WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulk d15n values

  1. d15N dynamics of ammonium and particulate nitrogen during the growth season of a eutrophic estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brabandere, Loreto; Brion, N.; Elskens, M.;

    2007-01-01

    rather constant during winter (average = +11.4 pro mille) but increased significantly with the spring and summer bloom, reaching values as high as +70 pro mille. This enrichment of the ammonium pool in 15N coincided with significant ammonium depletion during summer period, suggesting a close causal...... relationship. Based on a semiclosed system approach we deduced an apparent fractionation factor associated with NH4+ utilization (i.e. combining effects of uptake and nitrification) of 18.4 pro mille (SE = 2.0 pro mille), which is similar to values reported in literature. Observed variations of ammonium d15N...

  2. Vacuum Expectation Value Profiles of the Bulk Scalar Field in the Generalized Randall-Sundrum Model

    CERN Document Server

    Tofighi, A; Farokhtabar, A

    2015-01-01

    In the generalized Randall-Sundrum warped brane-world model the cosmological constant induced on the visible brane can be positive or negative. In this paper we investigate profiles of vacuum expectation value of the bulk scalar field under general Dirichlet andNeumann boundary conditions in the generalized warped brane-worldmodel.We showthat the VEVprofiles generally depend on the value of the brane cosmological constant. We find that the VEV profiles of the bulk scalar field for a visible brane with negative cosmological constant and positive tension are quite distinct fromthose of Randall-Sundrum model. In addition we show that the VEV profiles for a visible brane with large positive cosmological constant are also different from those of the Randall- Sundrum model.We also verify that Goldberger andWise mechanism can work under nonzero Dirichlet boundary conditions in the generalized Randall-Sundrum model.

  3. Efficient Execution Methods of Pivoting for Bulk Extraction of Entity-Attribute-Value-Modeled Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Frey, Lewis J

    2016-03-01

    Entity-attribute-value (EAV) tables are widely used to store data in electronic medical records and clinical study data management systems. Before they can be used by various analytical (e.g., data mining and machine learning) programs, EAV-modeled data usually must be transformed into conventional relational table format through pivot operations. This time-consuming and resource-intensive process is often performed repeatedly on a regular basis, e.g., to provide a daily refresh of the content in a clinical data warehouse. Thus, it would be beneficial to make pivot operations as efficient as possible. In this paper, we present three techniques for improving the efficiency of pivot operations: 1) filtering out EAV tuples related to unneeded clinical parameters early on; 2) supporting pivoting across multiple EAV tables; and 3) conducting multi-query optimization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques through implementation. We show that our optimized execution method of pivoting using these techniques significantly outperforms the current basic execution method of pivoting. Our techniques can be used to build a data extraction tool to simplify the specification of and improve the efficiency of extracting data from the EAV tables in electronic medical records and clinical study data management systems. PMID:25608318

  4. Correlation between precipitation and geographical location of the δ2H values of the fatty acids in milk and bulk milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham, E.; Baisden, W. T.; Keller, E. D.; Hayman, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Frew, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) have become a tool for food traceability and authentication of agricultural products. The principle is that the isotopic composition of the produce is influenced by environmental and biological factors and hence exhibits a spatial differentiation of δ2H. This study investigates the variation in δ2H values of New Zealand milk, both in the bulk powder and individual fatty acids extracted from milk samples from dairy factories across New Zealand. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for relationships between δ2H of bulk milk powder, milk fatty acid and geographical location. Milk powder samples from different regions of New Zealand were found to exhibit patterns in isotopic composition similar to the corresponding regional precipitation associated with their origin. A model of δ2H in precipitation was developed based on measurements between 2007 and 2010 at 51 stations across New Zealand (Frew and Van Hale, 2011). The model uses multiple linear regressions to predict daily δ2H from 2 geographic and 5 rain-weighted climate variables from the 5 × 5 km New Zealand Virtual Climate Station Network (VCSN). To approximate collection radius for a drying facility the modelled values were aggregated within a 50 km radius of each dairy factory and compared to observed δ2H values of precipitation and bulk milk powder. Daily δ2H predictions for the period from August to December for the area surrounding the sample collection sites were highly correlated with the δ2H values of bulk milk powder. Therefore the δ2H value of milk fatty acids demonstrates promise as a tool for determining the provenance of milk powders and products where milk powder is an ingredient. Separation of milk powder origin to geographic sub-regions within New Zealand was achieved. Hydrogen isotope measurements could be used to complement traditional tracking systems in verifying point of origin.

  5. Resolving the bulk δ 15N values of ancient human and animal bone collagen via compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of constituent amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styring, Amy K.; Sealy, Judith C.; Evershed, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotope analysis is a fundamental tool in assessing dietary preferences and trophic positions within contemporary and ancient ecosystems. In order to assess more fully the dietary contributions to human tissue isotope values, a greater understanding of the complex biochemical and physiological factors which underpin bulk collagen δ 15N values is necessary. Determinations of δ 15N values of the individual amino acids which constitute bone collagen are necessary to unravel these relationships, since different amino acids display different δ 15N values according to their biosynthetic origins. A range of collagen isolates from archaeological faunal and human bone ( n = 12 and 11, respectively), representing a spectrum of terrestrial and marine protein origins and diets, were selected from coastal and near-coastal sites at the south-western tip of Africa. The collagens were hydrolysed and δ 15N values of their constituent amino acids determined as N-acetylmethyl esters (NACME) via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The analytical approach employed accounts for 56% of bone collagen nitrogen. Reconstruction of bulk bone collagen δ 15N values reveals a 2‰ offset from bulk collagen δ 15N values which is attributable to the δ 15N value of the amino acids which cannot currently be determined by GC-C-IRMS, notably arginine which comprises 53% of the nitrogen unaccounted for (23% of the total nitrogen). The δ 15N values of individual amino acids provide insights into both the contributions of various amino acids to the bulk δ 15N value of collagen and the factors influencing trophic position and the nitrogen source at the base of the food web. The similarity in the δ 15N values of alanine, glutamate, proline and hydroxyproline reflects the common origin of their amino groups from glutamate. The depletion in the δ 15N value of threonine with increasing trophic level indicates a fundamental difference between

  6. Reservoir age variations and stable isotope values of bulk sediment in a core from the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Olsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Peter;

    radiocarbon dating of shells and on stable isotope measurements of bulk sediment from 7400 to 1300 cal BP. Reservoir ages in coastal waters and estuaries can differ considerably from the global model ocean. The seas around Denmark have a reservoir age of c. 400 years, while a hardwater effect of a few...... thousand years is possible for freshwater with a high content of dissolved carbonate. On the other hand, freshwater without a significant content of 14C-dead carbon does not have a reservoir age. In coastal waters, the different water sources mix and produce highly variable reservoir ages. Due to Holocene...... relative sea level fluctuations, caused by the interplay of eustatic sea level changes and isostasy, the Limfjord had varying connections to the sea. As the relative proportion of marine and fresh water varied with time, the reservoir age for the Limfjord is also expected to vary. Radiocarbon datings of...

  7. Correlation of bulk sedimentary and compound-specific δ13C values indicates minimal pre-aging of n-alkanes in a small tropical watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Chad S.; Horn, Sally P.; Taylor, Zachary P.; Kerr, Matthew T.

    2016-08-01

    Inherent to sedimentary compound-specific isotopic proxies of paleoecological and paleoclimate change is the assumption that biomarkers are coeval with the surrounding sedimentary matrix. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of lake and nearshore marine sediments have indicated a potential offset between the ages of terrestrial biomarkers and their surrounding sediments that could confound efforts to establish strong chronological control for compound-specific isotopic data. We conducted high-resolution compound-specific δ13C analyses of n-alkanes (δ13Calkane) in a well-studied sediment core from Laguna Castilla, Dominican Republic, and compared the results to bulk sedimentary δ13C (δ13Cbulk), fossil pollen, and sediment geochemistry to assess potential 'pre-aging' of alkanes in the terrestrial environment prior to deposition. We found significant positive correlations between δ13Cbulk values and δ13Calkane values, indicating little or no temporal lag in the response of δ13Calkane values to vegetation change and thus little or no offset in the age of terrestrially-derived compounds and the organic fraction of the sedimentary matrix. While this study highlights the need for further research into the variables affecting age offsets between proxy data, we propose the comparison of δ13Cbulk and δ13Calkane values as a method to assess potential age offsets between compound-specific and other proxy datasets, particularly in small watersheds with sediment records containing a high proportion of allochthonous organic matter. This method is more available to researchers than obtaining numerous compound-specific radiocarbon analyses, which are costly and not a routine service offered by radiocarbon facilities.

  8. Bulk undercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  9. Gamma probe dry bulk densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma density probe is a useful instrument for measuring water content in small volumes of soil. Essentially, the gamma probe measures the density of the soil and water between a source and a detector. To transpose the gamma densities into water content, the dry bulk density of the soil is needed. A nondestructive method for estimating dry bulk densities for use with the gamma probe is proposed. The procedure is based on the assumption that water content values in a field dry condition were more stable than the dry bulk density values and could be transferred from one point to another. The procedure was successfully used on three areas in Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho. (U.S.)

  10. 基于极值理论的干散货运输市场运费风险测度%Measuring the freight risk in dry bulk market based on extreme value theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文明; 杨忠直

    2012-01-01

    基于极值理论(EVT)中的超阈值(POT)方法,利用广义帕累托分布(GPD)拟合干散货运费市场收益率损失的尾部情况,并利用在险价值(VaR)和条件在险价值(CVaR)来度量干散货运费风险.实证研究发现,基于EVT的VaR和CVaR能够更贴切地反映干散货运输市场的运费风险水平,且在不同显著性水平下,CVaR的有效性优于VaR.%This paper makes use of a generalized Pareto distribution(GPD)based on peaks over threshold(POT) model of extreme value theory(EVT)to fit the tail of loss rates in the dry bulk freight market.Also we use VaR and CVaR to measure the level of risk from freight rates.Empirical results show that VaR and CVaR based on EVT are more effective to reflect the freight risks.Meanwhile we find that CVaR is better than VaR at different levels of significance.

  11. An intrinsic mobility ceiling of Si bulk

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Castello, Nuria; Prades, Joan Daniel; Cirera, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We compute by Density Functional Theory-Non Equilibrium Green Functions Formalism (DFT-NEGFF) the conductance of bulk Si along different crystallographic directions. We find a ceiling value for the intrinsic mobility of bulk silicon of $8.4\\cdot10^6 cm^2/V\\cdot s$. We suggest that this result is related to the lowest effective mass of the $$ direction.

  12. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  13. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  14. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: David.Jou@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-04

    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.

  15. Utility of δ13C and C/N values of bulk sedimentary organic matter in the reconstruction of former sea levels and paleoenvironment, Luquillo Critical Zone, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. S.; Vane, C.; Horton, B. P.; Scatena, F. N.

    2012-12-01

    Reliable, quantitative proxies of former sea-level and paleoenvironmental change are critical in integrating geologic and historical records into predictive models in order to better understand the response of coastal systems to marine inundation. The defining characteristic of a sea-level proxy (or sea-level indicator) is that is must possess a systematic and quantifiable relationship to elevation with respect to the tidal frame. Microfossils (e.g. foraminifera, diatoms) are used to reconstruct Holocene sea level because of their potential for providing high-resolution archives; however, these biological proxies are somewhat limited due to spatial restrictions and poor preservation in the sedimentary record of temperate and more notably tropical environments. In this study, we aim to overcome the confines of existent indicators by adapting the use of stable carbon isotopes and carbon to nitrogen ratios of bulk sedimentary organic material to a tropical coastal setting. We sampled dominant vegetation and surface sediment along 8 transects taken through tidal flat, low mangrove, high mangrove, and freshwater zones from 4 sites located in Puerto Rico. We find unique ranges in δ13C and C/N corresponding to these environmental zones that exhibit a relationship to elevation within the tidal frame. Additionally, a 2.5 m core obtained from one of the sites demonstrates changes in δ13C and C/N representative of a shift in depositional environment from marine to terrestrial conditions that is in agreement with the change in lithology from grey organic-rich mud to brown mangrove peat and the foraminiferal assemblages observed down core. We also provide an assessment of post-depositional change in δ13C and C/N due to subaerial root penetration and microbial degradation from field experiments and find that these processes are related to water table depth. We compare our findings to studies employing this reconstruction technique in temperate settings, where salt marsh

  16. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

  17. Iron - based bulk amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a structure characterization, thermal and soft magnetic properties analysis of Fe-based bulk amorphous materials in as-cast state and after crystallization process. In addition, the paper gives some brief review about achieving, formation and structure of bulk metallic glasses as a special group of amorphous materials.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glass in form of ribbons and rods. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. The thermal properties of the glassy samples were measured using differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The magnetic properties contained initial and maximum magnetic permeability, coercive force and magnetic after-effects measurements were determined by the Maxwell-Wien bridge and VSM methods.Findings: The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the studied as-cast bulk metallic glasses in form of ribbons and rods were amorphous. Two stage crystallization process was observed for studied bulk amorphous alloy. The differences of crystallization temperature between ribbons and rods with chosen thickness are probably caused by different amorphous structures as a result of the different cooling rates in casting process. The SEM images showed that studied fractures could be classified as mixed fractures with indicated two zones contained “river” and “smooth” areas. The changing of chosen soft magnetic properties (μr, Bs, Hc obtained for samples with different thickness is a result of the non-homogenous amorphous structure of tested metallic glasses. The annealing process in temperature range from 373 to 773 K causes structural relaxation of tested amorphous materials, which leads to changes in their physical properties. The qualitative

  18. Faecal bulking efficacy of Australasian breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, John A

    2002-01-01

    Faecal bulk may play an important role in preventing a range of disorders of the large bowel, but as yet there is little information available on the relative faecal bulking capacities of various foods. Breakfast cereals are often promoted as a good source of potential bulk for 'inner health' because they provide dietary fibre, but their relative abilities to provide faecal bulk per se have not been described. The faecal bulking efficacy of 28 representative Australasian breakfast cereals was therefore measured. A rat model developed for the purpose, and shown to give similar responses as humans to cereal fibres, was used to measure faecal bulking efficacy as increases in fully hydrated faecal weight/100 g diet, based on precise measurements of food intake, faecal dry matter output and faecal water-holding capacity (g water held without stress/g faecal dry matter). Compared to a baseline diet containing 50% sucrose, increments in hydrated faecal weight due to 50% breakfast cereal ranged from slightly negative (Cornflakes, -2 g/100 g diet) to about 80 g/100 g diet (San Bran). Most breakfast cereals increased hydrated faecal weight by between 10 and 20 g/100 g diet from a baseline of 21 +/- 1.5 g/100 g diet, but four products containing high levels of wheat bran had an exceptionally large impact on hydrated faecal weight (increment > 20 g/100 g diet), and the changes resulted more from relative changes in dry matter output than in faecal water retention/gram. However, as faecal water retention was about 2.5 g water/g faecal dry matter on average, increases in dry matter represented large increases in faecal water load. Faecal bulking indices (FBI) for most of the breakfast cereals were less than 20 (wheat bran = 100). The content of wheat bran equivalents for faecal bulk (WBE(fb)) in the breakfast cereals was calculated from FBI. Most breakfast cereals contributed, per serve, less than 10% of a theoretical daily reference value for faecal bulk (DRV(fb) = 63 WBE

  19. Wormholes in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Mubasher

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the accretion of phantom energy with non-zero bulk viscosity onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. We have found that if the bulk viscosity is large then the mass of wormhole increases rapidly as compared to small or zero bulk viscosity.

  20. Extracting the bulk viscosity of the quark–gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the implications of a nonzero bulk viscosity coefficient on the azimuthal momentum anisotropy of ultracentral relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. We find that, with IP-Glasma initial conditions, a finite bulk viscosity coefficient leads to a better description of the flow harmonics in ultracentral collisions. We then extract optimal values of bulk and shear viscosity coefficients that provide the best agreement with flow harmonic coefficients data in this centrality class

  1. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  2. Explosive bulk charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  3. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  4. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  5. Inflation from bulk viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    We explore the perfect fluid description of the inflationary universe. In particular, we investigate a fluid model with the bulk-viscosity term. We find that the three observables of inflationary cosmology: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be consistent with the recent Planck results. We also reconstruct the explicit equation of state (EoS) of the viscous fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations compatible with the Planck analysis. In the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations can satisfy the constraints obtained from the Planck satellite. The running of the spectral index can explain the Planck data. In addition, it is demonstrated that in the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the graceful exit from inflation can be realized. Furthermore, we show that the singular inflation can occur in the viscous fluid ...

  6. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and...... three low-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low...

  7. Effective Pure States for Bulk Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Emanuel; Chuang, Isaac; Laflamme, Raymond

    1997-01-01

    In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Cory et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computa...

  8. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PLUSH YARNS BULKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINEREANU Adam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  9. Realistic anomaly mediation with bulk gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple general framework for realistic models of supersymmetry breaking driven by anomaly mediation. We consider a 5-dimensional 'brane universe' where the visible and hidden sectors are localized on different branes, and the standard model gauge bosons propagate in the bulk. In this framework there can be charged scalar messengers that have contact interactions with the hidden sector, either localized in the hidden sector or in the bulk. These scalars obtain soft masses that feed into visible sector scalar masses at two loop order via bulk gauge interactions. This contribution is automatically flavor-blind, and can be naturally positive. If the messengers are in the bulk this contribution is automatically the same order of magnitude as the anomaly mediated contribution, independent of the brane spacing. If the messengers are localized to a brane the two effects are of the same order for relatively small brane spacings. The gaugino masses and A terms are determined completely by anomaly mediation. In order for anomaly mediation to dominate over radion mediation the radion must be is stabilized in a manner that preserves supersymmetry, with supergravity effects included. We show that this occurs in simple models. We also show that the mu problem can be solved by the vacuum expectation value of a singlet in this framework. (author)

  10. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What is the...... value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections of...... morals and morality.2 The main question is then, what the use of `value' as the key-term in moral discourses means to morality as such. Accepting ethics as a part of morality - since one cannot be moral without sometimes reflecting on the validity of the morality employed andexperienced - I have...

  11. Adding value(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Most economic inquires revolve around agents making decisions. Getting the ‘best value’, it is assumed, drives such decisions: gaining most while risking least. This assumption has been debunked by showing that people does not always choose neither maximum benefit nor less risk (Kahneman & Tversky......, 1992). In response, behavioral economics (Camerer, 1999) has shown that agents have values other than optimization underpinning their decisions. Therefore, concerns arose regarding which values are guiding the agent but not about how such values became relevant for the agent. In this presentation, I...... will explore the consequences of shifting to the latter perspective, i.e. looking for the generative framework of values. Here I argue that economic behavior should also be seen as a sense-making process, guided by values that are chosen/rejected along with fellow human beings, in specific socio...

  12. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe

    2016-06-01

    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  13. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger Gare - Algiers (Algeria)

    2009-02-15

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Advances in bulk port development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soros, P. (Soros Associates Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The article features several recently developed bulk ports which illustrate aspects of new technology or concepts in maritime transport. Low handling capacity bulk terminals at Ponta da Madeira, Brazil and Kooragang Island, Australia and the low-cost bulk port at Port of Corpus Christi, Texas are described. Operations at the ports of Pecket and Tocopilla in Chile, which had special technical problems, are mentioned. Coal terminals at Port Kembla, Australia and St. Johns River in Florid Jacksonville, Florida are featured as examples of terminals which had to be designed to meet high environmental standards. 13 refs., 2 figs., 14 photos.

  16. Bulk Nuclear Properties from Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Danielewicz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Extraction of bulk nuclear properties by comparing reaction observables to results from semiclassical transport-model simulations is discussed. Specific properties include the nuclear viscosity, incompressibility and constraints on the nuclear pressure at supranormal densities.

  17. Bulk charges in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen William

    1998-01-01

    Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge preserving between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singlely charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped a...

  18. Viscous hydrodynamics with bulk viscosity -- uncertainties from relaxation time and initial conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Huichao

    2009-01-01

    Bulk viscosity suppresses elliptic flow v_2, as does shear viscosity. It can thus not be neglected when extracting the shear viscosity from elliptic flow data. We here explore uncertainties in the bulk viscous contribution to viscous v_2 suppression that arise from presently uncontrolled uncertainties in the initial value of the bulk viscous pressure and its microscopic relaxation time.

  19. DEVIATIONS OF STRUCTURE BETWEEN BULK AND FIBER GLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Stockhorst, H.; Brückner, R.

    1982-01-01

    Fibers from a silicate and a metaphosphate glass, produced by the nozzle drawing process are investigated with respect to their structural properties compared with bulk glass. The drawing parameters - nozzle temperature, mass flow and drawing speed - are varied in a wide range. The following properties are investigated : fiber density, thermal expansion-contraction-behaviour and optical birefringence. All these properties show characteristic deviations from the bulk glass values depending str...

  20. The temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus at 1 bar pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, J.; Laugier, A

    2006-01-01

    It is well established that the product of the volume coefficient of thermal expansion and the bulk modulus is nearly constant at temperatures higher than the Debye temperature. Using this approximation allows predicting the values of the bulk modulus. The derived analytical solution for the temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus has been applied to ten substances. The good correlations to the experiments indicate that the expression may be useful for substances for which bulk ...

  1. Superconducting State Parameters of Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya M. Vora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Well recognized empty core (EMC pseudopotential of Ashcroft is used to investigate the superconducting state parameters viz; electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature TC, isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength NOV of some (Ni33Zr671 – xVx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 bulk amorphous alloys. We have incorporated five different types of local field correction functions, proposed by Hartree (H, Taylor (T, Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU, Farid et al. (F and Sarkar et al. (S to show the effect of exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. Very strong influence of the various exchange and correlation functions is concluded from the present study. The TC obtained from Sarkar et al. (S local field correction function are found an excellent agreement with available theoretical data. Quadratic TC equation has been proposed, which provide successfully the TC values of bulk amorphous alloys under consideration. Also, the present results are found in qualitative agreement with other such earlier reported data, which confirms the superconducting phase in the s bulk amorphous alloys.

  2. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  3. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wiranata, A.; M. Prakash

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature ari...

  4. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Wiranata, A

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature arise from particles which are neither extremely nonrelativistic nor extremely relativistic. Numerical results for a model binary mixture are reported.

  5. Bulk charges in eleven dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.; Taylor-Robinson, M. M.

    1998-07-01

    Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge. Solutions involving anomaly terms preserve between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries but Chern-Simons fluxes generally break all of the remaining supersymmetry. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singly charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped around a space with non-zero first Pontryagin class picks up an electric charge proportional to the Pontryagin number.

  6. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Waga, I

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  7. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  8. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  9. Contact characteristics for YBCO bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Tomokazu; Sawa, Koichiro; Tomita, Masaru; Murakami, Masato

    2003-10-01

    We have studied the contact characteristics of two resin-impregnated YBCO (a composite of YBa 2Cu 3O y and Y 2BaCuO 5) bulk superconductors in mechanical contact. A switching phenomenon could be observed at a threshold current or a transfer current value in the V- I curves of the YBCO contact. The transfer current exceeded the previous value of 13.5 A at 77 K in the contact when the sample surfaces were carefully polished. The present results suggest that a pair of YBCO blocks might be applicable to the mechanical persistent current switch for superconducting magnetic energy storage and other superconducting systems run in a persistent current mode.

  10. Assessment of bioburden encapsulated in bulk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Newlin, Laura; Chung, Shirley Y.; Ellyin, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) imposes bioburden limitations on all spacecraft destined for solar system bodies that might harbor evidence of extant or extinct life. The subset of microorganisms trapped within solid materials during manufacture and assembly is referred to as encapsulated bioburden. In the absence of spacecraft-specific data, NASA relies on specification values to estimate total spacecraft encapsulated bioburden, typically 30 endospores/cm3 or 300 viable cells/cm3 in non-electronic materials. Specification values for endospores have been established conservatively, and represent no less than an order of magnitude greater abundance than that derived from empirical assessments of actual spacecraft materials. The goal of this study was to generate data germane to determining whether revised bulk encapsulated material values (lower than those estimated by historical specifications) tailored specifically to the materials designated in modern-day spacecraft design could be used, on a case-by-case basis, to comply with planetary protection requirements. Organic materials having distinctly different chemical properties and configurations were selected. This required more than one experimental and analytical approach. Filtration was employed for liquid electrolytes, lubricants were suspended in an aqueous solution and solids (wire and epoxy sealant) were cryogenically milled. The final data characteristic for all bioburden estimates was microbial colony formation in rich agar growth medium. To assess survival potential, three non-spore-forming bacterial cell lines were systematically encapsulated in an epoxy matrix, liberated via cryogenic grinding, and cultured. Results suggest that bulk solid materials harbor significantly fewer encapsulated microorganisms than are estimated by specification values. Lithium-ion battery electrolyte reagents housed fewer than 1 CFU/cm3. Results also demonstrated that non-spore-forming microorganisms

  11. Polymerisationseigenschaften von Bulk-Fill Kompositen

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund und Ziele: Untersuchung der Polymerisationseigenschaften von Bulk-Fill Kompositen bzgl. Konversionsrate (degree of conversion = DC), Vickers-Härte (HV), Polymerisationsschrumpfungsstress (PSS) und Polymerisationsvolumenschrumpfung (PVS) im Vergleich zu konventionellen Kompositen. Material und Methode: Untersucht wurden die Bulk-Fill Komposite Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable (FBF, 3M ESPE, Seefeld), Surefil Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR, Dentsply, Konstanz), Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill...

  12. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  13. Effective pure states for bulk quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) [Science 275, 350 (1997)] and Cory et al. (spatial averaging) [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 1634 (1997)] for the case of quantum computation with nuclear magnetic resonance. We give a different technique called temporal averaging. This method is based on classical randomization, requires no ancilla quantum bits, and can be implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance without using gradient fields. We introduce several temporal averaging algorithms suitable for both high-temperature and low-temperature bulk quantum computing and analyze the signal-to-noise behavior of each. Most of these algorithms require only a constant multiple of the number of experiments needed by the other methods for creating effective pure states. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  14. Ideal bulk pressure of active Brownian particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Thomas; Jack, Robert L.

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which active matter might be described by effective equilibrium concepts like temperature and pressure is currently being discussed intensely. Here, we study the simplest model, an ideal gas of noninteracting active Brownian particles. While the mechanical pressure exerted onto confining walls has been linked to correlations between particles' positions and their orientations, we show that these correlations are entirely controlled by boundary effects. We also consider a definition of local pressure, which describes interparticle forces in terms of momentum exchange between different regions of the system. We present three pieces of analytical evidence which indicate that such a local pressure exists, and we show that its bulk value differs from the mechanical pressure exerted on the walls of the system. We attribute this difference to the fact that the local pressure in the bulk does not depend on boundary effects, contrary to the mechanical pressure. We carefully examine these boundary effects using a channel geometry, and we show a virial formula for the pressure correctly predicts the mechanical pressure even in finite channels. However, this result no longer holds in more complex geometries, as exemplified for a channel that includes circular obstacles.

  15. Ferroelectric properties of bulk and thin films of PMNT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite phase development study for bulk and thin films of PMNT 68/32 composition was carried out. B-site Columbite precursor technique was used for bulk system preparation whereas, sol-gel technique was used for thin film deposition on ITO coated glass substrates. Approximately 100% and 95% perovskite phase with grains of micron and sub-micron sizes were observed in bulk and thin films, respectively. Curie transition temperature, T c, for bulk and thin films were ∼150 deg. C and 190 deg. C, respectively. Polarization vs. electric field, P-E, hysteresis loops of PMNT 68/32 bulk and thin films showed remnant polarization, P r, ∼21.67 μC/cm2 and 1.1 μC/cm2 and coercive fields, E c, ∼3.9 and 7.7 kV/cm, respectively. Strain vs. electric field, S-E, behavior of PMNT 68/32 bulk ceramic showed piezoelectric nature of the material with a high value of maximum strain ∼1% at 19 kV/cm

  16. Universe Models with Negative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, Iver

    2013-01-01

    The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics,...

  17. Bulk metallic glass tube casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Tubular specimens of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 cast in custom arc-melting furnace. → Tilt casting supplemented by suction casting. → Bulk metallic glass formed only with optimized processing parameters. → Fully amorphous tubes with 1.8 mm wall thickness and 25 mm diameter. - Abstract: Tubular bulk metallic glass specimens were produced, using a custom-built combined arc-melting tilt-casting furnace. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 tubes with outer diameter of 25 mm and 0.8-3 mm wall thicknesses were cast, with both tilt and suction casting to ensure mold filling. Tilt casting was found to fill one side of the tube mold first, with the rest of the tube circumference filled subsequently by suction casting. Optimized casting parameters were required to fully fill the mold and ensure glass formation. Too small melt mass and too low arc power filled the mold only partially. However, too large melt mass and higher arc power which lead to the best mold filling also lead to partial crystallization. Variations in processing parameters were explored, until a glassy ring with 1.8 mm thickness was produced. Different sections of the as-cast ring were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and instrumented indentation to ensure amorphous microstructure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to compare the surface qualities of the first- and last-filled sections. These measurements confirmed the glassy structure of the cast ring, and that, the tilt cast tube section consistently showed better surface quality than the suction cast section. Optimized casting parameters are required to fully realize the potential of directly manufacturing complex shapes out of high-purity bulk metallic glasses by tilt casting.

  18. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  19. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    OpenAIRE

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-01-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  20. Bulk dynamics for interfacial growth models

    OpenAIRE

    López, Cristóbal; Santos, Fernando; Garrido, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    We study the influence of the bulk dynamics of a growing cluster of particles on the properties of its interface. First, we define a general bulk growth model by means of a continuum Master equation for the evolution of the bulk density field. This general model just considers an arbitrary addition of particles (though it can be easily generalized to consider subtraction) with no other physical restriction. The corresponding Langevin equation for this bulk density field is derived where the i...

  1. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  2. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  3. Fluctuations in horizon-fluid lead to negative bulk viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Swastik; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2016-03-01

    Einstein equations projected on to a black-hole horizon give rise to Navier-Stokes equations. Horizon-fluids typically possess unusual features like negative bulk viscosity, and it is not clear whether a statistical-mechanical description exists for such fluids. In this work, we provide an explicit derivation of the Bulk viscosity of the horizon-fluid based on the theory of fluctuations à la Kubo. The main advantage of our approach is that our analysis remains for the most part independent of the details of the underlying microscopic theory and hence the conclusions reached here are model independent. We show that the coefficient of bulk viscosity for the horizon-fluid matches exactly with the value found from the equations of motion for the horizon-fluid.

  4. Fluctuations in horizon-fluid lead to negative bulk viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Swastik

    2015-01-01

    Einstein equations projected on to a black hole horizon gives rise to Navier-Stokes equations. Horizon-fluids typically possess unusual features like negative bulk viscosity and it is not clear whether a statistical mechanical description exists for such fluids. In this work, we provide an explicit derivation of the Bulk viscosity of the horizon-fluid based on the theory of fluctuations a la Kubo. The main advantage of our approach is that our analysis remains for the most part independent of the details of the underlying microscopic theory and hence the conclusions reached here are model independent. We show that the coefficient of bulk viscosity for the horizon-fluid matches exactly with the value found from the equations of motion for the horizon-fluid.

  5. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...... are fictional, value-driven concepts developed to promote dialogue with users about their values and how they may materialize with respect to interaction design in their everyday lives....

  6. Fabrication of bulk metallic glasses by centrifugal casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present work is characterization of the centrifugal casting method, apparatus andproduced amorphous materials, which are also known as bulk metallic glassesDesign/methodology/approach: The studied centrifugal casting system consists of two main parts: castingapparatus and injection system of molten alloy. The described centrifugal casting method was presented bypreparing a casting apparatus “CentriCast – 5”. The apparatus includes a cylindrical copper mold, which isrotated by a motor. The transmission allows to changing the speed of rotating mold.Findings: Bulk metallic glasses are a novel class of engineering materials, which exhibit excelent mechanical,thermal, magnetic and corrosion properties. Centrifugal casting is a useful method to produce bulk amorphousmaterials in form of rings, tubes or cylindrical parts. Presented centrifugal casting method and casting apparatushas been prepared to fabricate the samples of bulk metallic glass in form of rings with an outer diameter of 25mm and controlled thicknesses by changing the weight of the molten alloy.Research limitations/implications: Studied centrifugal casting method and casting apparatus has beenprepared to fabricate the samples of bulk metallic glass. For future research a characterization of microstructureand properties of prepared material will be performed.Practical implications: The centrifugal casting is a useful process to produce bulk amorphous materials in formof rings, tubes or graded amorphous matrix composites. It seems to be a very simple method, which allows toobtain BMG materials.Originality/value: The centrifugal casting method allows to produce bulk amorphous rings with thicknessabove 1-mm.

  7. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-08-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644K, a glass transition temperature of 401K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ˜350Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry.

  8. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ∼350 Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry

  9. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  10. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally

  11. Guidelines for Measuring Bulk Density of Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk density is defined as the dry weight of soil per unit volume of undisturbed soil. • Bulk density can be used to give an indication of the porosity and structure of the soil influencing O2 and H2O movement in the soil. • Soils with a bulk density higher than 1.6 g/cm3 may restrict root development. • Bulk density is also a measurement of the degree of compaction of the soil. • Bulk density increases with compaction and tends to increase with soil depth. • Sandy soils tend to have higher bulk density (1.4-1.5 g/cm3) than clay soils (1.2-1/3g/cm3). The measurement of soil bulk density is carried out by collecting undisturbed soil samples through inserting metal rings (with a known volume) into the soil, and determining the weight of the collected soil after drying

  12. Bulk viscosity coefficients due to phonons in superfluid neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, Cristina; Tolos, Laura [Institut de Ciències del Espai (IEEC/CSIC), Facultat de Ciències, Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Tarrús, Jaume, E-mail: cmanuel@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: tarrus@ecm.ub.edu, E-mail: tolos@ice.csic.es [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    We calculate the three bulk viscosity coefficients as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. The solution of the dynamical evolution of the phonon number density allows us to calculate the bulk viscosity coefficients as function of the phonon collisional rate and the phonon dispersion law, which depends on the neutron pairing gap. Our method of computation is rather general, and could be used for different superfluid systems, provided they share the same underlying symmetries. We find that the behavior with temperature of the bulk viscosity coefficients is dominated by the contributions coming from the collinear regime of the 2↔3 phonon processes. For typical star radial pulsation frequencies of ω ∼ 10{sup 4}s{sup −1}, we obtain that the bulk viscosity coefficients at densities n∼>4n{sub 0} are within 10% from its static value for T∼<10{sup 9} K and for the case of strong neutron superfluidity in the core with a maximum value of the {sup 3}P{sub 2} gap above 1 MeV, while, otherwise, the static solution is not a valid approximation to the bulk viscosity coefficients. Compared to previous results from Urca and modified Urca reactions, we conclude that at T ∼ 10{sup 9}K phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars, except for n ∼ 2n{sub 0} when the opening of the Urca processes takes place.

  13. Dark goo: bulk viscosity as an alternative to dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple (microscopic) model in which bulk viscosity plays a role in explaining the present acceleration of the universe. The effect of bulk viscosity on the Friedmann equations is to turn the pressure into an 'effective' pressure containing the bulk viscosity. For a sufficiently large bulk viscosity, the effective pressure becomes negative and could mimic a dark energy equation of state. Our microscopic model includes self-interacting spin-zero particles (for which the bulk viscosity is known) that are added to the usual energy content of the universe. We study both background equations and linear perturbations in this model. We show that a dark energy behavior is obtained for reasonable values of the two parameters of the model (i.e. the mass and coupling of the spin-zero particles) and that linear perturbations are well-behaved. There is no apparent fine tuning involved. We also discuss the conditions under which hydrodynamics holds, in particular that the spin-zero particles must be in local equilibrium today for viscous effects to be important

  14. Critical soil bulk density for soybean growth in Oxisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisuke Sato, Michel; Veras de Lima, Herdjania; Oliveira, Pedro Daniel de; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the critical soil bulk density from the soil penetration resistance measurements for soybean root growth in Brazilian Amazon Oxisols. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using disturbed soil samples collected from the northwest of Para characterized by different texture. The treatments consisted of a range of soil bulk densities for each soil textural class. Three pots were used for soybean growth of and two for the soil penetration resistance curve. From the fitted model, the critical soil bulk density was determined considering the penetration resistance values of 2 and 3 MPa. After sixty days, plants were cut and root length, dry mass of root, and dry mass of shoots were determined. At higher bulk densities, the increase in soil water content decreased the penetration resistance, allowing unrestricted growth of soybean roots. Regardless of soil texture, the penetration resistance of 2 and 3 MPa had a slight effect on root growth in soil moisture at field capacity and a reduction of 50% in the soybean root growth was achieved at critical soil bulk density of 1.82, 1.75, 1.51, and 1.45 Mg m-3 for the sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clayey, and very clayey soil.

