Sample records for bulge metal-poor globular

  1. Spatial Configuration of Stars Around Three Metal-poor Globular Clusters in the Galatic Bulge, NGC 6266, NGC 6273, and NGC 6681 : Surface Density Map and Radial Density Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihwa Han


    Full Text Available We present extra-tidal features of spatial configuration of stars around three metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6273, NGC 6681 located in the Galactic bulge. The wide-field photometric data were obtained in BVI bands with the MOSAIC II camera at CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope. The derived color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs contain stars in a total 71´×71´area including a cluster and its surrounding field outside of the tidal radius of the cluster. Applying statistical filtering technique, we minimized the field star contaminations on the obtained cluster CMDs and extracted the cluster members. On the spatial stellar density maps around the target clusters, we found overdensity features beyond the tidal radii of the clusters. We also found that the radial density profiles of the clusters show departures from the best-fit King model for their outer regions which support the overdensity patterns.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-W. Kim


    Full Text Available We report photometric features of the HB, MSTO, and SGB for a set of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters on the near-IR CMDs. The magnitude and color of the MSTO and SGB are measured on the fiducial normal points of the CMDs by applying a polynomial fit. The near-IR luminosity functions of horizontal branch stars in the classical second parameter pair M3 and M13 indicate that HB stars in M13 are dominated by hot stars that are rotatively faint in the infrared, whereas HB stars in M3 are brighter than those in M13. The luminosity functions of HB stars in the observed bulge clusters, except for NGC 6717, show a trend that the fainter hot HB stars are dominated in the relatively metal-poor clusters while the relatively metal-rich clusters contain the brighter HB stars. It is suggestive that NGC 6717 would be an extreme example of the second-parameter phenomenon for the bulge globular clusters.

  3. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way. (United States)

    Howes, L M; Casey, A R; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P


    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon.

  4. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster. (United States)

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B


    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9 ± 0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC 6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47 Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC 6397.

  5. New VVV Survey Globular Cluster Candidates in the Milky Way Bulge

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    Minniti, Dante; Gómez, Matías [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Geisler, Douglas; Fernández-Trincado, Jose G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alonso-García, Javier; Beamín, Juan Carlos; Borissova, Jura; Catelan, Marcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Kurtev, Radostin; Pullen, Joyce [Instituto Milenio de Astrofísica, Santiago (Chile); Palma, Tali; Clariá, Juan J. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba (Argentina); Cohen, Roger E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 2700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore (United States); Dias, Bruno [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Hempel, Maren [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Ivanov, Valentin D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarszchild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Lucas, Phillip W. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire (United Kingdom); Moni-Bidin, Christian; Alegría, Sebastian Ramírez [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile); and others


    It is likely that a number of Galactic globular clusters remain to be discovered, especially toward the Galactic bulge. High stellar density combined with high and differential interstellar reddening are the two major problems for finding globular clusters located toward the bulge. We use the deep near-IR photometry of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey to search for globular clusters projected toward the Galactic bulge, and hereby report the discovery of 22 new candidate globular clusters. These objects, detected as high density regions in our maps of bulge red giants, are confirmed as globular cluster candidates by their color–magnitude diagrams. We provide their coordinates as well as their near-IR color–magnitude diagrams, from which some basic parameters are derived, such as reddenings and heliocentric distances. The color–magnitude diagrams reveal well defined red giant branches in all cases, often including a prominent red clump. The new globular cluster candidates exhibit a variety of extinctions (0.06 < A {sub Ks} < 2.77) and distances (5.3 < D < 9.5 kpc). We also classify the globular cluster candidates into 10 metal-poor and 12 metal-rich clusters, based on the comparison of their color–magnitude diagrams with those of known globular clusters also observed by the VVV Survey. Finally, we argue that the census for Galactic globular clusters still remains incomplete, and that many more candidate globular clusters (particularly the low luminosity ones) await to be found and studied in detail in the central regions of the Milky Way.

  6. Linking Dynamical and Stellar Evolution in the Metal-Poor Globular Cluster M92 (United States)

    Kalirai, Jason


    We propose a 5 orbit HST program to acquire UV imaging at the center of the ancient, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6341 (M92). Our program is designed to achieve two science goals with a single data set, 1.) to directly measure the diffusion of stars through the massive cluster's core, 2.) to pinpoint the phase of post main-sequence evolution at which [Fe/H] = -2.3 stars lose their mass. Our novel technique will achieve these goals by using the full power of WFC3's exquisite UV sensitivity at 100s Myr will be fully relaxed. Using the methodology we developed and successfully applied to 47 Tuc (Heyl et al. 2015a; 2015b), we will watch this dynamical evolution to measure the diffusion coefficient due to gravitational relaxation in the cluster's core and the past timing of stellar mass loss that was responsible for the current cluster mass segregation profile. M92 is the ideal target for this study as it complements our existing study of the relatively metal-rich cluster 47 Tuc; it has an extremely low metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.3, very low foreground reddening (E(B-V) = 0.02), moderate concentration index, and a theoretically-expected relaxation timescale in its core of 90 Myr, which nicely splits the young and old white dwarfs that can be observed with Hubble.

  7. On the kinematic separation of field and cluster stars across the bulge globular NGC 6528

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    Lagioia, E. P.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma-Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Prada Moroni, P. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Dall' Ora, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Aparicio, A.; Monelli, M. [Instituto de Astrofìsica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Calamida, A.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00044 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Gilmozzi, R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Matsunaga, N. [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 10762-30, Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, 3 Nagano 97-0101 (Japan); Walker, A., E-mail: [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)


    We present deep and precise multi-band photometry of the Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6528. The current data set includes optical and near-infrared images collected with ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The images cover a time interval of almost 10 yr, and we have been able to carry out a proper-motion separation between cluster and field stars. We performed a detailed comparison in the m {sub F814W}, m {sub F606W} – m {sub F814W} color-magnitude diagram with two empirical calibrators observed in the same bands. We found that NGC 6528 is coeval with and more metal-rich than 47 Tuc. Moreover, it appears older and more metal-poor than the super-metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. The current evidence is supported by several diagnostics (red horizontal branch, red giant branch bump, shape of the sub-giant branch, slope of the main sequence) that are minimally affected by uncertainties in reddening and distance. We fit the optical observations with theoretical isochrones based on a scaled-solar chemical mixture and found an age of 11 ± 1 Gyr and an iron abundance slightly above solar ([Fe/H] = +0.20). The iron abundance and the old cluster age further support the recent spectroscopic findings suggesting a rapid chemical enrichment of the Galactic bulge.

  8. The Composition of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6273 (United States)

    Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; Rich, R. M.; Caldwell, N.; Mateo, M.; Bailey, J. I.; Crane, J. D.


    Observations of red giants in the Bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) mounted on the Nasmuth-East port of the Magellan-Clay 6.5-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory reveal a spread in metallicity. Members have been confirmed with radial velocity. NGC 6273 has at least two populations separated by 0.2-0.3 dex in [Fe/H]. The sodium and aluminum abundances are correlated while the magnesium and aluminum abundances are anti-correlated. The cluster also shows a rise in the abundance of the s-process element lanthanum with [Fe/H] similar to other massive clusters. The cluster contains a possible third population depleted in most elements by 0.3 dex.

  9. Suppression of globular cluster formation in metal-poor gas clouds by Lyman-alpha radiation feedback (United States)

    Abe, Makito; Yajima, Hidenobu


    We study the impact of {Ly} α radiation feedback on globular cluster (GC) formation. In this Letter, we analytically derive the relation between star formation efficiency (SFE) and metallicity in spherical clouds with the {Ly} α radiation feedback. Our models show that the SFE becomes small as the metallicity decreases. In metal-poor gas clouds, {Ly} α photons are trapped for a long time and exert strong radiation force to the gas, resulting in the suppression of star formation. We find that bound star-clusters (SFE ≳ 0.5) form only for the metallicity higher than ˜10-2.5 Z⊙ in the case with the initial cloud mass 105 M⊙ and the radius 5 pc. Our models successfully reproduce the lower bound of observed metallicity of GCs. Thus, we suggest that the {Ly} α radiation feedback can be essential in understanding the formation of GCs.

  10. Detailed chemical abundances in NGC 5824: another metal-poor globular cluster with internal heavy element abundance variations (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I.; Spencer, Meghin; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.


    We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundances of 39 elements derived from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the luminous, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5824. We observe 26 stars in NGC 5824 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and two stars using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph. We derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.94 ± 0.02 (statistical) ±0.10 (systematic). The metallicity dispersion of this sample of stars, 0.08 dex, is in agreement with previous work and does not exceed the expected observational errors. Previous work suggested an internal metallicity spread only when fainter samples of stars were considered, so we cannot exclude the possibility of an intrinsic metallicity dispersion in NGC 5824. The M2FS spectra reveal a large internal dispersion in [Mg/Fe], 0.28 dex, which is found in a few other luminous, metal-poor clusters. [Mg/Fe] is correlated with [O/Fe] and anticorrelated with [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe]. There is no evidence for internal dispersion among the other α- or Fe-group abundance ratios. 25 of the 26 stars exhibit a n-capture enrichment pattern dominated by r-process nucleosynthesis ( = +0.11 ± 0.12; = -0.66 ± 0.05). Only one star shows evidence of substantial s-process enhancement ([Ba/Fe] = +0.56 ± 0.12; [Ba/Eu] = +0.38 ± 0.14), but this star does not exhibit other characteristics associated with s-process enhancement via mass transfer from a binary companion. The Pb and other heavy elements produced by the s-process suggest a time-scale of no more than a few hundred Myr for star formation and chemical enrichment, like the complex globular clusters M2, M22, and NGC 5286.

  11. The Color-Magnitude Relation for Metal-Poor Globular Clusters in M87: Confirmation From Deep HST/ACS Imaging


    Peng, Eric W.; Jordan, Andres; Blakeslee, John P.; Mieske, Steffen; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Harris, William E.; Madrid, Juan P.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.


    Metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) are our local link to the earliest epochs of star formation and galaxy building. Studies of extragalactic GC systems using deep, high-quality imaging have revealed a small but significant slope to the color-magnitude relation for metal-poor GCs in a number of galaxies. We present a study of the M87 GC system using deep, archival HST/ACS imaging with the F606W and F814W filters, in which we find a significant color-magnitude relation for the metal-poor GCs. T...

  12. Insights into the chemical composition of the metal-poor Milky Way halo globular cluster NGC 6426 (United States)

    Hanke, M.; Koch, A.; Hansen, C. J.; McWilliam, A.


    We present our detailed spectroscopic analysis of the chemical composition of four red giant stars in the halo globular cluster NGC 6426. We obtained high-resolution spectra using the Magellan2/MIKE spectrograph, from which we derived equivalent widths and subsequently computed abundances of 24 species of 22 chemical elements. For the purpose of measuring equivalent widths, we developed a new semi-automated tool, called EWCODE. We report a mean Fe content of [Fe/H] =-2.34 ± 0.05 dex (stat.) in accordance with previous studies. At a mean α-abundance of [(Mg, Si, Ca)/3 Fe] = 0.39 ± 0.03 dex, NGC 6426 falls on the trend drawn by the Milky Way halo and other globular clusters at comparably low metallicities. The distribution of the lighter α-elements as well as the enhanced ratio [Zn/Fe] = 0.39 dex could originate from hypernova enrichment of the pre-cluster medium. We find tentative evidence for a spread in the elements Mg, Si, and Zn, indicating an enrichment scenario, where ejecta of evolved massive stars of a slightly older population have polluted a newly born younger one. The heavy element abundances in this cluster fit well into the picture of metal-poor globular clusters, which in that respect appear to be remarkably homogeneous. The pattern of the neutron-capture elements heavier than Zn points toward an enrichment history governed by the r-process with little, if any, sign of s-process contributions. This finding is supported by the striking similarity of our program stars to the metal-poor field star HD 108317. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.Equivalent widths and full Table 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  13. The Globular Clusters of the Galactic Bulge: Results from Multiwavelength Follow-up Imaging (United States)

    Cohen, Roger; Geisler, Doug; Mauro, Francesco; Alonso Garcia, Javier; Hempel, Maren; Sarajedini, Ata


    The Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) located towards the bulge of the Milky Way suffer from severe total and differential extinction and high field star densities. They have therefore been systematically excluded from deep, large-scale homogenous GGC surveys, and will present a challenge for Gaia. Meanwhile, existing observations of bulge GGCs have revealed tantalizing hints that they hold clues to Galactic formation and evolution not found elsewhere. Therefore, in order to better characterize these poorly studied stellar systems and place them in the context of their optically well-studied counterparts, we have undertaken imaging programs at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. We describe these programs and present a variety of results, including self-consistent measurement of bulge GGC ages and structural parameters. The limitations imposed by spatially variable extinction and extinction law are highlighted, along with the complimentary nature of forthcoming facilities, allowing us to finally complete our picture of the Milky Way GGC system.

  14. Exploring the Chemical Composition and Double Horizontal Branch of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6569 (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Olszewski, Edward W.; Walker, Matthew G.


    Photometric and spectroscopic analyses have shown that the Galactic bulge cluster Terzan 5 hosts several populations with different metallicities and ages that manifest as a double red horizontal branch (HB). A recent investigation of the massive bulge cluster NGC 6569 revealed a similar, though less extended, HB luminosity split, but little is known about the cluster’s detailed chemical composition. Therefore, we have used high-resolution spectra from the Magellan–M2FS and VLT–FLAMES spectrographs to investigate the chemical compositions and radial velocity distributions of red giant branch and HB stars in NGC 6569. We found the cluster to have a mean heliocentric radial velocity of ‑48.8 km s‑1 (σ = 5.3 km s‑1 148 stars) and =-0.87 dex (19 stars), but the cluster’s 0.05 dex [Fe/H] dispersion precludes a significant metallicity spread. NGC 6569 exhibits light- and heavy-element distributions that are common among old bulge/inner Galaxy globular clusters, including clear (anti)correlations between [O/Fe], [Na/Fe], and [Al/Fe]. The light-element data suggest that NGC 6569 may be composed of at least two distinct populations, and the cluster’s low =-0.11 dex indicates significant pollution with r-process material. We confirm that both HBs contain cluster members, but metallicity and light-element variations are largely ruled out as sources for the luminosity difference. However, He mass fraction differences as small as ΔY ∼ 0.02 cannot be ruled out and may be sufficient to reproduce the double HB.

  15. A Fossil Bulge Globular Cluster Revealed by very Large Telescope Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.; Momany, Y.; Saviane, I.; Bica, E.; Jílková, L.; Salerno, G.M.; Jungwiert, Bruno


    Roč. 737, č. 1 (2011), 31/1-31/9 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxy * globular cluster s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.024, year: 2011

  16. Using Long-term Millisecond Pulsar Timing to Obtain Physical Characteristics of the Bulge Globular Cluster Terzan 5 (United States)

    Prager, Brian J.; Ransom, Scott M.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Arras, Phil; Cadelano, Mario


    Over the past decade, the discovery of three unique stellar populations and a large number of confirmed pulsars within the globular cluster Terzan 5 has raised questions over its classification. Using the long-term radio pulsar timing of 36 ms pulsars in the cluster core, we provide new measurements of key physical properties of the system. As Terzan 5 is located within the galactic bulge, stellar crowding and reddening make optical and near-infrared observations difficult. Pulsar accelerations, however, allow us to study the intrinsic characteristics of the cluster independent of reddening and stellar crowding and probe the mass density profile without needing to quantify the mass-to-light ratio. Relating the spin and orbital periods of each pulsar to the acceleration predicted by a King model, we find a core density of {1.58}-0.13+0.13 × 106 {M}⊙ pc-3, a core radius of {0.16}-0.01+0.01 pc, a pulsar density profile of n\\propto {r}-{3.14-0.53+0.52}, and a total mass of {M}{{T}}({R}\\perp pulsars were formed via electron-capture supernovae or exist in a core full of heavy white dwarfs and hard binaries. Finally, we provide an upper limit for the mass of a possible black hole at the core of the cluster of {M}{BH}≃ 3× {10}4 {M}⊙ .

  17. Ages of the Bulge Globular Clusters NGC 6522 and NGC 6626 (M28) from HST Proper-motion-cleaned Color–Magnitude Diagrams (United States)

    Kerber, L. O.; Nardiello, D.; Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.; Bica, E.; Cassisi, S.; Libralato, M.; Vieira, R. G.


    Bulge globular clusters (GCs) with metallicities [Fe/H] ≲ ‑1.0 and blue horizontal branches are candidates to harbor the oldest populations in the Galaxy. Based on the analysis of HST proper-motion-cleaned color–magnitude diagrams in filters F435W and F625W, we determine physical parameters for the old bulge GCs NGC 6522 and NGC 6626 (M28), both with well-defined blue horizontal branches. We compare these results with similar data for the inner halo cluster NGC 6362. These clusters have similar metallicities (‑1.3 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ ‑1.0) obtained from high-resolution spectroscopy. We derive ages, distance moduli, and reddening values by means of statistical comparisons between observed and synthetic fiducial lines employing likelihood statistics and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The synthetic fiducial lines were generated using α-enhanced BaSTI and Dartmouth stellar evolutionary models, adopting both canonical (Y ∼ 0.25) and enhanced (Y ∼ 0.30–0.33) helium abundances. RR Lyrae stars were employed to determine the HB magnitude level, providing an independent indicator to constrain the apparent distance modulus and the helium enhancement. The shape of the observed fiducial line could be compatible with some helium enhancement for NGC 6522 and NGC 6626, but the average magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars tend to rule out this hypothesis. Assuming canonical helium abundances, BaSTI and Dartmouth models indicate that all three clusters are coeval, with ages between ∼12.5 and 13.0 Gyr. The present study also reveals that NGC 6522 has at least two stellar populations, since its CMD shows a significantly wide subgiant branch compatible with 14% ± 2% and 86% ± 5% for first and second generations, respectively. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  18. Two groups of red giants with distinct chemical abundances in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553 through the eyes of APOGEE (United States)

    Tang, Baitian; Cohen, Roger E.; Geisler, Doug; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Villanova, Sandro; Carrera, Ricardo; Zamora, Olga; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Shetrone, Matthew; Frinchaboy, Peter; Meza, Andres; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Lane, Richard R.; Nitschelm, Christian; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey


    Multiple populations revealed in globular clusters (GCs) are important windows to the formation and evolution of these stellar systems. The metal-rich GCs in the Galactic bulge are an indispensable part of this picture, but the high optical extinction in this region has prevented extensive research. In this work, we use the high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data from Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) to study the chemical abundances of NGC 6553, which is one of the most metal-rich bulge GCs. We identify 10 red giants as cluster members using their positions, radial velocities, iron abundances, and NIR photometry. Our sample stars show a mean radial velocity of -0.14 ± 5.47 km s-1, and a mean [Fe/H] of -0.15 ± 0.05. We clearly separate two populations of stars in C and N in this GC for the first time. NGC 6553 is the most metal-rich GC where the multiple stellar population phenomenon is found until now. Substantial chemical variations are also found in Na, O, and Al. However, the two populations show similar Si, Ca, and iron-peak element abundances. Therefore, we infer that the CNO, NeNa, and MgAl cycles have been activated, but the MgAl cycle is too weak to show its effect on Mg. Type Ia and Type II supernovae do not seem to have significantly polluted the second generation stars. Comparing with other GC studies, NGC 6553 shows similar chemical variations as other relatively metal-rich GCs. We also confront current GC formation theories with our results, and suggest possible avenues for improvement in the models.

  19. Globular clusters - FADS and fallacies (United States)

    White, Raymond E.


    The types of globular clusters observed in the Milky Way Galaxy are described together with their known characteristics, with special attention given to correcting the erroneous statements made earlier about globular clusters. Among these are the following statements: the Galaxy is surrounded by many hundreds of globular clusters; all globular clusters are located toward the Galactic center, all globular clusters are 'metal poor' and move about the Galaxy in highly elliptical paths; all globular clusters contain RR Lyrae-type variable stars, and the RR Lyrae stars found outside of globulars have come from cluster dissolution or ejection; all of the stars in a given cluster were born at the same time and have the same chemical composition; X-ray globulars are powered by central black holes; and the luminosity functions for globular clusters are well defined and well determined. Consideration is given to the fact that globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds differ from those in the Milky Way by their age distribution and that the globulars of the SMC differ from those of the LMC.

  20. Galactic bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier; Gadotti, Dimitri


    This book consists of invited reviews on Galactic Bulges written by experts in the field. A central point of the book is that, while in the standard picture of galaxy formation a significant amount of the baryonic mass is expected to reside in classical bulges, the question what is the fraction of galaxies with no classical bulges in the local Universe has remained open. The most spectacular example of a galaxy with no significant classical bulge is the Milky Way. The reviews of this book attempt to clarify the role of the various types of bulges during the mass build-up of galaxies, based on morphology, kinematics, and stellar populations, and connecting their properties at low and high redshifts. The observed properties are compared with the predictions of the theoretical models, accounting for the many physical processes leading to the central mass concentration and their destruction in galaxies. This book serves as an entry point for PhD students and non-specialists and as a reference work for researchers...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)


    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: EMBLA survey. Galactic bulge metal-poor stars (Howes+, 2016) (United States)

    Howes, L. M.; Asplund, M.; Keller, S. C.; Casey, A. R.; Yong, D.; Lind, K.; Frebel, A.; Hays, A.; Alves-Brito, A.; Bessell, M. S.; Casagrande, L.; Marino, A. F.; Nataf, D. M.; Owen, C. I.; da Costa, G. S.; Schmidt, B. P.; Tisserand, P.


    Ten stars were observed using the MIKE high-resolution spectrograph on Magellan's 6.5m Clay telescope. The observations took place between April and June of 2012, and all make use of the full wavelength coverage offered by MIKE, with the spectra covering (as a minimum) 370-890nm. All except one star (SMSS J182637.10-342924.2) were configured with a 1.0 arcsec slit, resulting in resolving powers of 22000 in the blue and 28000 in the red, and were binned by two in both the spatial and spectral directions. SMSS J182637.10-342924.2 was instead observed in April as part of a different set of observations, where a slit with width of 0.35-arcsec and no spatial or spectral binning, was used. This provided resolving powers of 83000 and 65000, in the blue and red, respectively. (5 data files).

  3. Super and massive AGB stars - III. Nucleosynthesis in metal-poor and very metal-poor stars - Z = 0.001 and 0.0001 (United States)

    Doherty, Carolyn L.; Gil-Pons, Pilar; Lau, Herbert H. B.; Lattanzio, John C.; Siess, Lionel; Campbell, Simon W.


    We present a new grid of stellar models and nucleosynthetic yields for super-AGB stars with metallicities Z = 0.001 and 0.0001, applicable for use within galactic chemical evolution models. Contrary to more metal-rich stars where hot bottom burning is the main driver of the surface composition, in these lower metallicity models the effect of third dredge-up and corrosive second dredge-up also have a strong impact on the yields. These metal-poor and very metal-poor super-AGB stars create large amounts of 4He, 13C, 14N and 27Al as well as the heavy magnesium isotopes 25Mg and 26Mg. There is a transition in yield trends at metallicity Z ≈ 0.001, below which we find positive yields of 12C, 16O, 15N and 28Si, which is not the case for higher metallicities. We explore the large uncertainties derived from wind prescriptions in super-AGB stars, finding ≈2 orders of magnitude difference in yields of 22Ne, 23Na, 24, 25, 26Mg, 27Al and our s-process proxy isotope g. We find inclusion of variable composition low-temperature molecular opacities is only critical for super-AGB stars of metallicities below Z ≈ 0.001. We analyse our results, and those in the literature, to address the question: Are super-AGB stars the polluters responsible for extreme population in the globular cluster NGC 2808? Our results, as well as those from previous studies, seem unable to satisfactorily match the extreme population in this globular cluster.

  4. NGC 6273: Towards Defining A New Class of Galactic Globular Clusters? (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, Robert Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario L.; Ira Bailey, John; Crane, Jeffrey D.


    A growing number of observations have found that several Galactic globular clusters exhibit abundance dispersions beyond the well-known light element (anti-)correlations. These clusters tend to be very massive, have >0.1 dex intrinsic metallicity dispersions, have complex sub-giant branch morphologies, and have correlated [Fe/H] and s-process element enhancements. Interestingly, nearly all of these clusters discovered so far have [Fe/H]~-1.7. In this context, we have examined the chemical composition of 18 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the massive, metal-poor Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 using high signal-to-noise, high resolution (R~27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph mounted on the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that the cluster exhibits a metallicity range from [Fe/H]=-1.80 to -1.30 and is composed of two dominant populations separated in [Fe/H] and [La/Fe] abundance. The increase in [La/Eu] as a function of [La/H] suggests that the increase in [La/Fe] with [Fe/H] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. The most metal-rich star in our sample is not strongly La-enhanced, but is α-poor and may belong to a third "anomalous" stellar population. The two dominant populations exhibit the same [Na/Fe]-[Al/Fe] correlation found in other "normal" globular clusters. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins ω Centauri, M 22, M 2, and NGC 5286 as a possible new class of Galactic globular clusters.

  5. Magnesium isotopes in giants in the Milky Way inner disk and bulge: First results with 3D stellar atmospheres. (United States)

    Thygesen, Anders; Sbordone, Luca; Christlieb, Norbert; Asplund, Martin


    The Milky Way bulge is one of the most poorly understood components of our galaxy and its formation history is still a matter of debate (early collapse vs. disk instability). All knowledge of its chemical evolution history has been so far derived by measuring elemental abundances: no isotopic mixtures have been measured so far in the Bulge. While quite challenging, isotopic measurements can be accomplished with present instruments in bulge stars for a few elements, Magnesium being one of them.Of the three stable Mg isotopes, the most common one, 24Mg, is mainly produced by α capture in SN II, while the other two, 25Mg and 26Mg, can be produced efficiently in massive AGB stars, through the 22Ne(α, n)25Mg(n, γ)26Mg reactions as well as the Mg-Al chain. Moreover, SN II production of 25Mg and 26Mg increases with increasing progenitor metallicity, so in older stellar populations, where only the signature of metal-poor SNe is to be expected, one should not see a significant 25Mg or 26Mg fraction. However, if larger 25Mg/24Mg and 26Mg/24Mg ratios are observed, relative to what is produced in SNe, this is a clear sign of an AGB contribution. As such, Mg isotopic ratios are a very useful probe of AGB pollution onset and chemical enrichment timescale in a stellar population.Here, we present the first ever measurements of Mg isotopes in 7 red giant stars in the Milky Way bulge and inner disk, including two stars in the bulge globular cluster NGC6522. The isotopic abundances have been derived from high resolution, high signal-to-noise VLT-UVES spectra using both standard 1D atmospheric models as well as state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamical models and spectrosynthesis. The use of 3D atmospheric models impacts the derived ratios and this work represents the first derivation of Mg isotopes using full 3D spectrosynthesis. These results yield new constraints on the proposed formation scenarios of the Milky Way bulge.

  6. Stellar photometry in the inner bulge of M31 using the Hubble Space Telescope wide field camera (United States)

    Rich, R. M.; Mighell, K. J.


    We present photometry of two fields in the M31 bulge imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Camara (WFC). The nuclear field (r less than 40 arcsecs = 150 pc) giant branch extends to I = 19.5, M(sub I) = -5 (Cousins system), a full 0.9 mag brighter than the giant-branch tips of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters and M31 halo fields. This is also approximately = 1.5 mag brighter than the giant branches of metal-rich Galactic globular clusters, but is no brighter than Mould's (1986) M31 bulge field 1 kpc from the nucleus. The data also suggest that the brighter stars may be preferentially concentrated to the center. The 648 luminous stars detected in 2 x 10(exp 9) solar luminosity is approximately = 25% that expected from a hypothetical population of evolved asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with lifetimes approximately = 10(exp 5) yr, with the cautionary note that we are near the detection limit. The number of bright stars is also consistent with the progeny of blue stragglers, if one uses a lifetime for the thermal-pulsing AGB of 2 x 10(exp 6) yr. We strongly caution that incompleteness becomes severe below I = 19.9 mag and that future surveys are likely to find numbers of bright stars too large to accomodate the blue straggler progeny hypothesis. We have imaged an additional field 2 arcmin = 500 pc south of the nucleus. The brightest stars in this field are also I = 19.5, but bright stars appear less numerous than in the nuclear field. If the population resembles that of the Galactic bulge, then M(sub bol) = -4.5 is a lower limit to the giant-branch tip luminosity; infrared studies should reveal stars 0.5 mag or more brighter. Either high-metallicity or (more likely) age approximately = 10 Gyr may be responsible for the presence of these luminous AGB stars. These observations confirm that previous ground-based infrared studies (e.g., Rich & Mould 1991) very likely detect an extended giant branch and not spurious luminous stars caused by


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiushi; Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordan, Andres [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Mei, Simona [University of Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); West, Michael J., E-mail: [Maria Mitchell Observatory, 4 Vestal Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (United States)


    We study the azimuthal distribution of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies and compare them to their host galaxies using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. We find that in host galaxies with visible elongation ({epsilon} > 0.2) and intermediate to high luminosities (M{sub z} < -19), the GCs are preferentially aligned along the major axis of the stellar light. The red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations show strong alignment with the major axis of the host galaxy, which supports the notion that these GCs are associated with metal-rich field stars. The metal-rich GCs in lenticular galaxies show signs of being more strongly associated with disks rather than bulges. Surprisingly, we also find that the blue (metal-poor) GCs can also show the same correlation. If the metal-poor GCs are part of the early formation of the halo and built up through mergers, then our results support a picture where halo formation and merging occur anisotropically, and that the present-day major axis is an indicator of the preferred merging axis.

  8. Very metal-poor stars observed by the RAVE survey


    Matijevič, G.; Chiappini, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Kunder, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.


    Metal-poor stars trace the earliest phases in the chemical enrichment of the Universe. They give clues about the early assembly of the Galaxy as well as on the nature of the first stellar generations. Multi-object spectroscopic surveys play a key role in finding these fossil records in large volumes. Here we present a novel analysis of the metal-poor star sample in the complete Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) Data Release 5 catalog with the goal of identifying and characterizing all very me...

  9. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in different environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, S.; Skúladóttir, Á.; de Bennassuti, M.


    The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and their possible connections with the chemical elements produced by the first stellar generations is still highly debated. We briefly review observations of CEMP stars in different environments (Galactic stellar halo, ultra-faint, and classical

  10. Very metal-poor stars observed by the RAVE survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matijevič, G.; Chiappini, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Kunder, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F.


    Metal-poor stars trace the earliest phases in the chemical enrichment of the Universe. They give clues about the early assembly of the Galaxy as well as on the nature of the first stellar generations. Multi-object spectroscopic surveys play a key role in finding these fossil records in large

  11. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars and thermohaline mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stancliffe, R.J.; Glebbeek, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483324X; Izzard, R.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836052; Pols, O.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111811155


    One possible scenario for the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars is the accretion of carbon-rich material from a binary companion which may no longer visible. It is generally assumed that the accreted material remains on the surface of the star and does not mix with the interior until

  12. Global results from the HARPS metal-poor sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ségransan D.


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the global results of a HARPS-GTO program to search for planets orbiting a sample of metal-poor stars. The detection of several giant planets in long period orbits is discussed in the context of the metallicitygiant planet correlation.

  13. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania; Skúladóttir, Ása; Tolstoy, Eline


    We investigate the frequency and origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in Local Group dwarf galaxies by means of a statistical, data-calibrated cosmological model for the hierarchical build-up of the Milky Way and its dwarf satellites. The model self-consistently explains the variation

  14. Featured Image: Globular Cluster Orbits (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    This figure (click for the full view) shows the meridional galactic orbits of 12 globular clusters that orbit the Milky Way. The recent release of stellar parallax data from Gaia allowed a team of scientists at Dartmouth College to improve measurements of a number of galactic globular clusters very old clusters of stars that can either orbit within the galactic disk and bulge or more distantly in the galactic halo. In a recent publication led by Erin OMalley, the team presents their findings and combines their new measurements for the clusters with proper motions from past studies to calculate the orbits that these globulars take. These calculations show us whether the clusters reside in the galactic disk and bulge (as only NGC 104 does in the sample shown here, since its orbit is confined to 8 kpc radially and 4 kpc vertically of the galactic center), or if they are halo clusters. To learn more about the authors work, you can check out the paper below!CitationErin M. OMalley et al 2017 ApJ 838 162. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6574

  15. The formation of the Galactic bulge of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman K.


    Full Text Available We aim to determine if the bulge formed via mergers as predicted by Cold Dark Matter (CDM theory, or from disk instabilities, as suggested by its boxy shape, or both processes. We are observing about 28,000 bulge stars in fields that span longitudes of − 31 to + 26° and latitudes of − 5° to − 10°, targeting mostly red clump giants and we are measuring stellar velocities and chemical abundances. We have almost concluded our observations and have analysed data of 23,000 stars. We find a cylindrical rotation profile for the bulge which blends smoothly out into the disk and from the [Fe/H] results we find the bulge to be comprised of separate components, with an underlying slowly rotating metal poor subsample which we believe to be the inner halo stars and metal weak thick disk. We find only a small [Fe/H] gradient with latitude in the bulge, of − 0.07dex/kpc. This weak gradient does not necessarily support a merger origin for our bulge and the composite nature of the bulge is consistent with formation out of the thin disk as per instability formation models.

  16. Very metal-poor stars observed by the RAVE survey (United States)

    Matijevič, G.; Chiappini, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Kunder, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F.


    Metal-poor stars trace the earliest phases in the chemical enrichment of the Universe. They give clues about the early assembly of the Galaxy as well as on the nature of the first stellar generations. Multi-object spectroscopic surveys play a key role in finding these fossil records in large volumes. Here we present a novel analysis of the metal-poor star sample in the complete Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) Data Release 5 catalog with the goal of identifying and characterizing all very metal-poor stars observed by the survey. Using a three-stage method, we first identified the candidate stars using only their spectra as input information. We employed an algorithm called t-SNE to construct a low-dimensional projection of the spectrum space and isolate the region containing metal-poor stars. Following this step, we measured the equivalent widths of the near-infrared Ca II triplet lines with a method based on flexible Gaussian processes to model the correlated noise present in the spectra. In the last step, we constructed a calibration relation that converts the measured equivalent widths and the color information coming from the 2MASS and WISE surveys into metallicity and temperature estimates. We identified 877 stars with at least a 50% probability of being very metal-poor ([Fe/H] stars with literature metallicity values shows that our method works reliably and correctly estimates the uncertainties, which typically have valuesσ[Fe/H] ≈ 0.2 dex. In addition, when compared to the metallicity results derived using the RAVE DR5 pipeline, it is evident that we achieve better accuracy than the pipeline and therefore more reliably evaluate the very metal-poor subsample. Based on the repeated observations of the same stars, our method gives very consistent results. We intend to study the identified sample further by acquiring high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up observations. The method used in this work can also easily be extended to other large-scale data sets

  17. The 3D Structure of the Galactic Bulge (United States)

    Zoccali, Manuela; Valenti, Elena


    We review the observational evidences concerning the three-dimensional structure of the Galactic bulge. Although the inner few kpc of our Galaxy are normally referred to as the bulge, all the observations demonstrate that this region is dominated by a bar, i.e., the bulge is a bar. The bar has a boxy/peanut (X-shaped) structure in its outer regions, while it seems to become less and less elongated in its innermost region. A thinner and longer structure departing from the main bar has also been found, although the observational evidences that support the scenario of two separate structures has been recently challenged. Metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] ≲ -0.5 dex) trace a different structure, and also have different kinematics.

  18. Detecting metal-rich intermediate-age globular clusters in NGC4570 using K-band photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotulla, R.; Fritze, U.; Anders, P.


    Globular cluster systems (GCSs) of most early-type galaxies feature two peaks in their optical colour distributions. Blue-peak globular clusters (GCs) are believed to be old and metal-poor, whereas the ages, metallicities, and the origin of the red-peak GCs are still being debated. We obtained deep

  19. Origins of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars (United States)

    Sharma, Mahavir; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos S.; Cooke, Ryan J.


    We investigate the nature of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in Milky Way (MW) analogues selected from the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. The stellar evolution model in EAGLE includes the physics of enrichment by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, winds from massive stars, and Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SNe). In the simulation, star formation in young MW progenitors is bursty due to efficient stellar feedback, which enables poor metal mixing leading to the formation of CEMP stars with extreme abundance patterns. Two classes of CEMP stars emerge: those mostly enriched by low-metallicity Type II SNe with low Fe yields that drive galactic outflows, and those mostly enriched by AGB stars when a gas-poor galaxy accretes pristine gas. The first class resembles CEMP-no stars with high [C/Fe] and low [C/O], the second class resembles CEMP-s stars overabundant in s-process elements and high values of [C/O]. These two enrichment channels explain several trends seen in data: (i) the increase in the scatter and median of [C/O] at low and decreasing [O/H], (ii) the trend of stars with very low [Fe/H] or [C/H] to be of type CEMP-no and (iii) the reduction in the scatter of [α/Fe] with atomic number in metal-poor stars. In this interpretation, CEMP-no stars were enriched by the stars that enabled galaxies to reionize the Universe.

  20. Automated Selection of Metal-Poor Stars in the Galaxy (United States)

    Rhee, Jaehyon


    In this thesis I have developed algorithms for the efficient reduction and analysis of a large set of objective-prism data, and for the reliable selection of extremely metal-poor candidate stars in the Galaxy. Automated computer scans of the 308 photographic plates in the HK objective-prism / interference-filter survey of Beers and colleagues have been carried out with the Automatic Plate Measuring (APM) machine in Cambridge, England. Highly automated software tools have been developed in order to identify useful spectra and remove unusable spectra, to locate the positions of the Ca II H (3969 Å) and K (3933 Å) absorption lines, and to construct approximate continua. Equivalent widths of the Ca II H and K lines were then measured directly from these reduced spectra. A subset of 294,039 spectra from 87 of the HK survey plates (located within approximately 30 degrees of the South Galactic Pole) were extracted. Of these, 221,670 (75.4%) proved to be useful for subsequent analysis. I have explored new methodology, making use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) analysis approach, in order to select extremely metal-poor star candidates with high efficiency. The ANNs were trained to predict metallicity, [Fe/H], and to classify stars into 6 groups separated by temperature and metal abundance, based on two accurately measured parameters -- the de-reddened broadband (B-V)0 color for known HK survey stars with available photometric information, and the equivalent width of the Ca II K line in an 18 Å band, the K18 index, as measured from follow-up medium-resolution spectroscopy taken during the course of the HK survey. When provided with accurate input data, the trained networks were able to estimate [Fe/H] and to determine the class with high accuracy (with a robust estimated one-sigma scatter of SBI = 0.13 dex, and an overall correction rate of 91%). The ANN approach was then used in order to recover information on the K18 index and (B-V)0 color directly from the APM

  1. Discovery of a Metal-Poor Little Cub (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The discovery of an extremely metal-poor star-forming galaxy in our local universe, dubbed Little Cub, is providing astronomers with front-row seats to the quenching of a near-pristine galaxy.SDSS image of NGC 3359 (left) and Little Cub (right), with overlying contours displaying the location of hydrogen gas. Little Cubs (also shown in the inset) stellar mass lies in the blue contour of the right-hand side. The outer white contours show the extended gas of the galaxy, likely dragged out as a tidal tail by Little Cubs interaction with NGC 3359. [Hsyu et al. 2017]The Hunt for Metal-Poor GalaxiesLow-metallicity, star-forming galaxies can show us the conditions under which the first stars formed. The galaxies with the lowest metallicities, however, also tend to be those with the lowest luminosities making them difficult to detect. Though we know that there should be many low-mass, low-luminosity, low-metallicity galaxies in the universe, weve detected very few of them nearby.In an effort to track down more of these metal-poor galaxies, a team of scientists led by Tiffany Hsyu (University of California Santa Cruz) searched through Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, looking for small galaxies with the correct photometric color to qualify a candidate blue compact dwarfs, a type of small, low-luminosity, star-forming galaxy that is often low-metallicity.Hsyu and collaborators identified more than 2,500 candidate blue compact dwarfs, and next set about obtaining follow-up spectroscopy for many of the candidates from the Keck and Lick Observatories. Though this project is still underway, around 100 new blue compact dwarfs have already been identified via the spectroscopy, including one of particular interest: the Little Cub.Little CubThis tiny star-forming galaxy gained its nickname from its location in the constellation Ursa Major. Little Cub is perhaps 50 or 60 million light-years away, and Hsyu and collaborators find it to be one of the lowest-metallicity star

  2. The Shape of Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxies (United States)

    Putko, Joseph; Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Elmegreen, Bruce; Elmegreen, Debra


    This work is the first study on the 3D shape of starbursting extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs; a galaxy is said to be an XMP if its ionized gas-phase metallicity is less than 1/10 the solar value). A few hundred XMPs have been identified in the local universe primarily through mining the spectroscopic catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and follow-up observations have shown that metallicity drops significantly at the starburst (compared to the quiescent component of the galaxy). As the timescale for gas mixing is short, the metal-poor gas triggering the starburst must have been accreted recently. This is strong observational evidence for the cold flow accretion predicted by cosmological models of galaxy formation, and, in this respect, XMPs seem to be the best local analogs of the very first galaxies.The ellipsoidal shape of a class of galaxies can be inferred from the observed axial ratio (q) distribution (q = minor axis/major axis) of a large sample of randomly-oriented galaxies. Fitting ellipses to 200 XMPs using r-band SDSS images, we observe that the axial ratio distribution falls off at q ~0.8, and we determine that these falloffs are not due to biases in the data. The falloff at low axial ratio indicates that the XMPs are thick for their size, and the falloff at high axial ratio suggests the vast majority of XMPs are triaxial. We also observe that smaller XMPs are thicker in proportion to their size, and it is expected that for decreasing galaxy size the ratio of random to rotational motions increases, which correlates with increasing relative thickness. The XMPs are low-redshift dwarf galaxies dominated by dark matter, and our results are compatible with simulations that have shown dark matter halos to be triaxial, with triaxial stellar distributions for low-mass galaxies and with triaxiality increasing over time. We will offer precise constraints on the 3D shape of XMPs via Bayesian analysis of our observed axial ratio distribution.This work

  3. Searching for dust around hyper metal poor stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venn, Kim A.; Divell, Mike; Starkenburg, Else [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Puzia, Thomas H. [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Côté, Stephanie [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Lambert, David L., E-mail: [McDonald Observatory and the Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, RLM 15.308, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <–5, and other metal-poor stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excesses. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g., a warm debris disk (T ≤ 290 K), or debris disks with inner radii ≤1 AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-asymptotic giant branch spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g., a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 μm is detected at the 2σ level; if the excess is real and associated with this star, it may indicate the presence of (recent) dust-gas winnowing or a binary system.

  4. Towards ab initio extremely metal-poor stars (United States)

    Ritter, Jeremy S.; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker


    Extremely metal-poor stars have been the focus of much recent attention owing to the expectation that their chemical abundances can shed light on the metal and dust yields of the earliest supernovae. We present our most realistic simulation to date of the astrophysical pathway to the first metal-enriched stars. We simulate the radiative and supernova hydrodynamic feedback of a 60 M⊙ Population III star starting from cosmological initial conditions realizing Gaussian density fluctuations. We follow the gravitational hydrodynamics of the supernova remnant at high spatial resolution through its freely expanding, adiabatic, and radiative phases, until gas, now metal-enriched, has resumed runaway gravitational collapse. Our findings are surprising: while the Population III progenitor exploded with a low energy of 1051 erg and injected an ample metal mass of 6 M⊙, the first cloud to collapse after the supernova explosion is a dense surviving primordial cloud on which the supernova blast wave deposited metals only superficially, in a thin, unresolved layer. The first metal-enriched stars can form at a very low metallicity, of only 2-5 × 10-4 Z⊙, and can inherit the parent cloud's highly elliptical, radially extended orbit in the dark matter gravitational potential.

  5. Bright Metal-Poor Stars from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. II. A Chemodynamical Analysis (United States)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela; Rossi, Silvia; Lee, Young Sun; Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E.; Dietz, Sarah; Masseron, Thomas


    We obtain estimates of stellar atmospheric parameters for a previously published sample of 1777 relatively bright (9Hamburg/ESO Survey. The original Frebel et al. analysis of these stars was able to derive estimates of [Fe/H] and [C/Fe] only for a subset of the sample, due to limitations in the methodology then available. A new spectroscopic analysis pipeline has been used to obtain estimates of {T}{eff}, {log} g, [Fe/H], and [C/Fe] for almost the entire data set. This sample is very local—about 90% of the stars are located within 0.5 kpc of the Sun. We consider the chemodynamical properties of these stars in concert with a similarly local sample of stars from a recent analysis of the Bidelman and MacConnell “weak metal” candidates by Beers et al. We use this combined sample to identify possible members of the halo stream of stars suggested by Helmi et al. and Chiba & Beers, as well as stars that may be associated with stripped debris from the putative parent dwarf of the globular cluster Omega Centauri, suggested to exist by previous authors. We identify a clear increase in the cumulative frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with declining metallicity, as well as an increase in the fraction of CEMP stars with distance from the Galactic plane, consistent with previous results. We also identify a relatively large number of CEMP stars with kinematics consistent with the metal-weak thick-disk population, with possible implications for its origin.

  6. What the Milky Way bulge reveals about the initial metallicity gradients in the disc (United States)

    Fragkoudi, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Haywood, M.; Khoperskov, S.; Gomez, A.; Schultheis, M.; Combes, F.; Semelin, B.


    We use APOGEE DR13 data to examine the metallicity trends in the Milky Way (MW) bulge and we explore their origin by comparing two N-body models of isolated galaxies that develop a bar and a boxy/peanut (b/p) bulge. Both models have been proposed as scenarios for reconciling a disc origin of the MW bulge with a negative vertical metallicity gradient. The first model is a superposition of co-spatial, i.e. overlapping, disc populations with different scale heights, kinematics, and metallicities. In this model the thick, metal-poor, and centrally concentrated disc populations contribute significantly to the stellar mass budget in the inner galaxy. The second model is a single disc with an initial steep radial metallicity gradient; this disc is mapped by the bar into the b/p bulge in such a way that the vertical metallicity gradient of the MW bulge is reproduced, as has been shown already in previous works in the literature. However, as we show here, the latter model does not reproduce the positive longitudinal metallicity gradient of the inner disc, nor the metal-poor innermost regions seen in the data. On the other hand, the model with co-spatial thin and thick disc populations reproduces all the aforementioned trends. We therefore see that it is possible to reconcile a (primarily) disc origin for the MW bulge with the observed trends in metallicity by mapping the inner thin and thick discs of the MW into a b/p. For this scenario to reproduce the observations, the α-enhanced, metal-poor, thick disc populations must have a significant mass contribution in the inner regions, as has been suggested for the Milky Way.

  7. A Photometric Method for Discovering Extremely Metal Poor Stars (United States)

    Miller, Adam


    I present a new non-parametric machine-learning method for predicting stellar metallicity ([Fe/H]) based on photometric colors from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The method is trained using a large sample of ~150k stars with SDSS spectra and atmospheric parameter estimates (Teff, log g, and [Fe/H]) from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). For bright stars (g 2, corresponding to the stars for which the SSPP estimates are most reliable, the method is capable of predicting [Fe/H] with a typical scatter of ~0.16 dex. This scatter is smaller than the typical uncertainty associated with [Fe/H] measurements from a low-resolution spectrum. The method is suitable for the discovery of extremely metal poor (EMP) stars ([Fe/H] 50%), but low efficiency (E ~ 10%), samples of EMP star candidates can be generated from the sources with the lowest predicted [Fe/H]. To improve the efficiency of EMP star discovery, an alternative machine-learning model is constructed where the number of non-EMP stars is down-sampled in the training set, and a new regression model is fit. This alternate model improves the efficiency of EMP candidate selection by a factor of ~2. To test the efficacy of the model, I have obtained low-resolution spectra of 56 candidate EMP stars. I measure [Fe/H] for these stars using the well calibrated Ca II K line method, and compare our spectroscopic measurements to those from the machine learning model. Once applied to wide-field surveys, such as SDSS, Pan-STARRS, and LSST, the model will identify thousands of previously unknown EMP stars.

  8. Searching for fossil fragments of the Galactic bulge formation process (United States)

    Ferraro, Francesco


    We have discovered that the stellar system Terzan5 (Ter5) in the Galactic bulge harbors stellar populations with very different IRON content (delta[Fe/H] 1 dex, Ferraro+09, Nature 462, 483) and AGES (12 Gyr and 4.5 Gyr for the sub-solar and super-solar metallicity populations, respectively, Ferraro+16, ApJ,828,75). This evidence demonstrates that Ter5 is not a globular cluster, and identifies it as (1) a site in the Galactic bulge where recent star formation occurred, and (2) the remnant of a massive system able to retain the iron-enriched gas ejected by violent supernova explosions. The striking chemical similarity between Ter5 and the bulge opens the fascinating possibility that we discovered the fossil remnant of a pristine massive structure that could have contributed to the Galactic bulge assembly.Prompted by this finding, here we propose to secure deep HST optical observations for the bulge stellar system Liller1, that shows a similar complexity as Ter5, with evidence of two stellar populations with different iron content. The immediate goal is to properly explore the main sequence turnoff region of the system for unveiling possible splits due to stellar populations of different ages. As demonstrated by our experience with Ter5, the requested HST observations, in combination with the K-band diffraction limited images that we already secured with GeMS-Gemini, are essential to achieve this goal.The project will allow us to establish if other fossil remnants of the bulge formation epoch do exist, thus probing that the merging of pre-evolved massive structures has been an important channel for the formation of the Galactic bulge.

  9. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Matteucci, F.; Spitoni, E.; Schultheis, M.; Hayden, M.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Donati, P.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.


    Context. As observational evidence steadily accumulates, the nature of the Galactic bulge has proven to be rather complex: the structural, kinematic, and chemical analyses often lead to contradictory conclusions. The nature of the metal-rich bulge - and especially of the metal-poor bulge - and their relation with other Galactic components, still need to be firmly defined on the basis of statistically significant high-quality data samples. Aims: We used the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey to characterize the bulge metallicity distribution function (MDF), magnesium abundance, spatial distribution, and correlation of these properties with kinematics. Moreover, the homogeneous sampling of the different Galactic populations provided by the Gaia-ESO survey allowed us to perform a comparison between the bulge, thin disk, and thick disk sequences in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane in order to constrain the extent of their eventual chemical similarities. Methods: We obtained spectroscopic data for 2500 red clump stars in 11 bulge fields, sampling the area -10° ≤ l ≤ + 8° and -10° ≤ b ≤ -4° from the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey. A sample of 6300 disk stars was also selected for comparison. Spectrophotometric distances computed via isochrone fitting allowed us to define a sample of stars likely located in the bulge region. Results: From a Gaussian mixture models (GMM) analysis, the bulge MDF is confirmed to be bimodal across the whole sampled area. The relative ratio between the two modes of the MDF changes as a function of b, with metal-poor stars dominating at high latitudes. The metal-rich stars exhibit bar-like kinematics and display a bimodality in their magnitude distribution, a feature which is tightly associated with the X-shape bulge. They overlap with the metal-rich end of the thin disk sequence in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. On the other hand, metal-poor bulge stars have a more isotropic hot kinematics and do

  10. The most metal-poor damped Lyα systems: insights into chemical evolution in the very metal-poor regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, Ryan; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.


    We present a high spectral resolution survey of the most metal-poor damped Lyα absorption systems (DLAs) aimed at probing the nature and nucleosynthesis of the earliest generations of stars. Our survey comprises 22 systems with iron abundance less than 1/100 solar; observations of seven of these ...... measurements are currently available for only a few elements, we cannot yet rule out an additional contribution from Population II stars.......We present a high spectral resolution survey of the most metal-poor damped Lyα absorption systems (DLAs) aimed at probing the nature and nucleosynthesis of the earliest generations of stars. Our survey comprises 22 systems with iron abundance less than 1/100 solar; observations of seven...... of these are reported here for the first time. Together with recent measures of the abundances of C and O in Galactic metal-poor stars, we reinvestigate the trend of C/O in the very metal-poor (VMP) regime and we compare, for the first time, the O/Fe ratios in the most metal-poor DLAs and in halo stars. We confirm...

