure and the crystallisation behaviour of glasses has enabled the elucidation of the possible atomic configuration in liquid alloys. Their crystallisation behaviour can be exploited to synthesise novel nanocomposite microstructures and their mechanical properties can be enhanced. A broad overview of the present status of the science and technology of bulk metallic glasses and their potential technological uses is presented.

  10. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m(2)/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m(2)/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m(2), more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m(2) used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m(2)) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m(2)/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes ((208)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear - even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection.

  11. Thermodynamic regularities in compressed liquids: II. The reduced bulk modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous work, we analysed some regularities found in the behaviour of the thermal expansion coefficient, αp, in compressed liquids. We confirmed that a given liquid presents a characteristic pressure range in which the condition (∂αp/∂T)p=0 is fulfilled within a narrow range of reduced densities. We also found that the density at which the condition (∂αp/∂T)p=0 is satisfied, ρα, decreases with temperature, a key feature not described before. Earlier studies by other authors suggested that similar regularities are expected for the reduced bulk modulus, B. We present here a detailed analysis of the temperature and density dependence of B from existing experimental results at high pressures. Several liquids have been analysed: argon, krypton, xenon, ethylene, tetrafluoromethane, trifluoromethane, carbon dioxide, carbon disulfide, n-butane, n-hexane, toluene, ethanol, 1-hexanol, m-cresol, and quinoline. We locate that the density ρB that fulfils the condition (∂B/∂T)ρ=0 occurs at a particular region of the phase diagram, between 3.4 and 2.4 times the critical density of each liquid. Interestingly, the previously found density ρα is close to ρB, in a similar region of the reduced phase diagram. However, we note that ρB typically decreases to a lesser extent with temperature than ρα. In addition, we have found that ρB(T) behaves in a parallel fashion for the different liquids, showing larger values of ρB as the complexity of the molecules increases. These findings provide a strong basis for developing general equation of state models to describe the behaviour of liquids in the high-pressure regime

  12. Magnetic forces associated with bursty bulk flows in Earth's magnetotail

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Tomas; Hamrin, Maria; Nilsson, Hans; Kullen, Anita; Pitkänen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    We present the first direct measurements of magnetic forces acting on bursty bulk flow plasma in the magnetotail. The magnetic forces are determined using Cluster multispacecraft measurements. We analyze 67 bursty bulk flow (BBF) events and show that the curvature part of the magnetic force is consistently positive, acting to accelerate the plasma toward Earth between approximately 10 and 20 R-E geocentrical distances, while the magnetic field pressure gradient increasingly brakes the plasma ...

  13. Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

  14. Bulk-Boundary Duality, Gauge Invariance, and Quantum Error Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Mintun, Eric; Rosenhaus, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow have argued that the localization of bulk information in a boundary dual should be understood in terms of quantum error correction. We show that this structure appears naturally when the gauge invariance of the boundary theory is incorporated. This provides a new understanding of the non-uniqueness of the bulk fields (precursors). It suggests a close connection between gauge invariance and the emergence of spacetime.

  15. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany So; Albert Wertheimer, Ph.D., MBA

    2012-01-01

    Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging.Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit...

  16. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Hodges; Kristiana Hansen; Donald McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of ...

  17. Indigenous environmental values as human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gratani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.

  18. Cosmic no hair for braneworlds with a bulk dilaton field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidsey, James E.; Seery, David

    2005-11-01

    Braneworld cosmology supported by a bulk scalar field with an exponential potential is developed. A general class of separable backgrounds for both single and two-brane systems is derived, where the bulk metric components are given by products of world volume and bulk coordinates and the world-volumes represent any anisotropic and inhomogeneous solution to an effective four-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We deduce a cosmic no hair theorem for all ever-expanding, spatially homogeneous Bianchi world volumes and find that the spatially flat and isotropic inflationary scaling solution represents a late-time attractor when the bulk potential is sufficiently flat. The dependence of this result on the separable nature of the bulk metric is investigated by applying the techniques of Hamilton-Jacobi theory to five-dimensional Einstein gravity. We employ the spatial gradient expansion method to determine the asymptotic form of the bulk metric up to third-order in spatial gradients. It is found that the condition for the separable form of the metric to represent the attractor of the system is precisely the same as that for the four-dimensional world-volume to isotropize. We also derive the fourth-order contribution to the Hamilton-Jacobi generating functional. Finally, we conclude by placing our results within the context of the holographic approach to braneworld cosmology.

  19. Waveform control pulse magnetization for HTS bulk magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Shigeuchi, Koji; Okuda, Sayo; Watasaki, Masahiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-03-01

    For the past 10 years, we have studied high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnets for use in electromagnetic rotating machines. If the magnetic field effectively magnetizes the HTS bulk, then the size of the motor and generator can be reduced without a reduction in output. We showed that the melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O HTS bulk effectively traps a high magnetic field using waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM). WCPM makes it possible to generate any pulsed magnetic field waveform by appropriately changing the duty ratio of the pulse width modulation. By chopping so that the pulsed magnetic field has a period of about 1ms, the WCPM technology enables active control of the rise time and suppresses magnetic flux motion that decreases magnetization efficiency. This method is also useful for any HTS bulk magnet, and the high magnetic flux density is trapped in the HTS bulk by a single pulse magnetic field. We developed a magnetizer that has a feedback system from the penetrated magnetic flux density to realize WCPM. In this research, using only a single pulse magnetic field of WCPM method at 77K, an HTS bulk with a 45mm diameter and 19mm thickness trapped a maximum magnetic field of 1.63T, which is more than 90% of the trapped magnetic flux density by FC magnetization. This result suggests that the pulse magnetizing method can replace the conventional field-cooled method and promote the practical use of HTS magnets for electromagnetic power applications.

  20. Bulk flow of halos in $\\Lambda$CDM simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming; Gao, Liang; Jing, Yipeng; Yang, Xiaohu; Chi, Xuebin; Feng, Longlong; Kang, Xi; Lin, Weipeng; Shang, Guihua; Wang, Long; Zhao, Donghai; Zhang, Pengjie

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the Pangu N-body simulation validates that bulk flow of halos follows Maxwellian distribution of which variance is consistent with prediction of linear perturbation theory of structure formation. We propose that consistency between observed bulk velocity and theories shall be examined at the effective scale as radius of spherical top-hat window function yielding the same smoothed velocity variance in linear theory as the sample window does. Then we compared some recently estimated bulk flows from observational samples with prediction of the $\\Lambda$CDM model we used, some results deviate the expectation at level of $\\sim 3\\sigma$ but the tension is not as severe as previously claimed. We disclose that bulk flow is weakly correlated with dipole of internal mass distribution, alignment angle between mass dipole and bulk flow has broad distribution but is peaked at $\\sim 30-50^\\circ$, meanwhile bulk flow shows little dependence on mass of halos used for estimation. In the simulation of box size $1h^...

  1. Development of conjugate shear bands during bulk simple shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L. B.; Cobbold, P. R.

    In rocks possessing a strong planar fabric, shear bands of constant shear sense and oriented at an oblique angle to the foliation are considered by many authors to be characteristic of a non-coaxial bulk deformation history, whereas conjugate shear bands are considered to indicate coaxial shortening. However, in two areas where bulk deformation history appears to be non-coaxial (Cap Corse, Corsica and Ile de Groix, Brittany), conjugate shear bands are observed. In order to investigate this problem, experiments were performed by bulk simple shearing using Plasticine as a rock analogue. When slip between layers of the model is permitted, shear bands of normal-fault geometry form with both the same and opposite shear sense as the bulk simple shearing at approximately the same angle with the layering (40°) irrespective of layer orientation in the undeformed state (for initial orientations of 50, 30 and 15°). Shear bands are initially formed within individual layers and may propagate across layer interfaces when further movement along these is inhibited. The existence of conjugate shear bands in Corsica and Ile de Groix is therefore not incompatible with a model of bulk simple shearing for these two regions. In field studies, one should perhaps exercise care in using shear bands to determine the kind of motion or the sense of bulk shearing.

  2. Exploring the BTZ bulk with boundary conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, Bruno Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    We point out a simple relation between the bulk field at an arbitrary radial position and the boundary OPE, by placing some old work by Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo and Parisi in the AdS/CFT context. This gives us, in principle, a prescription for extracting the classical bulk field from the boundary conformal block, and also clarifies why the latter is computed by a geodesic Witten diagram. We apply this prescription to the BTZ black hole - viewed as a pure state created by the insertion of a heavy operator in the boundary CFT_2 - and use it to relate a classical field in the bulk to a heavy-light Virasoro conformal block in the boundary. In particular, we obtain a relation between the radial bulk position and the conformal ratios in the boundary CFT. We use this to show that the singular points of the radial bulk equation occur when the dual boundary operators approach each other and that the associated bulk monodromies map to monodromies of the (appropriately transformed) conformal block, thus providing a CFT in...

  3. High thermoelectric performance of niobium-doped strontium titanate bulk material affected by all-scale grain boundary and inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large thermal conductivity of SrTiO3 bulk material limits its potential application for high-temperature thermoelectricity. The effects of all-scale grain boundaries and inclusions on the thermoelectric performance of Nb-doped bulk SrTiO3 materials are investigated in this study. Nano- to microscale grain boundaries and inclusions reduce the thermal conductivity by 30%. As a result, the ZT value is enhanced 2.6 times by a combination of all-sized crystals, energy filtering effect, multilevel scattering behaviors of nano/microscale grain boundaries and inclusions

  4. Value in Megaprojects

    OpenAIRE

    O Oliomogbe, Gloria; J Smith, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Project management value has moved from ideas of 'value management' to ideas of 'understanding how stakeholders value different things'. In line with this new paradigm, value in megaprojects is influenced by the complex morass of stakeholders involved. This paper explores how stakeholders engage with the megaproject delivery process and value creation. From extant literature, the author reviews the definition of megaprojects and discusses their characteristics. Value and stakeholder value was...

  5. Symbolic Values, Value Formation and Interpersonal Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal relations are shaped by the judgements associated with the social categories that individuals perceive in their social contacts. I develop a model of how those judgments form based on a theory of symbolic values. The model depicts the interaction between two values, one associated with an inherited ethnic trait ("nationality") and one with an endogenous achievement trait ("income"). Individuals who are less likely to achieve are predicted to invest more value on nationalism and ...

  6. Nonstandard labour values

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The standard definition of labour value assumes that capitalists abstain from consumption during the period of replacement. The nonstandard definition of labour value assumes that capitalists consume. Both the transformation problem and the problem of an invariable measure of value are necessary consequences of standard labour values. In contrast, nonstandard labour values resolve both classical contradictions.

  7. Maslow and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  8. Projects as value constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus

    Creating value has been outlined as very central to projects applying the organizational perspective to projects. It has been suggested that value is created in value constellations or project networks, where actors work together to create value. However, research on the value creation process in...

  9. Climate change and shareholder value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2005, the Carbon Trust worked with Cairneagle Associates to develop a methodology for analysing shareholder value at risk from climate change. The model developed offers a robust, replicable, top-down approach to analysing such value at risk. In addition to a company's own energy linked ('direct' and electricity linked 'indirect') carbon emissions, it looks further along the value chain and considers broader potential risk. In calculating the financial impact, the analysis quantifies the potential impact on profits, using the shape of the business in 2004, but applying a potential 2013 emissions regulatory regime. 2013 was chosen as the first year after the end of the 2008-2012 Kyoto compliance period (which also equates to Phase Two in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme). A major uncertainty is to what extent countries not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol (particularly the USA, India and China) will be brought into committed emission reduction targets from 2013. 2013 therefore represents the earliest year under this uncertain, but likely tougher, regulatory regime. However, although this report focuses on 2013, it needs to be recognised that, for many sectors, financial impacts will be seen significantly before this time. Ten 'case study companies' have been studied, from a range of sectors. In some cases, the 'case study company' analysed is strictly linked to a single company within that sector. In others, just a single corporate division has been reviewed, and in others yet again, characteristics from several companies have been combined to produce a more representative example. In order to enable analysis on a strictly like-for-like basis, the research has been based entirely upon public sources of information. This analysis illustrates what a determined shareholder (or other onlooker) could derive about value at risk from climate change, based upon what companies disclose today. A summary of the analysis for each sector case study is given, with

  10. Structure and magnetic properties of Fe36Co36B19Si5Nb4 bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The work presents a microstructure characterization, thermal stability and soft magnetic properties analysis of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on bulk amorphous ribbons and rods. The amorphous structure of tested materials was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM methods. The thermal properties associated with crystallization temperature of the glassy samples were measured using differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The magnetic properties were determined by the Maxwell-Wien bridge and VSM methods.Findings: The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations have revealed that the studied as-cast bulk metallic glasses were amorphous. Based from the XRD analysis and TEM investigations of the Fe36Co36B19Si5Nb4 rod samples, it was believed that the tested alloy can be fabricated into a bulk glassy rod with the diameter of up to 4 mm. A two stage crystallization process was observed for studied bulk amorphous alloy. The changes of Curie temperatures, crystallization temperatures and magnetic properties as a function of glassy ribbons thickness (time of solidification were stated. The investigated magnetic properties allow to classify the studied metallic glasses as soft magnetic materials.Practical implications: The studied bulk metallic glasses are suitable materials for many electrical application in different elements of magnetic circuits and for manufacturing of sensors and precise current transformers.Originality/value: The obtained examination results confirm the utility of applied investigation methods in the microstructure, thermal and soft magnetic properties analysis of examined bulk amorphous alloys.

  11. Finite N and the failure of bulk locality: black holes in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad

    2014-09-01

    We consider bulk quantum fields in AdS/CFT in the background of an eternal black hole. We show that for black holes with finite entropy, correlation functions of semiclassical bulk operators close to the horizon deviate from their semiclassical value and are ill-defined inside the horizon. This is due to the large-time behavior of correlators in a unitary CFT, and means the region near and inside the horizon receives corrections. We give a prescription for modifying the definition of a bulk field in a black hole background, such that one can still define operators that mimic the inside of the horizon, but at the price of violating microcausality. For supergravity fields we find that commutators at spacelike separation generically ~ e - S/2. Similar results hold for stable black holes that form in collapse. The general lesson may be that a small amount of non-locality, even over arbitrarily large spacelike distances, is an essential aspect of non-perturbative quantum gravity.

  12. Finite N and the failure of bulk locality: Black holes in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We consider bulk quantum fields in AdS/CFT in the background of an eternal black hole. We show that for black holes with finite entropy, correlation functions of semiclassical bulk operators close to the horizon deviate from their semiclassical value and are ill-defined inside the horizon. This is due to the large-time behavior of correlators in a unitary CFT, and means the region near and inside the horizon receives corrections. We give a prescription for modifying the definition of a bulk field in a black hole background, such that one can still define operators that mimic the inside of the horizon, but at the price of violating microcausality. For supergravity fields we find that commutators at spacelike separation generically ~ exp(-S/2). Similar results hold for stable black holes that form in collapse. The general lesson may be that a small amount of non-locality, even over arbitrarily large spacelike distances, is an essential aspect of non-perturbative quantum gravity.

  13. Energy dependence of electron inelastic mean free paths in bulk GaN crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, M.; Zommer, L.; Jablonski, A.; Grzegory, I.; Bockowski, M.

    2004-09-01

    Recent advances in fabrication and commercialization of high-brightness blue and green light-emitting devices based on gallium nitride have renewed intense research of its basic properties. Since information on electron transport processes in GaN is scarce, their systematic studies are highly desirable. The electron inelastic mean free path (IMFP) is a crucial parameter for quantitative interpretation of surface electron spectra. The energy dependence of IMFP for bulk GaN crystals with different surface concentrations of their constituents was obtained from elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) with use of the Ni standard in the energy range 200-2000 eV. The measured IMFPs were compared with the values predicted by the TPP-2M and G-1 formulae. A reasonable agreement was found between the measured IMFPs in bulk GaN with an ideal stoichiometric surface composition and the corresponding calculated IMFPs. Compared with the bulk IMFPs, experimental IMFPs valid for the GaN sample with a thin surface layer enriched in ˜70 at.% Ga are only slightly smaller by 5-10%, depending on the electron energy.

  14. Basin Excavation, Lower Crust, Composition, and Bulk Moon Mass balance in Light of a Thin Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziegler, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    New lunar gravity results from GRAIL have been interpreted to reflect an overall thin and low-density lunar crust. Accordingly, crustal thickness has been modeled as ranging from 0 to 60 km, with thinnest crust at the locations of Crisium and Moscoviense basins and thickest crust in the central farside highlands. The thin crust has cosmochemical significance, namely in terms of implications for the Moon s bulk composition, especially refractory lithophile elements that are strongly concentrated in the crust. Wieczorek et al. concluded that the bulk Moon need not be enriched compared to Earth in refractory lithophile elements such as Al. Less Al in the crust means less Al has been extracted from the mantle, permitting relatively low bulk lunar mantle Al contents and low pre- and post-crust-extraction values for the mantle (or the upper mantle if only the upper mantle underwent LMO melting). Simple mass-balance calculations using the method of [4] suggests that the same conclusion might hold for Th and the entire suite of refractory lithophile elements that are incompatible in olivine and pyroxene, including the KREEP elements, that are likewise concentrated in the crust.