  15. Studies of bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Raquel; McIntyre, Max; Tzolov, Marian

    We are studying bulk heterojunction solar cells that were fabricated using a mixture of PCPDTBT and PCBM­C60. The impedance data of the cells in dark responded like a simple RC circuit. The value of the dielectric constant derived from these results is consistent with the values reported in the literature for these materials. We are showing that the parallel resistance in the equivalent circuit of linear lump elements can be interpreted using the DC current­voltage measurements. The impedance spectra under light illumination indicated the existence of additional polarization. This extra feature can be described by a model that includes a series RC circuit in parallel with the equivalent circuit for a device in dark. The physical interpretation of the additional polarization is based on photo­generated charges getting trapped in wells, which have a characteristic relaxation time corresponding to the observed break frequency in the impedance spectra. We have studied the influence of the anode and cathode interface on this phenomena, either by using different interface materials, or by depositing the metal electrode while the substate is heated.

  16. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S Josephine

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  17. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  18. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  19. Bulk scalar field in DGP braneworld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Rizwan ul Haq

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulk scalar field in the braneworld cosmological scenario. The Friedmann equations and acceleration condition in presence of the bulk scalar field for a zero tension brane and cosmological constant are studied. In DGP model the effective Einstein equation on the brane is obtained with bulk scalar field. The rescaled bulk scalar field on the brane in the DGP model behaves as an effective four dimensional field, thus standard type cosmology is recovered. In present study of the DGP model, the late-time accelerating phase of the universe can be explained .

  20. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity

  1. Value Investing

    OpenAIRE

    Kubínyi, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with value investing in the form defined by Benjamin Graham. In clarifying the theoretical aspects, particular attention is given to an intrinsic value of stocks and to its calculation methods. A way to overcome the deficiencies in the two most widely used models of calculation is introduced. It is value screening, which by defining of certain criteria makes an assumption of undervalued stocks. Then the investment approach of the most successful investor, Warren B...

  2. Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)

    2015-07-15

    We consider a cosmological model dominated by bulk viscous matter with a total bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the velocity and acceleration of the expansion of the universe in such a way that ζ = ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1}(a)/(a) + ζ{sub 2}(a)/(a). We show that there exist two limiting conditions in the bulk viscous coefficients (ζ{sub 0}, ζ{sub 1}, ζ{sub 2}) which correspond to a universe having a Big Bang at the origin, followed by an early decelerated epoch and then making a smooth transition into an accelerating epoch. We have constrained the model using the type Ia Supernovae data, evaluated the best estimated values of all the bulk viscous parameters and the Hubble parameter corresponding to the two limiting conditions. We found that even though the evolution of the cosmological parameters are in general different for the two limiting cases, they show identical behavior for the best estimated values of the parameters from both limiting conditions. A recent acceleration would occur if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} > 1 for the first limiting conditions and if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} < 1 for the second limiting conditions. The age of the universe predicted by this model is found to be less than that predicted from the oldest galactic globular clusters. The total bulk viscosity seems to be negative in the past and becomes positive when z ≤ 0.8. So the model violates the local second law of thermodynamics. However, the model satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon throughout the evolution of the universe. We also made a statefinder analysis of the model and found that it is distinguishably different from the standard ΛCDM model at present, but it shows a de Sitter type behavior in the far future of the evolution. (orig.)

  3. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  4. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  5. Targets for bulk hydrogen analysis using thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Buczko, C M

    2002-01-01

    The reflection property of substances can be characterized by the reflection cross-section of thermal neutrons, sigma subbeta. A combination of the targets with thin polyethylene foils allowed an estimation of the flux depression of thermal neutrons caused by a bulk sample containing highly absorbing elements or compounds. Some new and more accurate sigma subbeta values were determined by using the combined target arrangement. For the ratio, R of the reflection and the elastic scattering cross-sections of thermal neutrons, R=sigma subbeta/sigma sub E sub L a value of 0.60+-0.02 was found on the basis of the data obtained for a number of elements from H to Pb. Using this correlation factor, and the sigma sub E sub L values, the unknown sigma subbeta data can be deduced. The equivalent thicknesses, to polyethylene or hydrogen, of the different target materials were determined from the sigma subbeta values.

  6. Higher order bulk characteristic parameters of asymmetric nuclear matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The bulk parameters characterizing the energy of symmetric nuclear matter and the symmetry energy defined at normal nuclear density ρ0 provide important information on the equation of state (EOS) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. While significant progress has been made in determining some lower order bulk characteristic parameters, such as the energy E0(ρ0) and incompress ibility K0 of symmetric nuclear matter as well as the symmetry energy Esym(ρ0) and its slope parameter L, yet the higher order bulk characteristic parameters are still poorly known. Here, we analyze the correlations between the lower and higher order bulk char acteristic parameters within the framework of Skyrme Hartree-Fock energy density functional and then estimate the values of some higher order bulk characteristic parameters. In particular, we obtain J0 = (-355±95) MeV and I0 = (1473±680) MeV for the third order and fourth-order derivative parameters of symmetric nuclear matter at ρ0 and Ksym = (-100 ± 165) MeV, Jsym = (224 ± 385) MeV, Isym = (-1309 ± 2025) MeV for the curvature parameter, third-order and fourth-order derivative parameters of the symmetry energy at ρ0, using the empirical constraints on E0(ρ0), K0, Esym(ρ0), L, and the isoscalar and isovector nucleon effective masses. Furthermore, our results indicate that the three parameters E0(ρ0), K0, and J0 can reasonably characterize the EOS of symmetric nuclear matter up to 2ρ0 while the symmetry energy up to 2ρ0 can be well described by Esym(ρ0), L, and Ksym.

  7. Bulk Viscosity in Holographic Lifshitz Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Oz, Yaron

    2013-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent.

  8. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hoyos; Bom Soo Kim; Yaron Oz

    2014-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical ...

  9. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  10. Bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons has been estimated within the framework of hadronic resonance gas model. We observe that the bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases faster with temperature for higher μB. The magnitude of ζ is more at high μB. This results will have crucial importance for fire-ball produced at low energy nuclear collisions (FAIR, NICA). We note that the bulk to shear viscosity ratio remains above the bound set by AdS/CFT

  11. Second order closure for stratified convection: bulk region and overshooting

    CERN Document Server

    Biferale, L; Sbragaglia, M; Scagliarini, A; Toschi, F; Tripiccione, R

    2011-01-01

    The parameterization of small-scale turbulent fluctuations in convective systems and in the presence of strong stratification is a key issue for many applied problems in oceanography, atmospheric science and planetology. In the presence of stratification, one needs to cope with bulk turbulent fluctuations and with inversion regions, where temperature, density -or both- develop highly non-linear mean profiles due to the interactions between the turbulent boundary layer and the unmixed -stable- flow above/below it. We present a second order closure able to cope simultaneously with both bulk and boundary layer regions, and we test it against high-resolution state-of-the-art 2D numerical simulations in a convective and stratified belt for values of the Rayleigh number, up to Ra = 10^9. Data are taken from a Rayleigh-Taylor system confined by the existence of an adiabatic gradient.

  12. Electron Spin Relaxation in Intrinsic Bulk InP Semiconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hong; Wang, Lihua; Ma, Guohong

    2010-01-01

    Electron spin dynamics is studied by time resolved pump probe reflectivity (TRPPR) technique using the co- and counter-circularly polarized femtosecond pulses in intrinsic bulk Indium Phosphide (InP) crystal at room temperature and 70 K. The reflectivity change from bleaching into absorption enhancement is observed with increasing pump photon energy. This phenomenon can be explained in terms of the spin sensitive band filling and band gap renormalization effects. Although electron spin relaxation process at room temperature is much faster than that at 70K, carrier density dependence of electron spin relaxation shows similar tendency. With increasing carrier density, the electron spin relaxation time increases initially and then decreases after reaching a maximum value. Our experimental results agree well with the recent theoretical prediction and D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism is considered as a dominating contribution to the electron spin relaxation in intrinsic bulk InP semiconductor.

  13. Ductile damage prediction in sheet and bulk metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreddine, Houssem; Labergère, Carl; Saanouni, Khemais

    2016-04-01

    This paper is dedicated to the presentation of an advanced 3D numerical methodology for virtual sheet and/or bulk metal forming simulation to predict the anisotropic ductile defects occurrence. First, the detailed formulation of thermodynamically-consistent fully coupled and fully anisotropic constitutive equations is given. The proposed constitutive equations account for the main material nonlinearities as the anisotropic plastic flow, the mixed isotropic and kinematic hardening and the anisotropic ductile damage under large inelastic strains. Second, the related numerical aspects required to solve the initial and boundary value problem (IBVP) are very briefly presented in the framework of the 3D finite element method. The global resolution schemes as well as the local integration schemes of the fully coupled constitutive equations are briefly discussed. Finally, some typical examples of sheet and bulk metal forming processes are numerically simulated using the proposed numerical methodology.

  14. Magnetizing of permanent magnets using HTS bulk magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole which contains the HTS bulk magnet generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnet plate inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the "rewritten" magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated.

  15. Associations among milk quality indicators in raw bulk milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, J C F; Reinemann, D J; Ruegg, P L

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine characteristics and associations among bulk milk quality indicators from a cohort of dairies that used modern milk harvest, storage, and shipment systems and participated in an intensive program of milk quality monitoring. Bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC), coliform count (CC), and laboratory pasteurization count (LPC) were monitored between July 2006 and July 2007. Bulk milk samples were collected 3 times daily (n = 3 farms), twice daily (n = 6 farms), once daily (n = 4 farms), or once every other day (n = 3 farms). Most farms (n = 11) had direct loading of milk into tankers on trucks, but 5 farms had stationary bulk tanks. The average herd size was 924 cows (range = 200 to 2,700), and daily milk produced per herd was 35,220 kg (range = 7,500 to 105,000 kg). Thresholds for increased bacterial counts were defined according to the 75th percentile and were >8,000 cfu/mL for TBC, >160 cfu/mL for CC, and >or=310 cfu/mL for LPC. Means values were 12,500 (n = 7,241 measurements), 242 (n = 7,275 measurements), and 226 cfu/mL (n = 7,220 measurements) for TBC, CC, and LPC, respectively. Increased TBC was 6.3 times more likely for bulk milk loads with increased CC compared with loads containing fewer coliforms. Increased TBC was 1.3 times more likely for bulk milk with increased LPC. The odds of increased TBC increased by 2.4% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC in the same milk load. The odds of increased CC increased by 4.3% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC. The odds of increased CC increased by 1% for every 0.1 degrees C increase in the milk temperature upon arrival at the dairy plant (or at pickup for farms with bulk tank). Laboratory pasteurization count was poorly associated with other milk quality indicators. Seasonal effects on bacterial counts and milk temperature varied substantially among farms. Results of this study can be used to aid the interpretation and analysis of

  16. Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Aguilar, A; da Rocha, Roldao

    2015-01-01

    From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust/generalized dark radiation on the brane-world and inhomogeneous dark radiation in the bulk as well are considered -- as exact dynamical collapse solutions. Based on the analysis on the inhomogeneous static exterior of a collapsing sphere of homogeneous dark radiation on the brane, the associated black string warped horizon is studied, as well as the 5D bulk metric near the brane. Moreover, the black string and the bulk are shown to be more regular upon time evolution, for suitable values for the dark radiation parameter in the model, by analyzing the physical soft singularities.

  17. Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-Worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herrera-Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust/generalized dark radiation on the brane-world and inhomogeneous dark radiation in the bulk as well are considered as exact dynamical collapse solutions. Based on the analysis on the inhomogeneous static exterior of a collapsing sphere of homogeneous dark radiation on the brane, the associated black string warped horizon is studied, as well as the 5D bulk metric near the brane. Moreover, the black string and the bulk are shown to be more regular upon time evolution, for suitable values for the dark radiation parameter in the model, by analyzing the soft physical singularities.

  18. 2MTF V. Cosmography, Beta, and the residual bulk flow

    CERN Document Server

    Springob, Christopher M; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Masters, Karen L; Macri, Lucas M; Koribalski, Baerbel S; Jones, D Heath; Jarrett, Tom H; Magoulas, Christina; Erdogdu, Pirin

    2015-01-01

    Using the Tully-Fisher relation, we derive peculiar velocities for the 2MASS Tully-Fisher Survey and describe the velocity field of the nearby Universe. We use adaptive kernel smoothing to map the velocity field, and compare it to reconstructions based on the redshift space galaxy distributions of the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) and the IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey (PSCz). With a standard $\\chi^2$ minimization fit to the models, we find that the PSCz model provides a better fit to the 2MTF velocity field data than does the 2MRS model, and provides a value of $\\beta$ in greater agreement with literature values. However, when we subtract away the monopole deviation in the velocity zeropoint between data and model, the 2MRS model also produces a value of $\\beta$ in agreement with literature values. We also calculate the `residual bulk flow': the component of the bulk flow not accounted for by the models. This is $\\sim 250$ km/s when performing the standard fit, but drops to $\\sim 150$ km/s for both...

  19. Developing Value

    OpenAIRE

    Cowe, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Based on more than 240 real-life examples in over 60 countries, Developing Value is the first large-scale study analyzing the business case for sustainability in emerging markets, the opportunity for businesses to achieve benefits such as higher sales, reduced costs and lower risks from better corporate governance, improved environmental practices, and investments in social and economic de...

  20. Technical specifications for the bulk shielding reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information concerning the technical specifications for the Bulk Shielding Reactor. Areas covered include: safety limits and limiting safety settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of airborne effluents. 10 refs

  1. The bulk radio expansion of Cassiopeia A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison, in the visibility plane, or radio observations of Cassiopeia A made at 151 MHz over a 2.3 yr interval indicates that the bulk of the radio emitting material has not been decelerated strongly

  2. PHONON ECHOES IN BULK AND POWDERED MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Kajimura, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of phonon echoes in bulk and powdered materials are reviewed. Phonon echoes have been observed in many materials such as bulk piezoelectric crystals, paramagnets, glasses, doped semiconductors, and piezoelectric, magnetic, and metallic powders, etc. The echoes arise from a time reversal of the phase, like spin echoes, of a primary pulsed acoustic excitation due to a second acoustic or rf pulse. The phase reversal occurs through the nonlinear interactions o...

  3. Orbital magnetization in insulators: Bulk versus surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Raffaello; Resta, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    The orbital magnetic moment of a finite piece of matter is expressed in terms of the one-body density matrix as a simple trace. We address a macroscopic system, insulating in the bulk, and we show that its orbital moment is the sum of a bulk term and a surface term, both extensive. The latter only occurs when the transverse conductivity is nonzero and it is due to conducting surface states. Simulations on a model Hamiltonian validate our theory.

  4. Face Value

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine C. Eckel; Ragan Petrie

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence of systematic heterogeneity in behavior by observable characteristics, such as what one would see in a face. We ask, is there informational value in knowing these characteristics in a strategic interaction? Subjects are given the opportunity to purchase a photograph of their partner in the play of a trust game. Not everyone purchases the photo, even at prices as low as $0.20. Senders (first movers in the game) have a more inelastic demand for pictures than responders...

  5. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  6. Processing of MnBi bulk magnets with enhanced energy product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Narayan; Liu, Xubo; Wang, Wei; Nguyen, V. Vuong; Ma, Yilong; Gandha, Kinjal; Elkins, Kevin; Liu, J. Ping; Sun, Kewei; Kramer, M. J.; Cui, Jun

    2016-05-01

    We report magnetic properties and microstructure of high energy-product MnBi bulk magnets fabricated by low-temperature ball-milling and warm compaction technique. A maximum energy product (BH)max of 8.4 MGOe and a coercivity of 6.2 kOe were obtained in the bulk MnBi magnet at room temperature. Magnetic characterization at elevated temperatures showed an increase in coercivity to 16.2 kOe while (BH)max value decreased to 6.8 MGOe at 400 K. Microstructure characterization revealed that the bulk magnets consist of oriented uniform nanoscale grains with average size about 50 nm.

  7. Direct measurement and prediction of bulk density on alluvial soils of central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Casanova; Elizabeth Tapia; Oscar Seguel; Osvaldo Salazar

    2016-01-01

    The significance of soil bulk density (ρ) as a key indicator of soil quality was examined in this study. Bulk density values obtained by direct methods (clod, cylinder, and excavation) with three sample sizes (small, medium, and large) were compared with those obtained by 10 published pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for two alluvial soils (a massive fine-textured Fluventic Haploxeroll and an aggregated, coarse-textured Fluventic Haploxerept) of central Chile. With the exception of small cylinde...

  8. Microscopic theory of intrinsic shear and bulk viscosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microscopic theory of intrinsic shear and bulk viscosities of solutions is given for a model of particles that interact with hard-sphere cores and weak long-range attraction. The approximation considered (the velocity chaos assumption of the Enskog theory) can be expected to yield quantitatively useful values for viscosities of the model solute-solvent system when the solute particles are not much larger than the solvent particles. Under solute-solvent mixing conditions of constant pressure and temperature, it is found that the intrinsic viscosities of a hard-sphere solute in a hard-sphere solvent can be positive or negative, depending upon size and mass ratios; for solute and solvent particles whose mass ratio equals their volume ratio, the intrinsic shear and bulk viscosities are always positive for solute particles larger than solvent particles: in the opposite case, the intrinsic shear viscosity is always negative while the intrinsic bulk viscosity is for the most part negative, becoming positive again when the solute particle is sufficiently small. For solute particles smaller than solvent particles, this result is sensitive to change in mass ratio. The addition of solvent-solvent attraction is found to lower the intrinsic viscosities substantially; the addition of solute-solvent attraction raises it. Detailed quantitative analysis of these effects is given

  9. Conformal embeddings and higher-spin bulk duals

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Dushyant

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that conformal embeddings can be used to construct non-diagonal modular invariants for affine lie algebras. This idea can be extended to construct infinite series of non-diagonal modular invariants for coset CFTs. In this paper, we systematically approach the problem of identifying higher-spin bulk duals for these kind of non-diagonal invariants. In particular, for a special value of the 't Hooft coupling, there exist a class of partition functions that have enhanced supersymmetry, which should be reflected in a bulk dual. As a illustration of this, we show that a partition function of a orthogonal group coset CFT has a $\\mathcal N=1$ supersymmetric higher-spin bulk dual, in the 't Hooft limit. We also propose that two of the series of CFT partition functions, obtained from conformal embeddings, are equal, generalising the well-known dual interpretation of the 3-state Potts model as a $\\frac{SU(2)_3 \\otimes SU(2)_1}{SU(2)_3}$ and also as a $\\frac{SU(3)_1 \\otimes SU(3)_1}{SU(3)_2}$ coset model...

  10. Thermocline bulk shear analysis in the northern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing

    2016-04-01

    Thermocline bulk shear is investigated in the northern North Sea using historical observations. The conventional bulk shear is modified to define a thermocline bulk shear (TBS), in order to better represent the shear across the thermocline. The TBS computed by observed currents is decomposed into components at different frequency bands. The near-inertial TBS is the largest component. Its dominance is significant during the period of high wind. It is formed by the wind-driven near-inertial current which has a distinct phase shift (˜180°) across the thermocline. A linear model is presented, which well simulates the observed near-inertial TBS, especially during the period of relatively strong wind. The semidiurnal TBS makes a secondary contribution to the total TBS. It is only slightly smaller than the near-inertial TBS when the wind is relatively weak. The large values of semidiurnal TBS are associated with semidiurnal currents which have a phase shift (˜30-40°) or a magnitude difference (˜5 cm/s) across the thermocline. The low-frequency (<0.7 cpd) TBS also makes an episodic contribution to the total. Its variation coincides with the Ekman transport during the period of relatively strong wind. The low-frequency TBS is mainly formed by an Ekman-like clockwise spiraling of velocity with depth or a distinct magnitude difference in velocities between upper and lower layers.

  11. BEHAVIORS OF BULK METALLIC GLASS UNDER SHOCK LOADING

    OpenAIRE

    ATROSHENKO S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The high-strain-rate method of materials for dynamic strength investigations under micro and sub-microsecond durations of shock loads on the base of electrical explosion of conductors was developed. The experimental investigations of dynamic properties for bulk metallic glass on the base of Ti and Zr under shock loads of sub-microsecond duration (~0.5-0.7 μs) in the pressure range up to 12 GPa were carried out. The values of Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) and spall strength for these amorphous ...

  12. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ''Training.'' Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination

  13. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  14. Bulk ion heating with ICRF waves in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M. J., E-mail: mervi.mantsinen@bsc.es [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona (Spain); Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V. V.; Kappatou, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Odstrčil, T.; Tardini, G.; Bernert, M.; Dux, R.; Maraschek, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ryter, F.; Stober, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Nocente, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, CNR, Milano (Italy); Hellsten, T. [Dept. of Fusion Plasma Physics, EES, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Mantica, P.; Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, CNR, Milano (Italy); Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, Lyngby (Denmark); and others

    2015-12-10

    Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER and DEMO operation. This is of particular importance for the bulk ion heating capabilities of ICRF waves. Efficient bulk ion heating with the standard ITER ICRF scheme, i.e. the second harmonic heating of tritium with or without {sup 3}He minority, was demonstrated in experiments carried out in deuterium-tritium plasmas on JET and TFTR and is confirmed by ICRF modelling. This paper focuses on recent experiments with {sup 3}He minority heating for bulk ion heating on the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak with ITER-relevant all-tungsten PFCs. An increase of 80% in the central ion temperature T{sub i} from 3 to 5.5 keV was achieved when 3 MW of ICRF power tuned to the central {sup 3}He ion cyclotron resonance was added to 4.5 MW of deuterium NBI. The radial gradient of the T{sub i} profile reached locally values up to about 50 keV/m and the normalized logarithmic ion temperature gradients R/LT{sub i} of about 20, which are unusually large for AUG plasmas. The large changes in the T{sub i} profiles were accompanied by significant changes in measured plasma toroidal rotation, plasma impurity profiles and MHD activity, which indicate concomitant changes in plasma properties with the application of ICRF waves. When the {sup 3}He concentration was increased above the optimum range for bulk ion heating, a weaker peaking of the ion temperature profile was observed, in line with theoretical expectations.

  15. Fabrication of ternary Ca-Mg-Zn bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper describes the preparation, structure and thermal properties of ternary Ca-Mg-Zn bulk metallic glass in form of as-cast rods.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations on the ternary Ca-Mg-Zn glassy rods were conducted by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM which energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS.Findings: The X-ray diffraction investigations have revealed that the studied as-cast rod was amorphous. The fractures of studied alloy could be classified as mixed fracture with indicated “river” and “smooth” fractures. Both type of the fracture surfaces consist of weakly formed “river” and “shell” patterns and “smooth” regions. The “river” patterns are characteristic for metallic glassy alloys.Practical implications: The studied Ca-based bulk metallic glasses is a relatively new group of material. Ca-based bulk metallic glasses are applied for many applications in different elements. Ca-based bulk metallic glasses have many unique properties such as low density (~2.0 g/cm3, low Youn g’s modulus ( ~20 to 30 GPa. The elastic modulus of Ca-b ased BMGs is comparable to that of hum an bone s, and Ca, Mg, and Zn are biocompatible. These features make the Ca-Mg-Zn–based alloys attractive for use in biomedical applications.Originality/value: Fabrication of amorphous alloy in the form of rod ternary Ca-Mg-Zn alloy by pressure die casting method.

  16. A diphoton resonance from bulk RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Recent LHC data hinted at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to any other Standard Model particles would be too low to be detected so far. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from but close to the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  17. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  18. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio and a...... low glass transition temperature. The alloys were prepared by using a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The essential structural changes that are achieved by going from the amorphous to the crystalline state through the supercooled liquid state are...... discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  19. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  20. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  1. First-principles investigation of diffusion behaviours of H isotopes: From W(110) surface into bulk and in bulk W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion behaviours of hydrogen (H), deuterium (D), and tritium (T) from W(110) surface into bulk and in bulk W are investigated using first-principles calculations combined with simplified models. The diffusion energy barrier is shown to be 1.87 eV from W(110) surface to the subsurface, along with a much reduced barrier of 0.06 eV for the reverse diffusion process. After H enters into the bulk, its diffusion energy barrier with quantum correction is 0.19 eV. In terms of the diffusion theory presented by Wert and Zener, the diffusion pre-exponential factor of H is calculated to be 1.57×10−7 m2·s−1, and it is quantitatively in agreement with the experimental value of 4.1×10−7 m2·s−1. Subsequently, according to mass dependence (√1/m) of H isotope effect, the diffusion pre-exponential factors of D and T are estimated to be 1.11×10−7 m2·s−1 and 0.91×10−7 m2·s−1, respectively. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  2. First-principles investigation of diffusion behaviours of H isotopes: From W(110) surface into bulk and in bulk W

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yue-Lin; Lu Wei; Gao An-Yuan; Gui Li-Jiang; Zhang Ying

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion behaviours of hydrogen (H),deuterium (D),and tritium (T) from W(110) surface into bulk and in bulk W are investigated using first-principles calculations combined with simplified models.The diffusion energy barrier is shown to be 1.87 eV from W(110) surface to the subsurface,along with a much reduced harrier of 0.06 eV for the reverse diffusion process.After H enters into the bulk,its diffusion energy barrier with quantum correction is 0.19 eV.In terms of the diffusion theory presented by Wert and Zeuer,the diffusion pre-exponential factor of H is calculated to be 1.57×10-7 m2·s-1,and it is quantitatively in agreement with thc experimental value of 4.1×10-7 m2·s-1.Subsequently,according to mass dependence (√1/m) of H isotope effect,the diffusion pre-exponential factors of D and T are estimated to be 1.11x10-7 m2.s-1 and 0.91×10-7 m2.s-1,respectively.

  3. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  4. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  5. Remedial investigations for quarry bulk wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy proposes, as a separate operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, to remove contaminated bulk wastes from the Weldon Spring quarry and transport them approximately four miles to the chemical plant portion of the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. The wastes will be held in temporary storage prior to the record of decision for the overall remedial action. The decision on the ultimate disposal of these bulk wastes will be included as part of the decision for management of the waste materials resulting from remedial action activities at the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. 86 refs., 71 figs., 83 tabs

  6. Radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolutionary development of a radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology is reviewed. The metal gate hardened CMOS status is summarized, including both radiation and reliability data. The development of a radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate process which was successfully implemented to a commercial microprocessor family and applied to a new, radiation-hardened, LSI standard cell family is also discussed. The cell family is reviewed and preliminary characterization data is presented. Finally, a brief comparison of the various radiation-hardened technologies with regard to performance, reliability, and availability is made

  7. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, A. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Lambiase, G. [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Fisciano (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  8. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Livine, Etera R; Terno, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales w...

  9. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Livine, Etera R

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales with the area. We show that in this regime we can fine tune the factor between entropy and area without changing the Immirzi parameter.

  10. Bulk-surface relationship of an electronic structure for high-throughput screening of metal oxide catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweun, Joshua Minwoo; Li, Chenzhe; Zheng, Yongping; Cho, Maenghyo; Kim, Yoon Young; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2016-05-01

    Designing metal-oxides consisting of earth-abundant elements has been a crucial issue to replace precious metal catalysts. To achieve efficient screening of metal-oxide catalysts via bulk descriptors rather than surface descriptors, we investigated the relationship between the electronic structure of bulk and that of the surface for lanthanum-based perovskite oxides, LaMO3 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu). Through density functional theory calculations, we examined the d-band occupancy of the bulk and surface transition-metal atoms (nBulk and nSurf) and the adsorption energy of an oxygen atom (Eads) on (001), (110), and (111) surfaces. For the (001) surface, we observed strong correlation between the nBulk and nSurf with an R-squared value over 94%, and the result was interpreted in terms of ligand field splitting and antibonding/bonding level splitting. Moreover, the Eads on the surfaces was highly correlated with the nBulk with an R-squared value of more than 94%, and different surface relaxations could be explained by the bulk electronic structure (e.g., LaMnO3 vs. LaTiO3). These results suggest that a bulk-derived descriptor such as nBulk can be used to screen metal-oxide catalysts.

  11. Determining the bulk strength of strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk rock strength of strata is determined by logging a bore-hole with an instrument to obtain a neutron-neutron log of the hole and determining in conjunction with the lithology of the strata the strength by applying an inverse relation formula. (author)

  12. Crevice chemistry estimation from bulk water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first PWR plant in Japan started commercial operation in 1970, 22 plants are running in Japan as of the end of 1994. The main purpose of secondary water chemistry control is to minimize the corrosion possibility of the secondary system equipment, especially steam generators (SG). To achieve this objective, much effort has been concentrated on improving secondary water chemistry control. As a result of this effort, the recent secondary water chemistry in Japanese plants is well maintained in every stage of operation. However, to ensure and improve the reliability of SG, it is necessary to control crevice environments, which are located at tube/tube support plate intersections and under the sludge pile on the tube sheet. According to recent crevice monitoring examination results, the concentration behavior impurities in SG bulk water at the crevice is different for each species, and SG bulk water and crevice chemical compositions are not always equal. From these results, to control the crevice chemistry, improving bulk water chemistry control methods and a new type of molar ratio control index is needed. This paper introduces a brief summary of a recent crevice chemistry evaluation technique and bulk water chemistry control method, which is employed for crevice chemistry control, based on crevice monitoring examination results

  13. A Stereoscopic Look into the Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-01-01

    We present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphism-invariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the "OPE blocks," contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimal surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space--the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow ...

  14. Teaching Advanced SQL Skills: Text Bulk Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina

    2007-01-01

    Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…

  15. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization is cond...

  16. Perovskite-type oxides - Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, E.

    1988-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  17. Estimate of the Bulk Viscosity in the Cosmic Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Normann, Ben David

    2016-01-01

    We first give a review of recent works on bulk viscous cosmology. Then, we derive general solutions of the Friedmann equations when bulk viscosity is included in the energy-momentum tensor, both for a single-component and a multicomponent fluid, showing that these general solutions reduce to those found in the literature in special cases. We solve the energy conservation equation for the three cases $\\zeta$=const., $\\zeta\\propto \\sqrt{\\rho}$, and $\\zeta\\propto \\rho$, often studied in previous investigations, and find the best-fit values for the present day viscosity $\\zeta_0$ in each of the three cases. Taking into account constraints from thermodynamics we find, in agreement with previous works, that the present day viscosity is less than about $ 10^7~$Pa s. In fact the best fit values suggest $\\zeta_0\\sim 10^6$Pa s. We point out that this magnitude is acceptable from a hydrodynamic point of view. Altogether, we give preference to the model $\\zeta\\propto \\sqrt{\\rho}$, which by now seems to be widely accepted...

  18. GRBs have preferred jet opening angles and bulk Lorentz factors

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G; Salvaterra, R; Nava, L; Burlon, D; Tagliaferri, G; Campana, S; Covino, S; D'Avanzo, P; Melandri, A

    2012-01-01

    We recently found that Gamma Ray Burst energies and luminosities, in their comoving frame, are remarkably similar. This, coupled with the clustering of energetics once corrected for the collimation factor, suggests the possibility that all bursts, in their comoving frame, have the same peak energy E'peak (of the order of a few keV) and the same energetics of the prompt emission E'gamma (of the order of 2e48 erg). The large diversity of bursts energies is then due to the different bulk Lorentz factor Gamma and jet aperture angle theta_jet. We investigated, through a population synthesis code, what are the distributions of Gamma and theta_jet compatible with the observations. Both quantities must have preferred values, with log-normal best fitting distributions and ~ 275 and ~ 8.7 degree. Moreover, the peak values of the Gamma and theta_jet distributions must be related - theta_jet^2.5 Gamma =const: the narrower the jet angle, the larger the bulk Lorentz factor. We predict that ~6% of the bursts that point to...

  19. Effect of rare earth substitution in cobalt ferrite bulk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulai, G.; Diamandescu, L.; Dumitru, I.; Gurlui, S.; Feder, M.; Caltun, O. F.

    2015-09-01

    The study was focused on the influence of small amounts of rare earth (RE=La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) addition on the microstructure, phase content and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite bulk materials. The X-Ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the spinel structure but also the presence of secondary phases of RE oxides or orthoferrite in small percentages (up to 3%). Density measurements obtained by Archimedes method revealed a ~1 g cm-3 decrease for the RE doped cobalt ferrite samples compared with stoichiometric one. Both the Mössbauer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrocopy analysis results confirmed the formation of the spinel phase. The saturation magnetization and coercive field values of the doped samples obtained by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry were close to those of the pure cobalt ferrite. For magnetostrictive property studies the samples were analyzed using the strain gauge method. Higher maximum magnetostriction coefficients were found for the Ho, Ce, Sm and Yb doped cobalt ferrite bulk materials as related to the stoichiometric CoFe2O4 sample. Moreover, improved strain derivative was observed for these samples but at higher magnetic fields due to the low increase of the coercive field values for doped samples.

  20. Effect of rare earth substitution in cobalt ferrite bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was focused on the influence of small amounts of rare earth (RE=La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) addition on the microstructure, phase content and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite bulk materials. The X-Ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the spinel structure but also the presence of secondary phases of RE oxides or orthoferrite in small percentages (up to 3%). Density measurements obtained by Archimedes method revealed a ~1 g cm−3 decrease for the RE doped cobalt ferrite samples compared with stoichiometric one. Both the Mössbauer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrocopy analysis results confirmed the formation of the spinel phase. The saturation magnetization and coercive field values of the doped samples obtained by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry were close to those of the pure cobalt ferrite. For magnetostrictive property studies the samples were analyzed using the strain gauge method. Higher maximum magnetostriction coefficients were found for the Ho, Ce, Sm and Yb doped cobalt ferrite bulk materials as related to the stoichiometric CoFe2O4 sample. Moreover, improved strain derivative was observed for these samples but at higher magnetic fields due to the low increase of the coercive field values for doped samples. - Highlights: • Substitution by a large number of rare earth elements was investigated. • First reported results on magnetostriction measurements of RE doped cobalt ferrite. • The doped samples presented an increased porosity and a decreased grain size. • Increased magnetostrctive response was observed for several doped samples

  1. Simulation of electron trajectory in bulk HTSC staggered array undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realize short-period high-magnetic-field undulator, we have proposed an undulator using bulk high temperature superconductor in a staggered array structure. To investigate the effect of the longitudinal solenoid field on the electron beam trajectory and find out the optimum value of the solenoid field, the magnetic field near the center of this undulator was modeled and the trajectory of the single electron was calculated. As a result, we found that the stronger solenoid field worked as a stronger convergence force. However, the optimum value was not able to be determined by the result of trajectory calculation because the stronger field changes the spectrum of the radiation from the beam. (author)

  2. Size-induced enhancement of bulk modulus and transition pressure of nanocrystalline Ge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Liu, J.F.; He, Yongqi;

    2007-01-01

    modulus and transition pressure increase with decreasing particle size. Models are suggested to describe the grain-size dependences of bulk modulus and transition pressure. The trend of the predicted results is consistent with the experimental results while the absolute values are still different from......In situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron radiation source have been performed on nanocrystalline Ge with particle sizes 13, 49 and 100 nm by using diamond anvil cell. Whereas the percentage volume collapse at the transition is almost constant, the values of the bulk...

  3. Testing of bulk tank milk for Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Stroger, U.; Bitsch, V.; Lind, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was investigated as a simple method to screen for Salmonella Dublin infection in dairy herds, examining bulk tank milk samples for lipopolysaccharide (O:1,9,12) antibodies. The cut-off value for the ELISA on bulk tank milk was established...... test-positive in each area was correlated with the incidence of S. Dublin outbreaks in the corresponding county (r = 0.48, n = 19; P <0.025). The mean level of the OD values obtained in the first and third test rounds was not constant (Pr \\t\\ = 0.0001). The study demonstrated that the probability of...

  4. 27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.90 Distilled spirits in bulk. By the terms of the...

  5. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  6. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with properties of bulk-PZT5A are mostly preserved without any necessity of repolarization. Three generations of resonant vibration energy harvesters are designed, simulated and fabricated to demonstrate the competitive performance of the new fabrication process over traditional piezoelectric deposition systems. An unpackaged PZT/Si unimorph harvester with 27mm3 active device volume produces up to 205microW at 1.5g/154Hz. The prototypes have achieved the highest figure-of-merits (normalized-power-density x bandwidth) amongst previously reported inertial energy harvesters. The fabricated energy harvester is

  7. Premelting at Defects Within Bulk Colloidal Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayed, A. M.; Islam, M. F.; Zhang, J.; Collings, P. J.; Yodh, A. G.