  11. Hidden bars and boxy bulges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrifield, MR; Kuijken, K

    It has been suggested that the boxy and peanut-shaped bulges found in some edge-on galaxies are galactic bars viewed from the side. We investigate this hypothesis by presenting emission-line spectra for a sample of 10 edge-on galaxies that display a variety of bulge morphologies. To avoid potential

  12. Variable stars in the VVV globular clusters. I. 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-García, Javier; Dékány, István; Catelan, Márcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Gran, Felipe; Leyton, Paul; Minniti, Dante [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Amigo, Pía, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)


    The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is opening a new window to study inner Galactic globular clusters (GCs) using their variable stars. These GCs have been neglected in the past due to the difficulties caused by the presence of elevated extinction and high field stellar densities in their lines of sight. However, the discovery and study of any present variables in these clusters, especially RR Lyrae stars, can help to greatly improve the accuracy of their physical parameters. It can also help to shed some light on the questions raised by the intriguing Oosterhoff dichotomy in the Galactic GC system. In a series of papers we plan to explore variable stars in the GCs falling inside the field of the VVV survey. In this first paper, we search for and study the variables present in two highly reddened, moderately metal-poor, faint, inner Galactic GCs: 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10. We report the discovery of sizable populations of RR Lyrae stars in both GCs. We use near-infrared period–luminosity relations to determine the color excess of each RR Lyrae star, from which we obtain both accurate distances to the GCs and the ratios of the selective-to-total extinction in their directions. We find the extinction toward both clusters to be elevated, non-standard, and highly differential. We also find both clusters to be closer to the Galactic center than previously thought, with Terzan 10 being on the far side of the Galactic bulge. Finally, we discuss their Oosterhoff properties, and conclude that both clusters stand out from the dichotomy followed by most Galactic GCs.

  13. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    .The most striking feature of these galaxies, however, is that they are surrounded by a large number of compact objects that appear to be globular clusters. From the observations, Van Dokkum and collaborators estimate that Dragonfly 44 and DFX1 have approximately 74 and 62 globulars, respectively significantly more than the low numbers expected for galaxies of this luminosity.Armed with this knowledge, the authors went back and looked at archival observations of 14 other UDGs also located in the Coma cluster. They found that these smaller and fainter galaxies dont host quite as many globular clusters as Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, but more than half also show significant overdensities of globulars.Main panel: relation between the number of globular clusters and total absolute magnitude for Coma UDGs (solid symbols) compared to normal galaxies (open symbols). Top panel: relation between effective radius and absolute magnitude. The UDGs are significantly larger and have more globular clusters than normal galaxies of the same luminosity. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Evidence of FailureIn general, UDGs appear to have more globular clusters than other galaxies of the same total luminosity, by a factor of nearly 7. These results are consistent with the scenario in which UDGs are failed galaxies: they likely have the halo mass to have formed a large number of globular clusters, but they were quenched before they formed a disk and bulge. Because star formation never got going in UDGs, they are now much dimmer than other galaxies of the same size.The authors suggest that the next step is to obtain dynamical measurements of the UDGs to determine whether these faint galaxies really do have the halo mass suggested by their large numbers of globulars. Future observations will continue to help us pin down the origin of these dim giants.CitationPieter van Dokkum et al 2017 ApJL 844 L11. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa7ca2


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunder, Andrea; Storm, J. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Hawkins, K. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Poleski, R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Johnson, C. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Cordero, M. J. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut: Zentrum für Astronomie, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nataf, D. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bono, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Walker, A. R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Koch, A. [Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); De Propris, R. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); and others


    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of −372 ± 8 km s{sup −1} and true space velocity of −482 ± 22 km s{sup −1} relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, −2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.

  15. Pulsars in Globular Clusters


    Camilo, Fernando; Rasio, Frederic A.


    More than 100 radio pulsars have been detected in 24 globular clusters. The largest observed samples are in Terzan 5 and 47 Tucanae, which together contain 45 pulsars. Accurate timing solutions, including positions in the cluster, are known for many of these pulsars. Here we provide an observational overview of some properties of pulsars in globular clusters, as well as properties of the globular clusters with detected pulsars. The many recent detections also provide a new opportunity to re-e...

  16. Modelling the nucleosynthetic properties of carbon-enhanced metal-poor RR Lyrae stars


    Stancliffe, Richard J.; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Lau, Herbert H. B.; Beers, Timothy C.


    Certain carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars likely obtained their composition via pollution from some of the earliest generations of asymptotic giant branch stars and as such provide important clues to early Universe nucleosynthesis. Recently, Kinman et al. discovered that the highly carbon- and barium-enriched metal-poor star SDSS J1707+58 is in fact an RR Lyrae pulsator. This gives us an object in a definite evolutionary state where the effects of dilution of material during the Main Sequence ...

  17. Youth bulges and youth unemployment


    David Lam


    The youth population bulge is often mentioned in discussions of youth unemployment and unrest in developing countries, most recently in explaining the “Arab Spring.” But the youth share of the population has fallen rapidly in recent decades in most countries, and is projected to continue to fall. Evidence on the link between youth population bulges and youth unemployment is mixed. It should not be assumed that declines in the relative size of the youth population will translate into falling y...

  18. Chemical abundances of the most metal-poor stars in the Milky Way (United States)

    Frebel, Anna


    Studying old, metal-poor stars allows for connecting the present state of the Galactic halo with its long-lasting assembly history. By retaining the chemical information from their formation time in their atmospheres, these low-mass (M ancient stars.

  19. Thermohaline mixing and gravitational settling in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stancliffe, R.J.; Glebbeek, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483324X


    We investigate the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars via the scenario of mass transfer from a carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch primary to a low-mass companion in a binary system. We explore the extent to which material accreted from a companion star mixes with that of the

  20. The first carbon-enhanced metal-poor star found in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skúladóttir, Á.; Tolstoy, E.; Salvadori, S.; Hill, V.; Pettini, M.; Shetrone, M. D.; Starkenburg, E.

    The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and their possible connection with the chemical elements produced by the first stellar generation is still highly debated. In contrast to the Galactic halo, not many CEMP stars have been found in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky

  1. Extremely metal-poor stars in classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies : Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafelmeyer, M.; Jablonka, P.; Hill, V.; Shetrone, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Starkenburg, E.; Venn, K. A.; Abel, T.; Francois, P.; Kaufer, A.; North, P.; Primas, F.; Szeifert, T.


    We present the results of a dedicated search for extremely metal-poor stars in the Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans dSphs. Five stars were selected from two earlier VLT/Giraffe and HET/HRS surveys and subsequently followed up at high spectroscopic resolution with VLT/UVES. All of them turned out to

  2. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: effects of binary evolution at low metallicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, O.R.; Izzard, R.G.


    Recent spectroscopic surveys have revealed a large number of extremely metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo. Many of these stars are being subjected to detailed spectroscopic analysis, and a surprisingly large fraction, about 25 %, turn out to be carbon-rich stars with enhancements of C by as much

  3. Extremely metal-poor stars in classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafelmeyer, M.; Jablonka, P.; Hill, V.; Shetrone, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Starkenburg, E.; Venn, K. A.; Abel, T.; Francois, P.; Kaufer, A.; North, P.; Primas, F.; Szeifert, T.


    We present the results of a dedicated search for extremely metal-poor stars in the Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans dSphs. Five stars were selected from two earlier VLT/Giraffe and HET/HRS surveys and subsequently followed up at high spectroscopic resolution with VLT/UVES. All of them turned out to

  4. Stellar Feedback from Galactic Bulges (United States)

    Tang, Shikui; Wang, D. Q.


    We demonstrate that feedback from galactic bulges can play an essential role in the halo gas dynamics and the evolution of their host galaxies by conducting a series of 1-D and 3-D simulations. In our 1-D models we approximately divide the the bulge stellar feedback into two phases: 1) a starbusrt-induced blastwave from the formation of bulge built up through frequent major mergers at high redshift and 2) a gradual feedback in forms of stellar wind and Type Ia SNe from low mass stars. Our simulations show that the combination of the two-phase feedback can heat the surrounding gas beyond the virial radius and stop further gas accretion, which naturally produces a baryon deficit around MW-like galaxies and explains the lack of large-scale X-ray halos, consistent with observations. The hot gas dynamics depends sensitively on the environment and bulge formation history. This dependency may account for the large dispersion in the X-ray luminosities of the galaxies with similar L_B. In the 3-D simulations, we examine the spatial, thermal, and chemical substructures and their effects on X-ray measurements. The sporadic SN explosion creates wealth of filamentary and shell-like structures in the hot gas and produces a broad lognormal-like emission-measure distribution, which enhances the X-ray emission at a low and high temperatures. The luminosity at 0.3-2.0 keV band is nearly tripled due to the gas structures. We find that the SN Ia ejecta are not well-mixed with the ambient medium within the bulge scale, and the X-ray emission is primarily from shocked stellar wind materials which in general has low metallicity.

  5. The multicomponent structure of bulges (United States)

    Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Krenz, Thomas; Barteldrees, Andreas


    The morphology of disk galaxies is usually described by two major components, the centrally concentrated spheroidal component, called the bulge, and an oblate disk. The ratio of there contribution to the total luminosity - the bulge-to-disk ratio - is one of the parameters characterizing the Hubble sequence. Following de Vaucouleurs (1948), for most galaxies the radial distribution of the outer spheroid is fairly well described by the r exp 1/4 law I(r)=I(sub 0) exp(-(alpha)r), whereas the radial luminosity distribution of the disk follows an exponential law: I(r)=I(sub 0) exp(-alpha(r exp 1/4)) (Freeman 1970), with r the radial distance from the center. I(sub 0) and alpha are characteristic constants for each individual galaxy. Parameters for the structural properties of these components give important constraints for models of the formation and evolution of galaxies. Therefore we have tried to decompose disk and bulge components from high S/N CCD observations of a sample of edge-on disk galaxies. A common procedure for the decomposition is to model one component in a region where it dominates and subtract it from the combined light distribution. This technique was successfully carried out e.g. by van der Kruit & Earl (1981, 1982) and Wakamatsu & Hamabe (1984, 1989). Here we present two more examples of bulge-dominated edge-on SO galaxies, namely ESO 506-G33 and NGC 7123, which show an additional small and concentrated central component besides disk and 'bulge'.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Ishigaki, Miho N.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken' ichi, E-mail: [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)


    We show that the low ratios of α elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) to Fe recently found for a small fraction of extremely metal-poor stars can be naturally explained with the nucleosynthesis yields of core-collapse supernovae, i.e., 13-25 M {sub ☉} supernovae, or hypernovae. For the case without carbon enhancement, the ejected iron mass is normal, consistent with observed light curves and spectra of nearby supernovae. On the other hand, the carbon enhancement requires much smaller iron production, and the low [α/Fe] of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars can also be reproduced with 13-25 M {sub ☉} faint supernovae or faint hypernovae. Iron-peak element abundances, in particular Zn abundances, are important to put further constraints on the enrichment sources from galactic archaeology surveys.

  7. Hot, Massive Stars in the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy, I Zw 18 (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.


    The extremely metal-poor galaxy I Zw 18, is the Rosetta Stone for understanding z=7-8 galaxies now being discovered by Hubb|e's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). Using HST/STIS images and recently obtained HST/COS ultraviolet spectra, we derive information about the hot, massive stars in this galaxy including stellar abundances, constraints on the stellar IMF and mass distribution of young clusters containing hot, massive stars.

  8. Origins of the Thick Disk as Traced by the Alpha Elements of Metal-poor Giant Stars Selected from Rave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruchti, G. R.; Fulbright, J. P.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Gilmore, G. F.; Bienayme, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Zwitter, T.


    Theories of thick-disk formation can be differentiated by measurements of stellar elemental abundances. We have undertaken a study of metal-poor stars selected from the RAVE spectroscopic survey of bright stars to establish whether or not there is a significant population of metal-poor thick-disk

  9. Modelling the nucleosynthetic properties of carbon-enhanced metal-poor RR Lyrae stars (United States)

    Stancliffe, Richard J.; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Lau, Herbert H. B.; Beers, Timothy C.


    Certain carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars likely obtained their composition via pollution from some of the earliest generations of asymptotic giant branch stars and as such provide important clues to early Universe nucleosynthesis. Recently, Kinman et al. discovered that the highly carbon- and barium-enriched metal-poor star SDSS J1707+58 is in fact an RR Lyrae pulsator. This gives us an object in a definite evolutionary state where the effects of dilution of material during the main sequence are minimized owing to the object having passed through first dredge-up. We perform detailed stellar modelling of putative progenitor systems in which we accreted material from asymptotic giant branch stars in the mass range 1-2 M⊙. We investigate how the surface abundances are affected by the inclusion of mechanisms like thermohaline mixing and gravitational settling. While we are able to find a reasonable fit to the carbon and sodium abundances of SDSS J1707+58, suggesting accretion of around 0.1 M⊙ from a 2 M⊙ companion, the strontium and barium abundances remain problematic and this object may have experienced something other than a standard s-process. We have more success in fitting the abundances of the mildly carbon-enriched, metal-poor RR Lyrae pulsator TY Gru (CS 22881-071), which we suggest received 0.1 M⊙ of material from a companion of around 1 M⊙.

  10. Empirical Determination of Dark Matter Velocities Using Metal-Poor Stars. (United States)

    Herzog-Arbeitman, Jonah; Lisanti, Mariangela; Madau, Piero; Necib, Lina


    The Milky Way dark matter halo is formed from the accretion of smaller subhalos. These sub-units also harbor stars-typically old and metal-poor-that are deposited in the Galactic inner regions by disruption events. In this Letter, we show that the dark matter and metal-poor stars in the Solar neighborhood share similar kinematics due to their common origin. Using the high-resolution eris simulation, which traces the evolution of both the dark matter and baryons in a realistic Milky Way analog galaxy, we demonstrate that metal-poor stars are indeed effective tracers for the local, virialized dark matter velocity distribution. The local dark matter velocities can therefore be inferred from observations of the stellar halo made by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey within 4 kpc of the Sun. This empirical distribution differs from the standard halo model in important ways and suggests that the bounds on the spin-independent scattering cross section may be weakened for dark matter masses below ∼10  GeV. Data from Gaia will allow us to further refine the expected distribution for the smooth dark matter component, and to test for the presence of local substructure.

  11. Opening the Window on Galaxy Assembly: Ages and Dynamics of Inner Milky Way Globular Clusters (United States)

    Cohen, Roger


    We propose a systematic investigation of the ages and dynamics of the Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) located in the inner Milky Way. By targeting bulge GGCs that have a first epoch of deep archival ACS/WFC or WFC3/UVIS imaging and obtaining a second epoch of deep (S/N>100 at the main sequence turnoff) ACS/WFC F606W, F814W imaging, we will exploit 7-14 year time baselines to measure precise (Cohen) to 25 sightlines, allowing the first quantitative test for spatial variation in the bulge mass function.

  12. The Pristine survey - I. Mining the Galaxy for the most metal-poor stars (United States)

    Starkenburg, Else; Martin, Nicolas; Youakim, Kris; Aguado, David S.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Arentsen, Anke; Bernard, Edouard J.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Caffau, Elisabetta; Carlberg, Raymond G.; Côté, Patrick; Fouesneau, Morgan; François, Patrick; Franke, Oliver; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Hill, Vanessa; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Jablonka, Pascale; Longeard, Nicolas; McConnachie, Alan W.; Navarro, Julio F.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Tolstoy, Eline; Venn, Kim A.


    We present the Pristine survey, a new narrow-band photometric survey focused on the metallicity-sensitive Ca H&K lines and conducted in the Northern hemisphere with the wide-field imager MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. This paper reviews our overall survey strategy and discusses the data processing and metallicity calibration. Additionally we review the application of these data to the main aims of the survey, which are to gather a large sample of the most metal-poor stars in the Galaxy, to further characterize the faintest Milky Way satellites, and to map the (metal-poor) substructure in the Galactic halo. The current Pristine footprint comprises over 1000 deg2 in the Galactic halo ranging from b ˜ 30° to ˜78° and covers many known stellar substructures. We demonstrate that, for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) stellar objects, we can calibrate the photometry at the 0.02-mag level. The comparison with existing spectroscopic metallicities from SDSS/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) and Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope shows that, when combined with SDSS broad-band g and I photometry, we can use the CaHK photometry to infer photometric metallicities with an accuracy of ˜0.2 dex from [Fe/H] = -0.5 down to the extremely metal-poor regime ([Fe/H] < -3.0). After the removal of various contaminants, we can efficiently select metal-poor stars and build a very complete sample with high purity. The success rate of uncovering [Fe/H]SEGUE < -3.0 stars among [Fe/H]Pristine < -3.0 selected stars is 24 per cent, and 85 per cent of the remaining candidates are still very metal poor ([Fe/H]<-2.0). We further demonstrate that Pristine is well suited to identify the very rare and pristine Galactic stars with [Fe/H] < -4.0, which can teach us valuable lessons about the early Universe.

  13. Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters


    The principal question of whether and how globular clusters can contribute to a better understanding of galaxy formation and evolution is perhaps the main driving force behind the overall endeavour of studying globular cluster systems. Naturally, this splits up into many individual problems. The objective of the Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies was to bring together researchers, both observational and theoretical, to present and discuss the most recent results. Topics covered in these proceedings are: internal dynamics of globular clusters and interaction with host galaxies (tidal tails, evolution of cluster masses), accretion of globular clusters, detailed descriptions of nearby cluster systems, ultracompact dwarfs, formations of massive clusters in mergers and elsewhere, the ACS Virgo survey, galaxy formation and globular clusters, dynamics and kinematics of globular cluster systems and dark matter-related problems. With its wide coverage of the topic, this book constitute...

  14. Are the Formation and Abundances of Metal-poor Stars the Result of Dust Dynamics? (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Conroy, Charlie


    Large dust grains can fluctuate dramatically in their local density, relative to the gas, in neutral turbulent disks. Small, high-redshift galaxies (before reionization) represent ideal environments for this process. We show via simple arguments and simulations that order-of-magnitude fluctuations are expected in local abundances of large grains (>100 Å) under these conditions. This can have important consequences for star formation and stellar metal abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. Low-mass stars can form in dust-enhanced regions almost immediately after some dust forms even if the galaxy-average metallicity is too low for fragmentation to occur. We argue that the metal abundances of these “promoted” stars may contain interesting signatures as the CNO abundances (concentrated in large carbonaceous grains and ices) and Mg and Si (in large silicate grains) can be enhanced and/or fluctuate almost independently. Remarkably, the otherwise puzzling abundance patterns of some metal-poor stars can be well fit by standard IMF-averaged core-collapse SNe yields if we allow for fluctuating local dust-to-gas ratios. We also show that the observed log-normal distribution of enhancements in these species agrees with our simulations. Moreover, we confirm that Mg and Si are correlated in these stars the abundance ratios are similar to those in local silicate grains. Meanwhile [Mg/Ca], predicted to be nearly invariant from pure SNe yields, shows very large enhancements and variations up to factors of ≳100 as expected in the dust-promoted model, preferentially in the [C/Fe]-enhanced metal-poor stars. Together, this suggests that (1) dust exists in second-generation star formation, (2) local dust-to-gas ratio fluctuations occur in protogalaxies and can be important for star formation, and (3) the light element abundances of these stars may be affected by the local chemistry of dust where they formed, rather than directly tracing nucleosynthesis from earlier

  15. Imprints of fast-rotating massive stars in the Galactic Bulge. (United States)

    Chiappini, Cristina; Frischknecht, Urs; Meynet, Georges; Hirschi, Raphael; Barbuy, Beatriz; Pignatari, Marco; Decressin, Thibaut; Maeder, André


    The first stars that formed after the Big Bang were probably massive, and they provided the Universe with the first elements heavier than helium ('metals'), which were incorporated into low-mass stars that have survived to the present. Eight stars in the oldest globular cluster in the Galaxy, NGC 6522, were found to have surface abundances consistent with the gas from which they formed being enriched by massive stars (that is, with higher α-element/Fe and Eu/Fe ratios than those of the Sun). However, the same stars have anomalously high abundances of Ba and La with respect to Fe, which usually arises through nucleosynthesis in low-mass stars (via the slow-neutron-capture process, or s-process). Recent theory suggests that metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars are able to boost the s-process yields by up to four orders of magnitude, which might provide a solution to this contradiction. Here we report a reanalysis of the earlier spectra, which reveals that Y and Sr are also overabundant with respect to Fe, showing a large scatter similar to that observed in extremely metal-poor stars, whereas C abundances are not enhanced. This pattern is best explained as originating in metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars, which might point to a common property of the first stellar generations and even of the 'first stars'.

  16. Evolution and Nucleosynthesis in Extremely Metal-Poor, Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars (United States)

    Iwamoto, Nobuyuki


    We evolve extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H]~=-3), thermally pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) models with the mass range of 1-8 Msolar. The chemical yields ejected from the models are obtained by considering mass loss. We find that the 1- and 2-Msolar AGB models are not affected by hot bottom burning (HBB). Nevertheless, they produce large amount of 7Li in an H-flash event. The occurrence of this event is associated with the ingestion of protons from the overlying H-rich envelope into the He convective shell driven by thermal pulse. The resulting 7Li abundances in the ejecta are higher than the primordial one predicted in Big-Bang nucleosynthesis. The efficient production of 7Li by the operation of HBB is also confirmed in the models of 4-8 Msolar. If these AGB stars have a low-mass companion, it is probable that mass loss from the primary AGB star brings the materials enriched in 7Li into the secondary star. This makes the surface composition of the secondary Li-rich. The formation of Li-rich stars, however, is strongly dependent on the mass loss history and binary separation. The nucleosynthesis for the other light nuclei is also calculated up to the end of the AGB phase. We find that the abundance patterns of the metal-poor stars CS 29528-041 and CS 29497-030 are well reproduced by yields from our AGB models.

  17. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in the SDSS-APOGEE data base (United States)

    Kielty, C. L.; Venn, K. A.; Loewen, N. B.; Shetrone, M. D.; Placco, V. M.; Jahandar, F.; Mészáros, Sz.; Martell, S. L.


    We identify six new carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars ([C/Fe]>+0.7 and [Fe/H] data base following Data Release 12. These stars have chemical compositions typical of metal-poor halo stars, e.g. mean [α/Fe] = +0.24 ± 0.24, based on the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline results. A lack of heavy-element spectral lines impedes further sub-classification of these CEMP stars, however, based on radial velocity (RV) scatter, we predict most are not CEMP-s stars which are typically found in binary systems. Only one object, 2M15312547+4220551, may be in a binary since it exhibits a scatter in its RV of 1.7 ± 0.6 km s-1 based on three visits over a 25.98 d baseline. Optical observations are now necessary to confirm the stellar parameters and low metallicities of these stars, to determine the heavy-element abundance ratios and improve the precision in the derived abundances, and to examine their CEMP sub-classifications.

  18. The age and structure of the Galactic bulge from Mira variables (United States)

    Catchpole, Robin M.; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Feast, Michael W.; Hughes, Shaun M. G.; Irwin, Mike; Alard, Christophe


    We report periods and JHKL observations for 643 oxygen-rich Mira variables found in two outer bulge fields at b = -7° and l = ±8° and combine these with data on 8057 inner bulge Miras from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, MACHO and Two Micron All Sky Survey surveys, which are concentrated closer to the Galactic Centre. Distance moduli are estimated for all these stars. Evidence is given showing that the bulge structure is a function of age. The longer period Miras (log P > 2.6, age ˜5 Gyr and younger) show clear evidence of a bar structure inclined to the line of sight in both the inner and outer regions. The distribution of the shorter period (metal-rich globular cluster age) Miras appears spheroidal in the outer bulge. In the inner region these old stars are also distributed differently from the younger ones and possibly suggest a more complex structure. These data suggest a distance to the Galactic Centre, R0, of 8.9 kpc with an estimated uncertainty of ˜0.4 kpc. The possible effect of helium enrichment on our conclusions is discussed.

  19. The Bulge Metallicity Distribution from the APOGEE Survey (United States)

    García Pérez, Ana E.; Ness, Melissa; Robin, Annie C.; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Sobeck, Jennifer; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R.; Bovy, Jo; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Cunha, Katia; Girardi, Léo; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Shetrone, Matthew; Smith, Verne V.


    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) provides spectroscopic information of regions of the inner Milky Way, which are inaccessible to optical surveys. We present the first large study of the metallicity distribution of the innermost Galactic regions based on high-quality measurements for 7545 red giant stars within 4.5 kpc of the Galactic center, with the goal to shed light on the structure and origin of the Galactic bulge. Stellar metallicities are found, through multiple Gaussian decompositions, to be distributed in several components, which is indicative of the presence of various stellar populations such as the bar or the thin and the thick disks. Super-solar ([Fe/H] = +0.32) and solar ([Fe/H] = +0.00) metallicity components, tentatively associated with the thin disk and the Galactic bar, respectively, seem to be major contributors near the midplane. A solar-metallicity component extends outwards in the midplane but is not observed in the innermost regions. The central regions (within 3 kpc of the Galactic center) reveal, on the other hand, the presence of a significant metal-poor population ([Fe/H] = ‑0.46), tentatively associated with the thick disk, which becomes the dominant component far from the midplane (| Z| ≥slant +0.75 kpc). Varying contributions from these different components produce a transition region at +0.5 kpc ≤slant | Z| ≤slant +1.0 {kpc}, characterized by a significant vertical metallicity gradient.

  20. Dust properties in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    Context. It has been suggested that the ratio of total-to-selective extinction R-V in dust in the interstellar medium differs in the Galactic bulge from its value in the local neighborhood. Aims. We attempt to test this suggestion. Methods. The mid-infrared hydrogen lines in 16 Galactic bulge PNe

  1. Ultrasonographic findings in patients with peristomal bulging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödahl, Rune I; Thorelius, Lars; Hallböök, Olof J


    The aim of this study was to obtain a classification of peristomal bulging based on findings at ultrasonography in patients with a sigmoid colostomy.......The aim of this study was to obtain a classification of peristomal bulging based on findings at ultrasonography in patients with a sigmoid colostomy....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schatz, Hendrik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    Using near-ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we detect neutral tellurium in three metal-poor stars enriched by products of r-process nucleosynthesis, BD +17 3248, HD 108317, and HD 128279. Tellurium (Te, Z = 52) is found at the second r-process peak (A Almost-Equal-To 130) associated with the N = 82 neutron shell closure, and it has not been detected previously in Galactic halo stars. The derived tellurium abundances match the scaled solar system r-process distribution within the uncertainties, confirming the predicted second peak r-process residuals. These results suggest that tellurium is predominantly produced in the main component of the r-process, along with the rare earth elements.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LAMOST metal-poor galaxies sample (Gao+, 2017) (United States)

    Gao, Y.-L.; Lian, J.-H.; Kong, X.; Lin, Z.-S.; Hu, N.; Liu, H.-Y.; Wang, E.-C.; Cao, Z.-H.; Hou, Y.-H.; Wang, Y.-F.; Zhang, Y.


    Among all galaxies from the LAMOST ExtraGAlactic Surveys (LEGAS), we first select a subsample of metal-poor galaxies with emission line flux ratios [NII]λ6583/Hα=3σ. We inspect these 237 objects visually, and find 73 of them are false detections. We also exclude 115 objects that are HI regions in nearby large galaxies using optical images with SDSS SkyServer. Finally, we check the right ascension and declination of the remaining sources, and note that one object was observed twice by LAMOST. We keep the observation that has better spectral quality. As a consequence, our final sample consists of 48 galaxies, making up only 0.05% of all the LAMOST galaxies until DR4 Q2. (1 data file).

  4. Impact of Lyman alpha pressure on metal-poor dwarf galaxies (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Haehnelt, Martin; Blaizot, Jérémy; Katz, Harley; Michel-Dansac, Léo; Garel, Thibault; Rosdahl, Joakim; Teyssier, Romain


    Understanding the origin of strong galactic outflows and the suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies is a key problem in galaxy formation. Using a set of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated dwarf galaxy embedded in a 10^{10} M_⊙ halo, we show that the momentum transferred from resonantly scattered Lyman-α (Lyα) photons is an important source of stellar feedback which can shape the evolution of galaxies. We find that Lyα feedback suppresses star formation by a factor of two in metal-poor galaxies by regulating the dynamics of star-forming clouds before the onset of supernova explosions (SNe). This is possible because each Lyα photon resonantly scatters and imparts ˜10-300 times greater momentum than in the single scattering limit. Consequently, the number of star clusters predicted in the simulations is reduced by a factor of ˜5, compared to the model without the early feedback. More importantly, we find that galactic outflows become weaker in the presence of strong Lyα radiation feedback, as star formation and associated SNe become less bursty. We also examine a model in which radiation field is arbitrarily enhanced by a factor of up to 10, and reach the same conclusion. The typical mass loading factors in our metal-poor dwarf system are estimated to be ˜5 - 10 near the mid plane, while it is reduced to ˜1 at larger radii. Finally, we find that the escape of ionizing radiation and hence the reionization history of the Universe is unlikely to be strongly affected by Lyα feedback.

  5. Stellar Populations and Star Formation History of the Metal-poor Dwarf Galaxy DDO 68 (United States)

    Sacchi, E.; Annibali, F.; Cignoni, M.; Aloisi, A.; Sohn, T.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Grocholski, A. J.; James, B.


    We present the star formation history (SFH) of the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy DDO 68, based on our photometry with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. With a metallicity of only 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.15 and a very isolated location, DDO 68 is one of the most metal-poor galaxies known. It has been argued that DDO 68 is a young system that started forming stars only ˜0.15 Gyr ago. Our data provide a deep and uncontaminated optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that allows us to disprove this hypothesis since we find a population of at least ˜1 Gyr old stars. The star formation activity has been fairly continuous over all the look-back time. The current rate is quite low, and the highest activity occurred between 10 and 100 Myr ago. The average star formation rate over the whole Hubble time is ≃0.01 M ⊙ yr-1, corresponding to a total astrated mass of ≃1.3 × 108 M ⊙. Our photometry allows us to infer the distance from the tip of the red giant branch, D = 12.08 ± 0.67 Mpc; however, to let our synthetic CMD reproduce the observed ones, we need a slightly higher distance, D = 12.65 Mpc, or (m - M)0 = 30.51, still inside the errors of the previous determination, and we adopt the latter. DDO 68 shows a very interesting and complex history, with its quite disturbed shape and a long tail, probably due to tidal interactions. The SFH of the tail differs from that of the main body mainly for enhanced activity at recent epochs likely triggered by the interaction. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA Contract NAS5-26555.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo-García, A.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Pérez-Montero, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Granada (Spain); Méndez-Abreu, J., E-mail: [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews (United Kingdom)


    The extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies analyzed in a previous paper have large star-forming regions with a metallicity lower than the rest of the galaxy. Such a chemical inhomogeneity reveals the external origin of the metal-poor gas fueling star formation, possibly indicating accretion from the cosmic web. This paper studies the kinematic properties of the ionized gas in these galaxies. Most XMPs have a rotation velocity around a few tens of km s{sup −1}. The star-forming regions appear to move coherently. The velocity is constant within each region, and the velocity dispersion sometimes increases within the star-forming clump toward the galaxy midpoint, suggesting inspiral motion toward the galaxy center. Other regions present a local maximum in velocity dispersion at their center, suggesting a moderate global expansion. The H α line wings show a number of faint emission features with amplitudes around a few per cent of the main H α component, and wavelength shifts between 100 and 400 km s{sup −1}. The components are often paired, so that red and blue emission features with similar amplitudes and shifts appear simultaneously. Assuming the faint emission to be produced by expanding shell-like structures, the inferred mass loading factor (mass loss rate divided by star formation rate) exceeds 10. Since the expansion velocity far exceeds the rotational and turbulent velocities, the gas may eventually escape from the galaxy disk. The observed motions involve energies consistent with the kinetic energy released by individual core-collapse supernovae. Alternative explanations for the faint emission have been considered and discarded.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E.; Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Amorín, R. [National Institute for Astrophysics, Astronomical Observatory of Rome, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Rome) (Italy); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM, T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, D. M., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)


    The Kennicutt–Schmidt (KS) relation between the gas mass and star formation rate (SFR) describes the star formation regulation in disk galaxies. It is a function of gas metallicity, but the low-metallicity regime of the KS diagram is poorly sampled. We have analyzed data for a representative set of extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), as well as auxiliary data, and compared these to empirical and theoretical predictions. The majority of the XMPs possess high specific SFRs, similar to high-redshift star-forming galaxies. On the KS plot, the XMP H i data occupy the same region as dwarfs and extend the relation for low surface brightness galaxies. Considering the H i gas alone, a considerable fraction of the XMPs already fall off the KS law. Significant quantities of “dark” H{sub 2} mass (i.e., not traced by CO) would imply that XMPs possess low star formation efficiencies (SFE{sub gas}). Low SFE{sub gas} in XMPs may be the result of the metal-poor nature of the H i gas. Alternatively, the H i reservoir may be largely inert, the star formation being dominated by cosmological accretion. Time lags between gas accretion and star formation may also reduce the apparent SFE{sub gas}, as may galaxy winds, which can expel most of the gas into the intergalactic medium. Hence, on global scales, XMPs could be H i-dominated, high-specific-SFR (≳10{sup −10} yr{sup −1}), low-SFE{sub gas} (≲10{sup −9} yr{sup −1}) systems, in which the total H i mass is likely not a good predictor of the total H{sub 2} mass, nor of the SFR.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Thompson, Ian B. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schatz, Hendrik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy-element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy-element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements heavier than zinc. The bulk of the heavy elements in these four stars are produced by r-process nucleosynthesis. These observations affirm earlier results suggesting that the tellurium found in metal-poor halo stars with moderate amounts of r-process material scales with the rare earth and third r-process peak elements. Cadmium often follows the abundances of the neighboring elements palladium and silver. We identify several sources of systematic uncertainty that must be considered when comparing these abundances with theoretical predictions. We also present new isotope shift and hyperfine structure component patterns for Lu II and Pb I lines of astrophysical interest.

  9. Chemical composition of metal-poor carbon stars in the halo. (United States)

    Kipper, T.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Klochkova, V. G.; Panchuk, V. E.


    In an attempt to increase the sample of metal-deficient late-type (i.e. cool) halo carbon stars analysed (only 3 such stars have previously been analysed spectroscopically), we obtained high-resolution visual spectra of 5 more candidates (and analysed in addition existing archive IR spectra for one of the stars) from the recent catalogue of Sleivyt e & Bartkevicius (1990), HD 25408 (C5,3J), HD 42272 (C5,4 CH), HD 59643 (C6,2CH), HD 189711 (C4,3 CH) and HD 197604 (C4,2 CH). From the spectra we have derived C/O ratios, N/C ratios, and metal abundances. If the oxygen abundance was fixed at logA(O)=7.4/8.3 (assuming that it follows the trend of oxygen overabundance relative to iron found in halo stars in general) we can furthermore derive [C/Fe] and [N/Fe]. New model atmospheres of metal-poor carbon stars were calculated with continuum opacity sources and molecular lines of CO, CN, C_2_, HCN, C_2_H_2_ and C_3_. Two of the stars, HD 25408 and HD 42272, turned out not to be CH stars. The other three stars, although late-type, showed the C/O and [Fe/H] ratios common in early-type CH stars. From the total sample of the six confirmed cool halo-CH stars now analysed, we find evidence that not all metal-poor low mass halo carbon stars can have formed due to mass transfer in binary systems, as is usually assumed. At least 3 of the stars, and possible more, are likely to have formed as intrinsic carbon stars, with some similarities to the carbon star population in the dwarf galaxies.

  10. Discovery of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-α system (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.


    We report the discovery and analysis of the most metal-poor damped Lyman α (DLA) system currently known, based on observations made with the Keck HIRES spectrograph. The metal paucity of this system has only permitted the determination of three element abundances: [C/H] = -3.43 ± 0.06, [O/H] = -3.05 ± 0.05 and [Si/H] = -3.21 ± 0.05, as well as an upper limit on the abundance of iron: [Fe/H] ≤ -2.81. This DLA is among the most carbon-poor environment currently known with detectable metals. By comparing the abundance pattern of this DLA to detailed models of metal-free nucleosynthesis, we find that the chemistry of the gas is consistent with the yields of a 20.5 M⊙ metal-free star that ended its life as a core-collapse supernova; the abundances we measure are inconsistent with the yields of pair-instability supernovae. Such a tight constraint on the mass of the progenitor Population III star is afforded by the well-determined C/O ratio, which we show depends almost monotonically on the progenitor mass when the kinetic energy of the supernova explosion is Eexp ≳ 1.5 × 1051 erg. We find that the DLA presented here has just crossed the critical 'transition discriminant' threshold, rendering the DLA gas now suitable for low mass star formation. We also discuss the chemistry of this system in the context of recent models that suggest some of the most metal-poor DLAs are the precursors of the 'first galaxies', and are the antecedents of the ultrafaint dwarf galaxies.

  11. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.


    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  12. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew


    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  13. Globular clusters with Gaia (United States)

    Pancino, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Giuffrida, G.; Marinoni, S.


    The treatment of crowded fields in Gaia data will only be a reality in a few years from now. In particular, for globular clusters, only the end-of-mission data (public in 2022-2023) will have the necessary full crowding treatment and will reach sufficient quality for the faintest stars. As a consequence, the work on the deblending and decontamination pipelines is still ongoing. We describe the present status of the pipelines for different Gaia instruments, and we model the end-of-mission crowding errors on the basis of available information. We then apply the nominal post-launch Gaia performances, appropriately worsened by the estimated crowding errors, to a set of 18 simulated globular clusters with different concentration, distance and field contamination. We conclude that there will be 103-104 stars with astrometric performances virtually untouched by crowding (contaminated by <1 mmag) in the majority of clusters. The most limiting factor will be field crowding, not cluster crowding: the most contaminated clusters will only contain 10-100 clean stars. We also conclude that (i) the systemic proper motions and parallaxes will be determined to 1 per cent or better up to ≃15 kpc, and the nearby clusters will have radial velocities to a few km s-1; (ii) internal kinematics will be of unprecedented quality, cluster masses will be determined to ≃10 per cent up to 15 kpc and beyond, and it will be possible to identify differences of a few km s-1 or less in the kinematics (if any) of cluster sub-populations up to 10 kpc and beyond; (iii) the brightest stars (V ≃ 17 mag) will have space-quality, wide-field photometry (mmag errors), and all Gaia photometry will have 1-3 per cent errors on the absolute photometric calibration.

  14. Constraining cosmic scatter in the Galactic halo through a differential analysis of metal-poor stars (United States)

    Reggiani, Henrique; Meléndez, Jorge; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Karakas, Amanda; Placco, Vinicius


    Context. The chemical abundances of metal-poor halo stars are important to understanding key aspects of Galactic formation and evolution. Aims: We aim to constrain Galactic chemical evolution with precise chemical abundances of metal-poor stars (-2.8 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -1.5). Methods: Using high resolution and high S/N UVES spectra of 23 stars and employing the differential analysis technique we estimated stellar parameters and obtained precise LTE chemical abundances. Results: We present the abundances of Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, and Ba. The differential technique allowed us to obtain an unprecedented low level of scatter in our analysis, with standard deviations as low as 0.05 dex, and mean errors as low as 0.05 dex for [X/Fe]. Conclusions: By expanding our metallicity range with precise abundances from other works, we were able to precisely constrain Galactic chemical evolution models in a wide metallicity range (-3.6 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -0.4). The agreements and discrepancies found are key for further improvement of both models and observations. We also show that the LTE analysis of Cr II is a much more reliable source of abundance for chromium, as Cr I has important NLTE effects. These effects can be clearly seen when we compare the observed abundances of Cr I and Cr II with GCE models. While Cr I has a clear disagreement between model and observations, Cr II is very well modeled. We confirm tight increasing trends of Co and Zn toward lower metallicities, and a tight flat evolution of Ni relative to Fe. Our results strongly suggest inhomogeneous enrichment from hypernovae. Our precise stellar parameters results in a low star-to-star scatter (0.04 dex) in the Li abundances of our sample, with a mean value about 0.4 dex lower than the prediction from standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis; we also study the relation between lithium depletion and stellar mass, but it is difficult to assess a correlation due to the limited mass range. We

  15. On the Dearth of Ultra-faint Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Filho, M. E.; Vecchia, C. Dalla [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Skillman, E. D., E-mail: [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Local extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) are of particular astrophysical interest since they allow us to look into physical processes characteristic of the early universe, from the assembly of galaxy disks to the formation of stars in conditions of low metallicity. Given the luminosity–metallicity relationship, all galaxies fainter than M{sub r} ≃ −13 are expected to be XMPs. Therefore, XMPs should be common in galaxy surveys. However, they are not common, because several observational biases hamper their detection. This work compares the number of faint XMPs in the SDSS-DR7 spectroscopic survey with the expected number, given the known biases and the observed galaxy luminosity function (LF). The faint end of the LF is poorly constrained observationally, but it determines the expected number of XMPs. Surprisingly, the number of observed faint XMPs (∼10) is overpredicted by our calculation, unless the upturn in the faint end of the LF is not present in the model. The lack of an upturn can be naturally understood if most XMPs are central galaxies in their low-mass dark matter halos, which are highly depleted in baryons due to interaction with the cosmic ultraviolet background and to other physical processes. Our result also suggests that the upturn toward low luminosity of the observed galaxy LF is due to satellite galaxies.

  16. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-poor Gas-rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691 (United States)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Gordon, Alex J. R.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Aver, Erik


    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H I in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H I masses in the range of 106-107.2 M ⊙, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H II region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O III]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H I survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  17. J0811+4730: the most metal-poor star-forming dwarf galaxy known (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Thuan, T. X.; Guseva, N. G.; Liss, S. E.


    We report the discovery of the most metal-poor dwarf star-forming galaxy (SFG) known to date, J0811+4730. This galaxy, at a redshift z = 0.04444, has a Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g-band absolute magnitude Mg = -15.41 mag. It was selected by inspecting the spectroscopic data base in the Data Release 13 (DR13) of the SDSS. Large Binocular Telescope/Multi-Object Double spectrograph (LBT/MODS) spectroscopic observations reveal its oxygen abundance to be 12 + log O/H = 6.98 ± 0.02, the lowest ever observed for an SFG. J0811+4730 strongly deviates from the main sequence defined by SFGs in the emission line diagnostic diagrams and the metallicity-luminosity diagram. These differences are caused mainly by the extremely low oxygen abundance in J0811+4730, which is ∼10 times lower than that in main-sequence SFGs with similar luminosities. By fitting the spectral energy distributions of the SDSS and LBT spectra, we derive a stellar mass of M⋆ = 106.24-106.29 M⊙, and we find that a considerable fraction of the galaxy stellar mass was formed during the most recent burst of star formation.

  18. An Extremely Metal-Poor Population of L* Galaxies at z~0.35 (United States)

    Salzer, John; Finn, Rose; Helou, George


    We propose to obtain IRAC and MIPS observations of seven prototypes of a recently discovered class of star-forming galaxies with 0.29 KISS), recent optical spectroscopy in the far red has revealed these objects to be very metal-poor star-forming galaxies. These galaxies follow a luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relation that parallels the one defined by low-redshift galaxies, but is offset by a factor of 10 to lower abundances! The amount of chemical and/or luminosity evolution required to place these galaxies on the local L-Z relation is extreme. Either they are late-forming massive systems, which would challenge the current paradigm of galaxy formation, or they represent intense starbursts in dwarf-dwarf mergers. In either case, these objects represent an extreme stage of galaxy evolution taking place at relatively low redshift. In order to arrive at a more complete understanding of the nature of these objects, we are applying now to DDT in order to capture a minimum of FIR information before Spitzer runs out of He coolant. We stress that the nature of these objects has only recently been recognized, so that it was not possible to apply to observe them during the most recent call for proposals.

  19. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor. (United States)

    Frebel, Anna; Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D


    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. On the basis of the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. Verification of the iron-deficiency, however, and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are necessary to demonstrate that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming its iron abundance of less than 1/4,000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern follows that seen in low-metallicity halo stars, including the alpha-elements. Such chemical similarity indicates that the systems destroyed to form the halo billions of years ago were not fundamentally different from the progenitors of present-day dwarfs, and suggests that the early chemical enrichment of all galaxies may be nearly identical.

  20. M32: Is there an Ancient and Metal-poor Stellar Population? (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuliana; Monachesi, Antonela; Trager, Scott C.; Lauer, Tod R.; Saha, Abhijit; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Freedman, Wendy; Dressler, Alan; Grillmair, Carl; Tolstoy, Eline


    We observed two fields near M32 with the ACS/HRC (Program GO-10572, PI: T. Lauer) on board the Hubble Space Telescope, located at distances of about 1.8' and 5.4' (hereafter F1 and F2, respectively) from the center of M32. To obtain a very detailed and deep color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and to look for short period variability, we obtained time-series imaging of each field in 32-orbit-long exposures using the F435W (B) and F555W (V) filters, spanning a temporal range of 2 days per filter. We focus on our detection of variability on RR Lyrae variable stars, which represents the only way to obtain information about the presence of a very old population (larger than 10 Gyr) in M32 from optical data. Here we present results obtained from the detection of 31 RR Lyrae in these fields: 17 in F1 and 14 in F2. We claim we detected 7+4-3 RR Lyrae variables belonging to M32 in F1 thus indicating the presence of a metal-poor ancient population in M32.

  1. Light, alpha, and Fe-peak element abundances in the galactic bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kobayashi, Chiaki [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Kunder, Andrea [Leibniz-Institute für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Ander Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Koch, Andreas, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, Heidelberg (Germany)


    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l, b) = (+5.25,–3.02) and (0,–12). The (+5.25,–3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000), high signal-to-noise ration (S/N ≳ 70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the European Southern Observatory archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. This work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H] ≳ –0.5. In particular, the bulge [α/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick disk, and the Fe-peak elements Co, Ni, and Cu appear enhanced compared to the disk. There is also some evidence that the [Na/Fe] (but not [Al/Fe]) trends between the bulge and local disk may be different at low and high metallicity. We also find that the velocity dispersion decreases as a function of increasing [Fe/H] for both fields, and do not detect any significant cold, high-velocity populations. A comparison with chemical enrichment models indicates that a significant fraction of hypernovae may be required to explain the bulge abundance trends, and that initial mass functions that are steep, top-heavy (and do not include strong outflow), or truncated to avoid including contributions from stars >40 M {sub ☉} are ruled out, in particular because of disagreement with the Fe-peak abundance data. For most elements, the NGC 6553 stars exhibit abundance trends nearly identical to comparable metallicity bulge field

  2. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista


    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  3. Kinematic Signatures of Bulges Correlate with Bulge Morphologies and Sérsic Index (United States)

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Saglia, Roberto P.; Fisher, David B.; Drory, Niv; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich


    We use the Marcario Low Resolution Spectrograph at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope to study the kinematics of pseudobulges and classical bulges in the nearby universe. We present major axis rotational velocities, velocity dispersions, and h 3 and h 4 moments derived from high-resolution (σinst ≈ 39 km s-1) spectra for 45 S0 to Sc galaxies; for 27 of the galaxies we also present minor axis data. We combine our kinematics with bulge-to-disk decompositions. We demonstrate for the first time that purely kinematic diagnostics of the bulge dichotomy agree systematically with those based on Sérsic index. Low Sérsic index bulges have both increased rotational support (higher v/σ values) and on average lower central velocity dispersions. Furthermore, we confirm that the same correlation also holds when visual morphologies are used to diagnose bulge type. The previously noted trend of photometrically flattened bulges to have shallower velocity dispersion profiles turns out to be significant and systematic if the Sérsic index is used to distinguish between pseudobulges and classical bulges. The anti-correlation between h 3 and v/σ observed in elliptical galaxies is also observed in intermediate-type galaxies, irrespective of bulge type. Finally, we present evidence for formerly undetected counter-rotation in the two systems NGC 3945 and NGC 4736. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; Alfvin, Erik D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Johnson, Megan; Koribalski, Baerbel [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, NSW 1710, Epping (Australia); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, P.O. Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Ford, H. Alyson [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Girardi, Léo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Hirschauer, Alec S.; Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J.; Van Sistine, Angela [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Elson, E. C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Marigo, Paola; Rosenfield, Philip [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Rosenberg, Jessica L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Venkatesan, Aparna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton Street, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Warren, Steven R., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, CSS Bldg., Rm. 1024, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)


    We present H I spectral-line imaging of the extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68. This system has a nebular oxygen abundance of only ∼3% Z {sub ☉}, making it one of the most metal-deficient galaxies known in the local volume. Surprisingly, DDO 68 is a relatively massive and luminous galaxy for its metal content, making it a significant outlier in the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relationships. The origin of such a low oxygen abundance in DDO 68 presents a challenge for models of the chemical evolution of galaxies. One possible solution to this problem is the infall of pristine neutral gas, potentially initiated during a gravitational interaction. Using archival H I spectral-line imaging obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we have discovered a previously unknown companion of DDO 68. This low-mass (M{sub H} {sub I} = 2.8 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}), recently star-forming (SFR{sub FUV} = 1.4 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, SFR{sub Hα} < 7 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) companion has the same systemic velocity as DDO 68 (V {sub sys} = 506 km s{sup –1}; D = 12.74 ± 0.27 Mpc) and is located at a projected distance of ∼42 kpc. New H I maps obtained with the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope provide evidence that DDO 68 and this companion are gravitationally interacting at the present time. Low surface brightness H I gas forms a bridge between these objects.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karinkuzhi, Drisya; Goswami, Aruna [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Masseron, Thomas [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)


    We present, for the first time, an abundance analysis of a very metal-poor carbon-enhanced star CD-27 14351 based on a high-resolution ( R  ∼ 48,000) FEROS spectrum. Our abundance analysis performed using local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres shows that the object is a cool star with stellar atmospheric parameters, effective temperature T {sub eff} = 4335 K, surface gravity log g  = 0.5, microturbulence ξ  = 2.42 km s{sup −1}, and metallicity [Fe/H] = −2.6. The star exhibits high carbon and nitrogen abundances with [C/Fe] = 2.89 and [N/Fe] = 1.89. Overabundances of neutron-capture elements are evident in Ba, La, Ce, and Nd, with estimated [X/Fe] > 1, the largest enhancement being seen in Ce with [Ce/Fe] = 2.63. While the first peak s -process elements Sr and Y are found to be enhanced with respect to Fe, ([Sr/Fe] = 1.73 and [Y/Fe] = 1.91), the third peak s -process element Pb could not be detected in our spectrum at the given resolution. Europium, primarily an r -process element also shows an enhancement with [Eu/Fe] = 1.65. With [Ba/Eu] = 0.12, the object CD-27 14351 satisfies the classification criterion for a CEMP-r/s star. The elemental abundance distributions observed in this star are discussed in light of the chemical abundances observed in other CEMP stars in the literature.

  6. Low-energy Population III supernovae and the origin of extremely metal-poor stars (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Heger, Alexander; Whalen, Daniel J.; Moriya, Takashi J.; Bromm, Volker; Woosley, S. E.


    Some ancient, dim, metal-poor stars may have formed in the ashes of the first supernovae (SNe). If their chemical abundances can be reconciled with the elemental yields of specific Population III (Pop III) explosions, they could reveal the properties of primordial stars. But multidimensional simulations of such explosions are required to predict their yields because dynamical instabilities can dredge material up from deep in the ejecta that would otherwise be predicted to fall back on to the central remnant and be lost in one-dimensional (1D) models. We have performed two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of two low-energy Pop III SNe, a 12.4 M⊙ explosion and a 60 M⊙ explosion, and find that they produce elemental yields that are a good fit to those measured in the most iron-poor star discovered to date, SMSS J031300.36-670839.3 (J031300). Fallback on to the compact remnant in these weak explosions accounts for the lack of measurable iron in J031300 and its low iron-group abundances in general. Our 2D explosions produce higher abundances of heavy elements (atomic number Z > 20) than their 1D counterparts due to dredge-up by fluid instabilities. Since almost no 56Ni is ejected by these weak SNe, their low luminosities will prevent their detection in the near-infrared with the James Webb Space Telescope and future 30-m telescopes on the ground. The only evidence that they ever occurred will be in the fossil abundance record.

  7. Early evolution of the Galactic halo revealed from Hipparcos observations of metal-poor stars (United States)

    Chiba, Masashi; Yoshii, Yuzuru


    The kinematics of 122 red giant and 124 RR Lyrae stars in the solar neighborhood are studied using accurate measurements of their proper motions obtained by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite, combined with their published photometric distances, metal abundances, and radial velocities. A majority of these sample stars have metal abundances of (Fe/H) = -1 or less and thus represent the old stellar populations in the Galaxy. The halo component, with (Fe/H) = -1.6 or less, is characterized by a lack of systemic rotation and a radially elongated velocity ellipsoid. About 16 percent of such metal-poor stars have low orbital eccentricities, and we see no evidence of a correlation between (Fe/H) and e. Based on the model for the e-distribution of orbits, we show that this fraction of low-e stars for (Fe/H) = -1.6 or less is explained by the halo component alone, without introducing the extra disk component claimed by recent workers. This is also supported by the absence of a significant change in the e-distribution with height from the Galactic plane. In the intermediate-metallicity range, we find that stars with disklike kinematics have only modest effects on the distributions of rotational velocities and e for the sample at absolute value of z less than 1 kpc. This disk component appears to constitute only 10 percent for (Fe/H) between -1.6 and -1 and 20 percent for (Fe/H) between -1.4 and -1.