  15. Gamma-ray attenuation method as an efficient tool to investigate soil bulk density spatial variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F., E-mail: lfpires@uepg.b [Laboratory of Soil Physics and Environmental Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa, UEPG, C.E.P. 84.030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Rosa, J.A. [Laboratory of Soil Physics, Agricultural Research Institute of Parana, IAPAR, C.E.P. 84.001-970 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Pereira, A.B. [Laboratory of Agrometeorology, State University of Ponta Grossa, UEPG, C.E.P. 84.030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Arthur, R.C.J.; Bacchi, O.O.S. [Laboratory of Soil Physics, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, USP/CENA, C.E.P. 13.400-970 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    The spatial variability of soil bulk density (rho{sub b}) was measured by using the volumetric ring method (VRM) and the gamma-ray attenuation method (GAM). Collimated radiation from 3.7 GBq of {sup 241}Am was used to evaluate the soil mass attenuation coefficient and its bulk density. Circular lead collimators were adjusted and aligned between source (D = 1, 2 and 3 mm) and detector (D = 4.5 mm). Results of GAM for average rho{sub b} provided good agreement with the corresponding values obtained gravimetrically. Variations in bulk density for different collimator dimensions can be attributed to multiple scattering after photons interaction with soil, mainly for 3 mm collimator size. The best result of rho{sub b} by the nuclear technique was obtained when rho{sub b} represents an average of the measurements for collimators of 1 and 2 mm. Another cause for the differences in rho{sub b} by GAM and VRM is the heterogeneity of soil when the collimated beam can interact with stones or large air-filled holes or channels present in the sample. Therefore, the pattern of spatial variability obtained by VRM was confirmed by GAM for all collimator sizes. This result is a good indication that GAM can be used with success to analyze soil spatial variability.

  16. Galactic Disk Bulk Motions as Revealed by the LSS-GAC DR2

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ning-Chen; Huang, Yang; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Ren, Juan-Juan; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the bulk motions of the nearby Galactic stellar disk, based on three samples selected from the LSS-GAC DR2: a global sample containing 0.57 million FGK dwarfs out to $\\sim$ 2 kpc, a local subset of the global sample consisting $\\sim$ 5,400 stars within 150 pc, and an anti-center sample containing $\\sim$ 4,400 AFGK dwarfs and red clump stars within windows of a few degree wide centered on the Galactic anti-center. The global sample is used to construct a three-dimensional map of bulk motions of the Galactic disk from the solar vicinity out to $\\sim$ 2 kpc with a spatial resolution of $\\sim$ 250 pc. Typical values of the radial and vertical components of bulk motion range from $-$15 km s$^{-1}$ to 15 km s$^{-1}$, while the lag behind the circular speed dominates the azimuthal component by up to $\\sim$ 15 km s$^{-1}$. The map reveals spatially coherent, kpc-scale stellar flows in the disk, with typical velocities of a few tens km s$^{-1}$. Bending- and breathing-mode perturb...

  17. Proton irradiation effects on critical current of bulk single-crystal superconducting YBCO wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have investigated the effects of 10 MeV proton irradiation on the magnetization M and critical current density Jc of bulk single-crystal YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) superconducting thick wire filaments produced through laser-heated floating zone (LHFZ) technique. M and Jc were determined both along the length and perpendicular to the length of the wire. Radiation-induced enhancement of Jc along the length of the wire was observed while there was a small decrease in Jc perpendicular to its length. Jc values along the length of the wire up to ∼1.4 x 105 A/cm2 at 77K and ∼1.3 x 106 A/cm2 at 30K and in applied magnetic field H = 1 T were observed in the irradiated samples. In the unirradiated sample, the difference in magnetization ΔM at a given field in the magnetic hysteresis loop for increasing and decreasing field applied perpendicular to the sample length was observed to depend on the orientation of the sample about its axis. This indicates anisotropy in Jc along the sample length. This anisotropy increased on irradiation relative to the direction of irradiation. They believe that these Jc values along the length are amongst the highest published Jc values for bulk high temperature superconductor (HTS) thick wire filament

  18. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotopic analyses on water-soluble sulfate in bulk atmospheric deposition from the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H.; Reheis, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfate is a major component of bulk atmospheric deposition (including dust, aerosol, fog, and rain). We analyzed sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of water-soluble sulfate from 40 sites where year-round dust traps collect bulk atmospheric deposition in the southwestern United States. Average sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions (??34S and ??18O) are 5.8 ?? 1.4 (CDT) and 11.2 ?? 1.9 (SMOW) (n = 47), respectively. Samples have an oxygen 17 anomaly (?? 17O), with an average value of 1.0 ?? 0.6???. Except for a weak positive correlation between ??18O and ??17O values (r2 ??? 0.4), no correlation exists for ??18O versus ??34S, ?? 17O versus ??34S, or any of the three isotopic compositions versus elevation of the sample site. Exceptional positive ?? 17O values (up to 4.23???) are found in samples from sites in the vicinity of large cities or major highways, and near-zero ?? 17O values are found in samples close to dry lakes. Comparison of isotopic values of dust trap sulfate and desert varnish sulfate from the region reveals that varnish sulfate has average isotopic values that are ???4.8??? lower for ??18O, ???2.1??? higher for ??34S , and ???0.3??? lower for ?? 17O than those of the present-day bulk deposition sulfate. Although other factors could cause the disparity, this observation suggests a possibility that varnish sulfate may have recorded a long-term atmospheric sulfate deposition during the Holocene or Pleistocene, as well as the differences between sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of the preindustrial bulk deposition sulfate and those of the industrial era.

  19. Development of a superconducting bulk magnet for NMR and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Tamada, Daiki; Yanagi, Yousuke; Itoh, Yoshitaka; Nemoto, Takahiro; Utumi, Hiroaki; Kose, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    A superconducting bulk magnet composed of six vertically stacked annular single-domain c-axis-oriented Eu-Ba-Cu-O crystals was energized to 4.74 T using a conventional superconducting magnet for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Shim coils, gradient coils, and radio frequency coils for high resolution NMR and MRI were installed in the 23 mm-diameter room-temperature bore of the bulk magnet. A 6.9 ppm peak-to-peak homogeneous region suitable for MRI was achieved in the central cylindrical region (6.2 mm diameter, 9.1 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a single layer shim coil. A 21 Hz spectral resolution that can be used for high resolution NMR spectroscopy was obtained in the central cylindrical region (1.3 mm diameter, 4 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a multichannel shim coil. A clear 3D MR image dataset of a chemically fixed mouse fetus with (50 μm)3 voxel resolution was obtained in 5.5 h. We therefore concluded that the cryogen-free superconducting bulk magnet developed in this study is useful for high-resolution desktop NMR, MRI and mobile NMR device.

  20. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  1. Evaluation and remediation of bulk soap dispensers for biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lindsey A; Ramsay, Bradley D; Goeres, Darla M; Fields, Matthew W; Zapka, Carrie A; Macinga, David R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating bulk soap in public restroom soap dispensers have demonstrated up to 25% of open refillable bulk-soap dispensers were contaminated with ~ 6 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, plastic counter-mounted, plastic wall-mounted and stainless steel wall-mounted dispensers were analyzed for suspended and biofilm bacteria using total cell and viable plate counts. Independent of dispenser type or construction material, the bulk soap was contaminated with 4-7 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) bacteria, while 4-6 log(10)(CFU cm(-2)) biofilm bacteria were isolated from the inside surfaces of the dispensers (n = 6). Dispenser remediation studies, including a 10 min soak with 5000 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite, were then conducted to determine the efficacy of cleaning and disinfectant procedures against established biofilms. The testing showed that contamination of the bulk soap returned to pre-test levels within 7-14 days. These results demonstrate biofilm is present in contaminated bulk-soap dispensers and remediation studies to clean and sanitize the dispensers are temporary.

  2. Thermoplastic Micro-Forming of Bulk Metallic Glasses: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Wen; Liu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are a fascinating class of metallic alloys with an isotropic amorphous structure that is rapidly quenched from liquid melts. The absence of a crystalline micro-structure endows them with a portfolio of properties such as high strength, high elasticity, and excellent corrosion resistance. Whereas the limited plasticity and hence poor workability at ambient temperature impede the structural application of bulk metallic glasses, the unique superplasticity within the supercooled liquid region opens an alternative window of so-called thermoplastic forming, which allows precise and versatile net-shaping of complex geometries on length scales ranging from nanometers to centimeters that were previously unachievable with conventional crystalline metal processing. Thermoplastic forming not only breaks through the bottleneck of the manufacture of bulk metallic glasses at ambient temperature but also offers an alluring prospect in micro-engineering applications. This paper comprehensively reviews some pivotal aspects of bulk metallic glasses during thermoplastic micro-forming, including an in-depth understanding of the crystallization kinetics of bulk metallic glasses and the thermoplastic processing time window, the thermoplastic forming map that clarifies the relationship between the flow characteristics and the formability, the interfacial friction in micro-forming and novel forming methods to improve the formability, and the potential applications of the hot-embossed micro-patterns/components.

  3. Effect of silver addition on the mechanical and field trapping properties of Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Nariki, S; Matsui, M; Murakami, M

    2002-01-01

    The effect of Ag addition on the microstructure and the mechanical and field trapping properties of Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor has been investigated. The single grain Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors 32 mm in diameter were fabricated with 0-30 mass%Ag/sub 2/O additions by the melt growth method under controlled oxygen partial pressure of 1.0%. From microscopic observations, it was found that the macro- cracks in the a-b plane decreased with Ag addition. The three-point bending test showed that the average strength of Ag-free bulk was 69 MPa at room temperature, while the strength was dramatically improved to 110-115 MPa with 10-30 mass%Ag/sub 2/O additions. The trapped magnetic field of Ag-free bulk sample was 1.3 T at 77 K. The trapped field of bulk Gd-Ba-Cu-O samples with 10-20 mass%Ag/sub 2/O exhibited high values of 1.8-2.0 T at 77 K. However, the trapped field of the sample with 30 mass%Ag/sub 2/O addition was lowered to 1.1 T with decreasing the critical current density. The trapped field of Ag- adde...

  4. Analytical formulas, general properties and calculation of transport coefficients in the hadron gas: shear and bulk viscosities

    CERN Document Server

    Moroz, Oleg N

    2013-01-01

    Elaborated calculations of the shear and the bulk viscosities in the hadron gas, using the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model cross sections, are made. These cross sections are analyzed and corrected, and the consequences of the corrections for the freeze-out temperatures are discussed. A special treatment of the resonances is implemented additionally. The previously considered approximation of one constant cross section for all hadrons is justified. It's found that the bulk viscosity of the hadron gas is much larger than the bulk viscosity of the pion gas while the shear viscosity is found to be less sensitive to the hadronic mass spectrum. In qualitative calculations the maximum of the bulk viscosity due to the hadron gas mass spectrum is found at $T=190 MeV$ with zero chemical potentials. It's expected that this value can be used as an estimation of the critical temperature. A misleading viewpoint, resulting in mistakes in the calculations of the bulk viscosity in some papers, is co...

  5. Cu-based bulk amorphous alloy with larger glass-forming ability and supercooled liquid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, H.M. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); School of Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: waterdrophmfu@hotmail.com; Zhang, H.F. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, H. [Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Qld 4350 (Australia); Hu, Z.Q. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2008-06-30

    The glassy rod with a maximum sample thickness of 11 mm and larger supercooled liquid region of 108 K was successfully fabricated when substituting Cu with minor amount of Ag in the Cu-Zr-Al-Gd alloy system. The value of {gamma} reaches a maximum of 0.418 for the Cu{sub 45.5}Zr{sub 45}Al{sub 7}Gd{sub 2}Ag{sub 0.5} bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloy. The high glass-forming ability (GFA) and larger supercooled liquid region are discussed from atomic size, negative mixing heat among constituent elements and thermodynamics.

  6. DESIGN, FABRICATION, TESTING AND MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF BULK-MICROMACHINED FLOWMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaobao; Qian Jin; Zhang Dacheng

    2004-01-01

    Micromachined piezoresistive flowmeters with four different types of sensing structures have been designed, fabricated and tested. Piezoresistors were defined at the end of the sensors through p-diffusion, and their values were about 3.5 kΩ. Wheatstone bridge was configured with the piezoresistors in order to measure the output response. The output voltage increases with increasing flow rate of air, obeying determined relationships. The testing results show that the sensors that are designed for measuring 10L/M in full operational range have desired sensitivities. The sensor chip is manufactured with bulk-micromachining technologies, requiring a set of seven masks.

  7. Effect of PVA doping on flux pinning in Bulk MgB2

    OpenAIRE

    Vajpayee, Arpita; Awana, V. P. S.; Balamurugan, S.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.; Kishan, H.; Bhalla, G. L.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of PVA (Poly Vinyl Acetate) doped bulk MgB2 superconductor is reported here. PVA is used as a Carbon source. PVA doping effects made two distinguishable contributions: first enhancement of Jc field performance and second an increase in Hc2 value, both because of carbon incorporation into MgB2 crystal lattice. The susceptibility measurement reveals that Tc decreased from 37 to 36 K. Lattice parameter a decreased from 3.085 A to 3.081 A due to the partial subs...

  8. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emin, David, E-mail: emin@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Akhtari, Massoud [Semple Institutes for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ellingson, B. M. [Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mathern, G. W. [Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm.

  9. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  10. Glass-forming ability analysis of selected Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper mainly aims to present the structure and thermal stability of selected Fe-based bulk metallic glasses: Fe72B20Si4Nb4 and Fe43Co14Ni14B20Si5Nb4.Design/methodology/approach: The investigated samples were cast in form of the rods by the pressure die casting method. The structure analysis of the studied materials in as-cast state was carried out using XRD and TEM methods. The thermal stability associated with glass transition temperature (Tg, onset (Tx and peak (Tp crystallization temperature was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Several parameters have been used to determine the glass-forming ability of studied alloys. The parameters of GFA included reduced glass transition temperature (Trg, supercooled liquid region (ΔTx, the stability (S and (Kgl parameter.Findings: The XRD and TEM investigations revealed that the studied as-cast metallic glasses were fully amorphous. Changes of the onset and peak crystallization temperature and the glass transition temperature as a function of glassy samples thickness were stated. The good glass-forming ability (GFA enabled casting of the Fe72B20Si4Nb4 and Fe43Co14Ni14B20Si5Nb4 glassy rods.Practical implications: The obtained examination results confirm the utility of applied investigation methods in the thermal stability analysis of examined bulk amorphous alloys. It is evident that parameters Trg, ΔTx, Kgl, S could be used to determine glass-forming ability of studied bulk metallic glasses.Originality/value: The success of fabrication of studied Fe-based bulk metallic glasses in form of rods with diameter up to 3 mm is important for the future progress in research of this group of materials.

  11. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  12. Magnetophoretic control of water droplets in bulk ferrofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikis, Georgios; Bréant, Alexandre; Prakash, Manu

    2015-11-01

    We present a microfluidic platform for 2-D manipulation of water droplets immersed in bulk oil-based ferrofluid. Although non-magnetic, the droplets are exclusively controlled by magnetic fields, without any pressure-driven flow. The diphasic fluid layer is trapped in a submillimeter Hele-Shaw chamber that includes permalloy tracks on its substrate. An in-plane rotating magnetic field magnetizes the permalloy tracks, thus producing local magnetic gradients, while an orthogonal magnetic field magnetizes the bulk ferrofluid. To minimize the magnetostatic energy of the system, droplets are attracted towards the locations of the tracks where ferrofluid is repelled. Using this technique, we demonstrate synchronous propagation of water droplets, analyze PIV data of the bulk ferrofluid flow and study the kinematics of propagation. In addition, we show droplet break-up, merging and derive relevant scaling laws. Finally, we discuss future applications owing to the biocompatibility of the droplets.

  13. Bulk fabrication and properties of solar grade silicon microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Martinsen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a substrate-free novel route for fabrication of solar grade silicon microwires for photovoltaic applications. The microwires are fabricated from low purity starting material via a bulk molten-core fibre drawing method. In-situ segregation of impurities during the directional solidification of the fibres yields solar grade silicon cores (microwires where the concentration of electrically detrimental transition metals has been reduced between one and two orders of magnitude. The microwires show bulk minority carrier diffusion lengths measuring ∼40 μm, and mobilities comparable to those of single-crystal silicon. Microwires passivated with amorphous silicon yield diffusion lengths comparable to those in the bulk.

  14. High gradient magnetic separation using superconducting bulk magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aim to apply the superconducting bulk magnets to high gradient magnetic separation technique. Two bulk magnets are face-to-face arranged and a pipe stuffed magnetic filters composed of ferromagnetic wires is placed between the magnetic poles. We setup the magnetic separation system and test it using slurry mixed with hematite particles (Fe2O3). Y123 bulk superconductors are magnetized by the 'IMRA' method (pulsed-field magnetization), and consequently a magnetic field of 1.59 T is generated at the center of 20 mm gap between the magnetic poles. As a result of experiment on the magnetic separation, hematite particles of over 90% were removed from slurry at the flow rate of 2 l/min

  15. Bulk Locality from Entanglement in Gauge/Gravity Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Gauge/gravity duality posits an equivalence between certain strongly coupled quantum field theories and theories of gravity with negative cosmological constant in a higher number of spacetime dimensions. The map between the degrees of freedom on the two sides is non-local and incompletely understood. I describe recent work towards characterizing this map using entanglement in the QFT, where near the dual AdS boundary, the classical energy density at a point in the bulk is stored in the relative entropies of boundary subregions whose homologous minimal surfaces pass through the bulk point. I also derive bulk classical energy conditions near the AdS boundary from entanglement inequalities in the CFT. This is based on the paper [1] with Matilde Marcolli, Hirosi Ooguri and Bogdan Stoica. More generally, in recent years, there has appeared some evidence that quantum entanglement is responsible for the emergence of spacetime. I review and comment on the state of these developments.