    2005-08-01

    Premelting is the localized loss of crystalline order at surfaces and defects at temperatures below the bulk melting transition. It can be thought of as the nucleation of the melting process. Premelting has been observed at the surfaces of crystals but not within. We report observations of premelting at grain boundaries and dislocations within bulk colloidal crystals using real-time video microscopy. The crystals are equilibrium close-packed, three-dimensional colloidal structures made from thermally responsive microgel spheres. Particle tracking reveals increased disorder in crystalline regions bordering defects, the amount of which depends on the type of defect, distance from the defect, and particle volume fraction. Our observations suggest that interfacial free energy is the crucial parameter for premelting in colloidal and atomic-scale crystals.

  8. Fully antisymmetrised dynamics for bulk fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron star's crust and mantel are typical examples of non-uniform bulk systems with spacial localisations. When modelling such systems at low temperatures, as is the case in the crust, one has to work with antisymmetrised many-body states to get the correct fermion behaviour. Fermionic molecular dynamics, which works with an antisymmetrised product of localised wave packets, should be an appropriate choice. Implementing periodic boundary conditions into the fermionic molecular dynamics formalism would allow the study of the neutron star's crust as a bulk quantum system. Unfortunately, the antisymmetrisation is a non-local entanglement which reaches far out of the periodically repeated unit cell. In this proceeding, we give a brief overview how periodic boundary conditions and fermionic molecular dynamics can be combined without truncating the long-range many-body correlation induced by the antisymmetry of the many-body state.

  9. NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience are summarized. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is shown as one of the companies which are able to make NPPs industrial sites free from stored bulk equipment with its further utilization. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is the Russian Federation sole specialized metallic LLW (MLLW) treatment and utilization facility. Company's main objectives are waste predisposal volume reduction and treatment for the unrestricted release as a scrap. Leningrad NPP decommissioned main pumps and moisture separators/steam super heaters dismantling results are presented. Prospective fragmentation technologies (diamond and electro-erosive cutting) testing results are described. The electro-erosive cutting machine designed by 'ECOMET-S' JSC is presented. The fragmentation technologies implementation plans for nuclear industry are presented too. (author)

  10. Bulk viscous cosmology with causal transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider cosmological scenarios originating from a single imperfect fluid with bulk viscosity and apply Eckart's and both the full and the truncated Müller-Israel-Stewart's theories as descriptions of the non-equilibrium processes. Our principal objective is to investigate if the dynamical properties of Dark Matter and Dark Energy can be described by a single viscous fluid and how such description changes when a causal theory (Müller-Israel-Stewart's, both in its full and truncated forms) is taken into account instead of Eckart's non-causal one. To this purpose, we find numerical solutions for the gravitational potential and compare its behaviour with the corresponding ΛCDM case. Eckart's and the full causal theory seem to be disfavoured, whereas the truncated theory leads to results similar to those of the ΛCDM model for a bulk viscous speed in the interval 10−11 || cb2 ∼−8

  11. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denlinger, Jonathan; Clack, Jules A.; Allen, James W.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Poirier, Derek M.; Olson, Cliff G.; Sarrao, John L.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2002-08-01

    Complementary angle-resolved photoemission and bulk-sensitive k-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of divalent hexaborides reveal a >1 eV X-point gap between the valence and conduction bands, in contradiction to the band overlap assumed in several models of their novel ferromagnetism. This semiconducting gap implies that carriers detected in transport measurements arise from defects, and the measured location of the bulk Fermi level at the bottom of the conduction band implicates boron vacancies as the origin of the excess electrons. The measured band structure and X-point gap in CaB6 additionally provide a stringent test case for proper inclusion of many-body effects in quasi-particle band calculations.

  12. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk cash smuggling is a serious issue that has grown in volume in recent years. By building on the magnetic characteristics of paper currency, induction sensing is found to be capable of quickly detecting large masses of banknotes. The results show that this method is effective in detecting bulk cash through concealing materials such as plastics, cardboards, fabrics and aluminum foil. The significant difference in the observed phase between the received signals caused by conducting materials and ferrite compounds, found in banknotes, provides a good indication that this process can overcome the interference by metal objects in a real sensing application. This identification strategy has the potential to not only detect the presence of banknotes, but also the number, while still eliminating false positives caused by metal objects

  13. Surface-Bulk Vibrational Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Covert, Paul A; Jarisz, Tasha A; Chan, Chantelle; Hore, Dennis K

    2016-05-01

    Homo- and heterospectral correlation analysis are powerful methods for investigating the effects of external influences on the spectra acquired using distinct and complementary techniques. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy is a selective and sensitive probe of surface structure changes, as bulk molecules are excluded on the basis of symmetry. However, as a result of this exquisite specificity, it is blind to changes that may be occurring in the solution. We demonstrate that correlation analysis between surface-specific techniques and bulk probes such as infrared absorption or Raman scattering may be used to reveal additional details of the adsorption process. Using the adsorption of water and ethanol binary mixtures as an example, we illustrate that this provides support for a competitive binding model and adds new insight into a dimer-to-bilayer transition proposed from previous experiments and simulations. PMID:27058265

  14. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro;

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared include......-layers-thick polymer woodpile photonic crystal. Characterization of such samples before and after metal deposition in the 700 nm 1700 nm range exposes some unpredictable features like an enhanced broadband transmission, which still waits to be explained.......Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...

  15. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  16. Nuclear Matter Bulk Parameter Scales and Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the arising of correlations among some isovector bulk parameters in nonrelativistic and relativistic hadronic mean-field models. For the former, we investigate correlations in the nonrelativistic (NR) limit of relativistic point-coupling models. We provide analytical correlations, for the NR limit model, between the symmetry energy and its derivatives, namely, the symmetry energy slope, curvature, skewness and fourth order derivative, discussing the conditions in which they are linear ones. We also show that some correlations presented in the NR limit model are reproduced for relativistic models presenting cubic and quartic self-interactions in its scalar field. As a direct application of such linear correlations, we remark its association with possible crossing points in the density dependence of the linearly correlated bulk parameter. (author)

  17. Brane plus Bulk Supersymmetry in Ten Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, E A; Ortín, Tomas; Roest, D; Van Proeyen, A

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a generalized form of IIA/IIB supergravity depending on all R-R potentials C^(p) (p=0,1,...,9) as the effective field theory of Type IIA/IIB superstring theory. For the IIA case we explicitly break this R-R democracy to either p=5 which allows us to write a new bulk action that can be coupled to N=1 supersymmetric brane actions. The case of 8-branes is studied in detail using the new bulk & brane action. The supersymmetric negative tension branes without matter excitations can be viewed as orientifolds in the effective action. These D8-branes and O8-planes are fundamental in Type I' string theory. A BPS 8-brane solution is given which satisfies the jump conditions on the wall. As an application of our results we derive a quantization of the mass parameter and the cosmological constant in string units.

  18. Melt Grown ZnO Bulk Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Detlev; Ganschow, Steffen; Klimm, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Bulk crystals of zinc oxide can be grown from the melt by a Bridgman technique under pressure. This new technology using an iridium crucible shows the potential to yield large single crystals of good crystalline perfection. Crystals with diameters up to 33 mm and a length of up to 50 mm have been demonstrated. The impurity content can be strongly reduced by using the crucibles repeatedly.

  19. Oscillatory Dynamical Switching System of Bulk Ferroelectrics

    OpenAIRE

    M. N.A. Halif; S. Daud; Junaidah Osman

    2005-01-01

    This study gives a detailed account of calculation of the bulk ferroelectric (FE) oscillatory dynamical system switching to first and second-order phase transition, respectively. All the formalism is delineated in the framework of Landau free-energy expansion and Landau-Khalatnikov (LK) equation of motion where the effect of external energy may affray FE atoms similar to the spring damped oscillatory system. Here we scrutinized the switching properties from free-energy expansion and hysteresi...

  20. Superconducting RF cavities film of bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The successful operation of LEP2 has demonstrated the feasibility of using on a large scale copper accelerating cavities coated with a thin superconducting niobium film. Yet other existing or planned installations such as CEBAF and TESLA, rely instead on the bulk niobium technology. The reason is a wide spread belief that the film technology would suffer from fundamental limitations preventing high gradients to be reached...

  1. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Material profile influences in bulk-heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Roehling, J.D.; Rochester, C.W.; Ro, H.W.; Wang, P.; Majewski, J; Batenburg, Joost; Arslan, I; Delongchamp, D.M.; Moulé, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualitatively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fulleren...

  3. Statistical Determination of Bulk Flow Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yong-Seon; Nichol, Robert C; Miller, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    We present here a new parameterization for the bulk motions of galaxies and clusters (in the linear regime) that can be measured statistically from the shape and amplitude of the two-dimensional two-point correlation function. We further propose the one-dimensional velocity dispersion (v_p) of the bulk flow as a complementary measure of redshift-space distortions, which is model-independent and not dependent on the normalisation method. As a demonstration, we have applied our new methodology to the C4 cluster catalogue constructed from Data Release Three (DR3) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find v_p=270^{+433}km/s (also consistent with v_p=0) for this cluster sample (at z=0.1), which is in agreement with that predicted for a WMAP5-normalised LCDM model (i.e., v_p(LCDM=203km/s). This measurement does not lend support to recent claims of excessive bulk motions (\\simeq1000 km/s) which appear in conflict with LCDM, although our large statistical error cannot rule them out. From the measured coherent evolutio...

  4. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Singh

    2008-07-01

    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model. The `gamma' function is defined in such a way that it describes a unified solution of early evolution of the Universe for inflationary and radiation-dominated phases. The fluid has only bulk viscous term and the coefficient of bulk viscosity is taken to be proportional to some power function of the energy density. The complete general solutions have been given through three cases. For flat space, power-law as well as exponential solutions are found. The problem of how the introduction of viscosity affects the appearance of singularity, is briefly discussed in particular solutions. The deceleration parameter has a freedom to vary with the scale factor of the model, which describes the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  5. DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) EXTERNAL REVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program

  6. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainabl...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainable......, that is, there exist composites with extreme bulk and shear moduli. For multiphase composites, they may or may not be attainable depending on phase moduli and volume fractions. Sufficient conditions of attainability of the bounds and various previously known and new types of optimal composites are...

  7. Reluctance motors with bulk HTS material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years we have successfully designed, built and tested several reluctance motors with YBCO bulk material incorporated into the rotor, working at 77 K. Our last motor type SRE150 was tested up to 200 kW. The aim of our investigations is the construction of motors with extremely high power density and dynamics. In comparison to conventional motor types the advantage of HTS reluctance motors with respect to size and dynamics could be demonstrated. Some fields of possible future applications will be described. These motors show a significant improvement in performance using high quality HTS bulk elements in the rotor. Until now the motor parameters have been limited by the current density which could be obtained in the bulk material at 77 K and by the geometric dimensions of the segments available. Therefore we expect further improvements in the case of these materials. Since the total motor including stator and rotor is working at low temperature we have to optimize the windings and the magnetic circuit to these operation conditions. A new design of a 200 kW motor in order to achieve increased power density and the theoretical results of our calculations will be shown

  8. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  9. Thermal properties of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of paper is presentation of results bulk metallic glasses thermal properties such as temperatures typical for glassy transition and thermal conductivity. Design/methodology/approach: Investigations were realized for Fe36Co36B19.2Si4.8Nb4 samples with dimension 3 mm in diameter. Bulk test pieces were fabricated by copper mold casting method. Thermal analysis of master alloy (DTA and samples in as-cast state (DSC was realized. For amorphous structure confirmation the X-ray diffraction phase analysis (XRD was realized. Additionally scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs were performed in order to structure analysis. Thermal conductivity was determined by prototype measuring station.Findings: The XRD and SEM analysis confirmed amorphous structure of samples. Broad diffraction “halo” was observed for every testing piece. Fracture morphology is smooth with many “veins” on the surface, which are characteristic for glassy state. DTA analysis confirmed eutectic chemical composition of master alloy. Thermal conductivity measurements proved that both samples have comparable thermal conductivity.Practical implications: The FeCo-based bulk metallic glasses have attracted great interest for a variety application fields for example precision machinery materials, electric applications, structural materials, sporting goods, medical devices. Thermal conductivity is useful and important property for example computer simulation of temperature distribution and glass forming ability calculation.Originality/value: The obtained results confirm the utility of applied investigation methods in the thermal and structure analysis of examined amorphous alloys. Thermal conductivity was determined using the prototype measuring station, which is original issue of the paper. In future, the measuring station will be expanded for samples with different dimensions.

  10. Cohesion and device reliability in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali

    2012-04-01

    The fracture resistance of P3HT:PC 60BM-based photovoltaic devices are characterized using quantitative adhesion and cohesion metrologies that allow identification of the weakest layer or interface in the device structure. We demonstrate that the phase separated bulk heterojunction layer is the weakest layer and report quantitative cohesion values which ranged from ∼1 to 20 J m -2. The effects of layer thickness, composition, and annealing treatments on layer cohesion are investigated. Using depth profiling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the resulting fracture surfaces, we examine the gradient of molecular components through the thickness of the bulk heterojunction layer. Finally, using atomic force microscopy we show how the topography of the failure path is related to buckling of the metal electrode and how it develops with annealing. The research provides new insights on how the molecular design, structure and composition affect the cohesive properties of organic photovoltaics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on magnetic gene transfer using HTS bulk magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •DNA–magnetite complexes were prepared as ferromagnetic DNA carrier. •The condition of magnetic field to suppress the diffusion was found by calculation. •The result of model experiment showed the validity of the calculated value. •The results of in vivo experiments showed that the amount of gene expression was significantly increased by magnetic field. -- Abstract: This study aimed to realize local and high-efficient gene expression by suppressing the diffusion of ferromagnetic DNA carriers in a strong magnetic field generated by HTS bulk magnet. DNA–magnetite complexes were prepared as ferromagnetic DNA carrier and the magnetic gene transfer using the DNA carriers was examined. From the results of the simulation and the model experiment, it was shown that the particle diffusion was suppressed within 10 mm in diameter by the magnetic field at 20 mm above the HTS bulk magnet. The results of in vivo experiments showed that the amount of gene expression was significantly increased by magnetic field

  12. Second order closure for stratified convection: bulk region and overshooting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameterization of small-scale turbulent fluctuations in convective systems and in the presence of strong stratification is important for many applied problems in oceanography, atmospheric science and planetology. In the presence of stratification, both bulk turbulent fluctuations and inversion regions, where temperature, density –or both– develop highly nonlinear mean profiles, are crucial. We present a second order closure able to reproduce simultaneously both bulk and boundary layer regions. We test it using high-resolution state-of-the-art 2D numerical simulations in a Rayleigh-Taylor convective and stratified belt for values of the Rayleigh number, up to Ra ∼ 109. The system is confined by the existence of an adiabatic gradient. Our numerical simulations are performed using a thermal Lattice Boltzmann Method (Sbragaglia et al, 2009) able to reproduce the Navier-Stokes equations for momentum, density and internal energy (see also (Biferale et al, 2011b) for an extension to a case with forcing on internal energy). Validation of the method can be found in (Biferale et al, 2010; Scagliarini et al, 2010). Here we present numerical simulations up to 4096 × 10000 grid points obtained on the QPACE supercomputer (Goldrian et al, 2008).

  13. Second order closure for stratified convection: bulk region and overshooting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biferale, L; Sbragaglia, M [Department Physics and INFN University of Rome, Tor Vergata (Italy); Mantovani, F [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Pivanti, M; Schifano, S F; Tripiccione, R [University of Ferrara and INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Pozzati, F [Fondazione Bruno Kessler Trento, Trento (Italy); Scagliarini, A [Department of Fundamental Physics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Toschi, F, E-mail: biferale@roma2.infn.it [Department of Applied Physic Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2011-12-22

    The parameterization of small-scale turbulent fluctuations in convective systems and in the presence of strong stratification is important for many applied problems in oceanography, atmospheric science and planetology. In the presence of stratification, both bulk turbulent fluctuations and inversion regions, where temperature, density -or both- develop highly nonlinear mean profiles, are crucial. We present a second order closure able to reproduce simultaneously both bulk and boundary layer regions. We test it using high-resolution state-of-the-art 2D numerical simulations in a Rayleigh-Taylor convective and stratified belt for values of the Rayleigh number, up to Ra {approx} 10{sup 9}. The system is confined by the existence of an adiabatic gradient. Our numerical simulations are performed using a thermal Lattice Boltzmann Method (Sbragaglia et al, 2009) able to reproduce the Navier-Stokes equations for momentum, density and internal energy (see also (Biferale et al, 2011b) for an extension to a case with forcing on internal energy). Validation of the method can be found in (Biferale et al, 2010; Scagliarini et al, 2010). Here we present numerical simulations up to 4096 Multiplication-Sign 10000 grid points obtained on the QPACE supercomputer (Goldrian et al, 2008).

  14. STUDY ON THE BULK DENSITY OF HIGH CONSISTENCY PULP AND ENGINEERING APPLICATION IN THE BLEACHING TOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Fu Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available From experimental simulation of the process of high consistency pulp moving in a bleaching tower, the aerated bulk density and packed bulk density were measured and studied by using a self-made experimental system. The scattered experimental data – pressure p, and bulk density difference, which was between packed bulk density and aerated bulk density (ρ-ρ0 – were fitted by using Matlab software, and some good-fitting regression curves and equations were obtained. The results showed there was a break point W in the regression curves; within the range of pressure between zero and W the relationship between (ρ-ρ0 and p was a linear function, while for pressure between W and 70000 the relationship was a power function. To effectively meet with the bleaching response for the different kinds and different consistencies of pulp in the tower, by using the fitting regression equations combined with the expressions of average bulk density and pressure in the tower caused by gravity-driven pulp, two equations for average packed density ρa were deduced with the aim of deciding the maximum volume value of the tower, in agreement with the sizes of the towers presently used by major companies.

  15. Materials preparation and magnetization of Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Difan; Miki, Motohiro; Zhang, Yufeng; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-05-01

    The paper reports on recent achievements in the preparation and magnetization of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTS). The melt-growth of HTS bulks has technically stabilized due to the use of buffer materials with a seed crystal and modified infiltration to supply a rich liquid phase during growth. This modified growth technology was adapted as our standard processing method. This paper describes some new aspects of both field cooling and pulsed field magnetization processes. Pulsed field magnetization uses waveform control that feeds back the transient flux around the top-center of the bulks and traps a field of 1.63 T, which is more than 90% of the field cooling value. This was achieved by applying a single step pulsed field at a liquid nitrogen temperature. For practical applications, the magnetization under a static magnetic field that is tilted from the crystallographic c-axis was investigated at liquid nitrogen temperature. The trapped flux component perpendicular to the bulk surface remains strong up to θ = 30° inclination, compared to the procedure along the axis. Information about HTS bulks is considered to be important for machine applications using bulk HTS as cryo-permanent magnets.

  16. A smooth and differentiable bulk-solvent model for macromolecular diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for modeling the bulk solvent in macromolecular diffraction data based on Babinet’s principle is presented. The proposed models offer the advantage of differentiability with respect to atomic coordinates. Inclusion of low-resolution data in macromolecular crystallography requires a model for the bulk solvent. Previous methods have used a binary mask to accomplish this, which has proven to be very effective, but the mask is discontinuous at the solute–solvent boundary (i.e. the mask value jumps from zero to one) and is not differentiable with respect to atomic parameters. Here, two algorithms are introduced for computing bulk-solvent models using either a polynomial switch or a smoothly thresholded product of Gaussians, and both models are shown to be efficient and differentiable with respect to atomic coordinates. These alternative bulk-solvent models offer algorithmic improvements, while showing similar agreement of the model with the observed amplitudes relative to the binary model as monitored using R, Rfree and differences between experimental and model phases. As with the standard solvent models, the alternative models improve the agreement primarily with lower resolution (>6 Å) data versus no bulk solvent. The models are easily implemented into crystallographic software packages and can be used as a general method for bulk-solvent correction in macromolecular crystallography

  17. Effect of bulking agents on maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guo Xue; Yang, Qing Yuan; Luo, Wen Hai

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of bulking agents on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Three different bulking agents (cornstalks, sawdust, and spent mushroom substrate) were used to compost kitchen waste under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for a 28-d period. A control treatment was also studied using kitchen waste without a bulking agent. During the experiment, maturity indexes such as temperature, pH value, C/N ratio, and germination index were determined, and continuous measurements of leachate and gaseous emissions (CH₄, N₂O, and NH₃) were taken. The results showed that all of the composts with bulking agents reached the required maturity standard, and the addition of spent mushroom substrate gave the highest maturity (C/N ratio decreased from 23 to 16 and germination index increased from 53% to 111%). The bulking agents also reduced leachate production and CH₄ and N₂O emissions, but had little impact on NH3 emissions. Composting with sawdust as a bulking agent was found to emit less total greenhouse gas (33 kg CO₂-eqt(-1) dry matter) than the other treatments. PMID:24001663

  18. Disentangling surface, bulk, and space-charge-layer conductivity in Si(111)-(7x7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, J.W.; Kallehauge, J.F.; Hansen, Torben Mikael;

    2006-01-01

    conductance corresponds to that expected from the bulk doping level. However, as the temperatures is lowered below approximate to 200 K, the conductance decreases by several orders of magnitude in a small temperature range and it saturates at a low temperature value of approximate to 4x10(-8) Omega(-1...

  19. Size-induced enhancement of bulk modulus and transition pressure of nanocrystalline Ge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Liu, J.F.; He, Yongqi;

    2007-01-01

    In situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron radiation source have been performed on nanocrystalline Ge with particle sizes 13, 49 and 100 nm by using diamond anvil cell. Whereas the percentage volume collapse at the transition is almost constant, the values of the bulk...

  20. Using d15N of Chironomidae to help assess lake condition and possible stressors in EPA?s National Lakes Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Questions/Methods As interest in continental-scale ecology increases to address large-scale ecological problems, ecologists need indicators of complex processes that can be collected quickly at many sites across large areas. We are exploring the utility of stable isot...

  1. Leaf d15N as a physiological indicator of the responsiveness of N2-fixing alfalfa plants to elevated [CO2], temperature and low water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia eAriz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural 15N/14N isotope composition (δ15N of a tissue is a consequence of its N source and N physiological mechanisms in response to the environment. It could potentially be used as a tracer of N metabolism in plants under changing environmental conditions, where primary N metabolism may be complex, and losses and gains of N fluctuate over time. In order to test the utility of δ15N as an indicator of plant N status in N2-fixing plants grown under various environmental conditions, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were subjected to distinct conditions of [CO2] (400 versus 700 mol mol-1, temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4ºC and water availability (fully watered versus water deficiency - WD. As expected, increased [CO2] and temperature stimulated photosynthetic rates and plant growth, whereas these parameters were negatively affected by WD. The determination of δ15N in leaves, stems, roots and nodules showed that leaves were the most representative organs of the plant response to increased [CO2] and WD. Depletion of heavier N isotopes in plants grown under higher [CO2] and WD conditions reflected decreased transpiration rates, but could also be related to a higher N demand in leaves, as suggested by the decreased leaf N and total soluble protein (TSP contents detected at 700 mol mol-1 [CO2] and WD conditions. In summary, leaf δ15N provides relevant information integrating parameters which condition plant responsiveness (e.g. photosynthesis, TSP, N demand and water transpiration to environmental conditions.

  2. Feeding and migration habits of white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes: Lamnidae) from Isla Guadalupe inferred by analysis of stable isotopes d15N and d 13C

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Jaime-Rivera; Javier Caraveo-Patiño; Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla; Felipe Galván-Magaña

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope composition of marine top predators tissues provides insight information of its trophic ecology and migratory behavior. Previous reports have shown that dermal tissues could record longer patterns of hunting and movement. Based on this, the aim of this study was to describe the feeding and migratory habits of the white shark from Isla Guadalupe, using stable isotopic analysis of dermis. We considered a small subset of many possible prey taxa that the sharks could have eaten thr...

  3. Dietary variation within and between populations of northeast Atlantic killer whales Orcinus orca inferred from d13C and d15N analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Vester, Heike; Vikingsson, Gisli A.;

    2012-01-01

    this time period at this loca- tion. There were significant differences between a small set of samples from Iceland and those collected from Norway, which had all been assigned to the same pop- ulation by a previous population genetics study. The results would be consistent with matrilines feeding on either...

  4. Using d15 N in Fish Larvae as an Indicator of Watershed Sources of Anthropogenic Nitrogen: Response at Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen stable isotope, 15N, is an effective tool to track anthropogenic N sources to aquatic ecosystems. It may be difficult to identify potential N sources, however, where 15N responds similarly to multiple, concurrent activities in the watershed that cause higher nutrient...

  5. Temperature Dependence of Interatomic Separation and Bulk Modulus for Alkali Halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan

    2016-07-01

    The values of interatomic separation r with the change of temperature T for seven alkali halides have been investigated with the help of an isobaric equation of state. The calculated results are used to predict the values of bulk modulus at different temperatures. The results are compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical results and are further discussed in view of recent research in the field of high temperature physics.

  6. Determination of critical current density in melt-processed HTS bulks from levitation force measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kordyuk, A. A.; Nemoshkalenko, V.V.; Viznichenko, R. V.; Habisreuther, T.; Gawalek, W.

    1999-01-01

    A simple approach to describe the levitation force measurements on melt-processed HTS bulks was developed. A couple of methods to determine the critical current density $J_c$ were introduced. The averaged $ab$-plane $J_c$ values for the field parallel to this plane were determined. The first and second levitation force hysteresis loops calculated with these $J_c$ values coincide remarkably well with the experimental data.

  7. Evolution of bulk damage initiation in DKDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher W.; McMillian, T. H.; Staggs, Mike C.; Radousky, Harry B.; Demos, Stavros G.

    2003-05-01

    We investigate the evolution of laser-induced damage initiated in the bulk of DKDP crystals using in-situ microscopy. Experimental results indicate that at peek fluences greater than 10 J/cm2, damage sites are formed with increasing number as a function of the laser fluence. Following plasma formation, cracks are observed which grow in size for tens of seconds after the termination of the laser pulse. Subsequent irradiation leads to modest increase in size only during the initial 2-5 pulses. Experimental results suggest that there is also relaxation of the stresses adjacent to a damage site for several hours after initial damage.

  8. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains t...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  9. Neutron moisture gage for bulk material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desing and operation of neutron moisture gage of bulk materials intended for the determination of moisture of coke, agglomerated charge, and iron ore concentrate in black metallurgy is described. The moisture gage operates both under ''measurement'' and ''calibration'' conditions, contains a fast neutron source, and two groups of slow neutron detectors. Technical and economic efficiency of the moisture gage utilization consists in the improved accuracy of moisture detection at the expense of more accurate calibration, optimum arrangement of the carriage in a hopper, and stabilization of detector temperature. The device service is also simplified

  10. Oscillatory Dynamical Switching System of Bulk Ferroelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N.A. Halif

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study gives a detailed account of calculation of the bulk ferroelectric (FE oscillatory dynamical system switching to first and second-order phase transition, respectively. All the formalism is delineated in the framework of Landau free-energy expansion and Landau-Khalatnikov (LK equation of motion where the effect of external energy may affray FE atoms similar to the spring damped oscillatory system. Here we scrutinized the switching properties from free-energy expansion and hysteresis loop. The polarization and current switching appropriate to the estimated complete switching time, changing of temperature, electric field and damping are scrutinized and discussed.

  11. Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of 235U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. We have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, 235U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. The bulk composition of exo-planets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensicke, Boris; Dufour, Patrick; Farihi, Jay; Jura, Michael; Kilic, Mukremin; Melis, Carl; Veras, Dimitri; Xu, Siyi; Zuckerman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Priorities in exo-planet research are rapidly moving from finding planets to characterizing their physical properties. Of key importance is their chemical composition, which feeds back into our understanding of planet formation. For the foreseeable future, far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of white dwarfs accreting planetary debris remains the only way to directly and accurately measure the bulk abundances of exo-planetary bodies. The exploitation of this method is limited by the sensitivity of HST, and significant progress will require a large-aperture space telescope with a high-throughput ultraviolet spectrograph.

  13. Heavy Quark Energy Loss and Bulk Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the low-pT data and high-pT data from RHIC and LHC give a contradictory picture of the relevant dynamics of a quark-gluon plasma. While the bulk observables imply a strongly coupled fluid best described by AdS/CFT the rare probes imply a weakly coupled gas best described using thermal pQCD. These conclusions are based on leading order theoretical calculations, and we speculate that more sophisticated calculations that include higher order effects might provide a resolution to the current puzzle

  14. New Class of Plastic Bulk Metallic Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intrinsic plastic Cu45Zr46Al7Ti2 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and superior compressive plastic strain of up to 32.5% was successfully fabricated by copper mold casting. The superior compressive plastic strain was attributed to a large amount of randomly distributed free volume induced by Ti minor alloying, which results in extensive shear band formation, branching, interaction and self-healing of minor cracks. The mechanism of plasticity presented here suggests that the creation of a large amount of free volume in BMGs by minor alloying or other methods might be a promising new way to enhance the plasticity of BMGs

  15. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  16. Bulk hydrogen analysis by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efforts of the UCT-based group now working on bulk analysis using neutrons are directed mainly towards developing methods for detecting concealed explosive or other hidden contraband, such as drugs. The technique which we are developing, called fast neutron scattering analysis (FNSA), is based on the detection and measurement of hydrogen and other elements, particularly carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, by means of fast neutron scattering measurements. This report describes progress achieved over the past year in the work on fast neutron scattering analysis and in the development of detection techniques for plastic land mines

  17. Forming of bulk metallic glass microcomponents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wert, John A.; Thomsen, Christian; Jensen, Rune Debel;

    2009-01-01

    The present article considers forward extrusion, closed-die forging and backward extrusion processes for fabrication of individual microcomponents from two bulk metallic glass (BMG) compositions: Mg60Cu30Y10 and Zr44Cu40Ag8Al8. Two types of tooling were used in the present work: relatively massive...... die sets characteristic of cold forming operations for crystalline metals and lightweight die sets adapted to the special characteristics of BMGs. In addition to demonstrating that microcomponents of several geometries can be readily fabricated from BMGs, rheological properties are combined with...

  18. Effect of rare earth substitution in cobalt ferrite bulk materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulai, G., E-mail: georgiana.bulai@uaic.ro [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Diamandescu, L. [National Institute of Material Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 07125 Bucharest (Romania); Dumitru, I.; Gurlui, S. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Feder, M. [National Institute of Material Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 07125 Bucharest (Romania); Caltun, O.F. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-09-15

    The study was focused on the influence of small amounts of rare earth (RE=La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) addition on the microstructure, phase content and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite bulk materials. The X-Ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the spinel structure but also the presence of secondary phases of RE oxides or orthoferrite in small percentages (up to 3%). Density measurements obtained by Archimedes method revealed a ~1 g cm{sup −3} decrease for the RE doped cobalt ferrite samples compared with stoichiometric one. Both the Mössbauer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrocopy analysis results confirmed the formation of the spinel phase. The saturation magnetization and coercive field values of the doped samples obtained by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry were close to those of the pure cobalt ferrite. For magnetostrictive property studies the samples were analyzed using the strain gauge method. Higher maximum magnetostriction coefficients were found for the Ho, Ce, Sm and Yb doped cobalt ferrite bulk materials as related to the stoichiometric CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample. Moreover, improved strain derivative was observed for these samples but at higher magnetic fields due to the low increase of the coercive field values for doped samples. - Highlights: • Substitution by a large number of rare earth elements was investigated. • First reported results on magnetostriction measurements of RE doped cobalt ferrite. • The doped samples presented an increased porosity and a decreased grain size. • Increased magnetostrctive response was observed for several doped samples.

  19. Characterization of the dominating bulk recombination in bulk-heterojunction blends using photoinduced absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandén, S.; Wilson, N. M.; Sandberg, O. J.; Ã-sterbacka, R.

    2016-05-01

    In this work we show how to clarify the dominating bulk recombination in organic solar cells by using photoinduced absorption. We show how to use the intensity and frequency dependence of the in-phase and quadrature signals to obtain the effective reaction order. For trap-assisted recombination, we can show using a multiple trapping and retrapping model with an exponential tail-state distribution that a temperature dependent reaction order is obtained which allows for determination of the characteristic energy of the exponential distribution of trap-states. In the model system pBTTT:PC60BM, we show that trap-assisted recombination is the dominating bulk recombination in 1:1 blends with a characteristic energy of the exponential trap distribution E c h = 44 ± 5 meV. The 1:4 blend, on the other hand, shows temperature independent behavior in good agreement with a dominating 2D Langevin bulk recombination.

  20. Molecular Intercalation and Cohesion of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2013-01-17

    The phase separated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer in BHJ polymer:fullerene organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) are mechanically weak with low values of cohesion. Improved cohesion is important for OPV device thermomechanical reliability. BHJ devices are investigated and how fullerene intercalation within the active layer affects cohesive properties in the BHJ is shown. The intercalation of fullerenes between the side chains of the polymers poly(3,3″′-didocecyl quaterthiophene) (PQT-12) and poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT) is shown to enhance BHJ layer cohesion. Cohesion values range from ≈1 to 5 J m -2, depending on the polymer:fullerene blend, processing conditions, and composition. Devices with non-intercalated BHJ layers are found to have significantly reduced values of cohesion. The resulting device power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are also investigated and correlated with the device cohesion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  2. Enhancing bulk superconductivity by engineering granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, James; García García, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The quest for higher critical temperatures is one of the main driving forces in the field of superconductivity. Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that quantum size effects in isolated nano-grains can boost superconductivity with respect to the bulk limit. Here we explore the optimal range of parameters that lead to an enhancement of the critical temperature in a large three dimensional array of these superconducting nano-grains by combining mean-field, semiclassical and percolation techniques. We identify a broad range of parameters for which the array critical temperature, TcArray, can be up to a few times greater than the non-granular bulk limit, Tc 0. This prediction, valid only for conventional superconductors, takes into account an experimentally realistic distribution of grain sizes in the array, charging effects, dissipation by quasiparticles and limitations related to the proliferation of thermal fluctuations for sufficiently small grains. For small resistances we find the transition is percolation driven. Whereas at larger resistances the transition occurs above the percolation threshold due to phase fluctuations. JM acknowledes support from an EPSRC Ph.D studentship, AMG acknowledges support from EPSRC, grant No. EP/I004637/1, FCT, grant PTDC/FIS/111348/2009 and a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant PIRG07-GA-2010-268172.

  3. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  4. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a...

  5. 7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Print and bulk packaging rooms. 58.313 Section 58.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related...

  6. Estimation of Gibbs free energy difference in Pd-based bulk metallic glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Anhui; Xiong Xiang; Liu Yong; Tan JingYing; Zhou Yong; An Weike

    2008-01-01

    A new thermodynamic expression for Gibbs free energy difference 4G between the under-cooled Iiquid and the corresponding crystals of bulk metallic glasses was derived.The newly proposed expression always gives results in fairly good agreement with experimental values over entire temperature range between the fusion temperature Tm and the glass transition temperature Tg of Pd40Ni40P20,Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 and Pd43Cu27Ni10P20,which possess different heat capacities.However,the TS and KN expressions cannot always provide results in good agreement with the experimental values.In addition.the deviations between the experimental values and the △G calculated by the proposed expression at Tg are smaller than those given by other expressions for all the bulk metallic glasses studied.

  7. Estimation of MONIN-OBUKHOV length using richardson and bulk richardson number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1996 NOVA atmospheric boundary layer data from North Carolina are used in 30 minute's averages for five days. Because of missing data of friction velocity (u) and sensible heat flux (H), it is urgent to calculate (u*)and (H) using the equations of logarithmic wind speed and net radiation (Briggs [7]), which are considered in this work. It is found that the correlation between the predicted and observed values of (u*) and (H) is 0.88 and 0.86 respectively. A comparison is made of the Monin-Obukhov length scale (L) estimated using Richardson number (Ri) and bulk Richardson number (Rib) with L-value computed using formula of (L), it is found that the agreement between the predicted and observed values of (L) is better in the case (L)is estimated from the bulk Richardson number (Rib), rather than from the gradient Richarson number(Rj)

  8. Bulk forming of industrial micro components in conventional metals and bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer;

    2007-01-01

    For production of micro components in large numbers, forging is an interesting and challenging process. The conventional metals like silver, steel and aluminum often require multi-step processes, but high productivity and increased strength justify the investment. As an alternative, bulk metallic...