  8. New detections of arsenic, selenium, and other heavy elements in two metal-poor stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schatz, Hendrik; Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)


    We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain new high-quality spectra covering the 1900 ≤λ ≤ 2360 Å wavelength range for two metal-poor stars, HD 108317 and HD 128279. We derive abundances of Cu II, Zn II, As I, Se I, Mo II, and Cd II, which have not been detected previously in either star. Abundances derived for Ge I, Te I, Os II, and Pt I confirm those derived from lines at longer wavelengths. We also derive upper limits from the non-detection of W II, Hg II, Pb II, and Bi I. The mean [As/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and five others in the literature is unchanged over the metallicity range –2.8 < [Fe/H] <–0.6, ([As/Fe]) = +0.28 ± 0.14 (σ = 0.36 dex). The mean [Se/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and six others in the literature is also constant, ([Se/Fe]) = +0.16 ± 0.09 (σ = 0.26 dex). The As and Se abundances are enhanced relative to a simple extrapolation of the iron-peak abundances to higher masses, suggesting that this mass region (75 ≤A ≤ 82) may be the point at which a different nucleosynthetic mechanism begins to dominate the quasi-equilibrium α-rich freezeout of the iron peak. ([Cu II/Cu I]) = +0.56 ± 0.23 in HD 108317 and HD 128279, and we infer that lines of Cu I may not be formed in local thermodynamic equilibrium in these stars. The [Zn/Fe], [Mo/Fe], [Cd/Fe], and [Os/Fe] ratios are also derived from neutral and ionized species, and each ratio pair agrees within the mutual uncertainties, which range from 0.15 to 0.52 dex.

  9. Does the Galactic Bulge Have Fewer Planets? (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The Milky Ways dense central bulge is a very different environment than the surrounding galactic disk in which we live. Do the differences affect the ability of planets to form in the bulge?Exploring Galactic PlanetsSchematic illustrating how gravitational microlensing by an extrasolar planet works. [NASA]Planet formation is a complex process with many aspects that we dont yet understand. Do environmental properties like host star metallicity, the density of nearby stars, or the intensity of the ambient radiation field affect the ability of planets to form? To answer these questions, we will ultimately need to search for planets around stars in a large variety of different environments in our galaxy.One way to detect recently formed, distant planets is by gravitational microlensing. In this process, light from a distant source star is bent by a lens star that is briefly located between us and the source. As the Earth moves, this momentary alignment causes a blip in the sources light curve that we can detect and planets hosted by the lens star can cause an additional observable bump.Artists impression of the Milky Way galaxy. The central bulge is much denserthan the surroundingdisk. [ESO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kornmesser/R. Hurt]Relative AbundancesMost source stars reside in the galactic bulge, so microlensing events can probe planetary systems at any distance between the Earth and the galactic bulge. This means that planet detections from microlensing could potentially be used to measure the relative abundances of exoplanets in different parts of our galaxy.A team of scientists led by Matthew Penny, a Sagan postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University, set out to do just that. The group considered a sample of 31 exoplanetary systems detected by microlensing and asked the following question: are the planet abundances in the galactic bulge and the galactic disk the same?A Paucity of PlanetsTo answer this question, Penny and collaborators derived the expected

  10. Rotational mixing in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with s-process enrichment (United States)

    Matrozis, E.; Stancliffe, R. J.


    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with s-process enrichment (CEMP-s) are believed to be the products of mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companion, which has long since become a white dwarf. The surface abundances of CEMP-s stars are thus commonly assumed to reflect the nucleosynthesis output of the first AGB stars. We have previously shown that, for this to be the case, some physical mechanism must counter atomic diffusion (gravitational settling and radiative levitation) in these nearly fully radiative stars, which otherwise leads to surface abundance anomalies clearly inconsistent with observations. Here we take into account angular momentum accretion by these stars. We compute in detail the evolution of typical CEMP-s stars from the zero-age main sequence, through the mass accretion, and up the red giant branch for a wide range of specific angular momentum ja of the accreted material, corresponding to surface rotation velocities, vrot, between about 0.3 and 300 kms-1. We find that only for ja ≳ 1017 cm2s-1 (vrot > 20 kms-1, depending on mass accreted) angular momentum accretion directly causes chemical dilution of the accreted material. This could nevertheless be relevant to CEMP-s stars, which are observed to rotate more slowly, if they undergo continuous angular momentum loss akin to solar-like stars. In models with rotation velocities characteristic of CEMP-s stars, rotational mixing primarily serves to inhibit atomic diffusion, such that the maximal surface abundance variations (with respect to the composition of the accreted material) prior to first dredge-up remain within about 0.4 dex without thermohaline mixing or about 0.5-1.5 dex with thermohaline mixing. Even in models with the lowest rotation velocities (vrot ≲ 1 kms-1), rotational mixing is able to severely inhibit atomic diffusion, compared to non-rotating models. We thus conclude that it offers a natural solution to the problem posed by atomic diffusion and cannot be

  11. Physical conditions of the molecular gas in metal-poor galaxies (United States)

    Hunt, L. K.; Weiß, A.; Henkel, C.; Combes, F.; García-Burillo, S.; Casasola, V.; Caselli, P.; Lundgren, A.; Maiolino, R.; Menten, K. M.; Testi, L.


    Studying the molecular component of the interstellar medium (ISM) in metal-poor galaxies has been challenging because of the faintness of carbon monoxide emission, the most common proxy of H2. Here we present new detections of molecular gas at low metallicities, and assess the physical conditions in the gas through various CO transitions for 8 galaxies. For one, NGC 1140 (Z/Z⊙ 0.3), two detections of 13CO isotopologues and atomic carbon, [Ci](1-0) and an upper limit for HCN(1-0) are also reported. After correcting to a common beam size, we compared 12CO(2-1)/12CO(1-0) (R21) and 12CO(3-2)/12CO(1-0) (R31) line ratios of our sample with galaxies from the literature and find that only NGC 1140 shows extreme values (R21 R31 2). Fitting physical models to the 12CO and 13CO emission in NGC 1140 suggests that the molecular gas is cool (kinetic temperature Tkin ≲ 20 K), dense (H2 volume density nH2 ≳ 106 cm-3), with moderate CO column density (NCO 1016 cm-2) and low filling factor. Surprisingly, the [12CO]/[13CO] abundance ratio in NGC 1140 is very low ( 8-20), lower even than the value of 24 found in the Galactic Center. The young age of the starburst in NGC 1140 precludes 13CO enrichment from evolved intermediate-mass stars; instead we attribute the low ratio to charge-exchange reactions and fractionation, because of the enhanced efficiency of these processes in cool gas at moderate column densities. Fitting physical models to 12CO and [Ci](1-0) emission in NGC 1140 gives an unusually low [12CO]/[12C] abundance ratio, suggesting that in this galaxy atomic carbon is at least 10 times more abundant than 12CO. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). IRAM is supported by the INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain), and APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.

  12. Galactic bulge population II Cepheids in the VVV survey: period-luminosity relations and a distance to the Galactic centre (United States)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; Surot, F.; Valenti, E.; Zoccali, M.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Romaniello, M.; Kanbur, S. M.; Singh, H. P.


    Context. Multiple stellar populations of different ages and metallicities reside in the Galactic bulge that trace its structure and provide clues to its formation and evolution. Aims: We present the near-infrared observations of population II Cepheids in the Galactic bulge from VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) survey. The JHKs photometry together with optical data from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) survey provide an independent estimate of the distance to the Galactic centre. The old, metal-poor and low-mass population II Cepheids are also investigated as useful tracers for the structure of the Galactic bulge. Methods: We identify 340 population II Cepheids in the VVV survey Galactic bulge catalogue based on their match with the OGLE-III Catalogue. The single-epoch JH and multi-epoch Ks observations complement the accurate periods and optical (VI) mean-magnitudes from OGLE. The sample consisting of BL Herculis and W Virginis subtypes is used to derive period-luminosity relations after correcting mean-magnitudes for the extinction. Our Ks-band period-luminosity relation, Ks = -2.189(0.056) [log (P)-1] + 11.187(0.032), is consistent with published work for BL Herculis and W Virginis variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Results: We present a combined OGLE-III and VVV catalogue with periods, classification, mean magnitudes, and extinction for 264 Galactic bulge population II Cepheids that have good-quality Ks-band light curves. The absolute magnitudes for population II Cepheids and RR Lyraes calibrated using Gaia and Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes, together with calibrated magnitudes for Large Magellanic Cloud population II Cepheids, are used to obtain a distance to the Galactic centre, R0 = 8.34 ± 0.03(stat.) ± 0.41(syst.), which changes by with different extinction laws. While noting the limitation of small number statistics, we find that the present sample of population II Cepheids in the Galactic bulge shows a nearly spheroidal

  13. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Low-α element stars in the Galactic bulge (United States)

    Recio-Blanco, A.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; de Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis, S.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Robin, A. C.; Babusiaux, C.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Bragaglia, A.; Carraro, G.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Zaggia, S.


    We take advantage of the Gaia-ESO Survey iDR4 bulge data to search for abundance anomalies that could shed light on the composite nature of the Milky Way bulge. The α-element (Mg, Si, and whenever available, Ca) abundances, and their trends with Fe abundances have been analysed for a total of 776 bulge stars. In addition, the aluminum abundances and their ratio to Fe and Mg have also been examined. Our analysis reveals the existence of low-α element abundance stars with respect to the standard bulge sequence in the [α/ Fe] versus [Fe/H] plane. Eighteen objects present deviations in [α/ Fe] ranging from 2.1 to 5.3σ with respect to the median standard value. Those stars do not show Mg-Al anti-correlation patterns. Incidentally, this sign of the existence of multiple stellar populations is reported firmly for the first time for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6522. The identified low-α abundance stars have chemical patterns that are compatible with those of the thin disc. Their link with massive dwarf galaxies accretion seems unlikely, as larger deviations in α abundance and Al would be expected. The vision of a bulge composite nature and a complex formation process is reinforced by our results. The approach used, which is a multi-method and model-driven analysis of high resolution data, seems crucial to reveal this complexity. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, and prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.

  14. The Globular Cluster System of NGC 4636 and Formation of Globular Clusters in Giant Elliptical Galaxies (United States)

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kim, Sang Chul; Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Naoyuki; Onodera, Masato


    We present a spectroscopic analysis of the metallicities, ages, and alpha-elements of the globular clusters (GCs) in the giant elliptical galaxy (gE) NGC 4636 in the Virgo Cluster. Line indices of the GCs are measured from the integrated spectra obtained with Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope. We derive [Fe/H] values of 59 GCs based on the Brodie & Huchra method, and [Z/H], age, and [α/Fe] values of 33 GCs from the comparison of the Lick line indices with single stellar population models. The metallicity distribution of NGC 4636 GCs shows a hint of a bimodality with two peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.23(σ = 0.32) and -0.35(σ = 0.19). The age spread is large from 2 Gyr to 15 Gyr and the fraction of young GCs with age ages, and [α/Fe] values for the GCs in other nearby gEs (M87, M49, M60, NGC 5128, NGC 1399, and NGC 1407) from the line index data in the literature using the same methods as used for NGC 4636 GCs. The metallicity distribution of GCs in the combined sample of seven gEs including NGC 4636 is found to be bimodal, supported by the KMM test with a significance level of >99.9%. All these gEs harbor some young GCs with ages less than 5 Gyr. The mean age of the metal-rich GCs ([Fe/H] >-0.9) is about 3 Gyr younger than that of the metal-poor GCs. The mean value of [α/Fe] of the gE GCs is smaller than that of the Milky Way GCs. We discuss these results in the context of GC formation in gEs. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  15. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XL. Searching for Neptunes around metal-poor stars (United States)

    Faria, J. P.; Santos, N. C.; Figueira, P.; Mortier, A.; Dumusque, X.; Boisse, I.; Lo Curto, G.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Melo, C.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Santerne, A.; Ségransan, D.; Sousa, S. G.; Sozzetti, A.; Udry, S.


    Context. As a probe of the metallicity of proto-planetary disks, stellar metallicity is an important ingredient for giant planet formation, most likely through its effect on the timescales in which rocky or icy planet cores can form. Giant planets have been found to be more frequent around metal-rich stars, in agreement with predictions based on the core-accretion theory. In the metal-poor regime, however, the frequency of planets, especially low-mass planets, and the way it depends on metallicity are still largely unknown. Aims: As part of a planet search programme focused on metal-poor stars, we study the targets from this survey that were observed with HARPS on more than 75 nights. The main goals are to assess the presence of low-mass planets and provide a first estimate of the frequency of Neptunes and super-Earths around metal-poor stars. Methods: We performed a systematic search for planetary companions, both by analysing the periodograms of the radial-velocities and by comparing, in a statistically meaningful way, models with an increasing number of Keplerians. Results: A first constraint on the frequency of planets in our metal-poor sample is calculated considering the previous detection (in our sample) of a Neptune-sized planet around HD 175607 and one candidate planet (with an orbital period of 68.42 d and minimum mass Mpsini = 11.14 ± 2.47 M⊕) for HD 87838, announced in the present study. This frequency is determined to be close to 13% and is compared with results for solar-metallicity stars. Based on observations collected at ESO facilities under programs 082.C-0212, 085.C-0063, 086.C-0284, and 190.C-0027 (with the HARPS spectrograph at the ESO 3.6-m telescope, La Silla-Paranal Observatory).

  16. The Little Cub: Discovery of an Extremely Metal-poor Star-forming Galaxy in the Local Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsyu, Tiffany; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Bolte, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Cooke, Ryan J. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)


    We report the discovery of the Little Cub, an extremely metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the local universe, found in the constellation Ursa Major (a.k.a. the Great Bear). We first identified the Little Cub as a candidate metal-poor galaxy based on its Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric colors, combined with spectroscopy using the Kast spectrograph on the Shane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory. In this Letter, we present high-quality spectroscopic data taken with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at Keck Observatory, which confirm the extremely metal-poor nature of this galaxy. Based on the weak [O iii] λ 4363 Å emission line, we estimate a direct oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.13 ± 0.08, making the Little Cub one of the lowest-metallicity star-forming galaxies currently known in the local universe. The Little Cub appears to be a companion of the spiral galaxy NGC 3359 and shows evidence of gas stripping. We may therefore be witnessing the quenching of a near-pristine galaxy as it makes its first passage about a Milky Way–like galaxy.

  17. Near-infrared Stellar Populations in the Metal-poor, Dwarf Irregular Galaxies Sextans A and Leo A (United States)

    Jones, Olivia C.; Maclay, Matthew T.; Boyer, Martha L.; Meixner, Margaret; McDonald, Iain; Meskhidze, Helen


    We present JHK s observations of the metal-poor ([Fe/H] dwarf-irregular galaxies, Leo A and Sextans A, obtained with the WIYN High-resolution Infrared Camera at Kitt Peak. Their near-IR stellar populations are characterized by using a combination of color–magnitude diagrams and by identifying long-period variable stars. We detected red giant and asymptotic giant branch stars, consistent with membership of the galaxy’s intermediate-age populations (2–8 Gyr old). Matching our data to broadband optical and mid-IR photometry, we determine luminosities, temperatures, and dust-production rates (DPR) for each star. We identify 32 stars in Leo A and 101 stars in Sextans A with a DPR > {10}-11 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1, confirming that metal-poor stars can form substantial amounts of dust. We also find tentative evidence for oxygen-rich dust formation at low metallicity, contradicting previous models that suggest oxygen-rich dust production is inhibited in metal-poor environments. The total rates of dust injection into the interstellar medium of Leo A and Sextans A are (8.2+/- 1.8)× {10}-9 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1 and (6.2+/- 0.2)× {10}-7 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1, respectively. The majority of this dust is produced by a few very dusty evolved stars and does not vary strongly with metallicity.

  18. Formation of the Abundance Boundaries of the Heavier Neutron-capture Elements in Metal-poor Stars (United States)

    Yang, Guochao; Li, Hongjie; Liu, Nian; Zhang, Lu; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Niu, Ping; Zhang, Bo


    The abundance scatter of heavier r-process elements (Z≥slant 56) relative to Fe ([r/Fe]) in metal-poor stars preserves excellent information of the star formation history and provides important insights into the various situations of the Galactic chemical enrichment. In this respect, the upper and lower boundaries of [r/Fe] could present useful clues for investigating the extreme situations of the star formation history and the early Galactic chemical evolution. In this paper, we investigate the formation of the upper and lower boundaries of [r/Fe] for the gas clouds. We find that, for a cloud from which metal-poor stars formed, the formation of the upper limits of [r/Fe] is mainly due to the pollution from a single main r-process event. For a cloud from which metal-poor stars formed, the formation of the lower limits of [r/Fe] is mainly due to the pollution from a single SN II event that ejects primary Fe.

  19. FORS2/VLT survey of Milky Way globular clusters. II. Fe and Mg abundances of 51 Milky Way globular clusters on a homogeneous scale (United States)

    Dias, B.; Barbuy, B.; Saviane, I.; Held, E. V.; Da Costa, G. S.; Ortolani, S.; Gullieuszik, M.; Vásquez, S.


    Context. Globular clusters trace the formation and evolution of the Milky Way and surrounding galaxies, and outline their chemical enrichment history. To accomplish these tasks it is important to have large samples of clusters with homogeneous data and analysis to derive kinematics, chemical abundances, ages and locations. Aims: We obtain homogeneous metallicities and α-element enhancement for 51 Galactic bulge, disc, and halo globular clusters that are among the most distant and/or highly reddened in the Galaxy's globular cluster system. We also provide membership selection based on stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. The implications of our results are discussed. Methods: We observed R ~ 2000 spectra in the wavelength interval 456-586 nm for over 800 red giant stars in 51 Galactic globular clusters. We applied full spectrum fitting with the code ETOILE together with libraries of observed and synthetic spectra. We compared the mean abundances of all clusters with previous work and with field stars. We used the relation between mean metallicity and horizontal branch morphology defined by all clusters to select outliers for discussion. Results: [Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], and [α/Fe] were derived in a consistent way for almost one-third of all Galactic globular clusters. We find our metallicities are comparable to those derived from high-resolution data to within σ = 0.08 dex over the interval -2.5integrated spectroscopy and photometry. Two other clusters, HP 1 and NGC 6558, are confirmed as candidates for the oldest globular clusters in the Milky Way. Conclusions: Stellar spectroscopy in the visible at R ~ 2000 for a large sample of globular clusters is a robust and efficient way to trace the chemical evolution of the host galaxy and to detect interesting objects for follow-up at higher resolution and with forthcoming giant telescopes. The technique used here can also be applied to globular cluster systems in nearby galaxies with current instruments and to

  20. Cold gelation of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, A.C.


    Keywords : globular proteins, whey protein, ovalbumin, cold gelation, disulfide bonds, texture, gel hardnessProtein gelation in food products is important to obtain desirable sensory and textural properties. Cold gelation is a novel method to produce protein-based gels. It is a two step process in


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia [Departamento de Astronomia-Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Kennedy, Catherine R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun [Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sivarani, Thirupathi [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Reimers, Dieter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany); Wisotzki, Lutz, E-mail: [Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany)


    We describe a new method to search for metal-poor candidates from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey (HES) based on identifying stars with apparently strong CH G-band strengths for their colors. The hypothesis we exploit is that large overabundances of carbon are common among metal-poor stars, as has been found by numerous studies over the past two decades. The selection was made by considering two line indices in the 4300 A region, applied directly to the low-resolution prism spectra. This work also extends a previously published method by adding bright sources to the sample. The spectra of these stars suffer from saturation effects, compromising the index calculations and leading to an undersampling of the brighter candidates. A simple numerical procedure, based on available photometry, was developed to correct the line indices and overcome this limitation. Visual inspection and classification of the spectra from the HES plates yielded a list of 5288 new metal-poor (and by selection, carbon-rich) candidates, which are presently being used as targets for medium-resolution spectroscopic follow-up. Estimates of the stellar atmospheric parameters, as well as carbon abundances, are now available for 117 of the first candidates, based on follow-up medium-resolution spectra obtained with the SOAR 4.1 m and Gemini 8 m telescopes. We demonstrate that our new method improves the metal-poor star fractions found by our pilot study by up to a factor of three in the same magnitude range, as compared with our pilot study based on only one CH G-band index. Our selection scheme obtained roughly a 40% success rate for identification of stars with [Fe/H] <-1.0; the primary contaminant is late-type stars with near-solar abundances and, often, emission line cores that filled in the Ca II K line on the prism spectrum. Because the selection is based on carbon, we greatly increase the numbers of known carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars from the HES with intermediate metallicities -2

  2. The Epoch of the First Star Formation in the Closest Metal-Poor Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy UGC 4483 (United States)

    Aloisi, Alessandra


    Metal-poor Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies have been interpreted as nearby galaxies in formation. This view has been challenged by HST detection of Red Giant Branch (RGB) stars in all metal-poor BCDs where an RGB tip (TRGB, brightest RGB phase) has been searched for, impling the presence of stars at least 1 Gyr old. Due to the age-metallicity degeneracy, the RGB color provides little insight into the exact star formation history (SFH) beyond 1 Gyr. So, the first SF epoch may have occurred anywhere between 13 and 1 Gyr ago. To resolve this, it is necessary to reach features in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that are much fainter than the TRGB. Here we propose new WFC3/UVIS observations (with ACS/WFC in parallel) of the closest metal-poor BCD, UGC 4483. These data will yield an I vs. V-I CMD that goes 4 mag deeper than the TRGB allowing to detect red clump (RC) and horizontal branch (HB) stars. Variable stars of RR Lyrae type will also be detected. With their mere presence, these variables will indisputably prove the existence of a population at least 10 Gyr old. Apparent mag and width of RC, HB and RGB will independently constrain age and metallicity of the old/evolved stars, the presence of multiple SF episodes, their duration and metallicity spread. This deep crowded-field photometric project is only possible with HST. Due to UGC 4483 location in CVZ, it can be done in half the number of orbits that it would otherwise take. Since UGC 4483 is so close, it may be the only BCD for which these questions can be answered in the near future. It provides our best chance for learning about the true cosmological age and evolutionary state of these enigmatic galaxies.

  3. The origin of the Milky Way globular clusters (United States)

    Renaud, Florent; Agertz, Oscar; Gieles, Mark


    We present a cosmological zoom-in simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy used to explore the formation and evolution of star clusters. We investigate in particular the origin of the bimodality observed in the colour and metallicity of globular clusters, and the environmental evolution through cosmic times in the form of tidal tensors. Our results self-consistently confirm previous findings that the blue, metal-poor clusters form in satellite galaxies that are accreted on to the Milky Way, while the red, metal-rich clusters form mostly in situ, or, to a lower extent, in massive, self-enriched galaxies merging with the Milky Way. By monitoring the tidal fields these populations experience, we find that clusters formed in situ (generally centrally concentrated) feel significantly stronger tides than the accreted ones, both in the present day, and when averaged over their entire life. Furthermore, we note that the tidal field experienced by Milky Way clusters is significantly weaker in the past than at present day, confirming that it is unlikely that a power-law cluster initial mass function like that of young massive clusters, is transformed into the observed peaked distribution in the Milky Way with relaxation-driven evaporation in a tidal field.

  4. Chemical abundances in the old LMC globular cluster Hodge 11 (United States)

    Mateluna, R.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Grocholski, A.; Sarajedini, A.; Cole, A.; Smith, V.


    Context. The study of globular clusters is one of the most powerful ways to learn about a galaxy's chemical evolution and star formation history. They preserve a record of chemical abundances at the time of their formation and are relatively easy to age date. The most detailed knowledge of the chemistry of a star is given by high resolution spectroscopy, which provides accurate abundances for a wide variety of elements, yielding a wealth of information on the various processes involved in the cluster's chemical evolution. Aims: We studied red giant branch (RGB) stars in an old, metal-poor globular cluster of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Hodge 11 (H11), in order to measure as many elements as possible. The goal is to compare its chemical trends to those in the Milky Way halo and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in order to help understand the formation history of the LMC and our own Galaxy. Methods: We have obtained high resolution VLT/FLAMES spectra of eight RGB stars in H11. The spectral range allowed us to measure a variety of elements, including Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti, Si, Na, O, Ni, Cr, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Ba, La, Eu and Y. Results: We derived a mean [Fe/H] = -2.00 ± 0.04, in the middle of previous determinations. We found low [α/Fe] abundances for our targets, more comparable to values found in dwarf spheroidal galaxies than in the Galactic halo, suggesting that if H11 is representative of its ancient populations then the LMC does not represent a good halo building block. Our [Ca/Fe] value is about 0.3 dex less than that of halo stars used to calibrate the Ca IR triplet technique for deriving metallicity. A hint of a Na abundance spread is observed. Its stars lie at the extreme high O, low Na end of the Na:O anti-correlation displayed by Galactic and LMC globular clusters. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal ID 082.B-0458).Table 4 is only available in electronic form at

  5. Accurate effective temperatures of the metal-poor benchmark stars HD 140283, HD 122563 and HD 103095 from CHARA interferometry (United States)

    Karovicova, I.; White, T. R.; Nordlander, T.; Lind, K.; Casagrande, L.; Ireland, M. J.; Huber, D.; Creevey, O.; Mourard, D.; Schaefer, G. H.; Gilmore, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Wittkowski, M.; Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Thévenin, F.; Asplund, M.


    Large stellar surveys of the Milky Way require validation with reference to a set of "benchmark" stars whose fundamental properties are well-determined. For metal-poor benchmark stars, disagreement between spectroscopic and interferometric effective temperatures has called the reliability of the temperature scale into question. We present new interferometric measurements of three metal-poor benchmark stars, HD 140283, HD 122563, and HD 103095, from which we determine their effective temperatures. The angular sizes of all the stars were determined from observations with the PAVO beam combiner at visible wavelengths at the CHARA array, with additional observations of HD 103095 made with the VEGA instrument, also at the CHARA array. Together with photometrically derived bolometric fluxes, the angular diameters give a direct measurement of the effective temperature. For HD 140283 we find θLD=0.324±0.005 mas, Teff=5787±48 K; for HD 122563, θLD=0.926±0.011 mas, Teff=4636±37 K; and for HD 103095 θLD=0.595±0.007 mas, Teff=5140±49 K. Our temperatures for HD 140283 and HD 103095 are hotter than the previous interferometric measurements by 253 K and 322 K, respectively. We find good agreement between our temperatures and recent spectroscopic and photometric estimates. We conclude some previous interferometric measurements have been affected by systematic uncertainties larger than their quoted errors.

  6. Exploring the nature and synchronicity of early cluster formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud - II. Relative ages and distances for six ancient globular clusters (United States)

    Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Mackey, Dougal; Sarajedini, Ata; Chaboyer, Brian; Cohen, Roger E.; Yang, Soung-Chul; Cummings, Jeffrey D.; Geisler, Doug; Grocholski, Aaron J.


    We analyse Hubble Space Telescope observations of six globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) from programme GO-14164 in Cycle 23. These are the deepest available observations of the LMC globular cluster population; their uniformity facilitates a precise comparison with globular clusters in the Milky Way. Measuring the magnitude of the main-sequence turn-off point relative to template Galactic globular clusters allows the relative ages of the clusters to be determined with a mean precision of 8.4 per cent, and down to 6 per cent for individual objects. We find that the mean age of our LMC cluster ensemble is identical to the mean age of the oldest metal-poor clusters in the Milky Way halo to 0.2 ± 0.4 Gyr. This provides the most sensitive test to date of the synchronicity of the earliest epoch of globular cluster formation in two independent galaxies. Horizontal branch magnitudes and subdwarf fitting to the main sequence allow us to determine distance estimates for each cluster and examine their geometric distribution in the LMC. Using two different methods, we find an average distance to the LMC of 18.52 ± 0.05.

  7. Atmospheric Bulges on Tidally-Locked Satellites (United States)

    Oza, Apurva V.; Johnson, Robert E.; Leblanc, Francois


    We use a simple analytic model to examine the spatial distribution of a volatile species in a surface-bounded atmosphere on a rotating object that is tidally-locked to its parent body. Spatial asymmetries in such atmospheres have recently been observed via ultraviolet auroral emissions from the exospheres of the icy satellites Europa and Ganymede. The Hubble Space Telescope observations indicate that these satellites host unique, surface-bounded O2 exospheres which bulge towards dusk. Using a simple 1-D mass conservation balance we examine the nature of the volatile source, the surface temperature profile, the spatial morphology of the loss process, and the adsorption and desorption properties of the surfaces to understand the spatial distribution of the surface-bounded atmosphere for a number of objects. Since the ballistic hop distances are much smaller than the satellite radii, we show that the observed asymmetries at Europa and Ganymede can be simply due to a strongly thermally-dependent source, although asymmetries in the plasma-induced loss could contribute. A key condition for these atmospheric bulges that are shifted towards dusk is the relationship between the rotation rate and the atmospheric loss rate.

  8. Ultra-metal-poor Stars: Spectroscopic Determination of Stellar Atmospheric Parameters Using Iron Non-LTE Line Abundances (United States)

    Ezzeddine, Rana; Frebel, Anna; Plez, Bertrand


    We present new ultra-metal-poor stars parameters with [Fe/H] LTE in their atmospheric parameters and show that they can grow up to ˜1.00 dex in [Fe/H], ˜150 K in {T}{eff} and ˜0.5 dex in log g toward the lowest metallicities. Accurate NLTE atmospheric stellar parameters, in particular [Fe/H] being significantly higher, are the first step to eventually providing full NLTE abundance patterns that can be compared with Population III supernova nucleosynthesis yields to derive properties of the first stars. Overall, this maximizes the potential of these likely second-generation stars to investigate the early universe and how the chemical elements were formed.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Metal-poor stars in the thick disk of the Galaxy (Beers+, 2014) (United States)

    Beers, T. C.; Norris, J. E.; Placco, V. M.; Lee, Y. S.; Rossi, S.; Carollo, D.; Masseron, T.


    During several observing runs conducted in 1996 January, 1996 December, and 1997 June, optical spectra for a total of 302 stars from the subsample of 309 Bidelman & Maconnell (1973AJ.....78..687B, Cat. III/46) weak-metal candidates studied by Norris et al. (1985ApJS...58..463N) (hereafter referred to as the B&M sample) were obtained with the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) 2.3 m telescope, using the Double Beam Spectrograph. These spectra covered the wavelength interval 3800Åcourse of previous work on follow-up spectroscopy by Norris et al. (1999, J/ApJS/123/639) of metal-poor candidates selected from the HK survey of Beers et al. (1985, J/AJ/90/2089; 1992, J/AJ/103/1987). (5 data files).

  10. Bulging anterior fontanelle: an unusual presenting sign of nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To report the first case series of infants with nutritional rickets who presented with bulging anterior fontanelle. Methods: infants who were admitted to Alrass General Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, between October 2004 and October 2007, with bulging anterior fontanelle and later found to have nutritional rickets were ...

  11. Surface photometry of bulge dominated low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M; de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM


    We present results of broad band BVRI observations of a sample of galaxies with a low surface brightness (LSB) disk and a bulge. These galaxies are well described as exponential disks and exponential bulges with no preferred value for either scale length or central surface brightness. The median B

  12. Chemical Abundances of Two Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 1718 (United States)

    Sakari, Charli M.; McWilliam, Andrew; Wallerstein, George


    Detailed chemical abundances of two stars in the intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) globular cluster NGC 1718 are presented, based on high-resolution spectroscopic observations with the MIKE spectrograph. The detailed abundances confirm NGC 1718 to be a fairly metal-rich cluster, with an average [Fe/H] ˜ -0.55 ± 0.01. The two red giants appear to have primordial O, Na, Mg and Al abundances, with no convincing signs of a composition difference between the two stars - hence, based on these two stars, NGC 1718 shows no evidence for hosting multiple populations. The Mg abundance is lower than Milky Way field stars, but is similar to LMC field stars at the same metallicity. The previous claims of very low [Mg/Fe] in NGC 1718 are therefore not supported in this study. Other abundances (Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Ni, Cu, Rb, Y, Zr, La and Eu) all follow the LMC field star trend, demonstrating yet again that (for most elements) globular clusters trace the abundances of their host galaxy's field stars. Similar to the field stars, NGC 1718 is found to be mildly deficient in explosive α-elements, but moderately to strongly deficient in O, Na, Mg, Al and Cu, elements that form during hydrostatic burning in massive stars. NGC 1718 is also enhanced in La, suggesting that it was enriched in ejecta from metal-poor asymptotic giant branch stars.

  13. Spectroscopic confirmation of the low-latitude object FSR 1716 as an old globular cluster (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Kunder, Andrea; Wojno, Jennifer


    Star clusters are invaluable tracers of the Galactic components and the discovery and characterization of low-mass stellar systems can be used to appraise their prevailing disruption mechanisms and time scales. However, owing to significant foreground contamination, high extinction, and still uncharted interfaces of the underlying Milky Way components, objects at low Galactic latitudes are notoriously difficult to characterize. Here, we present the first spectroscopic campaign to identify the chemodynamical properties of the low-latitude star cluster FSR 1716. While its photometric age and distance are far from settled, the presence of RR Lyrae variables indicates a rather old cluster variety. Using medium-resolution (R 10 600) calcium triplet (CaT) spectroscopy obtained with the wide-field, multi-fiber AAOmega instrument, we identified six member candidates with a mean velocity of -30 km s-1 and a velocity dispersion of 2.5 ± 0.9 km s-1. The latter value implies a dynamic mass of 1.3 × 104M⊙, typical of a low-mass globular cluster. Combined with our derived CaT metallicity of -1.38 ± 0.20 dex, this object is finally confirmed as an old, metal-poor globular cluster.

  14. The near-infrared Ca II triplet as a metallicity indicator - II. Extension to extremely metal-poor metallicity regimes (United States)

    Carrera, R.; Pancino, E.; Gallart, C.; del Pino, A.


    We extend our previous calibration of the infrared Ca II triplet (CaT) as a metallicity indicator to the metal-poor regime by including observations of 55 field stars with [Fe/H] down to -4.0 dex. While we previously solved the saturation at high metallicity using a combination of a Lorentzian and a Gaussian to reproduce the line profiles, in this paper we address the non-linearity at low metallicity following the suggestion of Starkenburg et al. of adding two non-linear terms to the relation among the [Fe/H], luminosity and strength of the calcium triplet lines. Our calibration thus extends from -4.0 to +0.5 in metallicity and is presented using four different luminosity indicators: V - VHB, MV, MI and MK. The calibration obtained in this paper results in a tight correlation between [Fe/H] abundances measured from high-resolution spectra and [Fe/H] values derived from the CaT, over the whole metallicity range covered.

  15. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters (United States)

    Tam, Pak-Hin T.; Hui, Chung Y.; Kong, Albert K. H.


    Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs). Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC) emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  16. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-Hin T. Tam


    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs. Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  17. Evidence for a vanishing 6Li/7Li isotopic signature in the metal-poor halo star HD84937

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Collet, Remo


    The claimed detections of 6Li in the atmospheres of some metal-poor halo stars have lead to speculative additions to the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the early Universe, as the inferred abundances cannot be explained by Galactic cosmic ray production. A prominent example of a so...

  18. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarsi, A. M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.


    As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on 3D...

  19. The gravitational self-interaction of the Earth's tidal bulge (United States)

    Norsen, Travis; Dreese, Mackenzie; West, Christopher


    According to a standard, idealized analysis, the Moon would produce a 54 cm equilibrium tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans. This analysis omits many factors (beyond the scope of the simple idealized model) that dramatically influence the actual height and timing of the tides at different locations, but it is nevertheless an important foundation for more detailed studies. Here, we show that the standard analysis also omits another factor—the gravitational interaction of the tidal bulge with itself—which is entirely compatible with the simple, idealized equilibrium model and which produces a surprisingly non-trivial correction to the predicted size of the tidal bulge. Our analysis uses ideas and techniques that are familiar from electrostatics, and should thus be of interest to teachers and students of undergraduate E&M, Classical Mechanics (and/or other courses that cover the tides), and geophysics courses that cover the closely related topic of Earth's equatorial bulge.

  20. Triangular mattress suture in abdominal diastasis to prevent epigastric bulging. (United States)

    Ferreira, L M; Castilho, H T; Hochberg, J; Ardenghy, M; Toledo, S R; Cruz, R G; Tardelli, H


    In the classic abdominoplasty, the treatment of large diastasis recti with simple or vertical mattress sutures may result in a nonaesthetic bulge. The surgeon may produce a craniocaudal bulge deformity by treating the flaccidity in the horizontal plane only, although it occurs in all directions. The authors describe the triangular mattress suture for the treatment of large diastasis recti, and demonstrate the mechanism involved in producing an epigastric bulge. Also presented is their clinical experience with 56 patients, with a 3-year follow-up, using this new plication method. The triangular mattress suture is a simple, quick, and effective way to correct abdominal diastasis and to avoid the epigastric bulge deformity with no added morbidity.

  1. Something borrowed, something blue: The nature of blue metal-poor stars inferred from their colours and chemical abundances (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Jofré, P.; Koch, A.; McWilliam, A.; Sneden, C. S.


    Blue metal-poor (BMP) stars are main sequence stars that appear bluer and more luminous than normal turnoff stars. They were originally singled out by using B-V and U-B colour cuts.Early studies found that a larger fraction of field BMP stars were binaries compared to normal halo stars. Thus, BMP stars are ideal field blue straggler candidates for investigating internal stellar evolution processes and binary interaction. In particular, the presence or depletion in lithium in their spectra is a powerful indicator of their origin. They are either old, halo blue stragglers experiencing internal mixing processes or mass transfer (Li-depletion), or intermediate-age, single stars of possibly extragalactic origin (2.2 dex halo plateau Li). However, we note that internal mixing processes can lead to an increased level of Li. Hence, this study combines photometry and spectroscopy to unveil the origin of various BMP stars. We first show how to separate binaries from young blue stars using photometry, metallicity and lithium. Using a sample of 80 BMP stars (T > 6300 K), we find that 97% of the BMP binaries have V-Ks0 Based on their radial velocities, Li, α and s- and r-process abundances we show that BPS CS22874-042 is a single star (A(Li) = 2.38 ± 0.10 dex) while with A(Li)= 2.23 ± 0.07 dex CD-48 2445 is a binary, contrary to earlier findings. Our analysis emphasises that field blue stragglers can be segregated from single metal-poor stars, using (V-Ks) colours with a fraction of single stars polluting the binary sample, but not vice versa. These two groups can only be properly separated by using information from stellar spectra, illustrating the need for accurate and precise stellar parameters and high-resolution, high-S/N spectra in order to fully understand and classify this intriguing class of stars. Our high-resolution spectrum analysis confirms the findings from the colour cuts and shows that CS 22874-042 is single, while CD -48 2445 is most likely a binary

  2. p-capture reaction cycles in rotating massive stars and their impact on elemental abundances in globular cluster stars: A case study of O, Na and Al (United States)

    Mahanta, Upakul; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Hiralal; Duorah, Kalpana


    Elemental abundance patterns of globular cluster stars can provide important clues for understanding cluster formation and early chemical evolution. The origin of the abundance patterns, however, still remains poorly understood. We have studied the impact of p-capture reaction cycles on the abundances of oxygen, sodium and aluminium considering nuclear reaction cycles of carbon-nitrogen-oxygen-fluorine, neon-sodium and magnesium-aluminium in massive stars in stellar conditions of temperature range 2×107 to 10×107 K and typical density of 102 gm cc-1. We have estimated abundances of oxygen, sodium and aluminium with respect to Fe, which are then assumed to be ejected from those stars because of rotation reaching a critical limit. These ejected abundances of elements are then compared with their counterparts that have been observed in some metal-poor evolved stars, mainly giants and red giants, of globular clusters M3, M4, M13 and NGC 6752. We observe an excellent agreement with [O/Fe] between the estimated and observed abundance values for globular clusters M3 and M4 with a correlation coefficient above 0.9 and a strong linear correlation for the remaining two clusters with a correlation coefficient above 0.7. The estimated [Na/Fe] is found to have a correlation coefficient above 0.7, thus implying a strong correlation for all four globular clusters. As far as [Al/Fe] is concerned, it also shows a strong correlation between the estimated abundance and the observed abundance for globular clusters M13 and NGC 6752, since here also the correlation coefficient is above 0.7 whereas for globular cluster M4 there is a moderate correlation found with a correlation coefficient above 0.6. Possible sources of these discrepancies are discussed.

  3. Galaxies Grow Their Bulges and Black Holes in Diverse Ways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Eric F.; Harmsen, Benjamin; D’Souza, Richard [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Monachesi, Antonela [Max Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Jong, Roelof S. de [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Radburn-Smith, David J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, 3910 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, 102 Natural Science Building, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)


    Galaxies with Milky Way–like stellar masses have a wide range of bulge and black hole masses; in turn, these correlate with other properties such as star formation history. While many processes may drive bulge formation, major and minor mergers are expected to play a crucial role. Stellar halos offer a novel and robust measurement of galactic merger history; cosmologically motivated models predict that mergers with larger satellites produce more massive, higher-metallicity stellar halos, reproducing the recently observed stellar halo metallicity–mass relation. We quantify the relationship between stellar halo mass and bulge or black hole prominence using a sample of 18 Milky Way-mass galaxies with newly available measurements of (or limits on) stellar halo properties. There is an order of magnitude range in bulge mass, and two orders of magnitude in black hole mass, at a given stellar halo mass (or, equivalently, merger history). Galaxies with low-mass bulges show a wide range of quiet merger histories, implying formation mechanisms that do not require intense merging activity. Galaxies with massive “classical” bulges and central black holes also show a wide range of merger histories. While three of these galaxies have massive stellar halos consistent with a merger origin, two do not—merging appears to have had little impact on making these two massive “classical” bulges. Such galaxies may be ideal laboratories to study massive bulge formation through pathways such as early gas-rich accretion, violent disk instabilities, or misaligned infall of gas throughout cosmic time.

  4. Process optimization of joining by upset bulging with local heating (United States)

    Rusch, Michael; Almohallami, Amer; Sviridov, Alexander; Bonk, Christian; Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Bambach, Markus


    Joining by upset bulging is a mechanical joining method where axial load is applied to a tube to form two revolving bulges, which clamp the parts to be joined and create a force and form fit. It can be used to join tubes with other structures such as sheets, plates, tubes or profiles of the same or different materials. Other processes such as welding are often limited in joining multi-material assemblies or high-strength materials. With joining by upset bulging at room temperature, the main drawback is the possible initiation of damage (cracks) in the inner buckling zone because of high local stresses and strains. In this paper, a method to avoid the formation of cracks is introduced. Before forming the bulge the tube is locally heated by an induction coil. For the construction steel (E235+N) a maximum temperature of 700 °C was used to avoid phase transformation. For the numerical study of the process the mechanical properties of the tube material were examined at different temperatures and strain rates to determine its flow curves. A parametrical FE model was developed to simulate the bulging process with local heating. Experiments with local heating were executed and metallographic studies of the bulging area were conducted. While specimens heated to 500 °C showed small cracks left, damage-free flanges could be created at 600 and 700 °C. Static testing of damage-free bulges showed improvements in tensile strength and torsion strength compared to bulges formed at room-temperature, while bending and compression behavior remained nearly unchanged. In cyclic testing the locally heated specimens underwent about 3.7 times as many cycles before failure as the specimens formed at room temperature.

  5. Globular cluster X-ray sources (United States)

    Pooley, D.

    We know from observations that globular clusters are very efficient catalysts in forming unusual binary systems, such as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs), with formation rates per unit mass exceeding those in the Galactic disk by orders of magnitude. The high stellar densities in globular clusters trigger various dynamical interactions: exchange encounters, direct collisions, destruction of binaries, and tidal capture. This binary population is, in turn, critical to the stabilization of globular clusters against gravitational collapse; the long-term stability of a cluster is thought to depend on tapping into the gravitational binding energy of such close binaries. I will present an overview of the current state of globular cluster X-ray observations, as well as our work on deep Chandra observations of M4, where we reach some of the lowest X-ray luminosities in any globular cluster (comparable to the deep observations of 47 Tuc and NGC 6397). One of M4 X-ray sources previously classified as a white dwarf binary is likely a neutron star binary, and another X-ray source is a sub-subgiant, the nature of which is still unclear. skip=3pt

  6. K2-111 b - a short period super-Earth transiting a metal poor, evolved old star (United States)

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Gaidos, Eric; Barragán, Oscar; Persson, Carina M.; Gandolfi, Davide; Cabrera, Juan; Hirano, Teruyuki; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Csizmadia, Sz.; Nowak, Grzegorz; Endl, Michael; Grziwa, Sascha; Korth, Judith; Pfaff, Jeremias; Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders; Mustill, Alexander J.; Davies, Melvyn B.; Deeg, Hans J.; Palle, Enric; Cochran, William D.; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Guenther, Eike; Hatzes, Artie P.; Kiilerich, Amanda; Kudo, Tomoyuki; MacQueen, Phillip; Narita, Norio; Nespral, David; Pätzold, Martin; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Rauer, Heike; Van Eylen, Vincent


    Context. From a light curve acquired through the K2 space mission, the star K2-111(EPIC 210894022) has been identified as possibly orbited by a transiting planet. Aims: Our aim is to confirm the planetary nature of the object and derive its fundamental parameters. Methods: We analyse the light curve variations during the planetary transit using packages developed specifically for exoplanetary transits. Reconnaissance spectroscopy and radial velocity observations have been obtained using three separate telescope and spectrograph combinations. The spectroscopic synthesis package SME has been used to derive the stellar photospheric parameters that were used as input to various stellar evolutionary tracks in order to derive the parameters of the system. The planetary transit was also validated to occur on the assumed host star through adaptive imaging and statistical analysis. Results: The star is found to be located in the background of the Hyades cluster at a distance at least 4 times further away from Earth than the cluster itself. The spectrum and the space velocities of K2-111 strongly suggest it to be a member of the thick disk population. The co-added high-resolution spectra show that that it is a metal poor ([Fe/H] = - 0.53 ± 0.05 dex) and α-rich somewhat evolved solar-like star of spectral type G3. We find Teff = 5730 ± 50 K, log g⋆ = 4.15 ± 0.1 cgs, and derive a radius of R⋆ = 1.3 ± 0.1 R⊙ and a mass of M⋆ = 0.88 ± 0.02 M⊙. The currently available radial velocity data confirms a super-Earth class planet with a mass of 8.6 ± 3.9 M⊕ and a radius of 1.9 ± 0.2 R⊕. A second more massive object with a period longer than about 120 days is indicated by a long-term radial velocity drift. Conclusions: The radial velocity detection together with the imaging confirms with a high level of significance that the transit signature is caused by a planet orbiting the star K2-111. This planet is also confirmed in the radial velocity data. A second more

  7. Globular Cluster Messier 2 in Aquarius (United States)


    This image of the Globular cluster Messier 2 (M2) was taken by Galaxy Evolution Explorer on August 20, 2003. This image is a small section of a single All Sky Imaging Survey exposure of only 129 seconds in the constellation Aquarius. This picture is a combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken with the far ultraviolet (colored blue) and near ultraviolet detectors (colored red). Globular clusters are gravitationally bound systems of hundreds of thousands of stars that orbit in the halos of galaxies. The globular clusters in out Milky Way galaxy contain some of the oldest stars known. M2 lies 33,000 light years from our Sun with stars distributed in a spherical system with a radius of approximately 100 light years.

  8. The Origins of Light and Heavy R-process Elements Identified by Chemical Tagging of Metal-poor Stars (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu


    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration γ-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A > 130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] gsim +1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  9. Massive star archeology in globular clusters (United States)

    Chantereau, W.; Charbonnel, C.; Meynet, G.


    Globular clusters are among the oldest structures in the Universe and they host today low-mass stars and no gas. However, there has been a time when they formed as gaseous objects hosting a large number of short-lived, massive stars. Many details on this early epoch have been depicted recently through unprecedented dissection of low-mass globular cluster stars via spectroscopy and photometry. In particular, multiple populations have been identified, which bear the nucleosynthetic fingerprints of the massive hot stars disappeared a long time ago. Here we discuss how massive star archeology can be done through the lense of these multiple populations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (N{sub H{sup 0}}=10{sup 19.50±0.16} cm{sup -2}) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log{sub 10}(Z/Z {sub ☉}) = –2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10{sup –3} solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature <20,000 K. Given the striking similarities between this system and the predictions of simulations, we argue that it represents the direct detection of a high-redshift cold-accretion stream. The low-metallicity gas cloud is a single component of an absorption system exhibiting a complex velocity, ionization, and enrichment structure. Two other components have metallicities >0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM.

  11. Determination of Material Strengths by Hydraulic Bulge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankui Wang


    Full Text Available The hydraulic bulge test (HBT method is proposed to determine material tensile strengths. The basic idea of HBT is similar to the small punch test (SPT, but inspired by the manufacturing process of rupture discs—high-pressure hydraulic oil is used instead of punch to cause specimen deformation. Compared with SPT method, the HBT method can avoid some of influence factors, such as punch dimension, punch material, and the friction between punch and specimen. A calculation procedure that is entirely based on theoretical derivation is proposed for estimate yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Both conventional tensile tests and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out for several ferrous alloys, and the results showed that hydraulic bulge test results are reliable and accurate.

  12. Bulge-Disk Evolution in Interacting Bulgeless Galaxies (United States)

    Das, M.; Ramya, S.; Sengupta, C.; Mishra, K.


    Bulgeless galaxies are an extreme class of late type spiral galaxies that have practically no bulge and are nearly pure disk in morphology. Their lack of evolution is a puzzle for theories of galaxy formation and the secular evolution of galaxy disks. However, one of the processes by which these galaxies could evolve is through interactions with other galaxies. In this study we present radio (GMRT) observations of star formation in a sample of bulgeless galaxies. We did followup Hα imaging and optical spectroscopy of two galaxies, NGC 3445 and NGC 4027. Both galaxies have extended emission associated with their tidal interactions. Their nuclei show ongoing star formation but no signs of AGN activity. The R band images suggest that their centers have oval distortions or pseudobulges that may later evolve into larger bulges. Thus interactions are an important trigger for the formation of bulges in such disk dominated systems.

  13. Determination of Material Strengths by Hydraulic Bulge Test (United States)

    Wang, Hankui; Xu, Tong; Shou, Binan


    The hydraulic bulge test (HBT) method is proposed to determine material tensile strengths. The basic idea of HBT is similar to the small punch test (SPT), but inspired by the manufacturing process of rupture discs—high-pressure hydraulic oil is used instead of punch to cause specimen deformation. Compared with SPT method, the HBT method can avoid some of influence factors, such as punch dimension, punch material, and the friction between punch and specimen. A calculation procedure that is entirely based on theoretical derivation is proposed for estimate yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Both conventional tensile tests and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out for several ferrous alloys, and the results showed that hydraulic bulge test results are reliable and accurate. PMID:28772379

  14. Dynamical evolution of a bulge in an N-body model of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard O.


    Full Text Available The detailed dynamical structure of the bulge in the Milky Way is currently under debate. Although kinematics of the bulge stars can be well reproduced by a boxy-bulge, the possible existence of a small embedded classical bulge can not be ruled out. We study the dynamical evolution of a small classical bulge in a model of the Milky Way using a self-consistent high resolution N-body simulation. Detailed kinematics and dynamical properties of such a bulge are presented.

  15. New Millisecond Pulsars in Globular Clusters


    D'Amico, N.; Possenti, A.; Manchester, R. N.; Sarkissian, J.; Lyne, A. G.; Camilo, F.


    A new search of globular clusters for millisecond pulsars is in progress at Parkes. In this paper we describe the motivation, the new hardware and software systems adopted, the survey plan and the preliminary results. So far, we have discovered ten new millisecond pulsars in four clusters for which no associated pulsars were previously known.

  16. Non-Recycled Pulsars in Globular Clusters


    Lynch, Ryan S.; Boyles, Jason R.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Mnatsakanov, Robert; Turk, Philip J.; Ransom, Scott M.


    We place limits on the population of non-recycled pulsars originating in globular clusters through Monte Carlo simulations and frequentist statistical techniques. We set upper limits on the birth rates of non-recycled cluster pulsars and predict how many may remain in the clusters, and how many may escape the cluster potentials and enter the field of the Galaxy.