  16. Spherically symmetric brane spacetime with bulk f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta [IUCAA, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 4, Pune (India); SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2015-01-01

    Introducing f(R) term in the five-dimensional bulk action we derive effective Einstein's equation on the brane using Gauss-Codazzi equation. This effective equation is then solved for different conditions on dark radiation and dark pressure to obtain various spherically symmetric solutions. Some of these static spherically symmetric solutions correspond to black hole solutions, with parameters induced from the bulk. Specially, the dark pressure and dark radiation terms (electric part of Weyl curvature) affect the brane spherically symmetric solutions significantly. We have solved for one parameter group of conformal motions where the dark radiation and dark pressure terms are exactly obtained exploiting the corresponding Lie symmetry. Various thermodynamic features of these spherically symmetric space-times are studied, showing existence of second order phase transition. This phenomenon has its origin in the higher curvature term with f(R) gravity in the bulk. (orig.)

  17. Theoretical expectations for bulk flows in large-scale surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Hume A.; Watkins, Richard

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the theoretical expectation for the bulk motion of a large-scale survey of the type recently carried out by Lauer and Postman. Included are the effects of survey geometry, errors in the distance measurements, clustering properties of the sample, and different assumed power spectra. We considered the power spectrum calculated from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS)-QDOT survey, as well as spectra from hot + cold and standard cold dark matter models. We find that measurement uncertainty, sparse sampling, and clustering can lead to a much larger expectation for the bulk motion of a cluster sample than for the volume as a whole. However, our results suggest that the expected bulk motion is still inconsistent with that reported by Lauer and Postman at the 95%-97% confidence level.

  18. Thermal neutron diffusion parameters for media of variable bulk density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron diffusion parameters (the macroscopic cross sections, and the diffusion cooling coefficients) for a given medium are dependent on the mass density. Therefore, thermal neutron experiments are influenced by the density of samples used. In the case of measurement series with bulk materials it is difficult to keep the same bulk density for all samples of the material. The classic thermal neutron pulsed experiment is considered in the paper. A method is shown to eliminate the influence of the variable bulk density on the results. A concept of the generalised decay constant and geometric buckling, and of the so-called density-removed neutron parameters, is used. Preliminary results of the Monte Carlo computer simulations of experimental series for polyethylene spherical samples of different porosity are presented. (author)

  19. Bulk Higgs and the 750 GeV diphoton signal

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Mariana; Toharia, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We consider scenarios of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk and in which both the hierarchy and the flavor puzzles of the Standard Model are addressed. The simplest extra dimensional extension of the Standard Model Higgs sector, i.e a 5D bulk Higgs doublet, can be a natural and simple explanation to the 750 GeV excess of diphotons hinted at the LHC, with the resonance responsible for the signal being the lightest CP odd excitation coming from the Higgs sector. No new matter content is invoked, the only new ingredient being the presence of (positive) brane localized kinetic terms associated to the 5D bulk Higgs, which allow to reduce the mass of the lightest CP odd Higgs excitation to 750 GeV. Production and decay of this resonance can naturally fit the observed signal when the mass scale of the rest of extradimensional resonances is of order 1 TeV.

  20. Composite superconducting bulks for efficient heat dissipation during pulse magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskys, A.; Patel, A.; Hopkins, S.; Kenfaui, D.; Chaud, X.; Zhang, M.; Glowacki, B. A.

    2014-05-01

    Pulsed field magnetization is the most practical method of magnetizing a (RE)BCO bulk, however large heat generation limits the trapped field to significantly less than possible using field cooling. Modelling has been used to show that effective heat removal from the bulk interior, using embedded metallic structures, can enhance trapped field by increasing thermal stability. The reported results are for experimental pulsed magnetization of a thin walled YBCO sample with 55 vertical holes embedded with high thermal conductivity wires. A specially designed copper coldhead was used to increase the trapped field and flux of the perforated YBCO by about 12% at 35 K using a multi-pulse magnetization. Moreover, by filling the perforations with copper, the central trapped field was enhanced by 15% after a single-pulse at 35 K. 3D FEM computer model of a perforated YBCO bulk was also developed showing localised heating effects around the perforations during pulse magnetisation.

  1. A Quantitative Study of Bulk Stresses in Nonlinear Microrheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depuit, Ryan; Squires, Todd

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the nonlinear microrheology of a simple model system - a spherical probe translating through a dilute suspension of rigid rods - to elucidate a variety of issues inherent in the interpretation of nonlinear microrheology. We have developed a computational system to quantitatively examine the issues present in interpretation of nonlinear microrheology, as originally discussed by Squires (Langmuir, 2008). Following recent work emphasizing the importance of the microstructural behavior in the bulk (Sriram et. al, 2009), we focus our attention on the bulk microstructural deformation, and examine the significance of its (Lagrangian) transient nature, as well as the consequences of the mixed and inhomogeneous flows inherent to nonlinear microrheology. From this quantitative study, we pose solutions for the current theoretical issues facing nonlinear microrheology in interpretation and comparison of the microviscosity with the shear viscosity from traditional bulk rheometry.

  2. Causal Evolutions of Bulk Local Excitations from CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Kanato; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Bulk localized excited states in an AdS spacetime can be constructed from Ishibashi states with respect to the global conformal symmetry in the dual CFT. We study boundary two point functions of primary operators in the presence of bulk localized excitations in two dimensional CFTs. From two point functions in holographic CFTs, we observe causal propagations of radiations when the mass of dual bulk scalar field is close to the BF bound. This behavior for holographic CFTs is consistent with the locality and causality in classical gravity duals. We also show that this cannot be seen in free fermion CFTs. Moreover, we find that the short distance behavior of two point functions is universal and obeys the relation which generalizes the first law of entanglement entropy.

  3. Bulk and shear viscosities of hot and dense hadron gas

    CERN Document Server

    Kadam, Guru Prakash

    2014-01-01

    We estimate bulk and shear viscosity at finite temperature and baryon densities of hadronic matter within hadron resonance gas model. For bulk viscosity we use low energy theorems of QCD for the energy momentum tensor correlators. For shear viscosity coefficient, we estimate the same using molecular kinetic theory to relate the shear viscosity coefficient to average momentum of the hadrons in the hot and dense hadron gas. The bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases with chemical potential and is related to the reduction of velocity of sound at nonzero chemical potential. The shear viscosity to entropy ratio on the other hand, shows a nontrivial behavior with the ratio decreasing with chemical potential for small temperatures but increasing with chemical potential at high temperatures and is related to decrease of entropy density with chemical potential at high temperature due to finite volume of the hadrons.

  4. EBSD analysis of MgB2 bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Schmauch, J.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Berger, K.; Noudem, J.

    2016-04-01

    The grain orientation, the texture and the grain boundary misorientations are important parameters for the understanding of the magnetic properties of the bulk MgB2 samples intended for super-magnet applications. Such data can be provided by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. However, as the grain size (GS) of the MgB2 bulks is preferably in the 100-200 nm range, the common EBSD technique working in reflection operates properly only on highly dense samples. In order to achieve a reasonably good Kikuchi pattern quality on all samples, we apply here the newly developed transmission EBSD (t-EBSD) technique to several bulk MgB2 samples. This method requires the preparation of TEM slices by means of focused ion-beam milling, which are then analyzed within the SEM, operating with a specific sample holder. We present several EBSD mappings of samples prepared with different techniques and at various reaction temperatures.

  5. Bulk Viscosity and Particle Creation in the Inflationary Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Eshaghi, Mehdi; Kiasatpour, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    We study particle creation in the presence of bulk viscosity of cosmic fluid in the early universe within the framework of open thermodynamical systems. Since the first-order theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is non-causal and unstable, we try to solve the bulk viscosity equation of the cosmic fluid with particle creation through the full causal theory. By adopting an appropriate function for particle creation rate of "Creation of Cold Dark Matter" model, we obtain analytical solutions which do not suffer from the initial singularity and are in agreement with equivalent solutions of Lambda-CDM model. We constrain the free parameter of particle creation in our model based on recent Planck data. It is also found that the inflationary solution is driven by bulk viscosity with or without particle creation.

  6. Low-Temperature Cationic Rearrangement in a Bulk Metal Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man-Rong; Retuerto, Maria; Stephens, Peter W; Croft, Mark; Sheptyakov, Denis; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Deng, Zheng; Akamatsu, Hirofumi; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Sánchez-Benítez, Javier; Saouma, Felix O; Jang, Joon I; Walker, David; Greenblatt, Martha

    2016-08-16

    Cationic rearrangement is a compelling strategy for producing desirable physical properties by atomic-scale manipulation. However, activating ionic diffusion typically requires high temperature, and in some cases also high pressure in bulk oxide materials. Herein, we present the cationic rearrangement in bulk Mn2 FeMoO6 at unparalleled low temperatures of 150-300 (o) C. The irreversible ionic motion at ambient pressure, as evidenced by real-time powder synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction, and second harmonic generation, leads to a transition from a Ni3 TeO6 -type to an ordered-ilmenite structure, and dramatic changes of the electrical and magnetic properties. This work demonstrates a remarkable cationic rearrangement, with corresponding large changes in the physical properties in a bulk oxide at unprecedented low temperatures. PMID:27203790

  7. Five Values of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  8. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values...

  9. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  10. The Value of Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klamer, Arjo

    1997-01-01

    Culture manifests itself in everything human, including the ordinary business of everyday life. Culture and art have their own value, but economic values are also constrained. Art sponsorships and subsidies suggest a value that exceeds market price. So what is the real value of culture? Unlike the u

  11. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfel, Frank N., E-mail: werfel@t-online.de [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany); Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems. ► Multi-seeded YBCO bulks joint the way for large-scale application. ► Levitation platforms demonstrate “superconductivity” to a great public audience (100 years anniversary). ► HTS magnetic bearings show forces up to 1 t. ► Modular HTS maglev vacuum cryostats are tested for train demonstrators in Brazil, China and Germany. -- Abstract: ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN{sub 2} and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500–3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN{sub 2} allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  12. Bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a nuclear power project, bulk material is often not in an outstanding position, compared to equipment, yet bulk material is one of most difficult part in engineering and procurement management. If the schedule is not in good control, it will seriously hamper the progress of the whole project. The article explores bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS, illustrated with tables and graphs. First, major difficult aspects of bulk material procurement are described. On one hand, bulk material is really bulky in kind. We must have detail information of manufacturers, manufacture duration, and take good control of bidding schedule. On the other hand, when an order is placed, we need to make clear everything in the procurement package, such as material types, delivery batches, quantity of each batch and delivery schedule, which is a tremendous work. Then, a schedule conflict is analyzed: when an order is placed, the detail type and quantity cannot be defined (since the construction design is not finished yet). To settle this conflict, the concept 'Requirement Schedule Curve' is brought forward, along with the calculation method. To get this curve, we need to make use of the technical data of the reference power station, along with the site construction schedule, to produce a site quantity requirement curve varying from time, for each type of material. Last, based on the 'Requirement Schedule Curve', we are able to build a unified database to control the engineering, procurement, manufacturing and delivery schedule, so as to procure precisely, manufacture on time, and optimize the storage. In this way, the accurate control of bulk material engineering and procurement schedule can be achieved. (authors)

  13. On value and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Value stands for the significance of things,and concepts of value are ideas,opinions and attitudes about what kind of things are significant.Studies on the concept of value cannot be separated from culture.Every society has its own distinct culture and concept of value shared by its people.The relationship between concept of value and culture shows that the building of the concept of value must be based on culture.Developing culture,providing excellent products of culture and better humanitarian environment are the premise for people's possession of the correct concept of value.

  14. Phobos' Low Bulk Density: Evidence Against a Capture Origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, C.; Pajola, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Roush, T. L.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Carli, C.; Bertini, I.; Magrin, S.; La Forgia, F.; Barbieri, C.

    2014-12-01

    Phobos' low density of 1.876 ± 0.02 g/cm3 (Andert et al., 2010, Witasse et al., 2013, Paetzold et al., 2013) supports its formation from a disk of debris (Peale 2007). The disk would either be a remnant of the formation of Mars (Safronov et al., 1986) or the result of a collision between Mars and a large body (Craddock 1994, 2011; Singer 2007). Within this scenario a large interior porosity would be responsible for the low density of the re-accreted material forming Phobos. Thermal emission spectra of Phobos suggest an ultramafic composition with the presence of phyllosilicates and feldspathoids in some regions (Giuranna et al., 2011), consistent with Phobos' in situ formation (Giuranna et al., 2011). However, the 0.3-4.0 μm surface spectra taken from multiple areas of the body in more than 43 years of observations (Duxbury et al., 2013), show physical characteristics similar to low-albedo asteroids such as C-type (Masursky et al., 1972, Pang et al., 1980) or D-type (Murchie 1999, Rivkin et al., 2002, Lynch et al., 2007, Pajola et al., 2012). They argue in favor of an asteroidal capture scenario that could be explained by binary asteroid dissociation (Landis 2009) or by collisional capture in the Martian orbital region (Pajola et al., 2012). Finally recent work by Schmedemann et al., (2014) indicates Phobos' surface to be ~ 4.3 - 3.7 Ga, dating back to a period where there was an intensification in the number of impactors in the inner Solar System (Gomes et al., 2005), and supporting both the in-situ and the capture scenario. Pajola et al. (2013) match the surface reflectance of Phobos from 0.4 to 4.0 μm with a mineralogical model composed of a mixture of Tagish Lake meteorite (TL) and Pyroxene Glass (PM80). Based on the published model, we adopted the weighted TL and PM80 densities to investigate if the low bulk density of Phobos could conform with these components reconciling both inner properties and surface spectra. While the TL density is available from

  15. Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtain a determinate model, an equation of state ρ=kλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. The physical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuously expanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy density is ζ∝ρ1/2.

  16. Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtaina determinate model, an equation of state p = κλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. Thephysical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuouslyexpanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy densityis ζ∝1 p1/2.

  17. Enhancement of the Bulk Photovoltaic Effect in Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the shift current bulk photovoltaic response of materials close to a band inversion topological phase transition. We find that the bulk photocurrent reverses direction across the band inversion transition, and that its magnitude is enhanced in the vicinity of the phase transition. These results are demonstrated with first principles density functional theory calculations of BiTeI and CsPbI3 under hydrostatic pressure, and explained with an analytical model, suggesting that this phenomenon remains robust across disparate material systems.

  18. Reversible ultrafast melting in bulk CdSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenzhi [School of Electronic Engineering, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); He, Feng; Wang, Yaguo, E-mail: yaguo.wang@austin.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); The Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    In this work, transient reflectivity changes in bulk CdSe have been measured with two-color femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy under a wide range of pump fluences. Three regions of reflectivity change with pump fluences have been consistently revealed for excited carrier density, coherent phonon amplitude, and lattice temperature. For laser fluences from 13 to 19.3 mJ/cm{sup 2}, ultrafast melting happens in first several picoseconds. This melting process is purely thermal and reversible. A complete phase transformation in bulk CdSe may be reached when the absorbed laser energy is localized long enough, as observed in nanocrystalline CdSe.

  19. Growth Techniques for Bulk ZnO and Related Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Klimm, Detlef; Schulz, Detlev; Ganschow, Steffen; Galazka, Zbigniew; Uecker, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    ZnO bulk crystals can be grown by several methods. 1) From the gas phase, usually by chemical vapor transport. Such CVT crystals may have high chemical purity, as the growth is performed without contact to foreign material. The crystallographic quality is often very high (free growth). 2) From melt fluxes such as alkaline hydroxides or other oxides (MoO3, V2O5, P2O5, PbO) and salts (PbCl2, PbF2). Melt fluxes offer the possibility to grow bulk ZnO under mild conditions (

  20. Compressive fracture characteristics of Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The compressive fracture characteristics of Zr-based bulk metallic glass under uniaxial compression tests are studied.The zigzag rheological behavior is observed in the compression stress-strain curves of amorphous alloys.At room temperature the uniaxial compression fracture takes place along the plane which is at a 45-degree angle to the direction of the compressive stress.The microstructure of a typical fracture pattern is the vein network.A unique,finger-like vein pattern is found to exist at the fracture surface of Zr-based bulk metallic glass.

  1. Influence of bulk dielectric polarization upon PD transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1995-01-01

    From a field-theoretical approach, it has been possible to develop a physically valid theory of partial discharge transients. The theory is based upon the concept of the charge induced upon the detecting electrode by the partial discharge. This induced charge is shown to be composed of a component...... associated with the actual space charge in the void, and one related to changes in the bulk polarization brought about by changes in the field external to the void due to this space charge. The magnitude of the induced charge and its components are discussed in relation to a heterogeneous bulk dielectric...

