WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulge monitoring program

  1. The INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program: the first 1.5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.E.; Paizis, A.;

    2007-01-01

    Aims. The Galactic bulge region is a rich host of variable high-energy point sources. Since 2005, February 17 we are monitoring the source activity in the Galactic bulge region regularly and frequently, i.e., about every three days, with the instruments onboard INTEGRAL. Thanks to the large field...... of view, the imaging capabilities and the sensitivity at hard X-rays, we are able to present for the first time a detailed homogeneous (hard) X-ray view of a sample of 76 sources in the Galactic bulge region. Methods. We describe the successful monitoring program and show the first results from the start......-2901b, IGR J17536-2339, and IGR J17541-2252. We report here on some of the high-energy properties of these sources. Conclusions. The high-energy light curves of all the sources in the field of view, and the high-energy images of the region, are made available through the WWW, as soon as possible after...

  2. The INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program: the first 1.5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.E.; Paizis, A.; Chenevez, J.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.B.; Mowlavi, N.; Oosterbroek, T.; Orr, A.; Rísquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2007-01-01

    Aims.The Galactic bulge region is a rich host of variable high-energy point sources. Since 2005, February 17 we are monitoring the source activity in the Galactic bulge region regularly and frequently, i.e., about every three days, with the instruments onboard INTEGRAL. Thanks to the large field of

  3. INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations of GRO J1750-27 (AX J1749.1-2639), H1743-322 and SLX 1746-331

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Beckmann, V.; Shaw, S.;

    2008-01-01

    A new season of the INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring program (see ATels #438, #874, #1005; Kuulkers et al. 2007, A&A 466, 595) started, with observations on UT 11 Feb 2008, 16:33-18:07. We here report on results from three currently active transient sources. The IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X1 images sho...... a bright source near GX 3+1, coincident with the position of the transient accreting X-ray pulsar GRO J1750-27 (AX J1749.1-2639)....

  4. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  5. Galactic bulges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyse, RFG; Gilmore, G; Franx, M

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the present observational and theoretical understanding of the stellar populations of bulges and their implications for galaxy formation and evolution. The place of bulges as key to the Hubble Sequence remains secure, but some old paradigms are giving way to new ones as observations devel

  6. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  7. Galactic bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier; Gadotti, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews on Galactic Bulges written by experts in the field. A central point of the book is that, while in the standard picture of galaxy formation a significant amount of the baryonic mass is expected to reside in classical bulges, the question what is the fraction of galaxies with no classical bulges in the local Universe has remained open. The most spectacular example of a galaxy with no significant classical bulge is the Milky Way. The reviews of this book attempt to clarify the role of the various types of bulges during the mass build-up of galaxies, based on morphology, kinematics, and stellar populations, and connecting their properties at low and high redshifts. The observed properties are compared with the predictions of the theoretical models, accounting for the many physical processes leading to the central mass concentration and their destruction in galaxies. This book serves as an entry point for PhD students and non-specialists and as a reference work for researchers...

  8. The BRAVE Program. I. Improved Bulge Stellar Velocity Dispersion Estimates for a Sample of Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiste, Merida; Bentz, Misty C.; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Onken, Christopher A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2017-02-01

    We present new bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements for 10 active galaxies with secure MBH determinations from reverberation mapping. These new velocity dispersion measurements are based on spatially resolved kinematics from integral-field (IFU) spectroscopy. In all but one case, the field of view of the IFU extends beyond the effective radius of the galaxy, and in the case of Mrk 79 it extends to almost one half the effective radius. This combination of spatial resolution and field of view allows for secure determinations of stellar velocity dispersion within the effective radius for all 10 target galaxies. Spatially resolved maps of the first (V) and second (σ⋆) moments of the line of sight velocity distribution indicate the presence of kinematic substructure in most cases. In future projects we plan to explore methods of correcting for the effects of kinematic substructure in the derived bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements.

  9. Regional monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1957-08-26

    The purpose of the Regional Monitoring program is to conduct surveys to detect, measure, and to evaluate environmental radiation, particularly that of HAPO origin. Estimations of total environmental dose and HAPO's contribution to this dose, in units of fraction of public exposure limits, are calculated. Corollary functions include the use of Regional Monitoring data to establish and predict trends in environmental exposure components, and to facilitate correlation of environmental radioactivity with plant processes, process changes, and waste disposal practices.

  10. Cylinder monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, J.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in storage at the Department of Energy (DOE) gaseous diffusion plants, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are being evaluated to determine their expected storage life. Cylinders evaluated recently have been in storage service for 30 to 40 years. In the present environment, the remaining life for these storage cylinders is estimated to be 30 years or greater. The group of cylinders involved in recent tests will continue to be monitored on a periodic basis, and other storage cylinders will be observed as on a statistical sample population. The program has been extended to all types of large capacity UF{sub 6} cylinders.

  11. ORR Deer Hunt Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scofield, P.A.; Teasley, N.A.

    1999-09-01

    The primary purpose for the initiation of deer hunts on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was deer population control to reduce collisions with vehicles and maintain a healthy herd and habitat. As of 1997, thirteen annual deer hunts have been conducted on the ORR. The deer hunt monitoring program (DHMP) has two components -- a field screening monitoring program and a confirmatory laboratory analysis program of both retained and randomly selected released deer samples.

  12. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  13. 1999 Environmental Monitoring Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. V. Street

    2000-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1999 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory management and operating contractor Environmental Monitoring Program. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1999 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the expectation of nitrogen in two disposal pond effluent streams iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal well, and coliform bacteria in drinking water systems at two facilities. Maintenance activities were performed on the two drinking water systems and tested prior to putting back into service. The monitoring and surveillance results demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  14. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a disorder causing overactivity of the thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ). Bulging eyes are not the same as prominent ... or pain Whether the person has symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as inability to tolerate heat, increased sweating, ...

  15. Rejuvenation of spiral bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D; Thomas, Daniel; Davies, Roger L.

    2006-01-01

    We seek to understand whether the stellar populations of galactic bulges show fingerprints of secular evolution triggered by the presence of the disc. For this purpose we re-analyse the sample of Proctor and Sansom, deriving stellar population ages and element abundances from absorption line indices. We obtain very consistent constraints on ages from the three Balmer indices Hbeta, Hgamma, and Hdelta, in good agreement with those of Proctor and Sansom based on a completely different method. Like other studies in the literature, we find that bulges have relatively low luminosity weighted ages, the lowest age derived for the smallest bulges being 1.3 Gyr. Hence bulges are not generally old but actually rejuvenated systems. We discuss evidence that this might be true also for the bulge of the Milky Way. We show that the smallest bulges, being the youngest with the lowest alpha/Fe ratios, must have experienced star formation events involving 10-30 per cent of their total mass in the past 1-2 Gyr. No significant c...

  16. Monitoring managers through corporate compliance programs

    OpenAIRE

    Angelucci, C.; Han, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Compliance programs entail monitoring of employees' behavior with the claimed objective of fighting corporate crime. (Competition) Authorities promote such intra-firm monitoring. In a three-tier hierarchy model, authority-shareholder-manager, we study the impact of monitoring through a compliance program on contracting within the firm and the authority's optimal sanctions and leniency policy. We find that compliance programs are beneficial in the fight against corporate crime if and only if t...

  17. Monitoring managers through corporate compliance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Angelucci; M.A. Han

    2010-01-01

    Compliance programs entail monitoring of employees’ behavior with the claimed objective of fighting corporate crime. (Competition) Authorities promote such intra-firm monitoring. In a three-tier hierarchy model, authority-shareholder-manager, we study the impact of monitoring on contracting within t

  18. Monitoring managers through corporate compliance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelucci, C.; Han, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Compliance programs entail monitoring of employees' behavior with the claimed objective of fighting corporate crime. (Competition) Authorities promote such intra-firm monitoring. In a three-tier hierarchy model, authority-shareholder-manager, we study the impact of monitoring through a compliance pr

  19. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2011 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D. J.; Anderson, D. C.; Hall, D. B.; Greger, P. D.; Ostler, W. K.

    2012-06-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2011. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2011, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  20. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2008 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis J.; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2009-04-30

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2008. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  1. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2010 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.J.; Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.; Greger, P.D.; Ostler, W.K.

    2011-07-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2010. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2010, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  2. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2012 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B.; Anderson, David C.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent; Hansen, Dennis J.

    2013-07-03

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2012. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2012, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  3. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2009 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J. Dennis; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2010-07-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2009. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2009, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  4. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  5. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2007 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis; Anderson, David; Derek, Hall; Greger, Paul; Ostler, W. Kent

    2008-03-01

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, 'Environmental Protection Program', the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) requires ecological monitoring and biological compliance support for activities and programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Ecological Services has implemented the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program to provide this support. EMAC is designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, delineate and define NTS ecosystems, and provide ecological information that can be used to predict and evaluate the potential impacts of proposed projects and programs on those ecosystems. This report summarizes the EMAC activities conducted by NSTec during calendar year 2007. Monitoring tasks during 2007 included eight program areas: (a) biological surveys, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) biological monitoring at the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). The following sections of this report describe work performed under these eight areas.

  6. Kulm WMD Management Actions 2004 Monitoring Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management actions for the monitoring program at Kulm Wetland Management District for 2004. Habitat management objectives for 2004 include rejuvenating plant growth,...

  7. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2013 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B.; Anderson, David C.; Greger, Paul D.

    2014-06-05

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2013. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2013, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  8. Characterization monitoring & sensor technology crosscutting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to deliver appropriate characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) to the OFfice of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60).

  9. Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program Data (REMAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) was initiated to test the applicability of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program...

  10. Characterization, Monitoring and Sensor Technology Integrated Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This booklet contains summary sheets that describe FY 1993 characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) development projects. Currently, 32 projects are funded, 22 through the OTD Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP), 8 through the OTD Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) activity managed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), and 2 through Interagency Agreements (IAGs). This booklet is not inclusive of those CMST projects which are funded through Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and other Integrated Programs (IPs). The projects are in six areas: Expedited Site Characterization; Contaminants in Soils and Groundwater; Geophysical and Hydrogeological Measurements; Mixed Wastes in Drums, Burial Grounds, and USTs; Remediation, D&D, and Waste Process Monitoring; and Performance Specifications and Program Support. A task description, technology needs, accomplishments and technology transfer information is given for each project.

  11. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P.G.; Bassa, C. G.; Dieball, A.; Greiss, S.; Maccarone, T. J.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Britt, C. T.; Clem, J. L.; Gossen, L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Groot, P.J.; Kuiper, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Mendez, M.; Mikles, V. J.; Ratti, E. M.; Rea, N.; van Haaften, L.; Wijnands, R.; in't Zand, J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (CGBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to de

  12. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Greiss, S.; Clem, J.; Dieball, A.; Mikles, V. J.; Britt, C. T.; Gossen, L.; Collazzi, A. C.; Wijnands, R.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Mendez, M.; Rea, N.; Kuulkers, E.; Ratti, E. M.; van Haaften, L. M.; Heinke, C.; Ozel, F.; Groot, P. J.; Verbunt, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to det

  13. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.; Trevisan, M.; Dutra, N.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut between the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. Aims: The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. Results: We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. We find [Mn/Fe] ~ -0.7 at [Fe/H] ~ -1.3, increasing to a solar value at metallicities close to solar, and showing a spread around - 0.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -0.2, in good agreement with other work on Mn in bulge stars. There is also good agreement with chemical evolution models. We find no clear difference in the behaviour of the four bulge fields. Whereas [Mn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] could be identified with the behaviour of the thick disc stars, [Mn/O] vs. [O/H] has a behaviour running parallel, at higher metallicities, compared to thick disc stars, indicating that the bulge enrichment might have proceeded differently from that of the thick disc. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617A, 73.B0074A, and GTO 71.B-0196).Tables 1-6 and Figs. 1-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Terra Nova Environmental effects monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, U. [Petro-Canada Inc., St. John' s, NF (Canada); Murdoch, M. [Jacques Whitford Environmental Limited (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Elements of the environmental effects monitoring program in the Terra Nova oil field, about 350 km east-southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland, are described. This oilfield is being developed using a floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) facility. A total of 24 wells are expected to be drilled through seven subsea templates located in four glory holes to protect them from icebergs. Subsea installations will be linked to the FPSO by trenched flowlines connected to flexible risers. The FPSO will offload to shuttle tankers. First oil is expected in 2001. The environmental effects monitoring program will be conducted annually for the first two years beginning in 2000. Subsequent scheduling will be determined after a review of monitoring data collected during the first three years. Input to the design of the monitoring program was provided by all stakeholders, i. e. owners, local public, government agencies and regional and international experts. A model was developed linking project discharges and possible effects to the environment, including marine resources in the area, and the information derived from these activities was used to generate a set of predictions and hypotheses to be tested in the monitoring program. The monitoring program will use two spatial models: a regression or gradient design and a control-impact design. The gradient design will monitor water column and sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity and benthic invertebrate communities. The control-impact design will be used to monitor larger and more mobile fish or shellfish. The evaluated results will serve as the basis for determining impact predictions and to provide information to allow for decisions pertaining to the protection of the marine environment.

  15. The circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program - Terrestrial plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program, CBMP, Terrestrial Plan, www.caff.is/terrestrial, is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders......, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. This presentation will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based...... monitoring with survey-based monitoring and remotely sensed data. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan intends to build upon and expand existing monitoring networks, engaging participants across a range of capacity and interests. The presentation will summarize the recommended focal soil ecosystem components...

  16. Comprehensive Monitor-Oriented Compensation Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Colombo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compensation programming is typically used in the programming of web service compositions whose correct implementation is crucial due to their handling of security-critical activities such as financial transactions. While traditional exception handling depends on the state of the system at the moment of failure, compensation programming is significantly more challenging and dynamic because it is dependent on the runtime execution flow — with the history of behaviour of the system at the moment of failure affecting how to apply compensation. To address this dynamic element, we propose the use of runtime monitors to facilitate compensation programming, with monitors enabling the modeller to be able to implicitly reason in terms of the runtime control flow, thus separating the concerns of system building and compensation modelling. Our approach is instantiated into an architecture and shown to be applicable to a case study.

  17. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program procedures: fish monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Eric N.; Glittinger, Eric J.; O'Hara, T. Matt; Ickes, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    This manual constitutes the second revision of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) element Fish Procedures Manual. The original (1988) manual merged and expanded on ideas and recommendations related to Upper Mississippi River fish sampling presented in several early documents. The first revision to the manual was made in 1995 reflecting important protocol changes, such as the adoption of a stratified random sampling design. The 1995 procedures manual has been an important document through the years and has been cited in many reports and scientific manuscripts. The resulting data collected by the LTRMP fish component represent the largest dataset on fish within the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) with more than 44,000 collections of approximately 5.7 million fish. The goal of this revision of the procedures manual is to document changes in LTRMP fish sampling procedures since 1995. Refinements to sampling methods become necessary as monitoring programs mature. Possible refinements are identified through field experiences (e.g., sampling techniques and safety protocols), data analysis (e.g., planned and studied gear efficiencies and reallocations of effort), and technological advances (e.g., electronic data entry). Other changes may be required because of financial necessity (i.e., unplanned effort reductions). This version of the LTRMP fish monitoring manual describes the most current (2014) procedures of the LTRMP fish component.

  18. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments in terrestrial, marine, freshwater...... and coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect......, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...

  19. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Barbuy, B; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Renzini, A; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A; Trevisan, M; Dutra, N

    2013-01-01

    Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut beween the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Gala...

  20. Design and analysis of environmental monitoring programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophaven, Søren Nymand

    2005-01-01

    applied. Existing design methods are reviewed, and based on these a new Bayesian geostatistical design approach is suggested. This focus on constructing monitoring networks which are efficient for computing spatial predictions, while taking the uncertainties of the parameters in the geostatistical model......This thesis describes statistical methods for modelling space-time phenomena. The methods were applied to data from the Danish marine monitoring program in the Kattegat, measured in the five-year period 1993-1997. The proposed model approaches are characterised as relatively simple methods, which...... can handle missing data values and utilize the spatial and temporal correlation in data. Modelling results can be used to improve reporting on the state of the marine environment in the Kattegat. The thesis also focus on design of monitoring networks, from which geostatistics can be successfully...

  1. A survey of an air monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.B.

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this report is to compare personal air sampling data to stationary air sampling data and to bioassay data that was taken during the decontamination and decommissioning of sixty-one plutonium glove boxes at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1995. An air monitoring program administered at Argonne National Laboratory was assessed by comparing personal air sampler (PAS) data, stationary air sampler (SAS) data, and bioassay data. The study revealed that the PAS and SAS techniques were equivalent when averaged over all employees and all workdays, but the standard deviation was large. Also, large deviations were observed in individual samples. The correlation between individual PAS results and bioassay results was low. Personal air samplers and bioassay monitoring played complementary roles in assessing the workplace and estimating intakes. The PAS technique is adequate for detection and evaluation of contaminated atmospheres, whereas bioassay monitoring is better for determining individual intakes.

  2. Permafrost monitoring K12 outreach program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Saito, T.; Romanovsky, V.

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this project is to establish long-term permafrost monitoring sites adjacent to schools along the circum polar permafrost region. Permafrost will be one of the important indicators for monitoring climatic change in the future. Change in permafrost conditions also affects local ecosystems, hydrological regimes and natural disasters. The purpose of the long-term permafrost observation is fitting for future science objectives, and can also benefit students and teachers in remote village schools. Most remote villages depend on a subsistence lifestyle and will be directly affected by changing climate and permafrost condition. Monitoring the permafrost temperature in the arctic for a better understanding of the spatial distribution of permafrost and having students participate to collect the data is an ideal IPY project. Our outreach project involves drilling boreholes at village schools and installing the micro data logger with temperature sensors to measure hourly air and permafrost temperatures. Trained teachers help students download data several times a year and discuss the results in class. The data gathered from these stations is shared and can be viewed by anyone through the Internet (http://www.uaf.edu/permafrost). Using the Internet teachers can also compare their data with data form other monitoring stations. This project is becoming an useful science project for these remote villages, which tends to have limited exposure to science, despite the changing surroundings that they're daily lives depend on. NSF (EPSCoR) funded the previous seeding outreach program. Currently NSF/NASA and the International Polar Year (IPY) program support this project. In the 2006 field season, thirty-one schools participated in installing the monitoring stations. In 2007 we propose the expansion of this project to involve an additional 100 villages along the arctic. The broader impacts of this project are 1). This project will provide opportunities for field

  3. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2014 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Anderson, David C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Greger, Paul D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    2015-05-12

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2014. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2014, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives. Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NNSS include 42 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, 236 birds, and 27 mammals. These species are protected, regulated, or considered sensitive according to state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) are the only species on the NNSS protected under the Endangered Species Act, both listed as threatened. However, only one record of the cuckoo has ever been documented on the NNSS, and there is no good habitat for this species on the NNSS. It is considered a rare migrant. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 18 projects. A total of 199.18 hectares (ha) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found during these surveys included a predator burrow, one sidewinder rattlesnake (Crotalus cerastes), two mating speckled rattlesnakes

  4. The Formation of Galactic Bulges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R.; Balcells, M.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Graham, A.

    2005-01-01

    We summarise some recent results about nearby galactic bulges that are relevant to their formation. We highlight a number of significant advances in our understanding of the surface brightness profiles, stellar populations, and especially the very centers of spiral galaxies. We also view our own Mil

  5. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2006 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Anderson; Paul D. Greger; Derek B. Hall; Dennis J. Hansen; William K. Ostler

    2007-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) during the Calendar Year 2006. Program activities included: (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NTS include 44 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, over 250 birds, and 26 mammals protected, managed, or considered sensitive as per state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is the only species on the NTS protected under the Endangered Species Act. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 34 projects. A total of 342.1 hectares (ha) (845.37 acres [ac]) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found included: 2 inactive tortoise burrows, 2 western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea), several horses (Equus caballus), 2 active predator burrows, mature Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia), yuccas and cacti; and also 1 bird nest (2 eggs), 1 barn owl (Tyto alba) and 2 great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus). NSTec provided a written summary report of all survey findings and mitigation recommendations, where applicable. All flagged burrows

  6. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2006 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Anderson; Paul D. Greger; Derek B. Hall; Dennis J. Hansen; William K. Ostler

    2007-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) during the Calendar Year 2006. Program activities included: (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NTS include 44 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, over 250 birds, and 26 mammals protected, managed, or considered sensitive as per state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is the only species on the NTS protected under the Endangered Species Act. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 34 projects. A total of 342.1 hectares (ha) (845.37 acres [ac]) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found included: 2 inactive tortoise burrows, 2 western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea), several horses (Equus caballus), 2 active predator burrows, mature Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia), yuccas and cacti; and also 1 bird nest (2 eggs), 1 barn owl (Tyto alba) and 2 great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus). NSTec provided a written summary report of all survey findings and mitigation recommendations, where applicable. All flagged burrows

  7. Sandia National Laboratories California Environmental Monitoring Program Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C.

    2007-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Monitoring Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2006 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  8. 34 CFR 303.501 - Supervision and monitoring of programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and monitoring of programs. 303.501 Section... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Administration General § 303.501 Supervision and monitoring... supervision of programs and activities receiving assistance under this part; and (2) The monitoring...

  9. 24 CFR 266.115 - Program monitoring and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program monitoring and evaluation... Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.115 Program monitoring and evaluation. (a) HFA certifications... and evaluation. Monitoring and evaluation activities will focus on compliance with...

  10. Discovery in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    In our efforts to map our galaxys structure, one region has remained very difficult to probe: the galactic center. A new survey, however, uses infrared light to peer through the gas and dust in the galactic plane, searching for variable stars in the bulge of the galaxy. This study has discovered a population of very young stars in a thin disk in the galactic center, providing clues to the star formation history of the Milky Way over the last 100 million years.Obscured CenterThe center of the Milky Way is dominated by a region known as the galactic bulge. Efforts to better understand this region in particular, its star formation history have been hindered by the stars, gas, and dust of the galactic disk, which prevent us from viewing the galactic bulge at low latitudes in visible light.The positions of the 35 classical Cepheids discovered in VVV data, projected onto an image of the galactic plane. Click for a better look! The survey area is bounded by the blue lines, and the galactic bar is marked with a red curve. The bottom panel shows the position of the Cepheids overlaid on the VVV bulge extinction map. [Dkny et al. 2015]Infrared light, however, can be used to probe deeper through the dust than visible-light searches. A new survey called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) uses the VISTA telescope in Chile to search, in infrared, for variable stars in the inner part of the galaxy. The VVV survey area spans the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the mid-plane where star formation activity is high.Led by Istvn Dkny, a researcher at the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics and the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, a team has now used VVV data to specifically identify classical Cepheid variable stars in the bulge. Why? Cepheids are pulsating stars with a very useful relation between their periods and luminosities that allows them to be used as distance indicators. Moreover, classical Cepheids are indicators of young stellar populations which can

  11. 40 CFR 257.24 - Detection monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.24 Detection monitoring program. (a) Detection monitoring is required at facilities identified in § 257.5(a) at all ground-water monitoring wells... unit to the ground water. In determining alternative parameters, the Director shall consider...

  12. 40 CFR 258.54 - Detection monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.54 Detection monitoring program. (a) Detection monitoring is required at MSWLF units at all ground-water monitoring wells... from the MSWLF unit to the ground water. In determining alternative parameters, the Director...

  13. The community ecological monitoring program annual report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Community Ecological Monitoring Program (CEMP) arose in 2005 as an extension of the Kluane monitoring project to begin a regional assessment of the health of the...

  14. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2014 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Anderson, David C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Greger, Paul D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    2015-05-12

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2014. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2014, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives. Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NNSS include 42 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, 236 birds, and 27 mammals. These species are protected, regulated, or considered sensitive according to state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) are the only species on the NNSS protected under the Endangered Species Act, both listed as threatened. However, only one record of the cuckoo has ever been documented on the NNSS, and there is no good habitat for this species on the NNSS. It is considered a rare migrant. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 18 projects. A total of 199.18 hectares (ha) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found during these surveys included a predator burrow, one sidewinder rattlesnake (Crotalus cerastes), two mating speckled rattlesnakes

  15. Clumpy Disc and Bulge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J; Tissera, P; Michel-Dansac, L

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of hydrodynamical/Nbody controlled simulations of isolated gas rich galaxies that self-consistently include SN feedback and a detailed chemical evolution model, both tested in cosmological simulations. The initial conditions are motivated by the observed star forming galaxies at z ~ 2-3. We find that the presence of a multiphase interstellar media in our models promotes the growth of disc instability favouring the formation of clumps which in general, are not easily disrupted on timescales compared to the migration time. We show that stellar clumps migrate towards the central region and contribute to form a classical-like bulge with a Sersic index, n > 2. Our physically-motivated Supernova feedback has a mild influence on clump survival and evolution, partially limiting the mass growth of clumps as the energy released per Supernova event is increased, with the consequent flattening of the bulge profile. This regulation does not prevent the building of a classical-like bulge even for the most ...

  16. DATA MONITORING AND ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravois, Melanie

    2007-07-06

    This procedure provides guidelines and techniques for analyzing and trending data using statistical methods for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This procedure outlines the steps used in data analysis and trending. It includes guidelines for performing data analysis and for monitoring (or controlling) processes using performance indicators. This procedure is used when trending and analyzing item characteristics and reliability, process implementation, and other quality-related information to identify items, services, activities, and processes needing improvement, in accordance with 10 CFR Part 830, Subpart A, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 414.1C, and University of California (UC) Assurance Plan for LBNL. Trend codes, outlined in Attachment 4, are assigned to issues at the time of initiation and entry into the Corrective Action Tracking System (CATS) database in accordance with LBNL/PUB-5519 (1), Issues Management Program Manual. Throughout this procedure, the term performance is used to encompass all aspects of performance including quality, timeliness, efficiency, effectiveness, and reliability. Data analysis tools are appropriate whenever quantitative information describing the performance of an item, service, or process can be obtained.

  17. 34 CFR 303.171 - Supervision and monitoring of programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and monitoring of programs. 303.171 Section 303.171 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...-Application Requirements § 303.171 Supervision and monitoring of programs. Each application must...

  18. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2003 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-12-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to Nevada Test Site biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 2003.

  19. 12 CFR 27.6 - Substitute monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitute monitoring program. 27.6 Section 27.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM § 27.6 Substitute monitoring program. The recordkeeping provisions of § 27.3 constitute...

  20. 36 CFR 1207.40 - Monitoring and reporting program performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring and reporting program performance. 1207.40 Section 1207.40 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND... and that performance goals are being achieved. Grantee monitoring must cover each program, function...

  1. 36 CFR 1210.51 - Monitoring and reporting program performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring and reporting program performance. 1210.51 Section 1210.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND... managing and monitoring each project, program, subaward, function or activity supported by the...

  2. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Ole E.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Jensen, Vibeke F.; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Skov, Robert L.; Agersø, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian T.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Muller, Arno; Hovgaard, Karin; Ajufo, Justin; Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Wegener, Henrik C.; Monnet, Dominique L.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries. PMID:18217544

  3. ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND COMPLIANCE PROGRAM CALENDAR YEAR 2005 REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA ECOLOGICAL SERVICES

    2006-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada (BN) during the Calendar Year 2005. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive and protected/regulated species and unique habitat monitoring, (5) habitat restoration monitoring, and (6) biological monitoring at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  4. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  5. Development of regulatory technical rationale for risk monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Lee, Yong Suk; Ahn, Kwang Won; Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In Korea, the risk monitoring program will be developed and applied to each plants till 2003 by the severe accident management plan to enhance the safety functions of the nuclear power plants. Through this plan, the risk monitoring for the full power and low power and shutdown operation will be performed. Therefore the development of consistent risk monitoring system and overall regulatory guides for the risk monitoring program are necessary. The objective of this study is the development of regulatory technical rationales for the nuclear power plant risk monitoring program and the derivation of the requirements need for the development of risk monitoring system. Through this the improvement of regulatory effectiveness to assure the safe operation of nuclear power plant, is expected.

  6. Danish integrated antimicrobial in resistance monitoring and research program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Heuer, Ole Eske; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a s...... activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries....... a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research......Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish...

  7. Ultrasonographic findings in patients with peristomal bulging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödahl, Rune I; Thorelius, Lars; Hallböök, Olof J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a classification of peristomal bulging based on findings at ultrasonography in patients with a sigmoid colostomy.......The aim of this study was to obtain a classification of peristomal bulging based on findings at ultrasonography in patients with a sigmoid colostomy....

  8. Dust properties in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Context. It has been suggested that the ratio of total-to-selective extinction RV in dust in the interstellar medium differs in the Galactic bulge from its value in the local neighborhood. Aims: We attempt to test this suggestion. Methods: The mid-infrared hydrogen lines in 16 Galactic bulge PNe mea

  9. 3-Dimensional dynamics of the galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soto Vicencio, Mario Humberto

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of a project which attempts to unveil the structure of the galactic bulge of our galaxy through the study of the kinematics of stars in low foreground extinction windows.Thus, in order to effectively constraint the phase-space distribution function of the galactic bulge, we have

  10. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  11. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  12. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 1999 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    1999-12-01

    The Ecological and Compliance program, funded through the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 1999. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites (2) desert tortoise compliance (3) ecosystem mapping (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center.

  13. Tackling the motivation to monitor: success and sustainability of a participatory monitoring program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navinder J. Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of species and their ecosystem attributes is a fundamental requirement in applied ecology and conservation. However, landscape scale monitoring requires an immense effort and commitment, especially when species have a wide distribution or are migratory in nature. Participatory monitoring, whereby local communities are engaged, is increasingly being proposed to address landscape scale monitoring. Its implementation is met with many challenges related to finances, motivation of the local people, lack of trained manpower, and nondirect legal use of the species in question. It is of interest to determine what makes a participatory monitoring program interesting for locals to ensure their long term engagement. Using the unique 26-year program of hunters' observations of moose (Alces alces in Sweden as a case study, we present the evolution of this highly successful participatory monitoring program and show that tackling the motivation to monitor, early involvement of local NGOs, social activities revolving around use of the resource, the biology and economic value of the species, and technical and practical aspects related to the monitoring, together create a successful participatory monitoring program. When users benefit directly from the resource, participate in conservation/management decision making, socialize with other participants, and get rewards for their commitment and effective monitoring, participatory monitoring schemes can then become rewarding and sustainable.

  14. Mosquito and West Nile virus monitoring program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2004, in cooperation with USGS in Fort Collins, a monitoring study was established to assess the level of occurrence and potential effects of WNV on wild raptor...

  15. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  16. A plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan C.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ellison, Laura E.; Lausen, Cori L.; Reichard, Jonathan D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Thomas E.; Coleman, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Francis, Charles M.; Bayless, Mylea L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be used to gather monitoring data to assess changes in bat distributions and abundances: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic surveys along road transects, and acoustic surveys at stationary points. These monitoring approaches are described along with methods for identifying species recorded by acoustic detectors. Other chapters describe the sampling design, the database management system (Bat Population Database), and statistical approaches that can be used to analyze data collected through this program.

  17. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  18. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program's activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  19. Analysis and Implement of Broadcast Program Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jin Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the radio and TV industry and the implementation of INT (the integration of telecommunications networks, cable TV networks and the Internet, the contents of programs and advertisements is showing massive, live and interactive trends. In order to meet the security of radio and television, the broadcast of information have to be controlled and administered. In order to master the latest information of public opinion trends through radio and television network, it is necessary research the specific industry applications of broadcast program monitoring. In this paper, the importance of broadcast monitoring in public opinion analysis is firstly analysed. The monitoring radio and television programs broadcast system architecture is proposed combining with the practice, focusing on the technical requirements and implementation process of program broadcast, advertisement broadcast and TV station broadcast monitoring. The more efficient information is generated through statistical analysis, which provides data analysis for radio and television public opinion analysis.

  20. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Database contains estuarine and coastal data that EMAP and Regional-EMAP have collected...

  1. Operating Experiences of a Loss of Voltage Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Loss of voltage (LOV) events continue to occur due to inadequate work management and random human errors. On February 26, 2015, regulators analyzed the root causes of LOV events and presented the results for the nuclear industry. Currently, KHNP uses a risk monitoring program, which is named 'LOV Monitor', for LOV prevention during pilot plant outages. This review introduces the operation experiences of LOV Monitor based on the evaluation results of a real event. The operation experiences of LOV Monitor in the pilot plants confirmed that this program could detect and reduce LOV possibilities from scheduling errors such as the simultaneous maintenance of energized trains and de-energized trains considering the physical conditions of the power circuit breakers. However, a maintenance culture that heeds the risk monitoring result must be strengthened in order to obtain substantial effects through applying LOV Monitor to the outage.

  2. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    types of amoebae present. In addition to taxon identification, the genetic diversity within a single species of soil amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga ...populations of A. polyphaga were again monitored in 1991 and 1993 to determine if any changes in diversity had taken place after the Michigan...chambers. The study protocol involved suspending A. polyphaga and a food bacterium 0 Escherichia coh in a physiological saline within the chamber

  3. The data collection component of the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Islam, M.M.

    1988-09-01

    An intensive program of meteorological monitoring is in place at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program involves the measurement, observation, and storage of various meteorological data; continuous monitoring of regional weather conditions by a staff of professional meteorologists; and around-the-clock forecasting of weather conditions for the Hanford Site. The objective of this report is to document the data collection component of the program. In this report, each meteorological monitoring site is discussed in detail. Each site's location and instrumentation are described and photographs are presented. The methods for processing and communicating data to the Hanford Meteorology Station are also discussed. Finally, the procedures followed to maintain and calibrate these instruments are presented. 2 refs., 83 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  5. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  6. In Vivo Monitoring Program Manual, PNL-MA-574

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Timothy P.

    2010-07-01

    An overview of the administration for the In Vivo Monitoring Program (IVMP) for Hanford. This includes organizational structure and program responsibilities; coordination of in vivo measurements; scheduling measurements; performing measurements; reporting results; and quality assurance. Overall responsibility for the management of the IVMP rests with the Program Manager (PM). The PM is responsible for providing the required in vivo counting services for Hanford Site contractor employees in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and the specific statements of work.

  7. Theoretical Models of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared images from the COBE satellite presented the first clear evidence that our Milky Way galaxy contains a boxy shaped bulge. Recent years have witnessed a gradual paradigm shift in the formation and evolution of the Galactic bulge. Bulges were commonly believed to form in the dynamical violence of galaxy mergers. However, it has become increasingly clear that the main body of the Milky Way bulge is not a classical bulge made by previous major mergers, instead it appears to be a bar seen somewhat end-on. The Milky Way bar can form naturally from a precursor disk and thicken vertically by the internal firehose/buckling instability, giving rise to the boxy appearance. This picture is supported by many lines of evidence, including the asymmetric parallelogram shape, the strong cylindrical rotation (i.e., nearly constant rotation regardless of the height above the disk plane), the existence of an intriguing X-shaped structure in the bulge, and perhaps the metallicity gradients. We review the major theor...

  8. Is the Galactic Bulge Devoid of Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Matthew T.; Henderson, Calen B.; Clanton, Christian

    2016-10-01

    We consider a sample of 31 exoplanetary systems detected by gravitational microlensing and investigate whether or not the estimated distances to these systems conform to the Galactic distribution of planets expected from models. We derive the expected distribution of distances and relative proper motions from a simulated microlensing survey, correcting for the dominant selection effects that affect the sensitivity of planet detection as a function of distance, and compare it to the observed distribution using Anderson-Darling (AD) hypothesis testing. Taking the relative abundance of planets in the bulge to that in the disk, {f}{bulge}, as a model parameter, we find that our model is consistent with the observed distribution only for {f}{bulge}\\lt 0.54 (for a p-value threshold of 0.01) implying that the bulge may be devoid of planets relative to the disk. Allowing for a dependence of planet abundance on metallicity and host mass, or an additional dependence of planet sensitivity on event timescale, does not restore consistency for {f}{bulge}=1. We examine the distance estimates of some events in detail, and conclude that some parallax-based estimates could be significantly in error. Only by combining the removal of one problematic event from our sample and the inclusion of strong dependences of planet abundance or detection sensitivity on host mass, metallicity, and event timescale are we able to find consistency with the hypothesis that the bulge and disk have equal planet abundance.

  9. Extended X-ray Objects in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this project was to locate extended X-ray objects in the galactic bulge. Data was taken from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and analyzed using vtpdetect, a program that scans for overdensities of photons in FITS files. The regions flagged by the program were further investigated to determine whether the sources were real extended objects. The original list of detected sources was narrowed down to 7 candidates which are now being further analyzed to determine what specifically the objects are. For this poster I will describe the elimination process for each flagged object and discuss future analysis techniques to determine the identity of the remaining candidates.

  10. Planning aquatic ecosystem restoration monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, R.M.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Evaluation of Environmental Investments Research Program (EEIRP). The EEIRP is sponsored by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The objectives of this work are to (1) identify relevant approaches and features for environmental investment measures to be applied throughout the project life; (2) develop methods to access the effectiveness of the approach or feature for providing the intended environmental output; (3) develop and provide guidance for formulating environmental projects; and (4) provide guidance for formulating and identifying relevant cost components of alternate restoration plans.

  11. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  12. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Jonker, P. G.; Maccarone, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Steeghs, D.; Nelemans, G.; Johnson, C.; Greiss, S.

    2015-05-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a multi-wavelength survey of two 6×1 degree strips above and below the Galactic plane, including deep r' and i' imaging and time domain photometry from CTIO and shallow, wide-field X-ray imaging with Chandra. Targeting fields above |b|=1 avoids most of the copious extinction along the Galactic plane while maintaining high source density. This results in targets that are accessible to follow up in optical and NIR wavelengths. The X-ray observations are shallow to maximize the number of quiescent Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) relative to Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). The goals of the GBS are to conduct a census of Low Mass X-ray Binaries in the Milky Way in order to constrain models of binary evolution, the common envelope phase in particular, and to expand the number of known LMXBs for optical follow up. Mass measurements in particular will help constrain the black hole (BH) mass distribution and the equation of state for neutron stars (NS). Constraining the BH mass distribution will constrain models of their formation in supernovae. The current population of Galactic BHs suffers from selection effects, which the GBS avoids by finding new objects while still in quiescence. We expect to find qLMXBs, magnetic CVs, RS CVn stars, and smaller numbers of other types of sources. After removing duplicates, there are 1640 unique X-ray sources in the 12 square degree survey area, which closely matches the predicted number of 1648. We are currently matching X-ray sources to counterparts in other wavelengths using new photometric and spectroscopic observations as well as in archival data where it exists, and searching for variability and periodicity in the counterparts in photometric data. So far, we have spectroscopically identified 27 interacting binaries including promising candidates for quiescent black holes.