  17. Spectroscopic study of the elusive globular cluster ESO452-SC11 and its surroundings (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Hansen, Camilla Juul; Kunder, Andrea


    Globular clusters (GCs) have long been recognized as being amongst the oldest objects in the Galaxy. As such, they have the potential of playing a pivotal role in deciphering the Milky Way's early history. Here we present the first spectroscopic study of the low-mass system ESO452-SC11 using the AAOmega multifibre spectrograph at medium resolution. Given the stellar sparsity of this object and the high degree of foreground contamination due to its location toward the Galactic bulge, very few details are known for this cluster - there is no consensus, for instance, about its age, metallicity, or its association with the disk or bulge. We identify five member candidates based on common radial velocity, calcium-triplet metallicity, and position within the GC. Using spectral synthesis, the measurement of accurate Fe-abundances from Fe-lines, and abundances of several α-, Fe-peak, and neutron-capture elements (Si, Ca, Ti,Cr, Co, Ni, Sr, and Eu) is carried out, albeit with large uncertainties. We find that two of the five cluster candidates are likely non-members, as they have deviating iron abundances and [α/Fe] ratios. The cluster mean heliocentric velocity is 19 ± 2 km s-1 with a velocity dispersion of 2.8 ± 3.4 km s-1, a low value in line with its sparse nature and low mass. The mean Fe-abundance from spectral fitting is -0.88 ± 0.03 dex, where the spread is driven by observational errors. Furthermore, the α-elements of the GC candidates are marginally lower than expected for the bulge at similar metallicities. As spectra of hundreds of stars were collected in a 2-degree field centered on ESO452-SC11, a detailed abundance study of the surrounding field was also enabled. The majority of the non-members have slightly higher [α/Fe] ratios, in line with the typical nearby bulge population. A subset of the spectra with measured Fe-peak abundance ratios shows a large scatter around solar values, albeit with large uncertainties. Furthermore, our study provides the

  18. Living with a parastomal bulge - patients' experiences of symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Marianne; Thomsen, Thordis; Vinther, Anders


    by the stoma. To cover the physical disfigurement, new clothing solutions, garment wear and creativity were essential in everyday life. Patients gradually adapted to the bulge over time. Easy access to professional help was crucial in order to find the best appliance and garment solution in relation...... is limited and highly warranted to improve clinical outcome. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The ever-changing bulge posed a threat to patients' control of the ostomy and required specific care from the stoma therapist. Needs-based access to counselling, advice and supplementary materials is important....

  19. Disturbance of shaped charge jets by bulging armour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, M. [TDW - Gesellschaft fuer Verteidigungstechnische Wirksysteme mbH, Schrobenhausen (Germany)


    Two flash X-ray pictures of the passing jet after a bulging armour are presented which give the disturbance effect to the jet - some earlier particulation time and iterative jet eruptions - but only after some time delay. The analysis of the jet velocities of the eruptions allows to calculate the time intervals or roughly the disturbance frequency of the used bulging armour arrangement. In this present paper two tests described with two ''new'' base inert materials - Dyneema - between two metal plates. (orig.)

  20. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)


    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  1. Galactic Bulges and Inner Disks, as Seen by SAURON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Ganda, K.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Bacon, R.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; McDermid, R. M.; Sarzi, M.; van de Ven, G.; Funes, JG; Corsini, EM


    We discuss SAURON integral field observations of a sample of 42 spirals, ranging in type from Sa to Sd. Using 2D maps of the stellar velocity, velocity dispersion, and absorption line strength, it is now much easier to understand the nature of nearby galactic bulges and inner disks. Here we briefly

  2. An asymmetric mesoscopic model for single bulges in RNA (United States)

    de Oliveira Martins, Erik; Weber, Gerald


    Simple one-dimensional DNA or RNA mesoscopic models are of interest for their computational efficiency while retaining the key elements of the molecular interactions. However, they only deal with perfectly formed DNA or RNA double helices and consider the intra-strand interactions to be the same on both strands. This makes it difficult to describe highly asymmetric structures such as bulges and loops and, for instance, prevents the application of mesoscopic models to determine RNA secondary structures. Here we derived the conditions for the Peyrard-Bishop mesoscopic model to overcome these limitations and applied it to the calculation of single bulges, the smallest and simplest of these asymmetric structures. We found that these theoretical conditions can indeed be applied to any situation where stacking asymmetry needs to be considered. The full set of parameters for group I RNA bulges was determined from experimental melting temperatures using an optimization procedure, and we also calculated average opening profiles for several RNA sequences. We found that guanosine bulges show the strongest perturbation on their neighboring base pairs, considerably reducing the on-site interactions of their neighboring base pairs.

  3. Age bimodality in the central region of pseudo-bulges in S0 galaxies (United States)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Barway, Sudhanshu; Wadadekar, Yogesh


    We present evidence for bimodal stellar age distribution of pseudo-bulges of S0 galaxies as probed by the Dn(4000) index. We do not observe any bimodality in age distribution for pseudo-bulges in spiral galaxies. Our sample is flux limited and contains 2067 S0 and 2630 spiral galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We identify pseudo-bulges in S0 and spiral galaxies, based on the position of the bulge on the Kormendy diagram and their central velocity dispersion. Dividing the pseudo-bulges of S0 galaxies into those containing old and young stellar populations, we study the connection between global star formation and pseudo-bulge age on the u - r colour-mass diagram. We find that most old pseudo-bulges are hosted by passive galaxies while majority of young bulges are hosted by galaxies that are star forming. Dividing our sample of S0 galaxies into early-type S0s and S0/a galaxies, we find that old pseudo-bulges are mainly hosted by early-type S0 galaxies while most of the pseudo-bulges in S0/a galaxies are young. We speculate that morphology plays a strong role in quenching of star formation in the disc of these S0 galaxies, which stops the growth of pseudo-bulges, giving rise to old pseudo-bulges and the observed age bimodality.

  4. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar spectroscopy with 1D and 3D models - II. Chemical properties of the Galactic metal-poor disk and the halo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergemann, Maria; Collet, Remo; Schönrich, Ralph


    /Fe] ratios close to solar even at [Fe/H] ~ -2. This is at variance with results of classical abundance analyses based on local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and 1D model stellar atmospheres, which argue for a constant elevated [Mg/Fe] in metal-poor stars of the Galactic thick disk and halo.......We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 328 stars and derived Mg abundances using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) spectral line formation calculations and plane-parallel model stellar atmospheres derived from the mean stratification of 3D hydrodynamical surface convection simulations...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonova, M.; Stalin, C. S., E-mail:, E-mail: [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India)


    We present the results of a commissioning campaign to observe Galactic globular clusters for the search of microlensing events. The central 10' Multiplication-Sign 10' region of the globular cluster NGC 5024 was monitored using the 2 m Himalayan Chandra Telescope in R-band for a period of about 8 hr on 2010 March 24. Light curves were obtained for nearly 10,000 stars using a modified Differential Image Analysis technique. We identified all known variables within our field of view and revised the periods and status of some previously reported short-period variables. We report about 70 new variable sources and present their equatorial coordinates, periods, light curves, and possible types. Out of these, 15 are SX Phe stars, 10 are W UMa-type stars, and 14 are probable RR Lyrae stars. Nine of the newly discovered SX Phe stars and one eclipsing binary belong to the blue straggler star population.

  6. Color and population gradients in globular clusters (United States)

    Djorgovski, S.; Piotto, G.; Mallen-Ornelas, G.


    We present preliminary results from a survey for color and population gradients in globular cluster cores. Color gradients, in the sense of becoming bluer inwards, are always found in post-core-collapse clusters. They seem to be caused by the demise of red giants, and possibly an increased number of blue stragglers. This may be a consequence of stellar interactions during and after the core collapse. No gradients are seen in clusters with King-model morphology.

  7. Formation Mechanisms of IMBH in Globular Clusters


    Giersz, M.; Leigh, N; Hypki, A.P.; A Askar; Lützgendorf, N.


    We very briefly discuss proposed in the literature possible scenarios for intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) formation in globular clusters. We also discuss the results of the MOCCA simulations of about 2000 models (BigSurvey) regarding the distribution of events connected with electromagnetic and gravitational radiations, namely: mass transfer on IMBH, collisions and mergers with IMBH and mergers with IMBH due to gravitational radiation. The rates of these events are very small, so their o...

  8. The merger remnant NGC 3610 and its globular cluster system: a large-scale study (United States)

    Bassino, Lilia P.; Caso, Juan P.


    We present a photometric study of the prototype merger remnant NGC 3610 and its globular cluster (GC) system, based on new Gemini/GMOS and Advanced Camera for Surveys/Hubble Space Telescope archival images. Thanks to the large field of view of our GMOS data, larger than previous studies, we are able to detect a 'classical' bimodal GC colour distribution, corresponding to metal-poor and metal-rich GCs, at intermediate radii and a small subsample of likely young clusters of intermediate colours, mainly located in the outskirts. The extent of the whole GC system is settled as about 40 kpc. The GC population is quite poor, about 500 ± 110 members that corresponds to a low total specific frequency SN ˜ 0.8. The effective radii of a cluster sample are determined, including those of two spectroscopically confirmed young and metal-rich clusters, that are in the limit between GC and UCD sizes and brightness. The large-scale galaxy surface-brightness profile can be decomposed as an inner embedded disc and an outer spheroid, determining for both larger extents than earlier research (10 and 30 kpc, respectively). We detect boxy isophotes, expected in merger remnants, and show a wealth of fine-structure in the surface-brightness distribution with unprecedented detail, coincident with the outer spheroid. The lack of symmetry in the galaxy colour map adds a new piece of evidence to the recent merger scenario of NGC 3610.

  9. Pulsars in Globular Clusters with the SKA (United States)

    Hessels, J.; Possenti, A.; Bailes, M.; Bassa, C.; Freire, P. C. C.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lynch, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Stairs, I. H.


    Globular clusters are highly efficient radio pulsar factories. These pulsars can be used as precision probes of the clusters' structure, gas content, magnetic field, and formation history; some of them are also highly interesting in their own right because they probe exotic stellar evolution scenarios as well as the physics of dense matter, accretion, and gravity. Deep searches with SKA1-MID and SKA1-LOW will plausibly double to triple the known population. Such searches will only require one to a few tied-array beams, and can be done during early commissioning of the telescope - before an all-sky pulsar survey using hundreds to thousands of tied-array beams is feasible. With SKA2 it will be possible to observe most of the active radio pulsars within a large fraction of the Galactic globular clusters, an estimated population of 600 - 3700 observable pulsars (those beamed towards us). This rivals the total population of millisecond pulsars that can be found in the Galactic field; fully characterizing it will provide the best-possible physical laboratories as well as a rich dynamical history of the Galactic globular cluster system.

  10. Exponential bulges and antitruncated disks in lenticular galaxies


    Sil'chenko, Olga K.


    The presence of exponential bulges and anti-truncated disks has been noticed in many lenticular galaxies. In fact, it could be expected because the very formation of S0 galaxies includes various processes of secular evolution. We discuss how to distinguish between a pseudobulge and an anti-truncated disk, and also what particular mechanisms may be responsible for the formation of anti-truncated disks. Some bright examples of lenticular galaxies with the multi-tiers exponential stellar structu...

  11. Alpha-Bulges in G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob van der Kant


    Full Text Available Agonist binding is related to a series of motions in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that result in the separation of transmembrane helices III and VI at their cytosolic ends and subsequent G protein binding. A large number of smaller motions also seem to be associated with activation. Most helices in GPCRs are highly irregular and often contain kinks, with extensive literature already available about the role of prolines in kink formation and the precise function of these kinks. GPCR transmembrane helices also contain many α-bulges. In this article we aim to draw attention to the role of these α-bulges in ligand and G-protein binding, as well as their role in several aspects of the mobility associated with GPCR activation. This mobility includes regularization and translation of helix III in the extracellular direction, a rotation of the entire helix VI, an inward movement of the helices near the extracellular side, and a concerted motion of the cytosolic ends of the helices that makes their orientation appear more circular and that opens up space for the G protein to bind. In several cases, α-bulges either appear or disappear as part of the activation process.

  12. Dynamics of the globular cluster NGC 362 (United States)

    Fischer, Philippe; Welch, Douglas L.; Mateo, Mario; Cote, Patrick


    A combination of V-band CCD images and echelle spectra of member red giants is presently used to examine the internal dynamics of the globular cluster NGC 362. A total of 285 stellar spectra were obtained of 215 stars for radial velocity determinations, and the true cluster binary fraction was determined from simulations to be 0.15 for circular orbits and 0.27 for orbits with an f(e) = e (eccentricity) distribution function. An overabundance of binaries is surmised for NGC 362 on this basis.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Collier Cameron, A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Gillon, M.; Jehin, E. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17 Bat. B5C, Liege 1 (Belgium); Lendl, M.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S. [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Barros, S. C. C.; Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Street, R. A., E-mail: [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)


    We report the discovery, from WASP and CORALIE, of a transiting exoplanet in a 1.54 day orbit. The host star, WASP-36, is a magnitude V = 12.7, metal-poor G2 dwarf (T{sub eff} = 5959 {+-} 134 K), with [Fe/H] =-0.26 {+-} 0.10. We determine the planet to have mass and radius, respectively, 2.30 {+-} 0.07 and 1.28 {+-} 0.03 times that of Jupiter. We have eight partial or complete transit light curves, from four different observatories, which allow us to investigate the potential effects on the fitted system parameters of using only a single light curve. We find that the solutions obtained by analyzing each of these light curves independently are consistent with our global fit to all the data, despite the apparent presence of correlated noise in at least two of the light curves.

  14. Analytical Solution for Stellar Density in Globular Clusters MA Sharaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galactic globular clusters, which are ancient building blocks of our Galaxy, rep- resent a very interesting family of stellar systems in which some fundamental dynamical processes have taken place on time scale shorter than the age of the universe. For example, horizontal branch (HB) stars in globular clusters offer an.

  15. Dynamics of Globular Clusters with Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (United States)

    Ryabova, M. V.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Vasiliev, E. O.


    Recent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of several Galactic globular clusters have shown that they may contain black holes of intermediate mass (around 1% of the cluster mass). Using N-body simulations we follow dynamical evolution of globular clusters in the presence of such an intermediate-mass black hole.

  16. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Separating disk chemical substructures with cluster models. Evidence of a separate evolution in the metal-poor thin disk (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Schultheis, M.; Guiglion, G.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Kordopatis, G.; Hill, V.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bensby, T.; Koposov, S. E.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.; Chiappini, C.


    Context. Recent spectroscopic surveys have begun to explore the Galactic disk system on the basis of large data samples, with spatial distributions sampling regions well outside the solar neighborhood. In this way, they provide valuable information for testing spatial and temporal variations of disk structure kinematics and chemical evolution. Aims: The main purposes of this study are to demonstrate the usefulness of a rigorous mathematical approach to separate substructures of a stellar sample in the abundance-metallicity plane, and provide new evidence with which to characterize the nature of the metal-poor end of the thin disk sequence. Methods: We used a Gaussian mixture model algorithm to separate in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane a clean disk star subsample (essentially at RGC -0.25 dex) highlight a change in the slope at solar metallicity. This holds true at different radial regions of the Milky Way. The distribution of Galactocentric radial distances of the metal-poor part of the thin disk ([Fe/H] trends of their properties (their spatial distribution with respect to the plane, in particular) with [Fe/H] and [Mg/Fe] suggested by the data indicates a quiet dynamical evolution, with no relevant merger events. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.

  17. The r-process Pattern of a Bright, Highly r-process-enhanced Metal-poor Halo Star at [Fe/H] ∼ ‑2 (United States)

    Sakari, Charli M.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Hansen, Terese; Holmbeck, Erika M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Venn, Kim A.; Wallerstein, George; Davis, Christopher Evan; Farrell, Elizabeth M.; Yong, David


    A high-resolution spectroscopic analysis is presented for a new highly r-process-enhanced ([Eu/Fe] = 1.27, [Ba/Eu] = ‑0.65), very metal-poor ([Fe/H] = ‑2.09), retrograde halo star, RAVE J153830.9–180424, discovered as part of the R-Process Alliance survey. At V = 10.86, this is the brightest and most metal-rich r-II star known in the Milky Way halo. Its brightness enables high-S/N detections of a wide variety of chemical species that are mostly created by the r-process, including some infrequently detected lines from elements like Ru, Pd, Ag, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, and Th, with upper limits on Pb and U. This is the most complete r-process census in a very metal-poor r-II star. J1538–1804 shows no signs of s-process contamination, based on its low [Ba/Eu] and [Pb/Fe]. As with many other r-process-enhanced stars, J1538–1804's r-process pattern matches that of the Sun for elements between the first, second, and third peaks, and does not exhibit an actinide boost. Cosmo-chronometric age-dating reveals the r-process material to be quite old. This robust main r-process pattern is a necessary constraint for r-process formation scenarios (of particular interest in light of the recent neutron star merger, GW170817), and has important consequences for the origins of r-II stars. Additional r-I and r-II stars will be reported by the R-Process Alliance in the near future.

  18. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin


    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia [Departamento de Astronomia-Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Karakas, Amanda I.; Kennedy, Catherine R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stancliffe, Richard J. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of two newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. HE 2138-3336 is a s-process-rich star with [Fe/H] = -2.79, and has the highest [Pb/Fe] abundance ratio measured thus far, if non-local thermodynamic equilibrium corrections are included ([Pb/Fe] = +3.84). HE 2258-6358, with [Fe/H] = -2.67, exhibits enrichments in both s- and r-process elements. These stars were selected from a sample of candidate metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey, and followed up with medium-resolution (R {approx} 2000) spectroscopy with GEMINI/GMOS. We report here on derived abundances (or limits) for a total of 34 elements in each star, based on high-resolution (R {approx} 30, 000) spectroscopy obtained with Magellan-Clay/MIKE. Our results are compared to predictions from new theoretical asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models of 1.3 M{sub Sun} with [Fe/H] = -2.5 and -2.8, as well as to a set of AGB models of 1.0 to 6.0 M{sub Sun} at [Fe/H] = -2.3. The agreement with the model predictions suggests that the neutron-capture material in HE 2138-3336 originated from mass transfer from a binary companion star that previously went through the AGB phase, whereas for HE 2258-6358, an additional process has to be taken into account to explain its abundance pattern. We find that a narrow range of progenitor masses (1.0 {<=} M(M{sub Sun }) {<=} 1.3) and metallicities (-2.8 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=}-2.5) yield the best agreement with our observed elemental abundance patterns.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA-European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)


    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called ''extreme'' or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5] > 0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of ≈30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, 1 star in IC 1613, and 1 star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirm that 70 of the x-AGB variables are confirmed or likely carbon stars. We see an increase in the pulsation amplitude with increased dust production, supporting previous studies suggesting that dust production and pulsation are linked. We find no strong evidence linking dust production with metallicity, indicating that dust can form in very metal-poor environments.

  1. Research on aluminum alloy sheet thermoplastic deformation behavior based upon warm bulging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoshen Cai


    Full Text Available The rate of fluid pressure variation is a crucial factor to indicate the forming speed and the pressure rate is applied to be one factor that can influence the deformation of material in warm sheet hydroforming. In this study, warm bulging test was conducted to obtain bulging pressure-height curves with different temperatures and pressure rates. Fitting the bulging pressure-equivalent strain curves obtained using bulging test with surface fitting method, the fitted equation of bulging pressure on equivalent strain and pressure rate was achieved, and the fitting result shows a good accordance with experimental and calculated values. Then, the relation between pressure rate and strain rate was obtained. The results of warm bulging test indicated that the deformation behavior of metal material is sensitive to pressure rate, which is of great significance for warm sheet hydroforming.

  2. A combined photometric and kinematic recipe for evaluating the nature of bulges using the CALIFA sample (United States)

    Neumann, J.; Wisotzki, L.; Choudhury, O. S.; Gadotti, D. A.; Walcher, C. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husemann, B.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Ziegler, B.; Califa Collaboration


    Understanding the nature of bulges in disc galaxies can provide important insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies. For instance, the presence of a classical bulge suggests a relatively violent history. In contrast, the presence of an inner disc instead (also referred to as a "pseudobulge") indicates the occurrence of secular evolution processes in the main disc. However, we still lack criteria to effectively categorise bulges, limiting our ability to study their impact on the evolution of the host galaxies. Here we present a recipe to separate inner discs from classical bulges by combining four different parameters from photometric and kinematic analyses: the bulge Sérsic index nb, the concentration index C20,50, the Kormendy (1977, ApJ, 217, 406) relation and the inner slope of the radial velocity dispersion profile ∇σ. With that recipe we provide a detailed bulge classification for a sample of 45 galaxies from the integral-field spectroscopic survey CALIFA. To aid in categorising bulges within these galaxies, we perform 2D image decomposition to determine bulge Sérsic index, bulge-to-total light ratio, surface brightness and effective radius of the bulge and use growth curve analysis to derive a new concentration index, C20,50. We further extract the stellar kinematics from CALIFA data cubes and analyse the radial velocity dispersion profile. The results of the different approaches are in good agreement and allow a safe classification for approximately 95% of the galaxies. In particular, we show that our new "inner" concentration index performs considerably better than the traditionally used C50,90 when yielding the nature of bulges. We also found that a combined use of this index and the Kormendy relation gives a very robust indication of the physical nature of the bulge.

  3. Simulations of joule effect heating in a bulge test (United States)

    Demazel, Nathan; Laurent, Hervé; Carin, Muriel; Coër, Jérémy; Le Masson, Philippe; Favero, Jérôme; Canivenc, Romain; Graveleau, Stéphane


    This work focuses on the integration of an electrical conduction heating of circular blank in a bulge test device. This device will be used to characterize the thermomechanical behaviour of Usibor®1500 under biaxial deformation at very high temperature (to 930°C). First a thermoelectric model using COMSOL Multiphysics® was developed to study the heating of a rectangular blank. This model is validated by comparing the calculated temperatures with thermocouples measurements. Secondly electrical field optimization is approached to obtain a fast and uniform heating of a circular blank.

  4. A Comparison of Galaxy Bulge+Disk Decomposition Between Pan-STARRS and SDSS (United States)

    Lokken, Martine Elena; McPartland, Conor; Sanders, David B.


    Measurements of the size and shape of bulges in galaxies provide key constraints for models of galaxy evolution. A comprehensive catalog of bulge measurements for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 galaxies is currently available to the public. However, the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π survey now covers the same region with ~1-2 mag deeper photometry, a ~10-30% smaller PSF, and additional coverage in y-band. To test how much improvement in galaxy parameter measurements (e.g. bulge + disk) can be achieved using the new PS1 data, we make use of ultra-deep imaging data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP). We fit bulge+disk models to images of 372 bright (mi < 18.5) galaxies detected in all three surveys. Comparison of galaxy parameters derived from SDSS and PS1 images with those measured from HSC-SSP images shows a tighter correlation between PS1 and SSP measurements for both bulge and disk parameters. Bulge parameters, such as bulge-to-total fraction and bulge radius, show the strongest improvement. However, measurements of all parameters degrade for galaxies with total r-band magnitude below the SDSS spectroscopic limit, mr = 17.7. We plan to use the PS1 3π survey data to produce an updated catalog of bulge+disk decomposition measurements for the entire SDSS DR7 spectroscopic galaxy sample.

  5. The Globular Cluster Systems of Nearby Edge-On Spiral Galaxies (United States)

    Townsley, Leisa Kay


    Globular clusters (GC's) are well-ordered, compact groupings of stars, containing roughly 100,000 members confined to a spherical space several parsecs in diameter. They are probably a major component of every galaxy. The constituent stars are mostly metal-poor and old. The light from these objects is dominated by the emission from red giants and moderate-mass main sequence stars. About 200 GCs populate the halo of our Galaxy, showing a R1/4 falloff symmetric about the Galactic center. They may represent an earlier phase in the Milky Way's evolution, when it was still largely spherically symmetric and was only beginning to collapse to the disk seen today. These objects may be ancient even on universal time scales, constraining cosmological models of the age of the universe itself. They may comprise the closest and easiest way to study relics of the age when galaxies first formed. The Michigan State University Visual CCD Camera at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory was used to map the GC systems (GCS's) of several nearby spiral galaxies and to obtain four-filter visual photometry of the cluster's integrated light. This information will enhance our understanding of galaxy formation and the dynamics that govern galaxy evolution and allow us to explore the universality of the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF) and its applicability to the question of the extragalactic distance scale. Three nearby, nearly edge-on spiral galaxies (NGC 4460, NGC 7640, and NGC 891) were examined. The observations confirmed the existence of GCSs in each galaxy and approached the peak of the GCLF, allowing determination of that peak using Gaussian fits. The colors were used to filter the initial point source list from each filter and to construct a GCS likelihood metric for each source, which enabled further filtering and the production of a ranked list of GC candidates for each galaxy. This metric's usefulness was confirmed using the Milky Way's GCS. The total GC population was

  6. On the bar formation mechanism in galaxies with cuspy bulges (United States)

    Polyachenko, E. V.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.


    We show by numerical simulations that a purely stellar dynamical model composed of an exponential disc, a cuspy bulge, and a Navarro-Frenk-White halo with parameters relevant to the Milky Way is subject to bar formation. Taking into account the finite disc thickness, the bar formation can be explained by the usual bar instability, in spite of the presence of an inner Lindblad resonance, that is believed to damp any global modes. The effect of replacing the live halo and bulge by a fixed external axisymmetric potential (rigid models) is studied. It is shown that while the e-folding time of bar instability increases significantly (from 250 to 500 Myr), the bar pattern speed remains almost the same. For the latter, our average value of 55 km s-1 kpc-1 agrees with the assumption that the Hercules stream in the solar neighbourhood is an imprint of the bar-disc interaction at the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar. Vertical averaging of the radial force in the central disc region comparable to the characteristic scale length allows us to reproduce the bar pattern speed and the growth rate of the rigid models, using normal mode analysis of linear perturbation theory in a razor-thin disc. The strong increase of the e-folding time with decreasing disc mass predicted by the mode analysis suggests that bars in galaxies similar to the Milky Way have formed only recently.

  7. Observational constraints to boxy/peanut bulge formation time (United States)

    Pérez, I.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Florido, E.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; van de Ven, G.; Zurita, A.


    Boxy/peanut bulges are considered to be part of the same stellar structure as bars and both could be linked through the buckling instability. The Milky Way is our closest example. The goal of this Letter is to determine if the mass assembly of the different components leaves an imprint in their stellar populations allowing the estimation the time of bar formation and its evolution. To this aim, we use integral field spectroscopy to derive the stellar age distributions, SADs, along the bar and disc of NGC 6032. The analysis clearly shows different SADs for the different bar areas. There is an underlying old (≥12 Gyr) stellar population for the whole galaxy. The bulge shows star formation happening at all times. The inner bar structure shows stars of ages older than 6 Gyr with a deficit of younger populations. The outer bar region presents an SAD similar to that of the disc. To interpret our results, we use a generic numerical simulation of a barred galaxy. Thus, we constrain, for the first time, the epoch of bar formation, the buckling instability period and the posterior growth from disc material. We establish that the bar of NGC 6032 is old, formed around 10 Gyr ago while the buckling phase possibly happened around 8 Gyr ago. All these results point towards bars being long-lasting even in the presence of gas.

  8. Models of globular proteins in aqueous solutions (United States)

    Wentzel, Nathaniel James

    Protein crystallization is a continuing area of research. Currently, there is no universal theory for the conditions required to crystallize proteins. A better understanding of protein crystallization will be helpful in determining protein structure and preventing and treating certain diseases. In this thesis, we will extend the understanding of globular proteins in aqueous solutions by analyzing various models for protein interactions. Experiments have shown that the liquid-liquid phase separation curves for lysozyme in solution with salt depend on salt type and salt concentration. We analyze a simple square well model for this system whose well depth depends on salt type and salt concentration, to determine the phase coexistence surfaces from experimental data. The surfaces, calculated from a single Monte Carlo simulation and a simple scaling argument, are shown as a function of temperature, salt concentration and protein concentration for two typical salts. Urate Oxidase from Asperigillus flavus is a protein used for studying the effects of polymers on the crystallization of large proteins. Experiments have determined some aspects of the phase diagram. We use Monte Carlo techniques and perturbation theory to predict the phase diagram for a model of urate oxidase in solution with PEG. The model used includes an electrostatic interaction, van der Waals attraction, and a polymerinduced depletion interaction. The results agree quantitatively with experiments. Anisotropy plays a role in globular protein interactions, including the formation of hemoglobin fibers in sickle cell disease. Also, the solvent conditions have been shown to play a strong role in the phase behavior of some aqueous protein solutions. Each has previously been treated separately in theoretical studies. Here we propose and analyze a simple, combined model that treats both anisotropy and solvent effects. We find that this model qualitatively explains some phase behavior, including the existence of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zhang, Andrew J. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States); Hong, Jerry [Palo Alto High School, 50 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94301 (United States); Guo, Michelle [Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Guo, Rachel [Irvington High School, 41800 Blacow Road, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron–Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  10. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. II. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: CEMP-no stars (United States)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Placco, V. M.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.


    Context. The detailed composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be very uniform. However, a fraction of 20-70% (increasing with decreasing metallicity) exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of carbon; these are the so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. A key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether this non-standard composition reflects that of the stellar natal clouds or is due to local, post-birth mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion; CEMP stars should then all be members of binary systems. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binaries among CEMP stars with and without over-abundances of neutron-capture elements - CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars, respectively - as a test of this local mass-transfer scenario. This paper discusses a sample of 24 CEMP-no stars, while a subsequent paper will consider a similar sample of CEMP-s stars. Methods: High-resolution, low S/N spectra of the stars were obtained at roughly monthly intervals over a time span of up to eight years with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Radial velocities of ~100 m s-1 precision were determined by cross-correlation after each observing night, allowing immediate, systematic follow-up of any variable object. Results: Most programme stars exhibit no statistically significant radial-velocity variation over this period and appear to be single, while four are found to be binaries with orbital periods of 300-2000 days and normal eccentricity; the binary frequency for the sample is 17 ± 9%. The single stars mostly belong to the recently identified low-C band, while the binaries have higher absolute carbon abundances. Conclusions: We conclude that the nucleosynthetic process responsible for the strong carbon excess in these ancient stars is unrelated to their binary status; the carbon was imprinted on their natal molecular clouds in the early Galactic interstellar

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters - XII. The RGB Bumps of multiple stellar populations★ (United States)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A. J.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; Barbuy, B.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T.; D'Antona, F.; Nardiello, D.; Ortolani, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Renzini, A.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.; van der Marel, R.; Vesperini, E.


    The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters is providing a major breakthrough in our knowledge of Globular Clusters (GCs) and their stellar populations. Among the main results, we discovered that all the studied GCs host two main discrete groups consisting of first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) stars. We exploit the multiwavelength photometry from this project to investigate, for the first time, the Red Giant Branch Bump (RGBB) of the two generations in a large sample of GCs. We identified, with high statistical significance, the RGBB of 1G and 2G stars in 26 GCs and found that their magnitude separation as a function of the filter wavelength follows comparable trends. The comparison of observations to synthetic spectra reveals that the RGBB luminosity depends on the stellar chemical composition and that the 2G RGBB is consistent with stars enhanced in He and N and depleted in C and O with respect to 1G stars. For metal-poor GCs the 1G and 2G RGBB relative luminosity in optical bands mostly depends on helium content, Y. We used the RGBB observations in F606W and F814W bands to infer the relative helium abundance of 1G and 2G stars in 18 GCs, finding an average helium enhancement Δ Y = 0.011± 0.002 of 2G stars with respect to 1G stars. This is the first determination of the average difference in helium abundance of multiple populations in a large number of clusters and provides a lower limit to the maximum internal variation of helium in GCs.



    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelou, George C.; Stancliffe, Richard J.; Church, Ross P.; Lattanzio, John C. [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia); Smith, Graeme H., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    It is now widely accepted that globular cluster red giant branch (RGB) stars owe their strange abundance patterns to a combination of pollution from progenitor stars and in situ extra mixing. In this hybrid theory a first generation of stars imprints abundance patterns into the gas from which a second generation forms. The hybrid theory suggests that extra mixing is operating in both populations and we use the variation of [C/Fe] with luminosity to examine how efficient this mixing is. We investigate the observed RGBs of M3, M13, M92, M15, and NGC 5466 as a means to test a theory of thermohaline mixing. The second parameter pair M3 and M13 are of intermediate metallicity and our models are able to account for the evolution of carbon along the RGB in both clusters, although in order to fit the most carbon-depleted main-sequence stars in M13 we require a model whose initial [C/Fe] abundance leads to a carbon abundance lower than is observed. Furthermore, our results suggest that stars in M13 formed with some primary nitrogen (higher C+N+O than stars in M3). In the metal-poor regime only NGC 5466 can be tentatively explained by thermohaline mixing operating in multiple populations. We find thermohaline mixing unable to model the depletion of [C/Fe] with magnitude in M92 and M15. It appears as if extra mixing is occurring before the luminosity function bump in these clusters. To reconcile the data with the models would require first dredge-up to be deeper than found in extant models.

  14. Most Massive Globular Cluster in Our Galaxy (United States)


    Far down in the southern sky, in the constellation of Centaurus, a diffuse spot of light can be perceived with the unaided eye. It may be unimpressive, but when seen through a telescope, it turns out to be a beautiful, dense cluster of innumerable stars [1]. Omega Centauri, as this object is called, is the brightest of its type in the sky. We refer to it as a "globular cluster", due to its symmetric form. It belongs to our Milky Way galaxy and astrophysical investigations have shown that it is located at a distance of about 16,500 light-years (1 light-year = 9,460,000,000,000 km). Nobody knows for sure how many individual stars it contains, but recent estimates run into the millions. Most of these stars are more than 10,000 million years old and it is generally agreed that Omega Centauri has a similar age. Measurements of its motion indicate that Omega Centauri plows through the Milky Way in an elongated orbit. It is not easy to understand how it has managed to keep its stars together during such an extended period. MEASURING STELLAR VELOCITIES IN OMEGA CENTAURI A group of astronomers [2] have recently carried through a major investigation of Omega Centauri. After many nights of observations at the ESO La Silla observatory, they now conclude that not only is this globular cluster the brightest, it is indeed by far the most massive known in the Milky Way. The very time-consuming observations were made during numerous observing sessions over a period of no less than 13 years (1981-1993), with the photoelectric spectrometer CORAVEL mounted on the 1.5-m Danish telescope at La Silla. The CORAVEL instrument (COrelation RAdial VELocities) was built in a joint effort between the Geneva (Switzerland) and Marseilles (France) observatories. It functions according to the cross-correlation technique, by means of which the spectrum of the observed star is compared with a "standard stellar spectrum" [3]. HOW HEAVY IS OMEGA CENTAURI? In the present study, a total of 1701


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sneden, C. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cowan, J. J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)


    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ε(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = –2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Feigenson, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sneden, C. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cowan, J. J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)


    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with recently published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 836 lines. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for 26 levels of neutral vanadium. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ε(V) = 3.956 ± 0.004 (σ = 0.037) based on 93 V I lines and log ε(V) = 1.89 ± 0.03 (σ = 0.07) based on nine V I lines, respectively, using the Holweger-Müller 1D model. These new V I abundance values for the Sun and HD 84937 agree well with our earlier determinations based upon V II.

  17. The INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program: the first 1.5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.E.; Paizis, A.; Chenevez, J.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.B.; Mowlavi, N.; Oosterbroek, T.; Orr, A.; Rísquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Wijnands, R.


    Aims.The Galactic bulge region is a rich host of variable high-energy point sources. Since 2005, February 17 we are monitoring the source activity in the Galactic bulge region regularly and frequently, i.e., about every three days, with the instruments onboard INTEGRAL. Thanks to the large field of

  18. Anomalous bulging behaviors of a dielectric elastomer balloon under internal pressure and electric actuation (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Yuan, Chao; Lu, Tongqing; Wang, T. J.


    When a clamped membrane of elastomer is subject to a lateral pressure, it bulges into a hemispherical balloon. However, for a clamped membrane of dielectric elastomer (DE) under a lateral pressure as well as a voltage through the thickness, it may bulge into a regular hemispherical balloon or an irregular shape. This work focuses on the anomalous bulging behaviors (i.e. the irregular bulging shape) of a DE balloon under electromechanical coupling loading. The full set of the equilibrium configurations of the DE balloon is theoretically derived within the framework of thermodynamics, based on which we find that with the increase of the applied voltage, the pressure-volume relationship changes from the single-N shape for the case of purely mechanical loading to a double-N shape, where five or more equilibrium configurations exist including both regular and irregular bulging shapes. Through stability analysis we find that the anomalous bulging is a common behavior for the DE balloon under electromechanical coupling loading and all types of irregular bulging shapes can be achieved by following carefully designed loading paths. Besides, the irregular bulging region usually has the largest local strain which may initiate the failure of the DE membrane. Guided by the theoretical analysis, we conducted experiments on a DE balloon under the internal pressure and electrical actuation. Typical irregular shapes were successfully observed and the entire evolution of the shape changing agrees very well with theoretical predictions. These findings enrich understandings of highly nonlinear behaviors for soft materials under electromechanical coupling loading.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Using a 2D generalization of Kent's model-independent decomposition method, we extract the K-band light profiles of the bulges of a sample of field galaxies with morphological types ranging from S0 to Sbc. We then examine the shape of the bulge profiles, by means of fitting a seeing-convolved power

  20. Galactic bulges from Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations : Global scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balcells, Marc; Graham, Alister W.; Peletier, Reynier F.


    We investigate bulge and disk scaling relations using a volume-corrected sample of early-to intermediate-type disk galaxies in which, importantly, the biasing flux from additional nuclear components has been modeled and removed. Structural parameters are obtained from a seeing-convolved, bulge +

  1. Latitudinal plasma distribution in the dusk plasmaspheric bulge - Refilling phase and quasi-equilibrium state (United States)

    Decreau, P. M. E.; Carpenter, D.; Chappell, C. R.; Green, J.; Waite, J. H., Jr.


    Very low-energy trapped ions, mostly protons, have been observed in a region of moderate density characteristic of the plasmapause boundary and of the plasmaspheric bulge. The present paper is concerned with an examination of the latitudinal structure of the bulge under quasi-steady conditions and the conditions of the recovery phase. Details regarding the data base are considered along with observations of the morphology and dynamics of the bulge, the latitudinal density distribution in the expanded bulge, the convection scenario during the replenishment phase, and latitudinal effects on plasma characteristics during plasmasphere refilling. The data utilized have been mainly provided by the DE 1 and GEOS 2 spacecraft traveling in two perpendicular planes. It is found that the bulge is a dynamic region, where no reasonable interpretation of the observed density distribution can be achieved without taking into account the mechanism of magnetospheric convection.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. (Luetticke+, 2000) (United States)

    Luetticke, R.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Pohlen, M.


    BUTY presents in its main part (table 6) a classification for bulges of a complete sample of 1224 edge-on disk galaxies (D25>2arcmin, logR25>0.35 for S0/a-Sd galaxies and log R25>0.30 for S0 galaxies) derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al., 1991, Cat. ). Using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS), the bulge shape is visually classified in three types of box- and peanut-shaped (b/p) bulges or as an elliptical type. The extension of BUTY (table 7) contains the classification of bulges of additional 83 galaxies, which do not fulfill the selection criterion of our RC3 sample. They are observed with CCD images (optical or NIR) or are investigated in previous studies about b/p bulges. (3 data files).

  3. Thermodynamic examination of 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA constructs (United States)

    Strom, Shane; Shiskova, Evgenia; Hahm, Yaeeun


    Bulge loops are common features of RNA structures that are involved in the formation of RNA tertiary structures and are often sites for interactions with proteins and ions. Minimal thermodynamic data currently exist on the bulge size and sequence effects. Using thermal denaturation methods, thermodynamic properties of 1- to 5-nt adenine and guanine bulge loop constructs were examined in 10 mM MgCl2 or 1 M KCl. The ΔG37∘ loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA constructs were between 3.07 and 5.31 kcal/mol in 1 M KCl buffer. In 10 mM magnesium ions, the ΔΔG° values relative to 1 M KCl were 0.47–2.06 kcal/mol more favorable for the RNA bulge loops. The ΔG37∘ loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in DNA constructs were between 4.54 and 5.89 kcal/mol. Only 4- and 5-nt guanine constructs showed significant change in stability for the DNA constructs in magnesium ions. A linear correlation is seen between the size of the bulge loop and its stability. New prediction models are proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA in 1 M KCl. We show that a significant stabilization is seen for small bulge loops in RNA in the presence of magnesium ions. A prediction model is also proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loop RNA constructs in 10 mM magnesium chloride. PMID:26022248


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obreja, A.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.; Brook, C. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Cantoblanco Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Serrano, F. J.; Domenech-Moral, M.; Serna, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Arquitectura de Computadores, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E-03202 Elche (Spain); Molla, M. [Departamento de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Stinson, G., E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)


    We analyze and compare the bulges of a sample of L {sub *} spiral galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations in a cosmological context, using two different codes, P-DEVA and GASOLINE. The codes regulate star formation in very different ways, with P-DEVA simulations inputting low star formation efficiency under the assumption that feedback occurs on subgrid scales, while the GASOLINE simulations have feedback that drives large-scale outflows. In all cases, the marked knee shape in mass aggregation tracks, corresponding to the transition from an early phase of rapid mass assembly to a later slower one, separates the properties of two populations within the simulated bulges. The bulges analyzed show an important early starburst resulting from the collapse-like fast phase of mass assembly, followed by a second phase with lower star formation, driven by a variety of processes such as disk instabilities and/or mergers. Classifying bulge stellar particles identified at z = 0 into old and young according to these two phases, we found bulge stellar sub-populations with distinct kinematics, shapes, stellar ages, and metal contents. The young components are more oblate, generally smaller, more rotationally supported, with higher metallicity and less alpha-element enhanced than the old ones. These results are consistent with the current observational status of bulges, and provide an explanation for some apparently paradoxical observations, such as bulge rejuvenation and metal-content gradients observed. Our results suggest that bulges of L {sub *} galaxies will generically have two bulge populations that can be likened to classical and pseudo-bulges, with differences being in the relative proportions of the two, which may vary due to galaxy mass and specific mass accretion and merger histories.

  5. Thermodynamic examination of 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA constructs. (United States)

    Strom, Shane; Shiskova, Evgenia; Hahm, Yaeeun; Grover, Neena


    Bulge loops are common features of RNA structures that are involved in the formation of RNA tertiary structures and are often sites for interactions with proteins and ions. Minimal thermodynamic data currently exist on the bulge size and sequence effects. Using thermal denaturation methods, thermodynamic properties of 1- to 5-nt adenine and guanine bulge loop constructs were examined in 10 mM MgCl(2) or 1 M KCl. The [Formula: see text] loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA constructs were between 3.07 and 5.31 kcal/mol in 1 M KCl buffer. In 10 mM magnesium ions, the ΔΔG° values relative to 1 M KCl were 0.47-2.06 kcal/mol more favorable for the RNA bulge loops. The [Formula: see text] loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in DNA constructs were between 4.54 and 5.89 kcal/mol. Only 4- and 5-nt guanine constructs showed significant change in stability for the DNA constructs in magnesium ions. A linear correlation is seen between the size of the bulge loop and its stability. New prediction models are proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA in 1 M KCl. We show that a significant stabilization is seen for small bulge loops in RNA in the presence of magnesium ions. A prediction model is also proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loop RNA constructs in 10 mM magnesium chloride. © 2015 Strom et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Isolated ellipticals and their globular cluster systems. III. NGC 2271, NGC 2865, NGC 3962, NGC 4240, and IC 4889 (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Alabi, A.; Richtler, T.; Lane, R. R.


    As tracers of star formation, galaxy assembly, and mass distribution, globular clusters have provided important clues to our understanding of early-type galaxies. But their study has been mostly constrained to galaxy groups and clusters where early-type galaxies dominate, leaving the properties of the globular cluster systems (GCSs) of isolated ellipticals as a mostly uncharted territory. We present Gemini-South/GMOS g'i' observations of five isolated elliptical galaxies: NGC 3962, NGC 2865, IC 4889, NGC 2271, and NGC 4240. Photometry of their GCSs reveals clear color bimodality in three of them, but remains inconclusive for the other two. All the studied GCSs are rather poor with a mean specific frequency SN ~ 1.5, independently of the parent galaxy luminosity. Considering information from previous work as well, it is clear that bimodality and especially the presence of a significant, even dominant, population of blue clusters occurs at even the most isolated systems, which casts doubts on a possible accreted origin of metal-poor clusters, as suggested by some models. Additionally, we discuss the possible existence of ultra-compact dwarfs around the isolated elliptical NGC 3962. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).Globular cluster photometry is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via are available in

  7. Accreting Black Hole Binaries in Globular Clusters (United States)

    Kremer, Kyle; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Rasio, Frederic A.


    We explore the formation of mass-transferring binary systems containing black holes (BHs) within globular clusters (GC). We show that it is possible to form mass-transferring BH binaries with main sequence, giant, and white dwarf companions with a variety of orbital parameters in GCs spanning a large range in present-day properties. All mass-transferring BH binaries found in our models at late times are dynamically created. The BHs in these systems experienced a median of ∼30 dynamical encounters within the cluster before and after acquiring the donor. Furthermore, we show that the presence of mass-transferring BH systems has little correlation with the total number of BHs within the cluster at any time. This is because the net rate of formation of BH–non-BH binaries in a cluster is largely independent of the total number of retained BHs. Our results suggest that the detection of a mass-transferring BH binary in a GC does not necessarily indicate that the host cluster contains a large BH population.


    Lawler, J E; Sneden, C; Nave, G; Den Hartog, E A; Emrahođlu, N; Cowan, J J


    New emission branching fraction (BF) measurements for 183 lines of the second spectrum of chromium (Cr II) and new radiative lifetime measurements from laser-induced fluorescence for 8 levels of Cr+ are reported. The goals of this study are to improve transition probability measurements in Cr II and reconcile solar and stellar Cr abundance values based on Cr I and Cr II lines. Eighteen spectra from three Fourier Transform Spectrometers supplemented with ultraviolet spectra from a high-resolution echelle spectrometer are used in the BF measurements. Radiative lifetimes from this study and earlier publications are used to convert the BFs into absolute transition probabilities. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Cr abundance log ε in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937. The mean result in the Sun is 〈logε (Cr II)〉 = 5.624±0.009 compared to 〈logε(Cr I)〉 = 5.644 ± 0.006 on a scale with the hydrogen abundance log ε(H) = 12 and with the uncertainty representing only line-to-line scatter. A Saha (ionization balance) test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is also performed, yielding 〈logε(Cr II)〉 = 3.417 ± 0.006 and 〈log ε(Cr I, lower level excitation potential E. P. >30 eV)〉 = 3.3743±30.011 for this dwarf star. We find a correlation of Cr with the iron-peak element Ti, suggesting an associated nucleosynthetic production. Four iron-peak elements (Cr along with Ti, V, and Sc) appear to have a similar (or correlated) production history-other iron-peak elements appear not to be associated with Cr.

  9. KELT-21b: A Hot Jupiter Transiting the Rapidly Rotating Metal-poor Late-A Primary of a Likely Hierarchical Triple System (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zhou, George; Gonzales, Erica J.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Crepp, Justin R.; Penev, Kaloyan; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Colón, Knicole D.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Ilyin, Ilya; Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Maritch, Luke; Reed, Phillip A.; Gregorio, Joao; Bozza, Valerio; Calchi Novati, Sebastiano; D’Ago, Giuseppe; Scarpetta, Gaetano; Zambelli, Roberto; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Tayar, Jamie; Serenelli, Aldo; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Clarke, Seth P.; Martinez, Maria; Spencer, Michelle; Trump, Jason; Joner, Michael D.; Bugg, Adam G.; Hintz, Eric G.; Stephens, Denise C.; Arredondo, Anicia; Benzaid, Anissa; Yazdi, Sormeh; McLeod, Kim K.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Hancock, Daniel A.; Sorber, Rebecca L.; Kasper, David H.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Beatty, Thomas G.; Carroll, Thorsten; Eastman, Jason; James, David; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Lund, Michael B.; Mallonn, Matthias; Pepper, Joshua; Siverd, Robert J.; Yao, Xinyu; Cohen, David H.; Curtis, Ivan A.; DePoy, D. L.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Penny, Matthew T.; Relles, Howard; Stockdale, Christopher; Tan, Thiam-Guan; Villanueva, Steven, Jr.


    We present the discovery of KELT-21b, a hot Jupiter transiting the V = 10.5 A8V star HD 332124. The planet has an orbital period of P = 3.6127647 ± 0.0000033 days and a radius of {1.586}-0.040+0.039 {R}{{J}}. We set an upper limit on the planetary mass of {M}Pv\\sin {I}* =146 km s‑1, the highest projected rotation velocity of any star known to host a transiting hot Jupiter. The star also appears to be somewhat metal poor and α-enhanced, with [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-{0.405}-0.033+0.032 and [α/Fe] = 0.145 ± 0.053 these abundances are unusual, but not extraordinary, for a young star with thin-disk kinematics like KELT-21. High-resolution imaging observations revealed the presence of a pair of stellar companions to KELT-21, located at a separation of 1.″2 and with a combined contrast of {{Δ }}{K}S=6.39+/- 0.06 with respect to the primary. Although these companions are most likely physically associated with KELT-21, we cannot confirm this with our current data. If associated, the candidate companions KELT-21 B and C would each have masses of ∼0.12 {M}ȯ , a projected mutual separation of ∼20 au, and a projected separation of ∼500 au from KELT-21. KELT-21b may be one of only a handful of known transiting planets in hierarchical triple stellar systems.

  10. Classification of extremely metal-poor stars: absent region in A(C)-[Fe/H] plane and the role of dust cooling (United States)

    Chiaki, Gen; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nozawa, Takaya


    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are the living fossils with records of chemical enrichment history at the early epoch of galaxy formation. By the recent large observation campaigns, statistical samples of EMP stars have been obtained. This motivates us to reconsider their classification and formation conditions. From the observed lower limits of carbon and iron abundances of Acr(C) ∼ 6 and [Fe/H]cr ∼ -5 for C-enhanced EMP (CE-EMP) and C-normal EMP (CN-EMP) stars, we confirm that gas cooling by dust thermal emission is indispensable for the fragmentation of their parent clouds to form such low mass, i.e. long-lived stars, and that the dominant grain species are carbon and silicate, respectively. We constrain the grain radius r_i^cool of a species i and condensation efficiency fij of a key element j as r_C^cool / f_C,C = 10 {μ m} and r_Sil^cool / f_Sil,Mg = 0.1 {μ m} to reproduce Acr(C) and [Fe/H]cr, which give a universal condition 10[C/H] - 2.30 + 10[Fe/H] > 10-5.07 for the formation of every EMP star. Instead of the conventional boundary [C/Fe] = 0.7 between CE-EMP and CN-EMP stars, this condition suggests a physically meaningful boundary [C/Fe]b = 2.30 above and below which carbon and silicate grains are dominant coolants, respectively.

  11. The difference in metallicity distribution functions of halo stars and globular clusters as a function of galaxy type. A tracer of globular cluster formation and evolution (United States)

    Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Bastian, N.; Rejkuba, M.; Hilker, M.; Kissler-Patig, M.


    Context. Observations of globular clusters (GCs) and field stars in the halos of the giant elliptical galaxy Cen A and the spiral galaxy M 31 show a large range of cluster-to-star number ratios (or "specific frequencies"). The cluster-to-star ratio decreases with increasing metallicity by over a factor of 100-1000, at all galactocentric radii and with a slope that does not seem to depend on radius. In dwarf galaxies, the GCs are also more metal-poor than the field stars on average. These observations indicate a strong dependence of either the cluster formation efficiency and/or the cluster destruction rate on metallicity and environment. Aims: We aim to explain the observed trends by considering the various effects that influence the cluster-to-star ratio as a function of metallicity, environment and cosmological history. Methods: We discuss the following effects that may influence the observed cluster-to-star ratio: (a) the formation efficiency of GCs; (b) the destruction of embedded GCs by gas expulsion; (c) the maximum masses of GCs; (d) the destruction of GCs by tidal stripping, dynamical friction, and tidal shocks as a function of environment; (e) the hierarchical assembly of GC systems during galaxy formation and the dependence on metallicity. Results: We show that both the cluster formation efficiency and the maximum cluster mass increase with metallicity, so they cannot explain the observed trend. Destruction of GCs by tidal stripping and dynamical friction destroy clusters mostly within the inner few kpc, whereas the cluster-to-star ratio trend is observed over a much larger range of galactocentric radii. We show that cluster destruction by tidal shocks from giant molecular clouds in the high-density formation environments of GCs becomes increasingly efficient towards high galaxy masses and, hence, towards high metallicities. The predicted cluster-to-star ratio decreases by a factor 100-1000 towards high metallicities and should only weakly depend on

  12. Bulge testing of copper and niobium tubes for hydroformed RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.S., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sumption, M.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Susner, M.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lim, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collings, E.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)


    The heat treatment, tensile testing, and bulge testing of Cu and Nb tubes has been carried out to gain experience for the subsequent hydroforming of Nb tube into seamless superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for high energy particle acceleration. In the experimental part of the study samples removed from representative tubes were prepared for heat treatment, tensile testing, residual resistance ratio measurement, and orientation imaging electron microscopy (OIM). After being optimally heat treated Cu and Nb tubes were subjected to hydraulic bulge testing and the results analyzed. In the final part of the study finite-element models (FEM) incorporating constitutive (stress–strain) relationships analytically derived from the tensile and bulge tests, respectively, were used to replicate the bulge test. As expected, agreement was obtained between the experimental bulge parameters and the FEM model based on the bulge-derived constitutive relationship. Not so for the FEM model based on tensile-test data. It is concluded that a constitutive relationship based on bulge testing is necessary to predict a material's performance under hydraulic deformation.