  9. Computing bulk and shear viscosities from simulations of fluids with dissipative and stochastic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gerhard; Schmid, Friederike

    2016-05-01

    Exact values for bulk and shear viscosity are important to characterize a fluid, and they are a necessary input for a continuum description. Here we present two novel methods to compute bulk viscosities by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of steady-state systems with periodic boundary conditions — one based on frequent particle displacements and one based on the application of external bulk forces with an inhomogeneous force profile. In equilibrium simulations, viscosities can be determined from the stress tensor fluctuations via Green-Kubo relations; however, the correct incorporation of random and dissipative forces is not obvious. We discuss different expressions proposed in the literature and test them at the example of a dissipative particle dynamics fluid.

  10. Electronic, transport, and optical properties of bulk and mono-layer PdSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jifeng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Shi, Hongliang [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Siegrist, Theo [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University-Florida State University, 2525 Pottsdamer St., Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Singh, David J., E-mail: singhdj@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    The electronic and optical properties of bulk and monolayer PdSe{sub 2} are investigated using first-principles calculations. Using the modified Becke-Johnson potential, we find semiconductor behavior for both bulk and monolayer PdSe{sub 2} with indirect gap values of 0.03 eV for bulk and 1.43 eV for monolayer, respectively. Our sheet optical conductivity results support this observation and show similar anisotropic feature in the 2D plane. We further study the thermoelectric properties of the 2D PdSe{sub 2} using Blotzmann transport model and find interestingly high Seebeck coefficients (>200 μV/K) for both p- and n-type up to high doping level (∼2 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}) with an anisotropic character in an electrical conductivity suggesting better thermoelectric performance along y direction in the plane.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin, humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a better understanding of the structure and properties of humin. However, the structural relationship between bulk humin and its alkaline-soluble (AS and alkaline-insoluble (AIS fractions is still unknown. In this study, we isolated bulk humin from two soils of Northeast China by exhaustive extraction (25 to 28 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH + 0.1 mol L-1 Na4P2O7, followed by the traditional treatment with 10 % HF-HCl. The isolated bulk humin was then fractionated into AS-humin and AIS-humin by exhaustive extraction (12 to 15 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. Elemental analysis and solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize and compare the chemical structures of bulk humin and its corresponding fractions. The results showed that, regardless of soil types, bulk humin was the most aliphatic and most hydrophobic, AS-humin was the least aliphatic, and AIS-humin was the least alkylated among the three humic components. The results showed that bulk humin and its corresponding AS-humin and AIS-humin fractions are structurally differed from one another, implying that the functions of these humic components in the soil environment differed.

  12. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2013-04-09

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  13. Crack evolution in bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the mechanisms underlying plastic deformation of a Ni-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) are explored. Based on the microstructural investigations, a model is proposed how fracture emerges in BMGs. After deformation, the glass is macroscopically more fragile indicating a decrease in the viscosity within the shear bands due to shear softening. These fluctuations of viscosity and therefore Poisson ratio between the deformed and undeformed regions appear to be the initiation sites for nanometer-scale cracks, which are aligned parallel to the applied force. Coalescence of voids is believed to form these small cracks, which eventually interconnect along the interface between the sheared and unsheared regions to form a detrimental defect resulting in fracture.

  14. Bulk nanoscale materials in steel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a number of nanoscale metallic materials exhibit interesting mechanical properties the fabrication paths are often complex and difficult to apply to bulk structural materials. However a number of steels which exhibit combinations of plasticity and phase transitions can be deformed to produce ultra high strength levels in the range 1 to 3 GPa. The resultant high stored energy and complex microstructures allow new nanoscale structures to be produced by combinations of recovery and recrystallisation. The resultant structures exhibit totally new combinations of strength and ductility to be achieved. In specific cases this also enables both the nature of the grain boundary structure and the spatial variation in structure to be controlled. In this presentation both the detailed microstructural features and their relation to the strength, work-hardening capacity and ductility will be discussed for a number of martensitic and austenitic steels.

  15. Bulk disk resonator based ultrasensitive mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of developing an innovative label-free sensor for multiarrayed biodetection applications, we present a novel bulk resonator based mass sensor. The sensor is a polysilicon disk which shows a Q-factor of 6400 in air at 68.8 MHz, resulting in mass resolutions down in the femtogram...... range. The sensor has been characterized in terms of sensitivity both for distributed mass detection, performing six consecutive depositions of e-beam evaporated Au, and localized mass detection, depositing approximately 7.5 pg of Pt/Ga/C three times consecutively with a Focused Ion Beam system....... The sensor has an extremely high distributed mass to frequency shift sensitivity of 60104 Hzcm2/¿g and shows a localized mass to frequency sensitivity up to 4405 Hz/pg with a localized mass resolution down to 15 fg. The device has been fabricated with a new microfabrication process that uses only two...

  16. Holographic bulk viscosity: GPR vs EO

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Kiritsis, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Recently Eling and Oz (EO) proposed a formula for the holographic bulk viscosity, in arXiv:1103.1657, derived from the null horizon focusing equation. This formula seems different from that obtained earlier by Gubser, Pufu and Rocha (GPR) in arXiv:0806.0407 calculated from the IR limit of the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor. The two were shown to agree only for some simple scaling cases. We point out that the two formulae agree in two non-trivial holographic theories describing RG flows. The first is the strongly coupled N=2* gauge theory plasma. The second is the semi-phenomenological model of Improved Holographic QCD.

  17. A route to transparent bulk metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2012-07-23

    Hypothetical compounds based on a sapphire host are investigated with respect to their structural as well as electronic features. The results are obtained by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. A quarter of the Al atoms in Al 2O 3 is replaced by a 4d transition metal M ion, with d 0 to d 9 electronic configuration. We perform structure optimizations for all the compounds and analyze the electronic states. Due to the sizeable band gap of the Al 2O 3 host, we can identify promising candidates for transparent bulk metals. We explain the mechanisms leading to this combination of materials properties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  19. Tuneable film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorgian, Spartak Sh; Vorobiev, Andrei K

    2013-01-01

    To handle many standards and ever increasing bandwidth requirements, large number of filters and switches are used in transceivers of modern wireless communications systems. It makes the cost, performance, form factor, and power consumption of these systems, including cellular phones, critical issues. At present, the fixed frequency filter banks based on Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) are regarded as one of the most promising technologies to address performance -form factor-cost issues. Even though the FBARs improve the overall performances the complexity of these systems remains high.  Attempts are being made to exclude some of the filters by bringing the digital signal processing (including channel selection) as close to the antennas as possible. However handling the increased interference levels is unrealistic for low-cost battery operated radios. Replacing fixed frequency filter banks by one tuneable filter is the most desired and widely considered scenario. As an example, development of the softwa...

  20. Combustion of bulk titanium in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A. F.; Moulder, J. C.; Runyan, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The combustion of bulk titanium in one atmosphere oxygen is studied using laser ignition and several analytical techniques. These were high-speed color cinematography, time and space resolved spectra in the visible region, metallography (including SEM) of specimens quenched in argon gas, X-ray and chemical product analyses, and a new optical technique, the Hilbert transform method. The cinematographic application of this technique for visualizing phase objects in the combustion zone is described. The results indicate an initial vapor phase reaction immediately adjacent to the molten surface but as the oxygen uptake progresses the evaporation approaches the point of congruency and a much reduced evaporation rate. This and the accumulation of the various soluble oxides soon drive the reaction zone below the surface where gas formation causes boiling and ejection of particles. The buildup of rutile cuts off the oxygen supply and the reaction ceases.

  1. Bulk semiconducting scintillator device for radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael

    2016-08-30

    A bulk semiconducting scintillator device, including: a Li-containing semiconductor compound of general composition Li-III-VI.sub.2, wherein III is a Group III element and VI is a Group VI element; wherein the Li-containing semiconductor compound is used in one or more of a first mode and a second mode, wherein: in the first mode, the Li-containing semiconductor compound is coupled to an electrical circuit under bias operable for measuring electron-hole pairs in the Li-containing semiconductor compound in the presence of neutrons and the Li-containing semiconductor compound is also coupled to current detection electronics operable for detecting a corresponding current in the Li-containing semiconductor compound; and, in the second mode, the Li-containing semiconductor compound is coupled to a photodetector operable for detecting photons generated in the Li-containing semiconductor compound in the presence of the neutrons.

  2. Vortices in superconducting bulk, films and SQUIDs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ernst Helmut Brandt

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the ideal periodic vortex lattice in bulk superconductors and in films of any thickness can be calculated from Ginzburg-Landau theory by an iteration method using Fourier series. The London theory yields general analytic expressions for the magnetic field and energy of arbitrary arrangements of straight or curved vortex lines. The elasticity of the vortex lattice is highly nonlocal. The magnetic response of superconductors of realistic shapes like thin and thick strips and disks or thin rectangular plates or films, containing pinned vortices, can be computed within continuum theory by solving an integral equation. A useful example is a thin square with a central hole and a radial slit, used as superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

  3. From protection values to measurement values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, radioprotection values are the equivalent dose and the effective dose but are not actually measurable. Therefore, a concept of equivalent dose at a point has been introduced and operational values aim at providing reasonable approximations of protection values. In this paper, the authors discuss the definition and calculation of protection values which are notably using the weighting factor (Wr), and then the different operational values: ambient dose equivalent or H*(d), directional dose equivalent or H'(d, Omega), individual dose equivalent or Hp(d). Then, they evoke the statement of a work group on the coherence of operational values with protection values

  4. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of use scarcity. The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Radiopacity of Bulk-fill Flowable Composites Using Digital Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcin, B; Gumru, B; Peker, S; Ovecoglu, H S

    2016-01-01

    New flowable composites that may be bulk-filled in layers up to 4 mm are indicated as a base beneath posterior composite restorations. Sufficient radiopacity is one of the several important requirements such materials should meet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of bulk-fill flowable composites and to provide a comparison with conventional flowable composites using digital imaging. Ten standard specimens (5 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) were prepared from each of four different bulk-fill flowable composites and nine different conventional flowable composites. Radiographs of the specimens were taken together with 1-mm-thick tooth slices and an aluminum step wedge using a digital imaging system. For the radiographic exposures, a storage phosphor plate and a dental x-ray unit at 70 kVp and 8 mA were used. The object-to-focus distance was 30 cm, and the exposure time was 0.2 seconds. The gray values of the materials were measured using the histogram function of the software available with the system, and radiopacity was calculated as the equivalent thickness of aluminum. The data were analyzed statistically (p SDR (Dentsply DeTrey) ≥ Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE). To conclude, the bulk-fill flowable restorative materials, which were tested in this study using digital radiography, met the minimum standard of radiopacity specified by the International Standards Organization. PMID:27045286

  6. Measurement of critical current for bulk superconductors by transport method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of critical current measurement in a magnetic field using a DC transport current has been developed for bulk superconductors. The measurement of the critical current, Ic, up to 50A at a temperature of 77K became possible by reducing thermal and mechanical stresses caused in the sample due to rapid cooling from the room temperature to 77K and a electromagnetic force (Lorentz force), etc. The critical current of 50A is reduced into 14,000A/cm2 of critical current density, Jc, with a cross section of 0.0035cm2. The magnetic field dependence of Jc was investigated from 1T to 10T for (Nd0.33Eu0.38Gd0.28)Ba2Cu3Oy bulk superconductors. The magnetization measurement was performed for the sample cut out from the same part of the same crystal as that used for the transport measurement of Ic, from which the critical current density was also estimated. In low magnetic fields, the magnitude of critical current density obtained by the transport method, JcT, was larger than that estimated from the magnetization, JcM. This result reflects the difference of criterion to determine the value of JcT and JcM. In higher magnetic fields, however, it was observed that JcT was smaller than JcM and the irreversibility field estimated from JcT-B curve is slightly lower than that given by the magnetic hysteresis. When the external magnetic field was applied, anomalous voltage peaks in the I-V curve were observed below IcT, which may be caused by the sample slightly moving by the Lorentz force

  7. Production of bulk amorphous steels and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramagnetic bulk amorphous steels (BASs) having the compositions Fe/sub 50/Cr/sub 14/Mo/sub 14/C/sub 14/B/sub 6/M/sub 2/ (M = Zr, Nb and Pt) were produced. We have replaced Y, Gd and Dy with Zr, Nb and Pt in the BASs. Materials were characterized by SEM, EDS, DSC and XRD techniques. Density of the as cast Fe/sub 50/Cr/sub 14/Mo/sub14/C/sub 14/B/sub 6/Zr/sub 2/ was found to be 7.17 g/cm3 which is less than all previously reported BASs. Vicker's microhardness, nanohardness, elastic modulus and fracture stress are found to be 1240 HV, 14.9 GPa, 248 GPa and 4.96 GPa respectively. Examination of Vicker's indents show semicircular shear bands around the indents indicating presence of a little ductility in the Fe/sub 50/Cr/sub 14/Mo/sub 14/C/sub 14/B/sub 6/Zr/sub 2/ BAS. This BAS have very promising thermal properties. Melting and liquid temperatures are found to be 1392 and 1543 K respectively which are too high for BASs. Width of supercooled liquid region of 70 K and value of g parameter approximately 0.4 indicates very promising thermal stability and high glass-forming ability (GFA). SEM examination of the broken pieces of the compression tests fractured specimens shows parallel and curved shear bands indicating brittleness in the bulk samples. DSC results confirm multistage crystallization. Present investigations on Fe/sub 50/Cr/sub 14/Mo/sub 14/C/sub 14/B/sub 6/Zr/sub 2/ showed that this BAS had better mechanical and thermal properties than many other structural steels. (author)

  8. Performance and applications of quench melt-growth bulk magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariki, S.; Teshima, H.; Morita, M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the progress in quench melt-growth (QMG) bulk magnets, developed by the Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, which consist of single crystalline RE123 phase and finely dispersed RE211 particles. QMG bulks can trap high magnetic fields. The field-trapping ability of QMG bulks is largely increased with an improvement in its J c and size, promising the realization of various applications such as flywheel energy-storage systems, ship motors, NMR/MRI spectrometers, wind-power generators and so on. Intensive research has revealed that the optimal RE element is different depending on application requirements. Gd-QMG bulk is the most promising material for several high-field engineering applications. The trapped magnetic field of Gd-QMG bulk 60 mm in diameter at 77 K is twice as large as that of Y-QMG bulk with a similar size due to its excellent J c properties. The large Gd-based QMG bulks up to 150 mm in diameter are fabricated by incorporating the RE compositional gradient method. Compact NMR/MRI spectrometers are one of the promising applications of bulk superconductors. Eu-QMG bulks are suitable for NMR magnets. NMR applications require extremely homogeneous magnetic fields. In the Eu-system, the small paramagnetic moment of a Eu ion compared to a Gd ion improves the field homogeneity in the bulk. For the application of current leads, Dy-based QMG is available by utilizing a low thermal conductivity.

  9. Value representations: a value based dialogue tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard

    2011-01-01

    the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  10. Corporate Governance: Stakeholder Value Versus Shareholder Value

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard Charreaux; Philippe Desbrières

    2001-01-01

    Unsatisfied with the dominating shareholders'view, that we find unfitted to build a relevant theory of corporate governance, we propose an enlarged definition of the value which may be called, the stakeholder value. This definition and the associated measure are supposed to be more fitted to the stakeholder view of the firm and more relevant to understand the value creation and sharing mechanisms.

  11. On methods of estimating cosmological bulk flows

    CERN Document Server

    Nusser, Adi

    2015-01-01

    We explore similarities and differences between several estimators of the cosmological bulk flow, $\\bf B$, from the observed radial peculiar velocities of galaxies. A distinction is made between two theoretical definitions of $\\bf B$ as a dipole moment of the velocity field weighted by a radial window function. One definition involves the three dimensional (3D) peculiar velocity, while the other is based on its radial component alone. Different methods attempt at inferring $\\bf B$ for either of these definitions which coincide only for a constant velocity field. We focus on the Wiener Filtering (WF, Hoffman et al. 2015) and the Constrained Minimum Variance (CMV,Feldman et al. 2010) methodologies. Both methodologies require a prior expressed in terms of the radial velocity correlation function. Hoffman et al. compute $\\bf B$ in Top-Hat windows from a WF realization of the 3D peculiar velocity field. Feldman et al. infer $\\bf B$ directly from the observed velocities for the second definition of $\\bf B$. The WF ...

  12. On methods of estimating cosmological bulk flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, Adi

    2016-01-01

    We explore similarities and differences between several estimators of the cosmological bulk flow, B, from the observed radial peculiar velocities of galaxies. A distinction is made between two theoretical definitions of B as a dipole moment of the velocity field weighted by a radial window function. One definition involves the three-dimensional (3D) peculiar velocity, while the other is based on its radial component alone. Different methods attempt at inferring B for either of these definitions which coincide only for the case of a velocity field which is constant in space. We focus on the Wiener Filtering (WF) and the Constrained Minimum Variance (CMV) methodologies. Both methodologies require a prior expressed in terms of the radial velocity correlation function. Hoffman et al. compute B in Top-Hat windows from a WF realization of the 3D peculiar velocity field. Feldman et al. infer B directly from the observed velocities for the second definition of B. The WF methodology could easily be adapted to the second definition, in which case it will be equivalent to the CMV with the exception of the imposed constraint. For a prior with vanishing correlations or very noisy data, CMV reproduces the standard Maximum Likelihood estimation for B of the entire sample independent of the radial weighting function. Therefore, this estimator is likely more susceptible to observational biases that could be present in measurements of distant galaxies. Finally, two additional estimators are proposed.

  13. Leachables evaluation for bulk drug substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Victor; Somma, Maria S; Zitzner, Linda A

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive analytical approach for evaluating potential leachables from product-contacting material surfaces in the manufacture of bulk drug substance (BDS) for use in parenteral products. A qualitative step-by-step evaluation of the process stream for the production, purification, and storage of the BDS was performed. The product-contact equipment surfaces were then grouped based on their materials of construction and prioritized according to the potential risk of contributing leachables to the BDS. Based on this evaluation, 13 potential leachable species were identified and classified either as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), anions, cations, or trace metals. The BDS was first screened for the presence of VOCs, SVOCs, anions, cations, and trace metals using analytical methods that were qualified for their application with the BDS. Thirteen potential leachables were then spiked in the BDS and in the water for injection for spike-recovery studies. The analysis of the BDS for potential leachables showed that the potential impurities were not present in the BDS except for a trace amount of silicon, and that the residual solvent concentrations were lower than the recommended limits established by the International Committee on Harmonisation. The spike-recovery studies confirmed that the analytical methods could effectively determine the leachable compounds in the BDS. Moreover, the 13 contaminants did not form a complex with the protein in the BDS and did not represent a potential risk to the BDS's safety and stability. PMID:19634355

  14. Casimir effect in dielectrics: Bulk energy contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent series of papers, Schwinger discussed a process that he called the dynamical Casimir effect. The key essence of this effect is the change in zero-point energy associated with any change in a dielectric medium. (In particular, if the change in the dielectric medium is taken to be the growth or collapse of a bubble, this effect may have relevance to sonoluminescence.) The kernel of Schwinger close-quote s result is that the change in Casimir energy is proportional to the change in the volume of the dielectric, plus finite-volume corrections. Other papers have called into question this result, claiming that the volume term should actually be discarded, and that the dominant term remaining is proportional to the surface area of the dielectric. In this paper, which is an expansion of an earlier Letter on the same topic, we present a careful and critical review of the relevant analyses. We find that the Casimir energy, defined as the change in zero-point energy due to a change in the medium, has at leading order a bulk volume dependence. This is in full agreement with Schwinger close-quote s result, once the correct physical question is asked. We have nothing new to say about sonoluminescence itself. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Bulk viscous cosmology: statefinder and entropy

    CERN Document Server

    He, X

    2006-01-01

    The statefinder diagnostic pair is adopted to differentiate viscous cosmology models and it is found that the trajectories of these viscous cosmology models on the statefinder pair $s-r$ plane are quite different from those of the corresponding non-viscous cases. Particularly for the quiessence model, the singular properties of state parameter $w=-1$ are obviously demonstrated on the statefinder diagnostic pair planes. We then discuss the entropy of the viscous / dissipative cosmology system which may be more practical to describe the present cosmic observations as the perfect fluid is just a global approximation to the complicated cosmic media in current universe evolution. When the bulk viscosity takes the form of $\\zeta=\\zeta_{1}\\dot{a}/a$($\\zeta_{1}$ is constant), the relationship between the entropy $S$ and the redshift $z$ is explicitly given out. We find that the entropy of the viscous cosmology is always increasing and consistent with the thermodynamics arrow of time for the universe evolution. With t...

  16. Photoelectron spectroscopy bulk and surface electronic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Suga, Shigemasa

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is now becoming more and more required to investigate electronic structures of various solid materials in the bulk, on surfaces as well as at buried interfaces. The energy resolution was much improved in the last decade down to 1 meV in the low photon energy region. Now this technique is available from a few eV up to 10 keV by use of lasers, electron cyclotron resonance lamps in addition to synchrotron radiation and X-ray tubes. High resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now widely applied to band mapping of materials. It attracts a wide attention from both fundamental science and material engineering. Studies of the dynamics of excited states are feasible by time of flight spectroscopy with fully utilizing the pulse structures of synchrotron radiation as well as lasers including the free electron lasers (FEL). Spin resolved studies also made dramatic progress by using higher efficiency spin detectors and two dimensional spin detectors. Polarization depend...

  17. Thermodynamic properties of bulk and confined water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallamace, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.mallamace@unime.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Corsaro, Carmelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Mallamace, Domenico [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Università di Messina, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino [IPCF-CNR, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Stanley, H. Eugene [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The thermodynamic response functions of water display anomalous behaviors. We study these anomalous behaviors in bulk and confined water. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the configurational specific heat and the transport parameters in both the thermal stable and the metastable supercooled phases. The data we obtain suggest that there is a behavior common to both phases: that the dynamics of water exhibit two singular temperatures belonging to the supercooled and the stable phase, respectively. One is the dynamic fragile-to-strong crossover temperature (T{sub L} ≃ 225 K). The second, T{sup *} ∼ 315 ± 5 K, is a special locus of the isothermal compressibility K{sub T}(T, P) and the thermal expansion coefficient α{sub P}(T, P) in the P–T plane. In the case of water confined inside a protein, we observe that these two temperatures mark, respectively, the onset of protein flexibility from its low temperature glass state (T{sub L}) and the onset of the unfolding process (T{sup *})

  18. Macroscopic and direct light propulsion of bulk graphene material

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Tengfei; Wu, Yingpeng; Xiao, Peishuang; Yi, Ningbo; Lu, Yanhong; Ma, Yanfeng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Tian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    It has been a great challenge to achieve the direct light manipulation of matter on a bulk scale. In this work, the direct light propulsion of matter was observed on a macroscopic scale for the first time using a bulk graphene based material. The unique structure and properties of graphene and the morphology of the bulk graphene material make it capable of not only absorbing light at various wavelengths but also emitting energetic electrons efficiently enough to drive the bulk material following Newtonian mechanics. Thus, the unique photonic and electronic properties of individual graphene sheets are manifested in the response of the bulk state. These results offer an exciting opportunity to bring about bulk scale light manipulation with the potential to realize long-sought proposals in areas such as the solar sail and space transportation driven directly by sunlight.

  19. A CFT Perspective on Gravitational Dressing and Bulk Locality

    CERN Document Server

    Lewkowycz, Aitor; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the construction of local bulk operators in AdS/CFT with special focus on gravitational dressing and its consequences for bulk locality. Specializing to 2+1-dimensions, we investigate these issues via the proposed identification between bulk operators and cross-cap boundary states. We obtain explicit expressions for correlation functions of bulk fields with boundary stress tensor insertions, and find that they are free of non-local branch cuts but do have non-local poles. We recover the HKLL recipe for restoring bulk locality for interacting fields as the outcome of a natural CFT crossing condition. We show that, in a suitable gauge, the cross-cap states solve the bulk wave equation for general background geometries, and satisfy a conformal Ward identity analogous to a soft graviton theorem, Virasoro symmetry, the large N conformal bootstrap and the uniformization theorem all play a key role in our derivations.

  20. Gravitational potential wells and the cosmic bulk flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Abhinav; Feldman, Hume A; Watkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The bulk flow is a volume average of the peculiar velocities and a useful probe of the mass distribution on large scales. The gravitational instability model views the bulk flow as a potential flow that obeys a Maxwellian Distribution. We use two N-body simulations, the LasDamas Carmen and the Horizon Run, to calculate the bulk flows of various sized volumes in the simulation boxes. Once we have the bulk flow velocities as a function of scale, we investigate the mass and gravitational potential distribution around the volume. We found that matter densities can be asymmetrical and difficult to detect in real surveys, however, the gravitational potential and its gradient may provide better tools to investigate the underlying matter distribution. This study shows that bulk flows are indeed potential flows and thus provides information on the flow sources. We also show that bulk flow magnitudes follow a Maxwellian distribution on scales $>10\\ h^{-1}$Mpc.

  1. Gravitational potential wells and the cosmic bulk flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuyu; Kumar, Abhinav; Feldman, Hume; Watkins, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The bulk flow is a volume average of the peculiar velocities and a useful probe of the mass distribution on large scales. The gravitational instability model views the bulk flow as a potential flow that obeys a Maxwellian Distribution. We use two N-body simulations, the LasDamas Carmen and the Horizon Run, to calculate the bulk flows of various sized volumes in the simulation boxes. Once we have the bulk flow velocities as a function of scale, we investigate the mass and gravitational potential distribution around the volume. We found that matter densities can be asymmetrical and difficult to detect in real surveys, however, the gravitational potential and its gradient may provide better tools to investigate the underlying matter distribution. This study shows that bulk flows are indeed potential flows and thus provides information on the flow sources. We also show that bulk flow magnitudes follow a Maxwellian distribution on scales > 10h-1 Mpc.

  2. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique

  3. The Value of Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  4. LOGISTICAL CRITERIONS AND STRATEGIES FOR STORAGE OF BULK MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Péter Telek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to analyze the applicability of criterions used for selection of storage methods of individual units and general logistic strategies for storage of bulk materials. To reach this aim paper gives an overview about the advanced storage methods of bulk materials and their application possibilities. The second part shows the main criterions and logistic strategies in deep and describes their usability for bulk materials.

  5. Nanocomposite RE-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposite oxide high-temperature bulk superconductors can be used as quasi-magnets. Thanks to the recent progress of material processing, quasi-magnet with 26 mm diameter can generate a large field of 17.6 T at 26 K. These results are highly attractive for applications, involving levitation of permanent magnets on the bulk superconductors. Indeed, several other applications such as motors and magnetic resonance microscope using bulk superconductors have been proposed and demonstrated. In ...

  6. Can local bulk effects explain the galactic dark matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari-Fard, Malihe; Sepangi, Hamid R, E-mail: m.heydarifard@mail.sbu.ac.ir, E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    We obtain the virial theorem within the context of a brane-world model without mirror symmetry or any form of junction condition. Taking a constant curvature bulk (neglecting non-local bulk effects), the local bulk effects generate a geometrical mass, contributing to the gravitational energy which may be used to explain the virial mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. We fix the parameters of this model in agreement with observational data.

  7. Can local bulk effects explain the galactic dark matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari-Fard, Malihe; Sepangi, Hamid R.

    2008-01-01

    We obtain the virial theorem within the context of a brane-world model without mirror symmetry or any form of junction condition. Taking a constant curvature bulk (neglecting non-local bulk effects), the local bulk effects generate a geometrical mass, contributing to the gravitational energy which may be used to explain the virial mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. We fix the parameter of this model in agreement with observational data.

  8. Optimization of processing conditions towards high trapped fields in MgB{sub 2} bulks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, M., E-mail: miryala1@shibaura-it.ac.jp [Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Inoue, K. [Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Koblischka, M.R. [Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Campus C 6 3, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Tomita, M. [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Murakami, M. [Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Bulk MgB{sub 2} samples were prepared via solid state reaction at various sintering temperatures. • The J{sub c} value at 10 K and 0 T was 2.60 × 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}. • A pinning force analysis for the samples sintered at 775 °C revealed a non-scaling behavior. • The trapped field results showed that processing temperature is the key to improving TF values. - Abstract: The present investigation focuses on the effects of various sintering temperatures on the critical current densities and the trapped field values of disk-shaped bulk MgB{sub 2} superconductors fabricated with a simple solid state reaction. The samples were prepared by varying the sintering temperature from 750 to 950 °C in pure Ar atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that single phase and homogenous MgB{sub 2} bulks are produced in using sintering temperatures in the range of 750–825 °C. The samples sintered at 775 °C showed the highest critical current density (J{sub c}) values of 250 kA/cm{sup 2} at 10 K and 181 kA/cm{sup 2} at 20 K in self field. We also measured the trapped field values at 20 K for bulk MgB{sub 2} samples 20 mm in diameter and 7 mm in thickness, sintered at temperatures in the range of 700–950 °C with the same sintering duration of 3 h. Almost all the samples exhibited the trapped field values higher than 1 T, which shows the high potential of sintered MgB{sub 2} bulk materials as trapped field magnets. The highest value of 1.51 T at 20 K was achieved in the MgB{sub 2} sample sintered at 775 °C, reflecting its high pinning performance and homogeneous microstructure.

  9. Bulk flow scaling for turbulent channel and pipe flows

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xi; She, Zhen-Su

    2016-01-01

    We report a theory deriving bulk flow scaling for canonical wall-bounded flows. The theory accounts for the symmetries of boundary geometry (flat plate channel versus circular pipe) by a variational calculation for a large-scale energy length, which characterizes its bulk flow scaling by a simple exponent, i.e. $m=4$ for channel and 5 for pipe. The predicted mean velocity shows excellent agreement with several dozen sets of quality empirical data for a wide range of the Reynolds number (Re), with a universal bulk flow constant $\\kappa\\approx0.45$. Predictions for dissipation and turbulent transport in the bulk flow are also given, awaiting data verification.

  10. On Eling-Oz formula for the holographic bulk viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Recently Eling and Oz [1] proposed a simple formula for the bulk viscosity of holographic plasma. They argued that the formula is valid in the high temperature (near-conformal) regime, but is expected to break down at low temperatures. We point out that the formula is in perfect agreement with the previous computations of the bulk viscosity of the cascading plasma [2,3], as well as with the previous computations of the bulk viscosity of N=2^* plasma [4,5]. In the latter case it correctly reproduces the critical behaviour of the bulk viscosity in the vicinity of the critical point with the vanishing speed of sound.

  11. Locality, bulk equations of motion and the conformal bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order 1/N^2. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. We then impose the condition that the bulk operators constructed in different channels agree, and hence give rise to a well-defined bulk operator. We refer to this condition as the "bulk bootstrap." We argue and explicitly show in some examples that the bulk bootstrap leads to some of the same results as the regular conformal bootstrap. In fact the bulk bootstrap provides an easier way to determine some CFT data, since it does not require knowing the form of the conformal blocks. This analysis clarifies previous results on the relation between bulk locality and the bootstrap for theories with a 1/N expansion, and it identifies a simple and direct way in which OPE coefficients and anomalous dimensions deter...

  12. Mechanical properties of Ag added Dy123 low porosity bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties of Ag added DyBa2Cu3Ox (Dy123) low porosity bulks were evaluated by bending tests of specimens cut from the bulks. The bending strength of the Ag added low porosity bulks was higher than that of a Dy123 low porosity bulk without Ag addition tested in the previous study. No significant difference in the area fraction of Ag particles was observed among the bending test specimens. On the other hand, an increase of the bending strength with decrease of the average Ag particle size was observed. It is deduced that small Ag particles effectively suppress the crack propagation.

  13. On the correct choice of equivalent circuit for fitting bulk impedance data of ionic/electronic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Miguel A.; Masó, Nahum; West, Anthony R.

    2016-04-01

    Bulk conductivity data of ionically and electronically conducting solid electrolytes and electronic ceramics invariably show a frequency dependence that cannot be modelled by a single-valued resistor. To model this, common practice is to add a constant phase element (CPE) in parallel with the bulk resistance. To fit experimental data on a wide variety of materials, however, it is also essential to include the limiting, high frequency permittivity of the material in the equivalent circuit. Failure to do so can lead to incorrect values for the sample resistance and CPE parameters and to an inappropriate circuit for materials that are electrically heterogeneous.

  14. Bulk and sub-surface donor bound excitons in silicon under electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Rajib; Verduijn, Jan; Wang, Yu; Yin, Chunming; De Boo, Gabriele; Klimeck, Gerhard; Rogge, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structure of the three-particle donor bound exciton (D$^0$X) in silicon is computed using a large-scale atomic orbital tight-binding method within the Hartree approximation. The calculations yield a transition energy close to the experimentally measured value of 1150 meV in bulk, and show how the transition energy and transition probability can change with applied fields and proximity to surfaces, mimicking the conditions of realistic devices. The spin-resolved transition energ...

  15. Bulk and surface energetics of crystalline lithium hydride: Benchmarks from quantum Monte Carlo and quantum chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Binnie, S. J.; Nolan, S. J.; Drummond, Neil; Alfe`, D.; Allan, N. L; Manby, F. R.; Gillan, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We show how accurate benchmark values of the surface formation energy of crystalline lithium hydride can be computed by the complementary techniques of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) and wavefunction-based molecular quantum chemistry. To demonstrate the high accuracy of the QMC techniques, we present a detailed study of the energetics of the bulk LiH crystal, using both pseudopotential and all-electron approaches. We show that the equilibrium lattice parameter agrees with experiment to within 0.03...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Cuilan Li; Shuqing Gao; Qiang Gao,; Lichun Wang; Jinjing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin), humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a...

  17. Lower critical field measurements in NbN bulk and thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, M. P.; Deis, D. W.; Gavaler, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Low-field magnetization measurements were made at 4.2 K on thin-film and bulk NbN samples by using a vibrating-sample Foner magnetometer with a 50-kG superconducting solenoid. Values of the lower and upper critical fields are calculated, using magnetization curves as the basis. The significance of the Pauli spin paramagnetism and spin-orbit scattering in these materials is discussed.

  18. Very large thermal rectification in bulk composites consisting partly of icosahedral quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk thermal rectifiers usable at a high temperature above 300 K were developed by making full use of the unusual electron thermal conductivity of icosahedral quasicrystals. The unusual electron thermal conductivity was caused by a synergy effect of quasiperiodicity and by a narrow pseudogap at the Fermi level. The rectification ratio, defined by TRR = |Jlarge|/|Jsmall|, reached vary large values exceeding 2.0. This significant thermal rectification would lead to new practical applications for the heat management. (paper)

  19. Exact solutions of a Flat Full Causal Bulk viscous FRW cosmological model through factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo-Pérez, O.; Belinchón, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the classical flat full causal bulk viscous FRW cosmological model through the factorization method. The method shows that there exists a relationship between the viscosity parameter $s$ and the parameter $\\gamma$ entering the equations of state of the model. Also, the factorization method allows to find some new exact parametric solutions for different values of the viscous parameter $s$. Special attention is given to the well known case $s=1/2$, for which the cosmological model adm...

  20. Xerophilic mycopopulations of teas in bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available d.o.o., Novi Sad AU Krunić Vesna J. AF EKOLd.o.o., Novi Sad KW teas % mould contamination % thermal treatment KR nema Other the water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world today. They are used for ages, in the beginning as refreshing drinks, and later more for their healing properties. Teas have been demonstrated to show antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Considering that the teas, during the production, are not treated with any temperature, there is high risk for contamination with different type of microorganisms, especially with moulds. Moulds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes and under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, moulds grow on many commodities including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, herbs and spices. Most of them are potential producers of mycotoxins which present a real hazard to human health. The aim of this work was to investigate total mould count and to identify moulds isolated from teas in bulk, than from teas treated with hot, sterile, distilled water and from the tea filtrates. Tested teas were peppermint, sage, yarrow, black tea, bearberry, lemon balm, mixture of teas from Zlatibor. In teas in balk was observed high contamination with different kinds of moulds (1.84-4.55 cfu/g, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. lovaniensis, A niger, A. phoenicus, A. repens, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The most frequent were species from Aspergillus and Eurotium genera. Thermal treatment with hot, sterile, distilled water reduced the number of fungal colonies. Aspergillus awamori was the most resistant and appeared in six samples of filtrates of tea, Aspergillus niger in one sample and Penicillium chrysogenum in one sample.

  1. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs at atomic scale.

  2. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, L. H.; Huang, X.; Ling, Z.

    2015-09-01

    Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones) mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs) at atomic scale.