  13. Nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring program. 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.A.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.; Meachum, T.R.

    1993-08-01

    A monitoring program for nonradioactive parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents was initiated in October 1985 for facilities operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Program design and implementation are discussed in this report. Design and methodologies for sampling, analysis, and data management are also discussed. Monitoring results for 28 liquid effluent streams from (October 1991 through December 1992) are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1992 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  14. The Danish marine monitoring program 2011-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Würgler; Fossing, Henrik

    , and effect of hazardous substances. Additionally, oxygen depletion in Danish marine waters has special focus owing to both public and political awareness and as a proxy for nutrient enrichment. Through monitoring activities a comprehensive database has been established over decades and gained knowledge has...... focusing on the Water Framework Directive, the Habitats Directive, the Shellfish Water Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and various international conventions (in particular OSPAR and HELCOM). This presentation outlines purpose, scope and elements of the Danish marine monitoring program i.......e. selected parameters, sampling frequencies and number and location of stations. Further, necessary adjustments to fulfil the monitoring requirements of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive are discussed....

  15. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peone, Tim L.; Scholz, Allan T.; Griffith, James R.

    1990-10-01

    In the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1987), the Council directed the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to construct two kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) hatcheries as partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead incurred by construction of Grand Coulee Dam [Section 903 (g)(l)(C)]. The hatcheries will produce kokanee salmon for outplanting into Lake Roosevelt as well as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Lake Roosevelt net-pen program. In section 903 (g)(l)(E), the Council also directed BPA to fund a monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the kokanee hatcheries. The monitoring program included the following components: (1) a year-round, reservoir-wide, creel survey to determine angler use, catch rates and composition, and growth and condition of fish; (2) assessment of kokanee, rainbow, and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) feeding habits and densities of their preferred prey, and; (3) a mark and recapture study designed to assess the effectiveness of different locations where hatchery-raised kokanee and net pen reared rainbow trout are released. The above measures were adopted by the Council based on a management plan, developed by the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center, Spokane Indian Tribe, Colville Confederated Tribes, Washington Department of Wildlife, and National Park Service, that examined the feasibility of restoring and enhancing Lake Roosevelt fisheries (Scholz et al. 1986). In July 1988, BPA entered into a contract with the Spokane Indian Tribe to initiate the monitoring program. The projected duration of the monitoring program is through 1995. This report contains the results of the monitoring program from August 1988 to December 1989.

  16. EPA's monitoring program at Love Canal 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, T R; Bromberg, S M

    1982-09-01

    As stated at the beginning of this paper conclusions reached thus far cannot be discussed in this paper. However, a great deal of information is available for examination.EPA displayed its ability to coordinate widely separated laboratories, both Federal and private, into a smooth working team in a very short period of time. A very comprehensive study plan was also developed and implemented quickly. EPA was fortunate to have already had GCA under contract when the emergency arose. In no small part the success of the field effort was due to the managerial and technical abilities of the GCA team.Within a period of 6 weeks a plan was developed, a prime contractor retained, subcontractors hired, and field activities begun. Within a period of 3 months in excess of 8600 field samples were collected and over 12,000 field and QC samples were analyzed. During this same period 2 major data systems were developed, debugged, and placed into operation.In short this EPA project was probably the most comprehensive multimedia field project ever attempted by EPA and certainly the data is being subjected to the most strenuous quality control measures ever imposed by this Agency. The entire program is presently under peer review and the results are being prepared for publication by EPA Headquarters.

  17. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    rapid, and plankton ) that are ignored under the existing cost- effective manner. design of the monitoring program, but which A major purpose of the... mussels on dissolved oxygen and planktonic specifically focus on local areas where projects chlorophyll levels at selected locations, but are...term goals of the Program are to understand the system, determine resource trends and effects , develop management alternatives, manage information, and

  18. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesheim, M. B.; Beauheim, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    The development of a groundwater monitoring program is an integral part of any radioactive waste disposal facility. Monitoring improves our understanding of the geologic and hydrologic framework, which improves conceptual models and the quality of groundwater models that provide data input for performance assessment. The purpose of a groundwater monitoring program is to provide objective evidence that the hydrologic system is behaving as expected (i.e., performance confirmation). Monitoring should not be limited to near-field observations but should include the larger natural system in which the repository is situated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic wastes resulting from U.S. defense programs, can serve as a model for other radioactive waste disposal facilities. WIPP has a long-established groundwater monitoring program that is geared towards meeting compliance certification requirements set forth by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary task of the program is to measure various water parameters (e.g.., water level, pressure head, chemical and physical properties) using a groundwater monitoring network that currently consists of 85 wells in the vicinity of the WIPP site. Wells are completed to a number of water-bearing horizons and are monitored on a monthly basis. In many instances, they are also instrumented with programmable pressure transducers that take high-frequency measurements that supplement the monthly measurements. Results from higher frequency measurements indicate that the hydrologic system in the WIPP vicinity is in a transient state, responding to both natural and anthropogenic stresses. The insights gathered from the monitoring, as well as from hydrologic testing activities, provide valuable information that contributes to groundwater modeling efforts and performance assessment. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by

  19. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    , rising sea level leads to a natural landward migration of the shoreline. Dramatic examples of coastal erosion, such as houses and roads falling into the sea, are rare in Hawaii, but the impact of erosion is still very serious. The signs of erosion are much more subtle and typically start as a "temporary" hardening structure designed to mitigate an immediate problem which, eventually, results in a proliferation of structures along a stretch of coast. The natural ability of the sandy shoreline to respond to changes in wave climate is lost. The overall goals of this study are to document the coastal erosion history in Hawaii, determine the causal factors of that erosion, provide high-quality data for other "end-users" in applied studies (i.e. coastal engineers, planners, and managers), and increase our general understanding of low-latitude coastal geologic development. This project involves close cooperation between the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the University of Hawaii.

  20. Monitoring and evaluation of green public procurement programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adell, Aure [Ecoinstitut, Barcelona (Spain); Schaefer, Bettina [Ecoinstitut, Barcelona (Spain); Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Corry, Jenny [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Effective procurement policies can help governments save considerable amounts of money while also reducing energy consumption. Additionally, private sector companies which purchase large numbers of energy-consuming devices can benefit from procurement policies that minimize life-cycle energy costs. Both public and private procurement programs offer opportunities to generate market-transforming demand for energy efficient appliances and lighting fixtures. In recent years, several governments have implemented policies to procure energy efficient products and services. When deploying these policies, efforts have focused on developing resources for implementation (guidelines, energy efficiency specifications for tenders, life cycle costing tools, training, etc.) rather than defining monitoring systems to track progress against the set objectives. Implementation resources are necessary to make effective policies; however, developing Monitoring and Evaluation (M and E) mechanisms are critical to ensure that the policies are effective. The purpose of this article is to provide policy makers and procurement officials with a preliminary map of existing approaches and key components to monitor Energy Efficient Procurement (EEP) programs in order to contribute to the improvement of their own systems. Case studies are used throughout the paper to illustrate promising approaches to improve the M and E of EEP programs, from the definition of the system or data collection to complementary instruments to improve both the monitoring response and program results.

  1. 38 CFR 43.40 - Monitoring and reporting program performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring and reporting program performance. 43.40 Section 43.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Status Report. (1) Grantees shall submit annual performance reports unless the awarding agency...

  2. 38 CFR 49.51 - Monitoring and reporting program performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring and reporting program performance. 49.51 Section 49.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... not be required more frequently than quarterly or, less frequently than annually. Annual reports...

  3. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  4. Does the Galactic Bulge Have Fewer Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    The Milky Ways dense central bulge is a very different environment than the surrounding galactic disk in which we live. Do the differences affect the ability of planets to form in the bulge?Exploring Galactic PlanetsSchematic illustrating how gravitational microlensing by an extrasolar planet works. [NASA]Planet formation is a complex process with many aspects that we dont yet understand. Do environmental properties like host star metallicity, the density of nearby stars, or the intensity of the ambient radiation field affect the ability of planets to form? To answer these questions, we will ultimately need to search for planets around stars in a large variety of different environments in our galaxy.One way to detect recently formed, distant planets is by gravitational microlensing. In this process, light from a distant source star is bent by a lens star that is briefly located between us and the source. As the Earth moves, this momentary alignment causes a blip in the sources light curve that we can detect and planets hosted by the lens star can cause an additional observable bump.Artists impression of the Milky Way galaxy. The central bulge is much denserthan the surroundingdisk. [ESO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kornmesser/R. Hurt]Relative AbundancesMost source stars reside in the galactic bulge, so microlensing events can probe planetary systems at any distance between the Earth and the galactic bulge. This means that planet detections from microlensing could potentially be used to measure the relative abundances of exoplanets in different parts of our galaxy.A team of scientists led by Matthew Penny, a Sagan postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University, set out to do just that. The group considered a sample of 31 exoplanetary systems detected by microlensing and asked the following question: are the planet abundances in the galactic bulge and the galactic disk the same?A Paucity of PlanetsTo answer this question, Penny and collaborators derived the expected

  5. A multiyear workplace-monitoring program for refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, L D; Kelly, W P; Walters, T; Waugh, R

    1994-12-01

    This paper summarizes interim results of a 5-year workplace monitoring program conducted by firms belonging to the Refractory Ceramic Fibers Coalition (RCFC) pursuant to a Consent Agreement with the U.S. EPA. The exposure monitoring program is part of a model Product Stewardship Program (PSP) developed by RCFC. This paper reviews the refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) industry, findings of animal bioassay and epidemiological investigations, and the regulatory approach used by EPA. The scope, protocols, sample collection budgets, and experimental design of the monitoring program are summarized. In brief, the program will gather 720 time-weighted average (TWA) workplace concentration measurements annually, partitioned among 8 functional job classifications, both from plants that manufacture and from those that process or use RCF. Statistical analyses reveal that: workplace airborne RCF concentration data are approximately log-normally distributed, 93% of workplace TWAs are beneath the industry's recommended exposure guideline of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc), there are significant differences in average workplace RCF concentrations among job types, and PSP activities are effective in lowering workplace exposure. Results of this effort provide an interesting illustration of a successful cooperative effort between a responsible industry and regulatory agencies.

  6. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  7. The Demographics of galactic bulges in the SDSS database

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Keunho; Jeong, Hyunjin; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2016-01-01

    We present a new database of our two-dimensional bulge-disk decompositions for 14,233 galaxies drawn from SDSS DR12 in order to examine the properties of bulges residing in the local universe ($0.005 < z < 0.05$). We performed decompositions in $g$ and $r$ bands by utilizing the {\\sc{galfit}} software. The bulge colors and bulge-to-total ratios are found to be sensitive to the details in the decomposition technique, and hence we hereby provide full details of our method. The $g-r$ colors of bulges derived are almost constantly red regardless of bulge size except for the bulges in the low bulge-to-total ratio galaxies ($B/T_{\\rm r} \\lesssim 0.3$). Bulges exhibit similar scaling relations to those followed by elliptical galaxies, but the bulges in galaxies with lower bulge-to-total ratios clearly show a gradually larger departure in slope from the elliptical galaxy sequence. The scatters around the scaling relations are also larger for the bulges in galaxies with lower bulge-to-total ratios. Both the depa...

  8. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  9. Observations of planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Köppen, J; Acker, A; Stenholm, B

    2000-01-01

    High quality spectrophotometric observations of 30 Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge have been made. Accurate reddenings, plasma parameters, and abundances of He,O,N,S,Ar,Cl are derived. We find the abundances of O,S,Ar in the Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge to be comparable with the abundances of the Planetary Nebulae in the Disk, high abundances being maybe slightly more frequent in the Bulge. The distribution of the N/O ratio does not present in the Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebulae the extension to high values that it presents in the Disk Planetary Nebulae. We interpret this as a signature of the greater age of Bulge Planetary Nebulae. We thus find the Bulge Planetary Nebulae to be an old population, slightly more metal-rich than the Disk Planetary Nebulae. The population of the Bulge Planetary Nebulae shows hence the same characteristics than the Bulge stellar population.

  10. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-II). Difference Image Analysis of the Bulge Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, P. R.

    2000-12-01

    During 1997-1999 observing seasons (mid March to mid December) the OGLE-II project collected more than 11,000 2Kx8K frames (over 370 GB of pixel data) of the Galactic Bulge using 1.3m Warsaw Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Each of the 49 fields has roughly 200-300 measurements in I band. The fields span the range approximately from -10 to 10 deg in galactic longitude. I present a complete reanalysis of this data set using the optimal image subtraction method developed by Alard and Lupton (1998) and Alard (1999). Databases of difference measurements contain about 100,000 variable objects. This information is supplemented with colors from DoPhot photometry. Noise properties of our difference light curves are exceptionally good for this kind of massive monitoring program. The nongaussian tail in the distribution of residuals is totally negligible for usual applications. For faint stars the measurement errors are only 1.15 times photon noise. The difference photometry is always at least a factor of 2 better than results from DoPhot. Systematic effects due to blending are greatly relieved, the most important difference being the unbiased value of the variable light centroid. We discovered 512 microlensing events (compared to 214 from DoPhot photometry, Udalski et al. 2000). 305 of those were found fully algorithmically and have good quality light curves making them very well suited for optical depth determination. In the nearest future we plan to obtain an upper limit on the number of jupiters around microlenses as these should manifest themselves in the nongaussian tail of the residual distribution. Next possibilities include much better and larger extinction maps of the bulge and studies of the galactic bar. With 300-500 events we should be able to study the depth of the lens/source populations (Stanek 1996).

  11. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  12. Monitoring Java Programs with Java PathExplorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present recent work on the development Java PathExplorer (JPAX), a tool for monitoring the execution of Java programs. JPAX can be used during program testing to gain increased information about program executions, and can potentially furthermore be applied during operation to survey safety critical systems. The tool facilitates automated instrumentation of a program's late code which will then omit events to an observer during its execution. The observer checks the events against user provided high level requirement specifications, for example temporal logic formulae, and against lower level error detection procedures, for example concurrency related such as deadlock and data race algorithms. High level requirement specifications together with their underlying logics are defined in the Maude rewriting logic, and then can either be directly checked using the Maude rewriting engine, or be first translated to efficient data structures and then checked in Java.

  13. Functional myelographic differentiation of lumbar bulging annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Ki; Kim, Hong Kil; Park, Sang Gyu; Lee, Young Jung; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Herniated disk and bulging annulus are the major causes of lower back pain. It is necessary to differentiate bulging annulus from herniated disk because of their different methods of treatment. Myelography is one of the useful diagnostic methods for disk diseases even though advanced diagnostic modalities such as CT and MRI are more accurate. Functional myelography is not a new technology expect for two additional views, flexion and extension, are obtained with conventional myelography. Differentiation between bulging annulus and herniated disk by conventional myelography is based on the extent and multiplicity of extradural deformity of the contrast filled dural sac and neural sleeve as well as the changes of nerve root. There is no previous report about differential points between bulging annulus and herniated disk according to functional myelography. It is the purpose of this study to find any additional differential points on functional myelography between bulging annulus and herniated disk over convectional myelography. Authors analysed functional myelographic findings of 152 cases from July 1986 to July 1987. Among them, 22 cases who had been suffered from cervical abnormality or vague lower back pain were diagnosed as normal by myelography, and 30 cases of L4-5 herniated disk and 21 cases of L4-5 bulging annulus which had been finally diagnosed by operation were studied. The results were as follows. 1. In normal group, anterior epidural space was gradually widened from the upper lumbar vertebra downward. And anterior epidural space was more sidened at the disk level in extension view than in flexion except for L5-S1 lever. 2. In bulging annulus group, the shape of anterior epidural space in flexion state was as similar as normal. Anoterior epidural space in extension state was more sidened at the buldging annulus than normal, but lesser than herniated disk. 3. In herniated disk group, widening of anterior epidural space at the herniated disk level was

  14. The RADMED monitoring program: towards an ecosystem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jurado, J. L.; Balbín, R.; Amengual, B.; Aparicio-González, A.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; García-Martínez, M. C.; Gazá, M.; Jansá, J.; Morillas-Kieffer, A.; Moyá, F.; Santiago, R.; Serra, M.; Vargas-Yáñez, M.; Vicente, L.

    2015-05-01

    In the Western Mediterranean, the IEO-RADMED monitoring program is already conducting many of the evaluations required under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MFSD) along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The different aspects of the ecosystem that are regularly sampled under this monitoring program are the physical environment and the chemical and biological variables of the water column, together with the planktonic communities, biomass and structure. Moreover, determinations of some anthropogenic stressors on the marine environment, as contaminants and microplastics, are under develop. Data are managed and stored at the IEO Data Center that works under the SeaDataNet infrastructure and are also stored under the IBAMar database. In combination with remote sensing data they are used to address open questions on the ecosystem in the Western Mediterranean sea.

  15. The VLBA-BU-BLAZAR Multi-Wavelength Monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Jorstad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiwavelength program of monitoring of a sample of bright γ-ray blazars, which the Boston University (BU group has being carrying out since June 2007. The program includes monthly monitoring with the Very Long Baseline Array at 43 GHz, optical photometric and polarimetric observations, construction and analysis of UV and X-ray light curves obtained with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE and Swift satellites, and construction and analysis of γ-ray light curves based on data provided by the Large Area Telescope of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We present general results about the kinematics of parsec-scale radio jets, as well as the connection between γ-ray outbursts and jet events.

  16. The RADMED monitoring program: towards an ecosystem approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. López-Jurado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Mediterranean, the IEO-RADMED monitoring program is already conducting many of the evaluations required under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MFSD along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The different aspects of the ecosystem that are regularly sampled under this monitoring program are the physical environment and the chemical and biological variables of the water column, together with the planktonic communities, biomass and structure. Moreover, determinations of some anthropogenic stressors on the marine environment, as contaminants and microplastics, are under develop. Data are managed and stored at the IEO Data Center that works under the SeaDataNet infrastructure and are also stored under the IBAMar database. In combination with remote sensing data they are used to address open questions on the ecosystem in the Western Mediterranean sea.

  17. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad (Iraq Ministry of Science and Technology)

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  18. Sable Island air monitoring program report: 2003-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, David; Inkpen, Tracey; Hingston, Michael; Keast, Stephanie; McPherson, Johnny; Worthy, Doug; Forbes, Gerry [Air Quality Sciences, Meteorological Service of Canada, Atlantic Region Environment Canada (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Sable Island is an island situated in the Atlantic which receives pollutant flows from the Great Lakes and the United States Eastern Seaboard. The Sable Island air monitoring station was set up by the Environmental Studies Research Funds and its partners to monitor the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). This paper presents the results of the first 4 years of operation of the station. It was found that concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone exceeded desirable levels on several occasions while concentrations of NOx, SO2 and H2S recorded were much below maximum acceptable levels. In addition it was found that the episodes of elevated pollutant levels were due to transboundary flows from onshore. The Sable Island air monitoring project showed good results in its first 4 years of operation and the project partners are considering extending the program.

  19. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  20. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  1. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  2. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2002 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A. Wills

    2002-12-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada (BN) during fiscal year 2002. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species and important biological resources were conducted for 26 NTS projects. These projects have the potential to disturb a total of 374 acres. Thirteen of the projects were in desert tortoise habitat, and 13.38 acres of desert tortoise habitat were disturbed. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoises were accidentally injured or killed at project areas or along paved roads. Compilation of historical wildlife data continued this year in efforts to develop faunal distribution maps for the NTS. Photographs associated with the NTS ecological landform units sampled to create the NTS vegetation maps were cataloged for future retrieval and analysis. The list of sensitive plant species for which long-term population monitoring is scheduled was revised. Six vascular plants and five mosses were added to the list. Plant density estimates from ten populations of Astragalus beatleyae were collected, and eight known populations of Eriogonum concinnum were visited to assess plant and habitat status. Minimal field monitoring of western burrowing owl burrows occurred. A report relating to the ecology of the western burrowing owl on the Nevada Test Site was prepared which summarizes four years of data collected on this species

  3. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhey, Peter; Ross, Doug; Morrill, Charles (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1998-12-01

    The 1998 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by relatively moderate spring flows and spill, moderate levels of debris, cool spring, warm summer and fall water temperatures, and increased chinook numbers, particularly wild subyearling chinook collected and transported. The Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program is designed to provide a consistent, real-time database on fish passage and document the migrational characteristics of the many stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin.

  4. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhey, Peter; Witalis, Shirley; Morrill, Charles (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The 1997 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows, extensive spill, cool spring and early summer water temperatures and comparatively low numbers of fish, particularly yearling chinook. The Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program is designed to provide a consistent, real-time database of fish passage and document the migrational characteristics of the many stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin.

  5. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  6. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.

    1998-09-09

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  7. Bulge formation and necking in a polymer tube under dynamic expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Britta; Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Bulging and necking in long thin polymer tubes subjected to increasing internal pressure are analysed numerically. The polymer is characterized by a finite strain elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation and the calculations are carried out using a dynamic finite element program. Two types...... of imposed loading are prescribed: (i) a pressure that increases linearly with time and (ii) a change in enclosed volume that increases linearly with time. For both loading conditions, an axisymmetric bulge develops on the tube followed by necking in the bulge. The necks propagate in both the circumferential...... and the axial directions. Multiple necks form at locations given by the thin points associated with the wave number of the prescribed initial thickness imperfection. When a change in enclosed volume is prescribed, the pressure reaches a maximum, decreases and then stays approximately constant. One neck...

  8. Regulatory standards and other guidelines for goundwater monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.F.; Schmidt, A.J.; Selby, K.B.

    1989-07-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information on regulatory programs relevant to a groundwater monitoring program. The information provides a framework within which planners and decisions makers can systematically consider the maze of specific requirements and guidance as they develop a groundwater strategy for the Hanford Site. Although this report discusses legislation and regulations as they pertain to groundwater monitoring activities, it is not intended as a legal opinion. Rather, it is provided as a guide to the relationships among the various regulatory programs related to groundwater. Federal and state environmental pollution control statutes and regulations that have been reviewed in this document include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); Washington's Hazardous Waste Management Act; Washington's Solid Waste Management Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability, and Compensation Act (CERCLA); the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA); the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The implications and details of these regulations as they may apply to Hanford are discussed. The information contained within this report can be used to develop the Hanford Site's groundwater quality protection programs, assess regulatory compliance, and characterize the Hanford Site for potential remediation and corrective actions. 5 refs., 14 tabs.

  9. An evaluation of current Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge monitoring programs in regards to sample sizes and other monitoring issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an evaluation of data produced by current monitoring programs at Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge. For all of these programs there is an interest...

  10. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cristina Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city.METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288 of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics.RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively.CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved.

  11. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Mariana Cristina; Nitsche, Maria José Trevizani; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city. METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288) of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics. RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively. CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved. PMID:25493676

  12. DTRA's Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.; Dainty, A.; Phillips, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has a Program in Basic Research and Development for Nuclear Explosion Technology within the Nuclear Treaties Branch of the Arms Control Technology Division. While the funding justification is Arms Control Treaties (i.e., Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, CTBT), the results are made available for any user. Funding for the Program has averaged around \\10m per year recently. By Congressional mandate, the program has disbursed money through competitive, peer-reviewed, Program Research and Development Announcements (PRDAs); there is usually (but not always) a PRDA each year. Typical awards have been for about three years at ~\\100,000 per year, currently there are over 60 contracts in place. In addition to the "typical" awards, there was an initiative 2000 to fund seismic location calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT; there are three three-year contracts of ~\\$1,000,000 per year to perform such calibration for Eurasia, and North Africa and the Middle East. Scientifically, four technological areas have been funded, corresponding to the four technologies in the IMS: seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide, with the lion's share of the funding going to the seismic area. The scientific focus of the Program for all four technologies is detection of signals, locating their origin, and trying to determine of they are unambiguously natural in origin ("event screening"). Location has been a particular and continuing focus within the Program.

  13. The Demographics of Galactic Bulges in the SDSS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keunho; Oh, Sree; Jeong, Hyunjin; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new database of our two-dimensional bulge-disk decompositions for 14,233 galaxies drawn from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR12 in order to examine the properties of bulges residing in the local universe (0.005 originate from the presence of young stars. The bulges in galaxies with low bulge-to-total ratios show signs of a frosting of young stars so substantial that their luminosity-weighted Balmer-line ages are as small as 1 Gyr in some cases. While bulges seem largely similar in optical properties to elliptical galaxies, they do show clear and systematic departures as a function of bulge-to-total ratio. The stellar properties and perhaps associated formation processes of bulges seem much more diverse than those of elliptical galaxies.

  14. 7 CFR 634.50 - Program and project monitoring and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program and project monitoring and evaluation. 634.50... Evaluation § 634.50 Program and project monitoring and evaluation. (a) Comprehensive USDA/EPA joint water... and for general RCWP program management. (2) Monitoring, evaluation, and analysis is a joint...

  15. 9 CFR 147.14 - Procedures to determine status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. 147.14 Section 147.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. The following monitoring procedures 10 may be... sanitation program. (1) Culture the surface of cased eggs periodically for fecal contaminating organisms...

  16. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; 1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Janelle R.; Scholz, Allan T. (Eastern Washington University, Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Research Center, Cheney, WA)

    1991-09-01

    As partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead incurred by construction of Grand Coulee Dam, the Northwest Power Planning Council directed Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to construct two kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt (NPPC 1987 [Section 903 (g)(l)(C)]). The hatcheries are to produce 8 million kokanee salmon fry or 3.2 million adults for outplanting into Lake Roosevelt as well as 500,000 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Lake Roosevelt net-pen programs. In section 903 (g)(l)(E), the Council also directed BPA to fund a monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the kokanee hatcheries. The monitoring program included the following components: (1) conduction of a year-round creel census survey to determine angler pressure, catch rates and composition, growth and condition of fish caught by anglers, and economic value of the fishery. Comparisons will be made before and after hatcheries are on-line to determine hatchery effectiveness; (2) conduct an assessment of kokanee, rainbow trout, and walleye feeding habits, growth rates, and densities of their preferred prey at different locations in the reservoir and how reservoir operations affect population dynamics of preferred prey organisms. This information will be used to determine kokanee and rainbow trout stocking locations, stocking densities and stocking times; (3) conduct a mark-recapture study designed to assess effectiveness of various release times and locations for hatchery-raised kokanee and net-pen raised rainbow so fish-loss over Grand Coulee Dam will be minimized, homing to egg collection sites will be improved and angler harvest will be increased. The above measures were adopted by the Council based on a management plan developed by Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center, Spokane Indian Tribe, Colville Confederated Tribes, Washington Department of Wildlife, and the National Park Service. This plan examined the

  17. Quality assurance and performance improvement in intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkus, Arvydas A; Rice, Kent S; McCaffrey, Michael T

    2013-03-01

    Quality assurance (QA) as it relates to intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) can be defined as the systematic monitoring, evaluation, and modification of the IONM service to insure that desired standards of quality are being met. In practice, that definition is usually extended to include the concept that the quality of the IONM service will be improved wherever possible and, although there are some differences in the two terms, in this article the term QA will be understood to include quality improvement (QI) processes as well. The measurement and documentation of quality is becoming increasingly important to healthcare providers. This trend is being driven by pressures from accrediting agencies, payers, and patients. The essential elements of a QA program are described. A real-life example of QA techniques and management relevant to IONM providers is presented and discussed.

  18. Characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology crosscutting program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to deliver appropriate characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) to the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60). The technology development must also be cost effective and appropriate to EM-30/40/60 needs. Furthermore, the required technologies must be delivered and implemented when needed. Accordingly, and to ensure that available DOE and other national resources are focused an the most pressing needs, management of the technology development is concentrated on the following Focus Areas: Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation (PFA); Landfill Stabilization (LSFA); High-Level Waste Tank Remediation (TFA); Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal (MWFA); and Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition (FDDMDFA). Brief descriptions of CMST-CP projects funded in FY95 are presented.

  19. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A. Wills

    2001-12-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 2001. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species were conducted for 23 NTS projects. Eleven sites were in desert tortoise habitat. These projects have the potential to disturb a total of 588 acres, where 568 acres of disturbance would be off-road driving. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoise s were accidentally injured or killed at project areas. One tortoise was crushed by a vehicle on a paved road. A topical report describing the classification of habitat types on the NTS was completed and distributed. The report is the culmination of three years of field vegetation mapping and the analysis of vegetation data from over 1,500 ecological landform units. Compilation of historical wildlife data was initiated. A long-term monitoring plan for important plant species that occur on the NTS was completed. Site-wide monitoring was conducted for the western burrowing owl, bat species of concern, wild horses, and raptor nests. Sixty-nine of 77 known owl burrows were monitored. As in previous years, some owls were present year round on the NTS. An overall decrease in active owl burrows was observed within all three ecoregions (Mojave Desert, Transition, Great Basin Desert) from October through January. An increase in active owl burrows was observed from mid March to early

  20. Composite Bulges: The Coexistence of Classical Bulges and Disky Pseudobulges in S0 and Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Erwin, Peter; Fabricius, Maximilian; Thomas, Jens; Nowak, Nina; Rusli, Stephanie; Bender, Ralf; Beltran, Juan Carlos Vega; Beckman, John E

    2014-01-01

    We study nine S0-Sb galaxies with (photometric) bulges consisting of two distinct components. The outer component is a flattened, kinematically cool, disklike structure: a "disky pseudobulge". Embedded inside is a rounder, kinematically hot spheroid: a "classical bulge". This indicates that pseudobulges and classical bulges are not mutually exclusive: some galaxies have both. The disky pseudobulges almost always have an exponential disk (scale lengths = 125-870 pc, mean $\\sim 440$ pc) with disk-related subcomponents: nuclear rings, bars, and/or spiral arms. They constitute 11-59% of the galaxy stellar mass (mean PB/T = 0.33), with stellar masses $\\sim 7 \\times 10^{9}$-$9 \\times 10^{10} M_{\\odot}$. Classical-bulge components have Sersic indices of 0.9-2.2, effective radii of 25-430 pc and stellar masses of $5 \\times 10^{8}$-$3 \\times 10^{10} M_{\\odot}$ (usually < 10% of the galaxy's stellar mass; mean B/T = 0.06). The classical bulges show rotation, but are kinematically hotter than the disky pseudobulges. ...

  1. Are there carbon stars in the Bulge?

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y K

    1998-01-01

    The bulge carbon stars have been a mystery since their discovery, because they are about 2.5mag too faint to be regarded as genuine AGB stars, if located inside the metal-rich bulge (m-M=14.5mag). Part of the mystery can be solved if these carbon stars are related to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (SDG; m-M=17.0mag). They are in that case not old and metal-rich, but young, ~0.1 Gyr, with SMC-like metallicity. The sigma_RV=113+/-14 km/s radial velocity dispersion of the stars appears to be consistent with bulge membership. On the other hand, a similar velocity dispersion could be the result from an induced star formation event when the SDG crosses the galactic midplane. It is suggested that the carbon stars are tracers of such an event and that they therefore are located at distances related to the SDG. However, the majority of the carbon stars are not member of the SDG, nor are they similar to the C-stars which are member of the SDG. The radial velocities can be used to determine a possible membership to the SD...

  2. Hampton roads regional Water-Quality Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Aaron J.; Jastram, John D.

    2016-12-02

    IntroductionHow much nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids are contributed by the highly urbanized areas of the Hampton Roads region in Virginia to Chesapeake Bay? The answer to this complex question has major implications for policy decisions, resource allocations, and efforts aimed at restoring clean waters to Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. To quantify the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids delivered to the bay from this region, the U.S. Geological Survey has partnered with the Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD), in cooperation with the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC), to conduct a water-quality monitoring program throughout the Hampton Roads region.

  3. Secular- and merger-built bulges in barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Corsini, E M; Aguerri, J A L

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We study the incidence, as well as the nature, of composite bulges in a sample of 10 face-on barred galaxies to constrain the formation and evolutionary processes of the central regions of disk galaxies. We analyze the morphological, photometric, and kinematic properties of each bulge. Then, by using a case-by-case analysis we identify composite bulges and classify every component into a classical or pseudobulge. In addition, bar-related boxy/peanut (B/P) structures were also identified and characterised. We find only three galaxies hosting a single-component bulge (two pseudobulges and one classical bulge). We find evidence of composite bulges coming in two main types based on their formation: secular-built and merger- and secular-built. We call secular-built to composite bulges made of entirely by structures associated with secular processes such as pseudo bulges, central disks, or B/P bulges. We find four composite bulges of this kind in our sample. On the other hand, merger- and secular-built b...

  4. Central Star Formation in Pseudobulges and Classical Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, D B

    2006-01-01

    I use Spitzer 3.6-8.0 \\mu m color profiles to compare the radial structure of star formation in pseudobulges and classical bulges. Pseudobulges are ``bulges'' which form through secular evolution, rather than mergers. In this study, pseudobulges are identified using the presence of disk-like structure in the center of the galaxy (nuclear spiral, nuclear bar, and/or high ellipticity in bulge); classical bulges are those galaxy bulges with smooth isophotes which are round compared to the outer disk, and show no disky structure in their bulge. I show that galaxies structurally identified as having pseudobulges have higher central star formation rates than those of classical bulges. Further, I also show that galaxies identified as having classical bulges have remarkably regular star formation profiles. The color profiles of galaxies with classical bulges show a star forming outer disk with a sharp change, consistent with a decline in star formation rates, toward the center of the galaxy. Classical bulges have a n...

  5. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2000 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, C.A.

    2000-12-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of he Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 2000. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance,(3) ecosystem mapping, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species were conducted for 24 NTS projects. Seventeen sites were in desert tortoise habitat, and six acres of tortoise habitat were documented as being disturbed this year. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoises were accidentally injured or killed. A topical report describing the classification of habitat types o n the NTS was completed. The report is the culmination of three years of field vegetation mapping and the analysis of vegetation data from over 1,500 ecological landform units. A long-term monitoring plan for important plant species that occur on the NTS was completed. Sitewide inventories were conducted for the western burrowing owl, bat species of concern, wild horses, raptor nests, and mule deer. Fifty-nine of 69 known owl burrows were monitored. Forty-four of the known burrows are in disturbed habitat. As in previous years, some owls were present year round on the NTS. An overall decrease in active owl burrows was observed within all three ecoregions (Mojave Desert, Transition, Great Basin Desert) from October through January. An increase in active owl burrows was observed from mid-March to early April. A total of 45 juvenile owls was detected from eight breeding pairs. One nest burrow was detected in the Mojave Desert,one in the Great Basin Desert, and six in the Transition

  6. Structural health monitoring feature design by genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Dustin Y.; Todd, Michael D.

    2014-09-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time damage and performance information for civil, aerospace, and other high-capital or life-safety critical structures. Conventional data processing involves pre-processing and extraction of low-dimensional features from in situ time series measurements. The features are then input to a statistical pattern recognition algorithm to perform the relevant classification or regression task necessary to facilitate decisions by the SHM system. Traditional design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms can be an expensive and time-consuming process requiring extensive system knowledge and domain expertise. Genetic programming, a heuristic program search method from evolutionary computation, was recently adapted by the authors to perform automated, data-driven design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms for statistical pattern recognition applications. The proposed method, called Autofead, is particularly suitable to handle the challenges inherent in algorithm design for SHM problems where the manifestation of damage in structural response measurements is often unclear or unknown. Autofead mines a training database of response measurements to discover information-rich features specific to the problem at hand. This study provides experimental validation on three SHM applications including ultrasonic damage detection, bearing damage classification for rotating machinery, and vibration-based structural health monitoring. Performance comparisons with common feature choices for each problem area are provided demonstrating the versatility of Autofead to produce significant algorithm improvements on a wide range of problems.

  7. USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher J.; Baldys, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas provides early detection and monitoring of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by using a holistic suite of detection methods. The program is designed to assess zebra mussel occurrence, distribution, and densities in north Texas waters by using four approaches: (1) SCUBA diving, (2) water-sample collection with plankton tow nets (followed by laboratory analyses), (3) artificial substrates, and (4) water-quality sampling. Data collected during this type of monitoring can assist rapid response efforts and can be used to quantify the economic and ecological effects of zebra mussels in the north Texas area. Monitoring under this program began in April 2010. The presence of large zebra mussel populations often causes undesirable economic and ecological effects, including damage to water-processing infrastructure and hydroelectric powerplants (with an estimated 10-year cost of $3.1 billion), displacement of native mussels, increases in concentrations of certain species of cyanobacteria, and increases in concentrations of geosmin (an organic compound that results in taste and odor issues in water). Since no large-scale, environmentally safe eradication method has been developed for zebra mussels, it is difficult to remove established populations. Broad physicochemical adaptability, prolific reproductive capacity, and rapid dispersal methods have enabled zebra mussels, within a period of about 20 years, to establish populations under differing environmental conditions across much of the eastern part of the United States. In Texas, the presence of zebra mussels was first confirmed in April 2009 in Lake Texoma in the Red River Basin along the Texas-Oklahoma border. They were most likely introduced into Lake Texoma through overland transport from an infested water body. Since then, the presence of zebra mussels has been reported in both the Red River and Washita River arms of Lake Texoma, in

  8. Sandia National Laboratories California Environmental Monitoring Program Annual Report for Calendar Year 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C.

    2006-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Monitoring Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2005 Update program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Monitoring Program annual report for 2011.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C.

    2011-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/California Environmental Monitoring Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/California Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2010 program report describes the activities undertaken during the previous year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/California.

  10. Stars and Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Acker, A; Maciel, W J

    2000-01-01

    We compare the populations of Red Giant stars and Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge, in the light of recent determinations of their abundances patterns. We find both populations to be compatible. From the planetary nebulae, we find evidences that the Bulge did not form stars recently. The whole abundances pattern remains however puzzling, some elements favoring a quick evolution of the Galactic Bulge (Mg and Ti), and others a much slower one (He, O, Si, S, Ar and Ca).