  13. Bulging Behavior of Thin-walled Welded Low Carbon Steel Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Wen-cai


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the deformation behaviour of welded tubes during hydraulic bulging process,the hydraulic bulging tests of thin-walled welded low carbon steel tubes (STKM11A were conducted on the tube hydroformability testing unit.The thickness distribution,profiles of bulging area and the strain distribution were all obtained.Results show that the thickness reduction of weld zone is just 2.4%-5.5% while its effective strain is just 0.05-0.10,which is very small and negligible compared with the parent material and means that just the geometric position of weld zone is changed with the continuous bulging.The thinnest points are located on the both sides of weld seam symmetrically and the angle between the thinnest point and weld seam is about 30°,at which the necking has been occurred.When the length of bulging area increases,the fracture pressure,the thickness reduction and the ultimate expansion ratio all decrease,and the profile of the bulging area gradually steps away from the elliptical model which is powerless for the ratio of length to diameter up to 2.0.Moreover,the strain state of the tube is transformed from biaxial tension to plane strain state with the increasing length of bulging area,on the basis of this the forming limit diagram of welded STKM11A steel tubes can be established.

  14. Factors associated with hernia and bulge formation at the donor site of the pedicled TRAM flap. (United States)

    Rossetto, Luis Antonio; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Vidal, Ronaldo; Garcia, Elvio Bueno; Gonzalez, Ricardo João; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique; Neto, Miguel Sabino; Ferreira, Lydia Masako


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between risk factors and hernia or bulge formation at the donor site of the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap. A retrospective study was conducted between September 2005 and December 2008 in 206 patients who underwent breast reconstruction with pedicled TRAM flap. Eight (3.9%) of these patients had abdominal wall hernia and 26 (12.6%) had abdominal bulging. The incidence of hernia was significantly higher (P /= 30 kg/m(2) (hernia incidence, 15.0%) than that among patients with BMI /= 30 kg/m(2) (abdominal bulge incidence, 5.0%) than that among patients with BMI >/= 30 kg/m(2) (abdominal bulge incidence, 19.1%). Therefore, obesity was identified as a risk factor for abdominal wall hernia. It was also found that the use of mesh to reinforce the abdominal wall significantly reduced (P < 0.025) the incidence of hernia (use of mesh (hernia incidence, 2.5%) versus non-mesh (hernia incidence, 5.9%)) and abdominal bulge (use of mesh (abdominal bulge incidence, 9.9%) versus non-mesh (abdominal bulge incidence, 17.3%)) among the patients.

  15. Effect of an upstream bulge configuration on film cooling with and without mist injection. (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Qianqian; Sundén, Bengt; Ma, Ting; Cui, Pei


    To meet the economic requirements of power output, the increased inlet temperature of modern gas turbines is above the melting point of the material. Therefore, high-efficient cooling technology is needed to protect the blades from the hot mainstream. In this study, film cooling was investigated in a simplified channel. A bulge located upstream of the film hole was numerically investigated by analysis of the film cooling effectiveness distribution downstream of the wall. The flow distribution in the plate channel is first presented. Comparing with a case without bulge, different cases with bulge heights of 0.1d, 0.3d and 0.5d were examined with blowing ratios of 0.5 and 1.0. Cases with 1% mist injection were also included in order to obtain better cooling performance. Results show that the bulge configuration located upstream the film hole makes the cooling film more uniform, and enhanceslateral cooling effectiveness. Unlike other cases, the configuration with a 0.3d-height bulge shows a good balance in improving the downstream and lateral cooling effectiveness. Compared with the case without mist at M = 0.5, the 0.3d-height bulge with 1% mist injection increases lateral average effectiveness by 559% at x/d = 55. In addition, a reduction of the thermal stress concentration can be obtained by increasing the height of the bulge configuration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Bulge Deformation between 2D and 3D Finite Element Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin


    Full Text Available Bulge deformation of the slab is one of the main factors that affect slab quality in continuous casting. This paper describes an investigation into bulge deformation using ABAQUS to model the solidification process. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of the slab solidification process has been first established because the bulge deformation is closely related to slab temperature distributions. Based on slab temperature distributions, a three-dimensional thermomechanical coupling model including the slab, the rollers, and the dynamic contact between them has also been constructed and applied to a case study. The thermomechanical coupling model produces outputs such as the rules of bulge deformation. Moreover, the three-dimensional model has been compared with a two-dimensional model to discuss the differences between the two models in calculating the bulge deformation. The results show that the platform zone exists in the wide side of the slab and the bulge deformation is affected strongly by the ratio of width-to-thickness. The indications are also that the difference of the bulge deformation for the two modeling ways is little when the ratio of width-to-thickness is larger than six.

  17. Stellar populations of bulges in galaxies with a low surface-brightness disc (United States)

    Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Coccato, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.


    The radial profiles of the Hβ, Mg, and Fe line-strength indices are presented for a sample of eight spiral galaxies with a low surface-brightness stellar disc and a bulge. The correlations between the central values of the line-strength indices and velocity dispersion are consistent to those known for early-type galaxies and bulges of high surface-brightness galaxies. The age, metallicity, and α/Fe enhancement of the stellar populations in the bulge-dominated region are obtained using stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. Almost all the sample bulges are characterized by a young stellar population, on-going star formation, and a solar α/Fe enhancement. Their metallicity spans from high to sub-solar values. No significant gradient in age and α/Fe enhancement is measured, whereas only in a few cases a negative metallicity gradient is found. These properties suggest that a pure dissipative collapse is not able to explain formation of all the sample bulges and that other phenomena, like mergers or acquisition events, need to be invoked. Such a picture is also supported by the lack of a correlation between the central value and gradient of the metallicity in bulges with very low metallicity. The stellar populations of the bulges hosted by low surface-brightness discs share many properties with those of high surface-brightness galaxies. Therefore, they are likely to have common formation scenarios and evolution histories. A strong interplay between bulges and discs is ruled out by the fact that in spite of being hosted by discs with extremely different properties, the bulges of low and high surface-brightness discs are remarkably similar.

  18. Morpho-kinematic properties of field S0 bulges in the CALIFA survey (United States)

    Méndez-Abreu, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Costantin, L.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Zhu, L.; Sánchez-Blazquez, P.; Florido, E.; Corsini, E. M.; Wild, V.; Lyubenova, M.; van de Ven, G.; Sánchez, S. F.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; García-Lorenzo, B.; González Delgado, R. M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Ziegler, B.; Califa Collaboration


    We study a sample of 28 S0 galaxies extracted from the integral field spectroscopic (IFS) survey Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area. We combine an accurate two-dimensional (2D) multicomponent photometric decomposition with the IFS kinematic properties of their bulges to understand their formation scenario. Our final sample is representative of S0s with high stellar masses (M⋆/M⊙ > 1010). They lay mainly on the red sequence and live in relatively isolated environments similar to that of the field and loose groups. We use our 2D photometric decomposition to define the size and photometric properties of the bulges, as well as their location within the galaxies. We perform mock spectroscopic simulations mimicking our observed galaxies to quantify the impact of the underlying disc on our bulge kinematic measurements (λ and v/σ). We compare our bulge corrected kinematic measurements with the results from Schwarzschild dynamical modelling. The good agreement confirms the robustness of our results and allows us to use bulge deprojected values of λ and v/σ. We find that the photometric (n and B/T) and kinematic (v/σ and λ) properties of our field S0 bulges are not correlated. We demonstrate that this morpho-kinematic decoupling is intrinsic to the bulges and it is not due to projection effects. We conclude that photometric diagnostics to separate different types of bulges (disc-like versus classical) might not be useful for S0 galaxies. The morpho-kinematics properties of S0 bulges derived in this paper suggest that they are mainly formed by dissipational processes happening at high redshift, but dedicated high-resolution simulations are necessary to better identify their origin.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S. [Physics Department, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Freire, Paulo C. C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ransom, Scott M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-4325 (United States); Jacoby, Bryan A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Aerospace Corporation, 15049 Conference Center Drive, Chantilly, VA 20151-3824 (United States)


    We have used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to time nine previously known pulsars without published timing solutions in the globular clusters (GCs) M62, NGC 6544, and NGC 6624. We have full timing solutions that measure the spin, astrometric, and (where applicable) binary parameters for six of these pulsars. The remaining three pulsars (reported here for the first time) were not detected enough to establish solutions. We also report our timing solutions for five pulsars with previously published solutions, and find good agreement with other authors, except for PSR J1701-3006B in M62. Gas in this system is probably responsible for the discrepancy in orbital parameters, and we have been able to measure a change in the orbital period over the course of our observations. Among the pulsars with new solutions we find several binary pulsars with very low mass companions (members of the so-called 'black widow' class) and we are able to place constraints on the mass-to-light ratio in two clusters. We confirm that one of the pulsars in NGC 6624 is indeed a member of the rare class of non-recycled pulsars found in GCs. We have also measured the orbital precession and Shapiro delay for a relativistic binary in NGC 6544. If we assume that the orbital precession can be described entirely by general relativity, which is likely, we are able to measure the total system mass (2.57190(73) M{sub Sun }) and companion mass (1.2064(20) M{sub Sun }), from which we derive the orbital inclination (sin i = 0.9956(14)) and the pulsar mass (1.3655(21) M{sub Sun }), the most precise such measurement ever obtained for a millisecond pulsar. The companion is the most massive known around a fully recycled pulsar.

  20. Globular Cluster formation in a collapsing supershell (United States)

    Recchi, S.; Wünsch, R.; Palouš, J.; Dinnbier, F.


    Primordial clouds are supposed to host the so-called population III stars. These stars are very massive and completely metal-free. The final stage of the life of population III stars with masses between 130 and 260 solar masses is a very energetic hypernova explosion. A hypernova drives a shock, behind which a spherically symmetric very dense supershell forms, which might become gravitationally unstable, fragment, and form stars. In this paper we study under what conditions can an expanding supershell become gravitationally unstable and how the feedback of these supershell stars (SSSs) affects its surroundings. We simulate, by means of a 1-D Eulerian hydrocode, the early evolution of the primordial cloud after the hypernova explosion, the formation of SSSs, and the following evolution, once the SSSs start to release energy and heavy elements into the interstellar medium. Our results indicate that a shell, enriched with nucleosynthetic products from SSSs, propagates inwards, towards the center of the primordial cloud. In a time span of a few Myr, this inward-propagating shell reaches a distance of only a few parsec away from the center of the primordial cloud. Its density is extremely high and its temperature very low, thus the conditions for a new episode of star formation are achieved. We study what fraction of these two distinct populations of stars can remain bound and survive until the present day. We study also under what conditions can this process repeat and form multiple stellar populations. We extensively discuss whether the proposed scenario can help to explain some open questions of the formation mechanism of globular clusters.

  1. CN Variations in High-Metallicity Globular and Open Clusters (United States)

    Martell, Sarah L.; Smith, Graeme H.


    We present a comparison of CN band strength variations in the high-metallicity globular clusters NGC 6356 and NGC 6528 with those measured in the old open clusters NGC 188, NCG 2158 and NGC 7789. Star-to-star abundance variations, of which CN differences are a readily observable sign, are commonplace in moderate-metallicity halo globular clusters but are unseen in the field or in open clusters. We find that the open clusters have narrow, unimodal distributions of CN band strength, as expected from the literature, while the globular clusters have broad, bimodal distributions of CN band strength, similar to moderate-metallicity halo globular clusters. This result has interesting implications for the various mechanisms proposed to explain the origin of globular cluster abundance inhomogeneities, and suggests that the local environment at the epoch of cluster formation plays a vital role in regulating intracluster enrichment processes. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  2. Possible Streams of the Globular Clusters in the Galaxy (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Jiang, Bi-Wei; Zhao, Yong-Heng


    We aim to retrieve ghost streams under the assumption that all the globular clusters in our Galaxy were formed in very early merge events. Our results are based on two speculations: that the specific energy and angular momentum of the globular clusters after merge are not changed in the course of evolution and that the globular clusters with a common origin would stay in the same orbit plane as the parent galaxy. After taking into account the apogalacticum distance of the orbits, we suggest with some confidence five possible streams. The number of streams is consistent with the previous results. Three of the four well established members of the Sagittarius stream were found to be in one of our streams. Several other globular clusters in our result were also thought to come from accretion by previous researchers. The orbital parameters of the streams are derived, which provide a way to test whether these streams are true with the help of more accurate measurement of proper motions of the globular clusters.

  3. Enrichment by supernovae in globular clusters with multiple populations. (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Kang, Young-Woon; Lee, Jina; Lee, Young-Wook


    The most massive globular cluster in the Milky Way, omega Centauri, is thought to be the remaining core of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, as expected within the model of hierarchical merging. It contains several stellar populations having different heavy elemental abundances supplied by supernovae-a process known as metal enrichment. Although M 22 appears to be similar to omega Cen, other peculiar globular clusters do not. Therefore omega Cen and M 22 are viewed as exceptional, and the presence of chemical inhomogeneities in other clusters is seen as 'pollution' from the intermediate-mass asymptotic-giant-branch stars expected in normal globular clusters. Here we report Ca abundances for seven globular clusters and compare them to omega Cen. Calcium and other heavy elements can only be supplied through numerous supernovae explosions of massive stars in these stellar systems, but the gravitational potentials of the present-day clusters cannot preserve most of the ejecta from such explosions. We conclude that these globular clusters, like omega Cen, are most probably the relics of more massive primeval dwarf galaxies that merged and disrupted to form the proto-Galaxy.

  4. An ancient metal-poor population in M32, and halo satellite accretion in M31, identified by RR Lyrae stars (United States)

    Sarajedini, Ata; Yang, S.-C.; Monachesi, A.; Lauer, Tod R.; Trager, S. C.


    We present time series photometry of two fields near M32 using archival observations from the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. One field is centred about 2 arcmin from M32, while the other is located 15 arcmin to the south-east of M31. The imaging covers a time baseline sufficient for the identification and characterization of a total number of 1139 RR Lyrae variables of which 821 are ab-type and 318 are c-type. In the field near M32, we find a radial gradient in the density of RR Lyraes relative to the centre of M32. This gradient is consistent with the surface brightness profile of M32, suggesting that a significant number of the RR Lyraes in this region belong to M32. This provides further confirmation that M32 contains an ancient stellar population formed around the same time as the oldest population in M31 and the Milky Way. The RR Lyrae stars in M32 exhibit a mean metal abundance of ≈ -1.42 ± 0.02, which is ≈15 times lower than the metal abundance of the overall M32 stellar population. Moreover, the abundance of RR Lyrae stars normalized to the luminosity of M32 in the field analysed further indicates that the ancient metal-poor population in M32 represents only a very minor component of this galaxy, consistent with the 1-4.5 per cent in mass inferred from the colour-magnitude diagram analysis of Monachesi et al. We also find that the measured reddening of the RR Lyrae stars is consistent with M32 containing little or no dust. In the other field, we find unprecedented evidence for two populations of RR Lyraes in M31 as shown by two distinct sequences among the ab-type variables in the Bailey diagram. When interpreted in terms of metal abundance, one population exhibits a peak at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.3 and the other is at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.9. One possible interpretation of this result is that the more metal-rich population represents the dominant M31 halo, while the metal-poorer group could be a disrupted dwarf


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C. B.; Baldwin, A.; Collazzi, A.; Gossen, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Nelemans, G. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maccarone, T. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Science Building, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Heinke, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bassa, C. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Villar, A. [Department of Physics, Massachussettes Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Gabb, M. [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)


    We present optical light curves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from ∼2 hr to 8 days over the 3/4 of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the light curve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. Eighty-seven percent of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. Twenty-seven percent of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and discuss the characteristics of the variable population.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, Akos; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Li, Zhiyuan; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-str. 1, 85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Guo, Qi [Partner Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Schindler, Sabine, E-mail: [Institut fuer Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)


    We study two nearby early-type galaxies, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are 6.9{sup +3.8}{sub -2.3}% and 1.9% {+-} 0.6%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of {approx}0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are Almost-Equal-To 5.1{sigma} and Almost-Equal-To 3.4{sigma} outliers from the M{sub .}-M{sub bulge} scaling relation, respectively. In this paper, we explore the origin of the unusually high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC 4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which {approx}> 90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explain the observed high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios. Therefore, we conclude that these galaxies formed with low stellar masses, implying that the bulge and black hole did not grow in tandem. We also find that the black hole mass correlates well with the properties of the dark matter halo, suggesting that dark matter halos may play a major role in regulating the growth of the supermassive black holes.

  7. Looking for tidal streams around Galactic globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Delgado D.


    Full Text Available The picture of building the Milky Way halo from merging protogalactic fragments is considered the local manifestation of the hierarchical galaxy formation process. In this scenario, some observational evidences have suggested that the outer young Galactic halo globular cluster population might be associated (or even the nuclei to tidal disrupted dwarf spheroidals, now extinct galaxies. If this hypothesis is true, these systems might be surrounded by a distinct and still detectable stellar population. We have carried out a systematic observation of Galactic globulars covering the galactocentric distance range 10 < RGC< 40 kpc in both hemispheres. We have used wide field instruments both in La Palma and in La Silla observatories to obtain deep photometry of wide areas around these globulars to unveil the possible remnants of their progenitor dwarf galaxies.

  8. APOGEE Kinematics. I. Overview of the Kinematics of the Galactic Bulge as Mapped By APOGEE (United States)

    Ness, M.; Zasowski, G.; Johnson, J. A.; Athanassoula, E.; Majewski, S. R.; García Pérez, A. E.; Bird, J.; Nidever, D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Sobeck, J.; Frinchaboy, P.; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey


    We present the stellar kinematics across the Galactic bulge and into the disk at positive longitudes from the SDSS-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way. APOGEE includes extensive coverage of the stellar populations of the bulge along the midplane and near-plane regions. From these data, we have produced kinematic maps of 10,000 stars across longitudes of 0° dispersion maps of barred galaxies viewed edge-on. The thin bar that is reported to be present in the inner disk within a narrow latitude range of | b| -0.5 have dispersion and rotation profiles that are similar to that of N-body models of boxy/peanut bulges. There is a smooth kinematic transition from the thin bar and boxy bulge (l,| b| ) -1.0, and the chemodynamics across (l, b) suggests that the stars in the inner Galaxy with [{Fe}/{{H}}] > -1.0 originate in the disk.

  9. Iran’s Youth Bulge and It’s Implications for U.S. National Security (United States)


    instability is unemployment . Since youths are historically more likely to be unemployed than older generations, youth bulges exacerbate the problem...the rest of the region shares similar if not worse youth unemployment problems. 10 Thus, “…most theoretical works concerned with youth bulges...Bank’s Kabbani, is “Empirical evidence suggests that macroeconomic conditions are more important determinants of both youth and adult unemployment rates

  10. A Catalog of Edge-on Disk Galaxies: From Galaxies with a Bulge to Superthin Galaxies


    Kautsch, S. J.; Grebel, E. K.; Barazza, F. D.; Gallagher, J. S.


    The formation and evolution of disk-dominated galaxies is difficult to explain, yet these objects exist. We therefore embarked on a study aimed at a better understanding of these enigmatic objects. We used data from the SDSS DR1 in order to identify edge-on galaxies with disks in a uniform, reproducible, automated fashion. We identified 3169 edge-on disk galaxies, which we subdivided into disk galaxies with bulge, intermediate types, and simple disk galaxies without any obvious bulge componen...

  11. Sistemas de cúmulos globulares extragalácticos (United States)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describen las características de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares asociados a galaxias elípticas en una variedad de medios y, en particular, aquellas vinculadas con la distribución espacial, frecuencia específica y composición química. Esta discusión se hace dentro de un conjunto de esquemas orientados a explicar las primeras fases de la formación de las galaxias dominantes en cúmulos y del rol de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares en esos procesos.

  12. Model for coeval growth of bulges and their seed black holes in presence of radiative feedback (United States)

    Park, KwangHo; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Wise, John


    The discovery of billion solar mass accreting black holes at high redshift poses a great challenge for the modeling of the seed black hole (BH) formation and growth. Radiation-hydrodynamic simulations represent a crucial test of plausible scenarios by providing estimated growth rates for the seeds in the intermediate-mass black hole range. Previous works show that radiative feedback from black holes suppresses the cold gas accretion rate dramatically, making it difficult to explain the rapid growth of seed black holes. We however find that the fueling rate of black holes embedded in bulges can increase with the bulge-to-BH mass ratio when the bulge mass is greater than the critical value of ˜106 M⊙. The critical bulge mass is independent of the central black hole mass, thus the growth rate of light seeds ( 105 M⊙) exhibits distinct dependencies on the bulge-to-BH mass ratio. Our results imply that heavy seeds, that may form via direct collapse, can grow efficiently and coevally with the host galaxies despite radiative feedback whereas the growth of light seeds is stunted. We present the results of an extended semi-analytic model based on the radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which follows the coeval growth of black holes and their bulges.

  13. Gauging the Helium Abundance of the Galactic Bulge RR Lyrae Stars (United States)

    Marconi, Marcella; Minniti, Dante


    We report the first estimate of the He abundance of the population of RR Lyrae stars in the Galactic bulge. This is done by comparing the recent observational data with the latest models. We use the large samples of ab-type RR Lyrae stars found by OGLE IV in the inner bulge and by the VVV survey in the outer bulge. We present the result from the new models computed by Marconi et al., showing that the minimum period for fundamental RR Lyrae pulsators depends on the He content. By comparing these models with the observations in a period versus effective temperature plane, we find that the bulk of the bulge ab-type RR Lyrae are consistent with primordial He abundance Y = 0.245, ruling out a significant He-enriched population. This work demonstrates that the He content of the bulge RR Lyrae is different from that of the bulk of the bulge population as traced by the red clump giants that appear to be significantly more He-rich. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 179.B-2002 and 298.D-5048.

  14. Role of the CCA bulge of prohead RNA of bacteriophage ø29 in DNA packaging. (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C; Anderson, Dwight L; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley


    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the packaging ATPase gp16 and the packaging substrate DNA-gp3, although DNA translocation was not detected with several mutants. Prohead/bulge-mutant pRNA complexes with low packaging activity had a higher rate of ATP hydrolysis per base pair of DNA packaged than proheads with wild-type pRNA. Cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of proheads reconstituted with a CCA deletion pRNA showed that the protruding pRNA spokes of the motor occupy a different position relative to the head when compared to particles with wild-type pRNA. Therefore, the CCA bulge seems to dictate the orientation of the pRNA spokes. The conformational changes observed for this mutant pRNA may affect gp16 conformation and/or subsequent ATPase-DNA interaction and, consequently, explain the decreased packaging activity observed for CCA mutants.

  15. Improved Model for Predicting the Free Energy Contribution of Dinucleotide Bulges to RNA Duplex Stability. (United States)

    Tomcho, Jeremy C; Tillman, Magdalena R; Znosko, Brent M


    Predicting the secondary structure of RNA is an intermediate in predicting RNA three-dimensional structure. Commonly, determining RNA secondary structure from sequence uses free energy minimization and nearest neighbor parameters. Current algorithms utilize a sequence-independent model to predict free energy contributions of dinucleotide bulges. To determine if a sequence-dependent model would be more accurate, short RNA duplexes containing dinucleotide bulges with different sequences and nearest neighbor combinations were optically melted to derive thermodynamic parameters. These data suggested energy contributions of dinucleotide bulges were sequence-dependent, and a sequence-dependent model was derived. This model assigns free energy penalties based on the identity of nucleotides in the bulge (3.06 kcal/mol for two purines, 2.93 kcal/mol for two pyrimidines, 2.71 kcal/mol for 5'-purine-pyrimidine-3', and 2.41 kcal/mol for 5'-pyrimidine-purine-3'). The predictive model also includes a 0.45 kcal/mol penalty for an A-U pair adjacent to the bulge and a -0.28 kcal/mol bonus for a G-U pair adjacent to the bulge. The new sequence-dependent model results in predicted values within, on average, 0.17 kcal/mol of experimental values, a significant improvement over the sequence-independent model. This model and new experimental values can be incorporated into algorithms that predict RNA stability and secondary structure from sequence.

  16. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares (United States)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick


    Using imaging that shows 4 mag of main-sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (> 250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of

  18. Limits on Ionized Gas in M81's Globular Clusters


    Wrobel, J. M.; Johnson, K. E.


    We use NSF's Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to constrain the mass of ionized gas in 206 globular star clusters (GCs) in M81, a nearby spiral galaxy. We detect none of the GCs and impose a typical gas-mass upper limit of 550 solar masses (3-sigma). These findings bear on GC evolution in M81.

  19. Supra-galactic colour patterns in globular cluster systems (United States)

    Forte, Juan C.


    An analysis of globular cluster systems associated with galaxies included in the Virgo and Fornax Hubble Space Telescope-Advanced Camera Surveys reveals distinct (g - z) colour modulation patterns. These features appear on composite samples of globular clusters and, most evidently, in galaxies with absolute magnitudes Mg in the range from -20.2 to -19.2. These colour modulations are also detectable on some samples of globular clusters in the central galaxies NGC 1399 and NGC 4486 (and confirmed on data sets obtained with different instruments and photometric systems), as well as in other bright galaxies in these clusters. After discarding field contamination, photometric errors and statistical effects, we conclude that these supra-galactic colour patterns are real and reflect some previously unknown characteristic. These features suggest that the globular cluster formation process was not entirely stochastic but included a fraction of clusters that formed in a rather synchronized fashion over large spatial scales, and in a tentative time lapse of about 1.5 Gy at redshifts z between 2 and 4. We speculate that the putative mechanism leading to that synchronism may be associated with large scale feedback effects connected with violent star-forming events and/or with supermassive black holes.

  20. Black hole binaries dynamically formed in globular clusters (United States)

    Park, Dawoo; Kim, Chunglee; Lee, Hyung Mok; Bae, Yeong-Bok; Belczynski, Krzysztof


    We investigate properties of black hole (BH) binaries formed in globular clusters via dynamical processes, using directN-body simulations. We pay attention to effects of BH mass function on the total mass and mass ratio distributions of BH binaries ejected from clusters. First, we consider BH populations with two different masses in order to learn basic differences from models with single-mass BHs only. Secondly, we consider continuous BH mass functions adapted from recent studies on massive star evolution in a low metallicity environment, where globular clusters are formed. In this work, we consider only binaries that are formed by three-body processes and ignore stellar evolution and primordial binaries for simplicity. Our results imply that most BH binary mergers take place after they get ejected from the cluster. Also, mass ratios of dynamically formed binaries should be close to 1 or likely to be less than 2:1. Since the binary formation efficiency is larger for higher-mass BHs, it is likely that a BH mass function sampled by gravitational-wave observations would be weighed towards higher masses than the mass function of single BHs for a dynamically formed population. Applying conservative assumptions regarding globular cluster populations such as small BH mass fraction and no primordial binaries, the merger rate of BH binaries originated from globular clusters is estimated to be at least 6.5 yr-1 Gpc-3. Actual rate can be up to more than several times of our conservative estimate.

  1. Nearby Spiral Galaxy Globular Cluster Systems. II. Globular Cluster Metallicities in NGC 300 (United States)

    Nantais, Julie B.; Huchra, John P.; Barmby, Pauline; Olsen, Knut A. G.


    We present new metallicity estimates for globular cluster (GC) candidates in the Sd spiral NGC 300, one of the nearest spiral galaxies outside the Local Group. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for 44 Sculptor Group GC candidates with the Boller and Chivens (B&C) spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. There are two GCs in NGC 253 and 12 objects in NGC 300 with globular-cluster-like spectral features, nine of which have radial velocities above 0 km s-1. The remaining three, due to their radial velocities being below the expected 95% confidence limit for velocities of NGC 300 halo objects, are flagged as possible foreground stars. The non-cluster-like candidates included 13 stars, 15 galaxies, and an H II region. One GC, four galaxies, two stars, and the H II region from our sample were identified in archival Hubble Space Telescope images. For the GCs, we measure spectral indices and estimate metallicities using an empirical calibration based on Milky Way GCs. The GCs of NGC 300 appear similar to those of the Milky Way. Excluding possible stars and including clusters from the literature, the GC system (GCS) has a velocity dispersion of 68 km s-1 and has no clear evidence of rotation. The mean metallicity for our full cluster sample plus one literature object is [Fe/H] = -0.94, lying above the relationship between mean GC metallicity and overall galaxy luminosity. Excluding the three low-velocity candidates, we obtain a mean [Fe/H] = -0.98, still higher than expected, raising the possibility of significant foreground star contamination even in this sample. Visual confirmation of genuine GCs using high-resolution space-based imagery could greatly reduce the potential problem of interlopers in small samples of GCSs in low-radial-velocity galaxies. Data for this project were obtained at the Baade 6.5 m telescope, Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint

  2. Supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. I. Bulge luminosities from dedicated near-infrared data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Läsker, Ronald; Van de Ven, Glenn [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Ferrarese, Laura, E-mail: [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E2E7 (Canada)


    In an effort to secure, refine, and supplement the relation between central supermassive black hole masses, M {sub •}, and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, L {sub bul}, we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured M {sub •}, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extracted via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sérsic-bulge+exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observed in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings, and envelopes. In such cases, we adopted profile modifications and/or more complex models with additional components. The derived bulge magnitudes are very sensitive to the details and number of components used in the models, although total magnitudes remain almost unaffected. Usually, but not always, the luminosities and sizes of the bulges are overestimated when a simple bulge+disk decomposition is adopted in lieu of a more complex model. Furthermore, we found that some spheroids are not well fit when the ellipticity of the Sérsic model is held fixed. This paper presents the details of the image processing and analysis, while we discuss how model-induced biases and systematics in bulge magnitudes impact the M {sub •}-L {sub bul} relation in a companion paper.

  3. Bulge Growth and Quenching Since Z=2.5 in Candels/3D-HST (United States)

    Lang, Phillip; Wuyts, Stijn; Somerville, Rachel S.; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Genzel, Reinhard; Bell, Eric F.; Brammer, Gabe; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; hide


    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all 5 CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift informationprovided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations fora mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 1010 M, spanning the redshift range 0.5 z 2.5.For the first time, we fit 2-dimensional models comprising a single Sersic fit and two-component (i.e.,bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar massmaps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulgeprominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remainsin place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increaseof the typical Sersic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median BT reaching 40-50) among starforminggalaxies above 1011 M. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely tobe imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the starformingmain sequence. We demonstrate that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge andtotal mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy thanthe total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art semi-analytic model bySomerville et al. In the latter, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging andordisk instabilities, and AGN-feedback shuts off star formation. Further observations will be requiredto pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply they must be internal to thegalaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.

  4. Co-evolution of galactic nuclei and globular cluster systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnedin, Oleg Y. [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ostriker, Jeremiah P. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tremaine, Scott, E-mail: [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)


    We revisit the hypothesis that dense galactic nuclei are formed from inspiraling globular clusters. Recent advances in the understanding of the continuous formation of globular clusters over cosmic time and the concurrent evolution of the galaxy stellar distribution allow us to construct a simple model that matches the observed spatial and mass distributions of clusters in the Galaxy and the giant elliptical galaxy M87. In order to compare with observations, we model the effects of dynamical friction and dynamical evolution, including stellar mass loss, tidal stripping of stars, and tidal disruption of clusters by the growing galactic nucleus. We find that inspiraling globular clusters form a dense central structure, with mass and radius comparable to the typical values in observed nuclear star clusters (NSCs) in late-type and low-mass early-type galaxies. The density contrast associated with the NSC is less pronounced in giant elliptical galaxies. Our results indicate that the NSC mass as a fraction of mass of the galaxy stellar spheroid scales as M{sub NSC}/M{sub ∗}≈0.0025 M{sub ∗,11}{sup −0.5}. Thus disrupted globular clusters could contribute most of the mass of NSCs in galaxies with stellar mass below 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. The inner part of the accumulated cluster may seed the growth of a central black hole via stellar dynamical core collapse, thereby relieving the problem of how to form luminous quasars at high redshift. The seed black hole may reach ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} within ≲ 1 Gyr of the beginning of globular cluster formation.

  5. Strömgren uvby photometry of the peculiar globular cluster NGC 2419 (United States)

    Frank, Matthias J.; Koch, Andreas; Feltzing, Sofia; Kacharov, Nikolay; Wilkinson, Mark I.; Irwin, Mike


    -enhanced second generation accounting for 53 ± 5 per cent of stars. Despite its known peculiarities, NGC 2419 appears to be very similar to other metal-poor Galactic globular clusters with a similarly nitrogen-enhanced second generation and little or no variation in [Fe/H], which sets it apart from other suspected accreted nuclei such as ωCen. The photometric catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  6. Evolution and nucleosynthesis of extremely metal-poor and metal-free low- and intermediate-mass stars. I. Stellar yield tables and the CEMPs (United States)

    Campbell, S. W.; Lattanzio, J. C.


    Context: The growing body of spectral observations of the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Galactic Halo provides constraints on theoretical studies of the chemical and stellar evolution of the early Universe. Aims: To calculate yields for EMP stars for use in chemical evolution calculations and to test whether such models can account for some of the recent abundance observations of EMP stars, in particular the highly C-rich EMP (CEMP) halo stars. Methods: We modify an existing 1D stellar structure code to include time-dependent mixing in a diffusion approximation. Using this code and a post-processing nucleosynthesis code we calculate the structural evolution and nucleosynthesis of a grid of models covering the metallicity range: -6.5 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -3.0 (plus Z = 0), and mass range: 0.85 ≤ M ≤ 3.0 M_⊙, amounting to 20 stars in total. Results: Many of the models experience violent nuclear burning episodes not seen at higher metallicities. We refer to these events as “Dual Flashes” since they are characterised by nearly simultaneous peaks in both hydrogen and helium burning. These events have been reported by previous studies. Some of the material processed by the Dual Flashes is dredged up causing significant surface pollution with a distinct chemical composition. We have calculated the entire evolution of the Z=0 and EMP models, from the ZAMS to the end of the TPAGB, including extensive nucleosynthesis. In this paper, the first of a series describing and analysing this large data set, we present the resulting stellar yields. Although subject to many uncertainties these are, as far as we are aware, the only yields currently available in this mass and metallicity range. We also analyse the yields in terms of C and N, comparing them to the observed CEMP abundances. At the lowest metallicities ([Fe/H] ≲ -4.0) we find the yields to contain ~ 1 to 2 dex too much carbon, in agreement with all previous studies. At higher metallicities ([Fe/H] ~ -3

  7. A new look at the kinematics of the bulge from an N-body model (United States)

    Gómez, A.; Di Matteo, P.; Stefanovitch, N.; Haywood, M.; Combes, F.; Katz, D.; Babusiaux, C.


    By using an N-body simulation of a bulge that was formed via a bar instability mechanism, we analyse the imprints of the initial (I.e. before bar formation) location of stars on the bulge kinematics, in particular on the heliocentric radial velocity distribution of bulge stars. Four different latitudes were considered: b = -4°, -6°, -8°, and -10°, along the bulge minor axis as well as outside it, at l = ± 5° and l = ± 10°. The bulge X-shaped structure comprises stars that formed in the disk at different locations. Stars formed in the outer disk, beyond the end of the bar, which are part of the boxy peanut-bulge structure may show peaks in the velocity distributions at positive and negative heliocentric radial velocities with high absolute values that can be larger than 100 km s-1, depending on the observed direction. In some cases the structure of the velocity field is more complex and several peaks are observed. Stars formed in the inner disk, the most numerous, contribute predominantly to the X-shaped structure and present different kinematic characteristics. They display a rather symmetric velocity distribution and a smaller fraction of high-velocity stars. The stellar stream motion, which is induced by the bar changes with the star initial position, can reach more than 40 km s-1 for stars that originated in the external disk, depending on the observed direction. Otherwise it is smaller than approximately 20 km s-1. In all cases, it decreases from b = -4° to -10°. Our results may enable us to interpret the cold high-velocity peak observed in the APOGEE commissioning data, as well as the excess of high-velocity stars in the near and far arms of the X-shaped structure at l = 0° and b = -6°. When compared with real data, the kinematic picture becomes more complex due to the possible presence in the observed samples of classical bulge and/or thick disk stars. Overall, our results point to the existence of complex patterns and structures in the bulge

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS bulge, disk and total stellar mass estimates (Mendel+, 2014) (United States)

    Mendel, J. T.; Simard, L.; Palmer, M.; Ellison, S. L.; Patton, D. R.


    We present a catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for ~660000 galaxies in the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data (SDSS) Release 7. These masses are based on a homogeneous catalog of g- and r-band photometry described by Simard et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/196/11), which we extend here with bulge+disk and Sersic profile photometric decompositions in the SDSS u, i, and z bands. We discuss the methodology used to derive stellar masses from these data via fitting to broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and show that the typical statistical uncertainty on total, bulge, and disk stellar mass is ~0.15 dex. Despite relatively small formal uncertainties, we argue that SED modeling assumptions, including the choice of synthesis model, extinction law, initial mass function, and details of stellar evolution likely contribute an additional 60% systematic uncertainty in any mass estimate based on broadband SED fitting. We discuss several approaches for identifying genuine bulge+disk systems based on both their statistical likelihood and an analysis of their one-dimensional surface-brightness profiles, and include these metrics in the catalogs. Estimates of the total, bulge and disk stellar masses for both normal and dust-free models and their uncertainties are made publicly available here. (4 data files).

  9. Proof of safety against bulging of cooling tower shells without and with stiffening rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerna, W.; Mungan, I.; Koepper, H.D.


    The proof of safety against bulging described here is based on the experimental and numerical results of research done up to now, and represents a realistic approximation for the measuring of bulges of cooling tower shells without rings and with stiffening rings. The process is characterized by the fact that the proof of safety against bulges refers to stresses, not to loads, and therefore, a local check is made instead of a global one. In this way it is possible to take wind loads and other non-rotation symmetrical loads into account in a realistic way. Research is continuing in this field. Systematic extensive bulging tests are being done at present in a wind tunnel, in the context of a research project. Using measurements on unstiffened and stiffened cooling tower models, the bulging stress conditions under the influence of wind are determined and compared with those which occur with rotation symmetrical loads. The previous assessment of wind tunnel experiments has shown good agreement between the two series of experiments. (orig.).

  10. Disk and Bulge Morphology of WFPC2 Galaxies: The HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Medium Deep Survey (United States)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Ostrander, Eric J.


    Quantitative morphological and structural parameters are estimated for galaxies detected in Hubble Space Telescope observations of WFPC2 survey fields. A modeling approach based on maximum likelihood has been developed for two-dimensional decomposition of faint undersampled galaxy images into components of disk and bulge morphology. Decomposition can be achieved for images down to F814W(I)~23.0, F606W(V)~23.8, and F450W(B)~23.3 mag in WFPC2 exposures of 1 hr. We discuss details of the fitting procedure and present the observed distributions of magnitude, color, effective half-light radius, disk and bulge axis ratios, bulge-to-(disk+bulge) flux ratio, bulge-to-disk half-light radius ratio, and surface brightness. We also discuss the various selection limits on the measured parameters. The Medium Deep Survey catalogs and images of random pure parallel fields and other similar archival primary WFPC2 fields have been made available via the Internet with a searchable browser interface to the database.

  11. Notch signaling in bulge stem cells is not required for selection of hair follicle fate (United States)

    Demehri, Shadmehr; Kopan, Raphael


    Summary Notch signaling plays an important role in hair follicle maintenance, and it has been suggested that Notch is also required for follicular fate selection by adult hair follicle stem cells in the bulge. Here we demonstrate that, on the contrary, Notch signaling in bi-potential bulge stem cells or their uncommitted descendents acts to suppress the epidermal fate choice, thus ensuring follicular fate selection. To examine the role of Notch signaling in adult hair follicle stem cells, we used a Krt1-15-CrePR1 transgenic mouse line to delete Rbpj or all Notch proteins specifically in the bulge stem cells. We conclusively determined that in the absence of Notch signaling, bulge stem cell descendents retain their capacity to execute the follicular differentiation program but fail to maintain it owing to their genetic deficiency. The defect in terminal differentiation caused the diversion of Notch-deficient hair follicles to epidermal cysts, and the presence of wild-type cells could not prevent this conversion. Importantly, our analysis revealed that a functional Notch signaling pathway was required to block bulge stem cells from migrating into, and assuming the fate of, interfollicular epidermis. Taken together, our findings yield detailed insight into the function of Notch signaling in hair follicle stem cells and reveal the mechanism of the replacement of Notch-deficient adult hair follicles by epidermal cysts. PMID:19211676

  12. Milky Way globular cluster metallicity and low-mass X-ray binaries: the red giant influence (United States)

    Vulic, N.; Barmby, P.; Gallagher, S. C.


    Galactic and extragalactic studies have shown that metal-rich globular clusters (GCs) are approximately three times more likely to host bright low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) than metal-poor GCs. There is no satisfactory explanation for this metallicity effect. We tested the hypothesis that the number density of red giant branch (RGB) stars is larger in metal-rich GCs, and thus potentially the cause of the metallicity effect. Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry for 109 unique Milky Way GCs, we investigated whether RGB star density was correlated with GC metallicity. Isochrone fitting was used to calculate the number of RGB stars, which were normalized by the GC mass and fraction of observed GC luminosity, and determined density using the volume at the half-light radius (rh). The RGB star number density was weakly correlated with metallicity [Fe/H], giving Spearman and Kendall Rank test p-values of 0.000 16 and 0.000 21 and coefficients rs = 0.35 and τ = 0.24, respectively. This correlation may be biased by a possible dependence of rh on [Fe/H], although studies have shown that rh is correlated with Galactocentric distance and independent of [Fe/H]. The dynamical origin of the rh-metallicity correlation (tidal stripping) suggests that metal-rich GCs may have had more active dynamical histories, which would promote LMXB formation. No correlation between the RGB star number density and metallicity was found when using only the GCs that hosted quiescent LMXBs. A complete census of quiescent LMXBs in our Galaxy is needed to further probe the metallicity effect, which will be possible with the upcoming launch of eROSITA.

  13. [An undamaged bulge in epsilon is essential for initiating priming of DHBV reverse transcriptase]. (United States)

    Hu, Kang-Hong; Feng, Hui; Li, Hui


    Previously, we have established an epsilon library and selected out a series of RNA aptamers with higher affinity to P protein based on the in vitro Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) in duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) system. In order to study the structural elements within the epsilon that is essential for initiating priming of HBV reverse transcriptase (P protein), all selected aptamers were subjected to in vitro priming assay and RNA secondary structure probing. We found that all those aptamers supporting priming had an undamaged bulge, while those lacking of the bulge no more support priming. Our results suggest an undamaged bulge within Depsilon is indispensable for initiating priming of P protein.

  14. The SWELLS survey - VI. Hierarchical inference of the initial mass functions of bulges and discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Brendon J.; Marshal, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.


    early-type galaxies, while this IMF is inconsistent with the properties of less massive, later-type galaxies. These discoveries motivate the hypothesis that the IMF may vary (possibly very slightly) across galaxies and across components of individual galaxies (e.g. bulges versus discs). In this paper......, we use a sample of 19 late-type strong gravitational lenses from the Sloan WFC Edge-on Late-type Lens Survey (SWELLS) to investigate the IMFs of the bulges and discs in late-type galaxies. We perform a joint analysis of the galaxies' total masses (constrained by strong gravitational lensing...... mtot with in the aperture, we find that the bulges of the galaxies cannot have IMFs heavier (i.e. implying high mass per unit luminosity) than Salpeter, while the disc IMFs are not well constrained by this data set.We also discuss the necessity for hierarchical modelling when combining incomplete...

  15. Most pseudo-bulges can be formed at later stages of major mergers (United States)

    Sauvaget, T.; Hammer, F.; Puech, M.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Rodrigues, M.


    Most giant spiral galaxies have pseudo or disc-like bulges that are considered to be the result of purely secular processes. This may challenge the hierarchical scenario predicting about one major merger per massive galaxy (>3 × 1010 M⊙) since the last ∼9 billion years. Here, we verify whether or not the association between pseudo-bulges and secular processes is irrevocable. Using GADGET2 N-body/SPH simulations, we have conducted a systematic study of remnants of major mergers for which progenitors have been selected (1) to follow the gas richness-look back time relationship, and (2) with a representative distribution of orbits and spins in a cosmological frame. Analysing the surface mass density profile of both nearby galaxies and merger remnants with two components, we find that most of them show pseudo-bulges or bar dominated centres. Even if some orbits lead to classical bulges just after the fusion, the contamination by the additional gas that gradually accumulates to the centre and forming stars later on, leads to remnants apparently dominated by pseudo-bulges. We also found that simple smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations should be sufficient to form realistic spiral galaxies as remnants of ancient gas-rich mergers without the need for specifically tuned feedback conditions. We then conclude that pseudo-bulges and bars in spiral galaxies are natural consequences of major mergers when they are realized in a cosmological context, i.e. with gas-rich progenitors as expected when selected in the distant Universe.

  16. Detection of a Distinct Pseudobulge Hidden Inside the ``Box-Shaped Bulge'' of NGC 4565 (United States)

    Barentine, J. C.; Kormendy, J.


    N-body simulations show that “box-shaped bulges” of edge-on galaxies are not bulges at all: they are bars seen side on. The two components that we readily see in edge-on Sb galaxies like NGC 4565 are a disk and a bar. But face-on SBb galaxies always show a disk, a bar, and a (pseudo)bulge. Where is the (pseudo)bulge in NGC 4565? We use archival Hubble Space Telescope K-band images and Spitzer Space Telescope 3.6 μm wavelength images to penetrate the dust in NGC 4565. We find a high surface brightness central stellar component that is clearly distinct from the boxy bar and from the galaxy’s disk. Its minor-axis profile has a Sérsic index of 1.33±0.12, so it is a pseudobulge. The pseudobulge has the smallest scale height (˜90 pc) of any component in the galaxy. This is in contrast to a scale height of ˜740 pc for the boxy bar plus thin disk. The disky pseudobulge is also much less luminous than the boxy bar, so the true pseudobulge-to-total luminosity ratio of the galaxy is much less than previously thought. We infer that the (pseudo)bulge-to-total luminosity ratios of edge-on galaxies with box-shaped bulges have generally been overestimated. Therefore more galaxies than we have recognized contain little or no evidence of a merger-built classical bulge. This presents a challenge to our picture of galaxy formation by hierarchical clustering, because it is difficult to grow big galaxies without also making a big classical bulge. Solving the puzzle of the “missing pseudobulge” in NGC 4565 further increases our confidence that we understand box-shaped bulges correctly as edge-on bars. This in turn supports our developing picture of the formation of pseudobulges—both edge-on bars and disky central components—by secular evolution in isolated galaxies.

  17. Propiedades peculiares de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares y su relación con la formación de sus galaxias anfitrionas (United States)

    Bassino, L. P.


    Globular clusters (GCs) are ancient stellar systems, among the oldest ones in the Universe. As a consequence, they carry information related to the formation and evolution of their host-galaxies. The study of GC systems associated with early-type galaxies has shown that most of them have similar characteristics. Among them, the most noticeable is the existence of two GC subpopulations (metal-poor and metal-rich, respectively), that differ clearly in their colour distribution, spatial distribution, and kinematics. However, GC systems whose properties differ from the known ``classic'' ones, have been detected in the last years. For instance, the case of GC systems that present more than two subpopulations in their colour distribution or anomalies in the luminosity function. The peculiar properties of the GC systems, together with characteristics of the host-galaxy like the presence of type Ia SNe, the surface-brightness distribution, or the colour map, may be related to bursts of star formation and let us rebuild the host-galaxy history.

  18. Contribution of Proton Capture Reactions to the Ascertained Abundance of Fluorine in the Evolved Stars of Globular Cluster M4, M22, 47 Tuc and NGC 6397 (United States)

    Mahanta, Upakul; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, H. L.; Duorah, K.


    The origin of the abundance pattern and also the (anti)correlation present among the elements found in stars of globular clusters (GCs) remains unimproved until date. The proton-capture reactions are presently recognised in concert of the necessary candidates for that sort of observed behaviour in the second generation stars. We tend to propose a reaction network of a nuclear cycle namely carbon-nitrogen-oxygen-fluorine (CNOF) at evolved stellar condition since fluorine (^{19}F) is one such element which gets plagued by proton capture reactions. The stellar temperature thought about here ranges from 2× 107 to 10× 107 K and there has been an accretion occuring, with material density being 102 g/cm3 and 103 g/cm3. Such kind of temperature density conditions are probably going to be prevailing within the H-burning shell of evolved stars. The estimated abundances of ^{19}F are then matched with the info that has been determined for a few some metal-poor giants of GC M4, M22, 47 Tuc as well as NGC 6397. As far as the comparison between the observed and calculated abundances is concerned, it is found that the abundance of ^{19}F have shown an excellent agreement with the observed abundances with a correlation coefficent above 0.9, supporting the incidence of that nuclear cycle at the adopted temperature density conditions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Young-Wook, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    The mean color of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies is in general bluer than the integrated color of halo field stars in host galaxies. Metal-rich GCs often appear more associated with field stars than metal-poor GCs, yet show bluer colors than their host galaxy light. Motivated by the discovery of multiple stellar populations in Milky Way GCs, we present a new scenario in which the presence of second-generation (SG) stars in GCs is responsible for the color discrepancy between metal-rich GCs and field stars. The model assumes that the SG populations have an enhanced helium abundance as evidenced by observations, and it gives a good explanation of the bluer optical colors of metal-rich GCs than field stars as well as strong Balmer lines and blue UV colors of metal-rich GCs. Ours may be complementary to the recent scenario suggesting the difference in stellar mass functions (MFs) as an origin for the GC-to-star color offset. A quantitative comparison is given between the SG and MF models.

  20. Young Globular Clusters in Merging Galaxies: Part 3 (United States)

    Whitmore, Brad


    Cycle 2 HST observations by our team resulted in the discoveryof 40 blue pointlike objects in NGC 7252 (Whitmore et al.1993) and over 700 similar objects in NGC 4038/4039 (Whitmore& Schweizer 1994). These objects have the luminosities,colors, and radii of young globular clusters and must haveformed during the mergers. Because of their proximity andearly stage of merging, NGC 4038/4039 (``The Antennae'') isan ideal laboratory to study cluster formation in mergers.Here we propose to follow up the exploratory Cycle 2observations with a solid combination of deep UBVI photometry,H Alpha imaging, and UV spectroscopy. Our primary goals areto (1) determine the luminosity function (LF) to 3.5 magfainter than before to see whether it continues to rise like apower law or turns over and forms a Gaussian-like distributionsimilar to the classical LF of globular clusters, (2) age datethe clusters (carefully correcting for reddening) and studytheir age distribution, and (3) determine the structuralproperties of the clusters (e.g., radius, central surfacebrightness, concentration, and ellipticity). Theseobservations should allow us to better assess whether theultraluminous star clusters observed in recent mergers mayevolve to become typical globular clusters. The youngclusters' small radii and principal emissionin the UV require both the high resolution and improved UVcapability of the repaired Space Telescope.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, George H. [Giant Magellan Telescope/Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ciardullo, Robin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); De Marco, Orsola [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Lee, Myung Gyoon [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Herrmann, Kimberly A. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Hwang, Ho Seong; Davies, James E. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kaplan, Evan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Vassar College, 124 Raymond Ave., Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)


    We report the results of an [O III] {lambda}5007 spectroscopic survey for planetary nebulae (PNe) located within the star clusters of M31. By examining R {approx} 5000 spectra taken with the WIYN+Hydra spectrograph, we identify 3 PN candidates in a sample of 274 likely globular clusters, 2 candidates in objects which may be globular clusters, and 5 candidates in a set of 85 younger systems. The possible PNe are all faint, between {approx}2.5 and {approx}6.8 mag down the PN luminosity function, and, partly as a consequence of our selection criteria, have high excitation, with [O III] {lambda}5007 to H{beta} ratios ranging from 2 to {approx}> 12. We discuss the individual candidates, their likelihood of cluster membership, and the possibility that they were formed via binary interactions within the clusters. Our data are consistent with the suggestion that PN formation within globular clusters correlates with binary encounter frequency, though, due to the small numbers and large uncertainties in the candidate list, this study does not provide sufficient evidence to confirm the hypothesis.

  2. Compact binaries in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (United States)

    Rivera Sandoval, Lilliana; Van Den Berg, Maureen; Heinke, Craig O.; Cohn, Haldan N.; Lugger, Phyllis M.; Freire, Paulo; Anderson, Jay; Cool, Adrienne; Grindlay, Jonanthan; Edmonds, Peter; Wijnands, Rudy; Ivanova, Natalia


    The high stellar interaction rates in globular clusters are ideal for studying the formation and evolution of compact binary stars. For this purpose, we have carried out a study of the cataclysmic variables (CVs) and millisecond pulsar (MSP) companions in the non core collapsed globular cluster 47 Tucanae. We used near-ultraviolet and optical (including H-alpha) images of the cluster obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), in combination with Chandra X-ray data.From this study we obtained the deepest measurements of the cluster CV luminosity function. We found that this luminosity function is different from those of core collapsed clusters. This result will help understanding how the stellar interactions affect the creation and destruction of CVs. I will discuss our results with respect to the models of formation and evolution of CVs, focusing on the predicted number of these binaries and their radial distribution in the cluster.I will also present the discovery of 2 likely He white dwarf (WD) companions to MSPs in the same cluster, as well as the confirmation of 2 tentative identifications. This represents a significant contribution to the total number of optical counterparts known in Galactic globular clusters so far. Based on our UV photometry and He WD cooling models we derived the ages, the masses and the bolometric luminosities for all the He WD companions. I will discuss these results and their implications in the context of the standard MSP formation scenario.