  2. A method for a comparison of bulk energy transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalov, Alexandre; Lave, Lester B; Reza, Muhamad; Bahrman, Michael P

    2009-10-15

    We model alternatives for moving bulk energy, including both private costs and accounting for environmental externalities by requiring the transport system to satisfy environment health, and safety standards. In particular, we focus on the cost and environmental trade-offs between "coal by wire," mine-mouth generation with electricity transmission, and transporting the primary energy resources with generation near the customer. Having the bulk energy transport model satisfy standards avoids the controversy associated with estimating dollar costs for constrained visibility, noise, and 50/60 Hz electromagnetic fields. A sensitivity analysis examines the implications of a range of carbon-dioxide discharge charges. PMID:19921870

  3. Homogenizer of cement mix with liquid and bulk radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lid of the homogenizer vessel with a stirrer and with bulk and liquid inlets is firmly attached to the homogenizer frame. The mixing vessel is screwed onto the lid and is connected to the frame with two moving arms. This allows to separate the mixing vessel from the lid without having to disconnect the supplies of bulk and liquid materials. The vessel is attached to swing arms pivoted in joints, which allows servicing, turning and tipping the vessel, thereby facilitating its emptying. This facilitates cleaning and reduces the maintenance time, thus increasing the safety of personnel. (J.B.). 2 figs

  4. Enhancement of the Bulk Photovoltaic Effect in Topological Insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang Z; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-06-10

    We investigate the shift current bulk photovoltaic response of materials close to a band inversion topological phase transition. We find that the bulk photocurrent reverses direction across the band inversion transition, and that its magnitude is enhanced in the vicinity of the phase transition. These results are demonstrated with first principles density functional theory calculations of BiTeI and CsPbI_{3} under hydrostatic pressure, and explained with an analytical model, suggesting that this phenomenon remains robust across disparate material systems.

  5. Cosmology with bulk viscosity and the gravitino problem

    CERN Document Server

    Buoninfante, L

    2016-01-01

    The gravitino problem is revisited in the framework of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. Dissipative effects (or bulk viscosity effects) arise owing to the different cooling rates of the fluid components. We show that the effects of the bulk viscosity allow to avoid the late abundance of gravitinos. In particular, we found that for a particular choice of the parameters characterizing the cosmological model, the gravitino abundance turns out to be independent on the reheating temperature.

  6. Substrate-induced bulk alignment of liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Chakrabarti, A.; Mouritsen, Ole G.;

    1996-01-01

    The Gay-Berne model for liquid crystals in the presence of a substrate surface is studied using the hybrid Monte Carlo method. A simple non-mean-field substrate-molecule potential is proposed to describe the effects of rubbed polymer-coated substrates on the liquid crystals. Effects of the substr...... of the substrate surface on the bulk alignment of the liquid crystals are studied. It is found that the bulk pretilt angle is controlled by the surface through the orientation of the adsorbed liquid crystal monolayer. This is consistent with the results of recent experimental studies....

  7. Optimization of PGNAA instrument design for bulk coal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, C.; Salgado, J.; Carvalho, F.G. (National Laboratory for Industrial Technology and Engineering, Sacavem (Portugal). Physics Dept.)

    1993-06-01

    A simulation study of a PGNAA system for bulk coal analysis has been carried out using the MCNP code to investigate the dependence of the system's performance on design parameters for different coal compositions and bulk densities. Calculations were performed for simulated arrangements using a naked point [sup 252]Cf source and the source surrounded by a sphere of moderating material. Results for different sample sizes and different radii of the moderating sphere are reported. The system's optimization based upon the proper choice of sample size and amount of external thermalization is discussed. 3 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Bulk Restoration for SDN-Based Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bulk restoration scheme for software defined networking- (SDN- based transport network. To enhance the network survivability and improve the throughput, we allow disrupted flows to be recovered synchronously in dynamic order. In addition backup paths are scheduled globally by applying the principles of load balance. We model the bulk restoration problem using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation. Then, a heuristic algorithm is devised. The proposed algorithm is verified by simulation and the results are analyzed comparing with sequential restoration schemes.

  9. Bulk eutectic Cu–Ag alloys with abundant twin boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abundant growth twin boundaries are found and characterized in two bulk eutectic Cu–Ag alloys that can be obtained conveniently. The statistical electron backscattering diffraction results show that both hetero-twin and cube-on-cube orientation relationships coexist in the eutectic Cu–Ag alloy. The tensile strength of the eutectic alloy increases with a decrease in the layer thickness of the Cu/Ag phase. This study provides a potential way to produce bulk eutectic Cu–Ag alloy with abundant twin boundaries that offers a combination of high strength and high ductility.

  10. Bulk undercooling, nucleation, and macrosegregation of Pb-Sn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroh, H. C., III; Laxmanan, V.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary ground-based studies on the undercooling behavior of large samples (23 g) of lead-tin alloys are presented. Evidence of gravity-related segregation effects is found, and a possible area for future microgravity experimentation is thus identified. Detailed descriptions of the experimental procedure used to achieve bulk undercoolings of between 0.5 and 34 K, depending on composition, are given. The bulk undercoolings obtained in this study are comparable with those found in small droplets. The large size of the present samples enabled the observation of sedimentation and other macrosegregation processes.

  11. 230Th/U dating of Last Interglacial brain corals from Bonaire (southern Caribbean) using bulk and theca wall material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, J. Christina; Scholz, Denis; Felis, Thomas; Brocas, William M.; Jochum, Klaus P.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-04-01

    We compared the suitability of two skeletal materials of the Atlantic brain coral Diploria strigosa for 230Th/U-dating: the commonly used bulk material comprising all skeletal elements and the denser theca wall material. Eight fossil corals of presumably Last Interglacial age from Bonaire, southern Caribbean Sea, were investigated, and several sub-samples were dated from each coral. For four corals, both the ages and the activity ratios of the bulk material and theca wall agree within uncertainty. Three corals show significantly older ages for their bulk material than for their theca wall material as well as substantially elevated 232Th content and (230Th/238U) ratios. The bulk material samples of another coral show younger ages and lower (230Th/238U) ratios than the corresponding theca wall samples. This coral also contains a considerable amount of 232Th. The application of the available open-system models developed to account for post-depositional diagenetic effects in corals shows that none of the models can successfully be applied to the Bonaire corals. The most likely explanation for this observation is that the assumptions of the models are not fulfilled by our data set. Comparison of the theca wall and bulk material data enables us to obtain information about the open-system processes that affected the corals. The corals showing apparently older ages for their bulk material were probably affected by contamination with a secondary (detrital) phase. The most likely source of the detrital material is carbonate sand. The higher (230Th/232Th) ratio of this material implies that detrital contamination would have a much stronger impact on the ages than a contaminant with a bulk Earth (230Th/232Th) ratio and that the threshold for the commonly applied 232Th reliability criterion would be much lower than the generally used value of 1 ng g-1. The coral showing apparently younger ages for its bulk material was probably influenced by more than one diagenetic process. A

  12. Value activity monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only promises (but not assurances) of value creation. Hence there is a need to extend current value modeling ontologies with a monitoring ontology. This ontology will enable business practitioners ...

  13. Estimates of average major ion concentrations in bulk precipitation at two high-altitude sites near the continental divide in Southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M.M.; Claassen, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The composition of bulk precipitation from two high-altitude sites, established in 1971 near the Continental Divide in southwestern Colorado, has been monitored by season during the past decade. Calcium ions are the predominant cationic species; sulfate is the major anionic constituent. Bulk precipitation major ion concentrations exhibit log-normal distributions. Representative mean and standard deviation values for the major inorganic ionic species present in bulk precipitation have been calculated for three years of consecutive seasons. Standard deviations for all species, except nitrate, are similar. For two years of data grouped into quarters, deviations from mean values fall well within the plus or minus two standard deviation limit. There does not seem to be a systematic deviation from the mean concentration values, with respect to either ionic component or season.

  14. Vibrationally-Fluidized Granular Flows: Impact and Bulk Velocity Measurements Compared with Discrete Element and Continuum Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnia, Kamyar

    A new laser displacement probe was developed to measure the impact velocities of particles within vibrationally-fluidized beds. The sensor output was also used to measure bulk flow velocity along the probe window and to provide a measure of the media packing. The displacement signals from the laser sensors were analyzed to obtain the probability distribution functions of the impact velocity of the particles. The impact velocity was affected by the orientation of the laser probe relative to the bulk flow velocity, and the density and elastic properties of the granular media. The impact velocities of the particles were largely independent of their bulk flow speed and packing density. Both the local impact and bulk flow velocities within a tub vibratory finisher were predicted using discrete element modelling (DEM) and compared to the measured values for spherical steel media. It was observed that the impact and bulk flow velocities were relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the contact coefficients of friction and restitution. It was concluded that the predicted impact and bulk flow velocities were dependent on the number of layers in the model. Consequently, the final DE model mimicked the key aspects of the experimental setup, including the submerged laser sensor. The DE method predictions of both impact velocity and bulk flow velocity were in reasonable agreement with the experimental measurements, with maximum differences of 20% and 30%, respectively. Discrete element modeling of granular flows is effective, but requires large numerical models. In an effort to reduce computational effort, this work presents a finite element (FE) continuum model of a vibrationally-fluidized granular flow. The constitutive equations governing the continuum model were calibrated using the discrete element method (DEM). The bulk flow behavior of the equivalent continuum media was then studied using both Lagrangian and Eulerian FE formulations. The bulk flow velocities predicted

  15. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... the relevance of the basic concept and provides an important example of how Value Adding Management can be implemented and added value measured. Originality/value: The study develops a concept of Value Adding Management, which is new in FM literature. It is expected to increase the awareness of the impacts...

  16. In Vitro Fatigue Resistance of Teeth Restored With Bulk Fill versus Conventional Composite Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, Gabrielle Branco; Bernardon, Jussara Karina; Vieira, Luiz Clovis Cardoso; Maia, Hamilton Pires; Horn, Françoá; Roesler, Carlos Rodrigo de Mello

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fatigue resistance of restored teeth with bulk fill composite resin, conventional composite resin with incremental insertion and unprepared sound teeth. Twenty-eight extracted maxillary premolars were selected and divided into 4 groups based on composite resin and insertion technique: control (C), conventional composite resin with incremental insertion (I) and bulk fill composite resin with three (BF3) or single increment (BF1). The restored specimens were submitted to fatigue resistance test with a 5 Hz frequency. An initial application of 5,000 sinusoidal load cycles with a minimum force of 50 N and a maximum force of 200 N was used. Next, were applied stages of 30,000 load cycles with the maximum force increasing gradually: 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 and 1400 N. The test was concluded when 185,000 load cycles were achieved or the specimen failed. The fatigue resistance data were recorded for comparison, using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and analyzed by log-rank test at 0.05 significance. Fractures were classified based on the position of the failure - above or below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Statistical analysis of the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank test showed a significant difference between groups (p=0.001). The fracture analysis demonstrated that only 28.58% of failures were below the CEJ in group C, while for groups I, BF1 and BF3 they were 42.85%, 85.71% and 85.71%, respectively. Teeth restored with composite bulk fill in both techniques present similar fatigue resistance values compared with those restored with a conventional incremental insertion of composite, while the fatigue strength values of unprepared sound teeth were higher. Furthermore, unprepared sound teeth showed a lower percentage of fractures below the CEJ.

  17. In Vitro Fatigue Resistance of Teeth Restored With Bulk Fill versus Conventional Composite Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, Gabrielle Branco; Bernardon, Jussara Karina; Vieira, Luiz Clovis Cardoso; Maia, Hamilton Pires; Horn, Françoá; Roesler, Carlos Rodrigo de Mello

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fatigue resistance of restored teeth with bulk fill composite resin, conventional composite resin with incremental insertion and unprepared sound teeth. Twenty-eight extracted maxillary premolars were selected and divided into 4 groups based on composite resin and insertion technique: control (C), conventional composite resin with incremental insertion (I) and bulk fill composite resin with three (BF3) or single increment (BF1). The restored specimens were submitted to fatigue resistance test with a 5 Hz frequency. An initial application of 5,000 sinusoidal load cycles with a minimum force of 50 N and a maximum force of 200 N was used. Next, were applied stages of 30,000 load cycles with the maximum force increasing gradually: 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 and 1400 N. The test was concluded when 185,000 load cycles were achieved or the specimen failed. The fatigue resistance data were recorded for comparison, using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and analyzed by log-rank test at 0.05 significance. Fractures were classified based on the position of the failure - above or below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Statistical analysis of the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank test showed a significant difference between groups (p=0.001). The fracture analysis demonstrated that only 28.58% of failures were below the CEJ in group C, while for groups I, BF1 and BF3 they were 42.85%, 85.71% and 85.71%, respectively. Teeth restored with composite bulk fill in both techniques present similar fatigue resistance values compared with those restored with a conventional incremental insertion of composite, while the fatigue strength values of unprepared sound teeth were higher. Furthermore, unprepared sound teeth showed a lower percentage of fractures below the CEJ. PMID:27652710

  18. Irradiating of Bulk Soybeans: Influence on Their Functional and Sensory Properties for Soyfood Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chiew-Ling; Wilson, Lester A.; Boylston, Terri; Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Soybeans were chosen for lunar and planetary missions, where soybeans will be supplied in bulk or grown locally, due to their nutritive value and ability to produce oil and protein for further food applications. However, soybeans must be processed into foods prior to consumption. Radiation that soybeans would be exposed to during bulk storage prior to and during a Mars mission may influence their germination and functional properties. The influence of radiation includes the affect of surface pasteurization to ensure the astronauts safety from food-borne illnesses (HACCP, CCP), and the affect of the amount of radiation the soybeans receive during a Mars mission. Decreases in the amount of natural antioxidants free radical formation, and oxidation-induced changes in the soybean will influence the nutritional value, texture, color, and aroma of soyfoods. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pasteurization and sterilization surface radiation on whole soybeans using gamma and electron beam radiation. The influence of 0, 1, 5, 10, and 30kGy on microbial load, germination rate, ease of processing, and quality of soymilk and tofu were determined. Surface radiation of whole dry soybeans using electron beam or gamma rays from 1-30kGy did provide microbial safety for the astronauts. However, the lower dose levels had surviving yeasts and molds. These doses caused oxidative changes that resulted in soymilk and tofu with rancid aromas. GC-MS of the aroma compounds using SPME Headspace confirmed the presence of lipid oxidation compounds. Soybean germination ability was reduced as radiation dosage increased. While lower doses may reduce these problems, the ability to insure microbial safety of bulk soybeans will be lost. Counter measures could include vacuum packaging, nitrogen flushing, added antioxidants, and radiating under freezing conditions. Doses below 1kGy need to be investigated further to determine the influence of the radiation encountered

  19. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  20. Bulk Versus Edge in the Quantum Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Y. -C.; Lee, D. -H.

    1996-01-01

    The manifestation of the bulk quantum Hall effect on edge is the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly {\\it is} the underlying principle of the ``edge approach'' of quantum Hall effect. In that approach, $\\sxy$ should not be taken as the conductance derived from the space-local current-current correlation function of the pure one-dimensional edge problem.

  1. Ambipolar all-polymer bulk heterojunction field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szendrei, Krisztina; Jarzab, Dorota; Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio; Loi, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate solution processable all-polymer based field-effect transistors (FETs) exhibiting comparable electron and hole mobilities. The semiconducting layer is a bulk heterojunction of poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)}

  2. Bulk shielding facility quarterly report, July, August, and September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, S. S.; Lance, E. D.; Thomas, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) operated at an average power level of 1919 kW for 85.74% of the time during July, August, and September. Water-quality control in both the reactor primary and secondary cooling systems was satisfactory. The Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) was operated on three occasions for the Pressure Vessel Simulator Benchmark experiment.

  3. Estimation of bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce) has been estimated over the Arabian Sea from the moisture budget during the pre-monsoon season of 1988. The computations have been made over two regions (A: 0-8 degrees N: 60-68 degrees E: B: 0...

  4. Collapse of Incoherent Light Beams in Inertial Bulk Kerr Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Edmundson, Darran; Królikowski, Wieslaw

    1999-01-01

    We use the coherent density function theory to show that partially coherent beams are unstable and may collapse in inertial bulk Kerr media. The threshold power for collapse, and its dependence on the degree of coherence, is found analytically and checked-numerically. The internal dynamics of the...

  5. Bulk ordering and surface segregation in Ni50Pt50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourovskii, L.P.; Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I.A.;

    2001-01-01

    in the bulk compare well with experimental data. The surface-alloy compositions for the (111) and (110) facets above the ordering transition temperature are also found to be in a good agreement with experiments. It is demonstrated that the segregation profile at the (110) surface of NiPt is mainly caused...

  6. Bulk characterization of pharmaceutical powders by low-pressure compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A.H.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Hovgaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    Low-pressure compression of pharmaceutical powders using small amounts of sample (50 mg) was evaluated as an alternative to traditional bulk powder characterization by tapping volumetry. Material parameters were extrapolated directly from the compression data and by fitting with the Walker, the K...

  7. Bulk and confinement-induced phase transitions in colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortini, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the thesis, we have presented computer simulation results on the bulk and interfacial phase behaviour of colloidal suspensions. In the first part, we have developed and tested a simulation technique to calculate the free energy of hard-core systems. This technique was used to calculate the interf

  8. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu, E-mail: yamamoto@appchem.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  9. Local and bulk melting of Cu at grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Li - Bo [USTC; An, Qi [USTC/CALTECH; Fu, Rong - Shan [USTC; Zheng, Lianqing [FSU

    2008-01-01

    We investigate gain boundary (GB) melting using molecular dynamics simulations on face-centered-cubic Cu bicrystals with symmetric {l_angle}110{r_angle} tilt grain boundaries. Two representative types of GBs are explored: {Sigma} = 11/(113)/50.48{sup o} (low GB energy) and {Sigma} = 27/(552)/148.41{sup o} (high GB energy). The temperature and temporal evolutions of the Cu bicrystals under stepped heating are characterized in terms of order parameters and diffusion coefficients, as ell as the nucleation and growth of melt. Within the GB region, continuous local melting precedes discontinuous bulk melting, while continuous solid state disordering may precede local melting. Premelting may occur for local melting but not for bulk melting. For {Sigma} = 11/(113)/50.48{sup o}, premelting of the GB region is negligible, and local melting occurs near the thermodynamic melting temperature. The GB region as a whole is superheated by about 13% before its bulk melting. In the case of {Sigma} = 27/(552)/148.41, considerable premelting is observed for local melting, while the bulk melting occurs with negligible superheating. The exact melting behavior of a general GB depends on the GB energy, but is likely bracketed within these two cases.