  3. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  4. Value in Megaprojects

    OpenAIRE

    O Oliomogbe, Gloria; J Smith, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Project management value has moved from ideas of 'value management' to ideas of 'understanding how stakeholders value different things'. In line with this new paradigm, value in megaprojects is influenced by the complex morass of stakeholders involved. This paper explores how stakeholders engage with the megaproject delivery process and value creation. From extant literature, the author reviews the definition of megaprojects and discusses their characteristics. Value and stakeholder value was...

  5. MODERN CONDITION: MARKET VALUE OR USER VALUE?

    OpenAIRE

    N. Trifonov

    2010-01-01

    "Methodology of valuation most widespread now is based on the assumption of stability of the market of a valuation subject (a real estate). This assumption has consequence the concept of the market value, in particular, in the definition of International Valuation Standards [1] (which for clients' purposes equates to fair value under IAS 40). This is a conception of a value in exchange, where a willing seller and a willing buyer decide to change a valuation subject for a calculated sum of mon...

  6. Symbolic Values, Value Formation and Interpersonal Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal relations are shaped by the judgements associated with the social categories that individuals perceive in their social contacts. I develop a model of how those judgments form based on a theory of symbolic values. The model depicts the interaction between two values, one associated with an inherited ethnic trait ("nationality") and one with an endogenous achievement trait ("income"). Individuals who are less likely to achieve are predicted to invest more value on nationalism and ...

  7. Low- and high-frequency fatigue of bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Recovery stages are stipulated by migration of configurations of point defects. → Fatigue-endurance limit and the fracture mode depend on the frequency. → Ultrasonic vibrations induce irreversible changes of the BMG structure. - Abstract: The 2.5 MeV electron-irradiation and resistance-recovery experiments were performed. It was found that the majority of atoms of a (Zr0.55Al0.10Ni0.05Cu0.30)99Y1 bulk metallic glass (BMG) possess a locally preferred order, and vacancies are stable point defects. Low- and high-frequency compression-compression fatigue experiments show that the fatigue-endurance limit and mode of the fatigue fracture of this BMG essentially depend on the cycling frequency. At the low-frequency cycling (10 Hz), the catastrophic crack is initiated mainly due to the shear-of-steps formation, and the fatigue-endurance limit is ∼0.44 σFS (σFS is the fracture stress). At the high-frequency cycling (20 kHz), the catastrophic crack forms due to the propagation and mergence of nano-cracks initiated from slip layers at intercluster boundaries. The fatigue-endurance limit in this case is a random quantity with a mean value of ∼0.04 σFS.

  8. Pertraction of zinc through the bulk liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper are presented the results of the study of zinc transport through layered bulk liquid membrane. Scheme of a two-compartment pertraction cell is given. Proposed model of pertraction describes well experimental data. The best fit was found when on both sides reversible reactions were supposed. When irreversible reactions were supposed, kF = 0.999 m-2 min-1 and kR = 1.80 m-2 min-1. From these values it follows that reaction rate on the stripping interface is higher than on the upstream interface. It is supposed to use these rate constants in modeling pertraction in hollow-fibre contactors. Flux of zinc through the membrane, JR, increases with increasing frequency of membrane phase mixers reaching a plateau region at frequency of about 90 min-1. Above 135 min-1 interfaces become unstable. The existence of plateau supports the assumption of negligible diffusional resistance at interfaces and in the membrane. 3 figs., 7 refs

  9. Origin of anomalous inverse notch effect in bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J.; Zhou, H. F.; Wang, Z. T.; Li, Y.; Gao, H. J.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding notch-related failure is crucial for the design of reliable engineering structures. However, substantial controversies exist in the literature on the notch effect in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), and the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the apparent confusion is still poorly understood. Here we investigate the physical origin of an inverse notch effect in a Zr-based metallic glass, where the tensile strength of the material is dramatically enhanced, rather than decreased (as expected from the stress concentration point of view), by introduction of a notch. Our experiments and molecular dynamics simulations show that the seemingly anomalous inverse notch effect is in fact caused by a transition in failure mechanism from shear banding at the notch tip to cavitation and void coalescence. Based on our theoretical analysis, the transition occurs as the stress triaxiality in the notched sample exceeds a material-dependent threshold value. Our results fill the gap in the current understanding of BMG strength and failure mechanism by resolving the conflicts on notch effects and may inspire re-interpretation of previous reports on BMG fracture toughness where pre-existing notches were routinely adopted.

  10. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzikova, N. I.; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  11. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Polzikova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonator (HBAR formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  12. Bulk forming of industrial micro components in conventional metals and bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Gastaldi, T.; Wert, John A.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    2007-01-01

    glasses will at elevated temperatures behave like a highly viscous liquid, which can easily form even complicated geometries in 1 step. The strengths and limitations of forming the 2 materials are analyzed for a micro 3D component in a silver alloy and an Mg-Cu-Y BMG. ©2007 American Institute of Physics......For production of micro components in large numbers, forging is an interesting and challenging process. The conventional metals like silver, steel and aluminum often require multi-step processes, but high productivity and increased strength justify the investment. As an alternative, bulk metallic...

  13. Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the 3P2−3F2 coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the 3P2−3F2 coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive

  14. Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, D; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Rios, A; Polls, A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the ${}^3P_2-{}^3F_2$ coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the ${}^3P_2-{}^3F_2$ coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive.

  15. Nonstandard labour values

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The standard definition of labour value assumes that capitalists abstain from consumption during the period of replacement. The nonstandard definition of labour value assumes that capitalists consume. Both the transformation problem and the problem of an invariable measure of value are necessary consequences of standard labour values. In contrast, nonstandard labour values resolve both classical contradictions.

  16. Maslow and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  17. Origin of cosmological constant from Bulk manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem about cosmological constant is a difficult and important problem, people even don't know what it is really originated from. In this letter, the authors show up a kind of origin of the cosmological constant from the viewpoint of some extra dimensional spaces, obtain different values of the cosmological constant under different circumstances, acquire the evolution function with time t. And we achieve a cosmological constant that may be fitted with modern astronomic observation. (authors)

  18. Buoyancy and Pressure Effects on Bulk Metal-Oxygen Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; McKnight, C.; Branch, M. C.; Daily, J. W.; Friedman, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The combustion behavior of metal-oxygen reactions if a weakly buoyant environment is studied to understand the rate-controlling mechanisms in the homogeneous and heterogeneous combustion of bulk metals. Cylindrical titanium and magnesium specimens are ignited in pure-oxygen at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 atm. Reduced gravity is obtained from an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. A weakly buoyant environment is generated at low pressures under normal gravity and also at 1 atm under reduced gravity (0.01g). The similarity between these two experimental conditions comes from the p(exp 2)g buoyancy scale extracted from the Grashof number. Lower propagation rates of the molten interface on titanium samples are found at progressively lower pressures at 1 g. These rates are compared to theoretical results from heat conduction analyses with a diffusion/convection controlled reaction. The close agreement found between experimental and theoretical values indicate the importance values indicate the importance of natural convection enhanced oxygen transport on combustion rates. For magnesium, progressively longer burning times are experienced at lower pressures and 1 g. Under reduced gravity conditions at 1 atm, a burning time twice as long as in 1 g is exhibited. However, in this case, the validity of the p(exp 2)g buoyancy scale remains untested due to the inability to obtain steady gas-phase burning of the magnesium sample at 0.1 atm. Nevertheless, longer burning times and larger flame standoff distance at low pressures and at low gravity points to a diffusion/convection controlled reaction.

  19. Strain rate sensitivity studies on bulk nanocrystalline aluminium by nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varam, Sreedevi; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V., E-mail: kvrse@uohyd.ernet.in; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2014-02-05

    Nanocrystalline aluminium powder synthesized using high energy ball milling process was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The studies indicated the powder having an average grain size of ∼42 nm. The consolidation of the powder was carried out by high-pressure compaction using a uni-axial press at room temperature by applying a pressure of 1.5 GPa. The cold compacted bulk sample having a density of ∼98% was subjected to nanoindentation which showed an average hardness and elastic modulus values of 1.67 ± 0.09 GPa and 83 ± 8 GPa respectively at a peak force of 8000 μN and a strain rate of 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Achieving good strength along with good ductility is challenging in nanocrystalline metals. When enough sample sizes are not available to measure ductility and other mechanical properties as per ASTM standards, as is the case with nanocrystalline materials, nanoindentation is a very promising technique to evaluate strain rate sensitivity. Strain rate sensitivity is a good measure of ductility and in the present work it is measured by performing indentation at various loads with varying loading rates. Strain rate sensitivity values of 0.024–0.054 are obtained for nanocrystalline Al which are high over conventional coarse grained Al. In addition, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) image of the indent shows that there is some plastically flown region around the indent suggesting that this nanocrystalline aluminium is ductile.

  20. Permanganometric determination of etamsylate in bulk drug and in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Vinay

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods which are simple, selective, sensitive, accurate, precise and economical for the determination of etamsylate (ETM in bulk drug and in tablets employing permanganate as the oxidimetric reagent are described. In titrimetry, ETM is titrated directly with permanganate in sulphuric acid medium. A direct spectrophotometry (method A involves treating the aqueous solution of the drug with permanganate in alkaline medium and measuring the bluish green product at 610 nm. In indirect spectrophotometry (method B, the drug solution was treated with a fixed concentration of permanganate in H2SO4 medium, and after a specified time, the unreacted permanganate was measured at 545 nm. The molar combining ratio in titrimetry and the optimum assay conditions were studied. Titrimetry is applicable over 1–10 mg range and the calculations are based on a 1:4 (ETM:KMnO4 molar ratio. In spectrophotometry, Beer’s law is obeyed over 0.5- 5.0 and 1.5–15 μg ml-1 for method A and B, respectively. The molar absorptivity values are calculated to be 2.79104 and 4.17104 l mol-1 cm-1 for method A and B, respectively and the corresponding sandell sensitivity values are 0.0094 and 0.0063 μg cm-2. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ are also reported for spectrophotometric methods. The applicability of the developed methods was demonstrated by the determination of etamsylate in pure drug as well as in commercial dosage forms.

  1. Calculation of structurally related properties of bulk and surface Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-consistent pseudopotential method is applied to study the bulk and surface structurally related properties of Si. Equilibrium configurations are determined by minimizing the total energy of the system; the calculated bulk properties and the surface relaxation of Si are found to be in good agreement with experiment. The surface energy and the surface reconstruction of Si are briefly discussed

  2. Advanced and new developments in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb; Arentoft, Mogens

    Increasing demands to manufacturing industry of faster, better and cheaper production has intensified the research and development of bulk metal forming. The present paper gives examples on European industrial research on secondary bulk metal forming processes. The R&D follows three lines of appr...

  3. Synthesizing Bulk Density for Soils with Abundant Rock Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, K. R.; Chadwick, O. A.

    1994-01-01

    Bulk density is a fundamental soil property that is difficult to determine for gravelly to extremely gravelly soils because results vary significantly with sample volume. For such coarse soils, the representative volume (for whole-soil bulk density) should be large, but guidelines for selecting an appropriate sample volume do not exist.

  4. T-Duality Simplifies Bulk-Boundary Correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Varghese; Thiang, Guo Chuan

    2016-07-01

    Recently, we introduced T-duality in the study of topological insulators. In this paper, we study the bulk-boundary correspondence for three phenomena in condensed matter physics, namely, the quantum Hall effect, the Chern insulator, and time reversal invariant topological insulators. In all of these cases, we show that T-duality trivializes the bulk-boundary correspondence.

  5. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... remediation waste. The proposed reinterpretation is ] in response to questions EPA received about the... regarding PCB bulk product and PCB remediation waste under regulations promulgated at 40 CFR part 761....

  6. 7 CFR 58.211 - Packaging room for bulk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging room for bulk products. 58.211 Section 58... Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.211 Packaging room for bulk products. A separate room or area shall... dust within the packaging room and where needed, a dust collector shall be provided and...

  7. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or...

  8. An Approach to Calculate Mineralś Bulk Moduli KS from Chemical Composition and Density ρ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, S.; Schilling, F. R.; Mueller, B.; Drüppel, K.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of minerals are fundamental parameters for technical and geotechnical applications and an important research topic towards a better understanding of the Eart&hacute;s interior. Published elastic properties, chemical composition, and density data of 86 minerals (total of 258 data including properties of minerals at various p, T conditions) were collected into a database. It was used to test different hypotheses about relationships between these properties (e.g. water content in minerals and their Poisson's ratio). Furthermore, a scheme to model the average elastic properties, i.e. the bulk modulus KS, based on mineral density and composition was developed. Birc&hacute;s law, a linearity between density ρ and wave velocity (e.g. vp.), is frequently used in seismic and seismology to derive density of the Eart&hacute;s interior from seismic velocities. Applying the compiled mineral data contradicts the use of a simple velocity-density relation (e.g. Gardneŕs relation, 1974). The presented model-approach to estimate the mineralś bulk moduli Ks (as Voigt-Reuss-Hill average) is based on the idea of pressure-temperature (p-T) dependent ionś bulk moduli. Using a multi-exponential regression to ascertain the ionś bulk moduli and by applying an exponential scaling with density ρ, their bulk moduli could be modelled. As a result, > 88 % of the 258 bulk moduli data are predicted with an uncertainty of < 20 % compared to published values. Compared to other models (e.g. Anderson et al. 1970 and Anderson & Nafe 1965), the here presented approach to model the bulk moduli only requires the density ρ and chemical composition of the mineral and is not limited to a specific group of minerals, composition, or structure. In addition to this, by using the pressure and temperature dependent density ρ(p, T), it is possible to predict bulk moduli for varying p-T conditions. References:Gardner, G.H.F, Gardner, L.W. and Gregory, A.R. (1974). Geophysics, 39, No. 6

  9. Stability of bulk metallic glass structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    2003-06-18

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub (80-x)}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  10. Prediction of bulk modulus and volumetric expansion coefficient of water for leak tightness test of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether any pressure variation in pipeline hydrostatic test is a result of temperature changes or the presence of leaks, the calculation of pressure/temperature changes is required for test sections. In these calculations, bulk modulus and volumetric expansion coefficient of fresh or sea water must be taken into account. In this study, a simple-to-use correlation is developed to predict the bulk modulus and volumetric expansion coefficient of both fresh and sea water as a function of temperature and pressure. The proposed correlation helps to cover the bulk modulus and volumetric expansion coefficient of both fresh and sea water for temperatures less than 50 deg. C (40 deg. C for sea water) as well as pressures up to 55,000 kPa (550 bar). The results can be used in follow-up calculations to determine whether any pressure variation in pipeline hydrostatic test is a result of temperature changes or the presence of leaks. The proposed correlation showed promising results with average absolute deviations for volumetric expansion coefficient and bulk modulus of water being around 0.58% and 0.08% respectively. The novel correlation is easy to use and will prove to be of immense value for project engineers to test the critical limits accurately.

  11. Revised Thickness of the Lunar Crust from GRAIL Data: Implications for Lunar Bulk Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Nimmo, Francis; Kiefer, Walter S.; Melosh, H. Jay; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Asmar, Sami W.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Watkins, Michael W.; Williams, James G.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution gravity data from GRAIL have yielded new estimates of the bulk density and thickness of the lunar crust. The bulk density of the highlands crust is 2550 kg m-3. From a comparison with crustal composition measured remotely, this density implies a mean porosity of 12%. With this bulk density and constraints from the Apollo seismic experiment, the average global crustal thickness is found to lie between 34 and 43 km, a value 10 to 20 km less than several previous estimates. Crustal thickness is a central parameter in estimating bulk lunar composition. Estimates of the concentrations of refractory elements in the Moon from heat flow, remote sensing and sample data, and geophysical data fall into two categories: those with refractory element abundances enriched by 50% or more relative to Earth, and those with abundances the same as Earth. Settling this issue has implications for processes operating during lunar formation. The crustal thickness resulting from analysis of GRAIL data is less than several previous estimates. We show here that a refractory-enriched Moon is not required

  12. An experimental comparison of laboratory techniques in determining bulk properties of tuffaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of tuffaceous rock were studied as part of the site characterization for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. These efforts were scoping in nature, and their results, along with those of other investigations, are being used to develop suitable procedures for determining bulk properties of tuffaceous rock in support of thermal and mechanical properties evaluations. Comparisons were made between various sample preparation, handling, and measurement techniques for both zeolitized and nonzeolitized tuff in order to assess their effects on bulk property determinations. Laboratory tests included extensive drying regimes to evaluate dehydration behavior, the acquisition of data derived from both gas and water pycnometers to compare their suitability in determining grain densities, a comparison of particle size effects, and a set of experiments to evaluate whole core saturation methods. The results affirm the added complexity of these types of measurements where there is a zeolite component in the sample mineralogy. Absolute values for the bulk properties of zeolitized tuff are immeasurable due to the complex nature of their dehydration behavior. However, the results of the techniques that were investigated provide a basis for the development of preferred, consistent methods for determining the grain density, dry and saturated bulk densities, and porosity of tuffaceous rock, including zeolitic tuff in support of thermal and mechanical properties evaluations

  13. Renormalization group approach to causal bulk viscous cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinchon, J A [Grupo Inter-Universitario de Analisis Dimensional, Dept. Fisica ETS Arquitectura UPM, Av. Juan de Herrera 4, Madrid (Spain); Harko, T [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Mak, M K [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China)

    2002-06-07

    The renormalization group method is applied to the study of homogeneous and flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker type universes, filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid. The starting point of the study is the consideration of the scaling properties of the gravitational field equations, the causal evolution equation of the bulk viscous pressure and the equations of state. The requirement of scale invariance imposes strong constraints on the temporal evolution of the bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time, thus leading to the possibility of obtaining the bulk viscosity coefficient-energy density dependence. For a cosmological model with bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the Hubble parameter, we perform the analysis of the renormalization group flow around the scale-invariant fixed point, thereby obtaining the long-time behaviour of the scale factor.

  14. Renormalization group approach to causal bulk viscous cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renormalization group method is applied to the study of homogeneous and flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker type universes, filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid. The starting point of the study is the consideration of the scaling properties of the gravitational field equations, the causal evolution equation of the bulk viscous pressure and the equations of state. The requirement of scale invariance imposes strong constraints on the temporal evolution of the bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time, thus leading to the possibility of obtaining the bulk viscosity coefficient-energy density dependence. For a cosmological model with bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the Hubble parameter, we perform the analysis of the renormalization group flow around the scale-invariant fixed point, thereby obtaining the long-time behaviour of the scale factor

  15. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  16. Debating Propositions of Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlon, Ronald J.

    1978-01-01

    Advances a rationale for debating propositions of value in interscholastic contests. Considers implications for burden of proof, presumption, and the location of issues in value propositions, and proposes a preliminary system for the analysis of value propositions. (JMF)

  17. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick, E-mail: mark.taylor@mq.edu.au

    2015-05-15

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m{sup 2}/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m{sup 2}/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m{sup 2}, more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m{sup 2} used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m{sup 2}) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m{sup 2}/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear — even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection. - Graphical abstract: Post-play hand wipe, Headland Park, Townsville, Australia. - Highlights: • Bulk mineral port

  18. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m2/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m2/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m2, more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m2 used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m2) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m2/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes (208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/207Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear — even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection. - Graphical abstract: Post-play hand wipe, Headland Park, Townsville, Australia. - Highlights: • Bulk mineral port operations associated with emissions of metal-rich dusts

  19. Fair value accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Shamkuts, Volha, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to fair value accounting. Fair value accounting implies that assets and liabilities get measured and reported in firm´s financial statements at their market value. The purpose of the thesis is to analyze the conceptual foundations of fair value accounting. The thesis is organized in the following way. First, origins and development of fair value accounting are discussed. Second, overview of fair value accounting is presented. The overview includes de...

  20. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  1. Climate change and shareholder value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2005, the Carbon Trust worked with Cairneagle Associates to develop a methodology for analysing shareholder value at risk from climate change. The model developed offers a robust, replicable, top-down approach to analysing such value at risk. In addition to a company's own energy linked ('direct' and electricity linked 'indirect') carbon emissions, it looks further along the value chain and considers broader potential risk. In calculating the financial impact, the analysis quantifies the potential impact on profits, using the shape of the business in 2004, but applying a potential 2013 emissions regulatory regime. 2013 was chosen as the first year after the end of the 2008-2012 Kyoto compliance period (which also equates to Phase Two in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme). A major uncertainty is to what extent countries not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol (particularly the USA, India and China) will be brought into committed emission reduction targets from 2013. 2013 therefore represents the earliest year under this uncertain, but likely tougher, regulatory regime. However, although this report focuses on 2013, it needs to be recognised that, for many sectors, financial impacts will be seen significantly before this time. Ten 'case study companies' have been studied, from a range of sectors. In some cases, the 'case study company' analysed is strictly linked to a single company within that sector. In others, just a single corporate division has been reviewed, and in others yet again, characteristics from several companies have been combined to produce a more representative example. In order to enable analysis on a strictly like-for-like basis, the research has been based entirely upon public sources of information. This analysis illustrates what a determined shareholder (or other onlooker) could derive about value at risk from climate change, based upon what companies disclose today. A summary of the analysis for each sector case study is given, with

  2. Valuing future citizens' values regarding risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuing present citizen's values regarding the risks they face is an important aspect of risk assessment and risk acceptability. Conferences like VALDOR are held for this reason. Governments like Sweden have national referendums on various risk-prone enterprises. The results of these referendums can determine the future of these programs. In the United States, when guidelines are set for determining acceptable levels of risk, the relevant federal agencies are often required to provide a comment period regarding proposed guidelines in order to ascertain the judgments, including the weights place on certain values, of individual members of society as well as stakeholder groups. After the comment period ends, the agency decides on the acceptable level of risk, taking into account the comments from present citizens. Do we also have a duty to value the not-yet-existing values of future citizens, especially if the risks created by the activities of present citizens extend into the future to citizens not yet living? If so, are there any circumstances which entitle us to de-value those not-yet-existing values. In this paper, I ground my discussion of the question of valuing future citizens' values in one of the areas of focus of the VALDOR conference: nuclear waste management and specifically the question facing the United States' program regarding an acceptable dose standard associated with the release of radioactivity into the biosphere from an underground repository. The underlying conference theme to which this discussion may be attached is community environmental justice as it applies to future citizens. I focus on the role that uncertainty plays is providing justice between present and future citizens

  3. On solidarity values

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this note the concept of solidarity value in cooperative game theory is discussed. The value proposed by Nowak \\& Radzik is analyzed in terms of shifts of c-diagrams. The value is shown to be equal to the Shapley value for a shifted game. A general approach to a theory of solidarity is developed in terms of "keep" and "give" vectors.

  4. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  5. Five Values of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  6. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of PrMnO3 Bulk and Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite PrMnO3(PMO) had been prepared in bulk by solid state reaction and thin films on corning glass, fused silica and MgO (100) glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique. SEM micrographs show that grains with size 2∼3 μm is observed in bulk PMO while thin films PMO show strongly connected grain structure with particle size that not larger than 100 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all samples are in single phase with orthorhombic crystal structure. Bulk PMO sample had lattice strain of 0.134% which is the lowest value among others. However, larger lattice strain was observed in thin film samples due to lattice mismatch between film-substrate and caused the MnO6 to deform. All samples shown paramagnetic or antiferromagnetic behavior, enhancement in magnetization value occurred for all PMO grew as film. We believe that larger lattice strain favor the grain growth of PMO towards more order phase. In summary, formation of structure and microstructure of thin film PMO depends on type of substrate used and it affect the magnetic property.

  7. On value and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Value stands for the significance of things,and concepts of value are ideas,opinions and attitudes about what kind of things are significant.Studies on the concept of value cannot be separated from culture.Every society has its own distinct culture and concept of value shared by its people.The relationship between concept of value and culture shows that the building of the concept of value must be based on culture.Developing culture,providing excellent products of culture and better humanitarian environment are the premise for people's possession of the correct concept of value.

  8. Degree of Conversion and BisGMA, TEGDMA, UDMA Elution from Flowable Bulk Fill Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Lempel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of conversion (DC and the released bisphenol A diglycidyl ether dimethacrylate (BisGMA, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA monomers of bulk-fill composites compared to that of conventional flowable ones were assessed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Four millimeter-thick samples were prepared from SureFil SDR Flow (SDR, X-tra Base (XB, Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF and two and four millimeter samples from Filtek Ultimate Flow (FUF. They were measured with micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine the DC% of the top and the bottom surfaces. The amount of released monomers in 75% ethanol extraction media was measured with HPLC. The differences between the top and bottom DC% were significant for each material. The mean DC values were in the following order for the bottom surfaces: SDR_4mm_20s > FUF_2mm_20s > XB_4mm_20s > FBF_4mm_20s > XB_4mm_10s > FBF_4mm_10s > FUF_4mm_20s. The highest rate in the amount of released BisGMA and TEGDMA was found from the 4 mm-thick conventional flowable FUF. Among bulk-fills, FBF showed a twenty times higher amount of eluted UDMA and twice more BisGMA; meanwhile, SDR released a significantly higher amount of TEGDMA. SDR bulk-fill showed significantly higher DC%; meanwhile XB, FBF did not reach the same level DC, as that of the 2 mm-thick conventional composite at the bottom surface. Conventional flowable composites showed a higher rate of monomer elution compared to the bulk-fills, except FBF, which showed a high amount of UDMA release.

  9. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of PbMnI2 bulk crystals and nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a study of the Pb1−xMnxI2 bulk crystals and nanocrystals using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The samples of the bulk Pb1−xMnxI2 crystals with x in the range from 0 to 0.05 have been grown by Bridgman technique. The composite nanostructures containing the diluted magnetic semiconductor nanocrystals of Pb1−xMnxI2 with x in the range from 0 to 0.15 have been prepared by embedding them into gelatin and polyvinylalcohol matrices using colloidal technology. The EPR spectra consist of an intense broad line and several weak narrow lines which correspond to hyperfine spectra of Mn2+ ions. The temperature dependence of EPR spectra suggests of strong spin exchange interactions due to presence of magnetic ions in the bulk crystals and nanoparticles. The good agreement temperature dependence of integral intensity of Mn2+ ions for bulk crystals and nanocrystals with the Curie–Weiss law was obtained. - Highlights: • The EPR spectra for bulk crystals and nanocrystals of Pb1−xMnxI2 consist of sixplet lines which correspond to hyperfine spectra of Mn2+ ions. • For nanocrystals with manganese content up to x=0.08 we observed a superposition of two component spectra. • For the first of the broad line in EPR spectrum for nanocrystals the following values g∥=2.05 and g⊥=2.15 are determined. • The temperature dependence of the integral intensity for samples with Mn content x≤0.03 is in good agreement with the Curie-Weiss law

  10. Fe-based bulk metallic glasses prepared by centrifugal casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The work presents a casting method, structure characterization and analysis of chosen properties of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses in as-cast state.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe72B20Si4Nb4, Fe36Co36B19Si5Nb4, Fe43Co14Ni14B20Si5Nb4 metallic glasses in form of rings. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. The crystallization behaviour of the studied alloys was examined by differential thermal analysis (DTA. The soft magnetic property examinations of tested materials contained initial magnetic permeability and measurements of magnetic permeability relaxation.Findings: The XRD and TEM investigations revealed that the studied as-cast bulk glassy samples in forms of ring were amorphous for all tested alloys. The SEM images showed that fractures of studied rings indicated two structurally different zones, which contained “river” patterns and “smooth” areas. The samples of studied alloys presented two stage crystallization process, which was observed for all tested rings with different thickness. The changes of crystallization temperatures versus the thickness of the glassy samples were stated. The magnetic permeability relaxation, which is directly proportional to the microvoids concentration in amorphous structure decreased with increase of sample thickness. These results could be assumed as the change of amorphous structure in function of thickness.Practical implications: The centrifugal casting method is very simple, useful and effective method to produce bulk amorphous materials in the form of rings or tubes.Originality/value: The preparation of bulk metallic glasses in the form of rings for three different Fe-based alloy systems is very important for the future progress in research and practical applications of iron-based bulk amorphous materials.

  11. Degree of Conversion and BisGMA, TEGDMA, UDMA Elution from Flowable Bulk Fill Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempel, Edina; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Bálint; Szalma, József; Tóth, Ákos; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Varga, Zoltán; Böddi, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    The degree of conversion (DC) and the released bisphenol A diglycidyl ether dimethacrylate (BisGMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) monomers of bulk-fill composites compared to that of conventional flowable ones were assessed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four millimeter-thick samples were prepared from SureFil SDR Flow (SDR), X-tra Base (XB), Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF) and two and four millimeter samples from Filtek Ultimate Flow (FUF). They were measured with micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine the DC% of the top and the bottom surfaces. The amount of released monomers in 75% ethanol extraction media was measured with HPLC. The differences between the top and bottom DC% were significant for each material. The mean DC values were in the following order for the bottom surfaces: SDR_4mm_20s > FUF_2mm_20s > XB_4mm_20s > FBF_4mm_20s > XB_4mm_10s > FBF_4mm_10s > FUF_4mm_20s. The highest rate in the amount of released BisGMA and TEGDMA was found from the 4 mm-thick conventional flowable FUF. Among bulk-fills, FBF showed a twenty times higher amount of eluted UDMA and twice more BisGMA; meanwhile, SDR released a significantly higher amount of TEGDMA. SDR bulk-fill showed significantly higher DC%; meanwhile XB, FBF did not reach the same level DC, as that of the 2 mm-thick conventional composite at the bottom surface. Conventional flowable composites showed a higher rate of monomer elution compared to the bulk-fills, except FBF, which showed a high amount of UDMA release. PMID:27213361

  12. Healing of interfaces of high and ultra-high-molecular- weight polystyrene below the bulk glass transition temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiko, Yuri M.; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous bulk samples of high-molecular-weight (HMW) polystyrene (PS) with a weight-average molecular weight M-w of 102.5 kg/mol and a number-average molecular weight M. of 97 kg/mol and of ultra-high-molecular-weight PS (UHMWPS) with M-w=1110.5 kg/mol and M-n = 965.6 kg/mol were brought into...... contact to themselves below the glass transition temperature T-g of the bulk Tg-bulk, in a lap-shear joint geometry, at a constant healing temperature T-h for a healing time t(h) of 10 min to 24 h. The lap-shear strength sigma of the symmetric HMWPS-HMWPS and UHMWPS-URMWPS interfaces has been measured at...... the ambient temperature. Larger values of sigma have always been measured for the HMWPS-HMWPS interface after healing at the same conditions. However, the difference between the values of a, for the HMWPS-HMWPS and UHMWPS-UHMWPS interfaces observed at T-h = Tg-bulk - 33 degreesC and T-h = Tg-bulk - 23...

  13. Value activity monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only promises (but not assurances) of value creation. Hence there is a need to extend current value modeling ontologies with a monitoring ontology. This ontology will enable business practitioners ...

  14. Engineering nanostructural routes for enhancing thermoelectric performance: bulk to nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar eMohanraman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectricity is a very important physical property, especially its significance in heat-electricity conversion. If thermoelectric devices can be effectively applied to the recovery of the renewable energies, such as waste heat and solar energy, the energy shortage and global warming issues may be greatly relieved. This review focusses recent developments on the thermoelectric performance of a low-dimensional material, bulk nanostructured materials, conventional bulk materials etc. Particular emphasis is given on, how the nanostructure in nanostructured composites, confinement effects in one-dimensional nanowires and doping effects in conventional bulk composites plays an important role in ZT enhancement.

  15. Engineering Nanostructural Routes for Enhancing Thermoelectric Performance: Bulk to Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraman, Rajeshkumar; Lan, Tian-Wey; Hsiung, Te-Chih; Amada, Dedi; Lee, Ping-Chung; Ou, Min-Nan; Chen, Yang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectricity is a very important phenomenon, especially its significance in heat-electricity conversion. If thermoelectric devices can be effectively applied to the recovery of the renewable energies, such as waste heat and solar energy, the energy shortage, and global warming issues may be greatly relieved. This review focusses recent developments on the thermoelectric performance of a low-dimensional material, bulk nanostructured materials, conventional bulk materials etc. Particular emphasis is given on, how the nanostructure in nanostructured composites, confinement effects in one-dimensional nanowires and doping effects in conventional bulk composites plays an important role in ZT enhancement. PMID:26913280

  16. Theoretical analysis of ac losses in high temperature superconducting bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ac loss behavior in HTS bulk materials is studied by developing an analytic method. The self-heating effect on the distributions of temperature in HTS bulks has been calculated. A critical frequency which sets the upper limit for driving frequency of the external field in sustaining a superconducting state is obtained. Our model provides useful information of understanding the experimental phenomena, including an anomalous ac loss behavior, a retardation of the inner field respect to the external ac field, etc., in HTS bulk materials

  17. Eco Issues in Bulk Materials Handling Technologies in Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Zrnić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with eco issues in bulk materials handling in ports. Solid, free-flowing materials are said to be in bulk. Bulk materials handling is very difficult, because it incorporates all the features of liquids, gasses and mass solids. Energy efficiency, dust emissions in nearby environment, dust explosions, jamming, noise, handling of hazardous materials and protection of materials from contamination are issues that will be considered in this paper. Here are also presented possible solutions for some of these issues

  18. Bulk Local States and Crosscaps in Holographic CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In a weakly coupled gravity theory in the anti-de Sitter space, local states in the bulk are linear superpositions of Ishibashi states for a crosscap in the dual conformal field theory. The superposition structure can be constrained either by the microscopic causality in the bulk gravity or the bootstrap condition in the boundary conformal field theory. We show, contrary to some expectation, that these two conditions are not compatible to each other in the weak gravity regime. We also present an evidence to show that bulk local states in three dimensions are not organized by the Virasoro symmetry.

  19. Theoretical evaluation of bulk viscosity: Expression for relaxation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Mohammad Zaheri, Ali; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K.

    2007-10-01

    A theoretical calculation of bulk viscosity has been carried out by deriving an expression for the relaxation time which appears in the formula for bulk viscosity derived by Okumura and Yonezawa. The expression involved a pair distribution function and interaction potential. Numerical results have been obtained over a wide range of densities and temperatures for Lennard-Jones fluids. It is found that our results provide a good description of bulk viscosity as has been judged by comparing the results with nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results. In addition, our results demonstrate the importance of the multiparticle correlation function.

  20. Unipolar memristive switching in bulk positive temperature coefficient ceramic thermistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongya; Wang, Caihui; Fu, Hua; Zhou, Ji; Zheng, Shuzhi

    2016-01-01

    A memristive switching phenomena was investigated in macroscale bulk positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermosensitive ceramics. (BaxSr1-x)TiO3, which is a well-known PTC thermistor, was taken as an example to analyze the memristive behavior of those macroscale bulk ceramics. Hysteretic current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, which are the features of memristor were obtained. The origin of the effect is attributed to the PTC thermosensitive characteristic of the bulk ceramics, and a switching mechanism driven by competing field-driven heat generation and heat dissipation was proposed.

  1. Bulk sound velocity of porous materials at high pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿华运; 吴强; 谭华; 蔡灵仓; 经福谦

    2002-01-01

    A correction of Walsh's method for bulk sound velocity calculation for shocked porous materials is accomplishedbased on the Wu-Jing thermodynamic equation of state. The corrected bulk velocities for solid and porous sampleswith low porosities are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data published previously. On the basisof this corrected equation, the influence of thermoelectrons on the bulk velocity of shocked materials is discussed indetail at pressures of 50, 70 and 200 GPa. Some interesting phenomena are revealed, which seem to be the uniquefeatures of a dynamic-pressure-loading process and could not be found in static experiments.

  2. Spontaneous localization of bulk fields: the six-dimensional case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories with d=6 bulk and d=4 brane fields charged under a U(1) gauge symmetry. Radiatively induced Fayet-Iliopoulos terms lead to an instability of the bulk fields. We compute the profile of the bulk zero modes and observe the phenomenon of spontaneous localization towards the position of the branes. While this mechanism is quite similar to the d=5 case, the mass spectrum of the excited Kaluza-Klein modes shows a crucial difference

  3. Balloon and core sampling for determining bulk density of alluvial desert soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraski, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Samples were collected from major strata in the upper 5 m of an alluvial soil profile in the Amargosa Desert of southern Nevada to compare rubber-balloon and drive-core bulk-density measurement methods. Outside the range of fine-soil texture, where soil consistency was either very loose or very hard, the core method appeared to sample inaccurately, resulting in bulk-density values less than those determined by the balloon method. Under the severe sampling conditions encountered, large decreases in the relative accuracy of the core method were not directly related to rock-fragment content, but were related to extremes in the cohesiveness of the strata sampled. -from Author

  4. Bulk synthesis of nanocrystalline urania powders by citrate gel-combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay Kumar, D.; Ananthasivan, K.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Amirthapandian, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-01-01

    Bulk quantities (60 g) of nanocrystalline (nc) free flowing urania powders with crystallite size ranging from 38 to 252 nm have been synthesized for the first time by the citrate gel combustion method. A systematic study of the influence of the fuel (citric acid) to oxidant (nitrate) ratio (R) on the characteristics of the urania powders has been carried out for the first time. Mixture with an "R" value of 0.25 exhibited a vigorous auto-ignition reaction. This reaction was investigated with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and in-situ thermogravimetry coupled with differential thermal analysis and mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS). The bulk density, specific surface area, X-ray crystallite size, residual carbon and size distribution of particles of this powder were unique. Microscopic and microstructural investigation of selected samples revealed the presence of nanocrystals with irregular exfoliated morphology; their Electron Energy Loss Spectra testified the covalency of the U-O bond.