  3. GEMINI/GeMS Observations Unveil the Structure of the Heavily Obscured Globular Cluster Liller 1. (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Miocchi, P.; Massari, D.


    By exploiting the exceptional high-resolution capabilities of the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive System at the GEMINI South Telescope, we investigated the structural and physical properties of the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1 in the Galactic bulge. We have obtained the deepest and most accurate color-magnitude diagram published so far for this cluster, reaching {{K}s}˜ 19 (below the main-sequence turnoff level). We used these data to redetermine the center of gravity of the system, finding that it is located about 2.″2 southeast from the literature value. We also built new star density and surface brightness profiles for the cluster and rederived its main structural and physical parameters (scale radii, concentration parameter, central mass density, total mass). We find that Liller 1 is significantly less concentrated (concentration parameter c=1.74) and less extended (tidal radius {{r}t}=298\\prime\\prime and core radius {{r}c}=5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 39) than previously thought. By using these newly determined structural parameters, we estimated the mass of Liller 1 to be {{M}tot}=2.3+0.3-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } ({{M}tot}=1.5+0.2-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } for a Kroupa initial mass function), which is comparable to that of the most massive clusters in the Galaxy (ω Centari and Terzan 5). Also, Liller 1 has the second-highest collision rate (after Terzan 5) among all star clusters in the Galaxy, thus confirming that it is an ideal environment for the formation of collisional objects (such as millisecond pulsars). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da

  4. Globular clusters in the far-ultraviolet: evidence for He-enriched second populations in extragalactic globular clusters? (United States)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Kundu, Arunav; Chael, Julia


    We investigate the integrated far-ultraviolet (FUV) emission from globular clusters. We present new FUV photometry of M87's clusters based on archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 F170W observations. We use these data to test the reliability of published photometry based on HST space telescope imaging spectrograph FUV-MAMA observations, which are now known to suffer from significant red-leak. We generally confirm these previous FUV detections, but suggest they may be somewhat fainter. We compare the FUV emission from bright (MV Metal-rich globular clusters show a large spread in FUV - V, with some clusters in M31, M81 and M87 being much bluer than standard predictions. This requires that some metal-rich clusters host a significant population of blue/extreme horizontal branch (HB) stars. These hot HB stars are not traditionally expected in metal-rich environments, but are a natural consequence of multiple populations in clusters - since the enriched population is observed to be He enhanced and will therefore produce bluer HB stars, even at high metallicity. We conclude that the observed FUV emission from metal-rich clusters in M31, M81 and M87 provides evidence that He-enhanced second populations, similar to those observed directly in the Milky Way, may be a ubiquitous feature of globular clusters in the local Universe. Future HST FUV photometry is required to both confirm our interpretation of these archival data and provide constraints on He-enriched second populations of stars in extragalactic globular clusters.

  5. Dynamical evolution of globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzio, J.C.


    The dynamical processes that affect globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies are analyzed. Two-body and impulsive approximations are utilized to study dynamical friction, drag force, tidal stripping, tidal radii, globular-cluster swapping, tidal accretion, and galactic cannibalism. The evolution of galaxies and the collision of galaxies are simulated numerically; the steps involved in the simulation are described. The simulated data are compared with observations. Consideration is given to the number of galaxies, halo extension, location of the galaxies, distribution of the missing mass, nonequilibrium initial conditions, mass dependence, massive central galaxies, globular-cluster distribution, and lost globular clusters. 116 references.

  6. Ages of galaxy bulges and disks from optical and near-infrared colours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, RF; Balcells, M; Bender, R; Davies, RL


    For a sample of bright nearby early-type galaxies we have obtained surface photometry in bands ranging from U to K. Since the galaxies have inclinations larger than 50 degrees it is easy to separate bulges and disks. By measuring the colours in special regions, we minimize the effects of extinction,

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Bulge Forming of Laser Welding Dimple Jacket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisi ZHONG


    Full Text Available The stress-strain states of the model of laser welded dimple jacket is analyzed using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in order to determine the relation between bulging height and pressure and to achieve the controllability of pressure distension of the jacket. It is shown that in the same conditions, the bulging height increases with the increasing of the bulging pressure and the space of honeycomb. And it will decrease when the thickness of jacket plate changing larger. A table showing the relation between bulging height and pressure is obtained. An experiment using a test panel is conducted to certify the reliability of finite element analysis. It turns out that the data of finite element analysis is coincident with experimental data, which support finite element method based ANSYS/LS-DYNA can be an efficient way to research the laser welded dimple jacket. The relation table is useful as guidance for the fabrication process.DOI:

  8. SDSS-IV MaNGA: bulge-disc decomposition of IFU data cubes (BUDDI) (United States)

    Johnston, Evelyn J.; Häußler, Boris; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Merrifield, Michael R.; Bamford, Steven; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Fu, Hai; Law, David; Nitschelm, Christian; Thomas, Daniel; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Wake, David; Yan, Renbin


    With the availability of large integral field unit (IFU) spectral surveys of nearby galaxies, there is now the potential to extract spectral information from across the bulges and discs of galaxies in a systematic way. This information can address questions such as how these components built up with time, how galaxies evolve and whether their evolution depends on other properties of the galaxy such as its mass or environment. We present bulge-disc decomposition of IFU data cubes (BUDDI), a new approach to fit the two-dimensional light profiles of galaxies as a function of wavelength to extract the spectral properties of these galaxies' discs and bulges. The fitting is carried out using GALFITM, a modified form of GALFIT which can fit multiwaveband images simultaneously. The benefit of this technique over traditional multiwaveband fits is that the stellar populations of each component can be constrained using knowledge over the whole image and spectrum available. The decomposition has been developed using commissioning data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey with redshifts z 22 arcsec, but can be applied to any IFU data of a nearby galaxy with similar or better spatial resolution and coverage. We present an overview of the fitting process, the results from our tests, and we finish with example stellar population analyses of early-type galaxies from the MaNGA survey to give an indication of the scientific potential of applying bulge-disc decomposition to IFU data.

  9. The population of single and binary white dwarfs of the Galactic bulge (United States)

    Torres, S.; García-Berro, E.; Cojocaru, R.; Calamida, A.


    Recent Hubble Space Telescope observations have unveiled the white dwarf cooling sequence of the Galactic bulge. Although the degenerate sequence can be well fitted employing the most up-to-date theoretical cooling sequences, observations show a systematic excess of red objects that cannot be explained by the theoretical models of single carbon-oxygen white dwarfs of the appropriate masses. Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf cooling sequence of the Galactic bulge that takes into account the populations of both single white dwarfs and binary systems containing at least one white dwarf. These calculations incorporate state-of-the-art cooling sequences for white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-deficient atmospheres, for both white dwarfs with carbon-oxygen and helium cores, and also take into account detailed prescriptions of the evolutionary history of binary systems. Our Monte Carlo simulator also incorporates all the known observational biases. This allows us to model with a high degree of realism the white dwarf population of the Galactic bulge. We find that the observed excess of red stars can be partially attributed to white dwarf plus main sequence binaries, and to cataclysmic variables or dwarf novae. Our best fit is obtained with a higher binary fraction and an initial mass function slope steeper than standard values, as well as with the inclusion of differential reddening and blending. Our results also show that the possible contribution of double degenerate systems or young and thick-disk bulge stars is negligible.

  10. Photoionization modelling of planetary nebulae - II. Galactic bulge nebulae, a comparison with literature results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, PAM; Van de Steene, GC


    We have constructed photoionization models of five galactic bulge planetary nebulae using our automatic method, which enables a fully self-consistent determination of the physical parameters of a planetary nebula. The models are constrained using the spectrum, the IRAS and radio fluxes and the

  11. Black Holes and Galactic Density Cusps I Radial Orbit Cusps and Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N; Macmillan, Joseph D


    Aims. In this paper we study density cusps made from radial orbits that may contain central black holes. The actual co-eval self-similar growth would not distinguish between the central object and the surroundings. Methods. To study the environment of an existing black hole we seek distribution functions that may contain a black hole and that retain at least a memory of self-similarity. We refer to the environment in brief as the 'bulge' or sometimes the 'halo'. This depends on whether the black hole is a true singularity dominating its halo or rather a core mass concentration that dominates a larger bulge. The hierarchy might extend to include galactic bulge and halo. Results.We find simple descriptions of simulated collisionless matter in the process of examining the presence of central masses. The Fridmann & Polyachenko distribution function describes co-eval growth of a bulge and black hole that might explain the observed mass correlation. Conclusions. We derive our results from first principles assum...

  12. Bulge formation and necking in a polymer tube under dynamic expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Britta; Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Alan


    Bulging and necking in long thin polymer tubes subjected to increasing internal pressure are analysed numerically. The polymer is characterized by a finite strain elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation and the calculations are carried out using a dynamic finite element program. Two types...

  13. Microwave-enhanced folding and denaturation of globular proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Bohr, Jakob


    It is shown that microwave irradiation can affect the kinetics of the folding process of some globular proteins, especially beta-lactoglobulin. At low temperature the folding from the cold denatured phase of the protein is enhanced, while at a higher temperature the denaturation of the protein from...... its folded state is enhanced. In the latter case, a negative temperature gradient is needed for the denaturation process, suggesting that the effects of the microwaves are nonthermal. This supports the notion that coherent topological excitations can exist in proteins. The application of microwaves...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, J. D. [Department of Physics, Central Connecticut State University, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050 (United States); Geha, M.; Munoz, R. R.; Santana, F. A. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Simon, J. D. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cote, P.; Stetson, P. B. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Kirby, E.; Djorgovski, S. G., E-mail:, E-mail: [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States)


    We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam photometry for the Milky Way globular cluster Palomar 13. We triple the number of spectroscopically confirmed members, including many repeat velocity measurements. Palomar 13 is the only known globular cluster with possible evidence for dark matter, based on a Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer 21 star velocity dispersion of {sigma} = 2.2 {+-} 0.4 km s{sup -1}. We reproduce this measurement, but demonstrate that it is inflated by unresolved binary stars. For our sample of 61 stars, the velocity dispersion is {sigma} = 0.7{sup +0.6}{sub -0.5} km s{sup -1}. Combining our DEIMOS data with literature values, our final velocity dispersion is {sigma} = 0.4{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3} km s{sup -1}. We determine a spectroscopic metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.6 {+-} 0.1 dex, placing a 1{sigma} upper limit of {sigma}{sub [Fe/H]} {approx} 0.2 dex on any internal metallicity spread. We determine Palomar 13's total luminosity to be M{sub V} = -2.8 {+-} 0.4, making it among the least luminous known globular clusters. The photometric isophotes are regular out to the half-light radius and mildly irregular outside this radius. The outer surface brightness profile slope is shallower than typical globular clusters ({Sigma}{proportional_to}r{sup {eta}}, {eta} = -2.8 {+-} 0.3). Thus at large radius, tidal debris is likely affecting the appearance of Palomar 13. Combining our luminosity with the intrinsic velocity dispersion, we find a dynamical mass of M{sub 1/2} = 1.3{sup +2:7}{sub -1.3} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} and a mass-to-light ratio of M/L{sub V} = 2.4{sup +5.0}{sub -2.4} M{sub Sun }/L{sub Sun }. Within our measurement errors, the mass-to-light ratio agrees with the theoretical predictions for a single stellar population. We conclude that, while there is some evidence for tidal stripping at large radius, the dynamical mass of Palomar 13 is consistent with its stellar mass and neither

  15. Structure and dynamics of galaxies with a low surface-brightness disc - II. Stellar populations of bulges (United States)

    Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Coccato, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Cesetti, M.


    We present the radial profiles of the Hβ, Mg and Fe line-strength indices for a sample of eight spiral galaxies with a low-surface-brightness stellar disc and a bulge. The correlations between the central values of the line-strength indices and velocity dispersion are consistent with those known for early-type galaxies and bulges of high-surface-brightness galaxies. The age, metallicity and α/Fe enhancement of the stellar populations in the bulge-dominated region are obtained using stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. Almost all the sample bulges are characterized by a young stellar population, ongoing star formation and a solar α/Fe enhancement. Their metallicity spans from high to subsolar values. No significant gradient in age and α/Fe enhancement is measured, whereas a negative metallicity gradient is found only in a few cases. These properties suggest that a pure dissipative collapse cannot explain the formation of all the sample bulges and that other phenomena, such as mergers or acquisition events, need to be invoked. Such a picture is also supported by the lack of a correlation between the central value and the gradient of the metallicity in bulges with very low metallicity. The stellar populations of the bulges hosted by low-surface-brightness discs share many properties with those of high-surface-brightness galaxies. Therefore, they are likely to have common formation scenarios and evolution histories. A strong interplay between bulges and discs is ruled out by the fact that, in spite of being hosted by discs with extremely different properties, the bulges of low- and high-surface-brightness discs are remarkably similar. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programmes 76.B-0375 and 80.B-00754.

  16. The WAGGS project - I. The WiFeS Atlas of Galactic Globular cluster Spectra (United States)

    Usher, Christopher; Pastorello, Nicola; Bellstedt, Sabine; Alabi, Adebusola; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chevalier, Leonie; Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Penny, Samantha; Foster, Caroline; McDermid, Richard M.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Villaume, Alexa


    We present the WiFeS Atlas of Galactic Globular cluster Spectra, a library of integrated spectra of Milky Way and Local Group globular clusters. We used the WiFeS integral field spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope to observe the central regions of 64 Milky Way globular clusters and 22 globular clusters hosted by the Milky Way's low-mass satellite galaxies. The spectra have wider wavelength coverage (3300-9050 Å) and higher spectral resolution (R = 6800) than existing spectral libraries of Milky Way globular clusters. By including Large and Small Magellanic Cloud star clusters, we extend the coverage of parameter space of existing libraries towards young and intermediate ages. While testing stellar population synthesis models and analysis techniques is the main aim of this library, the observations may also further our understanding of the stellar populations of Local Group globular clusters and make possible the direct comparison of extragalactic globular cluster integrated light observations with well-understood globular clusters in the Milky Way. The integrated spectra are publicly available via the project website.

  17. Chandra X-ray Observations of 12 Millisecond Pulsars in the Globular Cluster M28

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanov, S.; van den Berg, M.C.; Servillat, M.; Heinke, C.O.; Grindlay, J.E.; Stairs, I.H.; Ransom, s.m.; Freire, P.C.C.; Bégin, S.; Becker, W.


    We present a Chandra X-ray Observatory investigation of the millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster M28 (NGC 6626). In what is one of the deepest X-ray observations of a globular cluster, we firmly detect seven and possibly detect two of the 12 known M28 pulsars. With the exception of PSRs

  18. Color Gradients Within Globular Clusters: Restricted Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn


    Full Text Available The results of a restricted numerical simulation for the color gradients within globular clusters have been presented. The standard luminosity function of M3 and Salpeter's initial mass functions were used to generate model clusters as a fundamental population. Color gradients with the sample clusters for both King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions are discussed in the case of using the standard luminosity function. The dependence of color gradients on several parameters for the simulations with Salpeter's initial mass functions, such as slope of initial mass functions, cluster ages, metallicities, concentration parameters of King model, and slopes of power law, are also discussed. No significant radial color gradients are shown to the sample clusters which are regenerated by a random number generation technique with various parameters in both of King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions. Dynamical mass segregation and stellar evolution of horizontal branch stars and blue stragglers should be included for the general case of model simulations to show the observed radial color gradients within globular clusters.

  19. Brain asymmetry in the white matter making and globularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina eTheofanopoulou


    Full Text Available Recent studies from the field of language genetics and evolutionary anthropology have put forward the hypothesis that the emergence of our species-specific brain is to be understood not in terms of size, but in light of developmental changes that gave rise to a more globular braincase configuration after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans. On the grounds that (i white matter myelination is delayed relative to other brain structures and in humans is protracted compared with other primates and (ii neural connectivity is linked genetically to our brain/skull morphology and language-ready brain, I take it that one significant evolutionary change in Homo sapiens’ lineage is the interhemispheric connectivity mediated by the Corpus Callosum. The size, myelination and fiber caliber of the Corpus Callosum presents an anterior-to-posterior increase, in a way that inter-hemispheric connectivity is more prominent in the sensory motor areas, whereas high- order areas are more intra-hemispherically connected. Building on evidence from language-processing studies that account for this asymmetry (‘lateralization’ in terms of brain rhythms, I present an evo-devo hypothesis according to which the myelination of the Corpus Callosum, Brain Asymmetry and Globularity are conjectured to make up the angles of a co-evolutionary triangle that gave rise to our language-ready brain.

  20. Globular clusters and the evolution of their multiple stellar populations (United States)

    Chantereau, W.; Charbonnel, C.; Meynet, G.


    Our knowledge of the formation and early evolution of globular clusters (GCs) has been totally shaken with the discovery of the peculiar chemical properties of their long-lived host stars. Therefore, the interpretation of the observed Colour Magnitude Diagrams (CMD) and of the properties of the GC stellar populations requires the use of new stellar models computed with relevant chemical compositions. In this paper we use the grid of evolution models for low-mass stars computed by Chantereau et al. (2015) with the initial compositions of second-generation stars as predicted by the fast rotating massive stars scenario to build synthesis models of GCs. We discuss the implications of the assumed initial chemical distribution on 13 Gyr isochrones. We build population synthesis models to predict the fraction of stars born with various helium abundances in present day globular clusters (assuming an age of 13 Gyr). With the current assumptions, 61 % of stars on the main sequence are predicted to be born with a helium abundance in mass fraction, Yini, smaller than 0.3 and only 11 % have a Yini larger than 0.4. Along the horizontal branch, the fraction of stars with Yini inferior to 0.3 is similar to that obtained along the main sequence band (63 %), while the fraction of very He-enriched stars is significantly decreased (only 3 % with Yini larger than 0.38).

  1. Designing allosteric peptide ligands targeting a globular protein. (United States)

    Selz, Karen A; Samoylova, Tatiana I; Samoylov, Alexandre M; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J; Mandell, Arnold J


    Patented signal analytic algorithms applied to hydrophobically transformed, numerical amino acid sequences have previously been used to design short, protein-targeted, L or D retro-inverso peptides. These peptides have demonstrated allosteric and/or indirect agonist effects on a variety of G-protein and tyrosine kinase coupled membrane receptors with 30% to over 80% hit rates. Here we extend these approaches to a globular protein target. We designed eight peptide ligands targeting an ELISA antibody responsive protein, beta-galactosidase, betaGAL. Three of the eight 14mer peptides allosterically activated betaGAL with ELISA methodology. Using Bayesian statistics, this 38% hit rate would have occurred 2 x 10(-9) by chance. These peptides demonstrated binding site competitive or noncompetitive interactions, suggesting allosteric site multiplicity with respect to their betaGAL binding-mediated ELISA signal. Kinetic studies demonstrated the temperature dependence of the betaGAL peptide binding functions. Using the van't Hoff relation, we found evidence for enthalpy-entropy compensation. This relation is often found for hydrophobic interactions in aqueous media, and is consistent with the postulated hydrophobic series encoding underlying our protein-targeted, peptide design methods. It appears that our algorithmic, hydrophobic autocovariance eigenvector template approach to the design of allosteric peptides targeting membrane receptors may also be applicable to the design of peptide ligands targeting nonmembrane involved globular proteins. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in Globular Cluster Systems (United States)

    Wrobel, J. M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Nyland, K. E.; Maccarone, T. J.


    Theory suggests that globular clusters (GCs) of stars can host intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses of about 100 to 100,000 solar masses. We invoke a semi-empirical model to predict the mass of an IMBH that, if undergoing accretion in the long-lived hard X-ray state, is consistent with the synchrotron radio luminosity of a GC. We apply this model to extant images from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and to simulated images from the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA). Guided by our VLA results for M81's system of 206 probable GCs at a distance of 3.6 Mpc, we consider using the ngVLA to study the hundreds of globular cluster systems out to a distance of 25 Mpc. With its sensitivity, spatial resolution, and field of view, we conclude that the ngVLA at 2cm will efficiently probe IMBH masses for tens of thousands of GCs. Finding IMBHs in GCs could validate a formation channel for seed BHs in the early universe, underpin gravitational wave predictions for space missions, and test scaling relations between stellar systems and the central BHs they host. The NRAO is a facility of the NSF, operated under cooperative agreement by AUI, Inc.

  3. Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster M 80 (United States)

    Kopacki, G.


    We present results of a search for variable stars in the globular cluster M 80. Application of the image subtraction method to the ground-based times-series of CCD frames resulted in finding nine new RR Lyr stars, six of the RRc and three of the RRab type, and four SX Phe variables. Revised mean period of RRab stars, ab=0.68 d, and relative percentage of RRc stars, Nc/(Nab+Nc)=53%, strongly confirm that M 80 belongs to the Oosterhoff II group of globular clusters. The mean V magnitude of the horizontal branch of M 80 based on the ten RR Lyr stars has been estimated to be VHB=RR=16.14±0.03 mag. In two pulsating stars, one of the RR Lyr type and the other of the SX Phe type, oscillations with two close frequencies were detected, indicating excitation of nonradial modes in these stars. Moreover, we discovered two W UMa or ellipsoidal systems, two periodic stars of unknown type, one of which is probably a field star, and detected light variations in three red giants of the cluster.

  4. Search for Variable Stars in Six Southern Globular Clusters (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Joo; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Dong-Jin; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Lee, Jae Woo; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Lee; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Yongseok; Lim, Beomdu; Park, Byeong-Gon; Jeon, Young-Beom


    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has installed wide-field photometric survey systems called Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) at three Southern observatories of CTIO in Chile, SAAO in South Africa, and SSO in Australia. Each system consists of a wide-field optical telescope with 1.6m diameter and a mosaic CCD camera with 18k by 18k pixels, having a 2.0 by 2.0 square degree field of view. Its primary scientific goal is to search for extrasolar planets, especially Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone, by using the gravitational microlensing method. We have performed the pre-science run of these three telescopes, with attaching a 4k CCD camera for a few months at each site before installing the 18k mosaic CCD camera. Considering the rather small field of view of the 4k CCD camera, we chose six globular clusters NGC 288, NGC 1851, NGC 3201, NGC 4372, NGC 6752, and NGC 6809 to monitor photometrically. Difference Image Analysis (DIA) technique was applied to the time-series CCD images in order to minimize the blending effect in the crowded field of globular clusters. We will present the preliminary results to search for variable stars in the clusters.

  5. Forming limit diagram of aluminum AA6063 tubes at high temperatures by bulge tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Naeini, Hassan Moslemi; Liaghat, Gholamhossein [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafti, Rooholla Azizi [Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, Farzad [Kar Higher Education Institute, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A free bulge test and ductile fracture criteria were used to obtain the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of aluminum alloy AA6063 tubes at high temperatures. Ductile fracture criteria were calibrated using the results of uniaxial tension tests at various elevated temperatures and different strain rates through adjusting the Zener-Holloman parameter. High temperature free bulge test of tubes was simulated in finite element software Abaqus, and tube bursting was predicted using ductile fracture criteria under different loading paths. FLDs which were obtained from finite element simulation were compared to experimental results to select the most accurate criterion for prediction of forming limit diagram. According to the results, all studied ductile fracture criteria predict similarly when forming condition is close to the uniaxial tension, while Ayada criterion predicts the FLD at 473 K and 573 K very well.

  6. Application of DIC techniques to detect onset of necking and fracture in uniaxial and bulge tests (United States)

    Stoughton, TB; Min, JY; Carsley, JE


    This document provides information on and instructions for detecting the onset of necking in conventional uniaxial tension tests and biaxial bulge tests, using DIC technology and analysis methods developed at General Motors. The analysis enables reduction of the number and the costs of tests required in conventional FLD determinations using Marciniak and Nakajima tooling, while also avoiding the most serious process-dependent effects associated with the latter tests. It also provides a cost effective approach to develop forming limits for anisotropic sheet materials. In addition to providing this new experimental technique, the document will review the new procedures developed at General Motors for analysis of FLD tests and bulge tests to obtain reliable input for complete material card descriptions of advanced constitutive and forming limit models.



    Smith, Alyssa L.; Cekan, Pavol; Brewood, Greg P.; Okonogi, Tamara M.; Alemayehu, Saba; Hustedt, Eric J.; Benight, Albert S.; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th.; Robinson, Bruce H.


    Conformational flexibility in nucleic acids provides a basis for complex structures, binding, and signaling. One-base bulges directly neighboring single-base mismatches in nucleic acids can be present in a minimum of two distinct conformations, complicating the examination of the thermodynamics by calorimetry or UV-monitored melting techniques. To provide additional information about such structures, we demonstrate how electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) active spin-labeled base analogues, ...

  8. Quasi-periodic oscillations in bright galactic-bulge X-ray sources (United States)

    Lamb, F. K.; Shibazaki, N.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.


    Quasiperiodic oscillations with frequencies in the range 5-50 Hz have recently been discovered in X-rays from two bright galactic-bulge sources and Sco X-1. These sources are weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting from disks in which the plasma is clumped. The interaction of the magnetosphere with clumps in the inner disk causes oscillations in the X-ray flux with many of the properties observed.

  9. Quasi-periodic oscillations in bright galactic-bulge X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, F.K.; Shibazaki, N.; Alpar, M.A.; Shaham, J.


    Quasi-periodic oscillations with frequencies in the range 5-50 Hz have recently been discovered in X-rays from two bright galactic-bulge sources and ScoX-1. It is proposed that these sources are weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting from disks in which the plasma is clumped. The interaction of the magnetosphere with clumps in the inner disk modulates the accretion rate, causing oscillations in the X-ray flux with many of the observed properties.

  10. Quasiperiodic oscillations in bright galactic-bulge x-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, F.K.; Shibazaki, N.; Alpar, M.A.; Shaham, J.


    Quasiperiodic oscillations with frequencies in the range 5-50 Hz have recently been discovered in x-rays from two bright galactic-bulge sources and Sco X-1. These sources are weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting from disks in which the plasma is clumped. The interaction of the magnetosphere with clumps in the inner disk causes oscillations in the x-ray flux with many of the properties observed.

  11. Quasiperiodic oscillations in bright galactic-bulge X-ray sources (United States)

    Lamb, F. K.; Shibazaki, N.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.


    Quasiperiodic oscillations with frequencies in the range 5-50 Hz have recently been discovered in X-rays from two bright galactic-bulge sources and Sco X-1. These sources are weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting from disks which the plasma is clumped. The interaction of the magnetosphere with clumps in the inner disk causes oscillations in the X-ray flux with many of the properties observed.

  12. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies (United States)

    Gao, Hua; Ho, Luis C.


    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R-band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  13. Pulsating variable stars in the MACHO bulge database: the semiregular variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minniti, D.; Alcock, C.; Allsman, R.A. [and others


    We review the pulsating stars contained in the top 24 fields of the MACHO bulge database, with special emphasis on the red semireg-ular stars. Based on period, amplitude and color cuts, we have selected a sample of 2000 semireguku variables with 15 < P < 100 days. Their period-luminosity relation is studied, as well ss their spatial distribution. We find that they follow the bar, unlike the RR Lyrae in these fields.

  14. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Hua [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)


    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R -band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  15. Stellar Sources in the ISOGAL Inner Galactic Bulge Field D. Κ. Ojha1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Received 2000 March 27; accepted 2000 May 11. Abstract. ISOGAL is a survey at 7 and 15 µm with ISOCAM of the inner galactic disk and bulge of our Galaxy. The survey covers ~ 22 deg2 in selected areas of the central l = ±30 degree of the inner Galaxy. In this paper, we report the study of a small ISOGAL field in the inner ...

  16. Bulges and discs in the local Universe. Linking the galaxy structure to star formation activity (United States)

    Morselli, L.; Popesso, P.; Erfanianfar, G.; Concas, A.


    We use a sample built on the SDSS DR7 catalogue and the bulge-disc decomposition of Simard et al. (2011, ApJS, 196, 11) to study how the bulge and disc components contribute to the parent galaxy's star formation activity, by determining its position in the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass (M⋆) plane at 0.02 age or metallicity content, suggesting different evolutionary paths for bulges on the MS and green valley with respect to those in the quiescence region. The disc g-r colour anti-correlates at any mass with the distance from the MS, getting redder when approaching the MS lower envelope and the quiescence region. The anti-correlation flattens as a function of the stellar mass, likely due to a higher level of dust obscuration in massive SF galaxies. We conclude that the position of a galaxy in the Log SFR - Log M⋆ plane depends on the star formation activity of its components: above the MS both bulge and disc are actively star forming. The nuclear activity is the first to be suppressed, moving the galaxies on the MS. Once the disc stops forming stars as well, the galaxy moves below the MS and eventually to the quiescence region. This is confirmed by a significant percentage ( 45%) of passive galaxies with a secure two component morphology, coexisting with a population of pure spheroidals. Our findings are qualitatively in agreement with the compaction-depletion scenario, in which subsequent phases of gas inflow in the centre of a galaxy and depletion due to high star formation activity move the galaxy across the MS before the final quenching episode takes place.

  17. 3 CFR 8465 - Proclamation 8465 of December 15, 2009. 65th Anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge, 2009 (United States)


    ... Americans. Like patriots before them, they stood resolute, confident in their training, and determined to... Bulge continues in Iraq, Afghanistan, and wherever our men and women in uniform are serving. They...

  18. Brightness variations of the northern 630nm intertropical arc and the midnight pressure bulge over Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Wiens


    Full Text Available The nightglow brightness at 630nm from the thermospheric O(1D layer was monitored nightly at Asmara, Eritrea (15.4° N, 39.9° E, 7° N dip with an all-sky imager. Averages of north-south strips of the images enabled contour plots of brightness on a latitude vs. local time grid. The contours show the movement of the intertropical arc southward before midnight, staying just north of Asmara after midnight, and gradually brightening to a maximum at 02:00h local civil time, 02:00 LT, after which it disappears before dawn. It is argued that all features of the plots can be explained by known mechanisms capable of driving ions along magnetic field lines, including the fountain effect, summer to winter transequatorial winds, and the midnight pressure bulge. The 02:00 LT brightness maximum is the most striking and the most persistent feature in the data. The persistence of the location of the 02:00 LT brightening is attributed to a pressure bulge centered on the geographic equator at midnight and extending to higher latitudes with increasing local time in both the winter and the summer hemispheres. The bulge is shown to be stronger near solstice than near equinox, confirming earlier work.

  19. Brightness variations of the northern 630nm intertropical arc and the midnight pressure bulge over Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Wiens


    Full Text Available The nightglow brightness at 630nm from the thermospheric O(1D layer was monitored nightly at Asmara, Eritrea (15.4° N, 39.9° E, 7° N dip with an all-sky imager. Averages of north-south strips of the images enabled contour plots of brightness on a latitude vs. local time grid. The contours show the movement of the intertropical arc southward before midnight, staying just north of Asmara after midnight, and gradually brightening to a maximum at 02:00h local civil time, 02:00 LT, after which it disappears before dawn. It is argued that all features of the plots can be explained by known mechanisms capable of driving ions along magnetic field lines, including the fountain effect, summer to winter transequatorial winds, and the midnight pressure bulge.

    The 02:00 LT brightness maximum is the most striking and the most persistent feature in the data. The persistence of the location of the 02:00 LT brightening is attributed to a pressure bulge centered on the geographic equator at midnight and extending to higher latitudes with increasing local time in both the winter and the summer hemispheres. The bulge is shown to be stronger near solstice than near equinox, confirming earlier work.

  20. The INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program: the first 1.5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.E.; Paizis, A.


    Aims. The Galactic bulge region is a rich host of variable high-energy point sources. Since 2005, February 17 we are monitoring the source activity in the Galactic bulge region regularly and frequently, i.e., about every three days, with the instruments onboard INTEGRAL. Thanks to the large field...... of view, the imaging capabilities and the sensitivity at hard X-rays, we are able to present for the first time a detailed homogeneous (hard) X-ray view of a sample of 76 sources in the Galactic bulge region. Methods. We describe the successful monitoring program and show the first results from the start......-2901b, IGR J17536-2339, and IGR J17541-2252. We report here on some of the high-energy properties of these sources. Conclusions. The high-energy light curves of all the sources in the field of view, and the high-energy images of the region, are made available through the WWW, as soon as possible after...

  1. Galactic Bulge Giants: Probing Stellar and Galactic Evolution. 1. Catalogue of Spitzer IRAC and MIPS Sources (PREPRINT) (United States)


    Athens, Greece 4 Dipartimento di Fisica Generale ”A. Avogadro”, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy 5...We aim at providing evidence and answers to these questions. Methods. To this end, we observed seven 15 × 15 arcmin2 fields in the nuclear bulge and...fields in the nuclear bulge and its vicinity with unprecedented sensitivity using the IRAC and MIPS imaging instruments on-board the Spitzer Space

  2. The next generation Virgo cluster survey. VIII. The spatial distribution of globular clusters in the Virgo cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrell, Patrick R.; Accetta, Katharine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; McConnachie, Alan; Gwyn, Stephen [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mihos, J. Christopher [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Puzia, Thomas H.; Jordán, Andrés [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Av. Vicu' a Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Duc, Pierre-Alain [AIM Paris Saclay, CNRS/INSU, CEA/Irfu, Université Paris Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Emsellem, Eric [Université de Lyon 1, CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 av. Charles André, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval (France); CNRS, UMR 5574, ENS de Lyon (France); and others


    We report on a large-scale study of the distribution of globular clusters (GCs) throughout the Virgo cluster, based on photometry from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a large imaging survey covering Virgo's primary subclusters (Virgo A = M87 and Virgo B = M49) out to their virial radii. Using the g{sub o}{sup ′}, (g' – i') {sub o} color-magnitude diagram of unresolved and marginally resolved sources within the NGVS, we have constructed two-dimensional maps of the (irregular) GC distribution over 100 deg{sup 2} to a depth of g{sub o}{sup ′} = 24. We present the clearest evidence to date showing the difference in concentration between red and blue GCs over the full extent of the cluster, where the red (more metal-rich) GCs are largely located around the massive early-type galaxies in Virgo, while the blue (metal-poor) GCs have a much more extended spatial distribution with significant populations still present beyond 83' (∼215 kpc) along the major axes of both M49 and M87. A comparison of our GC maps to the diffuse light in the outermost regions of M49 and M87 show remarkable agreement in the shape, ellipticity, and boxiness of both luminous systems. We also find evidence for spatial enhancements of GCs surrounding M87 that may be indicative of recent interactions or an ongoing merger history. We compare the GC map to that of the locations of Virgo galaxies and the X-ray intracluster gas, and find generally good agreement between these various baryonic structures. We calculate the Virgo cluster contains a total population of N {sub GC} = 67, 300 ± 14, 400, of which 35% are located in M87 and M49 alone. For the first time, we compute a cluster-wide specific frequency S {sub N,} {sub CL} = 2.8 ± 0.7, after correcting for Virgo's diffuse light. We also find a GC-to-baryonic mass fraction ε {sub b} = 5.7 ± 1.1 × 10{sup –4} and a GC-to-total cluster mass formation efficiency ε {sub t} = 2.9 ± 0.5 × 10{sup –5

  3. Stem cells in the hair follicle bulge contribute to wound repair but not to homeostasis of the epidermis. (United States)

    Ito, Mayumi; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Nguyen, Jane; Liang, Fan; Morris, Rebecca J; Cotsarelis, George


    The discovery of long-lived epithelial stem cells in the bulge region of the hair follicle led to the hypothesis that epidermal renewal and epidermal repair after wounding both depend on these cells. To determine whether bulge cells are necessary for epidermal renewal, here we have ablated these cells by targeting them with a suicide gene encoding herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) using a Keratin 1-15 (Krt1-15) promoter. We show that ablation leads to complete loss of hair follicles but survival of the epidermis. Through fate-mapping experiments, we find that stem cells in the hair follicle bulge do not normally contribute cells to the epidermis which is organized into epidermal proliferative units, as previously predicted. After epidermal injury, however, cells from the bulge are recruited into the epidermis and migrate in a linear manner toward the center of the wound, ultimately forming a marked radial pattern. Notably, although the bulge-derived cells acquire an epidermal phenotype, most are eliminated from the epidermis over several weeks, indicating that bulge stem cells respond rapidly to epidermal wounding by generating short-lived 'transient amplifying' cells responsible for acute wound repair. Our findings have implications for both gene therapy and developing treatments for wounds because it will be necessary to consider epidermal and hair follicle stem cells as distinct populations.

  4. X-ray Selected Symbiotic Candidates in the Galactic Bulge Survey (United States)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Wetuski, Joshua` D.; Jonker, Peter; Torres, Manuel; Heinke, Craig O.; Maccarone, Tom; Steeghs, Danny; Britt, Christopher; Johnson, Christopher; Nelemans, Gijs


    The Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a broad, shallow survey of Bulge X-ray sources with extensive multiwavelength support. The limiting sensitivity, about 2×1032 erg/s at the Bulge distance, is well suited to finding symbiotic X-ray binaries (SyXBs) containing neutron stars accreting from a cool giant wind, as well as X-ray bright white dwarf systems. Giant counterparts can be securely detected in IR photometry, allowing us to estimate the total number of symbiotics detected by the GBS, and identify a good number of promising candidates. Such an X-ray selected symbiotic sample may be quite different to the traditional symbiotic star population which is usually selected by optical spectroscopy, and consequently biased towards systems with rich line emission. Of the 1640 unique X-ray sources identified by the GBS we find 91 significant matches with candidate Bulge giants. We expect 68 coincidences, so estimate a total sample of about 23 X-ray emitting cool giants detected by the GBS. Most of these are likely to be SyXBs or symbiotics of some type. Narrowing our search to sources coincident to 1", we find 23 matches, with only 8 coincidences expected, so this subsample has a relatively high purity, and likely includes most of the GBS symbiotics. The properties of this subsample are mostly consistent with cool giants, with typical SEDs, long-term lightcurves, and spectra. The sources are inconsistent in color with nearby M dwarfs and show small proper motions, so the foreground contamination is likely small. We present a selection of the best studied objects, focusing on one extremely variable X-ray source coincident with a carbon giant. This is quite an unusual object as carbon stars are rare in the Bulge. The scientific results reported in this article are based on observations made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive. Support for this work was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Chandra


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kobayashi, Chiaki [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Kunder, Andrea; De Propris, Roberto [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Pilachowski, Catherine A. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Swain West 319, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Koch, Andreas, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, Heidelberg (Germany)


    We present radial velocities and chemical abundance ratios of [Fe/H], [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for 264 red giant branch stars in three Galactic bulge off-axis fields located near (l, b) = (-5.5, -7), (-4, -9), and (+8.5, +9). The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of moderate resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 18,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N {approx} 75-300 pixel{sup -1}) spectra obtained with the Hydra spectrographs on the Blanco 4 m and WIYN 3.5 m telescopes. The targets were selected from the blue side of the giant branch to avoid cool stars that would be strongly affected by CN and TiO; however, a comparison of the color-metallicity distribution in literature samples suggests that our selection of bluer targets should not present a significant bias against metal-rich stars. We find a full range in metallicity that spans [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -1.5 to +0.5, and that, in accordance with the previously observed minor-axis vertical metallicity gradient, the median [Fe/H] also declines with increasing Galactic latitude in off-axis fields. The off-axis vertical [Fe/H] gradient in the southern bulge is estimated to be {approx}0.4 dex kpc{sup -1}; however, comparison with the minor-axis data suggests that a strong radial gradient does not exist. The (+8.5, +9) field exhibits a higher than expected metallicity, with a median [Fe/H] = -0.23, that might be related to a stronger presence of the X-shaped bulge structure along that line-of-sight. This could also be the cause of an anomalous increase in the median radial velocity for intermediate metallicity stars in the (+8.5, +9) field. However, the overall radial velocity and dispersion for each field are in good agreement with recent surveys and bulge models. All fields exhibit an identical, strong decrease in velocity dispersion with increasing metallicity that is consistent with observations in similar minor-axis outer bulge fields. Additionally, the [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca

  6. The orbital eccentricities of binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters (United States)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Heggie, Douglas C.


    Low-mass binary millisecond pulsars (LMBPs) are born with very small orbital eccentricities, typically of order e(sub i) approximately 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -3). In globular clusters, however, higher eccentricities e(sub f) much greater than e(sub i) can be induced by dynamical interactions with passing stars. Here we show that the cross section for this process is much larger than previously estimated. This is becuse, even for initially circular binaries, the induced eccentricity e(sub f) for an encounter with pericenter separation r(sub p) beyond a few times the binary semimajor axis a declines only as a power law (e(sub f) varies as (r(sub p)/a)(exp -5/2), and not as an exponential. We find that all currently known LMBPs in clusters were probably affected by interactions, with their current eccentricities typically greater than at birth by an order of magnitude or more.

  7. The STREGA survey - II. Globular cluster Palomar 12★ (United States)

    Musella, I.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Marconi, M.; Raimondo, G.; Ripepi, V.; Cignoni, M.; Bono, G.; Brocato, E.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Grado, A.; Iannicola, G.; Limatola, L.; Molinaro, R.; Moretti, M. I.; Stetson, P. B.; Capaccioli, M.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Getman, F.; Schipani, P.


    In the framework of the STREGA (STRucture and Evolution of the GAlaxy) survey, two fields around the globular cluster Pal 12 were observed with the aim of detecting the possible presence of streams and/or an extended halo. The adopted stellar tracers are the main sequence, turn-off and red giant branch stars. We discuss the luminosity function and the star counts in the observed region covering about 2 tidal radii, confirming that Pal 12 appears to be embedded in the Sagittarius Stream. Adopting an original approach to separate cluster and field stars, we do not find any evidence of significant extra-tidal Pal 12 stellar populations. The presence of the Sagittarius stream seems to have mimicked a larger tidal radius in previous studies. Indeed, adopting a King model, a redetermination of this value gives rT = 0.22 ± 0.1 deg.

  8. The Double Cooling Sequence of the Globular Cluster ω Centauri (United States)

    García-Berro, E.; Sendra, L.; Torres, S.; Althaus, L. G.


    ω Centauri is a massive, old, globular cluster that has been extensively studied over the years because of its peculiar color-magnitude diagram. Specifically, the color-magnitude diagram of this cluster has evident signs of the existence of multiple populations, which are clearly seen in the morphologies of both the main sequence and of the degenerate sequence. Considerable theoretical efforts have been done so far to model the main sequence, which have led to discover several stellar populations. However, the degenerate sequence has not been hitherto modeled with sufficient detail. Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf cooling sequence, and compare the properties of the modeled stellar populations with those derived from the analysis of the main-sequence number counts.

  9. The direct piezoelectric effect in the globular protein lysozyme (United States)

    Stapleton, A.; Noor, M. R.; Sweeney, J.; Casey, V.; Kholkin, A. L.; Silien, C.; Gandhi, A. A.; Soulimane, T.; Tofail, S. A. M.


    Here, we present experimental evidence of the direct piezoelectric effect in the globular protein, lysozyme. Piezoelectric materials are employed in many actuating and sensing applications because they can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. Although originally studied in inorganic materials, several biological materials including amino acids and bone, also exhibit piezoelectricity. The exact mechanisms supporting biological piezoelectricity are not known, nor is it known whether biological piezoelectricity conforms strictly to the criteria of classical piezoelectricity. The observation of piezoelectricity in protein crystals presented here links biological piezoelectricity with the classical theory of piezoelectricity. We quantify the direct piezoelectric effect in monoclinic and tetragonal aggregate films of lysozyme using conventional techniques based on the Berlincourt Method. The largest piezoelectric effect measured in a crystalline aggregate film of lysozyme was approximately 6.5 pC N-1. These findings raise fundamental questions as to the possible physiological significance of piezoelectricity in lysozyme and the potential for technical applications.

  10. Kinematic fingerprint of core-collapsed globular clusters (United States)

    Bianchini, P.; Webb, J. J.; Sills, A.; Vesperini, E.


    Dynamical evolution drives globular clusters toward core collapse, which strongly shapes their internal properties. Diagnostics of core collapse have so far been based on photometry only, namely on the study of the concentration of the density profiles. Here we present a new method to robustly identify core-collapsed clusters based on the study of their stellar kinematics. We introduce the kinematic concentration parameter, ck, the ratio between the global and local degree of energy equipartition reached by a cluster, and show through extensive direct N-body simulations that clusters approaching core collapse and in the post-core collapse phase are strictly characterized by ck > 1. The kinematic concentration provides a suitable diagnostic to identify core-collapsed clusters, independent from any other previous methods based on photometry. We also explore the effects of incomplete radial and stellar mass coverage on the calculation of ck and find that our method can be applied to state-of-art kinematic datasets.

  11. Bayesian Analysis of Multiple Populations in Galactic Globular Clusters (United States)

    Wagner-Kaiser, Rachel A.; Sarajedini, Ata; von Hippel, Ted; Stenning, David; Piotto, Giampaolo; Milone, Antonino; van Dyk, David A.; Robinson, Elliot; Stein, Nathan


    We use GO 13297 Cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and archival GO 10775 Cycle 14 HST ACS Treasury observations of Galactic Globular Clusters to find and characterize multiple stellar populations. Determining how globular clusters are able to create and retain enriched material to produce several generations of stars is key to understanding how these objects formed and how they have affected the structural, kinematic, and chemical evolution of the Milky Way. We employ a sophisticated Bayesian technique with an adaptive MCMC algorithm to simultaneously fit the age, distance, absorption, and metallicity for each cluster. At the same time, we also fit unique helium values to two distinct populations of the cluster and determine the relative proportions of those populations. Our unique numerical approach allows objective and precise analysis of these complicated clusters, providing posterior distribution functions for each parameter of interest. We use these results to gain a better understanding of multiple populations in these clusters and their role in the history of the Milky Way.Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers HST-GO-10775 and HST-GO-13297 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant NNX11AF34G issued through the Office of Space Science. This project was supported by the National Aeronautics & Space Administration through the University of Central Florida's NASA Florida Space Grant Consortium.

  12. Far-ultraviolet observation of the globular cluster NGC 6397 (United States)

    Dieball, A.; Rasekh, A.; Knigge, C.; Shara, M.; Zurek, D.


    We present an observational far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) study of the core region of the globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397. The observations were obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS, FUV) and the Wide Field Camera 3 (NUV) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Here, we focus on the UV-bright stellar populations such as blue stragglers (BSs), white dwarfs (WDs) and cataclysmic variables (CVs). We present the first FUV - NUV colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) for this cluster. To support our classification of the stellar populations, we compare our FUV - NUV CMD with optical data from the ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. The FUV - NUV CMD indicates 16 sources located in the WD area, and 10 BSs within the 25 × 25 arcsec2 of the STIS FUV data. 18 Chandra X-ray sources are located within the FUV field of view. 13 of those have an NUV counterpart, of which 9 sources also have an FUV counterpart. Out of those, five sources are previously suggested CVs, and indeed, all five are located in the WD/CV region in our FUV - NUV CMD. Another CV has only an FUV but no NUV counterpart. We also detect an NUV (but no FUV) counterpart to the millisecond pulsar (MSP) located in the core of this cluster. The NUV light curves of the CVs and MSP show flickering behaviour typical of CVs. We found that the BSs and CVs are the most centrally concentrated populations. This might be an effect of mass segregation or it might indicate the preferred birth place of BSs and CVs via dynamical interactions in the dense core region of GCs. Horizontal branch stars are the least centrally concentrated population and absent in the innermost area of the core.

  13. Detection of a large-scale structure of intracluster globular clusters in the Virgo cluster. (United States)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Park, Hong Soo; Hwang, Ho Seong


    Globular clusters are usually found in galaxies, and they are excellent tracers of dark matter. Long ago it was suggested that intracluster globular clusters (IGCs) may exist that are bound to a galaxy cluster rather than to any single galaxy. Here we present a map showing the large-scale distribution of globular clusters over the entire Virgo cluster. It shows that IGCs are found out to 5 million light years from the Virgo center and that they are concentrated in several substructures that are much larger than galaxies. These objects might have been mostly stripped off from low-mass dwarf galaxies.

  14. The ACS survey of Galactic globular clusters - XIV. Bayesian single-population analysis of 69 globular clusters (United States)

    Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Sarajedini, A.; von Hippel, T.; Stenning, D. C.; van Dyk, D. A.; Jeffery, E.; Robinson, E.; Stein, N.; Anderson, J.; Jefferys, W. H.


    We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging from the ACS Treasury Survey to determine fits for single population isochrones of 69 Galactic globular clusters. Using robust Bayesian analysis techniques, we simultaneously determine ages, distances, absorptions and helium values for each cluster under the scenario of a 'single' stellar population on model grids with solar ratio heavy element abundances. The set of cluster parameters is determined in a consistent and reproducible manner for all clusters using the Bayesian analysis suite BASE-9. Our results are used to re-visit the age-metallicity relation. We find correlations with helium and several other parameters such as metallicity, binary fraction and proxies for cluster mass. The helium abundances of the clusters are also considered in the context of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances and the multiple population scenario.

  15. A parametric description of the 3D structure of the Galactic bar/bulge using the VVV survey (United States)

    Simion, I. T.; Belokurov, V.; Irwin, M.; Koposov, S. E.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Robin, A. C.; Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y.


    We study the structure of the inner Milky Way using the latest data release of the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) survey. The VVV is a deep near-infrared, multi-colour photometric survey with a coverage of 300 square degrees towards the bulge/bar. We use red clump (RC) stars to produce a high-resolution dust map of the VVV's field of view. From de-reddened colour-magnitude diagrams, we select red giant branch stars to investigate their 3D density distribution within the central 4 kpc. We demonstrate that our best-fitting parametric model of the bulge density provides a good description of the VVV data, with a median percentage residual of 5 per cent over the fitted region. The strongest of the otherwise low-level residuals are overdensities associated with a low-latitude structure as well as the so-called X-shape previously identified using the split RC. These additional components contribute only ˜5 per cent and ˜7 per cent respectively to the bulge mass budget. The best-fitting bulge is `boxy' with an axial ratio of [1:0.44:0.31] and is rotated with respect to the Sun-Galactic Centre line by at least 20°. We provide an estimate of the total, full sky, mass of the bulge of M_bulge^{Chabrier} = 2.36 × 10^{10} M_{⊙} for a Chabrier initial mass function. We show that there exists a strong degeneracy between the viewing angle and the dispersion of the RC absolute magnitude distribution. The value of the latter is strongly dependent on the assumptions made about the intrinsic luminosity function of the bulge.

  16. Mapping the outer bulge with RRab stars from the VVV Survey (United States)

    Gran, F.; Minniti, D.; Saito, R. K.; Zoccali, M.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Elorrieta, F.; Eyheramendy, S.; Jordán, A.


    Context. The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) is a near-IR time-domain survey of the Galactic bulge and southern plane. One of the main goals of this survey is to reveal the 3D structure of the Milky Way through their variable stars. In particular, enormous numbers of RR Lyrae stars have been discovered in the inner regions of the bulge (-8° ≲ b ≲ -1°) by optical surveys such as OGLE and MACHO, but leaving an unexplored window of more than ~47 sq deg (-10.0° ≲ ℓ ≲ + 10.7° and - 10.3° ≲ b ≲ -8.0°) observed by the VVV Survey. Aims: Our goal is to characterize the RR Lyrae stars in the outer bulge in terms of their periods, amplitudes, Fourier coefficients, and distances in order to evaluate the 3D structure of the bulge in this area. The distance distribution of RR Lyrae stars will be compared to that of red clump stars, which is known to trace a X-shaped structure, in order to determine whether these two different stellar populations share the same Galactic distribution. Methods: A search for RR Lyrae stars was performed in more than ~47 sq deg at low Galactic latitudes (-10.3° ≲ b ≲ -8.0°). In the procedure the χ2 value and analysis of variance (AoV) statistic methods were used to determine the variability and periodic features of the light curves, respectively. To prevent misclassifications, the analysis was performed only on the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars (RRab) owing to similarities found in the near-IR light curve shapes of contact eclipsing binaries (W UMa) and first overtone RR Lyrae stars (RRc). On the other hand, the red clump stars of the same analyzed tiles were selected, and cuts in the color-magnitude diagram were applied and the maximum distance restricted to ~20 kpc in order to construct a similar catalog in terms of distances and covered area compared to the RR Lyrae stars. Results: We report the detection of more than 1000 RR Lyrae ab-type stars in the VVV Survey located in the outskirts of the Galactic bulge

  17. Interactions of phenolic compounds with globular proteins and their effects on food-related functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prigent, S.V.E.