  10. Large-scale Homogenization of Bulk Materials in Mammoth Silos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis concerns the large-scale homogenization of bulk materials in mammoth silos. The objective of this research was to determine the best stacking and reclaiming method for homogenization in mammoth silos. For this purpose a simulation program was developed to estimate the homogeniza

  11. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  12. In situ Raman spectroscopy studies of bulk and surface metal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Jehng, J.M.; Deo, G.; Guliants, V.V.; Benziger, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk V-P-O and model supported vanadia catalysts were investigated with in situ Raman spectroscopy during n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride in order to determine the fundamental molecular structure-reactivity/selectivity insights that can be obtained from such experiments. The in situ Raman stu

  13. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany So

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging.Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit-of-use packaging versus bulk packaging, was examined. Prices between unit-of-use versus bulk packages were compared by using the Red Book: Pharmacy’s Fundamental Reference. Other articles were reviewed on the topics of counterfeiting, safe labeling, and implementation of unit-of-use packaging. Lastly, a cost-saving study was reviewed showing how medication adherence, due to improved packaging, could be cost-effective for patients.Results: When examining time, costs, medication adherence, and counterfeiting arguments, unit-of-use packaging proved to be beneficial for patients in all these terms.

  14. Essays on Port, Container, and Bulk Chemical Logistics Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asperen (Eelco)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe essays in this thesis are concerned with two main themes in port logistics. The first theme is the coordination of transport arrivals with the distribution processes and the use of storage facilities. We study this for both containerized and bulk chemical transport. The second theme

  15. Microbial production of bulk chemicals: development of anaerobic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Lamot, I.; Oost, van der J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    nnovative fermentation processes are necessary for the cost-effective production of bulk chemicals from renewable resources. Current microbial processes are either anaerobic processes, with high yield and productivity, or less-efficient aerobic processes. Oxygen utilization plays an important role i

  16. Bianchi-Type Ⅱ String Cosmological Models with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi-type Ⅱ string cosmological models with bulk viscosity are obtained, where an equation of state, p = kλ, and a relation between metric potentials, R = ASn, are adopted. The physical features of the models are also discussed. In special cases the model reduces to the string models without viscosity that was previously given in the literatures.

  17. Nested structures approach for bulk 3D negative index materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generic conceptual idea to obtain bulk 3D negative index metamaterials, which exhibit isotropic properties. The design is based on the nested structures approach, when one element providing magnetic response is inserted into another design with negative dielectric constant. Both...

  18. Bulk viscosity from the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insufficiency of ideal fluid dynamics to reproduce certain expected results threw light on the necessity of dissipative effects. The viscosity coefficients give an estimate of the hydrodynamical evolution of fluid dissipative processes. Not only do they provide information about the deviation of the system from ideal hydrodynamics, they also give us a picture of the fluid dynamics and critical phenomena. In this work we concentrate on the effects of bulk viscosity. Bulk viscosity bears essential significance like in the context of violation of scale invariance. Now, the smallness of sound velocity being directly related to the former, it becomes obvious that bulk viscosity will show a peak-like nature in the critical region. Bulk viscosity manifests itself by an addition of the diagonal term πδij to the stress tensor Tij in the local rest frame. In this work we take resort to the Kubo formalism which relates viscosity coefficients to the correlation functions of the energy-momentum (E-M) tensor

  19. Microalgae for the production of bulk chemicals and biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of microalgae production for biodiesel was discussed. Although algae are not yet produced at large scale for bulk applications, there are opportunities to develop this process in a sustainable way. It remains unlikely, however, that the process will be developed for biodiesel as the

  20. Integrated analysis software for bulk power system stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Nagao, T.; Takahashi, K. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents Central Research Inst.of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI`s - own developed three softwares for bulk power network analysis and the user support system which arranges tremendous data necessary for these softwares with easy and high reliability. (author) 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The homogenisation of bulk material in blending piles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerstel, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the homogenisation of bulk material in three types of piles is dealt with. The homogenisation implies that the fluctuations of a material proprety in the input flow of the pile are transformed into output fluctuations, whereby the latter ones are evened out. Analyses are presented con

  2. Free standing bulk metallic glass microcomponents: Tooling considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Cormac; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Ohnuma, Masato;

    2010-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses have enormous potential for use in small-scale devices such as MEMS and biomedical components. Thermoplastic forging of free standing components poses challenges unlike those seen when forging crystalline materials. Central to these challenges is the simultaneous advantage...

  3. Survey of BGFA Criteria for the Cu-Based Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Janovszky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the effect of composition on the bulk glass forming ability (BGFA of Cu-based alloys, properties have been collected from the literature (~100 papers, more than 200 alloys. Surveying the BGFA criteria published so far, it has been found that the atomic mismatch condition of Egami-Waseda is fulfilled for all the Cu-based BGFAs, the value being above 0,3. The Zhang Bangwei criterion could be applied for the binary Cu-based alloys. The Miracle and Senkov criteria do not necessarily apply for Cu based bulk amorphous alloys. The critical thickness versus =/(+ plot of Lu and Liu extrapolates to =0.36, somewhat higher than the 0.33 value found in other BGFA alloys. The Park and Kim parameter correlates rather poorly with the critical thickness for Cu based alloys. The Cheney and Vecchino parameter is a good indicator to find the best glass former if it is possible to calculate the exact liquids projection. In 2009 Xiu-lin and Pan defined a new parameter which correlates a bit better with the critical thickness. Based on this survey it is still very difficult to find one parameter in order to characterize the real GFA without an unrealized mechanism of crystallization.

  4. Microstructural and superconducting properties of C6H6 added bulk MgB2 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaoğlu, Meral G.; Safran, Serap; Çiçek, Özlem; Ağıl, Hasan; Ertekin, Ercan; Hossain, Md. Shahriar A.; Yanmaz, Ekrem; Gencer, Ali

    2012-10-01

    The effect of aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, C6H6) addition on lattice parameters, microstructure, critical temperature (Tc), critical current density (Jc) of bulk MgB2 has been studied. In this work only 2 mol% C6H6 addition was found to be very effective in increasing the Jc values, while resulting in slight reduction of the Tc. Jc values of 2 mol% C6H6 added MgB2 bulks reached to 1.83×106 A/cm2 at 15 K and 0 T. Microstructural analyses suggest that Jc enhancement is associated with the substitution of carbon with boron and which also results in the smaller MgB2 grain size. The change in the lattice parameters or the lattice disorder is claimed as a cause of the slight reduction in the Tc by carbon addition. We note that our results show the advantages of C6H6 addition include homogeneous mixing of precursor powders, avoidance of expansive nanoadditives, production of highly reactive C, and significant enhancement in Jc of MgB2, compared to un-doped samples.

  5. δ(15) N from soil to wine in bulk samples and proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Larcher, Roberto; Nicolini, Giorgio; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of using δ(15) N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil-leaves-grape-wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ(15) N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time. Despite isotopic fractionation from soil to wine, the δ(15) N values of leaves, grapes, wine and particularly must and wine proline conserved the variability of δ(15) N in the growing soil. Fermentation and ultrasound treatment did not affect the δ(15) N values of grape must, which was therefore conserved in wine. The addition of inorganic or organic adjuvants was able to influence the δ(15) N of bulk wine, depending on the amount and the difference between the δ(15) N of must and that of the adjuvant. The δ(15) N of wine proline was not influenced by adjuvant addition and is therefore the best marker for tracing the geographical origin of wine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27479606

  6. δ(15) N from soil to wine in bulk samples and proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Larcher, Roberto; Nicolini, Giorgio; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of using δ(15) N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil-leaves-grape-wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ(15) N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time. Despite isotopic fractionation from soil to wine, the δ(15) N values of leaves, grapes, wine and particularly must and wine proline conserved the variability of δ(15) N in the growing soil. Fermentation and ultrasound treatment did not affect the δ(15) N values of grape must, which was therefore conserved in wine. The addition of inorganic or organic adjuvants was able to influence the δ(15) N of bulk wine, depending on the amount and the difference between the δ(15) N of must and that of the adjuvant. The δ(15) N of wine proline was not influenced by adjuvant addition and is therefore the best marker for tracing the geographical origin of wine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Diffusion of oxygen in bulk GaN crystals at high temperature and at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovyi, B.; Nikolenko, A.; Weyher, J. L.; Grzegory, I.; Dziecielewski, I.; Sarzynski, M.; Strelchuk, V.; Tsykaniuk, B.; Belyaev, O.; Petrusha, I.; Turkevich, V.; Kapustianyk, V.; Albrecht, M.; Porowski, S.

    2016-09-01

    Experimental studies of diffusion of oxygen in bulk wurtzite-type GaN crystals grown by Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) are reported. Oxygen concentration profiles were studied in as-grown GaN crystals and also after annealing of crystals at temperatures up to 3400 K and pressures up to 9 GPa. Investigated crystals contained large conical defects i.e. pinholes of significantly higher oxygen concentration (NO=(2-4)×1019 cm-3) than that in the bulk matrix (NOGaN samples. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy was applied to measure the profiles of free electron concentration, which directly corresponds to the concentration of oxygen impurity. Lateral scanning across the interfaces between pinholes and matrix in the as-grown HVPE GaN crystals showed sharp step-like carrier concentration profiles. Annealing at high temperature and high pressure resulted in the diffusion blurring of the profiles. Analysis of obtained data allowed for the first time for estimation of oxygen diffusion coefficients DO(T, P). The obtained values of DO(T, P) are anomalously small similarly to the values obtained by Harafuji et al. by molecular dynamic calculations for self-diffusion of nitrogen. Whereas oxygen and nitrogen are on the same sublattice it could explain the similarity of their diffusion coefficients.

  8. High critical current densities in bulk MgB{sub 2} fabricated using amorphous boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, Miryala; Kenta, Nozaki; Murakami, Masato [Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Koblischka, Michael R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, P.O. Box 151150, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We prepared bulk MgB{sub 2} from high-purity commercial powders of Mg metal (99.9% purity) and amorphous B (99% purity) powders using a single-step solid state reaction at 775 C for varying sintering duration from 1 to 10 h in pure argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all the samples were single phase MgB{sub 2}. The magnetization measurements confirmed a sharp superconducting transition with T{sub c,onset} at around 38.2-38.8 K. The critical current density (J{sub c}) values for the MgB{sub 2} samples produced at 1 h sintering time is the highest one in all processed materials here. Scanning electron microscopy analyses indicated that the sintering time has a crucial influence on the grain size. As a result, the highest J{sub c} value of 270 kA cm{sup -2} at 20 K and self-field was achieved in the sample produced at 775 C for 1 h. Our results clearly demonstrate that the optimization of the sintering conditions is essential to improve the bulk MgB{sub 2} performance. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Value Set Authority Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The VSAC provides downloadable access to all official versions of vocabulary value sets contained in the 2014 Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Each value set...

  10. The value of mangroves

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The article presents the forestry, fishery and ecological values of mangroves. Studies on the measurement of the economic value of mangroves that were conducted in Thailand, Indonesia and Ecuador are also presented.

  11. Investigation of bulk acoustic microwaves excited by an interdigital transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshotka O. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excitation of bulk and surface acoustic waves with the interdigital transducer (IDT, which is deposited on the surface of piezoelectric crystal, is widely used in the development of devices in acoustoelectronics and in the design of the microwave acousto-optic deflectors. Excitation of bulk acoustic waves by IDT in the devices on surface acoustic waves leads to the appearance of spurious signals. At the same time excitation of bulk acoustic waves with IDT from the surface of lithium niobate crystals allows creating high frequency acousto-optic deflectors, which makes possible to significantly simplify the technology of their production. Therefore, significant attention is paid to the task of excitation and distribution of bulk acoustic waves with IDT including recent times by the method of simulation of their excitation and distribution. The obtained theoretical results require experimental verification. This paper documents the visualization of acoustic beams excited with IDT from the XY-surface of lithium niobate crystals. The Bragg cells with LiNbO3 crystals coated with IDT with a different period of electrodes were manufactured for the experimental research of excitation and distribution of bulk acoustic waves. Visualization results have shown that the acoustic waves excited with IDT distribute in both the Fresnel zone and the Fraunhofer zone. The length of these zones is caused by individual elementary emitters of which consists the IDT (by their size. At the same time the far zone for IDT is located at distances much greater than the actual size of the LiNbO3 crystals. This peculiarity is not always taken into account when calculating diffraction. The achieved results can be used to design high-frequency acousto-optic devices, as well as in the development of devices based on surface acoustic waves.

  12. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW

  13. Singularities and Entropy in Bulk Viscosity Dark Energy Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟新河; 窦旭

    2011-01-01

    In this paper bulk viscosity is introduced to describe the effects of cosmic non-perfect fluid on the cosmos evolution and to build the unified dark energy (DE) with (dark) matter models. Also we derive a general relation between the bulk viscosity form and Hubble parameter that can provide a procedure for the viscosity DE model building. Especially, a redshift dependent viscosity parameter ζ ∝ λ0 +λ1(1 +z)n proposed in the previous work [X.H. Meng and X. Dou, Commun. Theor. Phys. B2 (2009) 377] is investigated extensively in this present work. Further more we use the recently released supernova dataset (the Constitution dataset) to constrain the model parameters. In order to differentiate the proposed concrete dark energy models from the well known ACDM model, statefinder diagnostic method is applied to this bulk viscosity model, as a complementary to the Om parameter diagnostic and the deceleration parameter analysis performed by us before. The DE model evolution behavior and tendency are shown in the plane of the statefinder diagnostic parameter pair {τ, s} as axes where the fixed point represents the A CDM model The possible singularity property in this bulk viscosity cosmology is also discussed to which we can conclude that in the different parameter regions chosen properly, this concrete viscosity DE model can have various late evolution behaviors and the late time singularity could be avoided. We also calculate the cosmic entropy in the bulk viscosity dark energy frame, and find that the total entropy in the viscosity DE model increases monotonously with respect to the scale factor evolution, thus this monotonous increasing property can indicate an arrow of time in the universe evolution, though the quantum version of the arrow of time is still very puzzling.

  14. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  15. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Latent class analysis of bulk tank milk PCR and ELISA testing for herd level diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Petersen, Mette Bisgaard; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum;

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Mycoplasma bovis causes disease in cattle of all ages. An apparent increase in the occurrence of M. bovis associated outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds since 2011 has prompted a need for knowledge regarding herd-level diagnostic performance. Therefore, the objective...... of this study was to evaluate the herd-level diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA test by comparison to a real-time PCR test when diagnosing M. bovis in cattle herds of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds (N=3437) were analysed with both the antibody detecting BIO K 302 M....... bovis ELISA kit and the antigen detecting PathoProof Mastitis Major-3 kit. As none of these are considered a gold standard test for herd-level diagnostics we applied a series of Bayesian latent class analyses for a range of ELISA cut-off values. The negative and positive predictive values were...

  17. Extreme Value Theory and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Fernandez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is a measure of the maximum potential change in value of a portfolio of financial assets with a given probability over a given time horizon. VaR became a key measure of market risk since the Basle Committee stated that banks should be able to cover losses on their trading portfolios over a ten-day horizon, 99 percent of the time. A common practice is to compute VaR by assuming that changes in value of the portfolio are normally distributed, conditional on past in-formation. However, assets returns usually come from fat-tailed distri-butions. Therefore, computing VaR under the assumption of conditional normality can be an important source of error. We illustrate this point with Chilean and U.S. returns series by resorting to extreme value theory (EVT and GARCH-type models. In addition, we show that dynamic estimation of empirical quantiles can also give more accurate VaR estimates than quantiles of a standard normal.

  18. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    Recent studies reveal that consumers respond favourably to “organic plus” products with additional ethical attributes. The aim of the current study is to explore whether consumers would notice and value further improvements in the animal welfare standards than those imposed by the organic...

  19. 29 CFR 794.131 - “Customer * * * engaged in bulk distribution”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCustomer * * * engaged in bulk distributionâ. 794.131... Sales Made to Other Bulk Distributors § 794.131 “Customer * * * engaged in bulk distribution”. A sale to a customer of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products...

  20. Information Economics: Valuing Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinberg, Herbert R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the question of why previous articles and studies on the value of information have failed to provide meaningful techniques for measuring that value. The discussion covers four principle causes for confusion surrounding the valuation of information and draws conclusions about the value added model of information. (seven references) (CLB)

  1. Values Drive the Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  2. Value activity monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only promi

  3. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  4. The Value of Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Peek (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFair value estimates of debt and equity securities play an increasingly important role in the economy. For example, International Financial Reporting Standards require companies to report many of their investments at fair value on the balance sheet or to use fair values in goodwill impai

  5. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  6. Characterization of the sedimentary organic matter preserved in Messel oil shale by bulk geochemistry and stable isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Bauersachs, T.; Schouten, S; Schwark, L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a 150 m thick drill core section of Messel oil shale using bulk geochemical and stable isotope techniques in order to determine the organic matter sources and the environmental conditions that prevailed during the deposition of the lacustrine sequence. High Corg values (on average 27%) indicate that the Messel oil shale has likely been deposited under highly productive conditions and/or in an environment largely free of oxygen, which suggests a permanent stratification of the ...