  5. CAPITAL INVESTMENT CRITERION FOR BULK ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION INFRASTRUCTURE: A CONSUMPTION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary technical function of an electric utility company is to supply electrical energy to its customers economically and at acceptable levels of reliability. The aspects of economics and reliability are however, competing constraints, since increased reliability of supply generally requires increased capital investment, which leads to higher prices for electricity.
    Traditional capital budgeting criteria, such as positive net present value, have been found to inhibit sound economic capital investment decision-making within the bulk electricity transmission environment. It is submitted that the results of this investigation will enable the operators of bulk electricity transmission systems to match the level of investment in reliability related infrastructure, with customers’ reliability preferences. To do this it is necessary to incorporate the economic valueof- service reliability to customers into the economic evaluation used by utility planners.

  6. Bulk - Samples gamma-rays activation analysis (PGNAA) with Isotopic Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given on research towards the Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) of bulk-samples. Some aspects in bulk-sample PGNAA are discussed, where irradiation by isotopic neutron sources is used mostly for in-situ or on-line analysis. The research was carried out in a comparative and/or qualitative way or by using a prior knowledge about the sample material. Sometimes we need to use the assumption that the mass fractions of all determined elements add up to 1. The sensitivity curves are also used for some elements in such complex samples, just to estimate the exact percentage concentration values. The uses of 252Cf, 241Arn/Be and 239Pu/Be isotopic neutron sources for elemental investigation of: hematite, ilmenite, coal, petroleum, edible oils, phosphates and pollutant lake water samples have been mentioned.

  7. Numerical calculation of trapped magnetic field for square multiple bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the trapped magnetic field was calculated for square bulk superconductors using the sand-pile model and Biot-Savart law. The numerical simulation of the trapped magnetic field was performed varying the sample dimensions, distance between the sample surface and observation point. In addition the magnetic field characteristics of superconducting bulk arrangement in an array was determined. The trapped magnetic field was found to be depending on the sample dimensions and distance between the sample and observation point. It is observed that, when the distance from the surface is larger, the value of the trapped magnetic field decreases, but the variation of the trapped magnetic field becomes small due to averaging the distribution of the trapped magnetic field.

  8. Introducing the Bulking Factor to Quantify Clogging in Petroleum Formation Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, E. D.; Mays, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of both fluid and particle interactions in porous media is important for applications in groundwater hydrology, carbon sequestration, water filtration, and petroleum reservoir characterization. In particular, petroleum reservoir damage costs $10 billion annually, according to the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Petroleum reservoir damage, also called formation damage, results from various operations related to oil and gas production, including drilling, completions, and production phases. In this study, an extension to the widely applied Kozeny-Carman equation will be used to explore the characteristics of a dimensionless clogging parameter called the bulking factor, which was first introduced by Ojha and Graham in the 1990s. This present study will explore the tendency for fines, also called colloids, to cause clogging in initially clean porous media. Analysis proceeds using a mathematical model in which the dimensionless bulking factor is used to extend the widely utilized Kozeny-Carman equation to account for other clogging factors that are not correlated with the volume of deposited fines. The velocity dependence of the bulking factor is illustrated by considering several experimental studies from the literature that use a variety of porosities, fluids, colloid diameters and types, filter materials, and flow velocities. The filtration data sets had porosity from 35% to 46%, filter material diameters from 163 μm to 1400 μm, and colloid diameters from 0.10 μm to 8.00 μm. The filter materials were uniform sand, glass beads, or Clementine silica. Results indicate that with increasing velocity, the bulking factor decreases for all of the experiments analyzed. This correlation indicates that when other variables are held constant, filtration experiments conducted at higher flow velocity result in less clogging, at least for the case of initially clean porous media. Fitted values of the bulking factor were also correlated with the Peclet

  9. Thermodynamic regularities in compressed liquids: II. The reduced bulk modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous work, we analysed some regularities found in the behaviour of the thermal expansion coefficient, αp, in compressed liquids. We confirmed that a given liquid presents a characteristic pressure range in which the condition (∂αp/∂T)p=0 is fulfilled within a narrow range of reduced densities. We also found that the density at which the condition (∂αp/∂T)p=0 is satisfied, ρα, decreases with temperature, a key feature not described before. Earlier studies by other authors suggested that similar regularities are expected for the reduced bulk modulus, B. We present here a detailed analysis of the temperature and density dependence of B from existing experimental results at high pressures. Several liquids have been analysed: argon, krypton, xenon, ethylene, tetrafluoromethane, trifluoromethane, carbon dioxide, carbon disulfide, n-butane, n-hexane, toluene, ethanol, 1-hexanol, m-cresol, and quinoline. We locate that the density ρB that fulfils the condition (∂B/∂T)ρ=0 occurs at a particular region of the phase diagram, between 3.4 and 2.4 times the critical density of each liquid. Interestingly, the previously found density ρα is close to ρB, in a similar region of the reduced phase diagram. However, we note that ρB typically decreases to a lesser extent with temperature than ρα. In addition, we have found that ρB(T) behaves in a parallel fashion for the different liquids, showing larger values of ρB as the complexity of the molecules increases. These findings provide a strong basis for developing general equation of state models to describe the behaviour of liquids in the high-pressure regime

  10. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  11. Practical technique of pulsed field magnetization for bulk HTS application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied a pulsed field magnetization (PFM) of bulk HTS assembled into a synchronous motor as a field-pole. The PFM is essential to apply bulk HTS inside the machine as a practical technique. In the present study, we developed a PFM technique that is a usage of Controlled Magnetic density Distribution Coil (CMDC). The coil is composed of inner vortex coil and outer solenoid. We successfully obtained the trapped flux density with 1.3 T by the step-wise cooling method with CMDC at 38 K in the motor. The bulk was cooled by a condensed neon. In addition, we studied the PFM for Gd-bulk of 140 mm diameter. By using the CMDC, we obtained the trapped flux density distribution with regular shape. In this paper we report these advanced PFM techniques for a practical machinery applications

  12. Bulk metallic glasses: A new class of engineering materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joysurya Basu; S Ranganathan

    2003-06-01

    Bulk glass-forming alloys have emerged over the past fifteen years with attractive properties and technological promise. A number of alloy systems based on lanthanum, magnesium, zirconium, palladium, iron, cobalt and nickel have been discovered. Glass-forming ability depends on various factors like enthalpy of mixing, atomic size and multicomponent alloying. A number of processes is available to synthesise bulk metallic glasses. The crystallisation behaviour and mechanical properties of these alloys pose interesting scientific questions. Upon crystallisation many of these glasses transform to bulk nanocrystals and nanoquasicrystals. A detailed study of the structure and the crystallisation behaviour of glasses has enabled the elucidation of the possible atomic configuration in liquid alloys. Their crystallisation behaviour can be exploited to synthesise novel nanocomposite microstructures and their mechanical properties can be enhanced. A broad overview of the present status of the science and technology of bulk metallic glasses and their potential technological uses is presented.

  13. Control over magnetic properties in bulk hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Christian; Quesada, Adrian; Saerbeck, Thomas; Rubia, Miguel Angel De La; Garcia, Miguel Angel; Fernandez, Jose Francisco; Schuller, Ivan K.; UCSD Collaboration; Instituto de Ceramica, Madrid Collaboration; Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble Collaboration

    We present control of coercivity and remanent magnetization of a bulk ferromagnetic material embedded in bulk vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) by using a standard bulk synthesis procedure. The method generalizes the use of structural phase transitions of one material to control structural and magnetic properties of another. A structural phase transition (SPT) in the V2O3 host material causes magnetic properties of Ni to change as function of temperature. The remanent magnetization and the coercivity are reversibly controlled by the SPT without additional external magnetic fields. The reversible tuning shown here opens the pathway for controlling the properties of a vast variety of magnetic hybrid bulk systems. This Work is supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science, U.S. Department of Energy, BES-DMS funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Science, DMR under grant DE FG02 87ER-45332.

  14. Fluid-fluid transitions at bulk supercritical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Woodward, Clifford E; Forsman, Jan

    2013-02-26

    We use three different polymer solvent mixture models to theoretically determine the existence of capillary-induced phase separation in simple pores under supercritical bulk conditions. These models undergo bulk demixing, due to quite different mechanisms, yet readily display supercritical transitions without the use of esoteric interactions in the capillary. The theoretical method used to analyze these systems is density functional theory. We find that capillary demixing is not reliant on the presence of a pure surface transition but may occur in the absence of the latter. This is shown by considering cases where the surface enhancement factor is too weak to cause demixing at a single surface or else the bulk conditions are supercritical to both bulk and surface transitions. This phenomenon may prove useful in applications involving adsorption from mixtures into porous particles. PMID:23360176

  15. Bulk metallic glass for low noise fluxgate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The team of Prime Photonics, Virginia Tech, and Utron Kinetics propose to demonstrate a method for fabrication of a bulk, amorphous, cobalt-rich material that...

  16. Diagnosis of mediastinal bulk disease in Hodgkin patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographic determination of mediastinal bulk in Hodgkin disease is confusing, with numerous methods having been proposed. The authors have evaluated with chest radiography and thoracic CT 76 patients with mediastinal Hodgkin disease. Seventy-four (97%) had bulk disease as determined by at least one method. Patients were categorized according to clinical stage and symptoms, the pattern of nodal involvement, the presence of extension (E disease), and response to treatment; a subset of 37 patients was isolated. These individuals had radiographically and clinically more severe disease that responded less favorably to treatment.The average mediastinal mass diameter in these patients was 11.0 cm, the thoracic ratio 36.6%, and the tumor area 138 cm2. However, no method currently used to define bulk disease would consistently define all of these 37 patients with a poorer prognosis and outcome. The radiographic diagnosis of mediastinal bulk disease in patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin disease should be done with caution

  17. Application of the penetration theory for gas - Liquid mass transfer without liquid bulk: Differences with system with a bulk

    OpenAIRE

    van Elk, E. P.; Knaap, M. C.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2007-01-01

    Frequently applied micro models for gas-liquid mass transfer all assume the presence of a liquid bulk. However, some systems are characterized by the absence of a liquid bulk, a very thin layer of liquid flows over a solid surface. An example of such a process is absorption in a column equipped with sructured packing elements. The penetration model was slightly modified, so that it can describe systems without liquid bulk. A comparison is made between the results obtained with the modified mo...

  18. Magnetic forces associated with bursty bulk flows in Earth's magnetotail

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Tomas; Hamrin, Maria; Nilsson, Hans; Kullen, Anita; Pitkänen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    We present the first direct measurements of magnetic forces acting on bursty bulk flow plasma in the magnetotail. The magnetic forces are determined using Cluster multispacecraft measurements. We analyze 67 bursty bulk flow (BBF) events and show that the curvature part of the magnetic force is consistently positive, acting to accelerate the plasma toward Earth between approximately 10 and 20 R-E geocentrical distances, while the magnetic field pressure gradient increasingly brakes the plasma ...

  19. A method of determining the bulk strength of strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk strength of rocks in strata is determined by logging a borehole with a neutron-neutron or neutron-gamma log to determine the Hydrogen Index log of the borehole and the lithology of the surrounding strata. The log is modified by a predetermined mathematical function for each lithology group of rocks in the strata. The bulk strength of each individual rock in the lithology is calculated from the modified hydrogen log using a polynomial expression. (author)

  20. On the Relation Between Casimir Forces and Bulk Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napiórkowski, Marek; Piasecki, Jarosław

    2014-09-01

    Within a microscopic approach we show that in the case of an ideal quantum gas enclosed in a slit the Casimir force can be simply expressed in terms of the bulk one-particle density matrix. The corresponding formula, which holds both for bosons and fermions, allows to relate the range of the Casimir force to the bulk correlation length. The low-temperature behavior of the Casimir forces is derived.

  1. Bulk Viscosity and Particle Creation in the Inflationary Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Eshaghi, Mehdi; Riazi, Nematollah; Kiasatpour, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    We study particle creation in the presence of bulk viscosity of cosmic fluid in the early universe within the framework of open thermodynamical systems. Since the first-order theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is non-causal and unstable, we try to solve the bulk viscosity equation of the cosmic fluid with particle creation through the full causal theory. By adopting an appropriate function for particle creation rate of "Creation of Cold Dark Matter" model, we obtain analytical solutions...

  2. Capacity Issues and Efficiency Drivers in Brazilian Bulk Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Fernandes Wanke; Rebecca de Mattos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency analysis of Brazilian bulk terminals built upon the conjoint use of Data Envelopment Analysis and the bootstrapping technique. Confidence intervals and bias corrected central estimates were used as cornerstone tools, not only to test for significant differences on efficiency scores and their reciprocals, but also on returns to scale indicators provided by different DEA models. The results of the study suggest that most Brazilian bulk terminals present increas...

  3. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Hodges; Kristiana Hansen; Donald McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of ...

  4. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany So; Albert Wertheimer, Ph.D., MBA

    2012-01-01

    Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging.Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit...

  5. Bulk and edge quasihole tunneling amplitudes in the Laughlin state

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zi-Xiang; Lee, Ki Hoon; Wan, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The tunneling between the Laughlin state and its quasihole excitations are studied by using the Jack polynomial. We find a universal analytical formula for the tunneling amplitude, which can describe both bulk and edge quasihole excitations. The asymptotic behavior of the tunneling amplitude reveals the difference and the crossover between bulk and edge states. The effects of the realistic coulomb interaction with a background-charge confinement potential and disorder are also discussed. The ...

  6. Waveform control pulse magnetization for HTS bulk magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Shigeuchi, Koji; Okuda, Sayo; Watasaki, Masahiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-03-01

    For the past 10 years, we have studied high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnets for use in electromagnetic rotating machines. If the magnetic field effectively magnetizes the HTS bulk, then the size of the motor and generator can be reduced without a reduction in output. We showed that the melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O HTS bulk effectively traps a high magnetic field using waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM). WCPM makes it possible to generate any pulsed magnetic field waveform by appropriately changing the duty ratio of the pulse width modulation. By chopping so that the pulsed magnetic field has a period of about 1ms, the WCPM technology enables active control of the rise time and suppresses magnetic flux motion that decreases magnetization efficiency. This method is also useful for any HTS bulk magnet, and the high magnetic flux density is trapped in the HTS bulk by a single pulse magnetic field. We developed a magnetizer that has a feedback system from the penetrated magnetic flux density to realize WCPM. In this research, using only a single pulse magnetic field of WCPM method at 77K, an HTS bulk with a 45mm diameter and 19mm thickness trapped a maximum magnetic field of 1.63T, which is more than 90% of the trapped magnetic flux density by FC magnetization. This result suggests that the pulse magnetizing method can replace the conventional field-cooled method and promote the practical use of HTS magnets for electromagnetic power applications.

  7. Cosmic no hair for braneworlds with a bulk dilaton field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidsey, James E.; Seery, David

    2005-11-01

    Braneworld cosmology supported by a bulk scalar field with an exponential potential is developed. A general class of separable backgrounds for both single and two-brane systems is derived, where the bulk metric components are given by products of world volume and bulk coordinates and the world-volumes represent any anisotropic and inhomogeneous solution to an effective four-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We deduce a cosmic no hair theorem for all ever-expanding, spatially homogeneous Bianchi world volumes and find that the spatially flat and isotropic inflationary scaling solution represents a late-time attractor when the bulk potential is sufficiently flat. The dependence of this result on the separable nature of the bulk metric is investigated by applying the techniques of Hamilton-Jacobi theory to five-dimensional Einstein gravity. We employ the spatial gradient expansion method to determine the asymptotic form of the bulk metric up to third-order in spatial gradients. It is found that the condition for the separable form of the metric to represent the attractor of the system is precisely the same as that for the four-dimensional world-volume to isotropize. We also derive the fourth-order contribution to the Hamilton-Jacobi generating functional. Finally, we conclude by placing our results within the context of the holographic approach to braneworld cosmology.

  8. Bulk flow of halos in $\\Lambda$CDM simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming; Gao, Liang; Jing, Yipeng; Yang, Xiaohu; Chi, Xuebin; Feng, Longlong; Kang, Xi; Lin, Weipeng; Shang, Guihua; Wang, Long; Zhao, Donghai; Zhang, Pengjie

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the Pangu N-body simulation validates that bulk flow of halos follows Maxwellian distribution of which variance is consistent with prediction of linear perturbation theory of structure formation. We propose that consistency between observed bulk velocity and theories shall be examined at the effective scale as radius of spherical top-hat window function yielding the same smoothed velocity variance in linear theory as the sample window does. Then we compared some recently estimated bulk flows from observational samples with prediction of the $\\Lambda$CDM model we used, some results deviate the expectation at level of $\\sim 3\\sigma$ but the tension is not as severe as previously claimed. We disclose that bulk flow is weakly correlated with dipole of internal mass distribution, alignment angle between mass dipole and bulk flow has broad distribution but is peaked at $\\sim 30-50^\\circ$, meanwhile bulk flow shows little dependence on mass of halos used for estimation. In the simulation of box size $1h^...

  9. Exploring the BTZ bulk with boundary conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, Bruno Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    We point out a simple relation between the bulk field at an arbitrary radial position and the boundary OPE, by placing some old work by Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo and Parisi in the AdS/CFT context. This gives us, in principle, a prescription for extracting the classical bulk field from the boundary conformal block, and also clarifies why the latter is computed by a geodesic Witten diagram. We apply this prescription to the BTZ black hole - viewed as a pure state created by the insertion of a heavy operator in the boundary CFT_2 - and use it to relate a classical field in the bulk to a heavy-light Virasoro conformal block in the boundary. In particular, we obtain a relation between the radial bulk position and the conformal ratios in the boundary CFT. We use this to show that the singular points of the radial bulk equation occur when the dual boundary operators approach each other and that the associated bulk monodromies map to monodromies of the (appropriately transformed) conformal block, thus providing a CFT in...

  10. High thermoelectric performance of niobium-doped strontium titanate bulk material affected by all-scale grain boundary and inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large thermal conductivity of SrTiO3 bulk material limits its potential application for high-temperature thermoelectricity. The effects of all-scale grain boundaries and inclusions on the thermoelectric performance of Nb-doped bulk SrTiO3 materials are investigated in this study. Nano- to microscale grain boundaries and inclusions reduce the thermal conductivity by 30%. As a result, the ZT value is enhanced 2.6 times by a combination of all-sized crystals, energy filtering effect, multilevel scattering behaviors of nano/microscale grain boundaries and inclusions

  11. Extreme Value Theory and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Fernandez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is a measure of the maximum potential change in value of a portfolio of financial assets with a given probability over a given time horizon. VaR became a key measure of market risk since the Basle Committee stated that banks should be able to cover losses on their trading portfolios over a ten-day horizon, 99 percent of the time. A common practice is to compute VaR by assuming that changes in value of the portfolio are normally distributed, conditional on past in-formation. However, assets returns usually come from fat-tailed distri-butions. Therefore, computing VaR under the assumption of conditional normality can be an important source of error. We illustrate this point with Chilean and U.S. returns series by resorting to extreme value theory (EVT and GARCH-type models. In addition, we show that dynamic estimation of empirical quantiles can also give more accurate VaR estimates than quantiles of a standard normal.

  12. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    Recent studies reveal that consumers respond favourably to “organic plus” products with additional ethical attributes. The aim of the current study is to explore whether consumers would notice and value further improvements in the animal welfare standards than those imposed by the organic...

  13. Value Set Authority Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The VSAC provides downloadable access to all official versions of vocabulary value sets contained in the 2014 Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Each value set...

  14. The value of mangroves

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The article presents the forestry, fishery and ecological values of mangroves. Studies on the measurement of the economic value of mangroves that were conducted in Thailand, Indonesia and Ecuador are also presented.

  15. Bulk precipitation chemistry at the forest and forest village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökbulak, Ferhat; Şengönül, Kamil; Serengil, Yusuf; Yurtseven, İbrahim; Uygur, Betul; Özhan, Süleyman; Özcan, Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and compare selected physical and chemical properties of precipitation in a broadleaf mixed forest and a village located in the same forest in order to determine the influence of the village on the atmospheric environmental quality of the forest ecosystem. Bulk precipitation samples were collected weekly from October 2005 to July 2011. Precipitation samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, total suspended particles (TSP), total alkalinity (CaCO3), alkalinity (HCO3-), chloride (CI-), total hardness (CaCO3), Ca hardness (CaCO3), calcium (Ca2 +), magnesium (Mg2 +), organic matter, total nitrogen (N), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), nitrate (NO3)-, phosphate (PO4)3 -, iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), ammonium (NH4)+, and sulfate (SO4)2 -. The precipitation samples from forest and forest village were significantly different from each other for EC, total alkalinity (CaCO3), HCO3-, Ca hardness (CaCO3), Ca2 +, total N, K+, NO3-, and NH4+. Regardless of the study sites, PO43 - and Mg2 + were dominant anion and cation, respectively. The orders of cation and anion concentrations were similar for both study sites and they were in descending order of Mg2 + > Ca2 + > Na+ > K+ > NH4+ > Fe > Al > H+ and PO43 - > HCO3- > SO42 - > CI- > NO3-, respectively. Overall average monthly values of precipitation characteristics did not show significant difference between months except for pH, EC, total alkalinity (CaCO3), and HCO3-. Significant correlations were found between SO42 - and pH, Ca2 +, NH4+ and between NO3- and NH4+ for the precipitation event at the forest site. Both study sites had pH values higher than 5.6 due to the neutralization of SO42 - and NO3- by NH4+ and Ca2 +. Significant correlation coefficients found between the study sites for the same precipitation parameter indicated that both study sites were under the influence of the same emission sources.

  16. Information Economics: Valuing Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinberg, Herbert R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the question of why previous articles and studies on the value of information have failed to provide meaningful techniques for measuring that value. The discussion covers four principle causes for confusion surrounding the valuation of information and draws conclusions about the value added model of information. (seven references) (CLB)

  17. The value of space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panduro, Toke Emil

    concerned with the value of different types of green space and how these values can be applied in urban planning policies related to climate adaption. The results presented in this thesis, ensure a “level playing field” in the assessment of the cost and benefits of different climate adaptation strategies...... and provide reliable estimates of the value of different types of green space....

  18. The Value of Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Peek (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFair value estimates of debt and equity securities play an increasingly important role in the economy. For example, International Financial Reporting Standards require companies to report many of their investments at fair value on the balance sheet or to use fair values in goodwill impai

  19. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  20. Values Drive the Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  1. Value and Momentum Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We find consistent value and momentum return premia across eight diverse markets and asset classes, and a strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum returns correlate more strongly across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes, but value and momentum...

  2. Value activity monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only promi

  3. Half-metallicity of bulk and (1 1 1) surface for full-Heusler alloy Co2VAl: A density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The bulk and (1 1 1) surface half-metallicity of Heusler alloy Co2VAl are investated. •The half-metallic ferromagnetism with a ground state is confirmed in bulk Co2VAl. •The bulk HM property is preserved at two surfaces but lost at other two surfaces. •The present work would be helpful for the applications of spintronic devices. -- Abstract: Motivated by the recent experimental synthesis of the bulk and thin films for full-Heusler alloy Co2VAl, we investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the bulk Co2VAl and its (1 1 1) surfaces based on the density functional theory. The half-metallic ferromagnetism with the magnetic moment of 2.00 μB per formula unit is confirmed in the bulk Co2VAl with L21 structure. For the four possible (1 1 1) surfaces, it is shown from the present DOS that the bulk half-metallicity is preserved at V- and Al-terminated surfaces but destroyed by some surface states at Co–V- and Co–Al-terminated surfaces. We also find that the atomic magnetic moments at the (1 1 1) surfaces are greatly different from the bulk values due to the effect of symmetry breaking at the surface. Moreover, the structure relaxation indicates that Al- and V-terminated surfaces are more favorable to the applications of spintronic devices

  4. Managing Customer Value

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, William B

    1999-01-01

    This paper builds the framework for linking the established work of competitive advantage with the emerging discipline of value marketing. The outcome of this linkage is the concept of strategic value management. Strategic value management focuses on the right combinations of product quality, customer service and fair prices as the key to selling to todayÕs value conscious consumers. The core of the strategy stresses the firmÕs ability to combine and manage these dimensions of value in a way ...

  5. Baudrillard's Theory of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär Ola

    2014-01-01

    Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly......) postmodernism, with specific focus on his value theory, in order to understand his own reasons for abandoning his previous position. I then follow the marginal stream of scholars who are making use of the early Baudrillard. I find his value theory promising but still a mere sketch rather than an actual general...

  6. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... and researchers at primary schools in Denmark from 2004-2009. We argue for the importance of reflecting on values in school health nursing in order to navigate between human values and values deriving from medicine. Our studies demonstrate that value clarification, peer observation and reflective spaces at work...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  7. First in situ determination of gas transport coefficients (DO2, DAr and DN2) from bulk gas concentration measurements (O2, N2, Ar) in natural sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabeck, O.; Delille, B.; Rysgaard, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    evolution of an internal gas peak within the ice, we deduced the bulk gas transport coefficients for oxygen (DO2), argon (DAr), and nitrogen (DN2). The values fit to the few existing estimates from experimental work, and are close to the diffusivity values in water (1025 cm2 s21). We suggest that gas...

  8. VALUE ORIENTATION OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadevi Patil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have tried to explain the importance of Value education in the development of the students and in turn the society as a whole. Teachers role in inculcating the values and ethics in Students. The growing concern over the erosion of essential values and increasing suspicion in society has brought to focus the need for readjustments in the curriculum of social and moral values. In the culturally plural society, education should foster universal and eternal values, oriented towards the unity and integration of our people. Such value education should help eliminate obscurantism, religious fanaticism, violence, superstition and fatalism. Values – moral and ethical – promote innate love for peace and reverence for truth, which are intrinsic in human life.

  9. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  10. Static mechanical properties for Ca48Mg27Cu25 bulk metallic glass by ultrasonic velocity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The static mechanical properties of a Ca48Mg27Cu25 bulk metallic glass were investigated using a technique of ultrasonic measurement and compressive test. The Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (v), shear modulus (G) and bulk modulus (B) for the Ca48Mg27Cu25 alloy at room temperature are significantly smaller than those for Zr- and Pd- based bulk metallic glasses. The values of E, v, G and B for the Ca48Mg27Cu25 alloy are 29.8GPa, 0.230, 12.1GPa and 18.4GPa, respectively. The results of compression test for the Ca48Mg27Cu25 alloy have been also described.

  11. Properties of the state of the art of bulk III-V nitride substrates and homoepitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological importance of III-V nitride semiconductors relies on their variety of applications, which cover optical, optoelectronic and electronic devices capable of operating under extreme values of current, voltage and temperature. The major roadblock for full realization of the potential of nitride semiconductors is still the availability of affordable large-area and high-quality native substrates with controlled electrical properties. Despite the impressive accomplishments recently achieved by techniques such as hydride vapour phase epitaxy and ammonothermal for GaN and sublimation for AlN, much more must be attained before establishing a bulk growth technique of choice to grow these materials. A brief review of the structural, optical and electronic properties of the state of the art of bulk and thick-film (quasi-bulk) nitride substrates and homoepitaxial films is presented, and a few device applications are also highlighted. (topical review)

  12. Structure and magnetic properties of Fe36Co36B19Si5Nb4 bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The work presents a microstructure characterization, thermal stability and soft magnetic properties analysis of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on bulk amorphous ribbons and rods. The amorphous structure of tested materials was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM methods. The thermal properties associated with crystallization temperature of the glassy samples were measured using differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The magnetic properties were determined by the Maxwell-Wien bridge and VSM methods.Findings: The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations have revealed that the studied as-cast bulk metallic glasses were amorphous. Based from the XRD analysis and TEM investigations of the Fe36Co36B19Si5Nb4 rod samples, it was believed that the tested alloy can be fabricated into a bulk glassy rod with the diameter of up to 4 mm. A two stage crystallization process was observed for studied bulk amorphous alloy. The changes of Curie temperatures, crystallization temperatures and magnetic properties as a function of glassy ribbons thickness (time of solidification were stated. The investigated magnetic properties allow to classify the studied metallic glasses as soft magnetic materials.Practical implications: The studied bulk metallic glasses are suitable materials for many electrical application in different elements of magnetic circuits and for manufacturing of sensors and precise current transformers.Originality/value: The obtained examination results confirm the utility of applied investigation methods in the microstructure, thermal and soft magnetic properties analysis of examined bulk amorphous alloys.

  13. Elastic recovery of ReBaCuO bulk superconductors during indentation process at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the mechanical properties of RE-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors, Indentation Fracture (IF) method using Vickers hardness number has been used to evaluate the fracture toughness at 40-293 K. However, there are some differences between IF values and fracture toughness obtained from other mechanical test. This paper considers the influence of the elastic properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O, Gd-Ba-Cu-O and two types of Sm-Ba-Cu-O on IF values by measuring the indentation depth. As a result, the elastic recovery rate R of Y-Ba-Cu-O increased from 27% to 68% with decreasing temperature. R of Gd-Ba-Cu-O and Sm-Ba-Cu-O also increased from 10-20% to 40-50% with decreasing temperature. In this study, we calculated Vickers hardness numbers using the indentation depths at 40-293 K, and evaluated IF values of bulk superconductors at 40-293 K

  14. Proton irradiation effects on critical current of bulk single-crystal superconducting YBCO wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have investigated the effects of 10 MeV proton irradiation on the magnetization M and critical current density Jc of bulk single-crystal YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) superconducting thick wire filaments produced through laser-heated floating zone (LHFZ) technique. M and Jc were determined both along the length and perpendicular to the length of the wire. Radiation-induced enhancement of Jc along the length of the wire was observed while there was a small decrease in Jc perpendicular to its length. Jc values along the length of the wire up to ∼1.4 x 105 A/cm2 at 77K and ∼1.3 x 106 A/cm2 at 30K and in applied magnetic field H = 1 T were observed in the irradiated samples. In the unirradiated sample, the difference in magnetization ΔM at a given field in the magnetic hysteresis loop for increasing and decreasing field applied perpendicular to the sample length was observed to depend on the orientation of the sample about its axis. This indicates anisotropy in Jc along the sample length. This anisotropy increased on irradiation relative to the direction of irradiation. They believe that these Jc values along the length are amongst the highest published Jc values for bulk high temperature superconductor (HTS) thick wire filament

  15. Closing the value gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's a predicament. For the most part, investor-owned electric utilities trade at a deep discount to the actual (that is, replacement-cost) value to their assets. That's because most utilities fail to earn real returns large enough to justify raising and investing capital. The result is a value gap, where overall market value is significantly lower than the replacement costs of the assets. This gap is wider for utilities than for virtually any other industry in our economy. In addition to providing education and awareness, senior management must determine which businesses and activities create value and which diminish it. Then, management must allocate capital and human resources appropriately, holding down investments in value-diminishing areas until they can improve their profitability, and aggressively investing in value-enhancing businesses while preserving their profitability. But value management must not stop with resource-allocation decisions. To create a lasting transition to a value management philosophy, the utility's compensation system must also change: executives will have motivation to create value when compensation stems from this goal, not from such misleading accounting measures as earnings-per-share growth or ROE. That requires clear value-creation goals, and the organization must continuously evaluate top management's performance in light of the progress made toward those goals

  16. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotopic analyses on water-soluble sulfate in bulk atmospheric deposition from the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H.; Reheis, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfate is a major component of bulk atmospheric deposition (including dust, aerosol, fog, and rain). We analyzed sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of water-soluble sulfate from 40 sites where year-round dust traps collect bulk atmospheric deposition in the southwestern United States. Average sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions (??34S and ??18O) are 5.8 ?? 1.4 (CDT) and 11.2 ?? 1.9 (SMOW) (n = 47), respectively. Samples have an oxygen 17 anomaly (?? 17O), with an average value of 1.0 ?? 0.6???. Except for a weak positive correlation between ??18O and ??17O values (r2 ??? 0.4), no correlation exists for ??18O versus ??34S, ?? 17O versus ??34S, or any of the three isotopic compositions versus elevation of the sample site. Exceptional positive ?? 17O values (up to 4.23???) are found in samples from sites in the vicinity of large cities or major highways, and near-zero ?? 17O values are found in samples close to dry lakes. Comparison of isotopic values of dust trap sulfate and desert varnish sulfate from the region reveals that varnish sulfate has average isotopic values that are ???4.8??? lower for ??18O, ???2.1??? higher for ??34S , and ???0.3??? lower for ?? 17O than those of the present-day bulk deposition sulfate. Although other factors could cause the disparity, this observation suggests a possibility that varnish sulfate may have recorded a long-term atmospheric sulfate deposition during the Holocene or Pleistocene, as well as the differences between sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of the preindustrial bulk deposition sulfate and those of the industrial era.

  17. Constraining a matter-dominated cosmological model with bulk viscosity proportional to the Hubble parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    We present and constrain a cosmological model where the only component is a pressureless fluid with bulk viscosity as an explanation for the present accelerated expansion of the universe. We study the particular model of a bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the Hubble parameter. The model is constrained using the SNe Ia Gold 2006 sample, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) shift parameter R, the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) peak A and the Second Law of Thermodynamics (SLT). It was found that this model is in agreement with the SLT using only the SNe Ia test. However when the model is constrained using the three cosmological tests together (SNe+CMB+BAO) we found: 1.- The model violates the SLT, 2.- It predicts a value of H_0 \\approx 53 km sec^{-1} Mpc^{-1} for the Hubble constant, and 3.- We obtain a bad fit to data with a \\chi^2_{min} \\approx 532. These results indicate that this model is viable just if the bulk viscosity is triggered in recent times.

  18. Energy dependence of electron inelastic mean free paths in bulk GaN crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, M.; Zommer, L.; Jablonski, A.; Grzegory, I.; Bockowski, M.

    2004-09-01

    Recent advances in fabrication and commercialization of high-brightness blue and green light-emitting devices based on gallium nitride have renewed intense research of its basic properties. Since information on electron transport processes in GaN is scarce, their systematic studies are highly desirable. The electron inelastic mean free path (IMFP) is a crucial parameter for quantitative interpretation of surface electron spectra. The energy dependence of IMFP for bulk GaN crystals with different surface concentrations of their constituents was obtained from elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) with use of the Ni standard in the energy range 200-2000 eV. The measured IMFPs were compared with the values predicted by the TPP-2M and G-1 formulae. A reasonable agreement was found between the measured IMFPs in bulk GaN with an ideal stoichiometric surface composition and the corresponding calculated IMFPs. Compared with the bulk IMFPs, experimental IMFPs valid for the GaN sample with a thin surface layer enriched in ˜70 at.% Ga are only slightly smaller by 5-10%, depending on the electron energy.

  19. Critical current characteristics and history dependence in superconducting SmFeAsOF bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superconducting SmFeAsO1-xFx (x=0.2) polycrystalline bulks were prepared by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method. The magnetic field and temperature dependences of critical current densities in the samples were investigated by resistive and ac inductive (Campbell's) methods. It was found that a fairly large shielding current density over 109 A/m2, which is considered to correspond to the local critical current density, flows locally with the perimeter size similar to the average grain size of the bulk samples, while an extremely low transport current density of about 105 A/m2 corresponding to the global critical current density flows through the whole sample. Furthermore, a unique history dependence of global critical current density was observed, i.e., it shows a smaller value in the increasing-field process than that in the decreasing-field process. The history dependence of global critical current characteristic in our case can be ascribed to the existence of the weak-link property between the grains in SmFeAsO1-xFx bulk.