    In order to modulate the functional properties of food proteins, the interactions between globular proteins and the monomeric phenolic, caffeoylquinic acid (CQA, chlorogenic acid), and the oligomeric phenolics, procyanidins, were characterized and investigated for their effect on protein functional

  18. Engineering Globular Protein Vesicles through Tunable Self-Assembly of Recombinant Fusion Proteins. (United States)

    Jang, Yeongseon; Choi, Won Tae; Heller, William T; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R; Champion, Julie A


    Vesicles assembled from folded, globular proteins have potential for functions different from traditional lipid or polymeric vesicles. However, they also present challenges in understanding the assembly process and controlling vesicle properties. From detailed investigation of the assembly behavior of recombinant fusion proteins, this work reports a simple strategy to engineer protein vesicles containing functional, globular domains. This is achieved through tunable self-assembly of recombinant globular fusion proteins containing leucine zippers and elastin-like polypeptides. The fusion proteins form complexes in solution via high affinity binding of the zippers, and transition through dynamic coacervates to stable hollow vesicles upon warming. The thermal driving force, which can be tuned by protein concentration or temperature, controls both vesicle size and whether vesicles are single or bi-layered. These results provide critical information to engineer globular protein vesicles via self-assembly with desired size and membrane structure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Chemical Abundances and Ages of the Bulge Stars in APOGEE High-velocity Peaks (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Shen, Juntai; Liu, Chao; Li, Zhao-Yu; Mao, Shude; Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. Michael; Zasowski, G.; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Geisler, Doug; Tang, Baitian; Villanova, S.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Schultheis, M.; Nidever, David L.; Meza, Andrés; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, D. V.


    A cold, high-velocity (HV, ˜200 km s-1) peak was first reported in several Galactic bulge fields based on the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) commissioning observations. Both the existence and the nature of the HV peak are still under debate. Here we revisit this feature with the latest APOGEE DR13 data. We find that most of the low-latitude bulge fields display a skewed Gaussian distribution with an HV shoulder. However, only 3 out of 53 fields show distinct HV peaks around 200 km s-1. The velocity distribution can be well described by Gauss-Hermite polynomials, except for the three fields showing clear HV peaks. We find that the correlation between the skewness parameter (h 3) and the mean velocity (\\bar{v}), instead of a distinctive HV peak, is a strong indicator of the bar. It was recently suggested that the HV peak is composed of preferentially young stars. We choose three fields showing clear HV peaks to test this hypothesis using the metallicity, [α/M], and [C/N] as age proxies. We find that both young and old stars show HV features. The similarity between the chemical abundances of stars in the HV peaks and the main component indicates that they are not systematically different in terms of chemical abundance or age. In contrast, there are clear differences in chemical space between stars in the Sagittarius dwarf and the bulge stars. The strong HV peaks off-plane are still to be explained properly and could be different in nature.

  20. Marasmioid and gymnopoid fungi of the Republic of Korea. 2. Marasmius sect. Globulares. (United States)

    Antonín, V; Ryoo, R; Shin, H-D


    Seven species of Marasmius sect. Globulares with smooth pileipellis cells (sect. Globulares s. Singer) have been collected in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) to date, viz. M. aurantioferrugineus, M. brunneospermus, M. maximus, M. nivicola, M. purpureostriatus, M. wynneae and M. fusicystidiosus. Descriptions of their macro- and microscopic features with a discussion of similar taxa are given. Their taxonomic position was confirmed using DNA data. Marasmius fusicystidiosus is described as a new species. A key to aid in their identification is also provided.

  1. On the orbits that generate the X-shape in the Milky Way bulge (United States)

    Abbott, Caleb G.; Valluri, Monica; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.


    The Milky Way (MW) bulge shows a boxy/peanut or X-shaped bulge (hereafter BP/X) when viewed in infrared or microwave bands. We examine orbits in an N-body model of a barred disc galaxy that is scaled to match the kinematics of the MW bulge. We generate maps of projected stellar surface density, unsharp masked images, 3D excess-mass distributions (showing mass outside ellipsoids), line-of-sight number count distributions, and 2D line-of-sight kinematics for the simulation as well as co-added orbit families, in order to identify the orbits primarily responsible for the BP/X shape. We estimate that between 19 and 23 per cent of the mass of the bar in this model is associated with the BP/X shape and that the majority of bar orbits contribute to this shape that is clearly seen in projected surface density maps and 3D excess mass for non-resonant box orbits, 'banana' orbits, 'fish/pretzel' orbits and 'brezel' orbits. Although only the latter two families (comprising 7.5 per cent of the total mass) show a distinct X-shape in unsharp masked images, we find that nearly all bar orbit families contribute some mass to the 3D BP/X-shape. All co-added orbit families show a bifurcation in stellar number count distribution with distance that resembles the bifurcation observed in red clump stars in the MW. However, only the box orbit family shows an increasing separation of peaks with increasing galactic latitude |b|, similar to that observed. Our analysis suggests that no single orbit family fully explains all the observed features associated with the MW's BP/X-shaped bulge, but collectively the non-resonant boxes and various resonant boxlet orbits contribute at different distances from the centre to produce this feature. We propose that since box orbits (which are the dominant population in bars) have three incommensurable orbital fundamental frequencies, their 3D shapes are highly flexible and, like Lissajous figures, this family of orbits is most easily able to adapt to

  2. Population synthesis of ultracompact X-ray binaries in the Galactic bulge (United States)

    van Haaften, L. M.; Nelemans, G.; Voss, R.; Toonen, S.; Portegies Zwart, S. F.; Yungelson, L. R.; van der Sluys, M. V.


    Aims: We model the present-day number and properties of ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) in the Galactic bulge. The main objective is to compare the results to the known UCXB population as well as to data from the Galactic Bulge Survey, in order to learn about the formation of UCXBs and their evolution, such as the onset of mass transfer and late-time behavior. Methods: The binary population synthesis code SeBa and detailed stellar evolutionary tracks have been used to model the UCXB population in the Bulge. The luminosity behavior of UCXBs has been predicted using long-term X-ray observations of the known UCXBs as well as the thermal-viscous disk instability model. Results: In our model, the majority of UCXBs initially have a helium burning star donor. Of the white dwarf donors, most have helium composition. In the absence of a mechanism that destroys old UCXBs, we predict (0.2-1.9) × 105 UCXBs in the Galactic bulge, depending on assumptions, mostly at orbital periods longer than 60 min (a large number of long-period systems also follows from the observed short-period UCXB population). About 5-50 UCXBs should be brighter than 1035 ergs-1, mostly persistent sources with orbital periods shorter than about 30 min and with degenerate helium and carbon-oxygen donors. This is about one order of magnitude more than the observed number of (probably) three. Conclusions: This overprediction of short-period UCXBs by roughly one order of magnitude implies that fewer systems are formed, or that a super-Eddington mass transfer rate is more difficult to survive than we assumed. The very small number of observed long-period UCXBs with respect to short-period UCXBs, the surprisingly high luminosity of the observed UCXBs with orbital periods around 50 min, and the properties of the PSR J1719-1438 system all point to much faster UCXB evolution than expected from angular momentum loss via gravitational wave radiation alone. Old UCXBs, if they still exist, probably have orbital

  3. Towards understanding the dynamics of the bar/bulge region in our Galaxy


    Athanassoula E.


    I review some of the work on bars which is closely linked to the bar/bulge system in our Galaxy. Several independent studies, using totally independent methods, come to the same results about the 3D structure of a bar, i.e., that a bar is composed of a vertically thick inner part and a vertically thin outer part. I give examples of this from simulations and substantiate the discussion with input from orbital structure analysis and from observations. The thick part has a considerably shorter r...

  4. Incidence and Risk Factors for Parastomal Bulging in Patients with Ileostomy or Colostomy: a Register-based Study using data from the Danish Stoma Database Capital Region. (United States)

    Andersen, Rune M; Klausen, Tobias W; Danielsen, Anne K; Vinther, Anders; Gögenur, Ismail; Thomsen, Thordis


    To investigate incidence and risk factors for parastomal bulging, a clinically important complication, in patients with an ileostomy or colostomy. The Danish Stoma Database Capital Region prospectively collects data on patients with a stoma up to a year after surgery. Stoma care nurses clinically assessed the main outcome, parastomal bulging. We linked data from the Stoma Database to data from the Danish Anaesthesia Database. Cumulative incidence of parastomal bulging over the first year was calculated with death and stoma reversal as competing risks. Risk factors were investigated using an exploratory approach. In a study population of 5019, the cumulative incidence (with competing risks) of parastomal bulging was 36.2% at 400 days after surgery. Age, colostomy, male gender, alcohol consumption, and laparoscopy were associated with an increased risk of parastomal bulging. Compared with cancer, inflammatory bowel disease was associated with a lower risk of parastomal bulging, and diverticulitis was associated with a higher risk. Peristomal mesh and stomas placed through a separate incision were associated with a reduction in risk. There was neither increased nor decreased risk of parastomal bulging for body mass index, ASA score, smoking status, emergency surgery, and preoperative stoma site marking. Parastomal bulging was a common complication affecting one in three patients within one year of surgery. Along with previous findings, there is now considerable evidence for age and colostomy as being risk factors for parastomal bulging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. New Insight on the Origin of the Double Red Clump in the Milky Way Bulge (United States)

    Joo, Seok-Joo; Lee, Young-Wook; Chung, Chul


    The double red clump (RC) observed in the Milky Way bulge is widely interpreted as evidence for an X-shaped structure. We have recently suggested, however, an alternative interpretation based on the multiple population phenomenon, where the bright RC is from helium-enhanced second-generation stars (G2), while the faint RC is representing first-generation stars (G1) with normal helium abundance. Here, our RC models are constructed in a large parameter space to see the effects of metallicity, age, and helium abundance on the double RC feature. Our models show that the luminosity of RC stars is mainly affected by helium abundance, while the RC color is primarily affected by metallicity. The effect of age is relatively small, unless it is older than 12 Gyr or much younger than 6 Gyr. The observed double RC feature can therefore be reproduced in a relatively large parameter space, once ΔY between G2 and G1 is assumed to be greater than ˜0.10. We further show that the longitude dependence of the double RC feature at b≈ -8^\\circ , which was pointed out by Gonzalez et al. as a potential problem of our model, is well explained in our scenario by a classical bulge embedded in a tilted bar.

  6. The Illustris simulation: supermassive black hole-galaxy connection beyond the bulge (United States)

    Mutlu-Pakdil, Burçin; Seigar, Marc S.; Hewitt, Ian B.; Treuthardt, Patrick; Berrier, Joel C.; Koval, Lauren E.


    We study the spiral arm morphology of a sample of the local spiral galaxies in the Illustris simulation and explore the supermassive black hole-galaxy connection beyond the bulge (e.g. spiral arm pitch angle, total stellar mass, dark matter mass, and total halo mass), finding good agreement with other theoretical studies and observational constraints. It is important to study the properties of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies through both observations and simulations and compare their results in order to understand their physics and formative histories. We find that Illustris prediction for supermassive black hole mass relative to pitch angle is in rather good agreement with observations and that barred and non-barred galaxies follow similar scaling relations. Our work shows that Illustris presents very tight correlations between supermassive black hole mass and large-scale properties of the host galaxy, not only for early-type galaxies but also for low-mass, blue and star-forming galaxies. These tight relations beyond the bulge suggest that halo properties determine those of a disc galaxy and its supermassive black hole.

  7. The X-ray globular cluster NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaino, G


    A BV photometric investigation of the Southern Globular Cluster NGC 1851, was carried out using the 1 m telescope of Cerro La Silla (ESO) for the photoelectric work and the 1 m telescope of Cerro Las Campanas (CARSO) for the photographic work. Nineteen stars were observed photoelectrically, the limiting magnitude being V=16.18. Using this sequence, 156 stars were measured photographically. The derived apparent distance modulus is (m-M)/sub app/=15/sup m/.50. The reddening is E(B-V)=0/sup m/.10. The true distance modulus is (m-M) /sub 0/=15/sup m/.20. The distance is 11 kpc from the sun, 6 kpc from the galactic plane and 17 kpc from the galactic centre. The main features of the colour-magnitude diagram are: a well defined horizontal branch abundant in red stars and deficient in blue stars, a rich subgiant and asymptotic branch and a moderately populated red giant branch of medium steepness rising to Delta V=2/sup m/.5 at (B-V) /sub 0/=1.4. At the distance of 11 kpc the maximum observed luminosity of the X-ray ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veljanoski, J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Bernard, E. J.; Penarrubia, J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Mackey, A. D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Huxor, A. P. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fur Astronomie der Universitat Heidelberg, Monchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cote, P. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F. [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Fardal, M. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, LGRT 619-E, 710 N. Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Lewis, G. F. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)


    We present the first kinematic analysis of the far outer halo globular cluster (GC) population in the Local Group galaxy M31. Our sample contains 53 objects with projected radii of {approx}20-130 kpc, 44 of which have no previous spectroscopic information. GCs with projected radii {approx}> 30 kpc are found to exhibit net rotation around the minor axis of M31, in the same sense as the inner GCs, albeit with a smaller amplitude of 79 {+-} 19 km s{sup -1}. The rotation-corrected velocity dispersion of the full halo GC sample is 106 {+-} 12 km s{sup -1}, which we observe to decrease with increasing projected radius. We find compelling evidence for kinematic coherence among GCs that project on top of halo substructure, including a clear signature of infall for GCs lying along the northwest stream. Using the tracer mass estimator, we estimate the dynamical mass of M31 within 200 kpc to be M{sub M31} = (1.2-1.5) {+-} 0.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. This value is highly dependent on the chosen model and assumptions within.

  9. The Globular Cluster Systems of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Ferguson, Annette


    We propose to obtain deep ACS and WFC3 imaging of 26 globular clusters (GCs) lying in three Local Group dwarf galaxies - NGC 147, NGC 185 and NGC 6822. These three galaxies possess the richest dwarf galaxy GC systems known within the Local Group and our sample represents their entire GC populations. We will characterize, in unprecedented detail, the properties of the GCs in these low mass systems and construct a reference dataset against which to compare the properties of suspected accreted families of GCs in the M31 and Milky Way halos. Our deep imaging will allow us to derive the properties of the constituent stellar populations (e.g. metallicities, HB morphologies) of the GCs, as well as their structural parameters and line-of-sight distances, and quantify the variation within and between GC systems in galaxies of the dE and dIrr classes. In addition, our imaging will facilitate the construction of deep colour-magnitude diagrams for a wide swathe of the field populations in these dwarf galaxies, from which we will extract detailed star formation histories. This will enable us to analyse spatial variations in their stellar mass assembly histories (complementing previous deep single field studies of these systems) and quantitatively compare the history of star formation as traced by field stars and GCs.

  10. Parameters of radio pulsars in binary systems and globular clusters (United States)

    Loginov, A. A.; Malov, I. F.


    The parameters of radio pulsars in binary systems and globular clusters are investigated. It is shown that such pulsars tend to have short periods (of the order of several milliseconds). Themagnetic fields of most of the pulsars considered are weak (surface fields of the order of 108-109 G). This corresponds to the generally accepted view that short-period neutron stars are spun up by angular momentum associated with the stellar wind from a companion. However, the fields at the light cylinders in these objects are two to three orders of magnitude higher than for the main population of single neutron stars. The dependence of the pulse width on the period does not differ from the corresponding dependences for single pulsars, assuming the emission is generated inside the polar cap, at moderate distances from the surface or near the light cylinder. The radio luminosities of pulsars in binary systems do not show the correlation with the rate of loss of rotational energy that is characteristic for single pulsars, probably due to the influence of accreting matter from a companion. Moreover, accretion apparently decreases the power of the emergent radiation, and can explain the observed systematic excess of the radio luminosity of single pulsars compared to pulsars in binary systems. The distributions and dependences presented in the article support generally accepted concepts concerning the processes occurring in binary systems containing neutron stars.

  11. Accretion onto Protoplanetary Discs: Implications for Globular Cluster Evolution (United States)

    Wijnen, Thomas; Pols, Onno; Portegies Zwart, Simon


    In the past decade, observational evidence that Globular Clusters (GCs) harbour multiple stellar populations has grown steadily. These observations are hard to reconcile with the classic picture of star formation in GCs, which approximates them as a single generation of stars. However, Bastian et al. recently suggested an evolutionary scenario in which a second (and higher order) population is formed by the accretion of chemically enriched material onto the low-mass stars in the initial GC population. In this early disc accretion scenario the low-mass, pre-main sequence stars sweep up gas expelled by the more massive stars of the same generation into their protoplanetary disc as they move through the cluster centre.Using assumptions that represent the (dynamical) conditions in a typical GC, we investigate whether a low-mass star surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can indeed accrete sufficient enriched material to account for the observed abundances in 'second generation' stars. We compare the outcome of two different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes and check for consistency. In particular, we focus on the lifetime and stability of the disc and on the gas accretion rate onto both the star and the disc.

  12. Study of Remote Globular Cluster Satellites of M87 (United States)

    Sahai, Arushi; Shao, Andrew; Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hao


    We present a sample of “orphan” globular clusters (GCs) with previously unknown parent galaxies, which we determine to be remote satellites of M87, a massive elliptical galaxy at the center of the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies. Because GCs were formed in the early universe along with their original parent galaxies, which were cannibalized by massive galaxies such as M87, they share similar age and chemical properties. In this study, we first confirm that M87 is the adoptive parent galaxy of our orphan GCs using photometric and spectroscopic data to analyze spatial and velocity distributions. Next, we increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our samples’ spectra through a process known as coaddition. We utilize spectroscopic absorption lines to determine the age and metallicity of our orphan GCs through comparison to stellar population synthesis models, which we then relate to the GCs’ original parent galaxies using a mass-metallicity relation. Our finding that remote GCs of M87 likely developed in galaxies with ~1010 solar masses implies that M87’s outer halo is formed of relatively massive galaxies, serving as important parameters for developing theories about the formation and evolution of massive galaxies.This research was funded in part by NASA/STScI and the National Science Foundation. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of the Science Internship Program at UC Santa Cruz.

  13. Constraining the Mass & Radius of Neutron Stars in Globular Clusters (United States)

    Steiner, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Bogdanov, S.; Li, C.; Ho, W. C. G.; Bahramian, A.; Han, S.


    We analyze observations of eight quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters and combine them to determine the neutron star mass-radius curve and the equation of state of dense matter. We determine the effect that several uncertainties may have on our results, including uncertainties in the distance, the atmosphere composition, the neutron star maximum mass, the neutron star mass distribution, the possible presence of a hotspot on the neutron star surface, and the prior choice for the equation of state of dense matter. The distance uncertainty is implemented in a new Gaussian blurring method which can be directly applied to the probability distribution over mass and radius. We find that the radius of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star is most likely from 10 to 14 km and that tighter constraints are only possible with stronger assumptions about the nature of the neutron stars, the systematics of the observations, or the nature of dense matter. Strong phase transitions in the equation of state are preferred, and in this case, the radius is likely smaller than 12 km. However, radii larger than 12 km are preferred if the neutron stars have uneven temperature distributions.

  14. Color Gradient in the King Type Globular Cluster NGC 7089

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn


    Full Text Available We use BV CCD images to investigate the reality of the color gradient within a King type globular cluster NGC 7089. Surface photometry shows that there is a strong radial color gradient in the central region of the cluster in the sense of bluer center with the amplitude of -0.39 +/- 0.07 mag/arcsec2 in (B - V. In the outer region of the cluster, however, the radial color gradient shows a reverse case, i.e., redder toward the center. (B - V color profile which was derived from resolved stars in VGC 7089 field also shows a significant color gradient in the central region of the clusters, indicating that lights from the combination of red giant stars and blue horizontal branch stars cause the radial color gradient. Color gradient of the outer region of NGC 7089 may be due to the unresolved background of the cluster. Similar color gradients in the central area of clusters have been previously observed exserved exclusively in highly concentrated systems classified as post core collapse clusters. We caution, however, to confirm the reality of the color gradient from resolved stars, we need more accurate imaging data of the cluster with exceptional seeing condition because the effect of completeness correlates with local density of stars.

  15. Optical companions to millisecond pulsars in globular clusters. (United States)

    Pallanca, C.; Cosmic-Lab Team

    According to the ``canonical recycling scenario", millisecond pulsars (MSPs) form in binary systems containing a neutron star that is spun up through mass accretion from the evolving companion. Therefore, the final stage consists of a binary made of the MSP and the core of the deeply peeled star. In the last years, however, an increasing number of systems deviating from these expectations has been discovered, thus strongly indicating that our understanding of MSPs is far to be complete. Within the Cosmic-Lab project we identified 8 new companions to MSPs in Galactic globular clusters (GCs), more than doubling the number of previously known objects, and also reporting the first and unique detections of both a transitional-MSP and two Black-Widow companions in GCs. Moreover we performed a spectroscopic follow-up of the companion to PSRJ1740-5340A in NGC 6397, confirming that it is a deeply peeled star descending from a ˜0.8 M_⊙ progenitor.

  16. Denaturation and preservation of globular proteins: the role of DMSO. (United States)

    Giugliarelli, Alessandra; Paolantoni, Marco; Morresi, Assunta; Sassi, Paola


    The thermal denaturation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) in D(2)O was followed by IR absorption after addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different molar fractions. Amide I intensity and position revealed that DMSO reduces the thermal stability of the native protein and favors the formation of ordered aggregates. The comparison with ethanol/water solutions evidenced that ethanol (partially deuterated ethanol EtOD) has a stronger effect on the thermal stability of HEWL: the same down-shift of melting temperature was measured at 0.18 and 0.30 molar fraction of ethanol and DMSO, respectively. This is probably due to lower polarity of EtOD/D(2)O with respect to DMSO/D(2)O solutions. A kinetic study of protein assembling at 0.30 DMSO molar fraction, was also performed at different temperatures. The high viscosity of the solvent was observed to cause a sensitive slowing down of aggregation rate in comparison to that of water/alcohol solutions. The evidence of a retarded self-assembling put forward a possible explanation for the use of dimethyl sulfoxide as a protectant of protein structure. In fact, for both organic solvents a nonspecific interaction with the protein and a water-mediated action is deduced, but the addition of DMSO reduces the irreversible denaturation due to kinetic effects and this can be exploited for lessening one of the main degradation routes of globular proteins during freezing-thawing cycles.

  17. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.


    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  18. Formation and Growth Mechanism of Globular Crystal of ADC12 Aluminum Alloy by Near-Liquidus Squeeze Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-zhu Wang


    Full Text Available A new method of near-liquidus squeeze casting (NLSC, which obtains globular crystal, has been developed. The research focuses on the formation and growth mechanism of globular crystals of ADC12 alloy by NLSC. Globular crystal transforms into rosette crystal, average grain size (AGS increases, and average globular coefficient (ASC decreases with the rise of pouring temperature. But AGS decreases to 17.8 μm directly and ASC increases directly to 0.46 when the pouring temperature is 650°C. NLSC globular crystal of different sizes (AGS is 22.5 μm; ASC is 0.73 distributes uniformly in matrix. Heterogeneous nucleation grows on the solid particles of metal walls and fusing grains. The formation and growth modes of globular crystal include normal grain growth, annexation of small globular crystal, and fracture and spherulization of rosette crystal. NLSC globular crystal critical radius is inversely proportional to degree of supercooling. The pressure has very little influence on critical radius by increase of melting point and thermal conductivity, but it affects critical radius greatly by changing the degree of supercooling. NLSC globular crystal has no enough time to exceed the critical radius.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Lang, Dustin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra; Dorman, Claire E. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Howley, Kirsten M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lauer, Tod R.; Olsen, Knut A. G. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Kalirai, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larsen, Soren S. [Astronomical Institute, University of Utrecht, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others


    As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury multi-cycle program, we observed a 12' Multiplication-Sign 6.'5 area of the bulge of M31 with the WFC3/UVIS filters F275W and F336W. From these data we have assembled a sample of {approx}4000 UV-bright, old stars, vastly larger than previously available. We use updated Padova stellar evolutionary tracks to classify these hot stars into three classes: Post-AGB stars (P-AGB), Post-Early AGB (PE-AGB) stars, and AGB-manque stars. P-AGB stars are the end result of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and are expected in a wide range of stellar populations, whereas PE-AGB and AGB-manque (together referred to as the hot post-horizontal branch; HP-HB) stars are the result of insufficient envelope masses to allow a full AGB phase, and are expected to be particularly prominent at high helium or {alpha} abundances when the mass loss on the red giant branch is high. Our data support previous claims that most UV-bright sources in the bulge are likely hot (extreme) horizontal branch (EHB) stars and their progeny. We construct the first radial profiles of these stellar populations and show that they are highly centrally concentrated, even more so than the integrated UV or optical light. However, we find that this UV-bright population does not dominate the total UV luminosity at any radius, as we are detecting only the progeny of the EHB stars that are the likely source of the UV excess. We calculate that only a few percent of main-sequence stars in the central bulge can have gone through the HP-HB phase and that this percentage decreases strongly with distance from the center. We also find that the surface density of hot UV-bright stars has the same radial variation as that of low-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss age, metallicity, and abundance variations as possible explanations for the observed radial variation in the UV-bright population.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cecco, A.; Buonanno, R. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana Science Data Center (ASDC), c/o ESRIN, via G. Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Zocchi, A.; Varri, A. L.; Bertin, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Monelli, M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Calle Via Lactea, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bono, G.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00044 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Nonino, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-40131 Trieste (Italy); Kunder, A.; Walker, A. R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)


    We present new number density and surface brightness profiles for the globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341). These profiles are calculated from optical images collected with the CCD mosaic camera MegaCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ground-based data were supplemented with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric catalog. Special care was taken to discriminate candidate cluster stars from field stars and to subtract the background contamination from both profiles. By examining the contour levels of the number density, we found that the stellar distribution becomes clumpy at radial distances larger than {approx}13', and there is no preferred orientation of contours in space. We performed detailed fits of King and Wilson models to the observed profiles. The best-fit models underestimate the number density inside the core radius. Wilson models better represent the observations, in particular in the outermost cluster regions: the good global agreement of these models with the observations suggests that there is no need to introduce an extra-tidal halo to explain the radial distribution of stars at large radial distances. The best-fit models for the number density and the surface brightness profiles are different, even though they are based on the same observations. Additional tests support the evidence that this fact reflects the difference in the radial distribution of the stellar tracers that determine the observed profiles (main-sequence stars for the number density, bright evolved stars for the surface brightness).

  1. Spatial Substructure in the M87 Globular Cluster System (United States)

    Feng, Yuting; Zhang, Yunhao; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric; Lim, Sungsoon


    Based on the observation of Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) project, we obtained the u,g,r,i,z and Ks band photometric information of all the objects in the 2 degree × 2 degree area (Pilot Region) around M87, the major subcluster of Virgo. By adapting an Extreme Deconvolution method, which classifies objects into Globular Clusters (GCs), galaxies and foreground stars with their color and morphology data, we got a purer-than-ever GC distribution map with a depth to gmag=25 in Pilot Region. After masking galaxy GCs, smoothing with a 10arcmin Gaussian kernel and performing a flat field correction, we show the GC density map of M87, and got a good sersic fitting of GC radial distribution with a sersic index~2.2 in the central ellipse part (45arcmin semi major axis area of M87). We quantitatively compared our GC sample with a substructure-free mock data set, which was generated from the smoothed density map as well as the sersic fitting, by calculating the 2 point correlation function (TPCF) value in different parts of the map. After separately performing such comparison with mocks based on different galaxy masking radii which vary from 4 times g band effective radius to 10, we found signals of remarkable spatial enhancement in certain directions in the central ellipse of M87, as well as halo substructures shown as lumpiness and holes in the outer region. We present the estimated scales of these substructures from the TPCF results, and, managed to locate them with a statistical analysis of the pixelized GC map. Apart from all results listed above, we discuss the constant, extra-galactic substructure signal at a scale of ~3kpc, which does not diminish with masking sizes, as the evidence of merging and accretion history of M87.

  2. A Unified Picture of Mass Segregation in Globular Clusters (United States)

    Watkins, Laura


    The sensitivity, stability and longevity of HST have opened up an exciting new parameter space: we now have velocity measurements, in the form of proper motions (PMs), for stars from the tip of the red giant branch to a few magnitudes below the main-sequence turn off for a large sample of globular clusters (GCs). For the very first time, we have the opportunity to measure both kinematic and spatial dependences on stellar mass in GCs.The formation and evolution histories of GCs are poorly understood, so too are their intermediate-mass black hole populations and binary fractions. However, the current structure and dynamical state of a GC is directly determined by its past history and its components, so by understanding the former we can gain insight into the latter. Quantifying variations in spatial structure for stars of different mass is extremely difficult with photometry alone as datasets are inhomogenous and incomplete. We require kinematic data for stars that span a range of stellar masses, combined with proper dynamical modelling. We now have the data in hand, but still lack the models needed to maximise the scientific potential of our HST datasets.Here, we propose to extend existing single-mass discrete dynamical-modelling tools to include kinematic and spatial variations with stellar mass, and verify the upgrades using mock data generated from N-body models. We will then apply the models to HST PM data and directly quantify energy equipartition and mass segregation in the GCs. The theoretical phase of the project is vital for the success of the subsequent data analysis, and will serve as a benchmark for future observational campaigns with HST, JWST and beyond.

  3. The origin of discrete multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (United States)

    Bekki, K.; Jeřábková, T.; Kroupa, P.


    Recent observations have revealed that at least several old globular clusters (GCs) in the Galaxy have discrete distributions of stars along the Mg-Al anticorrelation. In order to discuss this recent observation, we construct a new one-zone GC formation model in which the maximum stellar mass (mmax) in the initial mass function of stars in a forming GC depends on the star formation rate, as deduced from independent observations. We investigate the star formation histories of forming GCs. The principal results are as follows. About 30 Myr after the formation of the first generation (1G) of stars within a particular GC, new stars can be formed from ejecta from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of 1G. However, the formation of this second generation (2G) of stars can last only for [10-20] Myr because the most massive SNe of 2G expel all of the remaining gas. The third generation (3G) of stars are then formed from AGB ejecta ≈30 Myr after the truncation of 2G star formation. This cycle of star formation followed by its truncation by SNe can continue until all AGB ejecta is removed from the GC by some physical process. Thus, it is inevitable that GCs have discrete multiple stellar populations in the [Mg/Fe]-[Al/Fe] diagram. Our model predicts that low-mass GCs are unlikely to have discrete multiple stellar populations, and young massive clusters may not have massive OB stars owing to low mmax (<[20-30] M⊙) during the secondary star formation.

  4. The DRAGON simulations: globular cluster evolution with a million stars (United States)

    Wang, Long; Spurzem, Rainer; Aarseth, Sverre; Giersz, Mirek; Askar, Abbas; Berczik, Peter; Naab, Thorsten; Schadow, Riko; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.


    Introducing the DRAGON simulation project, we present direct N-body simulations of four massive globular clusters (GCs) with 106 stars and 5 per cent primordial binaries at a high level of accuracy and realism. The GC evolution is computed with NBODY6++GPU and follows the dynamical and stellar evolution of individual stars and binaries, kicks of neutron stars and black holes (BHs), and the effect of a tidal field. We investigate the evolution of the luminous (stellar) and dark (faint stars and stellar remnants) GC components and create mock observations of the simulations (i.e. photometry, colour-magnitude diagrams, surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles). By connecting internal processes to observable features, we highlight the formation of a long-lived `dark' nuclear subsystem made of BHs, which results in a two-component structure. The inner core is dominated by the BH subsystem and experiences a core-collapse phase within the first Gyr. It can be detected in the stellar (luminous) line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles. The outer extended core - commonly observed in the (luminous) surface brightness profiles - shows no collapse features and is continuously expanding. We demonstrate how a King model fit to observed clusters might help identify the presence of post core-collapse BH subsystems. For global observables like core and half-mass radii, the direct simulations agree well with Monte Carlo models. Variations in the initial mass function can result in significantly different GC properties (e.g. density distributions) driven by varying amounts of early mass-loss and the number of forming BHs.

  5. Comparison of solid particles, globular proteins and surfactants as emulsifiers. (United States)

    Tcholakova, S; Denkov, N D; Lips, A


    The aim of this paper is to present a short overview of the main mechanisms operative in the formation and stabilization of emulsions by solid particles and, on this basis, to make comparisons between solid particles, surfactants and globular proteins as emulsifiers. When available, simple quantitative relations are presented, with the respective numerical estimates and discussion of the applicability of these relations to particle-stabilized systems. Non-obvious similarities between the different types of emulsifiers are outlined in several cases in which the description of the system can be performed at a phenomenological level. Examples are presented for the process of emulsification, where we show that several simple theoretical expressions, derived originally in the studies of surfactants and protein emulsifiers, can be successfully applied to particle-stabilized emulsions. In contrast, for the phenomena in which the detailed mechanisms of particle adsorption and film stabilization are important, the differences between the various emulsifiers prevail, thus making it impossible to use the same theoretical description. The most important specific characteristics of the solid particles which strongly affect their behavior are the high barrier to particle adsorption, high desorption energy and strong capillary forces between particles trapped in liquid films, which all originate in the relatively large particle size (as compared to the size of surfactant and protein molecules). The capillary mechanism of stabilization of liquid films by solid particles is reviewed in some detail, to emphasize its specific features and to demonstrate the applicability of several simple expressions for approximate estimates. Interestingly, we found that the hypothesis for some exceptionally high coalescence stability of the particle-stabilized emulsions is not supported by the experimental data available in literature. On the other hand, the particles are able to completely arrest

  6. The globular cluster-dark matter halo connection (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael


    I present a simple phenomenological model for the observed linear scaling of the stellar mass in old globular clusters (GCs) with $z=0$ halo mass in which the stellar mass in GCs scales linearly with progenitor halo mass at $z=6$ above a minimum halo mass for GC formation. This model reproduces the observed $M_{\\rm GCs}-M_{\\rm halo}$ relation at $z=0$ and results in a prediction for the minimum halo mass at $z=6$ required for hosting one GC: $M_{\\rm min}(z=6)=1.07 \\times 10^9\\,M_{\\odot}$. Translated to $z=0$, the mean threshold mass is $M_{\\rm halo}(z=0) \\approx 2\\times 10^{10}\\,M_{\\odot}$. I explore the observability of GCs in the reionization era and their contribution to cosmic reionization, both of which depend sensitively on the (unknown) ratio of GC birth mass to present-day stellar mass, $\\xi$. Based on current detections of $z \\gtrsim 6$ objects with $M_{1500} 10$ are strongly disfavored; this, in turn, has potentially important implications for GC formation scenarios. Even for low values of $\\xi$, some observed high-$z$ galaxies may actually be GCs, complicating estimates of reionization-era galaxy ultraviolet luminosity functions and constraints on dark matter models. GCs are likely important reionization sources if $5 \\lesssim \\xi \\lesssim 10$. I also explore predictions for the fraction of accreted versus in situ GCs in the local Universe and for descendants of systems at the halo mass threshold of GC formation (dwarf galaxies). An appealing feature of the model presented here is the ability to make predictions for GC properties based solely on dark matter halo merger trees.

  7. Globular Clusters Indicate That Ultra-diffuse Galaxies Are Dwarfs (United States)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio


    We present an analysis of archival HST/ACS imaging in the F475W (g 475), F606W (V 606), and F814W (I 814) bands of the globular cluster (GC) system of a large (3.4 kpc effective radius) ultra-diffuse galaxy (DF17) believed to be located in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. We detect 11 GCs down to the 5σ completeness limit of the imaging (I 814 = 27 mag). Correcting for background and our detection limits yields a total population of GCs in this galaxy of 27 ± 5 and a V-band specific frequency S N = 28 ± 5. Based on comparisons to the GC systems of local galaxies, we show that both the absolute number and the colors of the GC system of DF17 are consistent with the GC system of a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy with virial mass ˜9.0 × 1010 M ⊙ and a dark-to-stellar mass ratio M vir/M star ˜ 1000. Based on the stellar mass growth of the Milky Way, we show that DF17 cannot be understood as a failed Milky-Way-like system, but is more similar to quenched Large-Magellanic-Cloud-like systems. We find that the mean color of the GC population, g 475-I 814 = 0.91 ± 0.05 mag, coincides with the peak of the color distribution of intracluster GCs and is also similar to those of the blue GCs in the outer regions of massive galaxies. We suggest that both the intracluster GC population in Coma and the blue peak in the GC populations of massive galaxies may be fed—at least in part—by the disrupted equivalents of systems such as DF17.

  8. Mass evaporation rate of globular clusters in a strong tidal field (United States)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Hurley, Jarrod R.; Giersz, Mirek


    The mass evaporation rate of globular clusters evolving in a strong Galactic tidal field is derived through the analysis of large, multimass N-body simulations. For comparison, we also study the same evaporation rates using mocca Monte Carlo models for globular cluster evolution. Our results show that the mass evaporation rate is a dynamical value, that is, far from a constant single number found in earlier analytical work and commonly used in the literature. Moreover, the evaporation rate derived with these simulations is higher than values previously published. These models also show that the value of the mass evaporation rate depends on the strength of the tidal field. We give an analytical estimate of the mass evaporation rate as a function of time and galactocentric distance ξ(RGC, t). Upon extrapolating this formula to smaller RGC values, our results provide tentative evidence for a very high ξ value at small RGC. Our results suggest that the corresponding mass-loss in the inner Galactic potential could be high and it should be accounted for when star clusters pass within it. This has direct relevance to nuclear cluster formation/growth via the infall of globular clusters through dynamical friction. As an illustrative example, we estimate how the evaporation rate increases for an ˜105 M⊙ globular cluster that decays through dynamical friction into the Galactic Centre. We discuss the findings of this work in relation to the formation of nuclear star clusters by inspiralling globular clusters.

  9. Two stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22. (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J; Miller-Jones, James C A; Seth, Anil C


    Hundreds of stellar-mass black holes probably form in a typical globular star cluster, with all but one predicted to be ejected through dynamical interactions. Some observational support for this idea is provided by the lack of X-ray-emitting binary stars comprising one black hole and one other star ('black-hole/X-ray binaries') in Milky Way globular clusters, even though many neutron-star/X-ray binaries are known. Although a few black holes have been seen in globular clusters around other galaxies, the masses of these cannot be determined, and some may be intermediate-mass black holes that form through exotic mechanisms. Here we report the presence of two flat-spectrum radio sources in the Milky Way globular cluster M22, and we argue that these objects are black holes of stellar mass (each ∼10-20 times more massive than the Sun) that are accreting matter. We find a high ratio of radio-to-X-ray flux for these black holes, consistent with the larger predicted masses of black holes in globular clusters compared to those outside. The identification of two black holes in one cluster shows that ejection of black holes is not as efficient as predicted by most models, and we argue that M22 may contain a total population of ∼5-100 black holes. The large core radius of M22 could arise from heating produced by the black holes.

  10. Clues on the missing sources of reionization from self-consistent modelling of Milky Way and dwarf galaxy globular clusters (United States)

    Katz, Harley; Ricotti, Massimo


    Globular clusters are unique tracers of ancient star formation. We determine the formation efficiencies of globular clusters across cosmic time by modelling the formation and dynamical evolution of the globular cluster population of a Milky Way type galaxy in hierarchical cosmology, using the merger tree from the Via Lactea II simulation. All of the models are constrained to reproduce the observed specific frequency and initial mass function of globular clusters in isolated dwarfs. Globular cluster orbits are then computed in a time varying gravitational potential after they are either accreted from a satellite halo or formed in situ, within the Milky Way halo. We find that the Galactocentric distances and metallicity distribution of globular clusters are very sensitive to the formation efficiencies of globular clusters as a function of redshift and halo mass. Our most accurate models reveal two distinct peaks in the globular cluster formation efficiency at z ˜ 2 and 7-12 and prefer a formation efficiency that is mildly increasing with decreasing halo mass, the opposite of what expected for feedback-regulated star formation. This model accurately reproduces the positions, velocities, mass function, metallicity distribution, and age distribution of globular clusters in the Milky Way and predicts that ˜40 per cent formed in situ, within the Milky Way halo, while the other ˜60 per cent were accreted from about 20 satellite dwarf galaxies with vcir > 30 km s-1, and about 29 per cent of all globular clusters formed at redshifts z > 7. These results further strengthen the notion that globular cluster formation was an important mode of star formation in high-redshift galaxies and likely played a significant role in the reionization of the intergalactic medium.

  11. Simulation of disc-bulge-halo galaxies using parallel GPU based codes (United States)

    Veles, O.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.


    We compare the performance of the very popular Tree-GPU code BONSAI with the older Particle-(Multi)Mesh code SUPERBOX. Both code we run on a same hardware using the GPU acceleration for the force calculation. SUPERBOX is a particle-mesh code with high resolution sub-grid and a higher order NGP (nearest grid point) force-calculation scheme. In our research, we are aiming to demonstrate that the new parallel version of SUPERBOX is capable to do the high resolution simulations of the interaction of the system of disc-bulge-halo composed galaxy. We describe the improvement of performance and scalability of SUPERBOX particularly for the Kepler cluster (NVIDIA K20 GPU). A comparison was made with the very popular and publicly available Tree-GPU code BONSAI†.

  12. RR Lyrae star distance scale and kinematics from inner bulge to 50 kpc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambis Andrei


    Full Text Available We use the currently most complete sample of ∼ 3500 type ab RR Lyraes in our Galaxy with available radial-velocity and [Fe/H] measurements to perform a statisticalparallax analysis for a subsample of ∼ 600 type ab RR Lyraes located within 5 kpc from the Sun to refine the parameters of optical and WISE W1-band period-metallicityluminosity relations and adjust our preliminary distances. The new zero point implies the rescaled estimates for the solar Galactocentric distance (RG = 7.99 ± 0.37 kpc and the LMC distance modulus (DMLMC = 18.39 ±0.09. We use the kinematic data for the entire sample to explore the dependence of the halo and thick-disk RR Lyrae velocity ellipsoids on Galactocentric distance from the inner bulge out to R ∼ 50 kpc.

  13. Trifunctional fluorescent unnatural nucleoside: Label free detection of T-T/C-C base mismatches, abasic site and bulge DNA. (United States)

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Talukdar, Sangita


    The detection and targeting of both the mismatched and abasic DNA is highly important which would ultimately help in designing new diagnostics and chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, sensing and targeting the bulge sequence with a fluorescent probe would be useful to study the role of bulges in nucleic acid function or could have significant therapeutic potential. Thus, detection of specific bulges by small fluorescent molecules is an attractive research area since the past several years. Many attempts have been made to prepare such compounds. We report herein a label free strategy for the detection of pyrimidine base mismatches (T/T and C/C), sensing of abasic site, and pyrimidine base bulge DNA using an unnatural tetrazolylpyrene nucleoside ( TPy B Do ) as a bare fluorescent probe. The H-bonding/hydrophobic force mediated interactions allow the sensing of all three deformed DNA via an enhancement of fluorescence signal using our simple "Just-Mix and Read" strategy. The binding of the probe to all the three deformed DNA duplexes is accompanied by an increase in the thermal melting stability of the deformed DNAs. That the probe binds efficiently to the minor groove near the deformed site was evident from spectroscopic studies. All the spectral evidences open up a multitude of possibilities for using our probe, tetrazolylpyrene nucleoside, as an efficient fluorescent light-up bio-probe for label free DNA detection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF DOME-SHAPED MACULA: Increased Macular Bulge is Associated With Extended Macular Atrophy. (United States)

    Soudier, Guillaume; Gaudric, Alain; Gualino, Vincent; Massin, Pascale; Nardin, Mathieu; Tadayoni, Ramin; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Gaucher, David


    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) may cause impaired vision. This study analyzed the long-term evolution of DSM, most particularly macular changes: serous retinal detachment, retinal pigment epithelium atrophy, and DSM bulge increase. Twenty-nine eyes presenting with DSM were retrospectively studied. Clinical data, color photographs, fluorescein angiographs, and optical coherence tomography examinations were reviewed. Patients were followed up from 6 months to 111 months (mean, 37.89 months). The height of the macular bulge, the size of retinal pigment epithelium macular atrophy, and serous retinal detachment progression were studied. Other macular changes were noted. Mean vision remained stable. Dome-shaped macula height increased significantly from 338.9 μm to 364.3 μm (P = 0.007). Serous retinal detachment was present initially in 15 of 29 eyes; it increased in 4 cases and resolved spontaneously in 7. Macular retinal pigment epithelium atrophy correlated with the bulge height (P = 0.015), and it enlarged during follow-up (1.12 vs. 1.34, P = 0.04). Other macular anomalies were present initially or appeared during follow-up: macular pucker, choroidal neovascularization (CNV), subretinal pigmentary clumps, and flat irregular pigmented epithelium detachment. A few treatments were proven in serous retinal detachment cases but were ineffective in restoring vision. In DSM, vision may be stable for years while macular changes progress: the macular bulge increases as does retinal pigment epithelium atrophy.

  15. Structure Formation inside Triaxial Dark Matter Halos: Galactic Disks, Bulges, and Bars (United States)

    Heller, Clayton H.; Shlosman, Isaac; Athanassoula, E.


    We investigate formation and evolution of galactic disks immersed in assembling live DM halos. Models have been evolved from cosmological initial conditions and represent the collapse of an isolated density perturbation. The baryons include gas participating in star formation (SF) and stars with the energy feedback onto the ISM. We find that (1) the triaxial halo figure tumbling is insignificant and the angular momentum (J) is channeled into the internal circulation, while the baryonic collapse is stopped by the centrifugal barrier; (2) density response of the (disk) baryons is out of phase with DM, thus washing out the inner halo ellipticity; (3) the total J is neatly conserved, even in models accounting for stellar feedback; (4) the specific J for DM is nearly constant, while that for baryons is decreasing; (5) early stage of disk formation resembles the cat's cradle-a small amorphous disk fueled via radial string patterns-followed by growing oval disk whose shape varies with its orientation to the halo major axis; (6) the disk gas layer thins when the SF rate drops below ~5 Msolar yr-1 (7) about half of the baryons remain outside the disk SF region or in the halo as a hot gas; (8) rotation curves appear to be flat and account for the observed disk/halo contributions; (9) a range of bulge-dominated to bulgeless disks was obtained, depending on the stellar feedback parameter, ɛSF: smaller ɛSF leads to a larger and earlier bulge; lower density threshold for SF leads to a smaller, thicker disk; gas gravitational softening mimics a number of intrinsic processes within the ISM; (10) models are characterized by an extensive bar-forming activity; (11) nested bars form in response to the gas inflow along the primary bars, as shown by Heller, Shlosman, and Athanassoula.

  16. Flow, bulge, and jerk; quantifying surface motions with particle image velocimetry at Volcan Santaiguito (Guatemala) (Invited) (United States)

    Johnson, J. B.; Andrews, B. J.; Lees, J. M.


    Santiaguito's active vent, Caliente, is located 2700 m distant and 1200 m below the summit of neighboring Santa Maria, which provides an ideal vantage point to survey motions of the dynamic surface. With high resolution SLR and video cameras, coupled with strong zoom lenses, we are able to survey motions of this surface at time scales of seconds, minutes, hours, and days. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to quantify motions over the 150-200 m diameter vent region plateau. With video cameras we have observed motions at rapid time scales corresponding to the onset of explosive eruptions, which occur every few hours. For these events the ~30,000 m2 block lava surface temporarily uplifts by as much as 1 m during time scales of about a second. This rapid acceleration is thought to be the source of an equivalent downward force that produces a long period seismic signal. At longer time scales, time lapse camera imagery is used to measure bulging and subsidence of the lava surface. Transient uplift of the central part of the vent plateau is as great as 10 m and occurs over time scales of 15 to 30 minutes. Bulge formation is associated with heightened effusion and subsequent subsidence allows us an estimate of the andesitic/dacitic lava's viscosity. At even longer time scales PIV allows us to track flow of the viscous lava flow and compare observations made in subsequent years. Maximum velocities of about 10 m/day were observed in 2007 and 2009, which was far less than the 50 m/day surface movements detected in 2012 when lava flow effusion was greatly increased. These longer time scale vector flow fields provide important constraints on the relative thicknesses of lava flowing on the dome's surface.

  17. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A


    The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments.

  18. Star Formation in the Local Universe from the CALIFA Sample. II. Activation and Quenching Mechanisms in Bulges, Bars, and Disks (United States)

    Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Bekeraite, S.; Costantin, L.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Florido, E.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Mast, D.; Pascual, S.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, C. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Duarte Puertas, S.; Marino, R. A.; Masegosa, J.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; CALIFA Collaboration


    We estimate the current extinction-corrected Hα star formation rate (SFR) of the different morphological components that shape galaxies (bulges, bars, and disks). We use a multicomponent photometric decomposition based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging to Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) datacubes for a sample of 219 galaxies. This analysis reveals an enhancement of the central SFR and specific SFR (sSFR = SFR/M ⋆) in barred galaxies. Along the main sequence, we find that more massive galaxies in total have undergone efficient suppression (quenching) of their star formation, in agreement with many studies. We discover that more massive disks have had their star formation quenched as well. We evaluate which mechanisms might be responsible for this quenching process. The presence of type 2 AGNs plays a role at damping the sSFR in bulges and less efficiently in disks. Also, the decrease in the sSFR of the disk component becomes more noticeable for stellar masses around {10}10.5 {M}⊙ ; for bulges, it is already present at ˜ {10}9.5 {M}⊙ . The analysis of the line-of-sight stellar velocity dispersions (σ) for the bulge component and of the corresponding Faber-Jackson relation shows that AGNs tend to have slightly higher σ values than star-forming galaxies for the same mass. Finally, the impact of environment is evaluated by means of the projected galaxy density, Σ5. We find that the SFR of both bulges and disks decreases in intermediate- to high-density environments. This work reflects the potential of combining IFS data with 2D multicomponent decompositions to shed light on the processes that regulate the SFR.

  19. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae with Fermi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdo, A.A.; et al., [Unknown; Rea, N.


    We report the detection of gamma-ray emissions above 200 megaelectron volts at a significance level of 17 sigma from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Globular clusters are expected to emit gamma rays

  20. A Search for Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi LAT-Detected Globular Clusters


    DeCesar, Megan E.; Ransom, Scott M.; Ray, Paul S.


    We have searched for millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in two globular clusters detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. These clusters contained no known MSPs prior to their detections in gamma rays. The discovery of gamma ray emission from many MSPs and the prevalence of MSPs in globular clusters points to a population of MSPs as the likely source of the detected GeV emission, directing our search for new cluster MSPs. We observed NGC 6652 and NGC 6388 at 2 GHz with the Green Bank Ultimate Puls...

  1. Surface Compositions of Red Giant Stars in Globular Clusters (United States)

    Cheng, Eric; Lau, Marie; Smith, Graeme; Chen, Brian


    Globular clusters (GCs) are excellent “laboratories” to study the formation and evolution of our galaxy. In order to understand, more specifically, the chemical compositions and stellar evolution of the stars in GCs, we ask whether or not deep internal mixing occurs in red giants or if in fact the compositions come from the primordial interstellar medium or previous generations of stars. It has been discovered that as a star evolves up the red giant branch, the surface carbon abundance decreases, which is evidence of deep internal mixing. We questioned whether these processes also affect O or Na abundance as a star evolves. We collected measurement data of red giants from GCs out of academic journals and sorted the data into catalogs. Then, we plotted the catalogs into figures, comparing surface O and Na each with stellar luminosity. Statistical tests were ran to quantify the amount of correlation between the variables. Out of 27 GCs, we concluded that eight show a positive correlation between Na and luminosity, and two show a negative correlation between O and luminosity. Properties of GCs were compared to determine if chemical distribution in stars depends on GCs as the self-enrichment scenario suggests. We created histograms of sodium distribution to test for bimodality to examine if there are separate trends in each GC. In six GCs, two different sequences of red giants appear for Na versus luminosity, suggesting evidence that the depth of mixing may differ among each red giant in a GC. This study has provided new evidence that the changing chemical abundances on the surfaces of red giants can be due to stellar evolutionary effects and deep internal mixing, which may not necessarily depend on the GC and may differ in depth among each red giant. Through this study, we learn more about stellar evolution which will eventually help us understand the origins of our universe. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of

  2. BtcA, A class IA type III chaperone, interacts with the BteA N-terminal domain through a globular/non-globular mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guttman

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of "whooping cough" disease, utilizes the type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver a 69 kDa cytotoxic effector protein, BteA, directly into the host cells. As with other T3SS effectors, prior to its secretion BteA binds BtcA, a 13.9 kDa protein predicted to act as a T3SS class IA chaperone. While this interaction had been characterized for such effector-chaperone pairs in other pathogens, it has yet to be fully investigated in Bordetella. Here we provide the first biochemical proof that BtcA is indeed a class IA chaperone, responsible for the binding of BteA's N-terminal domain. We bring forth extensive evidence that BtcA binds its substrate effector through a dual-interface binding mechanism comprising of non-globular and bi-globular interactions at a moderate micromolar level binding affinity. We demonstrate that the non-globular interactions involve the first 31 N-terminal residues of BteA287 and their removal leads to destabilization of the effector-chaperone complex and lower binding affinities to BtcA. These findings represent an important first step towards a molecular understanding of BteA secretion and cell entry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo-Martínez, K. A.; González-Lópezlira, R. A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090 (Mexico); Blakeslee, J. P.; Côté, P.; Ferrarese, L. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Jordán, A. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Meurer, G. R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Peng, E. W. [Department of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); West, M. J., E-mail: [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)


    We study the rich globular cluster (GC) system in the center of the massive cluster of galaxies Abell 1689 (z = 0.18), one of the most powerful gravitational lenses known. With 28 Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys orbits in the F814W bandpass, we reach a magnitude I{sub 814} = 29 with ∼>90% completeness and sample the brightest ∼5% of the GC system. Assuming the well-known Gaussian form of the GC luminosity function (GCLF), we estimate a total population of N{sup total}{sub GC}= 162,850{sup +75,450}{sub -51,310} GCs within a projected radius of 400 kpc. As many as half of the GCs may comprise an intracluster component. Even with the sizable uncertainties, which mainly result from the uncertain GCLF parameters, this system is by far the largest GC population studied to date. The specific frequency S{sub N} is high, but not uncommon for central galaxies in massive clusters, rising from S{sub N} ≈ 5 near the center to ∼12 at large radii. Passive galaxy fading would increase S{sub N} by ∼20% at z = 0. We construct the radial mass profiles of the GCs, stars, intracluster gas, and lensing-derived total mass, and we compare the mass fractions as a function of radius. The estimated mass in GCs, M{sub GC}{sup total} = 3.9 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, is comparable to ∼80% of the total stellar mass of the Milky Way. The shape of the GC mass profile appears intermediate between those of the stellar light and total cluster mass. Despite the extreme nature of this system, the ratios of the GC mass to the baryonic and total masses, and thus the GC formation efficiency, are typical of those in other rich clusters when comparing at the same physical radii. The GC formation efficiency is not constant, but varies with radius, in a manner that appears similar for different clusters; we speculate on the reasons for this similarity in profile.