  7. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... is withdrawing the proposed rule published January 7, 1999 (64 FR 996), as of December 4, 2013... Federal Register of April 7, 1998 (63 FR 17011), FDA invited all interested persons to nominate bulk drug... January 1999 (64 FR 996, January 7, 1999). The proposed rule also discussed 10 nominated drug...

  8. Managing Customer Value

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, William B

    1999-01-01

    This paper builds the framework for linking the established work of competitive advantage with the emerging discipline of value marketing. The outcome of this linkage is the concept of strategic value management. Strategic value management focuses on the right combinations of product quality, customer service and fair prices as the key to selling to todayÕs value conscious consumers. The core of the strategy stresses the firmÕs ability to combine and manage these dimensions of value in a way ...

  9. Linguistic Valued Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-jiang; QIAN Zuo-ping

    2002-01-01

    Association rules discovering and prediction with data mining method are two topics in the field of information processing. In this paper, the records in database are divided into many linguistic values expressed with normal fuzzy numbers by fuzzy c-means algorithm, and a series of linguistic valued association rules are generated. Then the records in database are mapped onto the linguistic values according to largest subject principle, and the support and confidence definitions of linguistic valued association rules are also provided. The discovering and prediction methods of the linguistic valued association rules are discussed through a weather example last.

  10. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... and researchers at primary schools in Denmark from 2004-2009. We argue for the importance of reflecting on values in school health nursing in order to navigate between human values and values deriving from medicine. Our studies demonstrate that value clarification, peer observation and reflective spaces at work...

  11. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  12. Public Value Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....

  13. LDA + U and GGA + U studies of Al-rich and bulk goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, Silvia A. [INQUISUR, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahia Blanca B8000CP (Argentina); Belelli, Patricia G., E-mail: pbelelli@plapiqui.edu.ar [IFISUR, Grupo de Materiales y Sistemas Cataliticos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahia Blanca B8000CP (Argentina); Castellani, Norberto J. [IFISUR, Grupo de Materiales y Sistemas Cataliticos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahia Blanca B8000CP (Argentina); Avena, Marcelo [INQUISUR, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahia Blanca B8000CP (Argentina)

    2013-01-15

    The electronic and structural properties of bulk goethite and Al-rich goethite were studied on the basis of spin-polarized DFT at the LDA + U and GGA(PW91) + U levels. Firstly, the periodic model of bulk goethite was optimized varying the value of U{sub eff}. Considering all the results obtained we can conclude that the bulk goethite described at the GGA + U level with U{sub eff} = 6 eV gives us the better agreement with different physical properties. The results of magnetic moments of Fe ions, the DOS analysis and the Bader atomic charges identify goethite as an antiferromagnetic Fe(III) compound. For Al-rich goethite the GGA + U (U{sub eff} = 6 eV) approach was used. The isomorphous substitution of one Fe ion with Al ion produces the reduction of the cell parameters with respect to the bulk goethite. Regarding the magnetic ordering, it was observed that Fe atoms surrounding the Al atom must have the same spin projection, i.e., spin-up or -down. The charge density was changed with the addition of Al ion, producing a depletion where the ion is located and some electron redistribution in the zone of the oxygen atoms surrounding the Al ion. This behavior produces some small magnetization in these O ions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied electronic and structural properties of bulk goethite and Al-rich goethite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goethite is well described with the GGA + U level using the U{sub eff} = 6 eV value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Al-rich goethite model has different magnetic structures with similar energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The isomorphic substitution of Fe by Al atom in goethite results in a lattice contraction.

  14. Compressive behavior of bulk metallic glass under different conditions --- Coupled effect of temperature and strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weihua

    Metallic glass was first reported in 1960 by rapid quenching of Au-Si alloys. But, due to the size limitation, this material did not attract remarkable interest until the development of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with specimen sizes in excess of 1 mm. BMGs are considered to be promising engineering materials because of their ultrahigh strength, high elastic limit and wear resistance. However, they usually suer from a strong tendency for localized plastic deformation with catastrophic failure. Many basic questions, such as the origin of shear softening and the strain rate eect remain unclear. In this thesis, the mechanical behavior of the Zr55Al 10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass and a metallic glass composite is investigated. The stress-strain relationship for Zr55Al10Ni 5Cu30 over a wide range of strain rate (5x10 --5 to 2x103 s--1) was investigated in uniaxial compression loading using both MTS servo-hydraulic system (quasi-static) and compression Kolsky bar system (dynamic). The effect of the strain rate on the fracture stress at room temperature was discussed. Based on the experimental results, the strain rate sensitivity of the bulk metallic glass changes from a positive value to a negative value at high strain rate, which is a consequence of the significant adiabatic temperature rise during the dynamic testing. In order to characterize the temperature eect on the mechanical behavior of the metallic glass, a synchronically assembled heating unit was designed to be attached onto the Kolsky bar system to perform high temperature and high strain rate mechanical testing. A transition from inhomogeneous deformation to homogeneous deformation has been observed during the quasi-static compressive experiments at testing temperatures close to the glass transition temperature. However, no transition has been observed at high strain rates at all the testing temperatures. A free volume based model is applied to analyze the stress-strain behavior of the homogeneous

  15. Crystal growth and solidification processing of RE123 bulk superconductive oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The microstructure plays an important role in affecting Jc values. The semisolid melt growth method is considered to be an effective way for obtaining high Jc RE123 bulk materials, since it enables to obtain a dense highly oriented structure and to introduce fine high temperature stable phase (RE211) particles as pinning centers through its peritectic solidification. Recently, Nd123 and Sm123 crystals fabricated by melt processing under the low oxygen partial pressure atmosphere were reported to exhibit higher Tc (Tc∼96K for Nd123, 94K for Sm123) and Jc values than those of Y123 (Tc∼92K). It was clarified that the substitution of RE ions with Ba sites was suppressed in a reduced oxygen partial pressure atmosphere and a small amount of this substitution was responsible for flux pinning. In this work, crystal growth in the isothermal solidification of the melt-textured bulk Nd123 and Sm123 crystals in air by the seeding and undercooling method was investigated when initial compositions were changed from the common composition on the RE123-RE211 quasibinary section to the BaO enriched one. Similar to the single crystal growth, bulk RE123 crystals with a small substitution content of about 0.02 were produced in air at around 1333K for the initial composition with BaO/CuO∼3/4, which resulted in the higher Tc value. Another finding includes decrease of the particle size of the RE211 phase with increasing the BaO/CuO ratio, which resulted in higher Jc values at 77K under 1T after appropriate oxygen annealing. Detail crystal growth mechanisms including the relationships among growth rate, undercooling, initial composition, RE/Ba substitution and oxygen partial pressure in the atmosphere will be discussed using our phase diagram studies and compared with those in single crystal growth by crystal pulling. Dispersion mechanisms of the RE211 phase particles in the RE123 phase matrix will be also discussed considering peritectic solidification, Ostwald ripening

  16. Closing the value gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's a predicament. For the most part, investor-owned electric utilities trade at a deep discount to the actual (that is, replacement-cost) value to their assets. That's because most utilities fail to earn real returns large enough to justify raising and investing capital. The result is a value gap, where overall market value is significantly lower than the replacement costs of the assets. This gap is wider for utilities than for virtually any other industry in our economy. In addition to providing education and awareness, senior management must determine which businesses and activities create value and which diminish it. Then, management must allocate capital and human resources appropriately, holding down investments in value-diminishing areas until they can improve their profitability, and aggressively investing in value-enhancing businesses while preserving their profitability. But value management must not stop with resource-allocation decisions. To create a lasting transition to a value management philosophy, the utility's compensation system must also change: executives will have motivation to create value when compensation stems from this goal, not from such misleading accounting measures as earnings-per-share growth or ROE. That requires clear value-creation goals, and the organization must continuously evaluate top management's performance in light of the progress made toward those goals

  17. Molecular bulk heterojunctions: an emerging approach to organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncali, Jean

    2009-11-17

    The predicted exhaustion of fossil energy resources and the pressure of environmental constraints are stimulating an intensification of research on renewable energy sources, in particular, on the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. In this context, organic solar cells are attracting increasing interest that is motivated by the possibility of fabricating large-area, lightweight, and flexible devices using simple techniques with low environmental impact. Organic solar cells are based on a heterojunction resulting from the contact of a donor (D) and an acceptor (A) material. Absorption of solar photons creates excitons, Coulombically bound electron-hole pairs, which diffuse to the D/A interface, where they are dissociated into free holes and electrons by the electric field. D/A heterojunctions can be created with two types of architectures, namely, bilayer heterojunction and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. BHJ cells combine the advantages of easier fabrication and higher conversion efficiency due to the considerably extended D/A interface. Until now, the development of BHJ solar cells has been essentially based on the use of soluble pi-conjugated polymers as donor material. Intensive interdisciplinary research carried out in the past 10 years has led to an increase in the conversion efficiency of BHJ cells from 0.10 to more than 5.0%. These investigations have progressively established regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the standard donor material for BHJ solar cells, owing to a useful combination of optical and charge-transport properties. However, besides the limit imposed to the maximum conversion efficiency by its intrinsic electronic properties, P3HT and more generally polymers pose several problems related to the control of their structure, molecular weight, polydispersity, and purification. In this context, recent years have seen the emergence of an alternative approach based on the replacement of polydisperse polymers by soluble

  18. Efficient Bulk Operations on Dynamic R-Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Hinrichs, Klaus; Vahrenhold, Jan;

    2002-01-01

    intensively in the database community. The continuous arrival of massive amounts of new data makes it important to update existing indexes (bulk updating ) efficiently. In this paper we present a simple, yet efficient, technique for performing bulk update and query operations on multidimensional indexes. We...... present our technique in terms of the so-called R-tree and its variants, as they have emerged as practically efficient indexing methods for spatial data. Our method uses ideas from the buffer tree lazy buffering technique and fully utilizes the available internal memory and the page size of the operating...... system. We give a theoretical analysis of our technique, showing that it is efficient both in terms of I/ O communication, disk storage, and internal computation time. We also present the results of an extensive set of experiments showing that in practice our approach performs better than the previously...

  19. Differentiating surface and bulk interactions in nanoplasmonic interferometric sensor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Beibei; Bartoli, Filbert J

    2014-01-01

    Detecting specific target analytes and differentiating them from interfering background effects is a crucial but challenging task in complex multi-component solutions commonly encountered in environmental, chemical, biological, and medical sensing applications. Here we present a simple nanoplasmonic interferometric sensor platform that can differentiate the adsorption of a thin protein layer on the sensor surface (surface effects) from bulk refractive index changes (interfering background effects) at a single sensing spot, exploiting the different penetration depths of multiple propagating surface plasmon polaritons excited in the ring-hole nanostructures. A monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules with an effective thickness of 1.91nm is detected and differentiated from a 10-3 change in the bulk refractive index unit of the solution. The noise level of the retrieved real-time sensor output compares favorably with traditional prism-based surface plasmon resonance sensors, but is achieved using a sign...

  20. Accurate theoretical prediction on positron lifetime of bulk materials

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wenshuai; Liu, Jiandang; Ye, Bangjiao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the first-principles calculations, we perform an initiatory statistical assessment on the reliability level of theoretical positron lifetime of bulk material. We found the original generalized gradient approximation (GGA) form of the enhancement factor and correlation potentials overestimates the effect of the gradient factor. Furthermore, an excellent agreement between model and data with the difference being the noise level of the data is found in this work. In addition, we suggest a new GGA form of the correlation scheme which gives the best performance. This work demonstrates that a brand-new reliability level is achieved for the theoretical prediction on positron lifetime of bulk material and the accuracy of the best theoretical scheme can be independent on the type of materials.

  1. Negative Temperature Coefficient of Resistivity in Bulk Nanostructured Ag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The change of the temperature coefficient of resistivity (α) with the particle size, dp, and the grain size, dc, in the nanostructured Ag bulk samples was investigated, dp and de were controlled by heating the nano-Ag powders over the temperature range from 393 to 453 K. The electrical resistance measurements of the nanostructured Ag bulk samples obtained by compacting the Ag powders after heat treatments showed a change in the sign of α with dp and dc. When dp and dc are smaller or equal to 18 and 11 nm below room temperature or 20 and 12 nm above room temperature, respectively, the sign of the temperature coefficient of resistivity changes from positive to negative. The negative α arises mainly from the high resistivity induced by the particle interfaces with very lowly ordered or even disordered structure, a large volume fraction of interfaces and impurities existing in the interfaces, and the quantum size effect appearing in the nano-Ag grains.

  2. Effect of radiation on bulk swelling of plutonium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that plutonium alloys present bulk swelling. More precisely, length (as measured by dilatometry) and lattice parameter (as measured by X-ray diffraction) increase with time and seems to reach saturation after a few months for the microscopic scale. This bulk swelling can be correlated to self-induced radiation due to the decay of the different plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu) which also induce helium that tends to forms clusters, then bubbles. Many experimental and theoretical results have already been published on this topic. The goal of this paper is to review some of the results and to propose a strategy for both experiments and modelling to try to answer some of the remaining questions regarding swelling and more generally self-irradiation defects in plutonium alloys

  3. Low Power Low Voltage Bulk Driven Balanced OTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last few decades, a great deal of attention has been paid to low-voltage (LV low-power (LP integrated circuits design since the power consumption has become a critical issue. Among many techniques used for the design of LV LP analog circuits, the Bulk-driven principle offers a promising route towards this design for many aspects mainly the simplicity and using the conventional MOS technology to implement these designs. This paper is devoted to the Bulk-driven (BD principle and utilizing this principle to design LV LP building block of Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA in standard CMOS processes and supply voltage 0.9V. The simulation results have been carried out by the Spice simulatorusing the 130nm CMOS technology from TSMC.

  4. Appearance of the bulk motif in Al clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiao; Lu, Wen-Cai; Li, Ze-Sheng; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2008-07-01

    We have performed an unbiased search for the lowest-energy structures of medium-sized aluminum clusters Aln (n=19-26) using a genetic algorithm (GA) coupled with a tight-binding interatomic potential. Structural candidates obtained from our GA search were further optimized using density functional theory. It is found that the double icosahedron is not the most stable structure for Al19 but serves as the core for Al20 and Al21. The lowest-energy structures of Aln are found to undergo a transition to an aluminum bulk motif above Al23. In particular, the lowest-energy structure of Al26 is almost a fragment of the bulk face-centered-cubic crystal except for the stacking fault at the bottom layer. Anion clusters were also studied.

  5. Bulk Locality and Entanglement Swapping in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, William R

    2016-01-01

    Localized bulk excitations in AdS/CFT are produced by operators which modify the pattern of entanglement in the boundary state. We show that simple models--consisting of entanglement swapping operators acting on a qubit system or a free field theory--capture qualitative features of gravitational backreaction and reproduce predictions of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. These entanglement swapping operators naturally admit multiple representations associated with different degrees of freedom, thereby reproducing the code subspace structure emphasized by Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow. We also show that the boundary Reeh-Schlieder theorem implies that equivalence of certain operators on a code subspace necessarily breaks down when non-perturbative effects are taken into account (as is expected based on bulk arguments).

  6. Hubble Parameter in QCD Universe for finite Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Mansour, H; Harko, T

    2010-01-01

    The influence of perturbative bulk viscosity on the evolution of Hubble parameter in the QCD era of the early Universe has been analyzed, where Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and Einstein field equations are utilized. Homogeneous and isotropic background matter is assumed to be characterized by barotropic equations of state deduced from recent lattice QCD simulations and heavy--ion collisions. Taking into account perturbative bulk viscosity coefficient, an estimation for the evolution of the Hubble parameter has been introduced and compared with its evolution in a non--viscous matter. A numerical solution for finite viscous Israel-Stewart background matter is also worked out. Both methods qualitatively agree in reproducing viscous Hubble parameter that turns to be slightly different from the non--viscous one. This treatment is strictly limited within a very narrow temperature-- or time--interval in QCD era, where the QGP matter is likely dominant.

  7. Dissipative Processes in the Early Universe: Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Mansour, H; Wahba, M

    2009-01-01

    In this talk, we discuss one of the dissipative processes which likely take place in the Early Universe. We assume that the matter filling the isotropic and homogeneous background is to be described by a relativistic viscous fluid characterized by an ultra-relativistic equation of state and finite bulk viscosity deduced from recent lattice QCD calculations and heavy-ion collisions experiments. We concentrate our treatment to bulk viscosity as one of the essential dissipative processes in the rapidly expanding Early Universe and deduce the dependence of the scale factor and Hubble parameter on the comoving time $t$. We find that both scale factor and Hubble parameter are finite at $t=0$, revering to absence of singularity. We also find that their evolution apparently differs from the one resulting in when assuming that the background matter is an ideal and non-viscous fluid.