  11. Program Monitoring Practices for Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anne E.; Marvin, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Program monitoring is an important and necessary assessment practice within the field of early childhood deaf education. Effective program monitoring requires a focus on both the consistent implementation of intervention strategies (fidelity) and the assessment of children's ongoing progress in response to interventions (progress monitoring).…

  12. Which bulges are favoured by barred S0 galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    S0 galaxies are known to host classical bulges with a broad range of size and mass, while some such S0s are barred and some not. The origin of the bars has remained as a long-standing problem -- what made bar formation possible in certain S0s? By analysing a large sample of S0s with classical bulges observed by the Spitzer space telescope, we find that most of our barred S0s host comparatively low-mass classical bulges, typically with bulge-to-total ratio ($B/T$) less than $0.5$; whereas S0s with more massive classical bulges than these do not host any bar. Furthermore, we find that amongst the barred S0s, there is a trend for the longer and massive bars to be associated with comparatively bigger and massive classical bulges -- possibly suggesting bar growth being facilitated by these classical bulges. In addition, we find that the bulge effective radius is always less than the bar effective radius --indicating an interesting synergy between the host classical bulge and bars being maintained while bar growth ...

  13. Trajectories of Cepheid variable stars in the Galactic nuclear bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2012-06-01

    The central region of our Galaxy provides us with a good opportunity to study the evolution of galactic nuclei and bulges because we can observe various phenomena in detail at the proximity of 8 kpc. There is a hierarchical alignment of stellar systems with different sizes; from the extended bulge, the nuclear bulge, down to the compact cluster around the central supermassive blackhole. The nuclear bulge contains stars as young as a few Myr, and even hosts the ongoing star formation. These are in contrast to the more extended bulge which are dominated by old stars, ~10Gyr. It is considered that the star formation in the nuclear bulge is caused by fresh gas provided from the inner disk. In this picture, the nuclear bulge plays an important role as the interface between the gas supplier, the inner disk, and the galactic nucleus. Kinematics of young stars in the nuclear bulge is important to discuss the star forming process and the gas circulation in the Galactic Center. We here propose spectroscopic observations of Cepheid variable stars, ~25 Myr, which we recently discovered in the nuclear bulge. The spectra taken in this proposal will allow timely estimates of the systemic velocities of the variable stars.

  14. T-bulge-shaped quantum router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Lu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The transport properties of a single photon scattered by a two-level system (TLS) in a T-bulge-shaped waveguide have been studied, which is made of two coupled-resonator waveguides (CRWs), an infinite CRW and a semi-infinite CRW with N-1 FP cavities below the node. The spontaneous emission of the TLS directs single photons from one CRW to the other. The N-1 FP cavities effect the extreme point's value and location of the propagation coefficient and incident energy curve.

  15. The GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) III. Metallicity distributions and kinematics of 26 Galactic bulge fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zoccali, M; Gonzalez, O A; Valenti, E; Rojas-Arriagada, A; Minniti, J; Rejkuba, M; Minniti, D; McWilliam, A; Babusiaux, C; Hill, V; Renzini, A

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the Galactic bulge hosts two components with different mean metallicities, and possibly different spatial distribution and kinematics. As a consequence, both the metallicity distribution and the radial velocity of bulge stars vary across different line of sights. We present here the metallicity distribution function of red clump stars in 26 fields spread across a wide area of the bulge, with special emphasis on fields close to Galactic plane, at latitudes b=-2 and b=-1, that were not explored before. This paper includes new metallicities from a sample of about 5000 K giant stars, observed at spectral resolution R=6500, in the Calcium II Triplet region. They are the main dataset of the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey. As part of the same survey we have previously published results for a sample of about 600 K giant stars, at latitude b=-4 , derived from higher resolution spectra (R=22,500). Results. The combined sample allows us to trace and characterize the metal poor a...

  16. The GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS). III. Metallicity distributions and kinematics of 26 Galactic bulge fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, M.; Vasquez, S.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Valenti, E.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Minniti, J.; Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; McWilliam, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Hill, V.; Renzini, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the Galactic bulge hosts two components with different mean metallicities, and possibly different spatial distribution and kinematics. As a consequence, both the metallicity distribution and the radial velocity of bulge stars vary across different lines of sight. Aims: We present here the metallicity distribution function of red clump stars in 26 fields spread across a wide area of the bulge, with special emphasis on fields close to Galactic plane, at latitudes b = -2° and b = -1°, that have not been explored before. Methods: This paper includes new metallicities from a sample of approximately 5000 K giant stars, observed at spectral resolution R 6500, in the Calcium II Triplet region. These represent the main dataset from the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey. As part of the same survey we have previously published results for a sample of approximately 600 K giant stars, at latitude b -4°, derived from higher resolution spectra (R = 22 500). Results: The combined sample allows us to trace and characterize the metal poor and metal rich bulge populations down to the inner bulge. We present a density map for each of the two components. Contrary to expectations from previous works, we found the metal poor population to be more centrally concentrated than the metal rich one, and with a more axisymmetric spatial distribution. The metal rich population, on the other hand, is arranged in a boxy distribution, consistent with an edge-on bar. By coupling metallicities and radial velocities we show that the metal poor population has a velocity dispersion that varies rather mildly with latitude. On the contrary, the metal rich population has a low velocity dispersion far from the plane (b = -8.5°), yet has a steeper gradient with latitude, becoming higher than the metal poor one in the innermost field (b = -1°). Conclusions: This work provides new observational constraints on the actual chemodynamical properties of the

  17. Evaluation of patients with stroke monitored by home care programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient with a stroke in home treatment, investigating physical capacity, mental status and anthropometric analysis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Fortaleza/CE, from January to April of 2010. Sixty-one individuals monitored by a home care program of three tertiary hospitals were investigated, through interviews and the application of scales. The majority of individuals encountered were female (59%, elderly, bedridden, with a low educational level, a history of other stroke, a high degree of dependence for basic (73.8% and instrumental (80.3 % activities of daily living, and a low cognitive level (95.1%. Individuals also presented with tracheostomy, gastric feeding and urinary catheter, difficulty hearing, speaking, chewing, swallowing, and those making daily use of various medications. It was concluded that home care by nurses is an alternative for care of those individuals with a stroke.

  18. Evaluation of patients with stroke monitored by home care programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient with a stroke in home treatment, investigating physical capacity, mental status and anthropometric analysis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Fortaleza/CE, from January to April of 2010. Sixty-one individuals monitored by a home care program of three tertiary hospitals were investigated, through interviews and the application of scales. The majority of individuals encountered were female (59%, elderly, bedridden, with a low educational level, a history of other stroke, a high degree of dependence for basic (73.8% and instrumental (80.3 % activities of daily living, and a low cognitive level (95.1%. Individuals also presented with tracheostomy, gastric feeding and urinary catheter, difficulty hearing, speaking, chewing, swallowing, and those making daily use of various medications. It was concluded that home care by nurses is an alternative for care of those individuals with a stroke.

  19. Insights into Contaminant Leaching Through An Intensive Field Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, D.; Ireson, A. M.; Ali, M.; Steele, C.; Penrod, D.

    2014-12-01

    Risks to groundwater quality from mobile contaminants in the unsaturated zone associated with active or legacy mines present significant challenges for land managers and policy makers worldwide. Unsaturated zone flow processes are a dominant control on contaminant loading. However, the presence of unsaturated zone heterogeneity results in spatially and temporally variable flow pathways, due to capillary breaks and hydraulic barriers forming in various locations. This can result in the development of focused flow paths from where rapid contaminant transport to the water table may occur. In this study we designed an intensive monitoring program to attempt to characterise time-varying flow paths through a highly heterogeneous unsaturated zone through a dense network of combined soil moisture, electric conductivity and temperature probes. Estimations of surface fluxes and soil drainage along with observed water table response at a waste management site in Chalk River, Canada are presented providing insights into flow and transport processes.

  20. 40 CFR 52.430 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.430 Section 52.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 the Delaware Department of... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision,...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2426 Section 52.2426 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.480 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.480 Section 52.480 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.480 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On January 14, 1994 the District... and implementation of a Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.1080 Section 52.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1080 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 Maryland's... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required...

  4. Integration of structural health monitoring solutions onto commercial aircraft via the Federal Aviation Administration structural health monitoring research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Paul; Doyle, Jon; Roach, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a research program in structural health monitoring (SHM) in 2011. The program's goal was to understand the technical gaps of implementing SHM on commercial aircraft and the potential effects on FAA regulations and guidance. The program evolved into a demonstration program consisting of a team from Sandia National Labs Airworthiness Assurance NDI Center (AANC), the Boeing Corporation, Delta Air Lines, Structural Monitoring Systems (SMS), Anodyne Electronics Manufacturing Corp (AEM) and the FAA. This paper will discuss the program from the selection of the inspection problem, the SHM system (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring-CVM) that was selected as the inspection solution and the testing completed to provide sufficient data to gain the first approved use of an SHM system for routine maintenance on commercial US aircraft.

  5. Bulge-driven Fueling of Seed Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Park, KwangHo; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Bogdanović, Tamara; Wise, John H

    2015-01-01

    We examine radiation-regulated accretion onto intermediate-mass and massive black holes (BHs) embedded in a bulge component. Using spherically symmetric one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, we track the growth of BHs accreting from a cold, neutral gas reservoir with temperature T=10^4 K. We find that the accretion rate of BHs embedded in bulges is proportional to r_{B,eff}/r_B, where r_{B,eff} is the increased effective Bondi radius that includes the gravitational potential of the bulge, and r_B is the Bondi radius of the BH. The radiative feedback from the BH suppresses the cold accretion rate to ~1 percent of the Bondi rate when a bulge is not considered. However, we find that the BH fueling rate increases rapidly when the bulge mass M_bulge is greater than the critical value of 10^6 M_sun and is proportional to M_bulge. Since the critical bulge mass is independent of the central BH mass M_{BH}, the growth rate of BHs with masses of 10^2, 10^4, and 10^6 M_sun exhibits distinct dependencies o...

  6. Surface photometry of bulge dominated low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M; de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM

    1999-01-01

    We present results of broad band BVRI observations of a sample of galaxies with a low surface brightness (LSB) disk and a bulge. These galaxies are well described as exponential disks and exponential bulges with no preferred value for either scale length or central surface brightness. The median B b

  7. The Galactic Bulge The Stellar and Planetary Nebulae Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Acker, A; Maciel, W J

    2001-01-01

    We compare abundances patterns in the Bulge for elements observed in stars and in planetary nebulae. Some alpha elements, like Mg and Ti, are overabundant respect to Fe, and others are not, like He, O, Si, S, Ar, Ca. The first ones favor a quick evolution of the Galactic Bulge, and the seconds a much slower one.

  8. Monitoring program for mycotoxin contamination in Uruguayan food and feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, M; Dawson, R; Costarrica, M L

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study for monitoring mycotoxin contamination in food and feeds was implemented by the Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU) with the technical assistance of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The scope of the study was to determine the potential hazard posed by priority food-contaminant and feed-contaminant combinations. The choice of foods and contaminants to be monitored was based on the importance of the food in the total diet, the economic importance of the product and the potential health risk posed by the specific combination. The principal commodities selected were wheat, barley and rice. Also included were com, soy, dairy products, feeds, dried fruits and legumes, oil seeds, cocoa beans and organ meats. Mycotoxins analyzed (TLC/densitometry) were aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol (DON) and ergot alkaloids. The survey results (1993-95) showed differences in both incidence and levels of mycotoxin content for the principal commodities. Of all food/feed categories analyzed, feed had the highest values for all mycotoxins. Samples containing DON in levels above 1000 ng/g were found in all groups. Ochratoxin A was not detected in any of the samples. Rice and soy beans were the categories with lowest aflatoxin incidence. Uruguayan regulatory limits for all toxins analyzed were exceeded for wheat, barley and rice in less than 3, 9 and 7% of samples, respectively. The data on actual mycotoxin levels in different foods will help identify sources of contaminations and areas where control measures should be improved, enable better risk assessment by proper estimation of mycotoxin intake, assist in the establishment of tolerances and adequate guidelines, aid in the implementation of a national program and provide economic benefits by improving grain quality.

  9. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Reef Fish Surveys since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  10. In Vivo Monitoring Program Manual, PNL-MA-574, Rev 5.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Timothy P.

    2011-09-12

    The following sections provide an overview of the administration for the In Vivo Monitoring Program (IVMP) for Hanford. This includes the organizational structure and program responsibilities; coordination of in vivo measurements; scheduling measurements; performing measurements; reporting results; and quality assurance.

  11. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Coral Colony Size and Condition Surveys since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  12. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Macroinvertebrate Belt Transects since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  13. The Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program Fourth Quarter 2000 (October thru December 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.D.

    2001-08-02

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during fourth quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program.

  14. Natures of a clump-origin bulge: a pseudobulge-like but old metal-rich bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    Bulges in spiral galaxies have been supposed to be classified into two types: classical bulges or pseudobulges. Classical bulges are thought to form by galactic merger with bursty star formation, whereas pseudobulges are suggested to form by secular evolution due to spiral arms and a barred structure funneling gas into the galactic centre. Noguchi (1998, 1999) suggested another bulge formation scenario, `clump-origin bulge'. He demonstrated using a numerical simulation that a galactic disc suffers dynamical instability to form clumpy structures in the early stage of disc formation since the premature disc is expected to be highly gas-rich, then the clumps are sucked into the galactic centre by dynamical friction and merge into a single bulge at the centre. This bulge formation scenario expected happen only at the high-redshift is different from the galactic merger and the secular evolution. Therefore, clump-origin bulges may have their own unique properties. We perform a high-resolution N-body/smoothed partic...

  15. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-17

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the fourth quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  16. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: First quarter 1993, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the first quarter of 1993. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  17. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  18. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. First quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  19. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, First Quarter 1996, Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-10-22

    This report summarizes the Savanna River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by EPD/EMS during the first quarter 1996. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program. It also provides a record of the program`s activities and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  20. 40 CFR 264.98 - Detection monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contamination; (2) Immediately sample the ground water in all monitoring wells and determine whether... constituent detected in the ground water at each monitoring well at the compliance point; (ii) Any proposed... ground-water background. (b) The owner or operator must install a ground-water monitoring......

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  2. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  3. The Savannah River site`s groundwater monitoring program: second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1997, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. A detailed explanation of the flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1997 are included in this report.

  4. The formation of the Galactic bulge of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We aim to determine if the bulge formed via mergers as predicted by Cold Dark Matter (CDM theory, or from disk instabilities, as suggested by its boxy shape, or both processes. We are observing about 28,000 bulge stars in fields that span longitudes of − 31 to + 26° and latitudes of − 5° to − 10°, targeting mostly red clump giants and we are measuring stellar velocities and chemical abundances. We have almost concluded our observations and have analysed data of 23,000 stars. We find a cylindrical rotation profile for the bulge which blends smoothly out into the disk and from the [Fe/H] results we find the bulge to be comprised of separate components, with an underlying slowly rotating metal poor subsample which we believe to be the inner halo stars and metal weak thick disk. We find only a small [Fe/H] gradient with latitude in the bulge, of − 0.07dex/kpc. This weak gradient does not necessarily support a merger origin for our bulge and the composite nature of the bulge is consistent with formation out of the thin disk as per instability formation models.

  5. A Connection Between Bulge Properties and the Bimodality of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Drory, Niv

    2007-01-01

    The global colors of galaxies have recently been shown to follow bimodal distributions. Galaxies separate into a ``red sequence'', populated prototypically by early-type galaxies, and a ``blue cloud'', whose typical objects are late-type disk galaxies. Intermediate-type (Sa-Sbc) galaxies populate both regions. It has been suggested that this bimodality reflects the two-component nature of disk-bulge galaxies. However, it has now been established that there are two types of bulges: ``classical bulges'' that are dynamically hot systems resembling (little) ellipticals, and ``pseudobulges'', dynamically cold, flattened, disk-like structures that could not have formed via violent relaxation. Therefore thee question is whether at types Sa-Sbc, where both bulge types are found, the red-blue dichotomy separates galaxies at some value of disk-to-bulge ratio, $B/T$, or, whether it separates galaxies of different bulge type, irrespective of their $B/T$. We identify classical bulges and pseudobulges morphologically with ...

  6. 1996 LMITCO environmental monitoring program report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1996 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs are included in this report. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1996 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends.

  7. Hydrologic monitoring for Chicago’s Sustainable Streetscapes Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Morrow, William S.

    2016-04-05

    The Chicago Department of Transportation’s Sustainable Streetscapes Program is an innovative program that strives to convert Chicago’s neighborhood commercial areas, riverwalks, and bicycle facilities into active, attractive places for Chicagoans to live, work, and play. The objective of each project is to create flourishing public places while improving the ability of infrastructure to support dense urban living. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC), and the Chicago Department of Transportation (CDOT), is monitoring the pre- and postconstruction hydrologic characteristics of an urban corridor on the south side of Chicago that is being renovated using sustainable streetscapes technology.The CDOT Sustainable Streetscapes Program utilizes urban stormwater best-management practices (BMPs) to reduce the storm runoff to the local combined sewer system. The urban stormwater BMPs include permeable pavement, bioswales, infiltration basins, and planters. The urban stormwater BMPs are designed to capture the first flush of storm runoff through features that enhance the infiltration of stormwater runoff to shallow groundwater.The hydrology of the Sustainable Streetscapes Program area is being monitored to evaluate the impacts and effectiveness of the urban stormwater BMP’s. Continuous monitoring of rainfall, sewer flows, stormwater runoff, soil moisture, and groundwater levels will give engineers and scientists measured data to define baseline pre- and postconstruction conditions for the evaluation of the BMPs.Three tipping-bucket rain gages are located along the project corridor. The data provide information on the intensity and volume of rainfall. Rainfall can be highly variable even over a small area like the project corridor.Continuous recording meters are located at specific locations in the combined sewers to record water level and flow during both dry weather (mostly

  8. Review of four major environmental effects monitoring programs in the oil sands region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, E.O.; Jones, R.K. [EO Consulting, BC (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    The lack of knowledge on current environmental effects monitoring programs for the mineable oil sands region generates a low public confidence in environment health monitoring and reporting programs for the oil sands operations. In 2010, the Oil Sands Research and Information Network (OSRIN) supervised a study reviewing the major environmental effects monitoring programs that are underway in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. Four main environmental effects monitoring and reporting organizations existing in the oil sands area were engaged to describe their programs through this study: Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute (ABMI), Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), Regional Aquatic Monitoring Program (RAMP), Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA). These different organizations have specific roles in providing information, data and understanding of ecosystem effects. A one page visual summary of environmental effects monitoring in the oil sands area resulted from the information received from these organizations and detailed fact sheets were presented for each one of the programs. The report of this study also presents seven other environmental monitoring initiatives or organizations such as Alberta Environment and Environment Canada environmental effects monitoring program. The main observation that emerged from the review was the lack of detailed understanding shown by the stakeholders regarding the monitoring activities performed in the oil sands area. There is a lack of communication of the different programs that are conducted in the region. The study also pointed out that no efforts were put in cross-linking the various programs to be assured that every concerns related to environmental effects associated with oil sands operations were addressed. A better understanding of environmental effects and an improvement in public confidence in the data and its interpretation would probably be observed with the establishment of a

  9. Planetary nebulae and the chemical evolution of the galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, R D D; Maciel, W J; Costa, Roberto D.D.; Escudero, Andre V.; Maciel, Walter J.

    2005-01-01

    Electron temperatures, densities, ionic and elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, sulfur and neon were derived for a sample of bulge planetary nebulae, representative of its intermediate mass population. Using these results as constraints, a model for the chemical evolution of the galactic bulge was developed. The results indicate that the best fit is achieved using a double-infall model, where the first one is a fast collapse of primordial gas and the second is slower and enriched by material ejected by the bulge itself during the first episode.

  10. Updated Results from the COS Spectroscopic Sensitivity Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Rachel A.; Massa, Derck; Bostroem, Azalee; Aloisi, Alessandra; Proffitt, Charles

    2011-06-01

    We report updated results from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectroscopic sensitivity monitoring programs utilizing data taken through the end of Cycle 17 and beginning of Cycle 18. Earlier results (reported in Osten et al. 2010) had indicated a wavelengthdependent decline of the FUV sensitivity which was worse at longer wavelengths. Since mid-March 2010, the rate of this sensitivity decline has become much smaller and mostly wavelength independent, and the rate of decline is now between 2 and 5%/year for all Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) gratings with sufficient signal to characterize. The characteristics of the FUV sensitivity decline are consistent with degradation of the quantum efficiency of the CsI photocathode of the FUV detector. The initial steep decline may have been caused by water vapor outgassing after COS's installation, while the subsequent decline may be due to exposure to ambient atomic oxygen present at HST's orbital altitude. New FUV Time-Dependent Sensitivity (TDS) reference files have been delivered to correct the pipeline flux calibration, however, even after the application of these TDS corrections there remain discrepancies in the absolute flux calibration which appear to depend on central wavelength and FP-POS, and can be up to 5-10%. Further investigation reveals that some of this discrepancy may be due to additional sensitivity degradation during initial on-orbit operations. As reported in Osten et al. (2010), the two NUV bare-aluminum gratings (G225M and G285M) are also showing sensitivity declines, which appear to continue trends seen during ground testing, and which may be due to ongoing evolution of an oxide layer. In contrast, the throughputs of the NUV gratings coated with MgF2 (G185M and G230L) remain stable, showing little to no sensitivity decline. The NUV bare-aluminum sensitivity decline appears to be a continuing trend from that seen on the ground.

  11. The Savannah River Plant`s Groundwater Monitoring Program - second quarter 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report is a summary of the groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Group of the Health Protection Department in the second quarter of 1987 and includes the analytical results, field data, and detailed documentation for this program. The purpose of this report is twofold. First, the report provides a historical record of the activities and the rationale of the program; second, it provides an official document of the analytical results.

  12. Review of present groundwater monitoring programs at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, R.L.; Gillespie, D.

    1993-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is conducted to detect the presence of radionuclides produced by underground nuclear testing and to verify the quality and safety of groundwater supplies as required by the State of Nevada and federal regulations, and by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. Groundwater is monitored at water-supply wells and at other boreholes and wells not specifically designed or located for traditional groundwater monitoring objectives. Different groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS are conducted by several DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) contractors. Presently, these individual groundwater monitoring programs have not been assessed or administered under a comprehensive planning approach. Redundancy exists among the programs in both the sampling locations and the constituents analyzed. Also, sampling for certain radionuclides is conducted more frequently than required. The purpose of this report is to review the existing NTS groundwater monitoring programs and make recommendations for modifying the programs so a coordinated, streamlined, and comprehensive monitoring effort may be achieved by DOE/NV. This review will be accomplished in several steps. These include: summarizing the present knowledge of the hydrogeology of the NTS and the potential radionuclide source areas for groundwater contamination; reviewing the existing groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS; examining the rationale for monitoring and the constituents analyzed; reviewing the analytical methods used to quantify tritium activity; discussing monitoring network design criteria; and synthesizing the information presented and making recommendations based on the synthesis. This scope of work was requested by the DOE/NV Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and satisfies the 1993 (fiscal year) HRMP Groundwater Monitoring Program Review task.

  13. A framework for evaluating and designing citizen science programs for natural resources monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Sarah K; Levine, Arielle

    2016-06-01

    We present a framework of resource characteristics critical to the design and assessment of citizen science programs that monitor natural resources. To develop the framework we reviewed 52 citizen science programs that monitored a wide range of resources and provided insights into what resource characteristics are most conducive to developing citizen science programs and how resource characteristics may constrain the use or growth of these programs. We focused on 4 types of resource characteristics: biophysical and geographical, management and monitoring, public awareness and knowledge, and social and cultural characteristics. We applied the framework to 2 programs, the Tucson (U.S.A.) Bird Count and the Maui (U.S.A.) Great Whale Count. We found that resource characteristics such as accessibility, diverse institutional involvement in resource management, and social or cultural importance of the resource affected program endurance and success. However, the relative influence of each characteristic was in turn affected by goals of the citizen science programs. Although the goals of public engagement and education sometimes complimented the goal of collecting reliable data, in many cases trade-offs must be made between these 2 goals. Program goals and priorities ultimately dictate the design of citizen science programs, but for a program to endure and successfully meet its goals, program managers must consider the diverse ways that the nature of the resource being monitored influences public participation in monitoring.

  14. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated.

  15. An Examination of the Concept and Role of Program Monitoring and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood-Fabre, Liese

    This paper examines the concepts of program monitoring and program evaluation in the literature, and offers working definitions based on two dimensions of measurement: focus (what questions are addressed) and timing (how often the measures are taken). Focus can be on inputs to the program or outcomes from it; timing can be one-shot or continuous.…

  16. 40 CFR 52.2035 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2035 Section 52.2035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Pennsylvania § 52.2035 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On September 23, 1994... (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by section 182(c)(1) of...

  17. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Second Quarter 1998 (April through June 1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J B

    1999-02-10

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during second quarter 1998. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for the program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  18. Developing the Tools for Geologic Repository Monitoring - Andra's Monitoring R and D Program - 12045

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschaert, S.; Lesoille, S.; Bertrand, J.; Mayer, S.; Landais, P. [ANDRA, 1-7 rue Jean-Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    The French Safety Guide recommends that Andra develop a monitoring program to be implemented during repository construction and conducted until (and possibly after) closure, in order to confirm expected behavior and enhance knowledge of relevant processes. To achieve this, Andra has developed an overall monitoring strategy and identified specific technical objectives to inform disposal process management on evolutions relevant to both the long term safety and reversible, pre-closure management of the repository. Andra has launched an ambitious R and D program to ensure that reliable, durable, metrologically qualified and tested monitoring systems will be available at the time of repository construction in order to respond to monitoring objectives. After four years of a specific R and D program, first observations are described and recommendations are proposed. The results derived from 4 years of Andra's R and D program allow three main observations to be shared. First, while other industries also invest in monitoring equipment, their obvious emphasis will always be on their specific requirements and needs, thus often only providing a partial match with repository requirements. Examples can be found for all available sensors, which are generally not resistant to radiation. Second, the very close scrutiny anticipated for the geologic disposal process is likely to place an unprecedented emphasis on the quality of monitoring results. It therefore seems important to emphasize specific developments with an aim at providing metrologically qualified systems. Third, adapting existing technology to specific repository needs, and providing adequate proof of their worth, is a lengthy process. In conclusion, it therefore seems prudent to plan ahead and to invest wisely in the adequate development of those monitoring tools that will likely be needed in the repository to respond to the implementers' and regulators' requirements, including those agreed and developed

  19. Polarization in microlensing towards the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Ingrosso, G; De Paolis, F; Jetzer, Ph; Nucita, A A; Strafella, F; Zakharov, A F

    2012-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing, when finite size source effects are relevant, provides an unique tool for the study of source star stellar atmospheres through an enhancement of a characteristic polarization signal. This is due to the differential magnification induced during the crossing of the source star. In this paper we consider a specific set of reported highly magnified, both single and binary exoplanetary systems, microlensing events towards the Galactic bulge and evaluate the expected polarization signal. To this purpose, we consider several polarization models which apply to different types of source stars: hot, late type main sequence and cool giants. As a result we compute the polarization signal P,which goes up to P=0.04% for late type stars and up to a few percent for cool giants, depending on the underlying physical polarization processes and atmosphere model parameters. Given a I band magnitude at maximum magnification of about 12, and a typical duration of the polarization signal up to 1 day, we c...

  20. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  1. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  2. Hiding its age: the case for a younger bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, M; Snaith, O; Calamida, A

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the age of the bulge has led to two contradictory results. On the one side, the color-magnitude diagrams in different bulge fields seem to indicate a uniformly old ($>$10 Gyr) population. On the other side, individual ages derived from dwarfs observed through microlensing events seem to indicate a large spread, from $\\sim$ 2 to $\\sim$ 13 Gyr. Because the bulge is now recognised as being mainly a boxy peanut-shaped bar, it is suggested that disk stars are one of its main constituents, and therefore also stars with ages significantly younger than 10 Gyr. Other arguments as well point to the fact that the bulge cannot be exclusively old, and in particular cannot be a burst population, as it is usually expected if the bulge was the fossil remnant of a merger phase in the early Galaxy. In the present study, we show that given the range of metallicities observed in the bulge, a uniformly old population would be reflected into a significant spread in color at the turn-off which is not observed. ...

  3. Stellar populations of the bulges of four spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, L; Corsini, E M; Bontà, E Dalla; Coccato, L; Méndez-Abreu, J; Parmiggiani, M

    2015-01-01

    Key information to understand the formation and evolution of disk galaxies are imprinted in the stellar populations of their bulges. This paper has the purpose to make available new measurements of the stellar population properties of the bulges of four spiral galaxies. Both the central values and radial profiles of the line strength of some of the most common Lick indices are measured along the major- and minor- axis of the bulge-dominated region of the sample galaxies. The corresponding age, metallicity, and {\\alpha}/Fe ratio are derived by using the simple stellar population synthesis model predictions. The central values and the gradients of the stellar population properties of ESO-LV1890070, ESO-LV4460170, and ESO-LV 5140100 are consistent with previous findings for bulges of spiral galaxies. On the contrary, the bulge of ESO-LV 4500200 shows peculiar chemical properties possibly due to the presence of a central kinematically-decoupled component. The negative metallicity gradient found in our bulges samp...

  4. Chemodynamical analysis of bulge stars for simulated disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Kawata, D.; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the kinematics and chemistry of the bulge stars of two simulated disc galaxies using our chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. First, we compare stars that are born inside the galaxy with those that are born outside the galaxy and are accreted into the centre of the galaxy. Stars that originate outside the bulge are accreted into it early in its formation within 3 Gyr so that these stars have high [α/Fe] as well as a high total energy reflecting their accretion to the centre of the galaxy. Therefore, higher total energy is a good indicator for finding accreted stars. The bulges of the simulated galaxies formed through multiple mergers separated by about a Gyr. Since [α/Fe] is sensitive to the first few Gyr of star formation history, stars that formed during mergers at different epochs show different [α/Fe]. We show that the [Mg/Fe] against star formation time relation can be very useful to identify a multiple merger bulge formation scenario, provided there is sufficiently good age information available. Our simulations also show that stars formed during one of the merger events retain a systematically prograde rotation at the final time. This demonstrates that the orbit of the ancient merger that helped to form the bulge could still remain in the kinematics of bulge stars.

  5. CHaMP metrics - Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of CHaMP is to generate and implement a standard set of fish habitat monitoring (status and trend) methods in up to 26 watersheds across the Columbia River...

  6. 2015 RFA for Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Request for Applications solicits applications from eligible entities for a cooperative agreement to be awarded for a project to continue monitoring and assessment of Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

  7. Circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program (CBMP): Coastal expert workshop meeting report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rebecca D.; McLennan, Donald; Thomson, Laura; Wegeberg, Susse; Pettersvik Arvnes, Maria; Sergienko, Liudmila; Behe, Carolina; Moss-Davies, Pitseolak; Fritz, Stacey; Christensen, Thomas K.; Price, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    The Coastal Expert Workshop, which took place in Ottawa, Canada from March 1 to 3, 2016, initiated the development of the Arctic Coastal Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (Coastal Plan). Meeting participants, including northern residents, representatives from industry, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), academia, and government regulators and agencies from across the circumpolar Arctic, discussed current biodiversity monitoring efforts, key issues facing biodiversity in Arctic coastal areas, and collectively identified monitoring indicators, or Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). On February 29, the day before the workshop, a full day was allocated to Traditional Knowledge (TK) holders to meet and elucidate how this important knowledge can be included in the process of building the Coastal Plan and monitoring biodiversity in Arctic coastal areas, along with scientific data and variables. This document provides 1) background information about the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme and the Coastal Expert Monitoring Group, 2) overviews on workshop presentations and breakout sessions, and 3) details regarding outcomes of the workshop that will inform the drafting of the Coastal Plan.

  8. The Black Hole-Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läsker, Ronald; Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A.; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K. Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies’ central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing “classical” bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions. (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude (106-{10}8 {M}⊙ ) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all ˜ {10}11 {M}⊙ within a factor of three. (2) The BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected when compared to an extrapolation of the BH-bulge relation based on early-type galaxies. (3) The observed large intrinsic scatter of BH masses in the megamaser host galaxies raises the question of whether scaling relations exist in spiral galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 12185.

  9. Undergraduate Participation in the Blazar Monitoring Program at the WKU Bell Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, M. T.; Barnaby, D.; Atkerson, A.; Glass, D. A.; Monroe, T. R.; Poteet, C.; Ryle, W. T.; Walters, R.; Wills, W. L.

    2003-12-01

    Blazars are the most extreme example of the AGN phenomena. They have as one of thier defining characteristics large amplitude variability at all wavelengths and on multiple timescales. We have established a Blazar monitoring program using the 0.6m telescope of the Bell Observatory at Western Kentucky University. Undergraduate students play a primary role in this program. They observe with the telescope, reduce and analyze the resulting data and present their results at local, state, and national conferences. We discuss the monitoring program, the results from its first 3 years, and student participation. This program has been funded by the Kentucky Space Grant Consortium, The Kentucky NSF EPSCoR Program, The NASA/Kentucky EPSCoR Program, The Applied Research and Technology Program at Western Kentucky University and the Western Kentucky University Faculty Summer Fellowship program * Now at Indiana University ** Now at Georgia State University

  10. Real-Time Difference Imaging Analysis of MOA Galactic Bulge Observations During 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, I. A.; Abe, F.; Dodd, R. J.; Hearnshaw, J. B.; Honda, M.; Jugaku, J.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Marles, A.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.(Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Japan); Nakamura, T.; Nankivell, G.; Noda, S.; Noguchi, C.

    2001-01-01

    We describe observations carried out by the MOA group of the Galactic Bulge during 2000 that were designed to detect efficiently gravitational microlensing of faint stars in which the magnification is high and/or of short duration. These events are particularly useful for studies of extra-solar planets and faint stars. Approximately 17 degrees square were monitored at a sampling rate of up to 6 times per night. The images were analysed in real-time using a difference imaging technique. Twenty...

  11. NWHL final report 1984 [ to ] 1985 lead poisoning monitoring program Modoc National Wildlife Refuge California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Twelve carcasses were submitted for necropsy from Modoc National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) during the 1984-85 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program; one Canada goose was...

  12. USFWS Region 8 National Wildlife Refuge System, Inventory & Monitoring Program : Annual Report FY 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report for Region 8 discusses the goals and objectives of the Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) program for fiscal year 2011. The introduction discusses...

  13. Region 1 National Wildlife Refuge System Inventory and Monitoring Program : Annual Work Plan : Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The annual work plan for Region 1 discusses the goals and objectives of the Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) program for fiscal year 2012. The introduction...

  14. Results of the 1986 seabird monitoring program at Cape Lisburne, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the results of the 1986 seabird monitoring program at Cape Lisburne, Alaska. Objectives of this reports includes determining reproductive success,...

  15. LEAD SAFE YARDS: DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING A MONITORING, ASSESSMENT, AND OUTREACH PROGRAM FOR YOUR COMMUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA has developed a technology transfer handbook on how to plan and implement a residential soil lead monitoring, assessment, mitigation and outreach program for residential communities. The handbook provides guidance on 1) identifying potentially impacted communities, 2) c...

  16. Region 1 National Wildlife Refuge System Inventory & Monitoring Program : Annual Report : FY 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report for Region 1 discusses the goals and objectives of the Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) program for fiscal year 2011. The introduction discusses...

  17. Things discussed on April 3, 1997, concerning Northern Science Center participation in 1000 Acre Monitoring Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum is conveying information about the Audubon National Wildlife Refuge objectives for the 1000 acre Monitoring Program and grassland management on the...

  18. A road map for designing and implementing a biological monitoring program

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Joel H.; Melinda G. Knutson; Newman, Ken B.; Silverman, Emily D; William L Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Designing and implementing natural resource monitoring is a challenging endeavor undertaken by many agencies, NGOs, and citizen groups worldwide. Yet many monitoring programs fail to deliver useful information for a variety of administrative (staffing, documentation, and funding) or technical (sampling design and data analysis) reasons. Programs risk failure if they lack a clear motivating problem or question, explicit objectives linked to this problem or question, and a comprehensive concept...

  19. The PBDEs: an emerging environmental challenge and another reason for breast-milk monitoring programs.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of widely used flame retardants, appear to be rising rapidly in human tissues, as evidenced by studies of human breast milk. The case of the PBDEs illustrates the value of breast-milk monitoring programs in identifying important emerging pollutants, and highlights why such monitoring programs are needed in the United States. A review of the use, occurrence, and toxicity of PBDEs indicates many parallels between some PBDEs, PCBs, an...

  20. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-02-04

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table.

  1. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document contains information concerning the groundwater monitoring program at Savannah River Plant. The EPD/EMS (environmental protection department/environmental monitoring section) is responsible for monitoring constituents in the groundwater at approximately 135 waste sites in 16 areas at SRS. This report consolidates information from field reports, laboratory analysis, and quality control. The groundwater in these areas has been contaminated with radioactive materials, organic compounds, and heavy metals.

  2. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  3. 1997 LMITCO Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.; Street, L.; Wilhelmsen, R.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1997 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs and compares 1997 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standard, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends indicating a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. With the exception of one nitrogen sample in the disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond, compliance with permits and applicable regulations was achieved. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that public health and the environment were protected.

  4. Evaluation of Monticello Nuclear Power Plant, Environmental Impact Prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1976-11-01

    This report evaluates quantitatively the nonradiological environmental monitoring programs at Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant. The general objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of monitoring programs in the measurement of environmental impacts. Specific objectives include the following: (1) Assess the validity of environmental impact predictions made in the Environmental Statement by analysis of nonradiological monitoring data; (2) evaluate the general adequacy of environmental monitoring programs for detecting impacts and their responsiveness to Technical Specifications objectives; (3) assess the adequacy of preoperational monitoring programs in providing a sufficient data base for evaluating operational impacts; (4) identify possible impacts that were not predicted in the environmental statement and identify monitoring activities that need to be added, modified or deleted; and (5) assist in identifying environmental impacts, monitoring methods, and measurement problems that need additional research before quantitative predictions can be attempted. Preoperational as well as operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the analytical methods used to measure ecological and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data were available.