  20. Galactic Disk Bulk Motions as Revealed by the LSS-GAC DR2

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ning-Chen; Huang, Yang; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Ren, Juan-Juan; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the bulk motions of the nearby Galactic stellar disk, based on three samples selected from the LSS-GAC DR2: a global sample containing 0.57 million FGK dwarfs out to $\\sim$ 2 kpc, a local subset of the global sample consisting $\\sim$ 5,400 stars within 150 pc, and an anti-center sample containing $\\sim$ 4,400 AFGK dwarfs and red clump stars within windows of a few degree wide centered on the Galactic anti-center. The global sample is used to construct a three-dimensional map of bulk motions of the Galactic disk from the solar vicinity out to $\\sim$ 2 kpc with a spatial resolution of $\\sim$ 250 pc. Typical values of the radial and vertical components of bulk motion range from $-$15 km s$^{-1}$ to 15 km s$^{-1}$, while the lag behind the circular speed dominates the azimuthal component by up to $\\sim$ 15 km s$^{-1}$. The map reveals spatially coherent, kpc-scale stellar flows in the disk, with typical velocities of a few tens km s$^{-1}$. Bending- and breathing-mode perturb...

  1. Basin Excavation, Lower Crust, Composition, and Bulk Moon Mass balance in Light of a Thin Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziegler, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    New lunar gravity results from GRAIL have been interpreted to reflect an overall thin and low-density lunar crust. Accordingly, crustal thickness has been modeled as ranging from 0 to 60 km, with thinnest crust at the locations of Crisium and Moscoviense basins and thickest crust in the central farside highlands. The thin crust has cosmochemical significance, namely in terms of implications for the Moon s bulk composition, especially refractory lithophile elements that are strongly concentrated in the crust. Wieczorek et al. concluded that the bulk Moon need not be enriched compared to Earth in refractory lithophile elements such as Al. Less Al in the crust means less Al has been extracted from the mantle, permitting relatively low bulk lunar mantle Al contents and low pre- and post-crust-extraction values for the mantle (or the upper mantle if only the upper mantle underwent LMO melting). Simple mass-balance calculations using the method of [4] suggests that the same conclusion might hold for Th and the entire suite of refractory lithophile elements that are incompatible in olivine and pyroxene, including the KREEP elements, that are likewise concentrated in the crust.

  2. DESIGN, FABRICATION, TESTING AND MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF BULK-MICROMACHINED FLOWMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaobao; Qian Jin; Zhang Dacheng

    2004-01-01

    Micromachined piezoresistive flowmeters with four different types of sensing structures have been designed, fabricated and tested. Piezoresistors were defined at the end of the sensors through p-diffusion, and their values were about 3.5 kΩ. Wheatstone bridge was configured with the piezoresistors in order to measure the output response. The output voltage increases with increasing flow rate of air, obeying determined relationships. The testing results show that the sensors that are designed for measuring 10L/M in full operational range have desired sensitivities. The sensor chip is manufactured with bulk-micromachining technologies, requiring a set of seven masks.

  3. HPTLC method for quantitative determination of granisetron hydrochloride in bulk drug and in tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmana Prabu, S.; Selvamani, P.; S Latha

    2010-01-01

    A new simple, rapid and reproducible high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the analysis of granisetron hydrochloride (GSH) in bulk drug and from pharmaceutical formulation. The chromatographic separation was achieved on HPTLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase with chloroform: methanol (80:20 %v/v) as mobile phase. The method gives a compact band for GSH (Rf value of 0.45 ± 0.02). Densitometric analysis o...

  4. Correction methods of γ-ray self-absorption in bulk sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five methods of γ-ray self-absorption correction for bulk sample were investigated. It was clarified that there is no significant difference in quality among four methods, except for one method, while a few percents of discrepancy were observed in case of larger value of attenuation coefficient than 0.1 cm-1. One of those methods is recommended for practical γ-ray spectrometry on account of the simple calculation method and no experimental data needed. Self-absorption for low energy γ-rays with high attenuation coefficient was a little dependent on Ge crystal diameter. (author)

  5. Quark-hadron phase transition in DGP brane gravity with bulk scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanbari, T.; Mohammadi, A.; Ossoulian, Z.; Saaidi, K.

    2015-06-01

    A DGP brane-world framework is picked out to study quark-hadron phase transition problem. The model also includes a bulk scalar field in agreement with string theory prediction. The work is performed using two formalisms as: smooth crossover approach and first order approach, and the results are plotted for both branches of DGP model. General behavior of temperature is the same in these two approaches and it decrease with increasing time and expanding Universe. Phase transition occurs at about micro-second after the big bang. The results show that transition time depends on brane tension value in which larger brane tension comes to earlier transition time.

  6. Effect of PVA doping on flux pinning in Bulk MgB2

    OpenAIRE

    Vajpayee, Arpita; Awana, V. P. S.; Balamurugan, S.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.; Kishan, H.; Bhalla, G. L.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of PVA (Poly Vinyl Acetate) doped bulk MgB2 superconductor is reported here. PVA is used as a Carbon source. PVA doping effects made two distinguishable contributions: first enhancement of Jc field performance and second an increase in Hc2 value, both because of carbon incorporation into MgB2 crystal lattice. The susceptibility measurement reveals that Tc decreased from 37 to 36 K. Lattice parameter a decreased from 3.085 A to 3.081 A due to the partial subs...

  7. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emin, David, E-mail: emin@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Akhtari, Massoud [Semple Institutes for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ellingson, B. M. [Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mathern, G. W. [Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm.

  8. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm

  9. Cu-based bulk amorphous alloy with larger glass-forming ability and supercooled liquid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, H.M. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); School of Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: waterdrophmfu@hotmail.com; Zhang, H.F. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, H. [Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Qld 4350 (Australia); Hu, Z.Q. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2008-06-30

    The glassy rod with a maximum sample thickness of 11 mm and larger supercooled liquid region of 108 K was successfully fabricated when substituting Cu with minor amount of Ag in the Cu-Zr-Al-Gd alloy system. The value of {gamma} reaches a maximum of 0.418 for the Cu{sub 45.5}Zr{sub 45}Al{sub 7}Gd{sub 2}Ag{sub 0.5} bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloy. The high glass-forming ability (GFA) and larger supercooled liquid region are discussed from atomic size, negative mixing heat among constituent elements and thermodynamics.

  10. Exponential decay of shearing stress during jerky flows in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Qiao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, an exponential decay of shearing stresses with the time during jerky flows in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass is revealed. The flow stresses with the time satisfy the following equation: σ = A · e−B · x, where A = −158.24*exp ( − N/47.60 + 1939.63 (N = 1, 2, 3…, and the mean value of obtained B is −0.13 with a Normal distribution. During jerky flows, the viscous shearing layer is formed, and the exponential decay of shear banding is present. The evolvement of shear bands is explained by the consumption of free volumes during flows.

  11. Preferred orientation and its effect on bulk physical properties of polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averaging methods used to derive preferred orientation parameters of polycrystalline materials are examined with particular reference to those parameters suitable for predicting bulk physical properties from the properties of individual crystallites. Attempts to correlate experimental values of thermal expansion and irradiation growth coefficients of polycrystalline graphite and zirconium alloys with the commonly used preferred orientation f-parameter are reviewed. The physical basis behind the derivation of the f-parameter is examined in some detail and the consequent restrictions on its general applicability pointed out. (author)

  12. Effect of silver addition on the mechanical and field trapping properties of Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Nariki, S; Matsui, M; Murakami, M

    2002-01-01

    The effect of Ag addition on the microstructure and the mechanical and field trapping properties of Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor has been investigated. The single grain Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors 32 mm in diameter were fabricated with 0-30 mass%Ag/sub 2/O additions by the melt growth method under controlled oxygen partial pressure of 1.0%. From microscopic observations, it was found that the macro- cracks in the a-b plane decreased with Ag addition. The three-point bending test showed that the average strength of Ag-free bulk was 69 MPa at room temperature, while the strength was dramatically improved to 110-115 MPa with 10-30 mass%Ag/sub 2/O additions. The trapped magnetic field of Ag-free bulk sample was 1.3 T at 77 K. The trapped field of bulk Gd-Ba-Cu-O samples with 10-20 mass%Ag/sub 2/O exhibited high values of 1.8-2.0 T at 77 K. However, the trapped field of the sample with 30 mass%Ag/sub 2/O addition was lowered to 1.1 T with decreasing the critical current density. The trapped field of Ag- adde...

  13. Brane big bang brought on by a bulk bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an alternative inflationary universe scenario in the context of Randall-Sundrum braneworld cosmology. In this new scenario the existence of extra dimension(s) plays an essential role. First, the brane universe is initially in the inflationary phase driven by the effective cosmological constant induced by a small mismatch between the vacuum energy in the five-dimensional bulk and the brane tension. This mismatch arises since the bulk is initially in a false vacuum. Then, false vacuum decay occurs, nucleating a true vacuum bubble with negative energy inside the bulk. The nucleated bubble expands in the bulk and consequently hits the brane, causing a hot big-bang brane universe of the Randall-Sundrum type. Here, the termination of the inflationary phase is due to the change of the bulk vacuum energy. The bubble kinetic energy heats up the universe. As a simple realization, we propose a model in which we assume an interaction between the brane and the bubble. We derive the constraints on the model parameters taking into account the following requirements: solving the flatness problem, no force which prohibits the bubble from colliding with the brane, a sufficiently high reheating temperature for the standard nucleosynthesis to work, and the recovery of Newton's law up to 1 mm. We find that a fine-tuning is needed in order to satisfy the first and the second requirements simultaneously, although the other constraints are satisfied in a wide range of the model parameters

  14. Development of a superconducting bulk magnet for NMR and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Tamada, Daiki; Yanagi, Yousuke; Itoh, Yoshitaka; Nemoto, Takahiro; Utumi, Hiroaki; Kose, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    A superconducting bulk magnet composed of six vertically stacked annular single-domain c-axis-oriented Eu-Ba-Cu-O crystals was energized to 4.74 T using a conventional superconducting magnet for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Shim coils, gradient coils, and radio frequency coils for high resolution NMR and MRI were installed in the 23 mm-diameter room-temperature bore of the bulk magnet. A 6.9 ppm peak-to-peak homogeneous region suitable for MRI was achieved in the central cylindrical region (6.2 mm diameter, 9.1 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a single layer shim coil. A 21 Hz spectral resolution that can be used for high resolution NMR spectroscopy was obtained in the central cylindrical region (1.3 mm diameter, 4 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a multichannel shim coil. A clear 3D MR image dataset of a chemically fixed mouse fetus with (50 μm)3 voxel resolution was obtained in 5.5 h. We therefore concluded that the cryogen-free superconducting bulk magnet developed in this study is useful for high-resolution desktop NMR, MRI and mobile NMR device.

  15. High-aspect-ratio bulk micromachining of titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimi, Marco F; Rao, Masa P; MacDonald, Noel C; Zuruzi, Abu Samah; Bothman, David P

    2004-02-01

    Recent process developments have permitted the highly anisotropic bulk micromachining of titanium microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). By using the metal anisotropic reactive ion etching with oxidation (MARIO) process, arbitrarily high-aspect-ratio structures with straight sidewalls and micrometre-scale features have been bulk micromachined into titanium substrates of various thicknesses, ranging from 0.5-mm sheet down to 10-microm free-standing titanium foils. Bulk micromachined structures are generally free of residual stresses and are preferred when large, rigid, flat and/or high-force actuators are desired. However, so far there has been a limited ability to select materials on the basis of specific application in bulk micromachining, primarily because of the predominance of MEMS processes dedicated to single-crystal silicon, such as silicon deep reactive ion etching. The MARIO process permits the creation of bulk titanium MEMS, which offers potential for the use of a set of material properties beyond those provided by traditional semiconductor-based MEMS. Consequently, the MARIO process enables the fabrication of novel devices that capitalize on these assets to yield enhanced functionalities that would not be possible with traditional micromechanical material systems. PMID:14743212

  16. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...

  17. Institution-specific value

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Peasnell

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of a new accounting standard for financial instruments, has raised a number of issues related to the application of fair value principles. This paper discusses some of these issues which are generally related to the fact that "fair values" are not always easily defined or readily available. It concludes that the application of fair value for financial liabilities might present fewer complications if it is matched by similar valuation principles for financial assets. The issue...

  18. Firms Value Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Szováková, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focus on business valuation by using income - based valuation methods. The theoretical part comprises the fundamentals of valuation theory. Furthermore the strategic and financial analysis is done. The practical part includes the analysis and forecast of value drivers, financial plan and the valuation itself. The valuation is based on Discounted Cash flow method and Economic Value added method. In conclusion the statement about the value of the company at 31.12.2013 is ...

  19. Fostering values in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Today, values hold a prominent place both in business ethics and in organization theory. However, there persists considerable confusion about what these values are and what role they play in these theories and, therefore, how they can be developed both within the individual and within the organization. Therefore, this paper seeks to define a conception of values based on a theory of human action that can provide a basis for an organization theory, and to propose a series of ideas about how pe...

  20. Social Life of Values

    OpenAIRE

    Magala, Slawomir

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe case of the Danish “cartoon war” was a premonition of things to come: accelerated social construction of inequalities and their accelerated symbolic communication, translation and negotiation. New uses of values in organizing and managing inequalities emerge. Values lead active social life as bourgeois virtues (McCloskey, 2006), their subversive alternatives or translated “memes” of cultural history. Since social life of values went global and online, tracing their hybrid mani...

  1. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed. PMID:27055306

  2. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management...... that may help these SMEs to occupy and sustain a competitive position in the value chain. It addresses this objective by introducing and discussing: • The concept of global value chains and its founding principles • The buyer-supplier relationships • Various SMEs operations configurations • Ideas for...

  3. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  4. Preparation and characterization of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses in form of plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Zr-based BMGs in form of plate was successful produced by die pressure casting method. • Many techniques have been used to characterize the structure of Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 alloy. • The calculated GFA parameters show that the alloy exhibits satisfactory GFA. • The studies reveal that tested as-cast Zr-based alloy is in amorphous state. - Abstract: Zr-based bulk metallic glasses present an interesting combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. During the last decade, intensive progress has been made and a number of applications have been suggested for these materials. In order to successfully apply these materials, it is necessary to accurately characterize their structure, thermal stability and other properties accurately. The aim of the presented work is the manufacturing, examination of the structure of selected Zr-based bulk metallic alloys and confirmation of an amorphous structure using X-ray analysis, microscopic observation and thermal analysis. In this work, the Zr-based bulk metallic glasses in form of plate was successful produced by die pressure casting method. Designed scientific station for casting zirconium based amorphous alloys in the form of plates and rods with selected dimensions is in our university a comprehensive method for achieving amorphous materials which enables us to maintain repeatability of as-cast samples with the amorphous structure and the assumed dimensions range. The diffraction pattern and exothermic reaction as well as the fracture surface morphology reveal that studied as-cast Zr-based alloy is in amorphous state. The calculated GFA parameters show that the alloy exhibits satisfactory glass-forming ability in form of studied plate. These obtained values can suggest that studied alloys are suitable materials for further planned practical application at welding process. The success of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses production in form of plate with obtained sizes is important for future progress

  5. Polish model of electric energy market-bulk energy tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key problem of electric energy supply industry reform is gradually launching a competitive wholesale generation market since 1994. In process of this transformation the important role plays bulk energy supply tariff in electricity transactions between Polish Power Grid Company and distribution and retail supply companies (distributors). Premises, factors and constrains having influence on shaping of the bulk energy supply tariff are presented. A brief outline of economic foundation for calculation of demand charges and energy rate is given. Particular attention has been paid to description of bulk energy supply tariff structure. The scope and manner of adjustment of this tariff to circumstances and constrains in the initial stage of the wholesale electric energy market have been described as well. (author). 8 refs

  6. Magnetophoretic control of water droplets in bulk ferrofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikis, Georgios; Bréant, Alexandre; Prakash, Manu

    2015-11-01

    We present a microfluidic platform for 2-D manipulation of water droplets immersed in bulk oil-based ferrofluid. Although non-magnetic, the droplets are exclusively controlled by magnetic fields, without any pressure-driven flow. The diphasic fluid layer is trapped in a submillimeter Hele-Shaw chamber that includes permalloy tracks on its substrate. An in-plane rotating magnetic field magnetizes the permalloy tracks, thus producing local magnetic gradients, while an orthogonal magnetic field magnetizes the bulk ferrofluid. To minimize the magnetostatic energy of the system, droplets are attracted towards the locations of the tracks where ferrofluid is repelled. Using this technique, we demonstrate synchronous propagation of water droplets, analyze PIV data of the bulk ferrofluid flow and study the kinematics of propagation. In addition, we show droplet break-up, merging and derive relevant scaling laws. Finally, we discuss future applications owing to the biocompatibility of the droplets.

  7. Bulk Higgs and the 750 GeV diphoton signal

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Mariana; Toharia, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We consider scenarios of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk and in which both the hierarchy and the flavor puzzles of the Standard Model are addressed. The simplest extra dimensional extension of the Standard Model Higgs sector, i.e a 5D bulk Higgs doublet, can be a natural and simple explanation to the 750 GeV excess of diphotons hinted at the LHC, with the resonance responsible for the signal being the lightest CP odd excitation coming from the Higgs sector. No new matter content is invoked, the only new ingredient being the presence of (positive) brane localized kinetic terms associated to the 5D bulk Higgs, which allow to reduce the mass of the lightest CP odd Higgs excitation to 750 GeV. Production and decay of this resonance can naturally fit the observed signal when the mass scale of the rest of extradimensional resonances is of order 1 TeV.

  8. Thermal neutron diffusion parameters for media of variable bulk density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron diffusion parameters (the macroscopic cross sections, and the diffusion cooling coefficients) for a given medium are dependent on the mass density. Therefore, thermal neutron experiments are influenced by the density of samples used. In the case of measurement series with bulk materials it is difficult to keep the same bulk density for all samples of the material. The classic thermal neutron pulsed experiment is considered in the paper. A method is shown to eliminate the influence of the variable bulk density on the results. A concept of the generalised decay constant and geometric buckling, and of the so-called density-removed neutron parameters, is used. Preliminary results of the Monte Carlo computer simulations of experimental series for polyethylene spherical samples of different porosity are presented. (author)

  9. High gradient magnetic separation using superconducting bulk magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aim to apply the superconducting bulk magnets to high gradient magnetic separation technique. Two bulk magnets are face-to-face arranged and a pipe stuffed magnetic filters composed of ferromagnetic wires is placed between the magnetic poles. We setup the magnetic separation system and test it using slurry mixed with hematite particles (Fe2O3). Y123 bulk superconductors are magnetized by the 'IMRA' method (pulsed-field magnetization), and consequently a magnetic field of 1.59 T is generated at the center of 20 mm gap between the magnetic poles. As a result of experiment on the magnetic separation, hematite particles of over 90% were removed from slurry at the flow rate of 2 l/min

  10. Theoretical expectations for bulk flows in large-scale surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Hume A.; Watkins, Richard

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the theoretical expectation for the bulk motion of a large-scale survey of the type recently carried out by Lauer and Postman. Included are the effects of survey geometry, errors in the distance measurements, clustering properties of the sample, and different assumed power spectra. We considered the power spectrum calculated from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS)-QDOT survey, as well as spectra from hot + cold and standard cold dark matter models. We find that measurement uncertainty, sparse sampling, and clustering can lead to a much larger expectation for the bulk motion of a cluster sample than for the volume as a whole. However, our results suggest that the expected bulk motion is still inconsistent with that reported by Lauer and Postman at the 95%-97% confidence level.

  11. EBSD analysis of MgB2 bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Schmauch, J.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Berger, K.; Noudem, J.

    2016-04-01

    The grain orientation, the texture and the grain boundary misorientations are important parameters for the understanding of the magnetic properties of the bulk MgB2 samples intended for super-magnet applications. Such data can be provided by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. However, as the grain size (GS) of the MgB2 bulks is preferably in the 100-200 nm range, the common EBSD technique working in reflection operates properly only on highly dense samples. In order to achieve a reasonably good Kikuchi pattern quality on all samples, we apply here the newly developed transmission EBSD (t-EBSD) technique to several bulk MgB2 samples. This method requires the preparation of TEM slices by means of focused ion-beam milling, which are then analyzed within the SEM, operating with a specific sample holder. We present several EBSD mappings of samples prepared with different techniques and at various reaction temperatures.

  12. On-line and bulk analysis for the resource industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques are the basis of many CSIRO on-line and bulk analysis systems that are now widely used in the mineral and energy industries. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these systems have led to improved control of mining, processing and blending operations. This paper reviews recent developments in neutron, gamma-ray and X-ray techniques for on-line and bulk analysis by CSIRO Minerals including neutron techniques for the on-conveyor belt determination of the composition of cement raw meal, the on-line analysis of composition in pyrometallurgical applications, the on-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal, and the rapid and accurate determination of gold in bulk laboratory samples. The paper also discusses a new gamma-ray technique for the on-line determination of ash in coal and the application of X-ray diffraction techniques for the on-line determination of mineralogy in the cement industry

  13. Causal Evolutions of Bulk Local Excitations from CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Kanato; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Bulk localized excited states in an AdS spacetime can be constructed from Ishibashi states with respect to the global conformal symmetry in the dual CFT. We study boundary two point functions of primary operators in the presence of bulk localized excitations in two dimensional CFTs. From two point functions in holographic CFTs, we observe causal propagations of radiations when the mass of dual bulk scalar field is close to the BF bound. This behavior for holographic CFTs is consistent with the locality and causality in classical gravity duals. We also show that this cannot be seen in free fermion CFTs. Moreover, we find that the short distance behavior of two point functions is universal and obeys the relation which generalizes the first law of entanglement entropy.

  14. Spherically symmetric brane spacetime with bulk f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta [IUCAA, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 4, Pune (India); SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2015-01-01

    Introducing f(R) term in the five-dimensional bulk action we derive effective Einstein's equation on the brane using Gauss-Codazzi equation. This effective equation is then solved for different conditions on dark radiation and dark pressure to obtain various spherically symmetric solutions. Some of these static spherically symmetric solutions correspond to black hole solutions, with parameters induced from the bulk. Specially, the dark pressure and dark radiation terms (electric part of Weyl curvature) affect the brane spherically symmetric solutions significantly. We have solved for one parameter group of conformal motions where the dark radiation and dark pressure terms are exactly obtained exploiting the corresponding Lie symmetry. Various thermodynamic features of these spherically symmetric space-times are studied, showing existence of second order phase transition. This phenomenon has its origin in the higher curvature term with f(R) gravity in the bulk. (orig.)

  15. Bulk and shear viscosities of hot and dense hadron gas

    CERN Document Server

    Kadam, Guru Prakash

    2014-01-01

    We estimate bulk and shear viscosity at finite temperature and baryon densities of hadronic matter within hadron resonance gas model. For bulk viscosity we use low energy theorems of QCD for the energy momentum tensor correlators. For shear viscosity coefficient, we estimate the same using molecular kinetic theory to relate the shear viscosity coefficient to average momentum of the hadrons in the hot and dense hadron gas. The bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases with chemical potential and is related to the reduction of velocity of sound at nonzero chemical potential. The shear viscosity to entropy ratio on the other hand, shows a nontrivial behavior with the ratio decreasing with chemical potential for small temperatures but increasing with chemical potential at high temperatures and is related to decrease of entropy density with chemical potential at high temperature due to finite volume of the hadrons.

  16. Bulk Viscosity and Particle Creation in the Inflationary Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Eshaghi, Mehdi; Kiasatpour, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    We study particle creation in the presence of bulk viscosity of cosmic fluid in the early universe within the framework of open thermodynamical systems. Since the first-order theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is non-causal and unstable, we try to solve the bulk viscosity equation of the cosmic fluid with particle creation through the full causal theory. By adopting an appropriate function for particle creation rate of "Creation of Cold Dark Matter" model, we obtain analytical solutions which do not suffer from the initial singularity and are in agreement with equivalent solutions of Lambda-CDM model. We constrain the free parameter of particle creation in our model based on recent Planck data. It is also found that the inflationary solution is driven by bulk viscosity with or without particle creation.

  17. Low-Temperature Cationic Rearrangement in a Bulk Metal Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man-Rong; Retuerto, Maria; Stephens, Peter W; Croft, Mark; Sheptyakov, Denis; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Deng, Zheng; Akamatsu, Hirofumi; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Sánchez-Benítez, Javier; Saouma, Felix O; Jang, Joon I; Walker, David; Greenblatt, Martha

    2016-08-16

    Cationic rearrangement is a compelling strategy for producing desirable physical properties by atomic-scale manipulation. However, activating ionic diffusion typically requires high temperature, and in some cases also high pressure in bulk oxide materials. Herein, we present the cationic rearrangement in bulk Mn2 FeMoO6 at unparalleled low temperatures of 150-300 (o) C. The irreversible ionic motion at ambient pressure, as evidenced by real-time powder synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction, and second harmonic generation, leads to a transition from a Ni3 TeO6 -type to an ordered-ilmenite structure, and dramatic changes of the electrical and magnetic properties. This work demonstrates a remarkable cationic rearrangement, with corresponding large changes in the physical properties in a bulk oxide at unprecedented low temperatures. PMID:27203790

  18. VALUES AND VALORIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available I live with the feeling that, in the past few years, Romania has been a drifting ship. We do not know where is it going, nor the place it will arrive at. Like any individual endowed with reason, I wonder why chaos took over this society and, if I would have the power to change anything, what would be the solution to less troubled waters. I think we lost our way because we forgot to always refer to the values that should guide us ... or because we refer too often to non-values. I think we could find our way and stop wandering if we will rely our evolution on values, if we will teach our children from a young age what values and non-values are and if we could run our existence in the spirit of a real value horizon. People live together, not just coexist, as so deeply professor Gheorghe Mihai highlighted1. Coexistence is specific to herds, packs, hordes; but human community means collaboration, cooperation, consensualisation, which implies a consciousness towards values. "What is missing now to the human society is a behavior that relates to a code of virtue"2. Moral values are the support for the legal values. Unfortunately, today, it seems to me that values are inverted and that the belief in the perfectibility of the individual (and therefore the perfectibility of law is increasingly being questioned. Contemporary society is characterized by lack of motivation, lack of a strategy and the absence of any ideals. In this context, I believe that the individual today feels the necessity of some value referrences more acutely, whilst the society needs a law deeply based on moral values. As morality itself contributes to the valorization of the law, I think that moral appeal is more necessary today than yesterday, as a remedy for the individual and, consequently, the law to overcome their crisis. For all these reasons and also because I share the view that "the concrete law is not viable without values and these values are always expressed in the

  19. VALUES AND VALORIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I live with the feeling that, in the past few years, Romania has been a drifting ship. We do not know where is it going, nor the place it will arrive at. Like any individual endowed with reason, I wonder why chaos took over this society and, if I would have the power to change anything, what would be the solution to less troubled waters. I think we lost our way because we forgot to always refer to the values that should guide us ... or because we refer too often to non-values. I think we could find our way and stop wandering if we will rely our evolution on values, if we will teach our children from a young age what values and non-values are and if we could run our existence in the spirit of a real value horizon. People live together, not just coexist, as so deeply professor Gheorghe Mihai highlighted1. Coexistence is specific to herds, packs, hordes; but human community means collaboration, cooperation, consensualisation, which implies a consciousness towards values. "What is missing now to the human society is a behavior that relates to a code of virtue"2. Moral values are the support for the legal values. Unfortunately, today, it seems to me that values are inverted and that the belief in the perfectibility of the individual (and therefore the perfectibility of law is increasingly being questioned. Contemporary society is characterized by lack of motivation, lack of a strategy and the absence of any ideals. In this context, I believe that the individual today feels the necessity of some value referrences more acutely, whilst the society needs a law deeply based on moral values. As morality itself contributes to the valorization of the law, I think that moral appeal is more necessary today than yesterday, as a remedy for the individual and, consequently, the law to overcome their crisis. For all these reasons and also because I share the view that "the concrete law is not viable without values and these values are always expressed in the

  20. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems. ► Multi-seeded YBCO bulks joint the way for large-scale application. ► Levitation platforms demonstrate “superconductivity” to a great public audience (100 years anniversary). ► HTS magnetic bearings show forces up to 1 t. ► Modular HTS maglev vacuum cryostats are tested for train demonstrators in Brazil, China and Germany. -- Abstract: ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500–3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved

  1. Bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a nuclear power project, bulk material is often not in an outstanding position, compared to equipment, yet bulk material is one of most difficult part in engineering and procurement management. If the schedule is not in good control, it will seriously hamper the progress of the whole project. The article explores bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS, illustrated with tables and graphs. First, major difficult aspects of bulk material procurement are described. On one hand, bulk material is really bulky in kind. We must have detail information of manufacturers, manufacture duration, and take good control of bidding schedule. On the other hand, when an order is placed, we need to make clear everything in the procurement package, such as material types, delivery batches, quantity of each batch and delivery schedule, which is a tremendous work. Then, a schedule conflict is analyzed: when an order is placed, the detail type and quantity cannot be defined (since the construction design is not finished yet). To settle this conflict, the concept 'Requirement Schedule Curve' is brought forward, along with the calculation method. To get this curve, we need to make use of the technical data of the reference power station, along with the site construction schedule, to produce a site quantity requirement curve varying from time, for each type of material. Last, based on the 'Requirement Schedule Curve', we are able to build a unified database to control the engineering, procurement, manufacturing and delivery schedule, so as to procure precisely, manufacture on time, and optimize the storage. In this way, the accurate control of bulk material engineering and procurement schedule can be achieved. (authors)

  2. Application of a tangent curve mathematical model for analysis of the mechanical behaviour of sunflower bulk seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalingging, Riswanti; Herák, David; Kabutey, Abraham; Dajbych, Oldřich; Hrabě, Petr; Mizera, Čestmír

    2015-10-01

    This paper evaluate the use of a tangent curve mathematical model for representation of the mechanical behaviour of sunflower bulk seeds. Compression machine (Tempos Model 50, Czech Republic) and pressing vessel diameter 60 mm were used for the loading experiment. Varying forces between 50 and 130 kN and speeds ranging from 10, 50, and 100 mm min-1 were applied respectively on the bulk seeds with moisture content 12.37±0.38% w.b. The relationship between force and deformation curves of bulk seeds of pressing height 80 mm was described. The oil point strain was also determined from the different deformation values namely 30, 35, 40, and 45 mm at speed 10 mm min-1. Based on the results obtained, model coefficients were determined for fitting the experimental load and deformation curves. The validity of these coefficients were dependent on the bulk seeds of pressing height, vessel diameter, maximum force 110 kN, and speed 10 mm min-1, where optimal oil yield was observed. The oil point was detected at 45 mm deformation giving the strain value of 0.56 with the corresponding force 16.65±3.51 kN and energy 1.06±0.18 MJ m-3. At the force of 130 kN, a serration effect on the curves was indicated; hence, the compression process was ceased.

  3. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  4. Work Values across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  5. Value of care - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Value of care displays – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the value of care displays associated with a 30-day episode of care for...

  6. Social Life of Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe case of the Danish “cartoon war” was a premonition of things to come: accelerated social construction of inequalities and their accelerated symbolic communication, translation and negotiation. New uses of values in organizing and managing inequalities emerge. Values lead active socia

  7. Do We Value Caring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Anderson, Trisha Ross

    2016-01-01

    When asked about their child-rearing priorities, parents in the United States are likely to say it's more important to raise children who are caring than to raise high achievers. Schools, too, typically trumpet values such as caring, honesty, and fairness. These values are posted on walls, reiterated in assemblies, and included in mission…

  8. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  9. Design of $Cu_{8}Zr_{5}$-based bulk metallic glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, L.; Xia, J H; Wang, Q; Dong, C; Chen, L. Y.; Ou, X; Liu, J. F.; Jiang, J. Z.; Klementiev, K.; Saksl, K.; Franz, H.; Schneider, J. R.; L. Gerward

    2006-01-01

    Basic polyhedral clusters have been derived from intermetallic compounds at near-eutectic composition by considering a dense packing and random arrangement of atoms at shell sites. Using such building units, bulk metallic glasses can be formed. This strategy was verified in the Cu-Zr binary system, where we have demonstrated the existence of Cu8Zr5 icosahedral clusters in Cu61.8Zr38.2, Cu64Zr36, and Cu64.5Zr35.5 amorphous alloys. Furthermore, ternary bulk metallic glasses can be developed by ...

  10. Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtaina determinate model, an equation of state p = κλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. Thephysical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuouslyexpanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy densityis ζ∝1 p1/2.

  11. On bulk singularities in the random normal matrix model

    OpenAIRE

    Ameur, Yacin; Seo, Seong-Mi

    2016-01-01

    We extend the method of rescaled Ward identities of Ameur-Kang-Makarov to study the distribution of eigenvalues close to a bulk singularity, i.e. a point in the interior of the droplet where the density of the classical equilibrium measure vanishes. We prove results to the effect that a certain "dominant part" of the Taylor expansion determines the microscopic properties near a bulk singularity. A description of the distribution is given in terms of a special entire function, which depends on...

  12. Growth Techniques for Bulk ZnO and Related Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Klimm, Detlef; Schulz, Detlev; Ganschow, Steffen; Galazka, Zbigniew; Uecker, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    ZnO bulk crystals can be grown by several methods. 1) From the gas phase, usually by chemical vapor transport. Such CVT crystals may have high chemical purity, as the growth is performed without contact to foreign material. The crystallographic quality is often very high (free growth). 2) From melt fluxes such as alkaline hydroxides or other oxides (MoO3, V2O5, P2O5, PbO) and salts (PbCl2, PbF2). Melt fluxes offer the possibility to grow bulk ZnO under mild conditions (

  13. Optimization of PGNAA instrument design for bulk coal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, C.; Salgado, J.; Carvalho, F.G. (National Laboratory for Industrial Technology and Engineering, Sacavem (Portugal). Physics Dept.)

    1993-06-01

    A simulation study of a PGNAA system for bulk coal analysis has been carried out using the MCNP code to investigate the dependence of the system's performance on design parameters for different coal compositions and bulk densities. Calculations were performed for simulated arrangements using a naked point [sup 252]Cf source and the source surrounded by a sphere of moderating material. Results for different sample sizes and different radii of the moderating sphere are reported. The system's optimization based upon the proper choice of sample size and amount of external thermalization is discussed. 3 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A method for a comparison of bulk energy transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalov, Alexandre; Lave, Lester B; Reza, Muhamad; Bahrman, Michael P

    2009-10-15

    We model alternatives for moving bulk energy, including both private costs and accounting for environmental externalities by requiring the transport system to satisfy environment health, and safety standards. In particular, we focus on the cost and environmental trade-offs between "coal by wire," mine-mouth generation with electricity transmission, and transporting the primary energy resources with generation near the customer. Having the bulk energy transport model satisfy standards avoids the controversy associated with estimating dollar costs for constrained visibility, noise, and 50/60 Hz electromagnetic fields. A sensitivity analysis examines the implications of a range of carbon-dioxide discharge charges. PMID:19921870

  15. Exploring the bulk of tidal charged micro-black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the bulk corresponding to tidal charged brane-world black holes. We employ a propagating algorithm which makes use of the three-dimensional multipole expansion and analytically yields the metric elements as functions of the five-dimensional coordinates and of the Adler-Deser-Misner mass, tidal charge, and brane tension. Since the projected brane equations cannot determine how the charge depends on the mass, our main purpose is to select the combinations of these parameters for which black holes of microscopic size possess a regular bulk. Our results could, in particular, be relevant for a better understanding of TeV-scale black holes.

  16. Homogenizer of cement mix with liquid and bulk radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lid of the homogenizer vessel with a stirrer and with bulk and liquid inlets is firmly attached to the homogenizer frame. The mixing vessel is screwed onto the lid and is connected to the frame with two moving arms. This allows to separate the mixing vessel from the lid without having to disconnect the supplies of bulk and liquid materials. The vessel is attached to swing arms pivoted in joints, which allows servicing, turning and tipping the vessel, thereby facilitating its emptying. This facilitates cleaning and reduces the maintenance time, thus increasing the safety of personnel. (J.B.). 2 figs

  17. Influence of bulk dielectric polarization upon PD transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1995-01-01

    From a field-theoretical approach, it has been possible to develop a physically valid theory of partial discharge transients. The theory is based upon the concept of the charge induced upon the detecting electrode by the partial discharge. This induced charge is shown to be composed of a component...... associated with the actual space charge in the void, and one related to changes in the bulk polarization brought about by changes in the field external to the void due to this space charge. The magnitude of the induced charge and its components are discussed in relation to a heterogeneous bulk dielectric...

  18. Compressive fracture characteristics of Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The compressive fracture characteristics of Zr-based bulk metallic glass under uniaxial compression tests are studied.The zigzag rheological behavior is observed in the compression stress-strain curves of amorphous alloys.At room temperature the uniaxial compression fracture takes place along the plane which is at a 45-degree angle to the direction of the compressive stress.The microstructure of a typical fracture pattern is the vein network.A unique,finger-like vein pattern is found to exist at the fracture surface of Zr-based bulk metallic glass.