  8. Retardation of Bulk Water Dynamics by Disaccharide Osmolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Nimesh; Chen, Lee; Chergui, Majed; Othon, Christina M

    2016-01-01

    The bioprotective nature of disaccharides is hypothesized to derive from the modification of the hydrogen bonding network of water which protects biomolecules through lowered water activity at the protein interface. Using ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy we measured the relaxation of bulk water dynamics around the induced dipole moment of two fluorescent probes (Lucifer Yellow Ethylenediamine and Tryptophan). Our results indicate a reduction in bulk water reorganization rate of approximately of 30%. We observe this retardation in the low concentration regime measured at 0.1M and 0.25 M, far below the onset of glassy dynamics. This reduction in water activity could be significant in crowded biological systems, contributing to global change in protein energy landscape, resulting in a significant enhancement of protein stability under environmental stress. We observed similar dynamic reduction for two disaccharide osmolytes, sucrose and trehalose, with trehalose being the more effective dynamic reducer.

  9. Permanent magnet with MgB2 bulk superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru; Kishio, Kohji

    2014-07-01

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB2) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (cryocoolers, making MgB2 bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  10. Capacity Issues and Efficiency Drivers in Brazilian Bulk Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficiency analysis of Brazilian bulk terminals built upon the conjoint use of Data Envelopment Analysis and the bootstrapping technique. Confidence intervals and bias corrected central estimates were used as cornerstone tools, not only to test for significant differences on efficiency scores and their reciprocals, but also on returns to scale indicators provided by different DEA models. The results of the study suggest that most Brazilian bulk terminals present increasing returns-to-scale, that is, they are too small in size comparatively to the tasks performed, indicating a capacity shortfall. Results also suggest paths for improving efficiency levels in a scenario of low investments and capacity constraints: privatization and cargo specialization. A final contribution to the literature lays on the development a simple methodology to assess returns-to-scale based on bootstrap results.

  11. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of many communities for increasing supplies. We find that using water bags to transport fresh water between northern and southern California is in some instances a low-cost alternative to desalination. The choice is constrained, however, by concerns about reliability and, thus, risk. Case-study results demonstrate the challenges of water supply augmentation in water-constrained regions.

  12. Low Power Low Voltage Bulk Driven Balanced OTA

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Neha; Suthar, Meenakshi; Soni, Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    The last few decades, a great deal of attention has been paid to low-voltage (LV) low-power (LP) integrated circuits design since the power consumption has become a critical issue. Among many techniques used for the design of LV LP analog circuits, the Bulk-driven principle offers a promising route towards this design for many aspects mainly the simplicity and using the conventional MOS technology to implement these designs. This paper is devoted to the Bulk-driven (BD) principle and utilizing this principle to design LV LP building block of Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) in standard CMOS processes and supply voltage 0.9V. The simulation results have been carried out by the Spice simulator using the 130nm CMOS technology from TSMC.

  13. Resonance spectrum of a bulk fermion on branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Peng; Du, Yun-Zhi; Guo, Wen-Di; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2016-03-01

    It is known that there are two mechanisms for localizing a bulk fermion on a brane: one is the well-known Yukawa coupling, and the other is the new coupling proposed in [Phys. Rev. D 89, 086001 (2014)]. In this paper, we investigate the localization and resonance spectrum of a bulk fermion on the same branes with the two localization mechanisms. It is found that both of the two mechanisms can result in a volcano-like effective potential of the fermion Kaluza-Klein modes. The left-chiral fermion zero mode can be localized on the brane, and there exist some discrete massive-fermion Kaluza-Klein modes that quasilocalized on the branes (also called fermion resonances). The number of the fermion resonances increases linearly with the coupling parameter.

  14. A Higgs in the Warped Bulk and LHC signals

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoudi, F; Manglani, N; Sridhar, K

    2016-01-01

    Warped models with the Higgs in the bulk can generate light Kaluza-Klein (KK) Higgs modes consistent with the electroweak precision analysis. The first KK mode of the Higgs (h_{1}) could lie in the 1-2 TeV range in the models with a bulk custodial symmetry. We find that the h_{1} is gaugephobic and decays dominantly into a t\\bar{t} pair. We also discuss the search strategy for h_{1} decaying to t\\bar{t} at the Large Hadron Collider. We used substructure tools to suppress the large QCD background associated with this channel. We find that h_{1} can be probed at the LHC run-2 with an integrated luminosity of 300 fb^{-1}.

  15. Supersymmetric bulk-brane coupling with odd gauge fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, D.V.

    2006-08-15

    Supersymmetric bulk-brane coupling in Horava-Witten and Randall-Sundrum scenarios, when considered in the orbifold (''upstairs'') picture, enjoys similar features: a modified Bianchi identity and a modified supersymmetry transformation for the ''orthogonal'' part of the gauge field. Using a toy model with a 5D vector multiplet in the bulk (like in Mirabelli-Peskin model, but with an odd gauge field A{sub m}), we explain how these features arise from the superfield formulation. We also show that the corresponding construction in the boundary (''downstairs'') picture requires introduction of a special ''compensator'' (super)field. (orig.)

  16. Area evolution, bulk viscosity and entropy principles for dynamical horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Gourgoulhon, E; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Jaramillo, Jose Luis

    2006-01-01

    We derive from Einstein equation an evolution law for the area of a trapping or dynamical horizon. The solutions to this differential equation show a causal behavior. Moreover, in a viscous fluid analogy, the equation can be interpreted as an energy balance law, yielding to a positive bulk viscosity. These two features contrast with the event horizon case, where the non-causal evolution of the area and the negative bulk viscosity require teleological boundary conditions. This reflects the local character of trapping horizons as opposed to event horizons. Interpreting the area as the entropy, we propose to use an area/entropy evolution principle to select a unique dynamical horizon and time slicing in the Cauchy evolution of an initial marginally trapped surface.

  17. Bulk-edge correspondence for topological photonic continua

    CERN Document Server

    Silveirinha, Mario G

    2016-01-01

    Here, building on our previous work [Phys. Rev. B, 92, 125153, (2015)], it is shown that the propagation of unidirectional gapless edge states at an interface of two topologically distinct electromagnetic continua with a well-behaved asymptotic electromagnetic response is rigorously predicted by the bulk-edge correspondence principle. We work out detailed examples demonstrating that when the spatial-cut off of the nonreciprocal part of the material response is considered self-consistently in the solution of the relevant electromagnetic problem, the number of unidirectional gapless edge modes is identical to the difference of the Chern numbers of the bulk materials. Furthermore, it is shown how the role of the spatial cut-off can be imitated in realistic systems using a tiny air gap with a specific thickness. This theory provides a practical roadmap for the application of topological concepts to photonic platforms formed by nonreciprocal electromagnetic continua.

  18. Copper phthalocyanine and metal free phthalocyanine bulk heterojunction photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Amjad, E-mail: amjad.farooq1212@hotmail.com [Wah Engineering College, University of Wah, Wah Cantt. 47040 (Pakistan); GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Swabi (Pakistan); Karimov, Kh.S. [GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Swabi (Pakistan); Physical Technical Institute, Aini St. 299/1, Dushanbe 734063 (Tajikistan); Ahmed, Nisar; Ali, Taimoor [GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Swabi (Pakistan); Khalid Alamgir, M. [National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology, NCP complex, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Usman, Muhammad [Experimental Physics Laboratories, National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-01-15

    In this study we present the dependence of electrical properties of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and metal free phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}Pc) bulk heterojunction structure under different illumination levels. To fabricate the device on ITO coated glass substrate the bulk heterojunction thin film of CuPc and H{sub 2}Pc with thickness varying from 100 nm to 300 nm are deposited by thermal evaporator. Aluminum thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation as a top contact. The optical properties of the fabricated device are investigated using UV–vis spectroscopy. The current-voltage characteristics in dark and under illumination show that the device is sensitive towards visible light. The absorption spectrum describes its photo sensitivity in the range of wavelength from 200 nm to 850 nm. Simulation of current-intensity of light curve is carried out and experimental results are found in good agreement with simulated ones.

  19. Bulk Material Based Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W S; Magnin, W; Wang, N; Hayes, M; O' Flynn, B; O' Mathuna, C, E-mail: wensi.wang@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    The trend towards smart building and modern manufacturing demands ubiquitous sensing in the foreseeable future. Self-powered Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are essential for such applications. This paper describes bulk material based thermoelectric generator (TEG) design and implementation for WSN. A 20cm{sup 2} Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} based TEG was created with optimized configuration and generates 2.7mW in typical condition. A novel load matching method is used to maximize the power output. The implemented power management module delivers 651{mu}W to WSN in 50 deg. C. With average power consumption of Tyndall WSN measured at 72{mu}W, feasibility of utilizing bulk material TEG to power WSN is demonstrated.

  20. Ion-water clusters, bulk medium effects, and ion hydration

    CERN Document Server

    Merchant, Safir; Dean, Kelsey R; Asthagiri, D

    2011-01-01

    Thermochemistry of gas-phase ion-water clusters together with estimates of the hydration free energy of the clusters and the water ligands are used to calculate the hydration free energy of the ion. Often the hydration calculations use a continuum model of the solvent. The primitive quasichemical approximation to the quasichemical theory provides a transparent framework to anchor such efforts. Here we evaluate the approximations inherent in the primitive quasichemical approach and elucidate the different roles of the bulk medium. We find that the bulk medium can stabilize configurations of the cluster that are usually not observed in the gas phase, while also simultaneously lowering the excess chemical potential of the ion. This effect is more pronounced for soft ions. Since the coordination number that minimizes the excess chemical potential of the ion is identified as the optimal or most probable coordination number, for such soft ions, the optimum cluster size and the hydration thermodynamics obtained with...

  1. Phonon anharmonicity in bulk Td-MoTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Jaydeep; Stone, Iris R.; Beams, Ryan; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Kalish, Irina; Davydov, Albert V.; Vora, Patrick M.

    2016-07-01

    We examine anharmonic contributions to the optical phonon modes in bulk Td-MoTe2 through temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy. At temperatures ranging from 100 K to 200 K, we find that all modes redshift linearly with temperature in agreement with the Grüneisen model. However, below 100 K, we observe nonlinear temperature-dependent frequency shifts in some modes. We demonstrate that this anharmonic behavior is consistent with the decay of an optical phonon into multiple acoustic phonons. Furthermore, the highest frequency Raman modes show large changes in intensity and linewidth near T ≈ 250 K that correlate well with the T d → 1 T ' structural phase transition. These results suggest that phonon-phonon interactions can dominate anharmonic contributions at low temperatures in bulk Td-MoTe2, an experimental regime that is currently receiving attention in efforts to understand Weyl semimetals.

  2. Resonance spectrum of a bulk fermion on branes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu-Peng; Guo, Wen-Di; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are two mechanisms for localizing a bulk fermion on a brane, one is the well-known Yukawa coupling and the other is the new coupling proposed in [Phys. Rev. D 89, 086001 (2014)]. In this paper, we investigate localization and resonance spectrum of a bulk fermion on the same branes with the two localization mechanisms. It is found that both the two mechanisms can result in a volcano-like effective potential of the fermion Kaluza-Klein modes. The left-chiral fermion zero mode can be localized on the brane and there exist some discrete massive fermion Kaluza-Klein modes that quasilocalized on the brane (also called fermion resonances). The number of the fermion resonances increases linearly with the coupling parameter.

  3. An experimental comparison of laboratory techniques in determining bulk properties of tuffaceous rocks; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J. III [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). YMP Performance Assessment Applications Dept.

    1994-04-01

    Samples of tuffaceous rock were studied as part of the site characterization for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. These efforts were scoping in nature, and their results, along with those of other investigations, are being used to develop suitable procedures for determining bulk properties of tuffaceous rock in support of thermal and mechanical properties evaluations. Comparisons were made between various sample preparation, handling, and measurement techniques for both zeolitized and nonzeolitized tuff in order to assess their effects on bulk property determinations. Laboratory tests included extensive drying regimes to evaluate dehydration behavior, the acquisition of data derived from both gas and water pycnometers to compare their suitability in determining grain densities, a comparison of particle size effects, and a set of experiments to evaluate whole core saturation methods. The results affirm the added complexity of these types of measurements where there is a zeolite component in the sample mineralogy. Absolute values for the bulk properties of zeolitized tuff are immeasurable due to the complex nature of their dehydration behavior. However, the results of the techniques that were investigated provide a basis for the development of preferred, consistent methods for determining the grain density, dry and saturated bulk densities, and porosity of tuffaceous rock, including zeolitic tuff in support of thermal and mechanical properties evaluations.

  4. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bulk tank milk of dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreausukon, K; Fetsch, A; Kraushaar, B; Alt, K; Müller, K; Krömker, V; Zessin, K-H; Käsbohrer, A; Tenhagen, B-A

    2012-08-01

    It was the objective of the study to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in bulk tank milk from German dairy herds and to characterize isolates from bulk tank milk with respect to their Staph. aureus protein A (spa) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and resistance- resp. virulence-associated genes using broth microdilution and a microarray for Staph. aureus. Bulk tank milk samples (25 mL) were tested for MRSA using a 2-step selective enrichment protocol. Presumptive MRSA were confirmed by PCR. Thirty-six isolates collected from bulk tank milk of dairy herds in 2009 and 2010 were included in the characterization. All isolates displayed spa-types assigned to the clonal complex CC398. Based on the epidemiological cut-off values for the interpretation of minimum inhibitory concentrations isolates were resistant to tetracycline (100%), clindamycin (58%), erythromycin (52%), quinupristin/dalfopristin (36%), and kanamycin (27%). Isolates did not carry genes associated with typical virulence factors for Staph. aureus such as the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. However, they did carry hemolysin genes. Livestock-associated MRSA of CC398 does occur in German dairy herds and the strains have similar properties as described for strains from pigs. PMID:22818451

  5. Baudrillard's Theory of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär Ola

    2014-01-01

    theory. The paper concludes that Baudrillard's arguments for abandoning Marxism altogether are problematic and led him away from developing a more finished theory of value. This is unfortunate because it remains a project that may yield interesting insights even in contemporary social theory, not least......Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly......) postmodernism, with specific focus on his value theory, in order to understand his own reasons for abandoning his previous position. I then follow the marginal stream of scholars who are making use of the early Baudrillard. I find his value theory promising but still a mere sketch rather than an actual general...

  6. Organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic structures: design, morphology and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main approaches to the design of organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic structures are generalized and systematized. Novel photovoltaic materials based on fullerenes, organic dyes and related compounds, graphene, conjugated polymers and dendrimers are considered. The emphasis is placed on correlations between the chemical structure and properties of materials. The effect of morphology of the photoactive layer on the photovoltaic properties of devices is analyzed. Main methods of optimization of the photovoltaic properties are outlined. The bibliography includes 338 references

  7. Pinch-off of rods by bulk diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagesen, L.K.; Johnson, A.E.; Fife, J.L.;

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of a rod embedded in a matrix undergoing pinching by interfacial-energy-driven bulk diffusion is determined near the point of pinching. We find a self-similar solution that gives a unique temporal power law and interfacial shape prior to pinching and self-similar solutions after pi......, and thus provide estimates of the time required for capillarity-driven break-up of microstructures from the detachment of secondary dendrite arms to polymer blends....

  8. EXPLORATION ON SCALABILITY OF DATABASE BULK INSERTION WITH MULTITHREADING

    OpenAIRE

    Boon-Wee Low; Boon-Yaik Ooi; and Chee-Siang Wong

    2011-01-01

    The advancement of database engine and multi-core processors technologies have enable database insertion to be implemented concurrently via multithreading programming. The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of using multithreading technique to perform database insertion of large data set with known size to enhance the performance of data access layer (DAL) particularly on the bulk-insertion operation. The performance evaluation includes techniques such as using single datab...

  9. Comment on "Accelerating cosmological expansion from shear and bulk viscosity"

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In a recent Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 091301 (2105)] the cause of the acceleration of the present Universe has been identified with the shear viscosity of an imperfect relativistic fluid even in the absence of any bulk viscous contribution. The gist of this comment is that the shear viscosity, if anything, can only lead to an accelerated expansion over sufficiently small scales well inside the Hubble radius.

  10. Surface and Bulk Nanostructuring of Polymers Using Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation has long been known tobe a powerful tool in modifying and controlled the properties, forms and eventually end-uses of polymeric materials for a variety of applications. Industrial applications are full of successful examples of macro scale, bulk property modifications by radiation. Extremely short wavelength of ionizing radiation however, makes it an important and useful tool in creating very small size structures in polymers

  11. Towards more inclusive long-term bulk water resource management

    OpenAIRE

    De Lange, Willem J.; Kleynhans, Theo E.

    2007-01-01

    Fresh water resources provide a platform for complex and often emotional issues to develop, particularly in resource scarcity situations. Bulk water infrastructure contains elements of a public good and proved vulnerable to failures in market and government driven allocation strategies. Common to both are uncaptured costs and benefits due to shortcomings in cost quantification techniques. Natural ecosystems stands to lose the most since ecosystem services are often not quantifiable in monetar...

  12. High coupling materials for thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Janine

    2009-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) filters based on bulk acoustic wave resonances in piezoelectric thin films have become indispensable components in mobile communications. The currently used material, AlN, exhibits many excellent properties for this purpose. However, its bandwidth is often a limiting factor. In addition, no tuning is possible with AlN. Ferroelectrics would offer both larger coupling to achieve larger bandwidths, and tunability. However, their acoustic properties are not well known, especi...