  5. Report on the Watershed Monitoring Program at the Paducah Site January-December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    Watershed Monitoring of Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks has been conducted since 1987. The monitoring was conducted by the University of Kentucky between 1987 and 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of monitoring are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for DOE protect and maintain the use of Little Bayour and Big Bayou creeks for frowth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota. The watershed (biological) monitoring discussed in this report was conducted under DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. Future monitoring will be conducted as required by the Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) in March 1998. A draft Watershed Monitoring Program plan was approved by the Kentucky Division of Water and will be finalized in 1999. The DOE permit also requires toxicity monitoring of one continuous outfall and of three intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The Watershed Monitoring Program for the Paducah Site during calendar year 1998 consisted of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of fish communities. This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from january 1998 to December 1998, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  6. 40 CFR 257.25 - Assessment monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... additional monitoring well at the facility boundary in the direction of contaminant migration and sample this... concentration to which the human population (including sensitive subgroups) could be exposed to on a daily basis that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. For purposes...

  7. Pseudo bulges in galaxy groups: the role of environment in secular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Barway, Sudhanshu

    2017-01-01

    We examine the dependence of the fraction of galaxies containing pseudo bulges on environment for a flux limited sample of ˜5000 SDSS galaxies. We have separated bulges into classical and pseudo bulge categories based on their position on the Kormendy diagram. Pseudo bulges are thought to be formed by internal processes and are a result of secular evolution in galaxies. We attempt to understand the dependence of secular evolution on environment and morphology. Dividing our sample of disc+bulge galaxies based on group membership into three categories: central and satellite galaxies in groups and isolated field galaxies, we find that pseudo bulge fraction is almost equal for satellite and field galaxies. Fraction of pseudo bulge hosts in central galaxies is almost half of the fraction of pseudo bulges in satellite and field galaxies. This trend is also valid when only galaxies are considered only spirals or S0. Using the projected fifth nearest neighbour density as measure of local environment, we look for the dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environmental density. Satellite and field galaxies show very weak or no dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environment. However, fraction of pseudo bulges hosted by central galaxies decreases with increase in local environmental density. We do not find any dependence of pseudo bulge luminosity on environment. Our results suggest that the processes that differentiate the bulge types are a function of environment while processes responsible for the formation of pseudo bulges seem to be independent of environment.

  8. Fracture and springback on Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Djavanroodi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to establish a basic understanding of Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Form processing of stainless steel deep drawn cups. The method is briefly reviewed by carrying out experimental tests and Finite element analysis. By measuring bulge height in both formed curves by Coordinate measuring machine (CMM and thickness variation specimen by Ulterasonic thickness measurment device (UTM, it has been shown that maximum thinness occured where the bending is maximized. A finite element model is constructed to simulate the Double Bulge Tube Hydro Forming process and asses the influence of friction cofficient, tube Material properties and springback. It has been shown that material hardening coefficient had the most significant influence on formability characteristics during double bulge tube hydroforming. Also it is shown that springback has significant effect on tolerances of formed tube. Finally fracture strain was estimated by analytical method and compared with simulation results, also fracture location was predicted on Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Forming (DBTHF by simulating the process.

  9. Bulge growth through disk instabilities in high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The role of disk instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disk galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges. This secular growth of bulges in modern disk galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudo-bulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disk instabilities at high redshift (z>1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (10^10 to a few 10^11 Msun of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift disks are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 10^8-10^9 Msun of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disk evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms, on short timescales. The giant clumps can...

  10. The "Rubella Bulge" and Vocational Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyks, Hollis W.

    1980-01-01

    The increased numbers and additional handicaps of deaf students born in the 1963-65 rubella epidemic require not more postsecondary programs, but rather strengthened programs and rehabilitation approaches to vocational and independent living skill training. (Author/CL)

  11. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Baseline Monitoring Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-19

    species, such as the seabeach amaranth , may even be enhanced by such perturbations. The dune and shrub plants of the coastal barrier suffer...sampling and modeling to determine the wetland areas at greatest risk and where mitigation may be needed. Species at Risk - beach amaranth Coastal...Species Sea beach amaranth surveys Annual Log book/GIS layer Wetlands (training areas monitored for impacts) Ongoing Log book/spreadsheet Training

  12. U.S. SUPPORT PROGRAM CONTRIBUTIONS TO REMOTE MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEPPER,S.E.

    2000-05-08

    Since 1993, the IAEA has made great progress in the implementation of remote monitoring. Equipment has been developed and tested, and installed systems are being used for safeguards purposes. The cost of equipment, the complexity of communication technology, and maintenance of the equipment are challenges that still face the IAEA. Resolution of these challenges will require significant effort. The USSP is committed to assisting the IAEA to overcome these challenges.

  13. Monitoring- and Evaluation Program Near Shore Wind farm (MEP-NSW): Fish community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.; Couperus, A.S.; Fassler, S.M.M.; Gastauer, S.; Griffioen, B.; Hintzen, N.T.; Teal, L.R.; Keeken, van O.A.; Winter, H.V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the first Dutch offshore wind farm was built 10-18 km from the shore of Egmond aan Zee by a joint venture of Nuon and Shell Windenergy. A Monitoring and Evaluation Program accompanied the plans for the construction and exploitation of this farm. The program contained plans for the monitorin

  14. 12 CFR 906.13 - How does the Finance Board oversee and monitor the outreach program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does the Finance Board oversee and monitor the outreach program? 906.13 Section 906.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Contractor Outreach Program for...

  15. Defining the role of omics in assessing ecosystem health: Perspectives from the Canadian environmental monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Paulina A; Feswick, April; Isaacs, Meghan A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reviews and studies continue to describe omics technologies as the next generation of tools for environmental monitoring, while cautioning that there are limitations and obstacles to overcome. However, omics has not yet transitioned into national environmental monitoring programs designed to assess ecosystem health. Using the example of the Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program, the authors describe the steps that would be required for omics technologies to be included in such an established program. These steps include baseline collection of omics endpoints across different species and sites to generate a range of what is biologically normal within a particular ecosystem. Natural individual variability in the omes is not adequately characterized and is often not measured in the field, but is a key component to an environmental monitoring program, to determine the critical effect size or action threshold for management. Omics endpoints must develop a level of standardization, consistency, and rigor that will allow interpretation of the relevance of changes across broader scales. To date, population-level consequences of routinely measured endpoints such as reduced gonad size or intersex in fish is not entirely clear, and the significance of genome-wide molecular, proteome, or metabolic changes on organism or population health is further removed from the levels of ecological change traditionally managed. The present review is not intended to dismiss the idea that omics will play a future role in large-scale environmental monitoring studies, but rather outlines the necessary actions for its inclusion in regulatory monitoring programs focused on assessing ecosystem health.

  16. Process Monitoring of an HIV Treatment as Prevention Program in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Lillian; Lima, Viviane D.; Heath, Kate; Nosyk, Bohdan; Gilbert, Mark; Colley, Guillaume; Consolacion, Theodora; Barrios, Rolando; Robert, Hogg; Krajden, Mel; Konrad, Stephanie; Murti, Michelle; Nelson, Joanne; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Haggerstone, James; Pick, Neora; Gustafson, Reka; Rusch, Melanie; Day, Irene; Montaner, Julio Sg

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of accumulated scientific evidence of the secondary preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy, a growing number of jurisdictions worldwide have formally started to implement HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) programs. To date, no gold standard for TasP program monitoring has been described. Here, we describe the design and methods applied to TasP program process monitoring in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods Monitoring indicators were selected through a collaborative and iterative process by an interdisciplinary team including representatives from all five regional health authorities, the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), and the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE). An initial set of 36 proposed indicators were considered for inclusion. These were ranked on the basis of eight criteria: data quality, validity, scientific evidence, informative power of the indicator, feasibility, confidentiality, accuracy, and administrative requirement. The consolidated list of indicators was included in the final monitoring report, which was executed using linked population-level data. Results A total of 13 monitoring indicators were included in the BC TasP Monitoring Report. Where appropriate, indicators were stratified by subgroups of interest, including HIV risk group and demographic characteristics. Six Monitoring Reports are generated quarterly: one for each of the regional health authorities and a consolidated provincial report. Conclusions We have developed a comprehensive TasP process monitoring strategy using evidence-based HIV indicators derived from linked population-level data. Standardized longitudinal monitoring of TasP program initiatives is essential to optimize individual and public health outcomes and to enhance program efficiencies. PMID:25072608

  17. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  18. The lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Chun-Hua; Lv Guo-Liang; Wang Zhao-Jun; Zhang Jun

    2008-01-01

    In order to explain the lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge, we have made a detailed study of thermal pulseasymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars by using a population synthesis code. The effects of the oxygen overabundance and the mass loss rate on the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars in the Galactic bulge are discussed. We find that the oxygen overabundance which is about twice as large as that in the solar neighbourhood (close to the present observations) is insufficient to explain the rareness of carbon stars in the bulge. We suggest that the large mass loss rate may serve as a controlling factor in the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars.

  19. Near-Infrared Bulge-Disk Correlations of Lenticular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Kembhavi, Ajit K; Mayya, Y D

    2008-01-01

    We consider the luminosity and environmental dependence of structural parameters of lenticular galaxies in the near-infrared K band. Using a two-dimensional galaxy image decomposition technique, we extract bulge and disk structural parameters for a sample of 36 lenticular galaxies observed by us in the K band. By combining data from the literature for field and cluster lenticulars with our data, we study correlations between parameters that characterise the bulge and the disk as a function of luminosity and environment. We find that scaling relations such as the Kormendy relation, photometric plane and other correlations involving bulge and disk parameters show a luminosity dependence. This dependence can be explained in terms of galaxy formation models in which faint lenticulars (M_T > -24.5) formed via secular formation processes that likely formed the pseudobulges of late-type disk galaxies, while brighter lenticulars (M_T < -24.5) formed through a different formation mechanism most likely involving maj...

  20. Galactic Rotation Described with Bulge+Disk Gravitational Models

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, C F

    2008-01-01

    Observations reveal that mature spiral galaxies consist of stars, gases and plasma approximately distributed in a thin disk of circular shape, usually with a central bulge. The rotation velocities quickly increase from the galactic center and then achieve a constant velocity from the core to the periphery. The basic dynamic behavior of a mature spiral galaxy, such as the Milky Way, is well described by simple models balancing Newtonian gravitational forces against the centrifugal forces associated with a rotating thin axisymmetric disk. In this research, we investigate the effects of adding central bulges to thin disk gravitational models. Even with the addition of substantial central bulges, all the critical essential features of our thin disk gravitational models are preserved. (1) Balancing Newtonian gravitational and centrifugal forces at every point within the disk yields computed radial mass distributions that describe the measured rotation velocity profiles of mature spiral galaxies successfully. (2) T...

  1. The Metallicity Gradient of the Old Galactic Bulge Population

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the structure, formation and evolution of the Galactic Bulge requires the proper determination of spatial metallicity gradients in both the radial and vertical directions. RR Lyrae pulsators, known to be excellent distance indicators, may hold the key to determining these gradients. Jurcsik & Kovacs (1996) has shown that RR Lyrae light curves and the phase difference of their Fourier decomposition, {\\phi}31, can be used to estimate photometric metallicities. The existence of galactic bulge metallicity gradients is a currently debated topic that would help pinpoint the Galaxy's formation and evolution. A recent study of the OGLE-III Galactic Bulge RR Lyrae Population by Pietrukowicz et al. (2012) suggests that the spatial distribution is uniform. We investigate how small a gradient would be detectable within the current S/N levels of the present data set, given the random and systematic errors associated with the derivation of a photometric metallicity versus spatial position relationship.

  2. Revamping State Monitoring Process: A Means of Program Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Fukue S.

    In 1981, when Chapter 1 replaced Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I and with the advent of the effective schools movement, the Hawaii state administrators of Chapter 1 made a long term commitment to program improvement, especially in the area of instruction and quality delivery of services to the target students. In this program…

  3. MNAtoolbox: A Monitored Natural Attenuation Site Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, David J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Brady, Warren D.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Spalding, Brian P.; Waters, Robert D.; Zhang, Pengchu

    1999-07-12

    Screening of sites for the potential application and reliance upon monitored natural attenuation (MNA) can be done using MNAtoolbox, a web-based tool for estimating extent of biodegradation, chemical transformation, and dilution. MNAtoolbox uses site-specific input data, where available (default parameters are taken from the literature), to roughly quantify the nature and extent of attenuation at a particular site. Use of MNAtoolbox provides 3 important elements of site evaluation: (1) Identifies likely attenuation pathways, (2) Clearly identifies sites where MNA is inappropriate, and (3) Evaluates data requirements for subsequent reliance on MNA as a sole or partial corrective action.

  4. RCRA and Operational Monitoring (ROM). Multi-Year Program Plan and Fiscal Year 95 Work Plan WBS 1.5.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-17

    This document contains information concerning the RCRA and Operational Monitoring Program at Hanford Reservation. Information presented includes: Schedules for ground water monitoring activities, program cost baseline, program technical baseline, and a program milestone list.

  5. Evaluation of Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant, environmental impact prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Waton, D.G.

    1976-12-01

    A study was undertaken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the nonradiological environmental data obtained from three nuclear power plants operating for a period of one year or longer. The document presented reports the second of three nuclear power plants to be evaluated in detail by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant nonradiological monitoring data were assessed to determine their effectiveness in the measurement of environmental impacts. Efforts were made to determine if: (1) monitoring programs, as designed, can detect environmental impacts, (2) appropriate statistical analyses were performed and if they were sensitive enough to detect impacts, (3) predicted impacts could be verified by monitoring programs, and (4) monitoring programs satisfied the requirements of the Environmental Technical Specifications. Both preoperational and operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the methods used to measure ecological, chemical, and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data sets were available. From this type of analysis, deficiencies in both preoperational and operational monitoring programs may be identified and provide a basis for suggested improvement.

  6. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal/Calendar Year 2004 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to Nevada Test Site biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during the Fiscal Year 2004 and the additional months of October, November, and December 2004, reflecting a change in the monitoring period to a calendar year rather than a fiscal year as reported in the past. This change in the monitoring period was made to better accommodate information required for the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report, which reports on a calendar year rather than a fiscal year. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, (5) habitat restoration monitoring, and (6) biological monitoring at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center.

  7. Strategy implementation for the CTA Atmospheric monitoring program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doro Michele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA is the next generation facility of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. It reaches unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution in very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. CTA detects Cherenkov light emitted within an atmospheric shower of particles initiated by cosmic-gamma rays or cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere. From the combination of images the Cherenkov light produces in the telescopes, one is able to infer the primary particle energy and direction. A correct energy estimation can be thus performed only if the local atmosphere is well characterized. The atmosphere not only affects the shower development itself, but also the Cherenkov photon transmission from the emission point in the particle shower, at about 10–20 km above the ground, to the detector. Cherenkov light on the ground is peaked in the UV-blue region, and therefore molecular and aerosol extinction phenomena are important. The goal of CTA is to control systematics in energy reconstruction to better than 10%. For this reason, a careful and continuous monitoring and characterization of the atmosphere is required. In addition, CTA will be operated as an observatory, with data made public along with appropriate analysis tools. High-level data quality can only be ensured if the atmospheric properties are consistently and continuously taken into account. In this contribution, we concentrate on discussing the implementation strategy for the various atmospheric monitoring instruments currently under discussion in CTA. These includes Raman lidars and ceilometers, stellar photometers and others available both from commercial providers and public research centers.

  8. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2007-07-19

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  9. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2006-06-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  10. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Tortorici, Cathy; Yerxa, Tracey; Leary, J.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-02-05

    The purpose ofthis document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision-making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows. 1. Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. 2. Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. 3. Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. 4. Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. 5. Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. In conclusion, the estuary RME effort is designed to meet the research and monitoring needs of the estuary Program using an adaptive management process. Estuary RME's success and usefulness will depend on the actual conduct of adaptive management, as embodied in the objectives, implrementation, data, reporting, and synthesis, evaluation, and decision-making described herein.

  11. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  12. Monitoring School Bullying: A Review of One School's Program for Assessing and Monitoring the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, William

    A study assessed the levels of bullying behavior at Hale School, an independent boys' day and boarding school in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. In excess of 900 boys completed a survey instrument in 1994 and 1996. Results indicated that, despite a widely publicized program and the publication of anti-bullying and harassment policies,…

  13. Population size influences amphibian detection probability: implications for biodiversity monitoring programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo G Tanadini

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an integral part of species conservation. Monitoring programs must take imperfect detection of species into account in order to be reliable. Theory suggests that detection probability may be determined by population size but this relationship has not yet been assessed empirically. Population size is particularly important because it may induce heterogeneity in detection probability and thereby cause bias in estimates of biodiversity. We used a site occupancy model to analyse data from a volunteer-based amphibian monitoring program to assess how well different variables explain variation in detection probability. An index to population size best explained detection probabilities for four out of six species (to avoid circular reasoning, we used the count of individuals at a previous site visit as an index to current population size. The relationship between the population index and detection probability was positive. Commonly used weather variables best explained detection probabilities for two out of six species. Estimates of site occupancy probabilities differed depending on whether the population index was or was not used to model detection probability. The relationship between the population index and detectability has implications for the design of monitoring and species conservation. Most importantly, because many small populations are likely to be overlooked, monitoring programs should be designed in such a way that small populations are not overlooked. The results also imply that methods cannot be standardized in such a way that detection probabilities are constant. As we have shown here, one can easily account for variation in population size in the analysis of data from long-term monitoring programs by using counts of individuals from surveys at the same site in previous years. Accounting for variation in population size is important because it can affect the results of long-term monitoring programs and ultimately the

  14. Population size influences amphibian detection probability: implications for biodiversity monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanadini, Lorenzo G; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring is an integral part of species conservation. Monitoring programs must take imperfect detection of species into account in order to be reliable. Theory suggests that detection probability may be determined by population size but this relationship has not yet been assessed empirically. Population size is particularly important because it may induce heterogeneity in detection probability and thereby cause bias in estimates of biodiversity. We used a site occupancy model to analyse data from a volunteer-based amphibian monitoring program to assess how well different variables explain variation in detection probability. An index to population size best explained detection probabilities for four out of six species (to avoid circular reasoning, we used the count of individuals at a previous site visit as an index to current population size). The relationship between the population index and detection probability was positive. Commonly used weather variables best explained detection probabilities for two out of six species. Estimates of site occupancy probabilities differed depending on whether the population index was or was not used to model detection probability. The relationship between the population index and detectability has implications for the design of monitoring and species conservation. Most importantly, because many small populations are likely to be overlooked, monitoring programs should be designed in such a way that small populations are not overlooked. The results also imply that methods cannot be standardized in such a way that detection probabilities are constant. As we have shown here, one can easily account for variation in population size in the analysis of data from long-term monitoring programs by using counts of individuals from surveys at the same site in previous years. Accounting for variation in population size is important because it can affect the results of long-term monitoring programs and ultimately the conservation of

  15. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  16. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program: 1990 sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-02-07

    This schedule provides a final record of the 1990 sampling schedule for the SRS groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Section (EPD/EMS). It includes all the wells monitored by EPD/EMS at SRS during 1990 and identifies the constituents sampled, the sampling frequency, and the reasons for sampling. Sampling requests are incorporated into the schedule throughout the year. Drafts of the schedule are produced and revised quarterly.

  17. Recommendations for strengthening the infrared technology component of any condition monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Jack R., Jr.; Young, R. K.

    1999-03-01

    This presentation provides insights of a long term 'champion' of many condition monitoring technologies and a Level III infra red thermographer. The co-authors present recommendations based on their observations of infra red and other components of predictive, condition monitoring programs in manufacturing, utility and government defense and energy activities. As predictive maintenance service providers, trainers, informal observers and formal auditors of such programs, the co-authors provide a unique perspective that can be useful to practitioners, managers and customers of advanced programs. Each has over 30 years experience in the field of machinery operation, maintenance, and support the origins of which can be traced to and through the demanding requirements of the U.S. Navy nuclear submarine forces. They have over 10 years each of experience with programs in many different countries on 3 continents. Recommendations are provided on the following: (1) Leadership and Management Support (For survival); (2) Life Cycle View (For establishment of a firm and stable foundation for a program); (3) Training and Orientation (For thermographers as well as operators, managers and others); (4) Analyst Flexibility (To innovate, explore and develop their understanding of machinery condition); (5) Reports and Program Justification (For program visibility and continued expansion); (6) Commitment to Continuous Improvement of Capability and Productivity (Through application of updated hardware and software); (7) Mutual Support by Analysts (By those inside and outside of the immediate organization); (8) Use of Multiple Technologies and System Experts to Help Define Problems (Through the use of correlation analysis of data from up to 15 technologies. An example correlation analysis table for AC and DC motors is provided.); (9) Root Cause Analysis (Allows a shift from reactive to proactive stance for a program); (10) Master Equipment Identification and Technology Application (To

  18. Optimum Location of Tube Blank in Electromagnetic Bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using analytical method, this paper gets the mutual inductance between coil and workpiece in tube blank electromagnetic bulging. According to this, we obtain the optimum locations of tube blank with different length of coil and workpiece. There is a good agreement between results calculated and the experimental data.

  19. The disc origin of the Milky Way bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Di Matteo, P

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge, that is the prominent out-of-plane over-density present in the inner few kiloparsecs of the Galaxy, is a complex structure, as the morphology, kinematics, chemistry and ages of its stars indicate. To understand the nature of its main components -- those at [Fe/H] >~ -1 dex -- it is necessary to make an inventory of the stellar populations of the Galactic disc(s), and of their borders : the chemistry of the disc at the solar vicinity, well known from detailed studies of stars over many years, is not representative of the whole disc. This finding, together with the recent revisions of the mass and sizes of the thin and thick discs, constitutes a major step in understanding the bulge complexity. N-body models of a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge formed from a thin disc through the intermediary of a bar have been successful in interpreting a number of global properties of the Galactic bulge, but they fail in reproducing the detailed chemo-kinematic relations satisfied by its components and their morp...

  20. New insights on the Galactic Bulge Initial Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Calamida, A; Casertano, S; Anderson, J; Cassisi, S; Gennaro, M; Cignoni, M; Brown, T M; Kains, N; Ferguson, H; Livio, M; Bond, H E; Buonanno, R; Clarkson, W; Ferraro, I; Pietrinferni, A; Salaris, M; Valenti, J

    2015-01-01

    We have derived the Galactic bulge initial mass function of the SWEEPS field down to 0.15 $M_{\\odot}$, using deep photometry collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. Observations at several epochs, spread over 9 years, allowed us to separate the disk and bulge stars down to very faint magnitudes, $F814W \\approx$ 26 mag, with a proper-motion accuracy better than 0.5 mas/yr (20 km/s). This allowed us to determine the initial mass function of the pure bulge component uncontaminated by disk stars for this low-reddening field in the Sagittarius window. In deriving the mass function, we took into account the presence of unresolved binaries, errors in photometry, distance modulus and reddening, as well as the metallicity dispersion and the uncertainties caused by adopting different theoretical color-temperature relations. We found that the Galactic bulge initial mass function can be fitted with two power laws with a break at $M \\sim$ 0.56 $M_{\\odot}$, the slope being steeper ($\\a...

  1. Ongoing massive star formation in the bulge of M51

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, HJGLM; Panagia, N; Scuderi, S; Romaniello, M; Spaans, M; Kirshner, R

    2002-01-01

    We present a study of Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observations of the inner kiloparsec of the interacting galaxy M51 in six bands from 2550 to 8140 Angstrom. The images show an oval-shaped area (which we call the "bulge") of about 11" x 16", or 450 x 650 pc, around the nucle

  2. Meso-scale aurora within the expansion phase bulge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We present ground-based optical, riometer and magnetometer recordings together with Polar UVI and GOES magnetic field observations of a substorm that occurred over Canada on 24 November 1997. This event involved a clear optical onset followed by poleward motion of the aurora as a signature of an expanding auroral bulge. During the expansion phase, there were three distinct types of meso-scale (10–1000 km auroral structures embedded in the bulge: at first a series of equatorward moving auroral arcs, followed by a well-defined spiral pair, and finally north-south directed aurora (a streamer. The spirals occurred several minutes after the onset, and indicate a shear in the field-aligned current. The north-south aligned aurora that formed about 10 min after the onset suggest bursty bulk flow type flows taking place in the central plasma sheet. Polar UVI observations of the polar cap location indicate that the southward drifting arcs were associated with magnetospheric activity within closed field lines, while the auroral streamer was launched by the bulge reaching the polar cap boundary, i.e. the mid-tail reconnection starting on the open field lines. The riometer data imply high energy electron precipitation in the vicinity of the the poleward moving edge of the auroral bulge, starting at the onset and continuing until the formation of the north-south structure. In this paper, we examine this evolving auroral morphology within the context of substorm theories.

  3. Relation between $M_{BH}$ and $M_{bulge}

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Yan Ning; Deng, Z G

    2001-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of super star clusters (SSCs) moving in the background of dark matter halo has been investigated as a possible event causing the observed correlation between the mass of galactic bulge, $M_{bulge}$, and the mass of its central black hole, $M_{BH}$. The involved physical processes are the sinking of SSCs due to the dynamical friction, and the stripping of SSCs on their way to the center. Model calculations show that only sinking of circumnuclear SSCs contribute to both the growth of the central object and the formation of the galactic bulge at the early stage. On the assumption of a universal density profile for the dark matter halo, and an isothermal model for the SSCs, our simulations have yielded the mass ratio of the central objects to the bulges formed this way to be about a few times $10^{-4}$, less than the observed median value for early type galaxies. It is, however, consistent with the observed mass ratio for disk spirals, implying that the proposed scenario might be a possibl...

  4. Bulge and Halo Kinematics Across the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis C

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between the maximum rotational velocity of the disk (v_m) and the central stellar velocity dispersion of the bulge (sigma) offers insights into the relationship between the halo and the bulge. We have assembled integrated H I line widths and central stellar velocity dispersions to study the v_m-sigma relation for 792 galaxies spanning a broad range of Hubble types. Contrary to earlier studies based on much smaller samples, we find that the v_m-sigma relation exhibits significant intrinsic scatter and that its zeropoint varies systematically with galaxy morphology, bulge-to-disk ratio, and light concentration, as expected from basic dynamical considerations. Nucleated but bulgeless late-type spiral galaxies depart significantly from the v_m-sigma relation. While these results render questionable any attempt to supplant the bulge with the halo as the fundamental determinant of the central black hole mass in galaxies, the observed distribution of v_m/sigma, which depends on both the density profi...

  5. Type-Ia Supernova-driven Galactic Bulge Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Shikui; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Joung, M Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Stellar feedback in galactic bulges plays an essential role in shaping the evolution of galaxies. To quantify this role and facilitate comparisons with X-ray observations, we conduct 3D hydrodynamical simulations with the adaptive mesh refinement code, FLASH, to investigate the physical properties of hot gas inside a galactic bulge, similar to that of our Galaxy or M31. We assume that the dynamical and thermal properties of the hot gas are dominated by mechanical energy input from SNe, primarily Type Ia, and mass injection from evolved stars as well as iron enrichment from SNe. We study the bulge-wide outflow as well as the SN heating on scales down to ~4 pc. An embedding scheme that is devised to plant individual SNR seeds, allows to examine, for the first time, the effect of sporadic SNe on the density, temperature, and iron ejecta distribution of the hot gas as well as the resultant X-ray morphology and spectrum. We find that the SNe produce a bulge wind with highly filamentary density structures and patch...

  6. The X-shaped Bulge of the Milky Way revealed by WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way bulge has a boxy/peanut morphology and an X-shaped structure. This X-shape has been revealed by the `split in the red clump' from star counts along the line of sight toward the bulge, measured from photometric surveys. This boxy, X-shaped bulge morphology is not unique to the Milky Way and such bulges are observed in other barred spiral galaxies. N-body simulations show that boxy and X-shaped bulges are formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. It has also been proposed that the Milky Way bulge is not X-shaped, but rather, the apparent split in the red clump stars is a consequence of different stellar populations, in an old classical spheroidal bulge. We present a WISE image of the Milky Way bulge, produced by downsampling the publicly available "unWISE" coadds. The WISE image of the Milky Way bulge shows that the X-shaped nature of the Milky Way bulge is self-evident and irrefutable. The X-shape morphology of the bulge in itself and the fraction of bulge stars that comprise orbits withi...

  7. 1998 Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. V. Street

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1998 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1998 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The INEEL complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the exception of nitrogen samples in a disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  8. A study on drug safety monitoring program in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance is useful in assuring the safety of medicines and protecting the consumers from their harmful effects. A number of single drugs as well as fixed dose combinations have been banned from manufacturing, marketing and distribution in India. An important issue about the availability of banned drugs over the counter in India is that sufficient adverse drug reactions data about these drugs have not been reported. The most common categories of drugs withdrawn in the last decade were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (28%, antidiabetics (14.28%, antiobesity (14.28%, antihistamines (14.28%, gastroprokinetic drugs (7.14%, breast cancer and infertility drugs (7.14%, irritable bowel syndrome and constipation drugs (7.14% and antibiotics (7.14%. Drug withdrawals from market were made mainly due to safety issues involving cardiovascular events (57.14% and liver damage (14.28%. Majority of drugs have been banned since 3-5 years in other countries but are still available for sale in India. The present study compares the drug safety monitoring systems in the developed countries such as the USA and UK and provides implications for developing a system that can ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in India. Absence of a gold standard for a drug safety surveillance system, variations in culture and clinical practice across countries makes it difficult for India to completely adopt another country′s practices. There should be a multidisciplinary approach towards drug safety that should be implemented throughout the entire duration spanning from drug discovery to usage by consumers.

  9. Smolt Monitoring Program, Part I, Estimation of Survival, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1986-02-01

    The annual Smolt Monitoring Program is the result of implementation of Section 304(d)(2) of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. Survival was monitored for specific marked groups of steelhead and spring chinook. Survival through the mid-Columbia from Winthrop Hatchery and the Methow River to below Priest Rapids Dam was estimated. Estimation of survival of marked groups of steelhead from Little Goose Dam to below Ice Harbor Dam was attempted. Serious problems were evident in the Snake River survival data. A release strategy which avoids holding of control groups was tested with satisfactory results.

  10. Lewis and Clark National Historical Park Elk Monitoring Program Annual Report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Carla; Griffin, Paul; Jenkins, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal year 2010 was the second full year of elk monitoring protocol implementation at Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (LEWI), part of the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) Inventory and Monitoring program. Elk monitoring at Lewis and Clark NHP includes two components. Fecal pellet surveys at a systematic sample of points in the Fort Clatsop unit are intended to give quantitative estimates of relative use by elk in that unit. Driving surveys on specified routes in and near the Fort Clatsop unit are intended to provide an index of elk viewing opportunities on those roads.

  11. Monitoring energy use of copiers to determine program design and potential savings for the Energy Star Copier program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandridge, C.B. [ReEnergize Consortium, Berkeley, CA (United States); Norford, L.K. [Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Nordman, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In the past five years, considerable attention has been focused on the electricity use of office equipment in commercial office buildings. Several groups have monitored energy use of PCs, monitors, printers and fax machines. However, little attention has been paid to monitoring energy use of copiers. Procedures for testing energy usage and usage profiles of copiers are needed to make valid comparisons between machines and to determine overall energy use and potential energy savings. In this paper, the authors present a method to analyze the energy use and usage profiles of copiers. This method is determined through long-term measurements from a Watt-hour meter connected to the copier and by measuring light flashes from the copier. Energy use from the copier can also be estimated by using a test procedure developed by Dandridge. Results from using the long term monitoring methods will be presented for several different sized copiers, and compared to the estimated energy use derived from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method. After summarizing these results, the authors determine criteria for a program to recognize energy-efficient copiers. These criteria were submitted as an Energy Star Copier program to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The new Energy Star Copier Program was announced in July 1995, with criteria based on these suggestions. Using the final Energy Star Copier program criteria and this data, the authors determine potential future savings for the program. The ability to automatically turn the copier off at night is the greatest energy-saving feature most copiers can have. The best way to reduce overall office costs is to have the copier set automatically to make double-sided copies.

  12. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Shoemaker, B.A. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  13. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-26

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  14. StreaMon: a data-plane programming abstraction for Software-defined Stream Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Giuseppe; Bonola, Marco; Picierro, Giulio; Pontarelli, Salvatore; Monaci, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The fast evolving nature of modern cyber threats and network monitoring needs calls for new, "software-defined", approaches to simplify and quicken programming and deployment of online (stream-based) traffic analysis functions. StreaMon is a carefully designed data-plane abstraction devised to scalably decouple the "programming logic" of a traffic analysis application (tracked states, features, anomaly conditions, etc.) from elementary primitives (counting and metering, matching, events gener...

  15. Can wide consultation help with setting priorities for large-scale biodiversity monitoring programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Boivin

    Full Text Available Climate and other global change phenomena affecting biodiversity require monitoring to track ecosystem changes and guide policy and management actions. Designing a biodiversity monitoring program is a difficult task that requires making decisions that often lack consensus due to budgetary constrains. As monitoring programs require long-term investment, they also require strong and continuing support from all interested parties. As such, stakeholder consultation is key to identify priorities and make sound design decisions that have as much support as possible. Here, we present the results of a consultation conducted to serve as an aid for designing a large-scale biodiversity monitoring program for the province of Québec (Canada. The consultation took the form of a survey with 13 discrete choices involving tradeoffs in respect to design priorities and 10 demographic questions (e.g., age, profession. The survey was sent to thousands of individuals having expected interests and knowledge about biodiversity and was completed by 621 participants. Overall, consensuses were few and it appeared difficult to create a design fulfilling the priorities of the majority. Most participants wanted 1 a monitoring design covering the entire territory and focusing on natural habitats; 2 a focus on species related to ecosystem services, on threatened and on invasive species. The only demographic characteristic that was related to the type of prioritization was the declared level of knowledge in biodiversity (null to high, but even then the influence was quite small.

  16. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other grou

  17. Sensor programming and concept implementation of a temperature monitoring system, using Arduino as prototyping platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbîrnă, Sebastian; Søberg, Peder Veng; Sbîrnă, Liana Simona

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the programming paradigms that have been developed for a temperature monitoring system able to provide accurate data regarding food temperatures inside refrigerated vehicles and alert the driver accordingly, in relation to which temperature states are encountered. The men...

  18. Prioritization of chemical hazards in spices and herbs for European monitoring programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, Van E.D.; Banach, J.L.; Fels, van der Ine

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring programs are preferably risk-based, which allows focusing on the most relevant human health risks. In this study, a risk matrix was used to identify those chemical hazards that have the highest human health risk for the following spices and herbs: paprika/chilli powder, black pepper, nutm

  19. Linear circuit analysis program for IBM 1620 Monitor 2, 1311/1443 data processing system /CIRCS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J.

    1967-01-01

    CIRCS is modification of IBSNAP Circuit Analysis Program, for use on smaller systems. This data processing system retains the basic dc, transient analysis, and FORTRAN 2 formats. It can be used on the IBM 1620/1311 Monitor I Mod 5 system, and solves a linear network containing 15 nodes and 45 branches.

  20. TIPEX (Tropical Indo-Pacific water transport and ecosystem monitoring EXperiment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongchull Jeon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors influencing the climate around Korea is the oceanic-atmospheric variability in the tropical region between the eastern Indian and the western Pacific Oceans. Lack of knowledge about the air-sea interaction in the tropical Indo-Pacific region continues to make it problematic forecasting the ocean climate in the East Asia. The ‘Tropical Indo-Pacific water transport and ecosystem monitoring EXperiment (TIPEX’ is a program for monitoring the ocean circulation variability between Pacific and Indian Oceans and for improving the accuracy of future climate forecasting. The main goal of the TIPEX program is to quantify the climate and ocean circulation change between the Indian and the Pacific Oceans. The contents of the program are 1 to observe the mixing process of different water masses and water transport in the eastern Indian and the western Pacific, 2 to understand the large-scale oceanic-climatic variation including El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO/Warm Pool/Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO/Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD, and 3 to monitor the biogeochemical processes, material flux, and biological changes due to the climate change. In order to effectively carry out the monitoring program, close international cooperation and the proper co-work sharing of tasks between China, Japan, Indonesia, and India as well as USA is required.

  1. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, S R; Stoetzel, G A

    1997-06-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993, 1994, and 1995 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 108 area TLDs were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1996. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  2. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, S.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)--(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years (CY) 1993--1996 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 93 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1997. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusions that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  3. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L. A.; Adams, S. M.; Ashwood, T. L.; Blaylock, B. G.; Greeley, M. S.; Loar, J. M.; Peterson, M. J.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Shoemaker, B. A. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Hinzman, R. L. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  4. Louisiana Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) Program Summary Report: Data and Analyses 2006 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Buster, Noreen A.; Flocks, James G.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kulp, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) program was implemented under the Louisiana Coastal Area Science and Technology (LCA S&T) office as a component of the System Wide Assessment and Monitoring (SWAMP) program. The BICM project was developed by the State of Louisiana (Coastal Protection Restoration Authority [CPRA], formerly Department of Natural Resources [DNR]) to complement other Louisiana coastal monitoring programs such as the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System-Wetlands (CRMS-Wetlands) and was a collaborative research effort by CPRA, University of New Orleans (UNO), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The goal of the BICM program was to provide long-term data on the barrier islands of Louisiana that could be used to plan, design, evaluate, and maintain current and future barrier-island restoration projects. The BICM program used both historical and newly acquired (2006 to 2010) data to assess and monitor changes in the aerial and subaqueous extent of islands, habitat types, sediment texture and geotechnical properties, environmental processes, and vegetation composition. BICM datasets included aerial still and video photography (multiple time series) for shoreline positions, habitat mapping, and land loss; light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys for topographic elevations; single-beam and swath bathymetry; and sediment grab samples. Products produced using BICM data and analyses included (but were not limited to) storm-impact assessments, rate of shoreline and bathymetric change, shoreline-erosion and accretion maps, high-resolution elevation maps, coastal-shoreline and barrier-island habitat-classification maps, and coastal surficial-sediment characterization maps. Discussions in this report summarize the extensive data-collection efforts and present brief interpretive analyses for four coastal Louisiana geographic regions. In addition, several coastal-wide and topical themes were selected that integrate the data and analyses within a

  5. Program for environmental monitoring Tjeldbergodden. Monitoring of soil, vegetation and epiphytes 2011; Program for miljoeovervaaking Tjeldbergodden. Overvaaking av jord, vegetasjon og epifytter 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Baard; Aarrestad, Per Arild (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    An environmental monitoring program was initiated in 1993 in relation to the establishment of the methanol factory at Tjeldbergodden in Aure municipality, Moere og Romsdal county, with the aim to detect possible negative effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, caused by emissions from the factory. Since the baseline study in 1993/1994 the terrestrial investigations have been repeated two times using the same sampling methods. In this report changes in the ecosystem from 1993 to 2011 are described in relation to the monitoring of soil, ground vegetation and epiphytes. Overall, these various surveys in 2011 give no indication that the discharge of pollutants from methanol plant has affected soil, ground or Epiphyte vegetation in forest systems within the catchment area of the factory.(eb)

  6. Chemical Abundances and Dust in Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Gutenkunst, S; Pottasch, S R; Sloan, G C; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of eleven planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the Bulge, the infrared spectra allow us to determine abundances for certain elements more accurately that previously possible with optical data alone. Abundances of argon and sulfur (and in most cases neon and oxygen) in planetary nebulae in the Bulge give the abundances of the interstellar medium at the time their progenitor stars formed; thus these abundances give information about the formation and evolution of the Bulge. The abundances of Bulge planetary nebulae tend to be slightly higher than those in the Disk on average, but they do not follow the trend of the Disk planetary nebulae, thus confirming the difference between Bulge and Disk evolution. Additionally, the Bulge planetary nebulae show peculiar dust properties compared...