  19. Reversible ultrafast melting in bulk CdSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenzhi [School of Electronic Engineering, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); He, Feng; Wang, Yaguo, E-mail: yaguo.wang@austin.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); The Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    In this work, transient reflectivity changes in bulk CdSe have been measured with two-color femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy under a wide range of pump fluences. Three regions of reflectivity change with pump fluences have been consistently revealed for excited carrier density, coherent phonon amplitude, and lattice temperature. For laser fluences from 13 to 19.3 mJ/cm{sup 2}, ultrafast melting happens in first several picoseconds. This melting process is purely thermal and reversible. A complete phase transformation in bulk CdSe may be reached when the absorbed laser energy is localized long enough, as observed in nanocrystalline CdSe.

  20. Zinc uptake by brain cells: `surface' versus `bulk'

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStasio, Gelsomina; Pochon, S.; Lorusso, G. F.; Tonner, B. P.; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, M. Teresa; Oddo, Nino; Galli, Paolo; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, G.

    1996-08-01

    The uptake of zinc by cerebellar rat cultures upon exposure to 0022-3727/29/8/023/img12 solutions was comparatively investigated using two well known condensed matter physics techniques: synchrotron photoelectron spectromicroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The objective was to apply a strategy - well known in surface physics - to distinguish between `surface' and `bulk' phenomena. The results clearly demonstrate that exposure significantly enhances the bulk (cell cytoplasm) Zn concentration with respect to the physiological level, whereas the effect on the surface (cell membrane) is negligible.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of a bulk amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and characterization of bulk metallic glasses have been an area of intense focus in materials research for many years because of their superior mechanical properties over their crystalline counterparts. A bulk metallic glass Zr/sub 55/Cu/sub 30/Al/sub 10/Ni/sub 5/ has been synthesized by copper mold casting and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction. Crystallization behavior of the alloy is discussed. Composite of amorphous glass was produced by adding SiC and hardness and tensile strength have been measured. (author)

  2. Bulk undercooling, nucleation, and macrosegregation of Pb-Sn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroh, H. C., III; Laxmanan, V.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary ground-based studies on the undercooling behavior of large samples (23 g) of lead-tin alloys are presented. Evidence of gravity-related segregation effects is found, and a possible area for future microgravity experimentation is thus identified. Detailed descriptions of the experimental procedure used to achieve bulk undercoolings of between 0.5 and 34 K, depending on composition, are given. The bulk undercoolings obtained in this study are comparable with those found in small droplets. The large size of the present samples enabled the observation of sedimentation and other macrosegregation processes.

  3. Enhancement of the Bulk Photovoltaic Effect in Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the shift current bulk photovoltaic response of materials close to a band inversion topological phase transition. We find that the bulk photocurrent reverses direction across the band inversion transition, and that its magnitude is enhanced in the vicinity of the phase transition. These results are demonstrated with first principles density functional theory calculations of BiTeI and CsPbI3 under hydrostatic pressure, and explained with an analytical model, suggesting that this phenomenon remains robust across disparate material systems.

  4. Magnetic separation of organic dyes using superconducting bulk magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N.; Yokoyama, K.; Hosaka, S.

    Organic dyes were separated from wastewater using superconducting bulk magnets. Two types of particles, magnetic activated carbon (MAC) and reactive nanoscale iron particles (RNIP), were used as magnetic seeds. We set up a magnetic separator consisting of an acrylic pipe located between the magnetic poles of a face-to-face superconducting bulk magnet. We tested the separator under both high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) and open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS). Adsorption ratios greater than 95% were achieved for sufficient concentrations of both MAC and RNIP, and separation ratios greater than 90% were achieved in HGMS and OGMS for certain dye-particle combinations.

  5. Compound semiconductor bulk materials and characterizations, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    This book is concerned with compound semiconductor bulk materials, and has been written for students, researchers and engineers in material science and device fabrication. It provides the elementary and intermediate knowledge of compound semiconductor bulk materials necessary for entry into this field. The first volume described the physical properties, crystal growth technologies, principles of crystal growth, various defects in crystals, characterization techniques and applications, and reviewed various III-V and II-V compound semiconductor materials. In this second volume, other materials a

  6. Bulk eutectic Cu–Ag alloys with abundant twin boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abundant growth twin boundaries are found and characterized in two bulk eutectic Cu–Ag alloys that can be obtained conveniently. The statistical electron backscattering diffraction results show that both hetero-twin and cube-on-cube orientation relationships coexist in the eutectic Cu–Ag alloy. The tensile strength of the eutectic alloy increases with a decrease in the layer thickness of the Cu/Ag phase. This study provides a potential way to produce bulk eutectic Cu–Ag alloy with abundant twin boundaries that offers a combination of high strength and high ductility.

  7. 230Th/U dating of Last Interglacial brain corals from Bonaire (southern Caribbean) using bulk and theca wall material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, J. Christina; Scholz, Denis; Felis, Thomas; Brocas, William M.; Jochum, Klaus P.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-04-01

    We compared the suitability of two skeletal materials of the Atlantic brain coral Diploria strigosa for 230Th/U-dating: the commonly used bulk material comprising all skeletal elements and the denser theca wall material. Eight fossil corals of presumably Last Interglacial age from Bonaire, southern Caribbean Sea, were investigated, and several sub-samples were dated from each coral. For four corals, both the ages and the activity ratios of the bulk material and theca wall agree within uncertainty. Three corals show significantly older ages for their bulk material than for their theca wall material as well as substantially elevated 232Th content and (230Th/238U) ratios. The bulk material samples of another coral show younger ages and lower (230Th/238U) ratios than the corresponding theca wall samples. This coral also contains a considerable amount of 232Th. The application of the available open-system models developed to account for post-depositional diagenetic effects in corals shows that none of the models can successfully be applied to the Bonaire corals. The most likely explanation for this observation is that the assumptions of the models are not fulfilled by our data set. Comparison of the theca wall and bulk material data enables us to obtain information about the open-system processes that affected the corals. The corals showing apparently older ages for their bulk material were probably affected by contamination with a secondary (detrital) phase. The most likely source of the detrital material is carbonate sand. The higher (230Th/232Th) ratio of this material implies that detrital contamination would have a much stronger impact on the ages than a contaminant with a bulk Earth (230Th/232Th) ratio and that the threshold for the commonly applied 232Th reliability criterion would be much lower than the generally used value of 1 ng g-1. The coral showing apparently younger ages for its bulk material was probably influenced by more than one diagenetic process. A

  8. Value and Momentum Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias S; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We study the returns to value and momentum strategies jointly across eight diverse markets and asset classes. Finding consistent value and momentum premia in every asset class, we further find strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum are more positively correlated...... is a partial source of these patterns, which are identifiable only when examining value and momentum simultaneously across markets. Our findings present a challenge to existing behavioral, institutional, and rational asset pricing theories that largely focus on U.S. equities....... across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes themselves. However, value and momentum are negatively correlated both within and across asset classes. Our results indicate the presence of common global risks that we characterize with a three factor model. Global funding liquidity risk...

  9. Many-valued logics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolc, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...

  10. Estimates of average major ion concentrations in bulk precipitation at two high-altitude sites near the continental divide in Southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M.M.; Claassen, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The composition of bulk precipitation from two high-altitude sites, established in 1971 near the Continental Divide in southwestern Colorado, has been monitored by season during the past decade. Calcium ions are the predominant cationic species; sulfate is the major anionic constituent. Bulk precipitation major ion concentrations exhibit log-normal distributions. Representative mean and standard deviation values for the major inorganic ionic species present in bulk precipitation have been calculated for three years of consecutive seasons. Standard deviations for all species, except nitrate, are similar. For two years of data grouped into quarters, deviations from mean values fall well within the plus or minus two standard deviation limit. There does not seem to be a systematic deviation from the mean concentration values, with respect to either ionic component or season.

  11. Vibrationally-Fluidized Granular Flows: Impact and Bulk Velocity Measurements Compared with Discrete Element and Continuum Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnia, Kamyar

    A new laser displacement probe was developed to measure the impact velocities of particles within vibrationally-fluidized beds. The sensor output was also used to measure bulk flow velocity along the probe window and to provide a measure of the media packing. The displacement signals from the laser sensors were analyzed to obtain the probability distribution functions of the impact velocity of the particles. The impact velocity was affected by the orientation of the laser probe relative to the bulk flow velocity, and the density and elastic properties of the granular media. The impact velocities of the particles were largely independent of their bulk flow speed and packing density. Both the local impact and bulk flow velocities within a tub vibratory finisher were predicted using discrete element modelling (DEM) and compared to the measured values for spherical steel media. It was observed that the impact and bulk flow velocities were relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the contact coefficients of friction and restitution. It was concluded that the predicted impact and bulk flow velocities were dependent on the number of layers in the model. Consequently, the final DE model mimicked the key aspects of the experimental setup, including the submerged laser sensor. The DE method predictions of both impact velocity and bulk flow velocity were in reasonable agreement with the experimental measurements, with maximum differences of 20% and 30%, respectively. Discrete element modeling of granular flows is effective, but requires large numerical models. In an effort to reduce computational effort, this work presents a finite element (FE) continuum model of a vibrationally-fluidized granular flow. The constitutive equations governing the continuum model were calibrated using the discrete element method (DEM). The bulk flow behavior of the equivalent continuum media was then studied using both Lagrangian and Eulerian FE formulations. The bulk flow velocities predicted

  12. Irradiating of Bulk Soybeans: Influence on Their Functional and Sensory Properties for Soyfood Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chiew-Ling; Wilson, Lester A.; Boylston, Terri; Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Soybeans were chosen for lunar and planetary missions, where soybeans will be supplied in bulk or grown locally, due to their nutritive value and ability to produce oil and protein for further food applications. However, soybeans must be processed into foods prior to consumption. Radiation that soybeans would be exposed to during bulk storage prior to and during a Mars mission may influence their germination and functional properties. The influence of radiation includes the affect of surface pasteurization to ensure the astronauts safety from food-borne illnesses (HACCP, CCP), and the affect of the amount of radiation the soybeans receive during a Mars mission. Decreases in the amount of natural antioxidants free radical formation, and oxidation-induced changes in the soybean will influence the nutritional value, texture, color, and aroma of soyfoods. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pasteurization and sterilization surface radiation on whole soybeans using gamma and electron beam radiation. The influence of 0, 1, 5, 10, and 30kGy on microbial load, germination rate, ease of processing, and quality of soymilk and tofu were determined. Surface radiation of whole dry soybeans using electron beam or gamma rays from 1-30kGy did provide microbial safety for the astronauts. However, the lower dose levels had surviving yeasts and molds. These doses caused oxidative changes that resulted in soymilk and tofu with rancid aromas. GC-MS of the aroma compounds using SPME Headspace confirmed the presence of lipid oxidation compounds. Soybean germination ability was reduced as radiation dosage increased. While lower doses may reduce these problems, the ability to insure microbial safety of bulk soybeans will be lost. Counter measures could include vacuum packaging, nitrogen flushing, added antioxidants, and radiating under freezing conditions. Doses below 1kGy need to be investigated further to determine the influence of the radiation encountered

  13. Baker Omitted Value

    OpenAIRE

    Chakra, Tarun Kumar; Chakraborty, Gorachand; Nayak, Tarakanta

    2015-01-01

    We define Baker omitted value, in short bov, of an entire or meromorphic function f in the complex plane as an omitted value for which there exists r0 > 0 such that for each ball Dr(a) centered at a and with radius r satisfying 0 < r < r0, every component of the boundary of f only asymptotic value. An entire function has bov if and only if the image of every unbounded curve is unbounded. It follows that an entire function has bov whenever it has a Baker wandering domain. Functions with bov ha...

  14. Customer Lifetime Value Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Borle; Siddharth S. Singh; Dipak C. Jain

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of customer lifetime value is important because it is used as a metric in evaluating decisions in the context of customer relationship management. For a firm, it is important to form some expectations as to the lifetime value of each customer at the time a customer starts doing business with the firm, and at each purchase by the customer. In this paper, we use a hierarchical Bayes approach to estimate the lifetime value of each customer at each purchase occasion by jointly mod...

  15. Bianchi-Type Ⅱ String Cosmological Models with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi-type Ⅱ string cosmological models with bulk viscosity are obtained, where an equation of state, p = kλ, and a relation between metric potentials, R = ASn, are adopted. The physical features of the models are also discussed. In special cases the model reduces to the string models without viscosity that was previously given in the literatures.

  16. Soil water sensor response to bulk electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water monitoring using electromagnetic (EM) sensors can facilitate observations of water content at high temporal and spatial resolutions. These sensors measure soil dielectric permittivity (Ka) which is largely a function of volumetric water content. However, bulk electrical conductivity BEC c...

  17. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  18. Local and bulk melting of Cu at grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Li - Bo [USTC; An, Qi [USTC/CALTECH; Fu, Rong - Shan [USTC; Zheng, Lianqing [FSU

    2008-01-01

    We investigate gain boundary (GB) melting using molecular dynamics simulations on face-centered-cubic Cu bicrystals with symmetric {l_angle}110{r_angle} tilt grain boundaries. Two representative types of GBs are explored: {Sigma} = 11/(113)/50.48{sup o} (low GB energy) and {Sigma} = 27/(552)/148.41{sup o} (high GB energy). The temperature and temporal evolutions of the Cu bicrystals under stepped heating are characterized in terms of order parameters and diffusion coefficients, as ell as the nucleation and growth of melt. Within the GB region, continuous local melting precedes discontinuous bulk melting, while continuous solid state disordering may precede local melting. Premelting may occur for local melting but not for bulk melting. For {Sigma} = 11/(113)/50.48{sup o}, premelting of the GB region is negligible, and local melting occurs near the thermodynamic melting temperature. The GB region as a whole is superheated by about 13% before its bulk melting. In the case of {Sigma} = 27/(552)/148.41, considerable premelting is observed for local melting, while the bulk melting occurs with negligible superheating. The exact melting behavior of a general GB depends on the GB energy, but is likely bracketed within these two cases.

  19. Bulk shielding facility quarterly report, July, August, and September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, S. S.; Lance, E. D.; Thomas, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) operated at an average power level of 1919 kW for 85.74% of the time during July, August, and September. Water-quality control in both the reactor primary and secondary cooling systems was satisfactory. The Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) was operated on three occasions for the Pressure Vessel Simulator Benchmark experiment.

  20. New melt textured YBaCuO bulk material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the limiting factors of the critical current density Jc and to improve material parameters for bulk application we have been studied the microstructure and the magnetisation-levitation properties of a melt textured YBaCuO material prepared by an unidirectional melt solidification Ceramo-Crystal Growth (CCG) process. (orig.)

  1. Microalgae for the production of bulk chemicals and biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of microalgae production for biodiesel was discussed. Although algae are not yet produced at large scale for bulk applications, there are opportunities to develop this process in a sustainable way. It remains unlikely, however, that the process will be developed for biodiesel as the

  2. 'Age-hardened alloy' based on bulk polycrystalline oxide ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnani, Luv; Singh, Mahesh Kumar; Bhargava, Parag; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya

    2015-05-01

    We report here for the first time the development of 'age-hardened/toughened' ceramic alloy based on MgO in the bulk polycrystalline form. This route allows for the facile development of a 'near-ideal' microstructure characterized by the presence of nanosized and uniformly dispersed second-phase particles (MgFe2O4) within the matrix grains, as well as along the matrix grain boundaries, in a controlled manner. Furthermore, the intragranular second-phase particles are rendered coherent with the matrix (MgO). Development of such microstructural features for two-phase bulk polycrystalline ceramics is extremely challenging following the powder metallurgical route usually adopted for the development of bulk ceramic nanocomposites. Furthermore, unlike for the case of ceramic nanocomposites, the route adopted here does not necessitate the usage of nano-powder, pressure/electric field-assisted sintering techniques and inert/reducing atmosphere. The as-developed bulk polycrystalline MgO-MgFe2O4 alloys possess considerably improved hardness (by ~52%) and indentation toughness (by ~35%), as compared to phase pure MgO.

  3. Bulk Versus Edge in the Quantum Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Y. -C.; Lee, D. -H.

    1996-01-01

    The manifestation of the bulk quantum Hall effect on edge is the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly {\\it is} the underlying principle of the ``edge approach'' of quantum Hall effect. In that approach, $\\sxy$ should not be taken as the conductance derived from the space-local current-current correlation function of the pure one-dimensional edge problem.

  4. Collapse of Incoherent Light Beams in Inertial Bulk Kerr Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Edmundson, Darran; Królikowski, Wieslaw

    1999-01-01

    We use the coherent density function theory to show that partially coherent beams are unstable and may collapse in inertial bulk Kerr media. The threshold power for collapse, and its dependence on the degree of coherence, is found analytically and checked-numerically. The internal dynamics of the...

  5. Escape angles in bulk chi((2)) soliton interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory for nonplanar interaction between two identical type I spatial solitons propagating at opposite, but arbitrary transverse angles in quadratic nonlinear (or so-called chi((2))) bulk, media. We predict quantitatively the outwards escape angle, below which the solitons turn aroun...

  6. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu, E-mail: yamamoto@appchem.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  7. Bulk ordering and surface segregation in Ni50Pt50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourovskii, L.P.; Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I.A.;

    2001-01-01

    in the bulk compare well with experimental data. The surface-alloy compositions for the (111) and (110) facets above the ordering transition temperature are also found to be in a good agreement with experiments. It is demonstrated that the segregation profile at the (110) surface of NiPt is mainly caused...

  8. YBCO bulk superconductors doped with gadolinium and samarium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volochová, D.; Piovarči, S.; Radušovská, M.; Antal, V.; Kováč, J.; Jurek, Karel; Jirsa, Miloš; Diko, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 494, NOV (2013), s. 36-40. ISSN 0921-4534 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : YBCO bulk superconductors * critical temperature * critical current density * peak effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.110, year: 2013

  9. Bulk and track etching of PET studied by spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV-VIS spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) solutions formed by etching PET in NaOH solution were analyzed with respect to the etching time. A linear relationship between absorptions centered at 4.45 and 5.11 eV with weight loss of PET in NaOH solution was established. The relation was applied to study the influence of UV light illumination on bulk etching of PET and to evaluate pore size of etched-through tracks. It is found that bulk etching of PET can be greatly enhanced by UV illumination in air in the wavelength range around 313 nm. A surface area of about 350 nm in thickness shows a 23 times increase in bulk-etching rate after illuminated for 6 h. The phenomenon is attributed to the oxygen-assisted photo-degradation through generating of new photo-unstable species. The enhancement in bulk etching was immediately reduced as the etching proceeds below the surface with an exponential decay constant of about 1.5 μm-1. Etching of Xe ion irradiated PET films gives extra etching products with similar chemical structure as revealed by spectrophotometer measurements. Quantitative analysis of etching products from latent tracks implies that pores of about 14.6 nm in radius are formed after etching in 0.74 N NaOH at 40 deg. C for 35 min, which is in agreement with the conductometric measurement

  10. Bulk viscosity from the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insufficiency of ideal fluid dynamics to reproduce certain expected results threw light on the necessity of dissipative effects. The viscosity coefficients give an estimate of the hydrodynamical evolution of fluid dissipative processes. Not only do they provide information about the deviation of the system from ideal hydrodynamics, they also give us a picture of the fluid dynamics and critical phenomena. In this work we concentrate on the effects of bulk viscosity. Bulk viscosity bears essential significance like in the context of violation of scale invariance. Now, the smallness of sound velocity being directly related to the former, it becomes obvious that bulk viscosity will show a peak-like nature in the critical region. Bulk viscosity manifests itself by an addition of the diagonal term πδij to the stress tensor Tij in the local rest frame. In this work we take resort to the Kubo formalism which relates viscosity coefficients to the correlation functions of the energy-momentum (E-M) tensor

  11. Advanced tensile testing methods for bulk superconductors at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensile tests of bulk high Tc superconductors at room temperature have been generally performed by gluing the bulk specimens to Al-alloy rods. Because of the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal stresses were induced at cryogenic temperatures especially near the interface between the specimen and the rods. In this study, tensile testing methods with minimized effect of the thermal stress were tried by using specimens cut from Dy-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. These were: (1) The rod material of Al-alloy was replaced with Ti-alloy, which has the coefficient close to the bulk. (2) The interlayer made of the identical bulk superconductor was inserted between the specimen and the Ti-alloy rod. The nominal tensile strength at the liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) of the specimen glued to the Ti-alloy rods was significantly higher than that glued to the Al-alloy rods. The application of the interlayers increased the strength significantly. The FEM analysis showed that the thermal tensile stress component in the direction of loading axis within the specimen at LNT is markedly reduced by the method (1) and substantially eliminated in the method (2)

  12. Integrated analysis software for bulk power system stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Nagao, T.; Takahashi, K. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents Central Research Inst.of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI`s - own developed three softwares for bulk power network analysis and the user support system which arranges tremendous data necessary for these softwares with easy and high reliability. (author) 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Stability analysis of active acoustic metamaterial with programmable bulk modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) have been considered as an effective means of controlling the propagation of acoustical wave energy through metamaterials. However, most of the currently exerted efforts are focused on studying passive metamaterials with fixed material properties. In this paper, the emphasis is placed on the development of a new class of one-dimensional acoustic metamaterials with effective bulk moduli that are programmed to vary according to any prescribed pattern along the volume of the metamaterial. Acoustic cavities coupled with either actively controlled Helmholtz or flush-mounted resonators are introduced to develop two possible configurations for obtaining active AMMs (AAMMs) with programmable bulk modulus capabilities. The resonators are provided with piezoelectric boundaries to enable control of the overall bulk modulus of the acoustic cavity through direct acoustic pressure feedback. Theoretical analyses of these two configurations of AAMMs are presented using the lumped-parameter modeling approach. The presented analyses are utilized to study the stability characteristics of the two configurations in an attempt to define their stable regions of operation. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance characteristics of the proposed AAMM configurations and their potential for generating prescribed spatial and spectral patterns of bulk modulus variation

  14. Nested structures approach for bulk 3D negative index materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generic conceptual idea to obtain bulk 3D negative index metamaterials, which exhibit isotropic properties. The design is based on the nested structures approach, when one element providing magnetic response is inserted into another design with negative dielectric constant. Both...

  15. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany So

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging.Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit-of-use packaging versus bulk packaging, was examined. Prices between unit-of-use versus bulk packages were compared by using the Red Book: Pharmacy’s Fundamental Reference. Other articles were reviewed on the topics of counterfeiting, safe labeling, and implementation of unit-of-use packaging. Lastly, a cost-saving study was reviewed showing how medication adherence, due to improved packaging, could be cost-effective for patients.Results: When examining time, costs, medication adherence, and counterfeiting arguments, unit-of-use packaging proved to be beneficial for patients in all these terms.

  16. Estimation of bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce) has been estimated over the Arabian Sea from the moisture budget during the pre-monsoon season of 1988. The computations have been made over two regions (A: 0-8 degrees N: 60-68 degrees E: B: 0...

  17. Bulk and confinement-induced phase transitions in colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortini, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the thesis, we have presented computer simulation results on the bulk and interfacial phase behaviour of colloidal suspensions. In the first part, we have developed and tested a simulation technique to calculate the free energy of hard-core systems. This technique was used to calculate the interf

  18. Free standing bulk metallic glass microcomponents: Tooling considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Cormac; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Ohnuma, Masato;

    2010-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses have enormous potential for use in small-scale devices such as MEMS and biomedical components. Thermoplastic forging of free standing components poses challenges unlike those seen when forging crystalline materials. Central to these challenges is the simultaneous advantage...

  19. Survey of BGFA Criteria for the Cu-Based Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Janovszky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the effect of composition on the bulk glass forming ability (BGFA of Cu-based alloys, properties have been collected from the literature (~100 papers, more than 200 alloys. Surveying the BGFA criteria published so far, it has been found that the atomic mismatch condition of Egami-Waseda is fulfilled for all the Cu-based BGFAs, the value being above 0,3. The Zhang Bangwei criterion could be applied for the binary Cu-based alloys. The Miracle and Senkov criteria do not necessarily apply for Cu based bulk amorphous alloys. The critical thickness versus =/(+ plot of Lu and Liu extrapolates to =0.36, somewhat higher than the 0.33 value found in other BGFA alloys. The Park and Kim parameter correlates rather poorly with the critical thickness for Cu based alloys. The Cheney and Vecchino parameter is a good indicator to find the best glass former if it is possible to calculate the exact liquids projection. In 2009 Xiu-lin and Pan defined a new parameter which correlates a bit better with the critical thickness. Based on this survey it is still very difficult to find one parameter in order to characterize the real GFA without an unrealized mechanism of crystallization.

  20. Measuring the bulk Lorentz factors of gamma-ray bursts with Fermi

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Tam, Pak-Hin Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powered by ultra-relativistic jets. Usually a minimum value of the Lorentz factor of the relativistic bulk motion is obtained based on the argument that the observed high energy photons ($\\gg {\\rm MeV}$) can escape without suffering from absorption due to pair production. The exact value, rather than a lower limit, of the Lorentz factor can be obtained if the spectral cutoff due to such absorption is detected. With the good spectral coverage of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on {\\em Fermi}, measurements of such cutoff become possible, and two cases (GRB 090926A and GRB 100724B) have been reported to have high-energy cutoffs or breaks. We systematically search for such high energy spectral cutoffs/breaks from LAT and GBM observations of the prompt emission of GRBs detected since August 2011. Seven more GRBs are found to have cutoff-like spectral feature at energies of $\\sim20-300$ MeV. Assuming that these cutoffs are caused by pair-production absorption within the source, the bulk L...

  1. Strain induced bulk superconductivity in BaFe2As2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report superconductivity in non-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba122) thin films grown on Fe buffered Spinel single crystalline substrates. Superconductivity was achieved in our thin films by varying the thickness of the Ba122. Increasing the thickness to a critical value of approximately 10 nm results in an increase of the superconducting critical temperature to Tc = 28 K whereas films with a thickness of >100 nm do not show any superconductivity. We connect this appearance of superconductivity with the inclusion of strain in our samples. Very thin samples are fixed to the Fe buffer layer and substrate lattice constant (increased a-axis lattice constant and shortened c-axis lattice constant) whereas with increasing thickness the Ba122 layer relaxes to its bulk values. We present via X-ray analysis the relaxation of the c-axis lattice constant coming along with structural changes showed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The bulk nature of superconductivity was determined by measurements of the critical current density and via magnetic measurements using a SQUID.

  2. Testing of bulk tank milk for Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Stroger, U.; Bitsch, V.; Lind, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was investigated as a simple method to screen for Salmonella Dublin infection in dairy herds, examining bulk tank milk samples for lipopolysaccharide (O:1,9,12) antibodies. The cut-off value for the ELISA on bulk tank milk was established...... test-positive in each area was correlated with the incidence of S. Dublin outbreaks in the corresponding county (r = 0.48, n = 19; P <0.025). The mean level of the OD values obtained in the first and third test rounds was not constant (Pr \\t\\ = 0.0001). The study demonstrated that the probability of...... being test-negative in the third test round was 0.926 for a herd with 2 previous test-negative results. It was concluded that the investigated ELISA method was in general accordance with the cases of clinical S. Dublin infection recorded. and that the method has a potential for national screening...

  3. Rapid nondestructive bulk density and soil-water content determination by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is a promising tool that may help provide measurements needed to obtain finer resolution in soil-water content and bulk density for water uptake studies or detailed investigation of root-soil interactions. Research was conducted on soil collected from the A horizon of Mexico silt loam (Udollic Ochraqualfs) and the B2t horizon of Crider silt loam (Typic Paleudalfs) to evaluate the relationship between linear attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil solids and water. Air-dry soil (3 and CT slices or tomographs were taken before and after water was added. The relationship between attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil solids was linear for both of the soils evaluated. Parameter values for the Mexico soil compared favorably with those determined on previous data collected from Metea fine sandy loam (Arenic Hapludalfs). Differences in the parameter values for the Mexico and Crider soils were attributed to differences in Fe content. An experiment with Fe added to the Mexico soil was conducted that verified the effect of Fe content on the attenuation coefficients. Approximately 98% of the variation between the attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil water was accounted for by using linear regression relationships after correction for swelling. Results from this study indicate that it may be possible to develop a universal relationship for computed tomography data vs. soil bulk density and water content; however, more research is needed to characterize the influence of sample size on the calibration relationship

  4. Stability-Indicating HPTLC Method for Determination of Duloxetine Hydrochloride in Bulk Drug and Tablet Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Shahnawaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive, selective, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for determination of duloxetine hydrochloride both in bulk drug as well as in tablet formulation. The stationary phase used in our method consisted of HPTLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254, while, chloroform : methanol (8 : 2, v/v was used as binary mobile phase. These chromatographic conditions eluted the drug effectively, and distinct compact spots were seen, (Rf, retardation factor, value (0.42 ± 0.20. Densitometric determination of duloxetine hydrochloride was carried out in the absorbance mode at a wavelength of 217 nm. The mean value of corelation coefficient; slope and intercept were 0.9962 ± 0.0015, 121.54 ± 0.61, and 987.3 ± 6.17, in the amount range of 600–2000 ng (nanogram per spot, respectively. Stress testing validation were performed as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization (ICH and drug was subjected to stress conditions like acid-hydrolysis, alkali-hydrolysis, oxidation, and thermal degradation. As the method effectively separated the active drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability-indicating assay method (SIAM for identification and quantitative determination of duloxetine HCl in bulk drug and tablet dosage formulation.

  5. Constraining a bulk viscous matter-dominated cosmological model using SNe Ia, CMB and LSS

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, Arturo; Guzmán, F S

    2008-01-01

    We present and constrain a cosmological model which component is a pressureless fluid with bulk viscosity as an explanation for the present accelerated expansion of the universe. We study the particular model of a constant bulk viscosity coefficient \\zeta_m. The possible values of \\zeta_m are constrained using the cosmological tests of SNe Ia Gold 2006 sample, the CMB shift parameter R from the three-year WMAP observations, the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) peak A from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Second Law of Thermodynamics (SLT). It was found that this model is in agreement with the SLT using only the SNe Ia test. However when the model is submitted to the three cosmological tests together (SNe+CMB+BAO) the results are: 1.- the model violates the SLT, 2.- predicts a value of H_0 \\approx 53 km sec^{-1} Mpc^{-1} for the Hubble constant, and 3.- we obtain a bad fit to data with a \\chi^2_{min} \\approx 400 (\\chi^2_{d.o.f.} \\approx 2.2). These results indicate that this model is ruled out by t...

  6. High critical current densities in bulk MgB{sub 2} fabricated using amorphous boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, Miryala; Kenta, Nozaki; Murakami, Masato [Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Koblischka, Michael R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, P.O. Box 151150, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We prepared bulk MgB{sub 2} from high-purity commercial powders of Mg metal (99.9% purity) and amorphous B (99% purity) powders using a single-step solid state reaction at 775 C for varying sintering duration from 1 to 10 h in pure argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all the samples were single phase MgB{sub 2}. The magnetization measurements confirmed a sharp superconducting transition with T{sub c,onset} at around 38.2-38.8 K. The critical current density (J{sub c}) values for the MgB{sub 2} samples produced at 1 h sintering time is the highest one in all processed materials here. Scanning electron microscopy analyses indicated that the sintering time has a crucial influence on the grain size. As a result, the highest J{sub c} value of 270 kA cm{sup -2} at 20 K and self-field was achieved in the sample produced at 775 C for 1 h. Our results clearly demonstrate that the optimization of the sintering conditions is essential to improve the bulk MgB{sub 2} performance. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2011-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits whose learning goal is to minimize a distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders can be defined over any field and only real-valued linear autoencoder have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the $L_2$ norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalizatio...

  8. Predicted value of $0 \\, \

    CERN Document Server

    Maedan, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Assuming that the lightest neutrino mass $ m_0 $ is measured, we study the influence of error of the measured $ m_0 $ on the uncertainty of the predicted value of the neutrinoless double beta decay ($0 \\, \

  9. Earned Value Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EVMS is a system for measuring project performance and progress in an objective manner by supporting earned value management. EVMS has the ability to combine...

  10. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... impacts and strategic importance of FM for organisations and can be a practical tool for facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices....... investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...

  11. Effect of crystallinity on the bulk laser damage and UV absorption of CLBO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, R.; Kamimura, T.; Fukumoto, S.; Yap, Y. K.; Yoshimura, M.; Mori, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Yoshida, K.

    2002-04-01

    The influence of crystal defects on bulk laser damage and UV absorption in CsLiB 6O 10 (CLBO) crystals was investigated. A CLBO crystal grown by the solution stirring method had a 2.5-fold higher laser-induced damage threshold (maximum) than conventional CLBO crystals. This highly damage-resistant CLBO crystal had a lower dislocation density (best value, 6.6×10 3/cm 2) than conventional CLBO crystals (best value, 15.0×10 3/cm 2). The temperature increase during UV generation on the output surface of highly damage-resistant CLBzO crystal was lower than that detected in conventional CLBO crystal.

  12. Indentation and scratching mechanisms of a ZrCuAlNi bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indentation and scratching tests are carried out on a ZrCuAlNi bulk metallic glass. The bonded interface technique is used to characterize the plasticity mechanisms underneath the indentation. Finite-element analyses are conducted with a Drucker-Prager behaviour law to challenge the indentation experimental data. The relevance of the bonded interface technique, in terms of quantitative evaluation, is discussed. It is also reported that the angle value, for which radial bands intersect at the surface or underneath it, is not a constant value and depends on the indenter geometry. Finally, it is shown that a simple Drucker-Prager model can describe most of the indentation mechanical response but fails in predicting completely the indentation morphology

  13. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  14. Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    SVEINSDOTTIR Thordis; Wessels, Bridgette; Smallwood, Rod; Linde, Peter; Kalla, Vasso; Tsoukala, Victoria; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable for Work Package 1 (WP1), Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems, of the EU FP7 funded project RECODE (Grant Agreement No: 321463), which focuses on developing Policy Recommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe. WP1 focuses on understanding stakeholder values and ecosystems in Open Access, dissemination and preservation in the area of scientific and scholarly data (thus not government data). The objectives of this WP are as follows: • Identify and map ...

  15. Age and Value Orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva; Yuliya A. Kudryavtseva

    2013-01-01

    The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims) and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Here...

  16. Company Value Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Nelson Guedes de Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The seminal propositions by Modigliani and Miller started a new study area in modern finance theory. Over time, their basic assumptions were relaxed, to the extent that, nowadays, situations in which they can be fully applied, with consistent and satisfactory results, are rare. On the other hand, as this simple set of propositions became known worldwide and was easily applicable, it was adopted as a rule of thumb for general enterprise valuation. However, in situations without methodological bias, the resulting enterprise values obtained by traditional methodologies are abstruse and do not allow for the analysis and management of the individual values that make up the firm and own capital values. In order to avoid this kind of abstruseness in company valuation, this study theoretically deducts an alternative valuation methodology, which permits the identification of assets’ value independently of their financing; moreover, we identify the gain on debt value that the debt provides to the shareholders, the debt tax shield and the value loss of assets and tax shield due to the increase in shareholder risk because of the leverage capital structure.

  17. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  18. Investigation of bulk acoustic microwaves excited by an interdigital transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshotka O. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excitation of bulk and surface acoustic waves with the interdigital transducer (IDT, which is deposited on the surface of piezoelectric crystal, is widely used in the development of devices in acoustoelectronics and in the design of the microwave acousto-optic deflectors. Excitation of bulk acoustic waves by IDT in the devices on surface acoustic waves leads to the appearance of spurious signals. At the same time excitation of bulk acoustic waves with IDT from the surface of lithium niobate crystals allows creating high frequency acousto-optic deflectors, which makes possible to significantly simplify the technology of their production. Therefore, significant attention is paid to the task of excitation and distribution of bulk acoustic waves with IDT including recent times by the method of simulation of their excitation and distribution. The obtained theoretical results require experimental verification. This paper documents the visualization of acoustic beams excited with IDT from the XY-surface of lithium niobate crystals. The Bragg cells with LiNbO3 crystals coated with IDT with a different period of electrodes were manufactured for the experimental research of excitation and distribution of bulk acoustic waves. Visualization results have shown that the acoustic waves excited with IDT distribute in both the Fresnel zone and the Fraunhofer zone. The length of these zones is caused by individual elementary emitters of which consists the IDT (by their size. At the same time the far zone for IDT is located at distances much greater than the actual size of the LiNbO3 crystals. This peculiarity is not always taken into account when calculating diffraction. The achieved results can be used to design high-frequency acousto-optic devices, as well as in the development of devices based on surface acoustic waves.

  19. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW

  20. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.