  13. Iron gettering in silicon using doped layers and bulk defects

    OpenAIRE

    Talvitie, Heli

    2011-01-01

    The removal of iron impurities to desired regions in silicon wafers has been studied using phosphorus and boron doped layers and bulk defects as gettering sites. Techniques to remove metal impurities, so-called gettering techniques, are needed for improving the performance of both the microelectronic and photovoltaic silicon devices, although the desired location of impurities may be different in various applications. In this work, both separate and simultaneous influences of the doped layers...

  14. Bulk and confinement-induced phase transitions in colloidal suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Fortini, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the thesis, we have presented computer simulation results on the bulk and interfacial phase behaviour of colloidal suspensions. In the first part, we have developed and tested a simulation technique to calculate the free energy of hard-core systems. This technique was used to calculate the interfacial free energy of colloidal hard spheres and with the addition of non-adsorbing polymer coils. Good agreement was found between the simulation results and those from density functional theory. F...

  15. Classical model for bulk-ensemble NMR quantum computation

    OpenAIRE

    Schack, R.; Caves, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present a classical model for bulk-ensemble NMR quantum computation: the quantum state of the NMR sample is described by a probability distribution over the orientations of classical tops, and quantum gates are described by classical transition probabilities. All NMR quantum computing experiments performed so far with three quantum bits can be accounted for in this classical model. After a few entangling gates, the classical model suffers an exponential decrease of the measured signal, whe...

  16. Bulk Metallic Glasses for Implantable Medical Devices and Surgical Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Philip; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D; Byrne, James H; Browne, David J

    2016-07-01

    With increasing knowledge of the materials science of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and improvements in their properties and processing, they have started to become candidate materials for biomedical devices. A dichotomy in the types of medical applications has also emerged, in which some families of BMGs are being developed for permanent devices whilst another family - of Mg-based alloys - is showing promise in bioabsorbable implants. The current status of these metallurgical and technological developments is summarized.

  17. Morphology Control in co-evaporated bulk heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacik, P; Assender, HE; Watt, AAR

    2013-01-01

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells made by vacuum co-evaporation of polythiophene (PTh) and fullerene (C60) are reported and the blend morphology control through donor-acceptor composition and post-situ annealing demonstrated. Co-deposited heterojunctions are shown to generate about 60% higher photocurrents than their thickness-optimized PTh/C60 planar heterojunction counterparts. Furthermore, by annealing the devices post-situ the power conversion efficiency is improved by as much as 80%. UV-vi...

  18. Evolution of bulk strain solitons in cylindrical inhomogeneous shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvartz, A., E-mail: andrew.shvartz@mail.ioffe.ru; Samsonov, A.; Dreiden, G.; Semenova, I. [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    Bulk strain solitary waves in nonlinearly elastic thin-walled cylindrical shells with variable geometrical and physical parameters are studied, and equation for the longitudinal strain component with the variable coefficients is derived. A conservative finite difference scheme is proposed, and the results of numerical simulation of the strain soliton evolution in a shell with the abrupt variations of cross section and physical properties of the material are presented.

  19. Introduction to bulk metallic glass composite and its recent applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shijing

    2011-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials are hot topics in recent years, not to mention BMG matrix composites, which further improve the magnetic and mechanical properties of BMG materials. BMG and BMG matrix materials are fast developing and promising materials in modern industry due to their extraordinary properties such as high strength, low density, excellent resistibility to high temperature and corrosion. In this paper, I reviewed processing and application of several recently developed BMG ...

  20. Hierarchical Bulk Synchronous Parallel Model and Performance Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Linpeng; SUNYongqiang; YUAN Wei

    1999-01-01

    Based on the framework of BSP, aHierarchical Bulk Synchronous Parallel (HBSP) performance model isintroduced in this paper to capture the performance optimizationproblem for various stages in parallel program development and toaccurately predict the performance of a parallel program byconsidering factors causing variance at local computation and globalcommunication. The related methodology has been applied to several realapplications and the results show that HBSP is a suitable model foroptimizing parallel programs.

  1. Bounds on Masses of Bulk Fields in String Compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachru, Shamit; McGreevy, John; Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-02-13

    In string compactification on a manifold X, in addition to the string scale and the normal scales of low-energy particle physics, there is a Kaluza-Klein scale 1/R associated with the size of X. We present an argument that generic string models with low-energy supersymmetry have, after moduli stabilization, bulk fields with masses which are parametrically lighter than 1/R. We discuss the implications of these light states for anomaly mediation and gaugino mediation scenarios.

  2. Brane cosmological evolution in a bulk with cosmological constant

    OpenAIRE

    Binetruy, Pierre; Deffayet, Cedric; Ellwanger, Ulrich; Langlois, David

    1999-01-01

    We consider the cosmology of a ``3-brane universe'' in a five dimensional (bulk) space-time with a cosmological constant. We show that Einstein's equations admit a first integral, analogous to the first Friedmann equation, which governs the evolution of the metric in the brane, whatever the time evolution of the metric along the fifth dimension. We thus obtain the cosmological evolution in the brane for any equation of state describing the matter in the brane, without needing the dependence o...

  3. Experimental study of bulk storage ignition by hot points

    OpenAIRE

    Janes, Agnès; Carson, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    International audience An experimental study of ignition risk due to hot points in the storage of bulk materials is required to ensure fire safety. Many parameters are involved in this phenomenon: nature of the material, storage volume and temperature, type and size of hot point, etc. The aim of this study is to determine critical ignition temperatures of hot spots embedded in powder materials for different conditions and with several types of hot points. Materials selected for this study ...

  4. Analysis of a bonded joint using bulk adhesive properties

    OpenAIRE

    Osiroff, Talia

    1988-01-01

    Adhesives and adheslvely bonded structures are being considered as a viable alternative to conventional fastening methods. In order to gain wider acceptance, it is essential to address the issue of the mechanlcal characterizatlon of adhesive materials and its implementation in the design of bonded joints. While measuring the in-situ properties of the adhesive ln a joint is a difficult task, characterizing its bulk properties is a relatively simpler undertaking. The object...

  5. Nanoscale Bulk MOSFET Design and Process Technology for Reduced Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the steady miniaturization of the conventional (planar bulk) MOSFET by simply scaling the device dimensions with minimal changes to the conventional transistor design and CMOS process flow has been effective to provide for continual improvements in integrated circuit performance and cost per function with every technology node. However, transistor scaling has become increasingly difficult in the sub-100 nm regime. Increased leakage current and variability in transistor perform...

  6. Towards the first generation micro bulk forming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2011-01-01

    The industrial demand for micro mechanical components has surged in the later years with the constant introduction of more integrated products. The micro bulk forming process holds a promising pledge of delivering high quality micro mechanical components at low cost and high production rates. Thi...... press. The system is demonstrated on an advanced micro forming case where a dental component is formed in medical grade Titanium....

  7. The value of space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panduro, Toke Emil

    are concerned with the value of different types of green space and how these values can be applied in urban planning policies related to climate adaption. The results presented in this thesis, ensure a “level playing field” in the assessment of the cost and benefits of different climate adaptation strategies...... and provide reliable estimates of the value of different types of green space....

  8. Value Creation and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taillard, Marie; Voyer, Benjamin; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre;

    2014-01-01

    that is of value to the individual and/or the larger social group’ (p 572). Previous researchers (Kleinaltenkamp et al., 2013) have suggested that there is a need to better understand how consumers integrate resources to create value. As consumers engage in increasingly creative activities and experiences......, it is important to understand what value consumer creativity brings to brands and how it can be encouraged and harnessed....

  9. Value and Momentum Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We find consistent value and momentum return premia across eight diverse markets and asset classes, and a strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum returns correlate more strongly across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes, but value and momentum...... and momentum jointly across markets. Our findings present a challenge to existing behavioral, institutional, and rational asset pricing theories that largely focus on U.S. equities....

  10. Institution-specific value

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Peasnell

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of a new accounting standard for financial instruments, has raised a number of issues related to the application of fair value principles. This paper discusses some of these issues which are generally related to the fact that "fair values" are not always easily defined or readily available. It concludes that the application of fair value for financial liabilities might present fewer complications if it is matched by similar valuation principles for financial assets. The issue...

  11. Social Life of Values

    OpenAIRE

    Magala, Slawomir

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe case of the Danish “cartoon war” was a premonition of things to come: accelerated social construction of inequalities and their accelerated symbolic communication, translation and negotiation. New uses of values in organizing and managing inequalities emerge. Values lead active social life as bourgeois virtues (McCloskey, 2006), their subversive alternatives or translated “memes” of cultural history. Since social life of values went global and online, tracing their hybrid mani...

  12. Fostering values in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Today, values hold a prominent place both in business ethics and in organization theory. However, there persists considerable confusion about what these values are and what role they play in these theories and, therefore, how they can be developed both within the individual and within the organization. Therefore, this paper seeks to define a conception of values based on a theory of human action that can provide a basis for an organization theory, and to propose a series of ideas about how pe...

  13. Bulk viscous matter-dominated Universes: asymptotic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, Arturo [Departamento de Física, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); García-Salcedo, Ricardo [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - Legaria del IPN, México D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, Tame [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, División de Ingeniería, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Nucamendi, Ulises [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, CP. 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Quiros, Israel, E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: rigarcias@ipn.mx, E-mail: tamegc72@gmail.com, E-mail: ulises@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: iquiros6403@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemáticas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías (CUCEI), Corregidora 500 S.R., Universidad de Guadalajara, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2013-08-01

    By means of a combined use of the type Ia supernovae and H(z) data tests, together with the study of the asymptotic properties in the equivalent phase space — through the use of the dynamical systems tools — we demonstrate that the bulk viscous matter-dominated scenario is not a good model to explain the accepted cosmological paradigm, at least, under the parametrization of bulk viscosity considered in this paper. The main objection against such scenarios is the absence of conventional radiation and matter-dominated critical points in the phase space of the model. This entails that radiation and matter dominance are not generic solutions of the cosmological equations, so that these stages can be implemented only by means of unique and very specific initial conditions, i. e., of very unstable particular solutions. Such a behavior is in marked contradiction with the accepted cosmological paradigm which requires of an earlier stage dominated by relativistic species, followed by a period of conventional non-relativistic matter domination, during which the cosmic structure we see was formed. Also, we found that the bulk viscosity is positive just until very late times in the cosmic evolution, around z < 1. For earlier epochs it is negative, been in tension with the local second law of thermodynamics.

  14. Dynamics of dendritic polymers in the bulk and under confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrissopoulou, K. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Fotiadou, S. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete, Greece and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece); Androulaki, K.; Anastasiadis, S. H. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete, Greece and University of Crete, Department of Chemistry, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Tanis, I.; Karatasos, K. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece); Prevosto, D.; Labardi, M. [CNR-IPCF, Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Frick, B. [ILL-Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2014-05-15

    The structure and dynamics of a hyperbranched polyesteramide (Hybrane® S 1200) polymer and its nanocomposites with natural montmorillonite (Na{sup +}-MMT) are investigated by XRD, DSC, QENS, DS and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. In bulk, the energy-resolved elastically scattered intensity from the polymer exhibits two relaxation steps, one attributed to sub-T{sub g} motions and one observed at temperatures above the glass transition, T{sub g}. The QENS spectra measured over the complete temperature range are consistent with the elastic measurements and can be correlated to the results emerging from the detailed description afforded by the atomistic simulations, which predict the existence of three relaxation processes. Moreover, dielectric spectroscopy shows the sub- T{sub g} beta process as well as the segmental relaxation. For the nanocomposites, XRD reveals an intercalated structure for all hybrids with distinct interlayer distances due to polymer chains residing within the galleries of the Na{sup +}-MMT. The polymer chains confined within the galleries show similarities in the behavior with that of the polymer in the bulk for temperatures below the bulk polymer T{sub g}, whereas they exhibit frozen dynamics under confinement at temperatures higher than that.

  15. Dissipation of jet bulk kinetic energy in powerful blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Katarzynski, K

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the dissipation of the bulk kinetic energy of a relativistic jet at different distances from the central power--house and analyse in detail how the dissipated energy is radiated away. We assume that the location of the dissipation region is a function of the bulk Lorentz factor Gamma of the jet, being closer to the center for smaller Gamma. This assumption is naturally fulfilled in the internal shock scenario. The dissipated energy is partially used to accelerate electrons and to amplify the magnetic field. This process creates a source inside the jet (blob). Such blobs may efficiently produce synchrotron and inverse Compton emission. We find that even if the blobs or shells responsible for the blazar activity carry the same energy (in bulk kinetic form), the fact that they move at different Gamma can produce dramatic variations in different bands, even if the bolometric luminosity is instead very similar. This is due to the relative importance of the synchrotron, self-Compton and external Comp...

  16. Bulk segregant analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Becker

    Full Text Available Bulk segregant analysis (BSA using microarrays, and extreme array mapping (XAM have recently been used to rapidly identify genomic regions associated with phenotypes in multiple species. These experiments, however, require the identification of single feature polymorphisms (SFP between the cross parents for each new combination of genotypes, which raises the cost of experiments. The availability of the genomic polymorphism data in Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with the efficient designs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP genotyping arrays removes the requirement for SFP detection and lowers the per array cost, thereby lowering the overall cost per experiment. To demonstrate that these approaches would be functional on SNP arrays and determine confidence intervals, we analyzed hybridizations of natural accessions to the Arabidopsis ATSNPTILE array and simulated BSA or XAM given a variety of gene models, populations, and bulk selection parameters. Our results show a striking degree of correlation between the genotyping output of both methods, which suggests that the benefit of SFP genotyping in context of BSA can be had with the cheaper, more efficient SNP arrays. As a final proof of concept, we hybridized the DNA from bulks of an F2 mapping population of a Sulfur and Selenium ionomics mutant to both the Arabidopsis ATTILE1R and ATSNPTILE arrays, which produced almost identical results. We have produced R scripts that prompt the user for the required parameters and perform the BSA analysis using the ATSNPTILE1 array and have provided them as supplemental data files.

  17. Bipolar electrical coil based on YBCO bulks: initial tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Suárez, P.; Ceballos, J. M.; Pérez, B.; Werfel, F.; Floegel-Delor, U.

    2008-02-01

    In the field of the application of HTS in electrical motors, most prototypes are made using superconducting coils based on tape and located in the position where copper coils work in a similar conventional motor. Other prototypes use superconducting bulks (usually disk-shaped) in those positions where normal magnets should work in similar conventional motors. But it is very unusual to find designs using electrical coils based on bulks. This is a challenge whose main problem is the difficulty in machining the superconductor bulks to get the proper shape because of the impossibility of bending the material to wind coils. The design of a bipolar single-turn coil made from a superconducting YBCO disk was proposed by the group of Electrical Application of Superconductors, at the University of Extremadura, several years ago to be an element for the design of a modular two-phase inductor for an air core axial-flux motor. The shape of each coil looks like an 'S'. When a current flows through the circuit, two opposite magnetic fields appear in the upper and lower halves of the piece. Until now, attempts to get a good superconducting circuit by cutting a YBCO disk into the required shape have failed because of cracks appearing in the crystal during the process. Last year, our group at the University of Extremadura began to work with ATZ GmbH who have improved the machining process and made the coils. In this paper we present the coil and the first tests carried out.

  18. Standard practice for bulk sampling of liquid uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers methods for withdrawing representative samples of liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from bulk quantities of the material. Such samples are used for determining compliance with the applicable commercial specification, for example Specification C787 and Specification C996. 1.2 It is assumed that the bulk liquid UF6 being sampled comprises a single quality and quantity of material. This practice does not address any special additional arrangements that might be required for taking proportional or composite samples, or when the sampled bulk material is being added to UF6 residues already in a container (“heels recycle”). 1.3 The number of samples to be taken, their nominal sample weight, and their disposition shall be agreed upon between the parties. 1.4 The scope of this practice does not include provisions for preventing criticality incidents. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of th...

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Copper-Nickel Bulk Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaoqiang; TANG Yongjian; WANG Lan; AN Xuguang; YI Zao; SUN Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Copper-nickel nanoparticle was directly prepared by flow-levitation method (FL) and sintered by vacuum sintering of powder (VSP) method. Several characterizations, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to investigate the prepared nanostructures. The results of the study show that FL method could prepare high purity Cu-Ni nanocrystals of uniform spheres with size distribution between 20 and 90 nm. After sintering the bulk nanocrystalline copper-nickel has obvious thermal stability and the surface Webster hardness increases with the rising sintering temperature. At the temperature of 900℃, the specimen shows higher surface Webster hardness, which is about two times of traditional materials. When the sintering temperature arrives at 1 000℃the relative density of bulk nanocrystals can reach 97.86 percent. In this paper, the variation tendency of porosity, phase and particles size of bulk along with the changing of sintering temperature have been studied.

  20. Crystallization of Mg-based bulk metallic glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gang; M. FERRY

    2006-01-01

    Mg-based bulk metallic glass fabricated by conventional copper mould method was aged at different temperatures. X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), atomic force microscopy(AFM) and focused ion beam(FIB) miller were employed to examine specimens obtained under different conditions. The crystallization of Mg-based bulk metallic glass depends upon both the aging temperature and the aging time. As temperature increases or the holding time increases, the microstructure of the aged specimen varies from glassy one to crystalline one plus glassy phase and then to absolutely multiphase crystalline one. From the FIB images, it is clear that Mg-based bulk metallic glass could not only crystallize completely but also display dendrite-like growth style. From the AFM images, there are not only significant variations of microstructures but also surface morphology of specimens obtained under different conditions. It is proposed that the surface morphology varies as the treating temperature increases. The Vickers hardness of different specimens increases as the fraction of crystalline phase (s) increases.