  7. Home Monitoring Program Reduces Mortality in High-Risk Sociodemographic Single-Ventricle Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Daniel Alexander; Herrington, Cynthia; Adler, Stacey; Haas, Karen; Ram Kumar, S; Kung, Grace C

    2016-12-01

    A clinician-driven home monitoring program can improve interstage outcomes in single-ventricle patients. Sociodemographic factors have been independently associated with mortality in interstage patients. We hypothesized that even in a population with high-risk sociodemographic characteristics, a home monitoring program is effective in reducing interstage mortality. We defined interstage period as the time period between discharge following Norwood palliation and second-stage surgery. We reviewed the charts of patients for the three-year period before (group 1) and after (group 2) implementation of the home monitoring program. Clinical variables around Norwood palliation, during the interstage period, and at the time of second-stage surgery were analyzed. There were 74 patients in group 1 and 52 in group 2. 59 % patients were Hispanic, and 84 % lived in neighborhoods where over 5 % families lived below poverty line. There was no significant difference in pre-Norwood variables, Norwood discharge variables, age at second surgery, or outcomes at second surgery. There were more Sano shunts performed at the Norwood procedure as the source of pulmonary blood flow in group 2 (p value <0.05). There were more unplanned hospital admissions and percutaneous re-interventions in group 2. Patients in group 2 whose admission criteria included desaturation had a 45 % likelihood of having an unplanned re-intervention. Group 2 noted an 80 % relative reduction in interstage mortality (p < 0.01). In a multiple regression analysis, after accounting for ethnicity, socio-economic status, and source of pulmonary blood flow, enrollment in a home monitoring program independently predicted improved interstage survival (p < 0.01). A clinician-driven home monitoring program reduces interstage mortality even when the majority of patients has high-risk sociodemographic characteristics.

  8. Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP). Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program seeks to deliver needed technologies, timely and cost-effectively, to the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60). The scope of characterizations monitoring, and sensor technology needs that are required by those organizations encompass: (1) initial location and characterization of wastes and waste environments - prior to treatment; (2) monitoring of waste retrieval, remediation and treatment processes; (3) characterization of the co-position of final waste treatment forms to evaluate the performance of waste treatments processes; and (4) site closure and compliance monitoring. Wherever possible, the CMST-IP fosters technology transfer and commercialization of technologies that it sponsors.

  9. Non-nearest-neighbor dependence of stability for group III RNA single nucleotide bulge loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jessica L; McCann, Michael D; Phillips, Daniel; Panaro, Brandon L; Lim, Geoffrey F S; Serra, Martin J

    2014-06-01

    Thirty-five RNA duplexes containing single nucleotide bulge loops were optically melted and the thermodynamic parameters for each duplex determined. The bulge loops were of the group III variety, where the bulged nucleotide is either a AG/U or CU/G, leading to ambiguity to the exact position and identity of the bulge. All possible group III bulge loops with Watson-Crick nearest-neighbors were examined. The data were used to develop a model to predict the free energy of an RNA duplex containing a group III single nucleotide bulge loop. The destabilization of the duplex by the group III bulge could be modeled so that the bulge nucleotide leads to the formation of the Watson-Crick base pair rather than the wobble base pair. The destabilization of an RNA duplex caused by the insertion of a group III bulge is primarily dependent upon non-nearest-neighbor interactions and was shown to be dependent upon the stability of second least stable stem of the duplex. In-line structure probing of group III bulge loops embedded in a hairpin indicated that the bulged nucleotide is the one positioned further from the hairpin loop irrespective of whether the resulting stem formed a Watson-Crick or wobble base pair. Fourteen RNA hairpins containing group III bulge loops, either 3' or 5' of the hairpin loop, were optically melted and the thermodynamic parameters determined. The model developed to predict the influence of group III bulge loops on the stability of duplex formation was extended to predict the influence of bulge loops on hairpin stability.

  10. Evaluation of the US Army Institute of Public Health Destination Monitoring Program, a food safety surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp-Santos, Kamala; Havas, Karyn; Vest, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The Destination Monitoring Program, operated by the US Army Public Health Command (APHC), is one component that supports the APHC Veterinary Service's mission to ensure safety and quality of food procured for the Department of Defense (DoD). This program relies on retail product testing to ensure compliance of production facilities and distributors that supply food to the DoD. This program was assessed to determine the validity and timeliness by specifically evaluating whether sample size of items collected was adequate, if food samples collected were representative of risk, and whether the program returns results in a timely manner. Data was collected from the US Army Veterinary Services Lotus Notes database, including all food samples collected and submitted from APHC Region-North for the purposes of destination monitoring from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. For most food items, only one sample was submitted for testing. The ability to correctly identify a contaminated food lot may be limited by reliance on test results from only one sample, as the level of confidence in a negative test result is low. The food groups most frequently sampled by APHC correlated with the commodities that were implicated in foodborne illness in the United States. Food items to be submitted were equally distributed among districts and branches, but sections within large branches submitted relatively few food samples compared to sections within smaller branches and districts. Finally, laboratory results were not available for about half the food items prior to their respective expiration dates.

  11. Southern-Hemisphere AGN Monitoring on (Sub-)Parsec Scales: The TANAMI Program

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Cornelia; Wilms, J; Kadler, M; Ojha, R; Blanchard, J; Dutka, M; Ros, E

    2012-01-01

    The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) monitoring program TANAMI provides bi-monthly, dualfrequency (8GHz and 22GHz) observations of extragalactic jets with milliarcsecond resolution south of -30 deg declination using the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and additional radio telescopes in Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand and South Africa. Supporting programs provide multiwavelength coverage of the Fermi/LAT sources of the TANAMI sample, in order to construct simultaneous broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), as well as rapid follow-ups of high energy flares. The main purpose of this project is to study the radio-gamma-ray connection seen in the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN) via simultaneous monitoring of their VLBI structure and broadband emission in order to distinguish between different proposed emission models. Here we give a brief description of the TANAMI program and will then focus on its current status: (1) We present some results on the first simultaneous dual-frequency images...

  12. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is the third revision of the 'Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan' for groundwater wells associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: (1) inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12; (2) identifying maintenance needs that extend the life of the well and assure well-head protection is in place, and (3) identifying wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring-well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. The inspection and maintenance of groundwater monitoring wells is one of the primary management strategies of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Management Plan, 'proactive stewardship of the extensive monitoring well network at Y-12' (BWXT 2004a). Effective stewardship, and a program of routine inspections of the physical condition of each monitoring well, ensures that representative water-quality monitoring and hydrologic data are able to be obtained from the well network. In accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP) for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (BWXT 2006b), the status designation (active or inactive) for each well determines the scope and extent of well inspections and maintenance activities. This plan, in conjunction with the above document, formalizes the GWPP approach to focus available resources on monitoring wells which provide the most useful data. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes: (1) the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime); (2) the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime); and (3) the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of the

  13. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury I: Bright UV Stars in the Bulge of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfield, Philip; Girardi, Léo; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Bressan, Alessandro; Lang, Dustin; Williams, Benjamin F; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Howley, Kirsten M; Lauer, Tod R; Bell, Eric F; Bianchi, Luciana; Caldwell, Nelson; Dolphin, Andrew; Dorman, Claire E; Gilbert, Karoline M; Kalirai, Jason; Larsen, Søren S; Olsen, Knut A G; Rix, Hans-Walter; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan D; Weisz, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) multi-cycle program, we observed a 12' \\times 6.5' area of the bulge of M31 with the WFC3/UVIS filters F275W and F336W. From these data we have assembled a sample of \\sim4000 UV-bright, old stars, vastly larger than previously available. We use updated Padova stellar evolutionary tracks to classify these hot stars into three classes: Post-AGB stars (P-AGB), Post-Early AGB (PE-AGB) stars and AGB-manqu\\'e stars. P-AGB stars are the end result of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and are expected in a wide range of stellar populations, whereas PE-AGB and AGB-manqu\\'e (together referred to as the hot post-horizontal branch; HP-HB) stars are the result of insufficient envelope masses to allow a full AGB phase, and are expected to be particularly prominent at high helium or {\\alpha} abundances when the mass loss on the RGB is high. Our data support previous claims that most UV-bright sources in the bulge are likely hot (extreme) horizontal branch st...

  14. Effect of tube size on electromagnetic tube bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commercial finite code ANSYS was employed for the simulation of the electromagnetic tube bulging process. The finite element model and boundary conditions were thoroughly discussed. ANSYS/EMAG was used to model the time varying electromagnetic field in order to obtain the radial and axial magnetic pressure acting on the tube. The magnetic pressure was then used as boundary conditions to model the high velocity deformation of various length tube with ANSYS/LSDYNA. The time space distribution of magnetic pressure on various length tubes was presented. Effect of tube size on the distribution of radial magnetic pressure and axial magnetic pressure and high velocity deformation were discussed. According to the radial magnetic pressure ratio of tube end to tube center and corresponding dimensionless length ratio of tube to coil, the free electromagnetic tube bulging was studied in classification. The calculated results show good agreements with practice.

  15. PROPER MOTIONS IN THE GALACTIC BULGE: PLAUT'S WINDOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper motion study of a eld of 20' x20' inside Plaut's low extinction window (l,b=(0 ;-8 , has been completed. Relative proper motions and photographic BV photometry have been derived for -21; 000 stars reaching to V - 20:5 mag, based on the astrometric reduction of 43 photographic plates, spanning over 21 years of epoch di erence. Proper motion errors are typically 1 mas yr-1. Cross-referencing with the 2MASS catalog yielded a sample of - 8700 stars, from which predominantly disk and bulge subsamples were selected photometrically from the JH color-magnitude diagram. The two samples exhibited di erent proper-motion distributions, with the disk displaying the expected re ex solar motion. Galactic rotation was also detected for stars between -2 and -3 kpc from us. The bulge sample, represented by red giants, has an intrinsic proper motion dispersion of (l; b = (3:39; 2:91 = (0:11; 0:09 mas yr-1, which is in good agreement with previous results. A mean distance of 6:37+0:87 -0:77 kpc has been estimated for the bulge sample, based on the observed K magnitude of the horizontal branch red clump. The metallicity [M=H] distribution was also obtained for a subsample of 60 bulge giants stars, based on calibrated photometric indices. The observed [M=H] shows a peak value at [M=H]-0:1 with an extended metal poor tail and around 30% of the stars with supersolar metallicity. No change in proper motion dispersion was observed as a function of [M=H]. We are currently in the process of obtaining CCD UBV RI photometry for the entire proper-motion sample of - 21; 000 stars.

  16. Orientation of Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebulae toward the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, A

    2014-01-01

    We have used the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope to perform the integral field spectroscopy for a sample of the Galactic planetary nebulae. The spatially resolved velocity distributions of the H$\\alpha$ emission line were used to determine the kinematic features and nebular orientations. Our findings show that some bulge planetary nebulae toward the Galactic center have a particular orientation.

  17. Second annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, R.B.; Watts, J.A. [eds.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of environmental monitoring and field investigations conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report focuses on the watershed scale, striving to provide an ORNL site-wide perspective on types, distribution, and transport of contamination. Results are used to enhance the conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This report summarizes the efforts of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and Site Investigations (SI) program. WAG 2 is the lower portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) system which drains the major contaminated sites at ORNL and discharges to the Clinch River where public access is allowed. The remedial investigation for WAG 2 includes a long-term multimedia environmental monitoring effort that takes advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator and conduit of contaminants from the ORNL site. This report also includes information from other site-specific remedial investigations and feasibility studies (RI/FS) for contaminated sites at ORNL and data from other ongoing monitoring programs conducted by other organizations [e.g., the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) compliance monitoring conducted by the Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section]. This information is included to provide an integrated basis to support ER decision making. This report summarizes information gathered through early 1993. Annual data, such as annual discharges of contaminants, are reported for calendar year 1992.

  18. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hultzsch, P J N; Méndez, R H; Pauldrach, A W A; Kudritzki, R P; Hoffmann, T L; McCarthy, J K

    2007-01-01

    Optical high-resolution spectra of five central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Galactic Bulge have been obtained with Keck/HIRES in order to derive their parameters. Since the distance of the objects is quite well known, such a method has the advantage that stellar luminosities and masses can in principle be determined without relying on theoretical relations between both quantities. By alternatively combining the results of our spectroscopic investigation with evolutionary tracks, we obtain so-called spectroscopic distances, which can be compared with the known (average) distance of the Bulge-CSPN. This offers the possibility to test the validity of model atmospheres and present date post-AGB evolution. We analyze optical H/He profiles of five Galactic Bulge CSPN (plus one comparison object) by means of profile fitting based on state of the art non-LTE modeling tools, to constrain their basic atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, helium abundance and wind strength). Masses and other stellar radius d...

  19. ISO Mid-Infrared spectroscopy of Galactic Bulge AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blommaert, J A D L; Okumura, K; Ganesh, S; Omont, A; Cami, J; Glass, I S; Habing, H J; Schultheis, M; Simon, G; Van Loon, J T; Blommaert, Joris A.D.L.; Groenewegen, Martin A.T.; Okumura, Koryo; Ganesh, Shashikiran; Omont, Alain; Cami, Jan; Glass, Ian S.; Habing, Harm J.; Schultheis, Mathias; Simon, Guy; Loon, Jacco Th. van

    2006-01-01

    To study the nature of Bulge AGB stars and in particular their circumstellar dust, we have analysed mid-infrared spectra obtained with the ISOCAM CVF spectrometer in three Bulge fields. The ISOCAM 5-16.5 micron CVF spectra were obtained as part of the ISOGAL infrared survey of the inner Galaxy. A classification of the shape of the 10 micron dust feature was made for each case. The spectra of the individual sources were modelled using a radiative transfer model. Different combinations of amorphous silicates and aluminium-oxide dust were used in the modelling. Spectra were obtained for 29 sources of which 26 are likely to be Bulge AGB stars. Our modelling shows that the stars suffer mass loss rates in the range of 10^{-8} - 5 x 10^{-7} Msun / yr, which is at the low end of the mass-loss rates experienced on the Thermally Pulsing AGB. The luminosities range from 1,700 to 7,700 Lsun as expected for a population of AGB stars with Minit of 1.5 - 2Msun. In agreement with the condensation sequence scenario, we find t...

  20. Research on bulging plate of scaler for horizontal pendulum tiltmeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-zhong; ZHU Hu; WU Jian

    2005-01-01

    @@ After the horizontal pendulum is used in ground-tilt measurement, its scaling has drawn great attentions from the people, because without a correct calibration of scale value, the observation is of little application significance. From the 1920's, quite a few scholars were engaged in the researches in this respect. And this question was satisfactorily solved until 1962 when Verbaandert (1962) invented the bulging plate, i.e., mercury-cup scaler.After further improvement, the V-M quartz horizontal pendulum tiltmeter was used globally in observation and great success was achieved (Melchior, 1966, 1978). In China, the quartz horizontal pendulum tiltmeter as well as the bulging-plate scaler were developed at the beginning of 1970's and then put into use after some improvements (ZHU and FENG, 1980). The successful observation by SQ quartz horizontal pendulum tiltmeter should be related not only to the excellent performance of horizontal pendulum, but also to its accurate calibration. The bulging plate plays an important role in calibration, because it is the critical component of scaler.

  1. Study of extremely reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Esteban, F M

    2015-01-01

    Context. Extremely reddened AGB stars lose mass at high rates of >10^-5 Msun/yr. This is the very last stage of AGB evolution, in which stars in the mass range 2.0--4.0 Msun (for solar metallicity) should have been converted to C stars already. The extremely reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge are however predominantly O-rich, implying that they might be either low-mass stars or stars at the upper end of the AGB mass range. Aims. To determine the mass range of the most reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge. Methods. Using Virtual Observatory tools, we constructed spectral energy distributions of a sample of 37 evolved stars in the Galactic bulge with extremely red IRAS colours. We fitted DUSTY models to the observational data to infer the bolometric fluxes. Applying individual corrections for interstellar extinction and adopting a common distance, we determined luminosities and mass-loss rates, and inferred the progenitor mass range from comparisons with AGB evolutionary models. Results. The observed ...

  2. The Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Läsker, Ronald; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K Y

    2016-01-01

    We present HST images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies' central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing "classical" bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions: (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude ($10^6$ -- $10^8 M_\\odot$) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all $\\sim 10^{11} M_\\odot$ within a factor of three; (2) the BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected, when compared to an ex...

  3. Community radiation monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1994-08-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UUNEL). The thirteenth year of this program began in the fall of 1992, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE--sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the then-existing EPA monitoring network around the NTS, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah, and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Station Managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These mangers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded through their training, experience, community standing, and effort in becoming a very visible, able, and valuable asset in this link.

  4. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundell, J. F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Magnuson, S. O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scherbinske, P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Case, M. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  5. Monitoring of persistent accreting pulsating neutron stars observed during the INTEGRAL Core Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidoli, L.; Wilms, J.; Paizis, A.; Larsson, S.; Burki, G.; Bourban, G.; Chernyakova, M.; Courvoisier, T.; Di Cocco, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Mereghetti, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Santangelo, A.; Segreto, A.; Staubert, R.; Westergaard, N.J

    2004-06-01

    The INTEGRAL satellite is performing regular scans of the Galactic plane (GPS) every 12 days together with a deep exposure of the Galactic Center region (GCDE). Our collaboration is processing the data from this survey on a regular basis in order to monitor the evolution of the spectral and timing properties of the pulsating persistent neutron star sources observed. We present here an overview over the whole monitoring program and the status of the project and we report on the preliminary results of the analysis of the few scans already performed.

  6. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bowen, M. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake.

  7. A review of potential methods of determining critical effect size for designing environmental monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkittrick, Kelly R; Arens, Collin J; Lowell, Richard B; Kaminski, Greg P

    2009-07-01

    The effective design of field studies requires that sample size requirements be estimated for important endpoints before conducting assessments. This a priori calculation of sample size requires initial estimates for the variability of the endpoints of interest, decisions regarding significance levels and the power desired, and identification of an effect size to be detected. Although many programs have called for use of critical effect sizes (CES) in the design of monitoring programs, few attempts have been made to define them. This paper reviews approaches that have been or could be used to set specific CES. The ideal method for setting CES would be to define the level of protection that prevents ecologically relevant impacts and to set a warning level of change that would be more sensitive than that CES level to provide a margin of safety; however, few examples of this approach being applied exist. Program-specific CES could be developed through the use of numbers based on regulatory or detection limits, a number defined through stakeholder negotiation, estimates of the ranges of reference data, or calculation from the distribution of data using frequency plots or multivariate techniques. The CES that have been defined often are consistent with a CES of approximately 25%, or two standard deviations, for many biological or ecological monitoring endpoints, and this value appears to be reasonable for use in a wide variety of monitoring programs and with a wide variety of endpoints.

  8. Community Radiation Monitoring Program; Annual report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

    1992-06-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (U of U). This eleventh year of the program began in the summer of 1991 and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which the DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of those efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Managers and program representatives in 19 communities adjacent to and downwind from the NTS. These Managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link.

  9. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2008-02-20

    The purpose of this document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program, hereafter called 'the Estuary Program'. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows: (1) Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. (2) Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. (3) Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. (4) Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. (5) Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. The goal leads to three primary management questions pertaining to the main focus of the Estuary Program: estuary habitat conservation and restoration. (1) Are the estuary habitat actions achieving the expected biological and environmental performance targets? (2) Are the offsite habitat actions in the estuary improving juvenile salmonid performance and which actions are most effective at addressing the limiting factors preventing achievement of habitat, fish, or wildlife performance objectives? (3) What are the limiting factors or threats in the estuary/ocean preventing the achievement of desired habitat or fish performance objectives? Performance measures

  10. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. Third quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  11. Annual Report of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Fiscal Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terraqua, Inc. (Wauconda, WA)

    2009-07-20

    This document was created as an annual report detailing the accomplishments of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) in the Upper Columbia Basin in fiscal year 2008. The report consists of sub-chapters that reflect the various components of the program. Chapter 1 presents a report on programmatic coordination and accomplishments, and Chapters 2 through 4 provide a review of how ISEMP has progressed during the 2008 fiscal year in each of the pilot project subbasins: the John Day (Chapter 2), Wenatchee/Entiat (Chapter 3) and Salmon River (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 presents a report on the data management accomplishments in 2008.

  12. Monitoring of health care personnel employee and occupational health immunization program practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Ruth M; Sorrells, Nikka; Westhusing, Kelly; Wiemken, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have identified concerns with various elements of health care personnel immunization programs, including the handling and management of the vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess monitoring processes that support evaluation of the care of vaccines in health care settings. An 11-question survey instrument was developed for use in scripted telephone surveys. State health departments in all 50 states in the United States and the District of Columbia were the target audience for the surveys. Data from a total of 47 states were obtained and analyzed. No states reported an existing monitoring process for evaluation of health care personnel immunization programs in their states. Our assessment indicates that vaccine evaluation processes for health care facilities are rare to nonexistent in the United States. Identifying existing practice gaps and resultant opportunities for improvements may be an important safety initiative that protects patients and health care personnel.

  13. Evaluation of an antimicrobial resistance monitoring program for campylobacter in poultry by simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regula, G.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Ledergerber, U.;

    2005-01-01

    An ideal national resistance monitoring program should deliver a precise estimate of the resistance situation for a given combination of bacteria and antimicrobial at a low cost. To achieve this, decisions need to be made on the number of samples to be collected at each of different possible...... of isolation of these bacteria. Our aim was to develop a stochastic simulation model that optimized a national resistance monitoring program, taking multi-stage sampling, imperfect sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests, and cost-effectiveness considerations into account. The process of resistance...... testing were evaluated regarding the precision of the resulting prevalence estimate. Precision of the prevalence estimate was defined as the absolute difference between apparent and true prevalence of resistance. A partial budget approach was utilized to find the most cost-effective combination of samples...

  14. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  15. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  16. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  17. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  18. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  19. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  20. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, first quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During first quarter 1989 (January--March), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the first quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from first quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  2. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, first quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During first quarter 1989 (January--March), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the first quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from first quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  3. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  4. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  5. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  6. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  7. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  8. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  9. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  10. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2002 Report (Part Two of Two)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A. Wills

    2002-12-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada (BN) during fiscal year 2002. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species and important biological resources were conducted for 26 NTS projects. These projects have the potential to disturb a total of 374 acres. Thirteen of the projects were in desert tortoise habitat, and 13.38 acres of desert tortoise habitat were disturbed. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoises were accidentally injured or killed at project areas or along paved roads. Compilation of historical wildlife data continued this year in efforts to develop faunal distribution maps for the NTS. Photographs associated with the NTS ecological landform units sampled to create the NTS vegetation maps were cataloged for future retrieval and analysis. The list of sensitive plant species for which long-term population monitoring is scheduled was revised. Six vascular plants and five mosses were added to the list. Plant density estimates from ten populations of Astragalus beatleyae were collected, and eight known populations of Eriogonum concinnum were visited to assess plant and habitat status. Minimal field monitoring of western burrowing owl burrows occurred. A report relating to the ecology of the western burrowing owl on the Nevada Test Site was prepared which summarizes four years of data collected on this species

  11. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys and Rotary Screw Trap, 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2006 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 37,938 fish from 15 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 15% of fish enumerated followed by rainbow trout (10%) and mountain whitefish (7%). Day surveys were conducted during the summer period 2007 (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2007 (October) surveys. The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) program from August through November of 2007. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 999 wild Oncorhynchus mykiss and 5,107 wild run O. tshawytscha were PIT tagged during the study period. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 22.3% for juvenile O. tshawytscha and 9.0% for juvenile O. mykiss. Rotary screw traps operated 7 days a week and remote capture operations were conducted when flow and temperature regimes permitted. This is third annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  12. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Rasubala; Lavanya Pernapati; Ximena Velasquez; James Burk; Yan-Fang Ren

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Bas...

  13. Living with childhood obesity: the experience of children enrolled in a multidisciplinary monitoring program

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Veridiana Zamparoni Victorino; Larissa Gramazio Soares; Sonia Silva Marcon; Ieda Harumi Higarashi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the perceptions of obesity from the perspective of obese children enrolled in a multidisciplinary monitoring program. Descriptive exploratory study of qualitative nature. Data collection occurred in December 2013, along with eight children accompanied by a child and adolescent obesity group in a municipality in northwestern Paraná, Brazil, through semi-structured interviews. Data were submitted to content analysis, from which four categories emerged: “Obesity in...

  14. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Summary of 1984 Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    at Clam Lake , Wisconsin ;1. lIT RESEARCH INSTITUTE vii IITRI E06549-18 12 ] LIST OF FIGURES Page 1. ELF Communications Facilities in Wisconsin and...Monitoring Program. The completed transmitter will consist of two facilities, one located in the Chequamegon National Forest near Clam Lake , Wisconsin...with taxon (e.g., > 5x for carabids, > 2x for Collembola ). Previous estimates of surface-active fauna must therefore be interpreted with caution

  15. Extended Community: An Oral History of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP), 1989 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan DeSilva

    2004-07-01

    Studying the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) provides a unique opportunity to trace a concept created by two nuclear industry originators from inception, as it transitioned through several stewardship agencies, to management by a non-profit organization. This transition is informed not only by changes over two decades in the views of the general populace toward nuclear testing but also by changing political climates and public policies. Several parallel histories accompanied the development of the CEMP: an administrative history, an environmental history, and a history of changing public perception of not only nuclear testing, but other activities involving radiation such as waste transportation, as well. Although vital, those histories will be provided only as background to the subject of this study, the oral histories gathered in this project. The oral histories collected open a window into the nuclear testing history of Nevada and Utah that has not heretofore been opened. The nuclear industry has generated a great deal of positive and negative reaction since its inception. The CEMP emerged with specific objectives. It was designed to provide information to potential downwind communities and counter negative perceptions by creating more community involvement and education about the testing. The current objectives of the program are to: (1) Manage and maintain the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) offsite monitoring program including 26 radiation and environmental monitoring stations with associated equipment. Provide air sample collection and analysis, radiological and meteorological data collection, interpretation and reporting. (2) Facilitate independent operation of radiological monitoring stations and data verification by private citizens living in communities in proximity to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). (3) Hire and initiate training of local citizens to serve as Community

  16. Quarterly Progress Report on the Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-12-30

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program ( BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  17. Detection and plant monitoring programs: lessons from an intensive survey of Asclepias meadii with five observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen M; Reed, Aaron W; Kettle, W Dean; Slade, Norman A; Bodbyl Roels, Sarah A; Collins, Cathy D; Salisbury, Vaughn

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring programs, where numbers of individuals are followed through time, are central to conservation. Although incomplete detection is expected with wildlife surveys, this topic is rarely considered with plants. However, if plants are missed in surveys, raw count data can lead to biased estimates of population abundance and vital rates. To illustrate, we had five independent observers survey patches of the rare plant Asclepias meadii at two prairie sites. We analyzed data with two mark-recapture approaches. Using the program CAPTURE, the estimated number of patches equaled the detected number for a burned site, but exceeded detected numbers by 28% for an unburned site. Analyses of detected patches using Huggins models revealed important effects of observer, patch state (flowering/nonflowering), and patch size (number of stems) on probabilities of detection. Although some results were expected (i.e. greater detection of flowering than nonflowering patches), the importance of our approach is the ability to quantify the magnitude of detection problems. We also evaluated the degree to which increased observer numbers improved detection: smaller groups (3-4 observers) generally found 90 - 99% of the patches found by all five people, but pairs of observers or single observers had high error and detection depended on which individuals were involved. We conclude that an intensive study at the start of a long-term monitoring study provides essential information about probabilities of detection and what factors cause plants to be missed. This information can guide development of monitoring programs.

  18. Keratin 15 promoter targets putative epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Lyle, Stephen; Yang, Zaixin; Cotsarelis, George

    2003-11-01

    Putative epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge are thought to play pivotal roles in the homeostasis, aging, and carcinogenesis of the cutaneous epithelium. Elucidating the role of bulge cells in these processes has been hampered by the lack of gene promoters that target this area with specificity. Here we describe the isolation of the mouse keratin 15 (K15) promoter and demonstrate its utility for preferentially targeting hair follicle bulge cells in adult K15/lacZ transgenic mice. We found that patterns of K15 expression and promoter activity changed with age and correlated with levels of differentiation within the cutaneous epithelium; less differentiated keratinocytes in the epidermis of the neonatal mouse and in the bulge area of the adult mouse preferentially expressed K15. These findings demonstrate the utility of the K15 promoter for targeting epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and set the stage for elucidating the role of bulge cells in skin biology.

  19. Effect of temperature on vacuum hot bulge forming of BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is one of the key parameters for BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece manufactured by vacuum hot bulge forming. A two-dimensional nonlinear thermo-mechanical coupled FE model was established. Numerical simulation of vacuum hot bulge forming process of titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece was carried out using FE analysis software MSC Marc. The effects of temperature on vacuum hot bulge forming of BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece were analyzed by numerical simulation.The simulated results show that the Y-direction displacement and the equivalent plastic strain of the workpiece increase with increasing bulge temperature. The residual stress decreases with increasing bulge temperature. The optimal temperature range of BT20 titanium alloy during vacuum hot bulge forming is 750-850 ℃. The corresponding experiments were carried out. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental results.

  20. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program second quarter 1999 (April through June 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-12-16

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program Third Quarter 1998 (July through September 1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-05-10

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during third quarter 1998. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  2. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 2000 (January through March 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.

    2000-11-16

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during first quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  3. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program Third Quarter 2000 (July through September 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.D.

    2001-05-02

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during third quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  4. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program Second Quarter 2000 (April through June 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.D.

    2001-04-17

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during second quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  5. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 1998 (January through March 1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-05-26

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Savannah River Site during first quarter 1998. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  6. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 1999 (January through March 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-12-08

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  7. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Fourth Quarter 1999 (October through December 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    2000-10-12

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Savannah River site during fourth quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official records of the analytical results.

  8. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Third Quarter 1999 (July through September 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    2000-09-05

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program during the third quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  9. Correlations between Kinematics and Metallicity in the Galactic Bulge: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusiaux, Carine

    2016-06-01

    Recent large-scale surveys of galactic bulge stars allowed to build a detailed map of the bulge kinematics. The bulge exhibits cylindrical rotation consistent with a disky origin which evolved through bar-driven secular evolution. However, correlations between metallicity and kinematics complicate this picture. In particular a metal-poor component with distinct kinematic signatures has been detected. Its origin, density profile and link with the other Milky Way stellar populations are currently still poorly constrained.

  10. Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Personal Computer Monitors. Implications for Market Transformation Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-29

    Displays account for a significant portion of electricity consumed in personal computer (PC) use, and global PC monitor shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of PC monitors that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that display efficiency will likely improve by over 40% by 2015 compared to today’s technology. We evaluate the cost effectiveness of a key technology which further improves efficiency beyond this level by at least 20% and find that its adoption is cost effective. We assess the potential for further improving efficiency taking into account the recent development of universal serial bus (USB) powered liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors and find that the current technology available and deployed in USB powered monitors has the potential to deeply reduce energy consumption by as much as 50%. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to capture global energy saving potential from PC monitors which we estimate to be 9.2 terawatt-hours [TWh] per year in 2015.

  11. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  12. Efficiency improvement opportunities for personal computer monitors. Implications for market transformation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Displays account for a significant portion of electricity consumed in personal computer (PC) use, and global PC monitor shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of PC monitors that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that PC monitor efficiency will likely improve by over 40 % by 2015 with saving potential of 4.5 TWh per year in 2015, compared to today's technology. We discuss various energy-efficiency improvement options and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of three of them, at least one of which improves efficiency by at least 20 % cost effectively beyond the ongoing market trends. We assess the potential for further improving efficiency taking into account the recent development of universal serial bus-powered liquid crystal display monitors and find that the current technology available and deployed in them has the potential to deeply and cost effectively reduce energy consumption by as much as 50 %. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to further capture global energy saving potential from PC monitors which we estimate to be 9.2 TWh per year in 2015.

  13. The growth of disks and bulges during hierarchical galaxy formation. I: fast evolution vs secular processes

    CERN Document Server

    Tonini, Chiara; Croton, Darren J; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the evolution of mass, angular momentum and size of galaxy disks and bulges, and we implement it into the semi-analytic galaxy formation code SAGE. The model follows both secular and violent evolutionary channels, including smooth accretion, disk instabilities, minor and major mergers. We find that the combination of our recipe with hierarchical clustering produces two distinct populations of bulges: merger-driven bulges, akin to classical bulges and ellipticals, and instability-driven bulges, akin to secular (or pseudo-)bulges. The model can successfully reproduce the mass-size relation of gaseous and stellar disks, the evolution of the mass-size relation of ellipticals, the Faber-Jackson relation, and the magnitude-colour diagram of classical and secular bulges. The model predicts only a small overlap of merger-driven and instability-driven components in the same galaxy, and predicts different bulge types as a function of galaxy mass and disk fraction. Bulge type also affe...

  14. Role of the CCA Bulge of Prohead RNA of Bacteriophage ø29 in DNA Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Jardine, Paul J.; Grimes, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the pac...

  15. On The Linearity of The Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Active and in Nearby Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Laor, Ari

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of PG quasar observations suggests a nonlinear relation between the black hole mass, M_BH, and the bulge mass, M_bulge, although a linear relation, as proposed for nearby galaxies, cannot be ruled out. New M_BH values for nearby galaxies from Gebhardt et al., and L_bulge measurements for Seyfert 1 galaxies from Virani et al., are used here to obtain a more accurate value for the slope of the M_BH-M_bulge relation. The combined sample of 40 active and non-active galaxies suggests a si...

  16. Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Ecological Monitoring Program 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-31

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (ECMP) was established at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) in September 1992. At that time, EcMP staff developed a Program Plan that was peer-reviewed by scientists from western universities before submittal to DOE RFFO in January 1993. The intent of the program is to measure several quantitative variables at different ecological scales in order to characterize the Rocky Flats ecosystem. This information is necessary to document ecological conditions at the Site in impacted and nonimpacted areas to determine if Site practices have had ecological impacts, either positive or negative. This information can be used by managers interested in future use scenarios and CERCLA activities. Others interested in impact analysis may also find the information useful. In addition, these measurements are entered into a database which will serve as a long-term information repository that will document long-term trends and potential future changes to the Site, both natural and anthropogenic.

  17. Free Bulging at Constant Pressure of Superplastic Sheet Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanzo Bellini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to establish, by means of analytical modelling, a practical definition of the superplastic behaviour by using the results of the free bulging of sheet metal instead of the results of the traditional tensile test. In particular this paper analyses the superplastic flow of PbSn60 alloy and it focuses the attention on the value of H parameter corresponding to the maximum value of dt/dH, never considered in the literature. This parameter can represent a practical tool in industrial applications to establish the superplastic behaviour of a sheet metal.

  18. Simulations of joule effect heating in a bulge test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazel, Nathan; Laurent, Hervé; Carin, Muriel; Coër, Jérémy; Le Masson, Philippe; Favero, Jérôme; Canivenc, Romain; Graveleau, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    This work focuses on the integration of an electrical conduction heating of circular blank in a bulge test device. This device will be used to characterize the thermomechanical behaviour of Usibor®1500 under biaxial deformation at very high temperature (to 930°C). First a thermoelectric model using COMSOL Multiphysics® was developed to study the heating of a rectangular blank. This model is validated by comparing the calculated temperatures with thermocouples measurements. Secondly electrical field optimization is approached to obtain a fast and uniform heating of a circular blank.

  19. A novel and cost-effective monitoring approach for outcomes in an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available We report on the design and implementation of ecological monitoring for an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive scheme - the Environmental Stewardship Program. The Program uses competitive auctions to contract individual land managers for up to 15 years to conserve matters of National Environmental Significance (with an initial priority on nationally threatened ecological communities. The ecological monitoring was explicitly aligned with the Program's policy objective and desired outcomes and was applied to the Program's initial Project which targeted the critically endangered White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland ecological community in south eastern Australia. These woodlands have been reduced to <3% of their original extent and persist mostly as small remnants of variable condition on private farmland. We established monitoring sites on 153 farms located over 172,232 sq km. On each farm we established a monitoring site within the woodland patch funded for management and, wherever possible, a matched control site. The monitoring has entailed gathering data on vegetation condition, reptiles and birds. We also gathered data on the costs of experimental design, site establishment, field survey, and data analysis. The costs of monitoring are approximately 8.5% of the Program's investment in the first four years and hence are in broad accord with the general rule of thumb that 5-10% of a program's funding should be invested in monitoring. Once initial monitoring and site benchmarking are completed we propose to implement a novel rotating sampling approach that will maintain scientific integrity while achieving an annual cost-efficiency of up to 23%. We discuss useful lessons relevant to other monitoring programs where there is a need to provide managers with reliable early evidence of program effectiveness and to demonstrate opportunities for cost-efficiencies.

  20. A Citizen Science Program for Monitoring Lake Stages in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, A.; Drum, A.; Rubsam, J.; Watras, C. J.; Cellar-Rossler, A.

    2011-12-01

    Historical data indicate that surface water levels in northern Wisconsin are fluctuating more now than they did in the recent past. In the northern highland lake district of Vilas County, Wisconsin, concern about record low lake levels in 2008 spurred local citizens and lake associations to form a lake level monitoring network comprising citizen scientists. The network is administered by the North Lakeland Discovery Center (NLDC, a local NGO) and is supported by a grant from the Citizen Science Monitoring Program of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR). With technical guidance from limnologists at neighboring UW-Madison Trout Lake Research Station, citizen scientists have installed geographic benchmarks and staff gauges on 26 area lakes. The project engages citizen and student science participants including homeowners, non-profit organization member-participants, and local schools. Each spring, staff gauges are installed and referenced to fixed benchmarks after ice off by NLDC and dedicated volunteers. Volunteers read and record staff gauges on a weekly basis during the ice-free season; and maintain log books recording lake levels to the nearest 0.5 cm. At the end of the season, before ice on, gauges are removed and log books are collected by the NLDC coordinator. Data is compiled and submitted to a database management system, coordinated within the Wisconsin Surface Water Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS), a statewide information system managed by the WDNR in Madison. Furthermore, NLDC is collaborating with the SWIMS database manager to develop data entry screens based on records collected by citizen scientists. This program is the first of its kind in Wisconsin to utilize citizen scientists to collect lake level data. The retention rate for volunteers has been 100% over the three years since inception, and the program has expanded from four lakes in 2008 to twenty-six lakes in 2011. NLDC stresses the importance of long-term monitoring and the

  1. The use of bed sediments in water quality studies and monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.

    2017-03-01

    In most water quality monitoring programs, either filtered water (dissolved) or suspended sediment (either whole water or separated suspended sediment) are the traditional sample media of choice. This results both from regulatory requirements and a desire to maintain consistency with long-standing data collection procedures. Despite the fact that both bed sediments and/or flood plain deposits have been used to identify substantial water quality issues, they rarely are used in traditional water quality monitoring programs. The usual rationale is that bed sediment chemistry does not provide the temporal immediacy that can be obtained using more traditional sample media (e.g., suspended sediment, water). However, despite the issue of temporal immediacy, bed sediments can be used to address/identify certain types of water quality problems and could be employed more frequently for that purpose. Examples where bed sediments could be used include: (1) identifying potential long-term monitoring sites/water quality hot spots, (2) establishing a water quality/geochemical history for a particular site/area, and (3) as a surrogate for establishing mean/median chemical values for suspended sediment.

  2. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys, 2006-2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2007-10-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 11 sites during the summer 2006 survey period and at 15 sites during fall 2006 and winter 2007 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 39,898 fish from 14 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 19% of fish enumerated followed by mountain whitefish (18%) and rainbow trout (14%). Day and night surveys were conducted during the summer 2006 period (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2006 (October) and winter 2007 (February/March) surveys. This is second annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  3. Wildlife mitigation burn monitoring program at Teck Coal Limited : Fording River Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, C.R. [Summit Environmental Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Caldwell, T.; Sword, G. [Teck Coal Ltd., Fording River Operations, Elkford, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This articled discussed a monitoring program evaluating the results of prescribed burns with respect to forest cover reduction, forest production, and wildlife utilization. The burn treatments were undertaken to mitigate the effects of ungulate habitat loss resulting from mine expansion and to increase wildlife habitat suitability and provide winter habitat for elk and moose. Pre-burn and post-burn aerial photographs were used to evaluate the effects of the burn treatments. Data on vegetation, wildlife use, and standing crop production were collected from 36 transects located in paired burned and unburned habitats during the course of the monitoring program, which operated from 1998 to 2007. The mitigation burns were generally found to be successful at improving ungulate habitat. Despite variation among treatment areas and years, the standing crop measurements showed that forest production and animal unit months were greater in the burn treatment areas than in the unburned areas. In particular, the increased cover of palatable grasses and forbs enhanced the elk winter range. The burn treatments altered the stand structure and species dominance. Signs of habitat use showed that elk and mule deer preferentially used the burned sites during the monitoring period. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  4. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. I. BRIGHT UV STARS IN THE BULGE OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Lang, Dustin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra; Dorman, Claire E. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Howley, Kirsten M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lauer, Tod R.; Olsen, Knut A. G. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Kalirai, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larsen, Soren S. [Astronomical Institute, University of Utrecht, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2012-08-20

    As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury multi-cycle program, we observed a 12' Multiplication-Sign 6.'5 area of the bulge of M31 with the WFC3/UVIS filters F275W and F336W. From these data we have assembled a sample of {approx}4000 UV-bright, old stars, vastly larger than previously available. We use updated Padova stellar evolutionary tracks to classify these hot stars into three classes: Post-AGB stars (P-AGB), Post-Early AGB (PE-AGB) stars, and AGB-manque stars. P-AGB stars are the end result of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and are expected in a wide range of stellar populations, whereas PE-AGB and AGB-manque (together referred to as the hot post-horizontal branch; HP-HB) stars are the result of insufficient envelope masses to allow a full AGB phase, and are expected to be particularly prominent at high helium or {alpha} abundances when the mass loss on the red giant branch is high. Our data support previous claims that most UV-bright sources in the bulge are likely hot (extreme) horizontal branch (EHB) stars and their progeny. We construct the first radial profiles of these stellar populations and show that they are highly centrally concentrated, even more so than the integrated UV or optical light. However, we find that this UV-bright population does not dominate the total UV luminosity at any radius, as we are detecting only the progeny of the EHB stars that are the likely source of the UV excess. We calculate that only a few percent of main-sequence stars in the central bulge can have gone through the HP-HB phase and that this percentage decreases strongly with distance from the center. We also find that the surface density of hot UV-bright stars has the same radial variation as that of low-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss age, metallicity, and abundance variations as possible explanations for the observed radial variation in the UV-bright population.

  5. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997.

  6. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  7. HISTORY AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE US EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT (MMT) PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript presents the history and evolution of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Monitoring and Measurement Technology (MMT) Program. This includes a discussion of how the fundamental concepts of a performanc...

  8. Results of the Aquatic Monitoring Program in streams at the Rocky Flats Site : Golden, Colorado 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aquatic monitoring program was initiated in the summer 200 I at the Rocky Flats EnvironmentalTechnology Site (Rocky Flats) in Golden, Colorado, and was conducted...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in Puerto Rico using the Coral Demographics method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Demographic method is one of two benthic surveys conducted in Puerto Rico as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The coral...

  10. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  11. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Proper Motions in the Galactic Bulge: Plaut's Window

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Katherine; Mendez, Rene A; Rich, R Michael; Girard, Terrence M; Korchagin, Vladimir I; van Altena, William; Majewski, Steven R; Bergh, Sidney van den

    2007-01-01

    A proper motion study of a field of 20' x 20' inside Plaut's low extinction window (l,b)=(0 deg,-8 deg), has been completed. Relative proper motions and photographic BV photometry have been derived for ~21,000 stars reaching to V~20.5 mag, based on the astrometric reduction of 43 photographic plates, spanning over 21 years of epoch difference. Proper motion errors are typically 1 mas/yr and field dependent systematics are below 0.2 mas/yr. Cross-referencing with the 2MASS catalog yielded a sample of ~8,700 stars, from which predominantly disk and bulge subsamples were selected photometrically from the JH color-magnitude diagram. The two samples exhibited different proper-motion distributions, with the disk displaying the expected reflex solar motion as a function of magnitude. Galactic rotation was also detected for stars between ~2 and ~3 kpc from us. The bulge sample, represented by red giants, has an intrinsic proper motion dispersion of (sigma_l,sigma_b)=(3.39, 2.91)+/-(0.11,0.09) mas/yr, which is in good...

  13. Joint Cosmological Formation of QSOs and Bulge-dominated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, P; Danese, L; Monaco, Pierluigi; Salucci, Paolo; Danese, Luigi

    1999-01-01

    Older and more recent pieces of observational evidence suggest a strong connection between QSOs and galaxies; in particular, the recently discovered correlation between black hole and galactic bulge masses suggests that QSO activity is directly connected to the formation of galactic bulges. The cosmological problem of QSO formation is analyzed in the framework of an analytical model for galaxy formation; for the first time a joint comparison with galaxy and QSO observables is performed. In this model it is assumed that the same physical variable which determines galaxy morphology is able to modulate the mass of the black hole responsible for QSO activity. Both halo spin and the occurence of a major merger are considered as candidates to this role. The predictions of the model are compared to available data for the type-dependent galaxy mass functions, the star-formation history of elliptical galaxies, the QSO luminosity function and its evolution (including the obscured objects contributing to the hard-X-ray ...

  14. Realistic Stellar Feedback & Bulge Formation in Clumpy Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F; Murray, Norman; Quataert, Eliot; Hernquist, Lars

    2012-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of isolated galaxies to study the effects of realistic stellar feedback on the formation and evolution of giant star-forming gas 'clumps' in high-redshift, gas-rich galaxies. Such galactic disks are unstable to the formation of bound gas-rich clumps whose properties initially depend only on global disk properties, not the microphysics of feedback. In simulations without stellar feedback, clumps turn an order-unity fraction of their mass into stars and sink to the center, forming a large bulge and kicking most of the stars out into a much more extended stellar envelope. By contrast, stellar feedback disrupts even the most massive clumps after they turn ~10-20% of their mass into stars, in a timescale of ~10-100 Myr, ejecting some material into a super-wind and recycling the rest of the gas into the diffuse ISM. This suppresses the bulge formation rate by direct 'clump coalescence' by a factor of several. However, the galactic disks do undergo significant secular evolution in the ab...

  15. The mechanics of decompressive craniectomy: Bulging in idealized geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2016-11-01

    In extreme cases of traumatic brain injury or a stroke, the resulting uncontrollable swelling of the brain may lead to a harmful increase of the intracranial pressure. As a common measure for immediate release of pressure on the brain, part of the skull is surgically removed allowing for the brain to bulge outwards, a procedure known as a decompressive craniectomy. During this excessive brain swelling, the affected tissue typically undergoes large deformations resulting in a complex three-dimensional mechanical loading state with several important implications on optimal treatment strategies and outcome. Here, as a first step towards a better understanding of the mechanics of a decompressive craniectomy, we consider simple models for the bulging of elastic solids under geometric constraints representative of the surgical intervention. In small deformations and simple geometries, the exact solution of this problem is derived from the theory of contact mechanics. The analysis of these solutions reveals a number of interesting generic features relevant for the mechanics of craniectomy.

  16. On the bar formation mechanism in galaxies with cuspy bulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyachenko, E. V.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.

    2016-11-01

    We show by numerical simulations that a purely stellar dynamical model composed of an exponential disc, a cuspy bulge, and a Navarro-Frenk-White halo with parameters relevant to the Milky Way is subject to bar formation. Taking into account the finite disc thickness, the bar formation can be explained by the usual bar instability, in spite of the presence of an inner Lindblad resonance, that is believed to damp any global modes. The effect of replacing the live halo and bulge by a fixed external axisymmetric potential (rigid models) is studied. It is shown that while the e-folding time of bar instability increases significantly (from 250 to 500 Myr), the bar pattern speed remains almost the same. For the latter, our average value of 55 km s-1 kpc-1 agrees with the assumption that the Hercules stream in the solar neighbourhood is an imprint of the bar-disc interaction at the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar. Vertical averaging of the radial force in the central disc region comparable to the characteristic scale length allows us to reproduce the bar pattern speed and the growth rate of the rigid models, using normal mode analysis of linear perturbation theory in a razor-thin disc. The strong increase of the e-folding time with decreasing disc mass predicted by the mode analysis suggests that bars in galaxies similar to the Milky Way have formed only recently.

  17. Dynamics of the Galactic Bulge using Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, S F; Kálnay, A J; Saha, P; Zhao, H S; Beaulieu, Sylvie F.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kalnajs, Agris J.; Saha, Prasenjit; Zhao, HongSheng

    2000-01-01

    Evidence for a bar at the center of the Milky Way triggered a renewed enthusiasm for dynamical modelling of the Galactic bar-bulge. Our goal is to compare the kinematics of a sample of tracers, planetary nebulae, widely distributed over the bulge with the corresponding kinematics for a range of models of the inner Galaxy. Three of these models are N-body barred systems arising from the instabilities of a stellar disk (Sellwood, Fux and Kalnajs), and one is a Schwarzschild system constructed to represent the 3D distribution of the COBE/DIRBE near-IR light and then evolved as an N-body system for a few dynamical times (Zhao). For the comparison of our data with the models, we use a new technique developed by Saha (1998). The procedure finds the parameters of each model, i.e. the solar galactocentric distance R_o in model units, the orientation angle phi, the velocity scale (in km/s per model unit), and the solar tangential velocity which best fit the data.

  18. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Iannuzzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disk galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrised up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the midplane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically-symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second bucklin...

  19. Molecular Gas in the Bulge and Ring of NGC 7331

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, F P

    1999-01-01

    Maps of the J=2-1 12CO emission from the SbII galaxy NGC 7331 show a low-contrast ring at a radius of about 3.5 kpc. There is no evidence for a pronounced central hole in the CO distribution as claimed by others. The molecular ring is just outside the radius of peak emission from warm dust, but coincides with the peak of colder dust emission. Various 12CO and 13CO transitions have been observed from three positions including the center, which was also observed in the 492 GHz transition. The line measurements have been modelled by emission from a clumpy mixture of low-density molecular gas at about T(kin) = 10 K and high-density molecular gas at temperatures of 10 K and 20 K. The CO to H2 conversion factor in NGC 7331 is lower than that in the Milky Way, and lowest in the center of NGC 7331. The total interstellar gas mass is dominated by molecular hydrogen in the bulge and in the ring, and by atomic hydrogen outside the ring. Total hydrogen mass densities in the ring are about twice those in the bulge. Total ...

  20. Planetary Nebulae towards the Galactic bulge. I. [OIII] fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, Anna V; Jacoby, George H; Sharp, Rob; Miszalski, Brent; Frew, David J

    2010-01-01

    We present [OIII]{\\lambda}5007 fluxes and angular diameters for 435 Planetary Nebulae (PN) in the central 10' x 10' region towards the Galactic bulge. Our sample is taken from the new discoveries of the MASH PN surveys as well as previously known PN. This sample accounts for 80% of known PN in this region. Fluxes and diameters are measured from narrow-band imaging with the MOSAIC-II camera on the 4-m Blanco telescope at the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory. This is the largest (~60 square degrees), uniform [OIII]{\\lambda}5007 survey of the inner Galactic bulge ever undertaken. 104 of the objects have measured [OIII]{\\lambda}5007, [OIII]{\\lambda}4959, H{\\alpha} or H{\\beta} fluxes from the literature, which we use to undertake a detailed comparison to demonstrate the integrity of our new fluxes. Our independent measurements are in excellent agreement with the very best literature sources over two orders of magnitude, while maintaining good consistency over five orders of magnitude. The excellent resoluti...

  1. 1993 Annual Report: San Francisco estuary regional monitoring program for trace substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B.; Lacy, Jessica; Hardin, Dane; Grovhaug, Tom; Taberski, K.; Jassby, Alan D.; Cloern, James E.; Caffrey, J.; Cole, B.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    1993-01-01

    This first annual report of the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program contains the results of monitoring measurements made in 1993. Measurements of conventional water quality parameters and trace contaminant concentrations were made at 16 stations throughout the Estuary three times during the year: the wet period (March), during declining Delta outflow (May), and during the dry period (September). Water toxicity tests were conducted at 8 of those stations. Measurements of sediment quality and contaminant concentrations were made at the same 16 stations during the wet and dry sampling periods. Sediment toxicity was measured at 8 of those stations. Transplanted, bagged bivalve bioaccumulation and condition was measured at 11 stations during the wet and dry sampling periods.

  2. Cl app: android-based application program for monitoring the residue chlorine in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaravanne, Yuttana; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Chaitavon, Kosom; Vuttivong, Sirajit

    2015-07-01

    A farmer usually uses a cheap chemical material called chlorine to destroy the cell structure of unwanted organisms and remove some plant effluents in a baby shrimp farm. A color changing of the reaction between chlorine and chemical indicator is used to monitor the residue chlorine in water before releasing a baby shrimp into a pond. To get rid of the error in color reading, our previous works showed how a smartphone can be functioned as a color reader for estimating the chlorine concentration in water. In this paper, we show the improvement of interior configuration of our prototype and the distribution to several baby shrimp farms. In the future, we plan to make it available worldwide through the online market as well as to develop more application programs for monitoring other chemical substances.

  3. Monitoring Data-Structure Evolution in Distributed Message-Passing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Beers, Andrew; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring the evolution of data structures in parallel and distributed programs, is critical for debugging its semantics and performance. However, the current state-of-art in tracking and presenting data-structure information on parallel and distributed environments is cumbersome and does not scale. In this paper we present a methodology that automatically tracks memory bindings (not the actual contents) of static and dynamic data-structures of message-passing C programs, using PVM. With the help of a number of examples we show that in addition to determining the impact of memory allocation overheads on program performance, graphical views can help in debugging the semantics of program execution. Scalable animations of virtual address bindings of source-level data-structures are used for debugging the semantics of parallel programs across all processors. In conjunction with light-weight core-files, this technique can be used to complement traditional debuggers on single processors. Detailed information (such as data-structure contents), on specific nodes, can be determined using traditional debuggers after the data structure evolution leading to the semantic error is observed graphically.

  4. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  5. Plan for the performance monitoring of solar systems installed by the SUIEDE program: NCAT/SUEDE interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, M

    1979-02-01

    The SUEDE Grantee solar system installation programs were reviewed to determine the type, number, and quality of Grantee-installed solar systems available for monitoring consideration. An NCAT Performance Monitoring Plan is presented which identifies the service and technical assistance that NCAT will need to provide based on the Grantee review. (MHR)

  6. The use of thermal desorption in monitoring for the chemical weapons demilitarization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin

    2002-10-01

    Under international treaty, the United States and Russia are disposing of their aging stockpile of chemical weapons. Incineration and chemical neutralization are options for sites in the United States, although Russia prefers the latter. The storage and disposal of bulk and chemical agents and weapons involve unique hazards of handling extremely toxic materials. There are three major areas of concern--the storage stockpile, the disposal area, and the discovery and destruction of "found" material not considered part of the stockpile. Methods have been developed to detect the presence of chemical agents in the air, and these are used to help assure worker protection and the safety of the local population. Exposure limits for all chemical agents are low, sometimes nanograms per cubic meter for worker control limits and picograms per cubic meter for general population limits. There are three types of monitoring used in the USA: alarm, confirmation, and historical. Alarm monitors are required to give relatively immediate real-time responses to agent leaks. They are simple to operate and rugged, and provide an alarm in near real-time (generally a few minutes). Alarm monitors for the demilitarization program are based on sorbent pre-concentration followed by thermal desorption and simple gas chromatography. Alarms may need to be confirmed by another method, such as sample tubes collocated with the alarm monitor and analyzed in a laboratory by more sophisticated chromatography. Sample tubes are also used for historical perimeter monitoring, with sample periods typically of 12 h. The most common detector is the flame photometric detector, in sulfur or phosphorous mode, although others, such as mass-selective detectors, also have been used. All agents have specific problems with collection, chromatography and detection. Monitoring is not made easier by interferences from pesticide spraying, busy roadways or military firing ranges. Exposure limits drive the requirements for

  7. L-Lake fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The L Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the re-start of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor effluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake.

  8. Chemical abundances and dust in planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutenkunst, S.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Sloan, G. C.; Houck, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of 11 planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the bulge, the infrared

  9. An Experimental Study of Bulge-Forming Polycarbonate (PC)Semisphere Shell Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new bulge-forming technology is described to manufacture a polycarbonate semisphere shell. Some experiments have been done, and the experimental results show that this technique is feasible to form polycarbonate part. But the wall thickness distribution of the bulged specimen by this method is not so even.

  10. Battle for the bulge: directing small molecules to DNA and RNA defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2002-08-01

    Small molecules were tailored to specifically bind bulged DNA by complementing the geometry and nucleotide size of the bulge site. The prospect of generating small molecules that influence the secondary structure of DNA and RNA holds great promise for clinical applications.

  11. New Breakthroughs in the Battle of the Bulge Using Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Bidin, C. M.; Cohen, R.; Chené, A.; Villanova, S.; Cummings, J.; Gormaz, A.; Minniti, D.; Alonso-García, J.; Hempel, M.; VVV Team

    2015-05-01

    We present some recent work undertaken mostly at the Universidad de Concepción using bulge globular clusters to better understand this important but poorly studied Galactic component, especially based on data from the VVV Survey. This includes discovering new bulge globulars, investigating dual HBs, and obtaining Ca triplet metallicities and velocities.

  12. 3D kinematics through the X-shaped Milky Way bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Vásquez, S; Hill, V; Renzini, A; González, O A; Gardner, E; Debattista, Victor P; Robin, A C; Rejkuba, M; Baffico, M; Monelli, M; Motta, V; Minniti, D

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that the Galactic bulge is X-shaped, with the two southern arms of the X both crossing the lines of sight at l=0 and |b|>4, hence producing a double red clump (RC) in the bulge CMD. Dynamical models predict the formation of X-shaped bulges, as extreme cases of boxy-peanut bulges. However, since X-shaped bulges were known to be present only in external galaxies, models have never been compared to 3D kinematical data for individual stars. We study the orbital motion of Galactic bulge stars, in the two arms of the X in the southern hemisphere. The goal is to provide observational constraints to bulge formation models that predict the formation of X-shapes through bar dynamical instabilities. Radial velocities have been obtained for a sample of 454 bulge giants, roughly equally distributed between the bright and faint RC, in a field at (l,b)=(0,-6). Proper motions were derived for all RC stars in the same field by combining images from two epochs obtained 11 years apart. The proper...

  13. Lost in secular evolution: the case of a low mass classical bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a classical bulge in disk galaxies holds important clue to the assembly history of galaxies. Finding observational evidence of very low mass classical bulges particularly in barred galaxies including our Milky Way, is a challenging task as the bar driven secular evolution might bring significant dynamical change to these bulges alongside the stellar disk. Using high-resolution N-body simulation, we show that if a cool stellar disk is assembled around a non-rotating low-mass classical bulge, the disk rapidly grows a strong bar within a few rotation time scales. Later, the bar driven secular process transform the initial classical bulge into a flattened rotating stellar system whose central part also have grown a bar-like component rotating in sync with the disk bar. During this time, a boxy/peanut (hereafter, B/P) bulge is formed via the buckling instability of the disk bar and the vertical extent of this B/P bulge being slightly higher than that of the classical bulge, it encompasses the whol...

  14. The maximum optical depth toward bulge stars from axisymmetric models of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K

    1997-01-01

    It has been known that recent microlensing results toward the bulge imply mass densities that are surprisingly high, given dynamical constraints on the Milky Way mass distribution. We derive the maximum optical depth toward the bulge that may be generated by axisymmetric structures in the Milky Way,

  15. Galactic bulges from Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations : Global scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balcells, Marc; Graham, Alister W.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate bulge and disk scaling relations using a volume-corrected sample of early-to intermediate-type disk galaxies in which, importantly, the biasing flux from additional nuclear components has been modeled and removed. Structural parameters are obtained from a seeing-convolved, bulge + dis

  16. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is a compendium of water quality and hydrologic characterization data obtained through December 2005 from the network of groundwater monitoring wells and surface water sampling stations (including springs and building sumps) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee that have been sampled since January 2003. The primary objectives of this document, hereafter referenced as the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Compendium, are to: (1) Serve as a single-source reference for monitoring data that meet the requirements of the Y-12 GWPP, as defined in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2004); (2) Maintain a detailed analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data for each applicable well, spring, and surface water sampling station, with a focus on results for the primary inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater and surface water at Y-12; and (3) Ensure retention of ''institutional knowledge'' obtained over the long-term (>20-year) history of groundwater and surface water monitoring at Y-12 and the related sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. To achieve these goals, the Y-12 GWPP Compendium brings together salient hydrologic, geologic, geochemical, water-quality, and environmental compliance information that is otherwise disseminated throughout numerous technical documents and reports prepared in support of completed and ongoing environmental contamination assessment, remediation, and monitoring activities performed at Y-12. The following subsections provide background information regarding the overall scope and format of the Y-12 GWPP Compendium and the planned approach for distribution and revision (i.e., administration) of this ''living'' document.

  17. Gasbuggy, New Mexico Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) that has been conducted since 1972 at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico underground nuclear detonation site. The nuclear testing was conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program, which is discussed in greater detail in Appendix A. The detonation at Gasbuggy took place in 1967, 4,240 feet below ground surface, and was designed to fracture the host rock of a low-permeability natural gas-bearing formation in an effort to improve gas production. The site has historically been managed under the Nevada Offsites Project. These underground nuclear detonation sites are within the United States but outside of the Nevada Test Site where most of the experimental nuclear detonations conducted by the U.S. Government took place. Gasbuggy is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM ).

  18. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-05-21

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  19. Abundances of disk and bulge giants from hi-res optical spectra: II. O, Mg, Ca, and Ti in the bulge sample

    CERN Document Server

    Jönsson, H; Schultheis, M; Zoccali, M

    2016-01-01

    Determining elemental abundances of bulge stars can, via chemical evolution modeling, help to understand the formation and evolution of the bulge. Recently there have been claims both for and against the bulge having a different [$\\alpha$/Fe] vs. [Fe/H]-trend as compared to the local thick disk possibly meaning a faster, or at least different, formation time scale of the bulge as compared to the local thick disk. We aim to determine the abundances of oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium in a sample of 46 bulge K-giants, 35 of which have been analyzed for oxygen and magnesium in previous works, and compare them to homogeneously determined elemental abundances of a local disk sample of 291 K-giants. We use spectral synthesis to determine both the stellar parameters as well as the elemental abundances of the bulge stars analyzed here. The method is exactly the same as was used for analyzing the comparison sample of 291 local K-giants in Paper I of this series. Compared to the previous analysis of the 35 star...

  20. California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project--shallow aquifer assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board’s (SWRCB) GAMA Program is a comprehensive assessment of statewide groundwater quality in California. From 2004 to 2012, the GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project focused on assessing groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supplies. More than 2,000 public-supply wells were sampled by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for this effort. Starting in 2012, the GAMA Priority Basin Project began an assessment of water resources in shallow aquifers in California. These shallow aquifers provide water for domestic and small community-supply wells, which are often drilled to shallower depths in the groundwater system than public-supply wells. Shallow aquifers are of interest because shallow groundwater may respond more quickly and be more susceptible to contamination from human activities at the land surface, than the deeper aquifers. The SWRCB’s GAMA Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 (Water Code sections 10780-10782.3): a public mandate to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supplies, and to increase the availability of information about groundwater quality to the public. The U.S. Geological Survey is the technical lead of the Priority Basin Project. Stewardship of California’s groundwater resources is a responsibility shared between well owners, communities, and the State. Participants and collaborators in the GAMA Program include Regional Water Quality Control Boards, Department of Water Resources, Department of Public Health, local and regional groundwater management entities, county and local water agencies, community groups, and private citizens. Well-owner participation in the GAMA Program is entirely voluntary.

  1. The impact of bulges on the radial distribution of supernovae in disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hakobyan, A A; Barkhudaryan, L V; Mamon, G A; Kunth, D; Petrosian, A R; Adibekyan, V; Aramyan, L S; Turatto, M

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the impact of bulges on the radial distributions of the different types of supernovae (SNe) in the stellar discs of host galaxies with various morphologies. We find that in Sa-Sm galaxies, all core-collapse (CC) and vast majority of SNe Ia belong to the disc, rather than the bulge component. The radial distribution of SNe Ia in S0-S0/a galaxies is inconsistent with their distribution in Sa-Sm hosts, which is probably due to the contribution of the outer bulge SNe Ia in S0-S0/a galaxies. The radial distributions of both types of SNe are similar in all the subsamples of Sa-Sbc and Sc-Sm galaxies. These results confirm that the old bulges of Sa-Sm galaxies are not significant producers of Type Ia SNe, while the bulge populations are significant for SNe Ia only in S0-S0/a galaxies.

  2. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the most metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, L; Casey, A R; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Gilmore, G; Lind, K; Worley, C; Bessell, M S; Casagrande, L; Marino, A F; Nataf, D M; Owen, C I; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Randich, S; Feltzing, S; Vallenari, A; Prieto, C Allende; Bensby, T; Flaccomio, E; Korn, A J; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Heiter, U; Hill, V; Hourihane, A; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; de Laverny, P; Magrini, L; Maiorca, E; Masseron, T; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Minniti, D; Zoccali, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of the EMBLA survey (Extremely Metal-poor BuLge stars with AAOmega), aimed at finding metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, where the oldest stars should now preferentially reside. EMBLA utilises SkyMapper photometry to pre-select metal-poor candidates, which are subsequently confirmed using AAOmega spectroscopy. We describe the discovery and analysis of four bulge giants with -2.72<=[Fe/H]<=-2.48, the lowest metallicity bulge stars studied with high-resolution spectroscopy to date. Using FLAMES/UVES spectra through the Gaia-ESO Survey we have derived abundances of twelve elements. Given the uncertainties, we find a chemical similarity between these bulge stars and halo stars of the same metallicity, although the abundance scatter may be larger, with some of the stars showing unusual [{\\alpha}/Fe] ratios.

  3. Elliptical Galaxies and Bulges of Disk Galaxies: Summary of Progress and Outstanding Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Kormendy, John

    2015-01-01

    This is the summary chapter of a review book on galaxy bulges. Bulge properties and formation histories are more varied than those of ellipticals. I emphasize two advances: 1 - "Classical bulges" are observationally indistinguishable from ellipticals, and like them, are thought to form by major galaxy mergers. "Disky pseudobulges" are diskier and more actively star-forming (except in S0s) than are ellipticals. Theys are products of the slow ("secular") evolution of galaxy disks: bars and other nonaxisymmetries move disk gas toward the center, where it starbursts and builds relatively flat, rapidly rotating components. This secular evolution is a new area of galaxy evolution work that complements hierarchical clustering. 2 - Disks of high-redshift galaxies are unstable to the formation of mass clumps that sink to the center and merge - an alternative channel for the formation of classical bulges. I review successes and unsolved problems in the formation of bulges+ellipticals and their coevolution (or not) with...

  4. Baseline and Postremediation Monitoring Program Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements to present the plan for baseline and postremediation monitoring as part of the selected remedy. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the requirements to monitor for soil and terrestrial biota in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain; sediment, surface water, and aquatic biota in LEFPC; wetland restoration in the LEFPC floodplain; and human use of shallow groundwater wells in the LEFPC floodplain for drinking water. This document describes the monitoring program that will ensure that actions taken under Phases I and II of the LEFPC remedial action are protective of human health and the environment.

  5. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Limnological and Fisheries Monitoring Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly; Lee, Chuck; Scofield, Ben; Pavlik, Deanne

    1999-08-01

    for attracting a large percentage of the recreational visits to the region. An increase in popularity has placed Lake Roosevelt fifth amongst the most visited State and Federal parks in Washington. Increased use of the reservoir prompted amplified efforts to enhance the Native American subsistence fishery and the resident sport fishery in 1984 with hatchery supplementation of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) and kokanee salmon (O. nerka). This was followed by the formation of the Spokane Tribal Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Project (LRMP) in 1988 and later by formation of the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project in 1991. The Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project began in July 1991 as part of the BPA, Bureau of Reclamation, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers System Operation Review process. This process sought to develop an operational scenario for the federal Columbia River hydropower system to maximize the in-reservoir fisheries with minimal impacts to all other stakeholders in the management of the Columbia River. The Lake Roosevelt Monitoring/Data Collection Program (LRMP) is the result of a merger between the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (BPA No. 8806300) and the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project (BPA No. 9404300). These projects were merged in 1996 forming the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (LRMP), which continues the work historically completed under the separate projects. The LRMP has two main goals. The first is to develop a biological model for Lake Roosevelt that will predict in-reservoir biological responses to a range of water management operational scenarios, and to develop fisheries and reservoir management strategies accordingly. The model will allow identification of lake operations that minimize impacts on lake biota while addressing the needs of other interests (e.g. flood control, hydropower generation, irrigation, and downstream resident and anadromous fisheries). Major components of the model will include: (1) quantification of entrainment and

  6. A TWO-PHASE SCENARIO FOR BULGE ASSEMBLY IN {Lambda}CDM COSMOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obreja, A.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.; Brook, C. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Cantoblanco Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Serrano, F. J.; Domenech-Moral, M.; Serna, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Arquitectura de Computadores, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E-03202 Elche (Spain); Molla, M. [Departamento de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Stinson, G., E-mail: aura.obreja@uam.es [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-01-20

    We analyze and compare the bulges of a sample of L {sub *} spiral galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations in a cosmological context, using two different codes, P-DEVA and GASOLINE. The codes regulate star formation in very different ways, with P-DEVA simulations inputting low star formation efficiency under the assumption that feedback occurs on subgrid scales, while the GASOLINE simulations have feedback that drives large-scale outflows. In all cases, the marked knee shape in mass aggregation tracks, corresponding to the transition from an early phase of rapid mass assembly to a later slower one, separates the properties of two populations within the simulated bulges. The bulges analyzed show an important early starburst resulting from the collapse-like fast phase of mass assembly, followed by a second phase with lower star formation, driven by a variety of processes such as disk instabilities and/or mergers. Classifying bulge stellar particles identified at z = 0 into old and young according to these two phases, we found bulge stellar sub-populations with distinct kinematics, shapes, stellar ages, and metal contents. The young components are more oblate, generally smaller, more rotationally supported, with higher metallicity and less alpha-element enhanced than the old ones. These results are consistent with the current observational status of bulges, and provide an explanation for some apparently paradoxical observations, such as bulge rejuvenation and metal-content gradients observed. Our results suggest that bulges of L {sub *} galaxies will generically have two bulge populations that can be likened to classical and pseudo-bulges, with differences being in the relative proportions of the two, which may vary due to galaxy mass and specific mass accretion and merger histories.

  7. Central stars of planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultzsch, P. J. N.; Puls, J.; Méndez, R. H.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Hoffmann, T. L.; McCarthy, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    Context: Optical high-resolution spectra of five central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Galactic bulge have been obtained with Keck/HIRES in order to derive their parameters. Since the distance of the objects is quite well known, such a method has the advantage that stellar luminosities and masses can in principle be determined without relying on theoretical relations between both quantities. Aims: By alternatively combining the results of our spectroscopic investigation with evolutionary tracks, we obtain so-called spectroscopic distances, which can be compared with the known (average) distance of the bulge-CSPN. This offers the possibility to test the validity of model atmospheres and present date post-AGB evolution. Methods: We analyze optical H/He profiles of five Galactic bulge CSPN (plus one comparison object) by means of profile fitting based on state of the art non-LTE modeling tools, to constrain their basic atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, helium abundance and wind strength). Masses and other stellar radius dependent quantities are obtained from both the known distances and from evolutionary tracks, and the results from both approaches are compared. Results: The major result of the present investigation is that the derived spectroscopic distances depend crucially on the applied reddening law. Assuming either standard reddening or values based on radio-Hβ extinctions, we find a mean distance of 9.0±1.6 kpc and 12.2±2.1 kpc, respectively. An “average extinction law” leads to a distance of 10.7±1.2 kpc, which is still considerably larger than the Galactic center distance of 8 kpc. In all cases, however, we find a remarkable internal agreement of the individual spectroscopic distances of our sample objects, within ±10% to ±15% for the different reddening laws. Conclusions: Due to the uncertain reddening correction, the analysis presented here cannot yet be regarded as a consistency check for our method, and a rigorous test of the CSPN

  8. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  9. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Groundwater monitoring program evaluation For A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Bollinger, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    This investigation was undertaken with the primary purpose of assessing the groundwater monitoring program within the A/M Area to identify ways in which the monitoring program could be improved. The task was difficult due to the large number of wells located within the A/M Area and the huge database of analytical data. It was recognized early in this investigation that one of the key tasks was to develop a way to gain access to the groundwater databases so that recommendations could be made. To achieve this, geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to extract pertinent groundwater quality information from the Geochemical Information Management System (GIMS) groundwater database and display the extracted information spatially. GIS technology was also used to determine the location of well screen and annular material zones within the A/M Area hydrostratigraphy and to identify wells that may breach confining units. Recommendations developed from this study address: (1) wells that may not be providing reliable data but continue to be routinely sampled (2) wells that may be inappropriately located but continue to be routinely sampled and (3) further work that should be undertaken, including well development, evaluation of wells that may be breaching confining units, and development of an automated link to GIMS using GIS so that GIMS data can easily be accessed and displayed geographically.

  11. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results Report for Project Rulison, Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–22 and 27, 2015. Several of the land owners were not available to allow access to their respective properties, which created the need for several sample collection trips. This report documents the analytical results of the Rulison monitoring event and includes the trip report and the data validation package (Appendix A). The groundwater and surface water monitoring were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high- resolution gamma spectrometry. Tritium was analyzed using two methods, the conventional tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the enriched method (for selected samples), which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  12. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Nararro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  13. Brazilian National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices: program outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Hugo Guedes; Favaro, Alvaro; Andrade, Alba Lívia; Gomes, Lenir Yago; Garcez, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies in Brazil have to comply with a complex and strict set of drug manufacturing regulations. The authors reported in the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding (November/December 2009, Volume 13, Issue 6) on the development and implementation of a National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices in Brazil, a process-focused program aiming to help compounding pharmacies improve drug manufacturing processes and meet the standards set forth by the applicable legislation This article reports the results obtained in the first three editions of the National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices in Brazil (2006-2010) and presents new foci explored in the 2011 cycle. The results obtained over the years demonstrate that participating in the National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices in Brazil has helped pharmacies achieve legal compliance and improve the quality of their preparations, which has contributed substantially to meeting quality standards never before achieved in the compounding sector in Brazil.

  14. Image subsampling and point scoring approaches for large-scale marine benthic monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Nicholas R.; Foster, Scott D.; Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville S.

    2016-07-01

    Benthic imagery is an effective tool for quantitative description of ecologically and economically important benthic habitats and biota. The recent development of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) allows surveying of spatial scales that were previously unfeasible. However, an AUV collects a large number of images, the scoring of which is time and labour intensive. There is a need to optimise the way that subsamples of imagery are chosen and scored to gain meaningful inferences for ecological monitoring studies. We examine the trade-off between the number of images selected within transects and the number of random points scored within images on the percent cover of target biota, the typical output of such monitoring programs. We also investigate the efficacy of various image selection approaches, such as systematic or random, on the bias and precision of cover estimates. We use simulated biotas that have varying size, abundance and distributional patterns. We find that a relatively small sampling effort is required to minimise bias. An increased precision for groups that are likely to be the focus of monitoring programs is best gained through increasing the number of images sampled rather than the number of points scored within images. For rare species, sampling using point count approaches is unlikely to provide sufficient precision, and alternative sampling approaches may need to be employed. The approach by which images are selected (simple random sampling, regularly spaced etc.) had no discernible effect on mean and variance estimates, regardless of the distributional pattern of biota. Field validation of our findings is provided through Monte Carlo resampling analysis of a previously scored benthic survey from temperate waters. We show that point count sampling approaches are capable of providing relatively precise cover estimates for candidate groups that are not overly rare. The amount of sampling required, in terms of both the number of images and

  15. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  16. Australia’s TERN - Developing a National Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinn, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of ecosystem structures and processes is a fundamental basis for understanding how environments function, and ensuring their sustainable use. This paper presents the rationale, objectives, structure and operational activities of an AU$55 million program to develop and sustain a long term ecosystem monitoring program for Australia. The rationale behind TERN (Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network) is to build on a disparate set of ecosystem monitoring programs. This system has duplications of activities, gaps in data collection, and lack of access to regularly updated archives of validated ecosystem structure and process data. There is no direct link between resource management agencies and the development and supply of the ecosystem data sets required to address significant environmental problems. Hence, the overall aim of TERN is to build collaborations, infrastructure and programs to meet the needs of terrestrial and coastal ecosystem research and natural resource management in Australia. The specific objective of TERN is to provide an institutional framework to establish and sustain a national observational network to meet terrestrial ecosystem and natural resource management research needs in the longer term. TERN comprises six facilities, and operated by a central coordinating office, a national board and a government-science consultative group which includes the ecosystem information users from local, regional, state and national government agencies. The facilities are: 1.The Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis facility will operate national workshops to link resource management and ecosystem monitoring activities. 2.The AusCover Distributed Archive and Access Capability provides a nationally consistent approach to delivery and calibration of past, current and future satellite image based datasets, and the production of ecosystem science data products designed for Australian conditions. 3.Australian Flux Network will

  17. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service’s Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of theVital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year−1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year−1 in most indicators.

  18. 3 CFR 8465 - Proclamation 8465 of December 15, 2009. 65th Anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge, 2009 8465 Proclamation 8465 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8465 of December 15, 2009 Proc. 8465 65th Anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge, 2009By the... the Bulge, a grateful Nation remembers the fallen who gave their lives in that critical battle, and...

  19. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  20. Lithium abundances in Bulge-like SMR stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Trevisan, M.; Gustafsson, B.; Eriksson, K.; Grenon, M.; Pompéia, L.

    2010-04-01

    We analyze a sample of 21 super-metal-rich (SMR) stars, using high-resolution échelle spectra obtained with the FEROS Spectrograph at the 1.5m ESO telescope. The metallicities are in the range 0.15 < [Fe/H] < 0.5, 3 of them in common with Pompéia et al. (2002). Geneva photometry, astrometric data from Hipparcos, and radial velocities from CORAVEL are available for these stars. The peculiar kinematics suggests the thin disk close to the bulge as the probable birthplace of these stars (Grenon 1999). From Hipparcos data, it appears that the turnoff of this population indicates an age of 10-11 Gyr (Grenon 1999). Detailed analysis of the sample stars is carried out. Lithium abundances of these stars were derived, and their behaviour with effective temperature is shown.

  1. Evidence for the Galactic X-ray Bulge, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S; Dame, T M

    1998-01-01

    A mosaic of 5 \\ros~PSPC pointed observations in the Galactic plane ($l\\sim25^{\\circ}$) reveals X-ray shadows in the $0.5-2.0$ keV band cast by distant molecular clouds. The observed on-cloud and off-cloud X-ray fluxes indicate that $\\sim15$% and $\\sim37$% of the diffuse X-ray background in this direction in the \\tq~keV and 1.5 keV bands, respectively, originates behind the molecular gas which is located at $\\sim$3 kpc from the Sun. The implication of the derived background X-ray flux beyond the absorbing molecular cloud is consistent with, and lends further support to recent observations of a Galactic X-ray bulge.

  2. Variability of Optical Counterparts in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Britt, Christopher T; Johnson, C B; Baldwin, A; Jonker, P G; Nelemans, G; Torres, M A P; Maccarone, T; Steeghs, D; Greiss, S; Heinke, C; Bassa, C G; Collazzi, A; Villar, A; Gabb, M; Gossen, L

    2014-01-01

    We present optical lightcurves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey. Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from $\\sim2$ hr to 8 days over the $\\frac{3}{4}$ of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the lightcurve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. $87\\%$ of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. $24\\%$ of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and di...

  3. Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program to Study the impact of Climate Change and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Chintapenta, L. K.; Roeske, K. P.; Stone, M.; Phalen, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program at Delaware State University continues to utilize various perspectives to study the dynamics of one of Delaware's most pristine ecosystems. The water quality of Blackbird Creek has been constantly monitored for 3 years and correlated with the rain and storm events. Soil nutrients composition has been studied by extracting the water associated with soil aggregates and analyzing the levels of different nutrients. Soil quality is also assessed for heavy metals to identify potential human impact that may affect the health of ecosystem. Within the Blackbird Creek there is a threat to native plant communities from invasive plant species as they alter the ecosystem dynamics. Saltmarsh cord grass (Spartina alterniflora) and common reed (Phragmites australius) are the common wetland plants. Aerial mapping of the creek has been conducted to determine the area covered by invasive plant species. The microbial community structure plays a key role in soil carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ecosystem. Molecular analysis has been performed to study the microbial diversity with respect to the type of marsh grasses. This program has also incorporated the use of diatoms as biological indicators to assess the health of ecosystem and correlate that data with physical and chemical water quality data. The abundance and diversity of macro fauna such as blue crabs, fish and other significant species has also been studied. Stable isotopic analysis of these macro fauna has also been performed to study the food web. The results from this program will be helpful in addressing environmental challenges and designing management strategies.

  4. Lessons from a 5 yr citizen-science monitoring program, Mountain Watch, to engage hikers in air quality/visibility and plant phenology monitoring in the mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G.; Weihrauch, D.; Kimball, K.; McDonough, C.

    2010-12-01

    The AMC’s citizen scientist monitoring program, Mountain Watch, engages hikers in observational monitoring while recreating in the northern Appalachian Mountains. The program uses two monitoring activities:1) tracking the phenology of 11 mountain flowers species, and 2) the visitors real world perception of on-mountain visibility and its ‘quality’ with proximate monitored air quality parameters. The Mountain Watch program objectives are a) to engage and educate the public through hands-on monitoring, b) to motivate the participant to take further action towards environmental stewardship, and c) to provide supplemental data to AMC’s ongoing science-based research to further our understanding of the impact of human activity on mountain ecosystems. The Mountain Watch plant monitoring includes recording the time and location of alpine and forest plants flowering and other phenological phases using AMC field guides and datasheets. In the White Mountains of New Hampshire concurrent meteorological data, including soil temperature, is paired with the phenology observations as part of AMC’s research to develop spatial and temporal phenology models with air and soil temperature for northeastern mountains. Mountain Watch’s visibility monitoring program has hikers record visual range and rate the view at select vistas in comparison to a clear day view photo guide when visiting AMC’s backcountry huts. The results are compared to proximate air quality measurements, which assists in determining how White Mountain National Forest air quality related values and natural resources management objectives are being met. Since 2006 the Mountain Watch program has received over 3,500 citizen datasheets for plant reproductive phenology and visibility monitoring. We estimate that we have reached more than 15,000 hikers through our facility based education programming focused on air quality and phenology and field monitoring hikes. While we consider this good success in engaging

  5. Annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY 1992. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, R.B. [ed.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of the investigations and monitoring, conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented can be used to develop a conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. Groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water monitoring results are described.

  6. Technical monitoring and economical assessment of the micro-financed solar program in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Rafael [PSE AG, Freiburg (Germany); Steidl, Michael [Micro Service Consult GmbH, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The Solar Home System (SHS) dissemination program in Bangladesh is considered to be one of the most successful programs of its kind worldwide. Between 2005 and 2010 nearly 750,000 SHS have been installed, the vast majority is at 50 Wp. Systems have been implemented in rural areas where grid electricity supply is neither available nor envisaged in the mid-term future. Supported by international grants and soft loans, monthly installation rates have increased to over 30,000 SHS. The program management responsibility lies with the Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL). Around 20 micro-finance institutions (MFI) are responsible for the technical and financial implementation. They provide micro-financing to enable their customers to purchase the SHS. The authors carried out a technical monitoring of more than 5.000 SHS since 2007. In general it was found that nearly all systems are operational and only 7% had technical problems which required immediate repairs to prevent technical failure of the SHS. The main problems in this category were damages to or bypassing of the charge controller. The authors also assessed the financial performance of the MFIs. As a result, measures for credit risk management were introduced which have strengthen the financial performance. (orig.)

  7. Groundwater-quality monitoring program in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority and the Chester County Health Department began a groundwater-quality monitoring program in 1980 in Chester County, Pa., where a large percentage of the population relies on wells for drinking-water supply. This report documents the program and serves as a reference for data collected through the program from 1980 through 2008. The initial focus of the program was to collect data on groundwater quality near suspected localized sources of contamination, such as uncontrolled landfills and suspected industrial wastes, to determine if contaminants were present that might pose a health risk to those using the groundwater. Subsequently, the program was expanded to address the effects of widely distributed contaminant sources associated with agricultural and residential land uses on groundwater quality and to document naturally occurring constituents, such as radium, radon, and arsenic, that are potential hazards in drinking water. Since 2000, base-flow stream samples have been collected in addition to well-water and spring samples in a few small drainage areas to investigate the relation between groundwater quality measured in well samples and streams. The program has primarily consisted of spatial assessment with limited temporal data collected on groundwater quality. Most data were collected through the monitoring program for reconnaissance purposes to identify and locate groundwater-quality problems and generally were not intended for rigorous statistical analyses that might determine land-use or geochemical factors affecting groundwater quality in space or through time. Results of the program found several contaminants associated with various land uses and human activities in groundwater in Chester County. Volatile organic compounds (such as trichloroethylene) were measured in groundwater near suspected localized contaminant sources in concentrations that exceeded drinking

  8. Development of a Medication Monitoring System for an Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B. Washington, DO, Assistant Professor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary goal was to improve medication management oversight for a severely mentally ill (SMI community-based population by developing a medication monitoring system based on current guidelines to optimize pharmacotherapy and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was improvement in coordination of care between healthcare providers. Methods: Guidelines for medication used for psychiatric indications were reviewed. A database of medication for psychiatric indications with monitoring recommendation was developed. Results: Medication regimens for 68 members of the Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT program qualified for review. Fourteen medications, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluphenazine and fluphenazine long-acting injections (LAI, haloperidol and haloperidol LAI, lithium, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone and paliperidone LAI, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone and risperidone LAI, valproic acid/divalproex, and ziprasidone, were identified. In total, 111 medications are used on a monthly basis. Each member receives more than one medication qualifying for review. Additional monitoring parameters that were evaluated included changes in laboratory orders for members with insulin-dependent diabetes. Annual lipid panels were changed to every 6 months, if applicable. Conclusions and Future Directions: This medication monitoring program was developed to help ensure IMPACT members receive the most effective care and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was to improve coordination of care. Medication monitoring will be added as a continuous quality assurance measure. Lab results will be reviewed at least monthly. The medication monitoring program will be evaluated annually.

  9. Birding for and with People: Integrating Local Participation in Avian Monitoring Programs within High Biodiversity Areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Berlanga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological monitoring is a powerful tool for understanding ecological patterns and processes, implementing sound management practices, and determining wildlife conservation strategies. In Mexico, regional long-term bird monitoring has been undertaken only over the last decade. Two comprehensive programs have incorporated bird monitoring as the main tool for assessing the impact of human productive activities on birds and habitats at local and regional levels: the Integrated Ecosystem Management (IEM and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Mexico (CBMM. These programs are implemented in supremely important biodiverse regions in the southern and southeastern states of Mexico. Bird monitoring activities are based on the recruitment and participation of local people linked to sustainable productive projects promoted by the CBMM or IEM. Through a series of training workshops delivered by specialists, local monitors receive equipment and coordinate to become part of a large monitoring network that facilitates regional covertures. This data currently being obtained by local people will enable the mid- and long-term assessment of the impacts of sustainable human productive activities on birds and biodiversity. Community-based bird monitoring programs are a promising opportunity for enhancing scientific knowledge, improving sustainable practices, and supporting wildlife conservation in areas of high biodiversity.

  10. Bulging Behavior of Thin-walled Welded Low Carbon Steel Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Wen-cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the deformation behaviour of welded tubes during hydraulic bulging process,the hydraulic bulging tests of thin-walled welded low carbon steel tubes (STKM11A were conducted on the tube hydroformability testing unit.The thickness distribution,profiles of bulging area and the strain distribution were all obtained.Results show that the thickness reduction of weld zone is just 2.4%-5.5% while its effective strain is just 0.05-0.10,which is very small and negligible compared with the parent material and means that just the geometric position of weld zone is changed with the continuous bulging.The thinnest points are located on the both sides of weld seam symmetrically and the angle between the thinnest point and weld seam is about 30°,at which the necking has been occurred.When the length of bulging area increases,the fracture pressure,the thickness reduction and the ultimate expansion ratio all decrease,and the profile of the bulging area gradually steps away from the elliptical model which is powerless for the ratio of length to diameter up to 2.0.Moreover,the strain state of the tube is transformed from biaxial tension to plane strain state with the increasing length of bulging area,on the basis of this the forming limit diagram of welded STKM11A steel tubes can be established.

  11. Heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu in 56 Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaelmen, M; Hill, V; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu in 56 bulge giants (red giant branch and red clump) with metallicities ranging from -1.3 dex to 0.5 dex. Methods. We obtained high-resolution spectra of our giant stars using the FLAMES-UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. We inspected four bulge fields along the minor axis. Results. We measure the chemical evolution of heavy elements, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. Conclusions. The [Ba, La, Ce, Nd/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] ratios decrease with increasing metallicity, in which aspect they differ from disc stars. In our metal-poor bulge stars, La and Ba are enhanced relative to their thick disc counterpart, while in our metal-rich bulge stars La and Ba are underabundant relative to their disc counterpart. Therefore, this contrast between bulge and discs trends indicates that bulge and (solar neighbourhood) thick disc stars could behave differently. An increase in [La, Nd/Eu] with increasing m...

  12. Bulge and Clump Evolution in Hubble Ultra Deep Field Clump Clusters, Chains and Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Fernandez, Maria Ximena; Lemonias, Jenna Jo

    2008-01-01

    Clump clusters and chain galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field are examined for bulges in the NICMOS images. Approximately 50% of the clump clusters and 30% of the chains have relatively red and massive clumps that could be young bulges. Magnitudes and colors are determined for these bulge-like objects and for the bulges in spiral galaxies, and for all of the prominent star-formation clumps in these three galaxy types. The colors are fitted to population evolution models to determine the bulge and clump masses, ages, star-formation rate decay times, and extinctions. The results indicate that bulge-like objects in clump cluster and chain galaxies have similar ages and 2 to 5 times larger masses compared to the star-formation clumps, while the bulges in spirals have ~6 times larger ages and 20 to 30 times larger masses than the clumps. All systems appear to have an underlying red disk population. The masses of star-forming clumps are typically in a range from 10^7 to 10^8 Msun; their ages have a wide range ar...

  13. Prescription Opioid Usage and Abuse Relationships: An Evaluation of State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Reisman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The dramatic rise in the use of prescription opioids to treat non-cancer pain has been paralleled by increasing prescription opioid abuse. However, detailed analyses of these trends and programs to address them are lacking.Objective: To study the association between state shipments of prescription opioids for medical use and prescription opioid abuse admissions and to assess the effects of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs on prescription opioid abuse admissions.Design and Setting: A retrospective ecological cohort study comparing state prescription opioid shipments (source: Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders Systems database and inpatient admissions for prescription opioid abuse (source: Treatment Episode Data Set in 14 states with PDMPs (intervention group and 36 states without PDMPs (control group for the period 1997–2003.Results: From 1997 to 2003, oxycodone, morphine, and hydrocodone shipments increased by 479%, 100%, and 148% respectively. Increasing prescription oxycodone shipments were significantly associated with increasing prescription opioid admission rates (p 0.001. PDMP states had significantly lower oxycodone shipments than the control group. PDMP states had less increase in prescription opioid admissions per year (p = 0.063. A patient admitted to an inpatient drug abuse rehabilitation program in a PDMP state was less likely to be admitted for prescription opioid drug abuse (Odds ratio = 0.775, 95% Confidence Interval 0.764–0.785.Conclusions: PDMPs appear to decrease the quantity of oxycodone shipments and the prescription opioid admission rate for states with these programs. Overall, opioid shipments rose significantly in PDMP states during the study period indicating a negligible “chilling effect” on physician prescribing.

  14. Participating in a Citizen Science Monitoring Program: Implications for Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchini, Simone; Meschini, Marta; Covi, Claudia; Piccinetti, Corrado; Zaccanti, Francesco; Goffredo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Tourism is of growing economical importance to many nations, in particular for developing countries. Although tourism is an important economic vehicle for the host country, its continued growth has led to on-going concerns about its environmental sustainability. Coastal and marine tourism can directly affect the environment through direct and indirect tourist activities. For these reasons tourism sector needs practical actions of sustainability. Several studies have shown how education minimizes the impact on and is proactive for, preserving the natural resources. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a citizen science program to improve the environmental education of the volunteers, by means of questionnaires provided to participants to a volunteer-based Red Sea coral reef monitoring program (STEproject). Fifteen multiple-choice questions evaluated the level of knowledge on the basic coral reef biology and ecology and the awareness on the impact of human behaviour on the environment. Volunteers filled in questionnaires twice, once at the beginning, before being involved in the project and again at the end of their stay, after several days participation in the program. We found that the participation in STEproject significantly increased both the knowledge of coral reef biology and ecology and the awareness of human behavioural impacts on the environment, but was more effective on the former. We also detected that tourists with a higher education level have a higher initial level of environmental education than less educated people and that the project was more effective on divers than snorkelers. This study has emphasized that citizen science projects have an important and effective educational value and has suggested that tourism and diving stakeholders should increase their commitment and efforts to these programs.

  15. Participating in a Citizen Science Monitoring Program: Implications for Environmental Education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Branchini

    Full Text Available Tourism is of growing economical importance to many nations, in particular for developing countries. Although tourism is an important economic vehicle for the host country, its continued growth has led to on-going concerns about its environmental sustainability. Coastal and marine tourism can directly affect the environment through direct and indirect tourist activities. For these reasons tourism sector needs practical actions of sustainability. Several studies have shown how education minimizes the impact on and is proactive for, preserving the natural resources. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a citizen science program to improve the environmental education of the volunteers, by means of questionnaires provided to participants to a volunteer-based Red Sea coral reef monitoring program (STEproject. Fifteen multiple-choice questions evaluated the level of knowledge on the basic coral reef biology and ecology and the awareness on the impact of human behaviour on the environment. Volunteers filled in questionnaires twice, once at the beginning, before being involved in the project and again at the end of their stay, after several days participation in the program. We found that the participation in STEproject significantly increased both the knowledge of coral reef biology and ecology and the awareness of human behavioural impacts on the environment, but was more effective on the former. We also detected that tourists with a higher education level have a higher initial level of environmental education than less educated people and that the project was more effective on divers than snorkelers. This study has emphasized that citizen science projects have an important and effective educational value and has suggested that tourism and diving stakeholders should increase their commitment and efforts to these programs.

  16. A quadratic programming framework for constrained and robust jet engine health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borguet, S.; Léonard, O.

    2009-09-01

    Kalman filters are largely used in the jet engine community for condition monitoring purpose. This algorithm gives a good estimate of the engine condition provided that the residuals between the model prediction and the measurements are zero-mean, Gaussian random variables. In the case of sensor faults, this assumption does not hold anymore and consequently, the diagnosis is spoiled. This contribution presents a recursive estimation algorithm based on a Quadratic Programming (QP) formulation which provides robustness against sensor faults and allows constraints on the health parameters to be specified. The improvements in estimation accuracy brought by this new algorithm are illustrated on a series of typical test-cases that may be encountered on current turbofan engines.

  17. Trends in anuran occupancy from northeastern states of the North American Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Linda; Fiske, Ian J.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We present the first multi-year occupancy trends from North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data in 10 northeastern states using seven years of data (2001-2007). NAAMP uses a calling survey technique where observers listen for anuran vocalizations along assigned random roadside routes. We were able to assess occupancy trends in 10 northeastern states for 16 species and one species complex, for 94 species/state combinations. We found no significant trends for 64 species/state combinations. For the remaining 30 species/state combinations with significant trends, these split between declining and increasing trends. On a species-by-species basis, two species had declining trends, with significant trends in six states for Pseudacris crucifer and four states for Bufo americanus. The trends of Rana catesbeiana significantly increased in four states, but had no trend in the remaining states.

  18. The Norwegian UV-monitoring program. Period 1995/96 to 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Bjoern; Mikkelborg, Oddbjoern; Hannevik, Merete; Nilsen, Lill Tove; Saxeboel, Gunnar; Blaasaas, Karl Gerhard

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the program and results obtained during the period 1995 to 2001. The UV monitoring is performed at 8 locations between 58 {sup o} N and 79 {sup o} N. The experiments with the network implementation and operation are very good. Calibrations are traceable to several European UV networks, through the Nordic Intercomparison of UV and total ozone instruments in Sweden 2000. The measurements have been validated and found consistent. Six years of complete series of daily integrated erythemally effective UV-radiation (denoted UV-doses for short) and UV-indices are available for public and scientific use. The measurement series are yet too short to infer any trend in the UV-radiation. The Norwegian Institute provides UV-forecasts for air research (Author)

  19. Rehabilitation in COPD: the long-term effect of a supervised 7-week program succeeded by a self-monitored walking program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, T; Brøndum, E; Martinez, G;

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) improves exercise tolerance and health status, however, these effects have been shown to decline after termination of the rehabilitation program. This study has examined the long-term effect of a 7-week supervised...... rehabilitation program combined with daily self-monitored training at home on exercise tolerance and health status. Two hundred and nine consecutive COPD patients who had completed a 7-week pulmonary rehabilitation program were assessed with endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) and the St George's Respiratory...... change in SGRQ +2.0 (p = 0.40). A relative simple and inexpensive 7-week supervised rehabilitation program combined with daily self-monitored training at home was able to maintain significant improvement in exercise tolerance and health status throughout 1 year. Death and hospital admissions due to acute...

  20. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S. [Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook, BC, Canada

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  1. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2000 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  2. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  3. Design and analysis of aquatic monitoring programs at nuclear power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Kannberg, L.D.; Gore, K.L.; Arnold, E.M.; Watson, D.G.

    1977-11-01

    This report addresses some of the problems of designing, conducting, and analyzing aquatic environmental monitoring programs for impact assessment of nuclear power plants. The concepts discussed are applicable to monitoring the effects of chemical, radioactive, or thermal effluents. The concept of control and treatment station pairs is the fundamental basis for the experimental method proposed. This concept is based on the hypothesis that the relationship between the two stations forming the pair can be estimated from the preoperational period and that this relationship holds during the operational period. Any changes observed in this relationship during the operational period are assumed to be the result of the power plant impacts. Thus, it is important that station pairs are selected so it can be assumed that they respond to natural environmental changes in a manner that maintains that relationship. The major problem in establishing the station pairs will be the location of the control station. The universal heterogeneity in the environment will prevent the establishment of identical station pairs. The requirement that the control station remain unaffected by the operation of the power plant dictates a spacial separation with its associated differences in habitat. Thus, selection of the control station will be based upon balancing the following two criteria: (1) far enough away from the plant site to be beyond the plant influence, and (2) close enough to the treatment station that the biological communities will respond to natural environmental changes consistently in the same manner.

  4. Environmental monitoring and assessment program: Gulf Coast Salt Marsh Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, L.

    1992-11-01

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) was initiated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to monitor the condition of the Nation's natural resources. The Wetlands component of EMAP is designed to quantitatively assess the current status and long-term trends in wetland condition at regional and national scales. In the short-term, EMAP-Wetlands will provide standarized protocols for measuring and describing wetland condition, report on estimates of wetland condition in selected regions of the country, and develop standardized formats for reporting results. EMAP-Wetlands is being implemented by wetland class and geographic regions in three phases. Pilot studies are being conducted in small geographic regions (e.g., states) during the first phase to evaluate the ability of potential indicators to meet certain selection criteria. These studies will be followed by demonstration studies that evaluate the performance of indicators on larger scales (e.g., Gulf Coast region). Indicators that successfully meet critical criteria will be implemented regionally and nationally to assess wetland condition.

  5. A multiyear workplace-monitoring program for refractory ceramic fibers: findings and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, L D; Allshouse, J N; Kelly, W P; Walters, T; Waugh, R

    1997-10-01

    Results of a monitoring program carried out by members of the Refractory Ceramic Fibers Coalition as part of a Consent Agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to measure workplace concentrations of refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) are presented. More than 700 personal monitoring samples were collected and analyzed annually from workers in RCF production and processing plants, as well as from those employed by customers/end users. The data indicate that (i) approximately 90% of time-weighted average (TWA) workplace concentrations are below the industry's recommended exposure guideline of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter TWA; (ii) workplace concentrations vary with functional job category; (iii) concentrations are approximately lognormally distributed; (iv) workplace concentrations are generally decreasing; (v) there are significant differences in workplace concentrations among plants operated by both RCF producers and customers; (vi) equations can be developed to interconvert data analyzed using different measurement techniques and counting rules; (vii) usage of respirators varies with the functional job category of the worker and the average fiber concentration; and (viii) workplace samples differ from those used in animal inhalation experiments in terms of the ratio of respirable particles to fibers.

  6. Quality assurance and quality control data validation procedures used for the Love Canal and Dallas lead soil monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K W; Black, S C

    1983-06-01

    Public awareness of soils contamination has increased in recent years due in part to the notoriety associated with the indiscriminate release, packaging, transporting and disposal of hazardous materials. In 1980, and again in 1982, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was responsible for designing, implementing and conducting environmental monitoring programs at Love Canal in Niagara Falls, New York, and in Dallas, Texas, that dealt with suspected contaminated soils. Both of these monitoring programs were conducted over a relatively short time with the collection and analysis of over 4000 soil samples. The methods employed by the Environmental Protection Agency for providing soil data that was scientifically valid and of defensible quality for each of these monitoring programs are presented. Also, methods for identifying data bias, its precision and its uncertainty are identified.

  7. Annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, R.B. (ed.)

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of the investigations and monitoring, conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented can be used to develop a conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. Groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water monitoring results are described.

  8. Discovery of a high state AM CVn binary in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wevers, T; Jonker, P G; Wetuski, J D; Nelemans, G; Steeghs, D; Maccarone, T J; Heinke, C; Hynes, R I; Udalski, A; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Groot, P J; Gazer, R; Szymanski, M K; Britt, C T; Wyrzykowski, L; Poleski, R

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a hydrogen-deficient compact binary (CXOGBS J175107.6-294037) belonging to the AM CVn class in the Galactic Bulge Survey. Deep archival X-ray observations constrain the X-ray positional uncertainty of the source to 0.57 arcsec, and allow us to uniquely identify the optical and UV counterpart. Optical spectroscopic observations reveal the presence of broad, shallow He i absorption lines while no sign of hydrogen is present, consistent with a high state system. We present the optical lightcurve from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment monitoring, spanning 15 years. It shows no evidence for outbursts; variability is present at the 0.2 mag level on timescales ranging from hours to weeks. A modulation on a timescale of years is also observed. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of the optical lightcurves shows two significant periodicities at 22.90 and 23.22 min. Although the physical interpretation is uncertain, such timescales are in line with expectations for the orbital and superhump per...

  9. Over 38000 RR Lyrae Stars in the OGLE Galactic Bulge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Soszynski, I; Szymanski, M K; Pietrukowicz, P; Mroz, P; Skowron, J; Kozlowski, S; Poleski, R; Skowron, D; Pietrzynski, G; Wyrzykowski, L; Ulaczyk, K; Kubiak, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the most comprehensive picture ever obtained of the central parts of the Milky Way probed with RR Lyrae variable stars. This is a collection of 38257 RR Lyr stars detected over 182 square degrees monitored photometrically by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) in the most central regions of the Galactic bulge. The sample consists of 16804 variables found and published by the OGLE collaboration in 2011 and 21453 RR Lyr stars newly detected in the photometric databases of the fourth phase of the OGLE survey (OGLE-IV). 93% of the OGLE-IV variables were previously unknown. The total sample consists of 27258 RRab, 10825 RRc, and 174 RRd stars. We provide OGLE-IV I- and V-band light curves of the variables along with their basic parameters. About 300 RR Lyr stars in our collection are plausible members of 15 globular clusters. Among others, we found the first pulsating variables that may belong to the globular cluster Terzan 1 and the first RRd star in the globular cluster M54. Our survey...

  10. Discovery of a high state AM CVn binary in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Wetuski, J. D.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Maccarone, T. J.; Heinke, C.; Hynes, R. I.; Udalski, A.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Groot, P. J.; Gazer, R.; Szymański, M. K.; Britt, C. T.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Poleski, R.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the discovery of a hydrogen-deficient compact binary (CXOGBS J175107.6-294037) belonging to the AM CVn class in the Galactic Bulge Survey. Deep archival X-ray observations constrain the X-ray positional uncertainty of the source to 0.57 arcsec, and allow us to uniquely identify the optical and UV counterpart. Optical spectroscopic observations reveal the presence of broad, shallow He I absorption lines while no sign of hydrogen is present, consistent with a high state system. We present the optical light curve from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment monitoring, spanning 15 yr. It shows no evidence for outbursts; variability is present at the 0.2 mag level on time-scales ranging from hours to weeks. A modulation on a time-scale of years is also observed. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of the optical light curves shows two significant periodicities at 22.90 and 23.22 min. Although the physical interpretation is uncertain, such time-scales are in line with expectations for the orbital and superhump periods. We estimate the distance to the source to be between 0.5 and 1.1 kpc. Spectroscopic follow-up observations are required to establish the orbital period, and to determine whether this source can serve as a verification binary for the eLISA gravitational wave mission.

  11. Accuracy of the Missouri River Least Tern and Piping Plover Monitoring Program: considerations for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Roche, Erin A.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Buhl, Thomas K.; Dovichin, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    The upper Missouri River system provides nesting and foraging habitat for federally endangered least terns (Sternula antillarum; hereafter “terns”) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter “plovers”). These species are the subject of substantial management interest on the Missouri River for several reasons. First, ecosystem recovery is a goal for management agencies that seek to maintain or restore natural functions and native biological communities for the Missouri River system. Terns and plovers are recognized as important ecosystem components that are linked with the river’s ecological functions. Second, although both species breed beyond the Missouri River system, the Missouri River is one of the principal breeding areas in the Northern Great Plains; thus, the river system is a focal area for recovery actions targeted at regional population goals. Third, a Biological Opinion for Missouri River operations established annual productivity goals for terns and plovers, and the recovery plan for each species established annual population goals. Meeting these goals is a key motivation in management decision making and implementation with regard to both species. A myriad of conservation and management interests necessitate understanding numbers, distribution, and productivity of terns and plovers on the Missouri River system. To this end, a Tern and Plover Monitoring Program (TPMP) was implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (hereafter “Corps”) in 1986, and has since provided annual estimates of tern and plover numbers and productivity for five Missouri River reservoirs and four river reaches (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1993). The TPMP has served as the primary source of information about the status of terns and plovers on the Missouri River, and TPMP data have been used for a wide variety of purposes. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) was tasked by the Corps to

  12. Effect of nutritive status on Mytilus galloprovincialis pollution biomarkers: Implications for large-scale monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Albentosa, Marina; Campillo, Juan A; Viñas, Lucía; Romero, Diego; Franco, Angeles; Bellas, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Biomarkers have been extensively used in monitoring programs with the aim of assessing the biological effects of pollutants on marine organisms and determining environmental status. Data obtained from these programs are sometimes difficult to interpret due to the large amount of natural variables affecting biological processes, which could act as confounding factors on biomarker responses. The main aim of this work was to identify the effect of one of these variables, the food availability, and consequently, the mussel nutritive status, on biomarker responses. For that purpose, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were conditioned to three different food rations for 2 months in order to create three mussel nutritive statuses and afterwards, each status was exposed to three nominal concentrations of fluoranthene (FLU) for 3 weeks. A battery of biomarkers was considered in this study to cover a wide range of organism responses, both physiological (scope for growth - SFG) and biochemical (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT, glutathione reductase - GR, glutathione peroxidase - GPx, glutathione-S-transferase - GST and phenoloxidase - PO activities, and lipid membrane peroxidation - LPO). The results obtained, evidenced that most of the studied biomarkers (SFG, SOD, CAT, GPx, and PO) were strongly affected by mussel nutritive status, showing higher values at lower status, whereas the effect of toxicant was not always evident, masked by the nutritive status effect. This paper demonstrates that toxicants are not the only source of variability modulating pollution biomarkers, and confirms nutritive status as a major factor altering biochemical and physiological biomarkers.

  13. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  14. The Western Kentucky University Blazar Monitoring Program: The First Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R.; Barnaby, D.; Carini, M.

    2006-07-01

    In 2000, we began a blazar monitoring program utilizing the 0.6m telescope of the Bell Observatory at Western Kentucky University. We chose a sample of objects from across the αro - αox plane in order to characterize the variability characteristics of HBLs, IBLs and LBLs. The most rapid timescale variations, known as microvariability, provide information on differences in jet characteristics and observations of microvariability at different colors provides insight into the nature of the particle acceleration mechanisms in the different subclasses of blazars during different activity levels. On longer timescales (days to weeks) multiwavelength observations (via our participation in WEBT campaigns, VERITAS campaigns, etc) can be used to confront models describing the origin of the seed photons responsible for the observed high energy emission in these objects. Through our ability to obtain well sampled light curves, we will, at the longest timescales (weeks to decades), establish the differences in the variability properties between different sub-classes. We present here the results of the first fours years of this program.

  15. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  16. Strategic Assessment of Fisheries Independent Monitoring Programs in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprenand, Paul Mark; Drexler, Michael; Jones, David L.; Ainsworth, Cameron H.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates information produced from 14 fisheries independent monitoring programs (FIM) in the Gulf of Mexico. We consider the uniqueness of information from each program and its usefulness in estimating fisheries management indices. Biomass values of 35 functional groups are extracted from an operating model (Ecospace) with a method that replicates the patterns of historic FIM samplings. Observation error is added to these data in order to create a set of pseudo data that replicate the type and quality of information obtained from FIM programs. The pseudo data were put into a separate fishery assessment model (Pella-Tomlinson) to determine management indices of each functional group (maximum sustainable yield (MSY), biomass at MSY, and fishing mortality at MSY). These indices are compared against values in Ecospace, and against previously published single-species stock assessments. We also evaluate the full suite of information derived from FIM within an ecosystem context, considering whether functional roles are over- or under-sampled, and whether sampling effort is proportional to the value of fish stocks. Results reveal that model derived fishery indices closely matched published indices for the majority of the functional groups, economic and ecological evaluation suggests that several piscivorous functional groups are under-sampled include forage base species that are likely to indirectly support fisheries for piscivores, and sampling efforts are not proportional to the value of some fish stocks. Following ecological modelling we performed statistical analyses on historic FIM catch data to identify optimal species-specific sampling months and gear-types that can be used to refine future FIM sampling efforts. PMID:25835742

  17. Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from the X-shaped Bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Macias, Oscar; Crocker, Roland M; Coleman, Brendan; Paterson, Dylan; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Pohl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    An anomalous signal has been found in Fermi Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope data covering the center of the Galaxy. Given its morphological and spectral characteristics, this "Galactic Center Excess" is ascribable to self-annihilation of dark matter particles. We report on an analysis that exploits hydrodynamical modeling to register the position of interstellar gas associated with diffuse Galactic $\\gamma$-ray emission. Our improved analysis reveals that the excess $\\gamma$-rays are spatially correlated with both the X-shaped stellar over-density in the Galactic bulge and the nuclear stellar bulge. Given these correlations, we argue that the excess is not a dark matter phenomenon but rather associated with the stellar population of the X-bulge and the nuclear bulge.

  18. Accounting for selection effects in the BH-bulge relations: No evidence for cosmological evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The redshift evolution of the black hole - bulge relations is an essential observational constraint for models of black hole - galaxy coevolution. In addition to the observational challenges for these studies, conclusions are complicated by the influence of selection effects. We demonstrate that there is presently no statistical significant evidence for cosmological evolution in the black hole-bulge relations, once these selection effects are taken into account and corrected for. We present a fitting method, based on the bivariate distribution of black hole mass and galaxy property, that accounts for the selection function in the fitting and is therefore able to recover the intrinsic black hole - bulge relation unbiased. While prior knowledge is restricted to a minimum, we at least require knowledge of either the sample selection function and the mass dependence of the active fraction, or the spheroid distribution function and the intrinsic scatter in the black hole - bulge relation. We employed our fitting r...

  19. Before the Bar: Kinematic Detection of a Spheroidal Metal-poor Bulge Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. M.; Koch, A.; Storm, J.; Nataf, D. M.; De Propris, R.; Walker, A. R.; Bono, G.; Johnson, C. I.; Shen, Juntai; Li, Z.-Y.

    2016-04-01

    We present 947 radial velocities of RR Lyrae variable stars in four fields located toward the Galactic bulge, observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA-RR). We show that these RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) exhibit hot kinematics and null or negligible rotation and are therefore members of a separate population from the bar/pseudobulge that currently dominates the mass and luminosity of the inner Galaxy. Our RRLs predate these structures and have metallicities, kinematics, and spatial distribution that are consistent with a “classical” bulge, although we cannot yet completely rule out the possibility that they are the metal-poor tail of a more metal-rich ([{Fe}/{{H}}]˜ -1 dex) halo-bulge population. The complete catalog of radial velocities for the BRAVA-RR stars is also published electronically.

  20. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Young, Richard D.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or "bulging factors" that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in graphs of the bulging factor as a function of the applied load and as a function of geometric parameters that include the shell radius, the shell thickness and the crack length. The computed bulging factors are compared with solutions based on linear shallow shell theory, and with semi-empirical solutions that approximately account for the nonlinear deformation in the vicinity of the crack. The effect of biaxial loads on the computed bulging factors is also discussed.

  1. A Population Synthesis Study of the White Dwarf Cooling Sequence of the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, S.; García-Berro, E. G.; Cojocaru, R. E.; Calamida, A.

    2017-03-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope observations have allowed to determine, for the first time, the white dwarf cooling sequence of the Galactic bulge. However, observations show systematically redder objects than those predicted by the theoretical cooling tracks of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf cooling sequence of the galactic bulge including both single white dwarfs and binary systems. These calculations incorporate the most up-to-date cooling sequences for white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-deficient atmospheres, for both white dwarfs with carbon-oxygen and helium cores, and also take into account detailed prescriptions of the evolution of binary systems and of the observational biases. This allows us to model with a high degree of realism the white dwarf population of the Galactic bulge. Among other interesting results we estimate the fraction of binaries and double degenerate systems of the Galactic bulge.

  2. Planetary Nebula Velocities in the Disk and Bulge of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, C; Carter, D; Douglas, N G; Evans, N W; Irwin, M J; Jackson, Z C; Kuijken, K; Merrett, H R; Merrifield, M R; Quinn, D P; Romanowsky, A J; Wilkinson, M I

    2006-01-01

    We present radial velocities for a sample of 723 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the disk and bulge of M31, measured using the WYFFOS fibre spectrograph on the William Herschel telescope. Velocities are determined using the [OIII] 5007 Angstrom emission line. Rotation and velocity dispersion are measured to a radius of 50 arcminutes (11.5 kpc), the first stellar rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile for M31 to such a radius. Our kinematics are consistent with rotational support at radii well beyond the bulge effective radius of 1.4kpc, although our data beyond a radius of 5kpc are limited. We present tentative evidence for kinematic substructure in the bulge of M31 to be studied fully in a later work. This paper is part of an ongoing project to constrain the total mass, mass distribution and velocity anisotropy of the disk, bulge and halo of M31.

  3. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Limnological and Fisheries Monitoring Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly; Lee, Chuck; Scofield, Ben; Pavlik, Deanne

    1999-08-01

    for attracting a large percentage of the recreational visits to the region. An increase in popularity has placed Lake Roosevelt fifth amongst the most visited State and Federal parks in Washington. Increased use of the reservoir prompted amplified efforts to enhance the Native American subsistence fishery and the resident sport fishery in 1984 with hatchery supplementation of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) and kokanee salmon (O. nerka). This was followed by the formation of the Spokane Tribal Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Project (LRMP) in 1988 and later by formation of the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project in 1991. The Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project began in July 1991 as part of the BPA, Bureau of Reclamation, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers System Operation Review process. This process sought to develop an operational scenario for the federal Columbia River hydropower system to maximize the in-reservoir fisheries with minimal impacts to all other stakeholders in the management of the Columbia River. The Lake Roosevelt Monitoring/Data Collection Program (LRMP) is the result of a merger between the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (BPA No. 8806300) and the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project (BPA No. 9404300). These projects were merged in 1996 forming the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (LRMP), which continues the work historically completed under the separate projects. The LRMP has two main goals. The first is to develop a biological model for Lake Roosevelt that will predict in-reservoir biological responses to a range of water management operational scenarios, and to develop fisheries and reservoir management strategies accordingly. The model will allow identification of lake operations that minimize impacts on lake biota while addressing the needs of other interests (e.g. flood control, hydropower generation, irrigation, and downstream resident and anadromous fisheries). Major components of the model will include: (1) quantification of entrainment and

  4. The stellar population and luminosity function in M31 bulge and Inner Disk Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R. Michael; Mould, J. R.; Graham, James R.

    1993-01-01

    We report infrared photometry and stellar identifications for stars in five fields in the M31 bulge located from 2 to 11 arcmin from the nucleus. These fields have been chosen such that the bulge/disk star ratio predicted from Kent's (1989) small bulge model varies from 7:1 to 1:5, allowing a study of near pure disk and near pure bulge stellar populations. We reject the hypothesis of Davies et al. (1991) that luminous stars found within 500 pc of the nucleus are due to a contaminating disk population. We find that the bulge contains stars in excess of M(sub bol) = -5 mag and that the bulge luminosity function has a distinct shape different from the disk fields. We find many stars redder than (J-K) = 2 mag, and suggest that these stars may be the counterparts of the IRAS-selected Galactic bulge Miras studied by Whitelock et at. (1991). The number of bright stars (M(sub bol) is less than -5 mag) falls off more rapidly than the r band surface brightness. By building model fields out of a bulge luminosity function and artificial stars, we are able to show that the change in the luminosity function toward the center cannot be explained simply by the mismeasurement of overcrowded star images. However, these tests also raise the possibility that the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) tip may be approximately equal to 1 mag fainter than actually measured in our most crowded field, reaching only M(sub bol) = -5. We compare observed counts of AGB stars with those predicted from theoretical lifetimes using a technique of general interest for this problem, the Fuel Consumption Theorem of Renzini & Buzzoni (1986) Spectral Evolution of Galaxies (Reidel, Dordrecht). Our methodology is generally applicable to the study of other resolved extragalactic stellar populations. The number of observed stars per magnitude up to a luminosity of M(bol) = -5.5 mag is consistent with AGB evolution of the whole population of the innermost bulge field with the standard lifetime on the AGB of 1.3 Myr

  5. Monitoring quantity and quality of pangasius pond effluent : report of a monitoring program and recommendations for certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der P.G.M.; Poelman, M.; Vo Minh Son,; Duong Nhut Long,; Bosma, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity and quality of pangasius pond effluent was monitored by means of monthly sampling during a study conducted on four striped catfish farms located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The study was undertaken to test the practical implications of the standards and guidelines with regard to catfi

  6. Mechanical Analysis of Dead Load Crown and Structure Parameter of Hydraulic Elastic Bulging Roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chang-cai; LI Wei-min; LIU Zhu-bai

    2003-01-01

    The dead load crown of hydraulic elastic bulging roll was discussed using the theory of elastically supported beam, and the dead load experiment was carried out. The theoretical calculation is consistent with the experimental result. The structure parameters for the thickness of roll sleeve, the length of the oil groove and the crown of roll were discussed. The fundamental principle of determining the parameters was put forward. The theoretical basis of the application of the hydraulic elastic bulging roll was established.

  7. Bulge growth and quenching since z = 2.5 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Philipp; Wuyts, Stijn; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Rosario, David J. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Somerville, Rachel S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brammer, Gabe [European Southern Observatory, Alonson de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Faber, Sandra M.; Momcheva, Ivelina [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); McGrath, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, ME 0490 (United States); Nelson, Erica J. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Primack, Joel R. [Department of Physics, University of California at SantaCruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory Road, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa); and others

    2014-06-10

    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all five CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift information provided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, spanning the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.5. For the first time, we fit two-dimensional models comprising a single Sérsic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increase of the typical Sérsic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40%-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the star-forming main sequence. We demonstrate that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge and total mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy than the total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art, semi-analytic model by Somerville et al. In this model, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging and/or disk instabilities, and feedback from active galactic nuclei shuts off star formation. Further observations will be required to pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply that they must be internal to the galaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.

  8. VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC BULGE FOUND BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Perez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Hearty, Fred R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A.; Zasowski, Gail [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Smith, Verne V.; Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Nidever, David [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ebelke, Garrett; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, 2800 South University Drive, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400 (Brazil); and others

    2013-04-10

    Despite its importance for understanding the nature of early stellar generations and for constraining Galactic bulge formation models, at present little is known about the metal-poor stellar content of the central Milky Way. This is a consequence of the great distances involved and intervening dust obscuration, which challenge optical studies. However, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), a wide-area, multifiber, high-resolution spectroscopic survey within Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, is exploring the chemistry of all Galactic stellar populations at infrared wavelengths, with particular emphasis on the disk and the bulge. An automated spectral analysis of data on 2403 giant stars in 12 fields in the bulge obtained during APOGEE commissioning yielded five stars with low metallicity ([Fe/H] {<=} -1.7), including two that are very metal-poor [Fe/H] {approx} -2.1 by bulge standards. Luminosity-based distance estimates place the 5 stars within the outer bulge, where 1246 of the other analyzed stars may reside. A manual reanalysis of the spectra verifies the low metallicities, and finds these stars to be enhanced in the {alpha}-elements O, Mg, and Si without significant {alpha}-pattern differences with other local halo or metal-weak thick-disk stars of similar metallicity, or even with other more metal-rich bulge stars. While neither the kinematics nor chemistry of these stars can yet definitively determine which, if any, are truly bulge members, rather than denizens of other populations co-located with the bulge, the newly identified stars reveal that the chemistry of metal-poor stars in the central Galaxy resembles that of metal-weak thick-disk stars at similar metallicity.

  9. Elliptical Galaxies and Bulges of Disc Galaxies: Summary of Progress and Outstanding Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    Bulge components of disc galaxies are the high-density centers interior to their outer discs. Once thought to be equivalent to elliptical galaxies, their observed properties and formation histories turn out to be richer and more varied than those of ellipticals. This book reviews progress in many areas of bulge studies. Two advances deserve emphasis: (1) Observations divide bulges into "classical bulges" that look indistinguishable from ellipticals and "pseudobulges" that are discier and (except in S0s) more actively star-forming than are ellipticals. Classical bulges and ellipticals are thought to form by major galaxy mergers. Discy pseudobulges are a product of the slow ("secular") evolution of galaxy discs. Nonaxisymmetries such as bars and oval distortions transport some disc gas toward the center, where it starbursts and builds a dense central component that is discier in structure than are classical bulges. Secular evolution explains many regular structures (e.g., rings) seen in galaxy discs. It is a new area of galaxy evolution work that complements hierarchical clustering. (2) Studies of high-redshift galaxies reveal that their discs are so gas-rich that they are violently unstable to the formation of mass clumps that sink to the center and merge. This is an alternative channel for the formation of classical bulges. This chapter summarizes big-picture successes and unsolved problems in the formation of bulges and ellipticals and their coevolution (or not) with supermassive black holes. I present an observer's perspective on simulations of cold dark matter galaxy formation including baryonic physics. Our picture of the quenching of star formation is becoming general and secure at redshifts z 1000 in mass but that differ from each other as we observe over that whole range. A related difficulty is how hierarchical clustering makes so many giant, bulgeless galaxies in field but not cluster environments. I present arguments that we rely too much on star

  10. Calibrating a large slab vessel: A battle of the bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, I.R. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Safeguards and Security Section

    1993-12-31

    The accurate measurement of volume in slab vessels can be difficult because slab vessels expand--in spite of internal or external supports--as they are filled. One form of bulging is elastic deflection, a gradual expansion of the vessel wall resulting from an increased weight of contained solution. As part of an upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, slab tanks were proposed as accountability measurement vessels. A 1960 liter slab tank prototype was set up for preliminary calibrations. Two series of calibrations were conducted: the first using water, and the second using aluminum nitrate. It was conjectured that the increased weight of aluminum nitrate would cause the vessel walls to deflect more than they did for an equal level of water, resulting in a greater volume. As expected, a significant expansion was observed with the aluminum nitrate, but some of the deflection proved to be permanent rather than elastic. The consequence is that considerably more effort will be required to calibrate slab vessels for uranium accountability. Not only must a calibration curve (or family of curves) be developed giving volume as a function of both liquid level and density, but, if possible, a determination must be made as to when the deflection is no longer temporary.

  11. The Luminosity Function and Mass Function in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Holtzmann, J A; Baum, W A; Grillmair, C J; Groth, E J; Light, R M; Lynds, R; O'Neil, E J; Holtzman, Jon A.; Watson, Alan M.; Baum, William A.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Groth, Edward J.; Light, Robert M.; Lynds, Roger; Neil, Earl J. O'

    1998-01-01

    We present deep photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in a field in Baade's Window in the Galactic bulge. We derive a luminosity function down to I ~ 24.3, or V ~ 27.5, corresponding to M ~ 0.3 Msun. The luminosity function from the turnoff down to this level appears remarkably similar to that observed in the solar neighborhood. We derive a mass function using both an empirical local mass-luminosity relation and a mass-luminosity relation from recent stellar model calculations, allowing for the presence of binaries and photometric errors. The mass function has a power law form with dN/dM proportional to M^{-2.2} for M >~ 0.7 Msun. However, we find strong evidence for a break in the mass function slope around 0.5-0.7 Msun, with a significantly shallower slope at lower masses. The value of the slope for the low masses depends on the assumed binary fraction and the accuracy of our completeness correction. This mass function should directly reflect the initial mass function.

  12. Stellar populations in the bulges of isolated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, L; Corsini, E M; Costantin, L; Bontà, E Dalla; Mèndez-Abreu, J; Pizzella, A

    2016-01-01

    We present photometry and long-slit spectroscopy for 12 S0 and spiral galaxies selected from the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies. The structural parameters of the sample galaxies are derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i-band images by performing a two-dimensional photometric decomposition of the surface brightness distribution. This is assumed to be the sum of the contribution of a S\\`ersic bulge, an exponential disc, and a Ferrers bar characterized by elliptical and concentric isophotes with constant ellipticity and position angles. The rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles of the stellar component are measured from the spectra obtained along the major axis of galaxies. The radial profiles of the H{\\beta}, Mg and Fe line-strength indices are derived too. Correlations between the central values of the Mg 2 and Fe line-strength indices and the velocity dispersion are found. The mean age, total metallicity and total {\\alpha}/Fe enhancement of the stellar population in the centre and at the radi...

  13. VARIABILITY OF OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS IN THE CHANDRA GALACTIC BULGE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C. B.; Baldwin, A.; Collazzi, A.; Gossen, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Nelemans, G. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maccarone, T. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Science Building, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Heinke, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bassa, C. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Villar, A. [Department of Physics, Massachussettes Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Gabb, M. [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present optical light curves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from ∼2 hr to 8 days over the 3/4 of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the light curve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. Eighty-seven percent of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. Twenty-seven percent of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and discuss the characteristics of the variable population.

  14. Transiting extrasolar planetary candidates in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, K C; Bond, H E; Valenti, J; Smith, T E; Minniti, D; Zoccali, M; Livio, M; Panagia, N; Piskunov, N; Brown, T M; Brown, T; Renzini, A; Rich, R M; Clarkson, W; Lubow, S; Sahu, Kailash C.; Casertano, Stefano; Bond, Howard E.; Valenti, Jeff; Minniti, Dante; Zoccali, Manuela; Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Piskunov, Nikolai; Brown, Thomas M.; Brown, Timothy; Renzini, Alvio; Clarkson, Will; Lubow, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    More than 200 extrasolar planets have been discovered around relatively nearby stars, primarily through the Doppler line shifts owing to the reflex motions of their host stars, and more recently through transits of some planets across the face of the host stars. The detection of planets with the shortest known periods, 1.2 to 2.5 days, has mainly resulted from transit surveys which have generally targeted stars more massive than 0.75 M_sun. Here we report the results from a planetary transit search performed in a rich stellar field towards the Galactic bulge. We discovered 16 candidates with orbital periods between 0.4 and 4.2 days, five of which orbit stars of 0.44 to 0.75 M_sun. In two cases, radial-velocity measurements support the planetary nature of the companions. Five candidates have orbital periods below 1.0 day, constituting a new class of ultra-short-period planets (USPPs), which occur only around stars of less than 0.88 M_sun. This indicates that those orbiting very close to more luminous stars mig...

  15. The mixed chemistry phenomenon in Galactic Bulge PNe

    CERN Document Server

    Perea-Calderón, J V; García-Lario, P; Szczerba, R; Bobrowsky, M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dual-dust chemistry (DDC) phenomenon in PNe and discuss reasons for its occurrence, by analyzing Spitzer/IRS spectra of a sample of 40 Galactic PNe among which 26 belong to the Galactic Bulge (GB). The mixed chemistry is derived from the simultaneous detection of PAH features in the 6-14 micron range and crystalline silicates (CS) beyond 20 microns in the Spitzer/IRS spectra. Out of the 26 PNe observed in the GB, 21 show signatures of DDC. Our observations reveal that the simultaneous presence of O- and C-rich dust features in the IR spectra of [WC]-type PNe is not restricted to late/cool [WC]-type stars, as previously suggested in the literature, but is a common feature associated with all [WC]-type PNe. Surprisingly, we found that the DDC is seen also in all observed wels, as well as in other PNe with central stars being neither [WC] nor wels. Most sources observed display CS features in their spectra, with only a few PNe exhibiting, in addition, amorphous silicate bands. We appear to det...

  16. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan For Groundwater Monitoring Wells At The U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plan describes the technical approach that is implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and groundwater quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well. Under this approach, wells granted "active" status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling, whereas wells granted "inactive" status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP. Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans. This plan applies to groundwater wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management areas and facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes.

  17. Spectroscopic bulge-disc decomposition: a new method to study the evolution of lenticular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, E J; Merrifield, M R; Bedregal, A G

    2012-01-01

    A new method for spectroscopic bulge-disc decomposition is presented, in which the spatial light profile in a two-dimensional spectrum is decomposed wavelength-by-wavelength into bulge and disc components, allowing separate one-dimensional spectra for each component to be constructed. This method has been applied to observations of a sample of nine S0s in the Fornax Cluster in order to obtain clean high-quality spectra of their individual bulge and disc components. So far this decomposition has only been fully successful when applied to galaxies with clean light profiles, consequently limiting the number of galaxies that could be separated into bulge and disc components. Lick index stellar population analysis of the component spectra reveals that in those galaxies where the bulge and disc could be distinguished, the bulges have systematically higher metallicities and younger stellar populations than the discs. This correlation is consistent with a picture in which S0 formation comprises the shutting down of s...

  18. The effects of gas on morphological transformation in mergers: implications for bulge and disc demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Jogee, Shardha; Kereš, Dusan; Ma, Chung-Pei; Robertson, Brant; Stewart, Kyle

    2009-08-01

    Transformation of discs into spheroids via mergers is a well-accepted element of galaxy formation models. However, recent simulations have shown that the bulge formation is suppressed in increasingly gas-rich mergers. We investigate the global implications of these results in a cosmological framework, using independent approaches: empirical halo-occupation models (where galaxies are populated in haloes according to observations) and semi-analytic models. In both, ignoring the effects of gas in mergers leads to the overproduction of spheroids: low- and intermediate-mass galaxies are predicted to be bulge-dominated (B/T ~ 0.5 at physical behaviour of gas in mergers immediately leads to a dramatic change: bulge formation is suppressed in low-mass galaxies, observed to be gas-rich (giving B/T ~ 0.1 at galaxies in good agreement with observations). Simulations and analytic models which neglect the similarity-breaking behaviour of gas have difficulty reproducing the strong observed morphology-mass relation. However, the observed dependence of gas fractions on mass, combined with suppression of bulge formation in gas-rich mergers, naturally leads to the observed trends. Discrepancies between observations and models that ignore the role of gas increase with redshift; in models that treat gas properly, galaxies are predicted to be less bulge-dominated at high redshifts, in agreement with the observations. We discuss implications for the global bulge mass density and future observational tests.

  19. Mergers and Bulge Formation in Lambda-CDM: Which Mergers Matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F; Croton, Darren; Hernquist, Lars; Keres, Dusan; Khochfar, Sadegh; Stewart, Kyle; Wetzel, Andrew; Younger, Joshua D

    2009-01-01

    We use a suite of semi-empirical models to predict galaxy merger rates and contributions to bulge growth as functions of merger mass, redshift, and mass ratio. The models use empirical halo occupation constraints to identify mergers, together with high-resolution simulations to quantify how mergers with different properties contribute to the bulge population. We find good agreement with a variety of observational constraints, and provide fitting functions for merger rates and contributions to bulge growth. We identify several robust conclusions. (1) Major mergers dominate formation and assembly of L* bulges and the spheroid mass density, minor mergers contribute ~30%. (2) This is mass-dependent: bulge formation is dominated by more minor mergers in lower-mass systems. At higher masses, bulges form in major mergers near L*, but subsequently assemble in minor mergers. (3) The minor/major contribution is also morphology-dependent: higher B/T systems form in more major mergers, lower B/T systems form in situ from...

  20. Role of the CCA bulge of prohead RNA of bacteriophage ø29 in DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C; Anderson, Dwight L; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2008-11-14

    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the packaging ATPase gp16 and the packaging substrate DNA-gp3, although DNA translocation was not detected with several mutants. Prohead/bulge-mutant pRNA complexes with low packaging activity had a higher rate of ATP hydrolysis per base pair of DNA packaged than proheads with wild-type pRNA. Cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of proheads reconstituted with a CCA deletion pRNA showed that the protruding pRNA spokes of the motor occupy a different position relative to the head when compared to particles with wild-type pRNA. Therefore, the CCA bulge seems to dictate the orientation of the pRNA spokes. The conformational changes observed for this mutant pRNA may affect gp16 conformation and/or subsequent ATPase-DNA interaction and, consequently, explain the decreased packaging activity observed for CCA mutants.

  1. A new look at the kinematics of the bulge from an N-body model

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, A; Stefanovitch, N; Haywood, M; Combes, F; Katz, D; Babusiaux, C

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged) By using an N-body simulation of a bulge that was formed via a bar instability mechanism, we analyse the imprints of the initial (i.e. before bar formation) location of stars on the bulge kinematics, in particular on the heliocentric radial velocity distribution of bulge stars. Four different latitudes were considered: $b=-4^\\circ$, $-6^\\circ$, $-8^\\circ$, and $-10^\\circ$, along the bulge minor axis as well as outside it, at $l=\\pm5^\\circ$ and $l=\\pm10^\\circ$. The bulge X-shaped structure comprises stars that formed in the disk at different locations. Stars formed in the outer disk, beyond the end of the bar, which are part of the boxy peanut-bulge structure may show peaks in the velocity distributions at positive and negative heliocentric radial velocities with high absolute values that can be larger than 100 $\\rm km$ $\\rm s^{-1}$, depending on the observed direction. In some cases the structure of the velocity field is more complex and several peaks are observed. Stars formed in the inner disk, t...

  2. The Chemical Composition of the Galactic Bulge and Implications for its Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliam, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The average bulge [Fe/H] and [Mg/H] are +0.06 and +0.17 dex, respectively, in Baade's Window, roughly 0.2 dex higher than the thin disk and ~0.7 dex higher than the local thick disk metallicity. This suggests a higher effective yield in the bulge, perhaps due to more efficient retention of supernova ejecta. The bulge vertical [Fe/H] gradient, at ~0.5 dex/kpc, appears to be due to a changing mixture of sub-populations (near +0.3 dex and -0.3 dex and one possibly near -0.7 dex) with latitude. The bulge is enhanced in O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, and Al relative to the sun, with [alpha/Fe]=+0.15 dex at [Fe/H]=0.0 dex. Below [Fe/H]~-0.5 dex, the bulge and local thick disk compositions are very similar, but small [Mg/Fe] and possibly [/Fe] enhancements, low [La/Eu] ratios and large [Cu/Fe], relative to the thick disk suggest slightly higher SFR in the bulge. However, these composition differences could simply be due to measurement errors and non-LTE effects. Unfortunately, comparison with the thick disk near solar [Fe/H] su...

  3. 3-D Simulations of the Chemical and Dynamical Evolution of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Nakasato, N; Nakasato, Naohito; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamical N-body model for the formation of the Galaxy is presented with special attention to the formation of the bulge component. Starting with cosmologically motivated initial conditions, we obtain a qualitatively similar stellar system to the Galaxy. Then we analyze the chemical and kinematic properties of the bulge stars in our model and find qualitative agreement with observational data. The early evolution of our model has revealed that most bulge stars form during the sub-galactic merger (merger component of the bulge stars). Because of the strong star burst induced by the merger, the metallicity distribution function of such stars becomes as wide as observed. We find that another group of the bulge stars forms later in the inner region of the disk (non-merger component of the bulge stars). Because of the difference in the formation epoch, the main source of iron for this group of stars is different from the merger component. Iron in the merger and non-merger components comes ...

  4. A High-velocity Bulge RR Lyrae Variable on a Halo-like Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. M.; Hawkins, K.; Poleski, R.; Storm, J.; Johnson, C. I.; Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y.; Cordero, M. J.; Nataf, D. M.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Koch, A.; De Propris, R.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrzyński, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Mróz, P.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of -372 ± 8 km s-1 and true space velocity of -482 ± 22 km s-1 relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, -2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.

  5. The Milky Way Bulge: Observed properties and a comparison to external galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Oscar A

    2015-01-01

    The Milky Way bulge offers a unique opportunity to investigate in detail the role that different processes such as dynamical instabilities, hierarchical merging, and dissipational collapse may have played in the history of the Galaxy formation and evolution based on its resolved stellar population properties. Large observation programmes and surveys of the bulge are providing for the first time a look into the global view of the Milky Way bulge that can be compared with the bulges of other galaxies, and be used as a template for detailed comparison with models. The Milky Way has been shown to have a box/peanut (B/P) bulge and recent evidence seems to suggest the presence of an additional spheroidal component. In this review we summarise the global chemical abundances, kinematics and structural properties that allow us to disentangle these multiple components and provide constraints to understand their origin. The investigation of both detailed and global properties of the bulge now provide us with the opportu...

  6. A HIGH-VELOCITY BULGE RR LYRAE VARIABLE ON A HALO-LIKE ORBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunder, Andrea; Storm, J. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Hawkins, K. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Poleski, R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Johnson, C. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Cordero, M. J. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut: Zentrum für Astronomie, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nataf, D. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bono, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Walker, A. R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Koch, A. [Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); De Propris, R. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2015-07-20

    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of −372 ± 8 km s{sup −1} and true space velocity of −482 ± 22 km s{sup −1} relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, −2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.

  7. THE NUMBER OF TIDAL DWARF SATELLITE GALAXIES IN DEPENDENCE OF BULGE INDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Corredoira, Martín [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: martinlc@iac.es, E-mail: pavel@astro.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-01-20

    We show that a significant correlation (up to 5σ) emerges between the bulge index, defined to be larger for a larger bulge/disk ratio, in spiral galaxies with similar luminosities in the Galaxy Zoo 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the number of tidal-dwarf galaxies in the catalog by Kaviraj et al. In the standard cold or warm dark matter cosmological models, the number of satellite galaxies correlates with the circular velocity of the dark matter host halo. In generalized gravity models without cold or warm dark matter, such a correlation does not exist, because host galaxies cannot capture infalling dwarf galaxies due to the absence of dark-matter-induced dynamical friction. However, in such models, a correlation is expected to exist between the bulge mass and the number of satellite galaxies because bulges and tidal-dwarf satellite galaxies form in encounters between host galaxies. This is not predicted by dark matter models in which bulge mass and the number of satellites are a priori uncorrelated because higher bulge/disk ratios do not imply higher dark/luminous ratios. Hence, our correlation reproduces the prediction of scenarios without dark matter, whereas an explanation is not found readily from the a priori predictions of the standard scenario with dark matter. Further research is needed to explore whether some application of the standard theory may explain this correlation.

  8. The EMBLA Survey -- Metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, Louise M; Keller, Stefan C; Casey, Andrew R; Yong, David; Lind, Karin; Frebel, Anna; Hays, Austin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Bessell, Michael S; Casagrande, Luca; Marino, Anna F; Nataf, David M; Owen, Christopher I; Da Costa, Gary S; Schmidt, Brian P; Tisserand, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological models predict the oldest stars in the Galaxy should be found closest to the centre of the potential well, in the bulge. The EMBLA Survey successfully searched for these old, metal-poor stars by making use of the distinctive SkyMapper photometric filters to discover candidate metal-poor stars in the bulge. Their metal-poor nature was then confirmed using the AAOmega spectrograph on the AAT. Here we present an abundance analysis of 10 bulge stars with -2.8<[Fe/H]<-1.7 from MIKE/Magellan observations, in total determining the abundances of 22 elements. Combining these results with our previous high-resolution data taken as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we have started to put together a picture of the chemical and kinematic nature of the most metal-poor stars in the bulge. The currently available kinematic data is consistent with the stars belonging to the bulge, although more accurate measurements are needed to constrain the stars' orbits. The chemistry of these bulge stars deviates from that ...

  9. Rehabilitation in COPD: the long-term effect of a supervised 7-week program succeeded by a self-monitored walking program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, T; Brøndum, E; Martinez, G;

    2008-01-01

    Questionnaire (SGRQ) at baseline, 0, 3, and 12 months after the program. Sixty-eight (32.5%) patients did not attend the 1-year follow-up. Among the 141 patients who competed the 1-year evaluation, the initial improvement after the 7-week program in the ESWT time was 180 s or 101% (p = 0.001) and in SGRQ 3......Pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) improves exercise tolerance and health status, however, these effects have been shown to decline after termination of the rehabilitation program. This study has examined the long-term effect of a 7-week supervised...... rehabilitation program combined with daily self-monitored training at home on exercise tolerance and health status. Two hundred and nine consecutive COPD patients who had completed a 7-week pulmonary rehabilitation program were assessed with endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) and the St George's Respiratory...

  10. Photoacoustic spectral analysis to sense programmed erythrocyte cell death (eryptosis) for monitoring cancer response to treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhel, Muhannad N.; Kibria, Fayruz; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Many types of cancer therapies target the tumor microenvironment, causing biochemical and morphological changes in tissues. In therapies using ultrasound activated microbubbles, vascular collapse is typically reported. Red blood cells (RBCs) that leak out of the vasculature become exposed to the ceramide that is released from damaged endothelial cells. Ceramide can induce programmed cell death in RBCs (eryptosis), and is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and scrambling. Since the effect of eryptotic cells on generated photoacoustics (PA) signals has not been reported, we investigated the potential PA may have for cancer treatment monitoring by using PA spectral analysis to sense eryptosis. To induce eryptosis, C2-ceramide was added to RBC suspensions and that were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. A control and ceramide-induced sample was imaged in a vessel phantom using a high frequency PA system (VevoLAZR, 10 - 45 MHz bandwidth) irradiated with multiple wavelengths ranging from 680 to 900 nm. PA spectral parameters were measured and linked to changes in RBCs as it underwent eryptosis. These samples were examined using optical microscopy, a blood gas analyzer and an integrating sphere setup to measure optical properties (wavelengths 600 - 900 nm). The results of the experiment demonstrate how PA spectral analysis can be used to identify eryptosis at a depth of more than 1 cm into the phantom using ultrasound derived the y-intercept and mid bandfit (MBF) parameters at optical wavelengths of 800 - 900 nm. These parameters were correlated to the morphological and biochemical changes that eryptotic RBCs display. The results establish the potential of PA in cancer treatment monitoring through sensing treatment induced eryptosis.

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program Rapid Ecological Assessment Quadrat Surveys of Corals around the Marianas Islands from 2003 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries...

  13. The Influence of Public Self-Consciousness and Self-Monitoring on Participation in an Effective Presentation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell

    1993-01-01

    Among 25 female participants and 20 nonparticipants in "Effective Presentation," a professional appearance and self-image program, low self-monitors were more likely to participate; low public self-consciousness did not correlate with participation. Generally low scores on both scales indicate a need for self-presentation preparation for…

  14. Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation--A Prototype Internal Learning System for Livelihood and Micro-Credit Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noponen, Helzi

    1997-01-01

    An internal learning system (ILS), created for a development organization operating savings/credit programs with poor women, is used for data collection, monitoring, and evaluation. The ILS is participatory, pictorial, decentralized, and flexible; it documents socioeconomic impact and supports action planning. (SK)

  15. Analytical Results for Agricultural Soils Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District, MWRD), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream bed sediment. Soils for this study were defined as the plow zone of the dry land agricultural fields - the top twelve inches of the soil column. This report presents analytical results for the soil samples collected at the Metro District farm land near Deer Trail, Colorado, during three separate sampling events during 1999, 2000, and 2002. Soil samples taken in 1999 were to be a representation of the original baseline of the agricultural soils prior to any biosolids application. The soil samples taken in 2000 represent the soils after one application of biosolids to the middle field at each site and those taken in 2002 represent the soils after two applications. There have been no biosolids applied to any of the four control fields. The next soil sampling is scheduled for the spring of 2010. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross

  16. Statistical analysis of the water-quality monitoring program, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and optimization of the program for 2013 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Sara L. Caldwell; Wherry, Susan A.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2014-01-01

    Upper Klamath Lake in south-central Oregon has become increasingly eutrophic over the past century and now experiences seasonal cyanobacteria-dominated and potentially toxic phytoplankton blooms. Growth and decline of these blooms create poor water-quality conditions that can be detrimental to fish, including two resident endangered sucker species. Upper Klamath Lake is the primary water supply to agricultural areas within the upper Klamath Basin. Water from the lake is also used to generate power and to enhance and sustain downstream flows in the Klamath River. Water quality in Upper Klamath Lake has been monitored by the Klamath Tribes since the early 1990s and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 2002. Management agencies and other stakeholders have determined that a re-evaluation of the goals for water-quality monitoring is warranted to assess whether current data-collection activities will continue to adequately provide data for researchers to address questions of interest and to facilitate future natural resource management decisions. The purpose of this study was to (1) compile an updated list of the goals and objectives for long-term water-quality monitoring in Upper Klamath Lake with input from upper Klamath Basin stakeholders, (2) assess the current water-quality monitoring programs in Upper Klamath Lake to determine whether existing data-collection strategies can fulfill the updated goals and objectives for monitoring, and (3) identify potential modifications to future monitoring plans in accordance with the updated monitoring objectives and improve stakeholder cooperation and data-collection efficiency. Data collected by the Klamath Tribes and the USGS were evaluated to determine whether consistent long-term trends in water-quality variables can be described by the dataset and whether the number and distribution of currently monitored sites captures the full range of environmental conditions and the multi-scale variability of water

  17. The age of the young bulge-like population in the stellar system Terzan5: linking the Galactic bulge to the high-z Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Origlia, L; Rich, R M; Mucciarelli, A; -,

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge is dominated by an old, metal rich stellar population. The possible presence and the amount of a young (a few Gyr old) minor component is one of the major issues debated in the literature. Recently, the bulge stellar system Terzan 5 was found to harbor three sub-populations with iron content varying by more than one order of magnitude (from 0.2 up to 2 times the solar value), with chemical abundance patterns strikingly similar to those observed in bulge field stars. Here we report on the detection of two distinct main sequence turn-off points in Terzan 5, providing the age of the two main stellar populations: 12 Gyr for the (dominant) sub-solar component and 4.5 Gyr for the component at super-solar metallicity. This discovery classifies Terzan 5 as a site in the Galactic bulge where multiple bursts of star formation occurred, thus suggesting a quite massive progenitor possibly resembling the giant clumps observed in star forming galaxies at high redshifts. This connection opens a new route ...

  18. Exploring the unusually high black hole-to-bulge mass ratios in NGC4342 and NGC4291: the asynchronous growth of bulges and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdan, Akos; Zhuravleva, Irina; Mihos, J Christopher; Kraft, Ralph P; Harding, Paul; Guo, Qi; Li, Zhiyuan; Churazov, Eugene; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Nulsen, Paul E J; Schindler, Sabine; Jones, Christine

    2012-01-01

    We study two nearby, early-type galaxies, NGC4342 and NGC4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC4342 and NGC4291 are ~6.9% and ~1.9%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of ~0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC4342 and NGC4291 are ~5.1 sigma and ~3.4 sigma outliers from the M_BH - M_bulge scaling relation, respectively. In this paper we explore the origin of the unusually high black hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC4342 and NGC4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC4342 and NGC4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which >90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explai...

  19. Development and Validation of Pathogen Environmental Monitoring Programs for Small Cheese Processing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beno, Sarah M; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Andrus, Alexis D; Ralyea, Robert D; Kent, David J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2016-12-01

    Pathogen environmental monitoring programs (EMPs) are essential for food processing facilities of all sizes that produce ready-to-eat food products exposed to the processing environment. We developed, implemented, and evaluated EMPs targeting Listeria spp. and Salmonella in nine small cheese processing facilities, including seven farmstead facilities. Individual EMPs with monthly sample collection protocols were designed specifically for each facility. Salmonella was detected in only one facility, with likely introduction from the adjacent farm indicated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis data. Listeria spp. were isolated from all nine facilities during routine sampling. The overall Listeria spp. (other than Listeria monocytogenes ) and L. monocytogenes prevalences in the 4,430 environmental samples collected were 6.03 and 1.35%, respectively. Molecular characterization and subtyping data suggested persistence of a given Listeria spp. strain in seven facilities and persistence of L. monocytogenes in four facilities. To assess routine sampling plans, validation sampling for Listeria spp. was performed in seven facilities after at least 6 months of routine sampling. This validation sampling was performed by independent individuals and included collection of 50 to 150 samples per facility, based on statistical sample size calculations. Two of the facilities had a significantly higher frequency of detection of Listeria spp. during the validation sampling than during routine sampling, whereas two other facilities had significantly lower frequencies of detection. This study provides a model for a science- and statistics-based approach to developing and validating pathogen EMPs.

  20. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.