  4. Was the Milky Way Bulge Formed from the Buckling Disk Instability, Hierarchical Collapse, Accretion of Clumps, or All of the Above? (United States)

    Nataf, David M.


    The assembly of the Milky Way bulge is an old topic in astronomy, one now in a period of renewed and rapid development. That is due to tremendous advances in observations of bulge stars, motivating observations of both local and high-redshift galaxies, and increasingly sophisticated simulations. The dominant scenario for bulge formation is that of the Milky Way as a nearly pure disk galaxy, with the inner disk having formed a bar and buckled. This can potentially explain virtually all bulge stars with [Fe/H] ≳ -1.0, which comprise 95% of the stellar population. The evidence is the incredible success in N-body models of this type in making non-trivial, non-generic predictions, such as the rotation curve and velocity dispersion measured from radial velocities, and the spatial morphologies of the peanut/X-shape and the long bar. The classical bulge scenario, whereby the bulge formed from early dissipative collapse and mergers, remains viable for stars with [Fe/H] ≲ -1.0 and potentially a minority of the other stars. A classical bulge is expected from Λ-CDM cosmological simulations, can accentuate the properties of an existing bar in a hybrid system, and is most consistent with the bulge abundance trends such as [Mg/Fe], which are elevated relative to both the thin and thick disks. Finally, the clumpy-galaxy scenario is considered, as it is the correct description of most Milky Way precursors given observations of high-redshift galaxies. Simulations predict that these star-forming clumps will sometimes migrate to the centres of galaxies where they may form a bulge, and galaxies often include a bulge clump as well. They will possibly form a bar with properties consistent with those of the Milky Way, such as the exponential profile and metallicity gradient. Given the relative successes of these scenarios, the Milky Way bulge is plausibly of composite origin, with a classical bulge and/or inner halo numerically dominant for stars with [Fe/H] ≲ -1.0, a buckling

  5. Reducing Postoperative Abdominal Bulge Following Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Breast Reconstruction with Onlay Monofilament Poly-4-Hydroxybutyrate Biosynthetic Mesh. (United States)

    Wormer, Blair A; Clavin, Nicholas W; Lefaivre, Jean-Francois; Korn, Jason M; Teng, Edward; Aukskalnis, Anthony S; Robinson, J Michael


    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a biosynthetic mesh onlay on reducing postoperative abdominal bulge following deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction. Methods All patients undergoing DIEP reconstructions from January, 2010 to January, 2014 at a tertiary center were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups for comparison based on whether a biosynthetic mesh onlay (Phasix [monofilament poly-4-hydroxybutyrate], Bard Inc., Warwick, RI) was used for reinforcement of the anterior rectus fascia. Rates of postoperative abdominal bulge were compared between the groups utilizing standard statistical methods. Results During the study period, 319 patients underwent 553 DIEP reconstructions, 160 (50.2%) used mesh and 159 (49.8%) did not (nonmesh). The mean follow-up was 16.4 ± 11.1 months. There was no difference in age (49 ± 9.3 years), current tobacco use, diabetes, or mean body mass index (BMI, 29.4 ± 4.4) between the mesh and nonmesh groups (p > 0.05); however, there was a higher proportion of obese patients (BMI > 30) in the mesh group (45.0 vs. 33.3%; p = 0.03). Abdominal bulge rate following DIEP with mesh was lower than the nonmesh group (0 vs. 5.0%; p = 0.004). In the entire sample, 234 (73.4%) underwent bilateral DIEP and 85 (26.6%) underwent unilateral DIEP. In unilateral DIEP patients, the bulge rate was similar between the mesh and nonmesh groups (0 vs. 4.4%; p > 0.05); however, in bilateral DIEP patients, the bulge rate was lower in the mesh group compared with a nonmesh group (0 vs. 5.5%; p = 0.008). Conclusion Reinforcement of the anterior rectus with an onlay monofilament poly-4-hydroxybutyrate biosynthetic mesh may reduce the risk of postoperative bulge rate in patients undergoing DIEP reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)


    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  7. Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope Study of the Globular Cluster NGC 288

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, A.K.H.; Bassa, C.G.; Pooley, D.; Levin, W.H.G.; Homer, L.; Verbunt, F.W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068970374; Anderson, S.F.; Margon, B.


    We report on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the globular cluster NGC 288.We detect four X-ray sources within the core radius and seven additional sources within the half-mass radius down to a limiting luminosity of LX ¼ 7 ; 1030 ergs s 1 (assuming cluster membership) in the 0.3Y7 keV

  8. Multiple populations along the asymptotic giant branch of the globular cluster M 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.; Savino, A.; Donati, P.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.


    Nearly all Galactic globular clusters host stars that display characteristic abundance anti-correlations, like the O-rich/Na-poor pattern typical of field halo stars, together with O-poor/Na-rich additional components. A recent spectroscopic investigation questioned the presence of O-poor/Na-rich

  9. NGC 6362: The Least Massive Globular Cluster with Chemically Distinct Multiple Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucciarelli, Alessio; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Massari, Davide; Bellazzini, Michele; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Lanzoni, Barbara; Lardo, Carmela; Salaris, Maurizio; Cassisi, Santi


    We present the first measure of Fe and Na abundances in NGC 6362, a low-mass globular cluster (GC) where first- and second-generation stars are fully spatially mixed. A total of 160 member stars (along the red giant branch (RGB) and the red horizontal branch (RHB)) were observed with the

  10. Massive binaries as the source of abundance anomalies in globular clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mink, S.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833231; Pols, O.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111811155; Langer, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829498; Izzard, R.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836052


    Abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster stars indicate pollution with material processed by hydrogen burning. Two main sources have been suggested: asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars rotating near the break-up limit (spin stars). We propose massive binaries as an

  11. The chemical composition of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6362

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Dalessandro, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Cassisi, S.; Fiorentino, G.; Ibata, R. A.; Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.

    We present chemical abundances for 17 elements in a sample of 11 red giant branch stars in NGC 6362 from UVES spectra. NGC 6362 is one of the least massive globulars where multiple populations have been detected, yet its detailed chemical composition has not been investigated so far. NGC 6362 turns

  12. No Evidence of Mass Segregation in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6101

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D.; Lanzoni, B.; Miocchi, P.; Beccari, G.

    We used a combination of Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based data to probe the dynamical state of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6101. We have rederived the structural parameters of the cluster by using star counts and we find that it is about three times more extended than thought

  13. Three Ancient Halo Subgiants: Precise Parallaxes, Compositions, Ages, and Implications for Globular Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.


    very soon after the Big Bang. (Stellar models that neglect diffusive processes seem to be ruled out as they would predict that HD 140283 is ~1.5 Gyr older than the universe.) The field halo subgiants appear to be older than globular clusters of similar metallicities: if distances close to those implied...

  14. A new X-ray transient in the globular cluster Terzan 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Heinke, C.O.; Sivakoff, G.R.; Pooley, D.


    As part of our program (PI: Altamirano) using Swift/XRT to monitor several globular clusters to detect transient behavior of X-ray binaries in those clusters, we obtained a 1.2 ksec observation of Terzan 5 on 6 July 2012. During this observation, we detect a clear excess of photons which was not

  15. Antibody mapping and tissue localization of globular and cysteine-rich regions of perlecan domain III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Ljubimov, A V; Sthanam, M


    Perlecan is the best-characterized basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. It has a large (approximately 400 KD) core protein consisting of five distinct domains. Domain III, a centrally located domain, contains three globular domains separated by cysteine-rich epidermal growth factor (EG...

  16. GeMS MCAO observations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808: the absolute age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, D.; Fiorentino, G.; McConnachie, A.; Bono, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Turri, P.; Tolstoy, E.


    Context. Globular clusters are the oldest stellar systems in the Milky Way, and they probe the early epoch of the Galaxy formation. However, the uncertainties on their absolute age are still too large to soundly constrain how the Galactic structures have assembled. Aims: The aim of this work is to

  17. Globular clusters as probes of the evolutionary histories of E/S0 galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chies Santiago Santos, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314134743


    Globular clusters (GCs) are gravitationally bound collections of millions of stars formed in a very short period of time from the same material. Located in galaxies, they serve as "fossil records" providing an easy diagnostic for determining the epoch and metallicity of major star formation events

  18. Search for continuous gravitational waves from neutron stars in globular cluster NGC 6544

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoebeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Sigurdsson, S.


    We describe a directed search for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth initial LIGO science run. The target was the nearby globular cluster NGC 6544 at a distance of approximate to 2.7 kpc. The search covered a broad band of frequencies along with first and second frequency

  19. Protein cluster formation during enzymatic cross-linking of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saricay, Y.; Dhayal, S.K.; Wierenga, P.A.; Vries, de R.J.


    Work on enzymatic cross-linking of globular food proteins has mainly focused on food functional effects such as improvements of gelation and enhanced stabilization of emulsions and foams, and on the detailed biochemical characterization of the cross-linking chemistry. What is still lacking is a

  20. Disrupted Globular Clusters and the Gamma-Ray Excess in the Galactic Centre (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Antonini, Fabio; Gnedin, Oleg Y.


    The Fermi Large Area Telescope has provided the most detailed view toward the Galactic Centre (GC) in high-energy gamma rays. Besides the interstellar emission and point-source contributions, the data suggest a residual diffuse gamma-ray excess. The similarity of its spatial distribution with the expected profile of dark matter has led to claims that this may be evidence for dark matter particle annihilation. Here, we investigate an alternative explanation that the signal originates from millisecond pulsars (MSPs) formed in dense globular clusters and deposited at the GC as a consequence of cluster inspiral and tidal disruption. We use a semi-analytical model to calculate the formation, migration, and disruption of globular clusters in the Galaxy. Our model reproduces the mass of the nuclear star cluster and the present-day radial and mass distribution of globular clusters. For the first time, we calculate the evolution of MSPs from disrupted globular clusters throughout the age of the Galaxy and consistently include the effect of the MSP spin-down due to magnetic-dipole breaking. The final gamma-ray amplitude and spatial distribution are in good agreement with the Fermi observations and provide a natural astrophysical explanation for the GC excess.

  1. Swift-XRT globular cluster monitor: April 2016 Terzan 5 observations (United States)

    Linares, M.; Chenevez, J.


    As part of our Swift-XRT monitoring program of Galactic globular clusters, publicly available here, Swift observed Terzan 5 on 2016 April 17 for 3.2 ksec. Two additional 1.5-ksec-long observations were taken on April 21 and 23 (ATel #8982).

  2. New Constraints on a Complex Relation between Globular Cluster Colors and Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powalka, Mathieu; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric W.; Schönebeck, Frederik; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Ángel, Simón; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Grebel, Eva K.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kuntschner, Harald; Lim, Sungsoon; Liu, Chengze; Lyubenova, Mariya; Mihos, J. Christopher; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Spengler, Chelsea; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin


    We present an analysis of high-quality photometry for globular clusters (GCs) in the Virgo cluster core region, based on data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) pilot field, and in the Milky Way (MW), based on Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter spectrophotometry. We find significant

  3. The Age Of Globular Clusters In Light Of Hipparcos Resolving the Age Problem?

    CERN Document Server

    Chaboyer, B; Kernan, P J; Krauss, L M; Chaboyer, Brian; Kernan, Peter J.; Krauss, Lawrence M.


    We review five independent techniques which are used to set the distance scale to globular clusters, giving most weight to subdwarf main sequence fitting utilizing Hipparcos parallax results. These data indicate that globular clusters are farther away than previously believed, implying a reduction in age estimates. This new distance scale estimate is combined with a detailed numerical Monte Carlo study designed to assess the uncertainty associated with the theoretical age-turnoff luminosity relationship in order to estimate both the absolute age and uncertainty in age of the oldest globular clusters. Our best estimate for the mean age of the oldest globular clusters is now $11.7\\pm 1.4 $Gyr, with a one-sided, 95% confidence level lower limit of 9.6 Gyr. This now provides a lower limit on the age of the universe which is consistent with either an open universe, or a flat, matter dominated universe (the latter requiring $H_0 \\le 66 \\kmsmpc$). Simple formulae are provided which can be used to update our age esti...

  4. La galaxia NGC 6876 y su sistema de cúmulos globulares (United States)

    Ennis, A. I.; Bassino, L. P.; Caso, J. P.


    We present preliminary results of the deep photometric study of the elliptical galaxy NGC6876, located at the center of the Pavo group, and its globular cluster system. We use images obtained with the GMOS camera mounted on the Gemini South telescope, in the and bands, with the purpose of disentangling the evolutionary history of the galaxy on the basis of their characteristics.

  5. A comparison of two mass distributions applicable to globular clusters and dwarf galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Slobodan D.


    Full Text Available A particular case of mass distribution in stellar systems, already described in the literature, is compared to the King model of mass distribution. For the cases which would correspond to the description of real stellar systems such as the globular clusters and dwarf galaxies, one finds a satisfactory agreement between these two mass distributions.

  6. The kinematics of globular clusters systems in the outer halos of the Aquarius simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veljanoski, J.; Helmi, A.


    Stellar halos and globular cluster (GC) systems contain valuable information regarding the assembly history of their host galaxies. Motivated by the detection of a significant rotation signal in the outer halo GC system of M 31, we investigate the likelihood of detecting such a rotation signal in

  7. Microstructure and rheology of globular protein gels in the presence of gelatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Bouwman, W.G.; Nieuwland, M.; Linden, van der E.; Venema, P.; Martin, A.H.


    The microstructure and rheological response of globular protein gels (whey protein isolate (WPI) and soy protein isolate (SPI)) in the presence of gelatin (type A, type B and hydrolyzed type A) was investigated. Microstructural information was obtained using a combination of confocal laser scanning

  8. Bulge Testing and Interface Fracture Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed and HIP Bonded Zr Coatings on U-Mo (United States)

    Hollis, K.; Liu, C.; Leckie, R.; Lovato, M.


    Bulge testing using a pressurized fluid to fracture the interface between bonded material layers along with three-dimensional digital image correlation to measure the sample distortion caused by pressurized fluid was applied to plasma-sprayed coatings. The initiation fracture toughness associated with the bonded materials was measured during the testing. The bulge testing of the uranium-molybdenum alloy plasma sprayed with zirconium and clad in aluminum is presented. The initiation fracture toughness was observed to increase with the increasing cathodic arc-cleaning current and the use of alternating polarity transferred arc current. This dependence was linked to the interface composition of oxide and mixed metal phases along with the interface temperature during spray deposition.

  9. Surface Roughening Behavior of 6063 Aluminum Alloy during Bulging by Spun Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cai


    Full Text Available Severe surface roughening during the hydroforming of aluminum alloy parts can produce surface defects that severely restrict their application in the automobile and aerospace industry. To understand the relation between strain, grain size and surface roughness under biaxial stress conditions, hydro-bulging tests of aluminum alloy tubes were carried out, and the tubes with different grain sizes were prepared by a spinning and annealing process. The surface roughness was measured by a laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate the surface roughening macroscopical behavior, and the corresponding microstructures were observed using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD to reveal the roughening microscopic behavior. The results obtained show that the surface roughness increased with both strain and grain size under biaxial stress. No surface defects were observed on the surface when the grain size was less than 105 μm if the strain was less than 18%, or when the grain size was between 130 and 175 μm if the strain was less than 15.88% and 7.15%, respectively. The surface roughening microscopic behavior was identified as an inhomogeneous grain size distribution, which became more pronounced with increasing grain size and resulted in greater local deformation. Concentrated grain orientation also results in severe inhomogeneous deformation during plastics deformation, and serious surface roughening.

  10. Abundances in Galactic bulge planetary nebulae from optical, ultraviolet and infrared observations (United States)

    Smith, Christina L.; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Gesicki, Krzysztof M.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.


    Iron suffers from high levels of depletion in the highly ionized environments of planetary nebulae, making the direct determination of undepleted elemental iron abundances difficult. Zinc, which does not suffer from the same depletion effects as iron, may be used as a surrogate element to measure iron abundances as there is an approximately constant zinc-to-iron ratio across a wide range of metallicities. In this paper, we report zinc abundances of six Galactic bulge planetary nebulae determined from new observations taken with Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) on the Very Large Telescope, Chile, prior to the instrument's decommissioning as well as a further three based upon literature observations. Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) data of the sample planetary nebulae are presented and have been used to derive abundances, temperatures and densities of a variety of elements and ions. The abundances derived from the UVES data agree well with results from the literature. [Zn/H], determined from the ISAAC observations, is found to be generally subsolar and [O/Zn] is found to be either consistent or enriched with respect to solar.

  11. Black Holes and Galactic Density Cusps III From Black Hole to Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N; Macmillan, Joseph D


    Aims. In this paper we continue our study of density cusps that may contain central black holes. Methods. We recall our attempts to use distribution functions with a memory of self-similar relaxation, but mostly they apply only in restricted regions of the global system. We are forced to consider related distribution functions that are steady but not self-similar. Results. One remarkably simple distribution function that has a filled loss cone describes a bulge that transits from a near black hole domain to an outer 'zero flux' regime where$\\rho\\propto r^{-7/4}$. The transition passes from an initial inverse square profile through a region having a 1/r density profile. The structure is likely to be developed at an early stage in the growth of a galaxy. A central black hole is shown to grow exponentially in this background with an e-folding time of a few million years. Conclusions. We derive our results from first principles, using only the angular momentum integral in spherical symmetry. The initial relaxatio...

  12. Spectroscopic classification of X-ray sources in the Galactic Bulge Survey (United States)

    Wevers, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Nelemans, G.; Heinke, C.; Mata Sánchez, D.; Johnson, C. B.; Gazer, R.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Maccarone, T. J.; Hynes, R. I.; Casares, J.; Udalski, A.; Wetuski, J.; Britt, C. T.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.


    We present the classification of 26 optical counterparts to X-ray sources discovered in the Galactic Bulge Survey. We use (time-resolved) photometric and spectroscopic observations to classify the X-ray sources based on their multiwavelength properties. We find a variety of source classes, spanning different phases of stellar/binary evolution. We classify CX21 as a quiescent cataclysmic variable (CV) below the period gap, and CX118 as a high accretion rate (nova-like) CV. CXB12 displays excess UV emission, and could contain a compact object with a giant star companion, making it a candidate symbiotic binary or quiescent low-mass X-ray binary (although other scenarios cannot be ruled out). CXB34 is a magnetic CV (polar) that shows photometric evidence for a change in accretion state. The magnetic classification is based on the detection of X-ray pulsations with a period of 81 ± 2 min. CXB42 is identified as a young stellar object, namely a weak-lined T Tauri star exhibiting (to date unexplained) UX Ori-like photometric variability. The optical spectrum of CXB43 contains two (resolved) unidentified double-peaked emission lines. No known scenario, such as an active galactic nucleus or symbiotic binary, can easily explain its characteristics. We additionally classify 20 objects as likely active stars based on optical spectroscopy, their X-ray to optical flux ratios and photometric variability. In four cases we identify the sources as binary stars.

  13. Crack formation on metal foils during high dynamic and quasi-static bulge test (United States)

    Veenaas, S.; Vollertsen, F.


    Resource efficiency combined with high-strength materials is the key to enable intelligent lightweight design. Forming processes, such as high speed forming processes, have a high degree of material utilization compared to other manufacturing processes. In the micro range, processes based on laser induced shockwaves are promising for high speed forming operations. High speed forming offers the possibility to achieve high strain rates and accordingly the forming limit of thin metallic foils can be increased compared to conventional forming operation. However, the effect of the increased forming limit is not completely understood. Therefore, in this work the position of the crack initiation is investigated for quasi-static and dynamic bulge tests. The investigated material is Al99.5 and CU-ETP1 in the thicknesses of 20 μm and 50 μm. It is found, that the crack formation for quasi-static forming is showing a stochastic distribution over the formed area, while the crack initiation for the dynamic forming process is in the centre. This behaviour is explained by an increase in material temperature during the laser shock forming process, which is decreasing the flow stress in the centre of the forming area, thus the crack initiation is located in this area.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Kocsis, Bence [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ (United States)


    The Fermi satellite has recently detected gamma-ray emission from the central regions of our Galaxy. This may be evidence for dark matter particles, a major component of the standard cosmological model, annihilating to produce high-energy photons. We show that the observed signal may instead be generated by millisecond pulsars that formed in dense star clusters in the Galactic halo. Most of these clusters were ultimately disrupted by evaporation and gravitational tides, contributing to a spherical bulge of stars and stellar remnants. The gamma-ray amplitude, angular distribution, and spectral signatures of this source may be predicted without free parameters, and are in remarkable agreement with the observations. These gamma-rays are from fossil remains of dispersed clusters, telling the history of the Galactic bulge.

  15. Towards understanding the dynamics of the bar/bulge region in our Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassoula E.


    Full Text Available I review some of the work on bars which is closely linked to the bar/bulge system in our Galaxy. Several independent studies, using totally independent methods, come to the same results about the 3D structure of a bar, i.e., that a bar is composed of a vertically thick inner part and a vertically thin outer part. I give examples of this from simulations and substantiate the discussion with input from orbital structure analysis and from observations. The thick part has a considerably shorter radial extent than the thin part. I then see how this applies to our Galaxy, where two bars have been reported, the COBE/DIRBE bar and the Long bar. Comparing their extents and making the reasonable and necessary assumption that our Galaxy has properties similar to those of other galaxies of similar type, leads to the conclusion that these two bars can not form a standard double bar system. I then discuss arguments in favour of the two bars being simply different parts of the same bar, the COBE/DIRBE bar being the thick inner part and the Long bar being the thin outer part of this bar. I also very briefly discuss some related new results. I first consider bar formation and evolution in disc galaxies with a gaseous component – including star formation, feedback and evolution – and a triaxial halo. Then I consider bar formation in a fully cosmological context using hydrodynamical LCDM simulations, where the host galaxies grow, accrete matter and significantly evolve during the formation and evolution of the bar.

  16. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. XIII. ACS/WFC Parallel-Field Catalogues★ (United States)

    Simioni, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Aparicio, A.; Piotto, G.; Milone, A. P.; Nardiello, D.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T. M.; Cassisi, S.; Cunial, A.; Granata, V.; Ortolani, S.; van der Marel, R. P.; Vesperini, E.


    As part of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters, 110 parallel fields were observed with the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys, in the outskirts of 48 globular clusters, plus the open cluster NGC 6791. Totalling about 0.3 square degrees of observed sky, this is the largest homogeneous Hubble Space Telescope photometric survey of Galalctic globular clusters outskirts to date. In particular, two distinct pointings have been obtained for each target on average, all centred at about 6.5 arcmin from the cluster centre, thus covering a mean area of about 23 arcmin2 for each globular cluster. For each field, at least one exposure in both F475W and F814W filters was collected. In this work, we publicly release the astrometric and photometric catalogues and the astrometrised atlases for each of these fields.

  17. Black Holes in Elliptical and Spiral Galaxies and in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available Supermassive black holes have been discovered at the centers of galaxies, and also in globular clusters. The data shows correlations between the black hole mass and the elliptical galaxy mass or globular cluster mass. It is shown that this correlation is accurately predicted by a theory of gravity which includes the new dynamics of self-interacting space. In spiral galaxies this dynamics is shown to explain the so-called “dark matter” rotation-curve anomaly, and also explains the Earth based bore-hole g anomaly data. Together these effects imply that the strength of the self-interaction dynamics is determined by the fine structure constant. This has major implications for fundamental physics and cosmology.

  18. A detached stellar-mass black hole candidate in the globular cluster NGC 3201 (United States)

    Giesers, Benjamin; Dreizler, Stefan; Husser, Tim-Oliver; Kamann, Sebastian; Anglada Escudé, Guillem; Brinchmann, Jarle; Carollo, C. Marcella; Roth, Martin M.; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Wisotzki, Lutz


    As part of our massive spectroscopic survey of 25 Galactic globular clusters with MUSE, we performed multiple epoch observations of NGC 3201 with the aim of constraining the binary fraction. In this cluster, we found one curious star at the main-sequence turn-off with radial velocity variations of the order of 100 km s- 1, indicating the membership to a binary system with an unseen component since no other variations appear in the spectra. Using an adapted variant of the generalized Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we could calculate the orbital parameters and found the companion to be a detached stellar-mass black hole with a minimum mass of 4.36 ± 0.41 M⊙. The result is an important constraint for binary and black hole evolution models in globular clusters as well as in the context of gravitational wave sources.

  19. Blue Stragglers and Other Stars of Mass Consumption in Globular Clusters (United States)

    Panurach, Teresa; Leigh, Nathan


    Simulations of globular clusters suggest that collisions between main-sequence (MS) stars happen frequently. Stellar evolution models show that these collision products can be photometrically identified, appearing off the MS locus. These collision products can appear brighter and bluer than the MS turnoff, called “blue stragglers,” or even less massive and redder than the MS. We use proper motion-cleaned photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope of 38 globular clusters to identify candidate collision products. We compare the spectral energy distributions of our candidates to theoretical templates for single and multiple star systems, to constrain the possible presence of a binary companion and test consistency with theoretical stellar evolution models for collision products. For the BSs, we also compare the observed velocities from the proper motion catalog along with mass estimates derived from isochrone-fitting to theoretical predictions for both the collision and binary mass transfer models and find better agreement with the former.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Cassisi, Santi, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [INAF—Astronomical Observatory of Collurania, via M. Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy)


    Our arguments deal with the early evolution of Galactic globular clusters and show why only a few of the supernovae (SNe) products were retained within globular clusters and only in the most massive cases (M ≥ 10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}), while less massive clusters were not contaminated at all by SNe. Here, we show that SN blast waves evolving in a steep density gradient undergo blowout and end up discharging their energy and metals into the medium surrounding the clusters. This inhibits the dispersal and the contamination of the gas left over from a first stellar generation. Only the ejecta from well-centered SNe that evolve into a high-density medium available for a second stellar generation (2SG) in the most massive clusters would be retained. These are likely to mix their products with the remaining gas, eventually leading in these cases to an Fe-contaminated 2SG.

  1. Intrachromosomal exchange aberrations predicted on the basis of globular interphase chromosome model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, S.G.; Eidelman, Yu.A


    One of the key questions in understanding mechanisms of chromosome aberration production is how does interphase chromosome structure affect aberration formation. To explore this a modelling approach is presented which combines Monte Carlo simulation of both a particle track and interphase chromosome structure. The structural state of interphase chromosome influences a dose-effect relationship for intrachromosomal exchange aberrations (intrachanges). It is shown that intrachanges are induced frequently by both X rays and a particles if the chromosome is in the condensed globular but not in the decondensed coiled state. Truly simple intra-arm intrachanges induced by X rays are dose squared in coiled chromosomes, but exhibit linear dose dependence in globular chromosomes. Experimental data on interarm intrachanges obtained by dual arm chromosome painting are analysed by means of the technique presented. Results of analysis support the conclusion about the arms proximity of chromosome 1 in human lymphocytes. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The „in vivo” experiment has had as aim the study of different Cr(VI doses administration on globular resistance in female rats related to administration duration. Study was carried out on 56 female rats divided in 8 groups, 6 experimental and 2 control that received potassium dichromate in drinking water in doses of 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75ppm Cr(VI, for 3 months, respectively, 6 months. Decrease of globular resistance (in terms of haemolysis degree in hypotonic solutions at increasing dose (up to 0.8% NaCl at 75 ppm dose in all experimental groups, in direct relation with the duration of administration was registered. Control groups were in physiological limits. The results of the present study revealed the affecting of erythrocyte membrane in function of administration duration and chromium intake level, because of oxidative lesions produced by it.

  3. A ground-based proper motion study of 12 nearby globular clusters (United States)

    Narloch, W.; Kaluzny, J.; Poleski, R.; Rozyczka, M.; Pych, W.; Thompson, I. B.


    We derive relative proper motions of stars in the fields of the globular clusters M12, NGC 6362, M4, M55, M22, NGC 6752, NGC 3201, M30, M10, NGC 362, M5 and 47 Tucanae based on data collected between 1997 and 2015 with the 1-m Swope telescope of Las Campanas Observatory. We determine membership class and membership probability for over 446 000 objects, and show that these are efficient methods for separating field stars from members of the cluster. In particular, membership probabilities of variable stars and blue/yellow/red stragglers are determined. Finally, we find absolute proper motions for six globular clusters from our sample: M55, NGC 3201, M10, NGC 362, M5 and 47 Tuc. An electronic catalogue of the derived proper motions is publicly available via the internet.

  4. From the Ultraviolet to the Infrared: The Stellar Population of the Globular Cluster M70 (United States)

    Appel, Sabrina; Zurek, David; Leigh, Nathan


    Because of their dense stellar environments, globular clusters are an important place for investigating stellar evolution and stellar dynamics, but there is much yet to learn about their formation. In this project, we considered the globular cluster NGC 6681 (M70) with the goal of characterizing its stellar population. We used archival data from the Hubble Space Telescope’s Advanced Camera for Surveys. The data was drawn from thirteen different filters ranging from the far-UV to the near infrared. Using this range of filters, we constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for each of the sources in our field of view. We then generated color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) in a variety of wavelengths which we used to identify a number of sources that fell outside the regions occupied by normal stars. We determined the likely stellar type of several of these unusual sources using the CMDs and by comparing their SEDs to a number of synthesized SEDs.

  5. Production of recycled pulsars in globular clusters via two-body tidal capture (United States)

    Di Stefano, R; Rappaport, S.


    The numbers of binary systems containing a neutron star that are formed in the cores of globular clusters via two-body tidal capture are investigated. The subsequent evolution of the resulting binary systems is examined. Monte Carlo techniques are employed to trace the histories of many neutron stars in the core of a model globular cluster. Various scenarios for mass stripping during capture and orbital circularization, and the effects of magnetic braking on the circularized orbits are explored. Calculations are carried out for two model clusters: 47 Tuc and Omega Cen. Distributions of orbital periods for newly formed binaries containing a neutron star in orbit with either a main-sequence star or a giant are presented. Each binary is followed until contact between the captured star and the neutron star is established. It is argued that these systems should be regarded as potential progenitors of 'recycled' pulsars.

  6. The Case of the Missing Cyanogen-rich AGB Stars in Galactic Globular Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.


    The handful of available observations of AGB stars in Galactic Globular Clusters suggest that the GC AGB populations are dominated by cyanogen-weak stars (eg. Norris et al. 1981; Sneden et al. 2000). This contrasts strongly with the distributions on the RGB (and other) populations, which generall......, since it is based on very small AGB sample sizes. To test whether this problem really exists we have carried out an observational campaign targeting AGB stars in GCs. Our preliminary results indicate there is indeed a lack of CN-strong AGB stars.......The handful of available observations of AGB stars in Galactic Globular Clusters suggest that the GC AGB populations are dominated by cyanogen-weak stars (eg. Norris et al. 1981; Sneden et al. 2000). This contrasts strongly with the distributions on the RGB (and other) populations, which generally...

  7. A proposito di uno scarabeo da Colle del Forno: alcune considerazioni sulla produzione di stile globulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Giovanelli


    Full Text Available L’esemplare di scarabeo dalla necropoli di Colle del Forno presentato in questa sede fornisce lo spunto per alcune brevissime considerazioni in merito alla produzione di stile globulare anche a fronte del recente lavoro di sintesi di U. Hannson sul tema che costituisce ad oggi un utilissimo aggiornamento sulle questioni stilistiche, formali, iconografiche, sugli aspetti produttivi nonché una discreta integrazione del corpus che era già stato apprestato da Peter Zazoff.

  8. Evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole in the globular cluster NGC 6624 (United States)

    Perera, B. B. P.; Stappers, B. W.; Lyne, A. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Cognard, I.; Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Theureau, G.; Desvignes, G.


    PSR B1820-30A is located in the globular cluster NGC 6624 and is the closest known pulsar to the centre of any globular cluster. We present more than 25 yr of high-precision timing observations of this millisecond pulsar and obtain four rotational frequency time derivative measurements. Modelling these higher order derivatives as being due to orbital motion, we find solutions that indicate the pulsar is in either a low-eccentricity (0.33 ≲ e ≲ 0.4) smaller orbit with a low-mass companion (such as a main-sequence star, white dwarf, neutron star or stellar mass black hole) or a high-eccentricity (e ≳ 0.9) larger orbit with a massive companion. The cluster mass properties and the observed properties of 4U 1820-30 and the other pulsars in the cluster argue against the low-eccentricity possibility. The high-eccentricity solution reveals that the pulsar is most likely orbiting around an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass >7500 M⊙ located at the cluster centre. A gravitational model for the globular cluster, which includes such a central BH, predicts an acceleration that is commensurate with that measured for the pulsar. It further predicts that the model-dependent minimum mass of the IMBH is ˜60 000 M⊙. Accounting for the associated contribution to the observed period derivative indicates that the γ-ray efficiency of the pulsar should be between 0.08 and 0.2. Our results suggest that other globular clusters may also contain central BHs and they may be revealed by the study of new pulsars found sufficiently close to their centres.

  9. AS1411 Aptamer-Anionic Linear Globular Dendrimer G2-Iohexol Selective Nano-Theranostics


    Mohammadzadeh, Pardis; Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Ghoreishi, Seyedeh Masoumeh; Bitarafan-Rajabi, Ahmad; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee


    Molecular theranostics is of the utmost interest for diagnosis as well as treatment of different malignancies. In the present study, anionic linear globular dendrimer G2 is employed as a suitable carrier for delivery and AS1411 aptamer is exploited as the targeting agent to carry Iohexol specifically to the human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Dendrimer G2 was prepared and conjugation of dendrimer and aptamer was carried out thereafter. Based on the data yielded by AFM, morphology of smooth and...

  10. A Deep X-ray Study of the Globular Cluster M4 (United States)

    Pooley, David


    We know from observations that globular clusters are very efficient catalysts in forming unusual binary systems, such as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs), with formation rates per unit mass exceeding those in the Galactic disk by orders of magnitude. The high stellar densities in globular clusters trigger various dynamical interactions: exchange encounters, direct collisions, destruction of binaries, and tidal capture. This binary population is, in turn, critical to the stabilization of globular clusters against gravitational collapse; the long-term stability of a cluster is thought to depend on tapping into the gravitational binding energy of such close binaries.We have also learned that not all X-ray sources in a globular cluster are dynamically formed. Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of low-density clusters have shown that the magnetically active main-sequence binaries in those clusters are largely primordial, but few clusters have been observed deeply enough in X-rays to uncover a substantial fraction of these binaries.We report on the results of deep Chandra observations of M4 that were motivated, in part, to uncover a nearly complete census of its active binaries. These observations reach X-ray luminosities below 1029 erg/s, a sensitivity that should detect ~90% of the active main-sequence binary population. We detect ~100 X-ray sources within the half-light radius of M4 and characterize their nature by investigating their optical counterparts (or lack thereof) in deep Hubble Space Telescope observations. We compare the populations of X-ray sources in M4 to other well-studied clusters.

  11. The ribbon of hydrogen bonds in globular proteins. IV. The example of the papain family. (United States)

    Peters, David; Peters, Jane


    A study of the role of the hydrogen-bonding side chains in the ribbon of hydrogen bonds in globular proteins, using the papain family as an example, suggests that these side chains may be divided into three categories depending on their position in the molecule. In the first category, they form part of the local ribbon, in the second they form part of the ribbon at a site remote along the main chain, and in the third they play no role in the formation of the ribbon. The second case is particularly interesting because it provides a natural mechanism for the formation of the tertiary structure of the globular proteins. The results suggest that the robustness of the globular proteins towards mutations arises from the fact that many mutations that involve hydrogen-bonding side chains either leave the hydrogen bonding of the ribbon essentially unchanged or their hydrogen bonding plays no part in the formation of the ribbon in the first place. The results show that it is possible to obtain the ribbon of hydrogen bonds for a family of proteins whose data set's are of intermediate quality by studying the ribbons of several members of such a family and then taking an average over the different partial ribbons to create a standard ribbon of hydrogen bonds for the family as a whole. This method is used here to derive the standard ribbon for the papain family with papain itself, actinidin, and human liver cathepsin B as the representatives of the family. All three members of the family fit the standard ribbon with an accuracy of 85-91%. This result opens up the use of this technique for the study of a large number of globular proteins whose recorded data sets are of intermediate quality. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cataclysmic variables in Globular clusters: First results on the analysis of the MOCCA simulations database


    Belloni, D.; Giersz, M.; A Askar; Hypki, A.


    In this first investigation of the MOCCA database with respect to cataclysmic variables, we found that for models with Kroupa initial distributions, considering the standard value of the efficiency of the common-envelope phase adopted in BSE, no single cataclysmic variable was formed only via binary stellar evolution, i. e., in order to form them, strong dynamical interactions have to take place. Our results also indicate that the population of cataclysmic variables in globular clusters are, ...

  13. Detecting the effect of Globular Cluster impacts on the disk of the Milky Way


    Putte, D. Vande; Cropper, Mark


    The crossing of the Galactic disk by a Globular Cluster could produce star formation due to gravitational focussing or compression of disk material. We report on simulations of the effect on disk material which reveal that the crossing can sometimes cause local gravitational focussing of disk material. We also present the salient points of a little-known paper by Levy (2000), that shows that strong compression can result from the shock wave generated by GC disk crossing. The main thrust of ou...

  14. La distribución multimodal de cúmulos globulares en la galaxia NGC 1399 (United States)

    Forte, J. C.; Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una discusión de las características del diagrama de dos colores para un muestreo de 400 cúmulos globulares asociados con NGC 1399. Los resultados indican la presencia de, por lo menos, tres familias de cúmulos. La naturaleza de una cuarta componente, muy azul, no es clara aunque podría tratarse de cúmulos ``sueltos" asociados con el sistema de Fornax.

  15. Charge State of the Globular Histone Core Controls Stability of the Nucleosome (United States)

    Fenley, Andrew T.; Adams, David A.; Onufriev, Alexey V.


    Presented here is a quantitative model of the wrapping and unwrapping of the DNA around the histone core of the nucleosome that suggests a mechanism by which this transition can be controlled: alteration of the charge state of the globular histone core. The mechanism is relevant to several classes of posttranslational modifications such as histone acetylation and phosphorylation; several specific scenarios consistent with recent in vivo experiments are considered. The model integrates a description based on an idealized geometry with one based on the atomistic structure of the nucleosome, and the model consistently accounts for both the electrostatic and nonelectrostatic contributions to the nucleosome free energy. Under physiological conditions, isolated nucleosomes are predicted to be very stable (38 ± 7 kcal/mol). However, a decrease in the charge of the globular histone core by one unit charge, for example due to acetylation of a single lysine residue, can lead to a significant decrease in the strength of association with its DNA. In contrast to the globular histone core, comparable changes in the charge state of the histone tail regions have relatively little effect on the nucleosome's stability. The combination of high stability and sensitivity explains how the nucleosome is able to satisfy the seemingly contradictory requirements for thermodynamic stability while allowing quick access to its DNA informational content when needed by specific cellular processes such as transcription. PMID:20816070

  16. The Celestial Buffet: multiple populations and globular cluster formation in dwarf galaxies (United States)

    Maxwell, Aaron J.; Wadsley, James; Couchman, H. M. P.; Sills, Alison


    We present a framework that explains the commonly observed variation in light element abundances in globular clusters. If globular clusters form in the centres of dwarf galaxies, they will be pumped on to larger orbits as star formation progresses. The potential well will only retain the moderate velocity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) ejecta, the expected source of enrichment, but not supernova ejecta. There is no need to increase the initial cluster mass, a requirement of self-enrichment scenarios, as all the stars within the dwarf can contribute. As the clusters move through the dwarf centre they sweep up a mix of AGB ejecta and in-falling pristine gas to form a second generation of stars. The specific mix will vary in time and is thus able to explain the spread in second generation abundances observed in different clusters. The globular clusters will survive to the present day or be stripped as part of the hierarchical merging process of larger galaxies. We illustrate how this process may operate using a high-resolution simulation of a dwarf galaxy at high redshift.

  17. Chemical analysis of eight giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 6366 (United States)

    Puls, Arthur A.; Brito, Alan Alves; Campos, Fabíola; Dias, Bruno; Barbuy, Beatriz


    The metal-rich Galactic globular cluster NGC 6366 is the fifth closest to the Sun. Despite its interest, it has received scarce attention, and little is known about its internal structure. Its kinematics suggests a link to the halo, but its metallicity indicates otherwise. We present a detailed chemical analysis of eight giant stars of NGC 6366, using high resolution and high quality spectra (R > 40 000, S/N > 60) obtained at the VLT (8.2 m) and CFHT (3.6 m) telescopes. We attempted to characterize its chemistry and to search for evidence of multiple stellar populations. The atmospheric parameters were derived using the method of excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines and from those atmospheric parameters we calculated the abundances for other elements and found that none of the elements measured presents star-to-star variation greater than the uncertainties. We compared the derived abundances with those of other globular clusters and field stars available in the literature. We determined a mean [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.03 for NGC 6366 and found some similarity of this object with M 71, another inner halo globular cluster. The Na-O anticorrelation extension is short and no star-to-star variation in Al is found. The presence of second generation stars is not evident in NGC 6366.

  18. Hydrophobicity diversity in globular and nonglobular proteins measured with the Gini index. (United States)

    Carugo, Oliviero


    Amino acids and their properties are variably distributed in proteins and different compositions determine all protein features, ranging from solubility to stability and functionality. Gini index, a tool to estimate distribution uniformity, is widely used in macroeconomics and has numerous statistical applications. Here, Gini index is used to analyze the distribution of hydrophobicity in proteins and to compare hydrophobicity distribution in globular and intrinsically disordered proteins. Based on the analysis of carefully selected high-quality data sets of proteins extracted from the Protein Data Bank ( and from the DisProt database (, it is observed that hydrophobicity is distributed in a more diverse way in intrinsically disordered proteins than in folded and soluble globular proteins. This correlates with the observation that the amino acid composition deviates from the uniformity (estimate with the Shannon and the Gini-Simpson indices) more in intrinsically disordered proteins than in globular and soluble proteins. Although statistical tools tike the Gini index have received little attention in molecular biology, these results show that they allow one to estimate sequence diversity and that they are useful to delineate trends that can hardly be described, otherwise, in simple and concise ways. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  19. No Evidence for Multiple Stellar Populations in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster E 3 (United States)

    Salinas, Ricardo; Strader, Jay


    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M˜ 1.4× {10}4 {M}⊙ ) globular cluster E3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue cyanogen (CN) absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multistellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  20. High pressure effects on the structural functionality of condensed globular-protein matrices. (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Kasapis, Stefan


    High pressure technology is the outcome of consumer demand for better quality control of processed foods. There is great potential to apply HPP to condensed systems of globular proteins for the generation of industry-relevant biomaterials with advanced techno- and biofunctionality. To this end, research demonstrates that application of high hydrostatic pressure generates a coherent structure and preserves the native conformation in condensed globular proteins, which is an entirely unexpected but interesting outcome on both scientific and technological grounds. In microbiological challenge tests, high pressure at conventional commercial conditions, demonstrated to effectively reduce the concentration of typical Gram negative or Gram positive foodborne pathogens, and proteolytic enzymes in high-solid protein samples. This may have industrial significance in relation to the formulation and stabilisation of "functional food" products as well as in protein ingredients and concentrates by replacing spray dried powders with condensed HPP-treated pastes that maintain structure and bioactivity. Fundamental concepts and structural functionality of condensed matrices of globular proteins are the primary interest in this mini-review, which may lead to opportunities for industrial exploitation, but earlier work on low-solid systems is also summarised presently to put recent developments in context of this rapidly growing field. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Individual globular domains and domain unfolding visualized in overstretched titin molecules with atomic force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Mártonfalvi

    Full Text Available Titin is a giant elastomeric protein responsible for the generation of passive muscle force. Mechanical force unfolds titin's globular domains, but the exact structure of the overstretched titin molecule is not known. Here we analyzed, by using high-resolution atomic force microscopy, the structure of titin molecules overstretched with receding meniscus. The axial contour of the molecules was interrupted by topographical gaps with a mean width of 27.7 nm that corresponds well to the length of an unfolded globular (immunoglobulin and fibronectin domain. The wide gap-width distribution suggests, however, that additional mechanisms such as partial domain unfolding and the unfolding of neighboring domain multimers may also be present. In the folded regions we resolved globules with an average spacing of 5.9 nm, which is consistent with a titin chain composed globular domains with extended interdomain linker regions. Topographical analysis allowed us to allocate the most distal unfolded titin region to the kinase domain, suggesting that this domain systematically unfolds when the molecule is exposed to overstretching forces. The observations support the prediction that upon the action of stretching forces the N-terminal ß-sheet of the titin kinase unfolds, thus exposing the enzyme's ATP-binding site and hence contributing to the molecule's mechanosensory function.

  2. ALFALFA H I data stacking - I. Does the bulge quench ongoing star formation in early-type galaxies? (United States)

    Fabello, Silvia; Catinella, Barbara; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Haynes, Martha P.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Schiminovich, David


    We have carried out an H I stacking analysis of a volume-limited sample of ˜5000 galaxies with imaging and spectroscopic data from GALEX and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which lie within the current footprint of the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. Our galaxies are selected to have stellar masses greater than 1010 M⊙ and redshifts in the range 0.025 extract a subsample of 1833 `early-type' galaxies with inclinations less than 70°, with concentration indices C > 2.6 and with light profiles that are well fit by a De Vaucouleurs model. We then stack H I line spectra extracted from the ALFALFA data cubes at the 3D positions of the galaxies from these two samples in bins of stellar mass, stellar mass surface density, central velocity dispersion and NUV-r colour. We use the stacked spectra to estimate the average H I gas fractions ?/M* of the galaxies in each bin. Our main result is that the H I content of a galaxy is not influenced by its bulge. The average H I gas fractions of galaxies in both our samples correlate most strongly with NUV-r colour and with stellar surface density. The relation between average H I fraction and these two parameters is independent of concentration index C. We have tested whether the average H I gas content of bulge-dominated galaxies on the red sequence differs from that of late-type galaxies on the red sequence. We find no evidence that galaxies with a significant bulge component are less efficient at turning their available gas reservoirs into stars. This result is in contradiction with the `morphological quenching' scenario proposed by Martig et al.

  3. Digital speckle-based stereo microscope strain measurement system for sheet metal forming by hydraulic bulge tests (United States)

    Ren, Maodong; Liang, Jin; Wang, Lizhong; Wei, Bin


    A digital speckle based stereo microscope strain measurement system is developed to investigate the forming limit diagram (FLD) of miniature sheet metal under hydraulic bulge testing conditions. A stochastic speckle pattern is sprayed on the surface of the tested metal before forming. A series of images are recorded by two cameras mounted on a binocular stereo microscope during the hydroforming process. The critical major and minor strains are then calculated and plotted to construct the forming limit curve. The key technologies applied in the system are discussed in detail, including stereo microscope calibration and large deformation strain filed determination. First, considering complex optical paths and high magnification of the stereo microscope, an accurate combined distortion correction model is proposed to optimize the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo microscope. Then, to solve the problem of strain measurement of the tested metal in large deformation situation, a large deformation measurement scheme based on deformation continuity of adjacent images is proposed. And an algorithm of limit strain determination based on spline model is proposed to calculate the critical strains at the onset of plastic instability. Finally, with our self-developed stereo microscope imaging system and sheet metal hydraulic bulging setup, FLD determination tests are conducted to validate the performance of the system. And the measured FLD is compared with the simulation results that predicted by the finite element method. The simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed system is feasible to measure the full-field strain during the whole bulging processes and provides a better solution for forming limit diagram prediction.

  4. Astrid-2 and ground-based observations of the auroral bulge in the middle of the nightside convection throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Marklund


    Full Text Available Results concerning the electrodynamics of the nightside auroral bulge are presented based on simultaneous satellite and ground-based observations. The satellite data include Astrid-2 measurements of electric fields, currents and particles from a midnight auroral oval crossing and Polar UVI images of the large-scale auroral distribution. The ground-based observations include STARE and SuperDARN electric fields and magnetic records from the Greenland and MIRACLE magnetometer network, the latter including stations from northern Scandinavia north to Svalbard. At the time of the Astrid-2 crossing the ground-based data reveal intense electrojet activity, both to the east and west of the Astrid-2 trajectory, related to the Polar observations of the auroral bulge but not necessarily to a typical substorm. The energetic electron fluxes measured by Astrid-2 across the auroral oval were generally weak being consistent with a gap observed in the auroral luminosity distribution. The electric field across the oval was directed westward, intensifying close to the poleward boundary followed by a decrease in the polar cap. The combined observations suggests that Astrid-2 was moving close to the separatrix between the dusk and dawn convection cells in a region of low conductivity. The constant westward direction of the electric field across the oval indicates that current continuity was maintained, not by polarisation electric fields (as in a Cowling channel, but solely by localized up- and downward field-aligned currents in good agreement with the Astrid-2 magnetometer data. The absence of a polarisation electric field and thus of an intense westward closure current between the dawn and dusk convection cells is consistent with the relatively weak precipitation and low conductivity in the convection throat. Thus, the Cowling current model is not adequate for describing the electrodynamics of the nightside auroral bulge treated here.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral

  5. HST Snapshot Study of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters: Inner Region of NGC 6441 (United States)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Catelan, Marcio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Layden, Andrew C.; Rich, R. Michael


    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope snapshot program to survey the inner region of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6441 for its variable stars. A total of 57 variable stars was found including 38 RR Lyrae stars, 6 Population II Cepheids, and 12 long period variables. Twenty-four of the RR Lyrae stars and all of the Population II Cepheids were previously undiscovered in ground-based surveys. Of the RR Lyrae stars observed in h s survey, 26 are pulsating in the fundamental mode with a mean period of 0.753 d and 12 are first-overtone mode pulsators with a mean period of 0.365 d. These values match up very well with those found in ground-based surveys. Combining all the available data for NGC 6441, we find mean periods of 0.759 d and 0.375 d for the RRab and RRc stars, respectively. We also find that the RR Lyrae in this survey are located in the same regions of a period-amplitude diagram as those found in ground-based surveys. The overall ratio of RRc to total RR Lyrae is 0.33. Although NGC 6441 is a metal-rich globular cluster and would, on that ground, be expected either to have few RR Lyrae stars, or to be an Oosterhoff type I system, its RR Lyrae more closely resemble those in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. However, even compared to typical Oosterhoff type II systems, the mean period of its RRab stars is unusually long. We also derived I-band period-luminosity relations for the RR Lyrae stars. Of the six Population II Cepheids, five are of W Virginis type and one is a BL Herculis variable star. This makes NGC 6441, along with NGC 6388, the most metal-rich globular cluster known to contain these types of variable stars. Another variable, V118, may also be a Population II Cepheid given its long period and its separation in magnitude from the RR Lyrae stars. We examine the period-luminosity relation for these Population II Cepheids and compare it to those in other globular clusters and in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We argue that there does

  6. IGR J17445-2747—Yet another X-ray burster in the galactic bulge (United States)

    Mereminskiy, I. A.; Grebenev, S. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.


    The discovery of a type I X-ray burst from the faint unidentified transient source IGR J17445-2747 in the Galactic bulge by the JEM-X telescope onboard the INTEGRAL observatory is reported. Type I bursts are believed to be associated with thermonuclear explosions of accreted matter on the surface of a neutron star with a weak magnetic field in a low-mass X-ray binary. Thus, this observation allows the nature of this source to be established.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dékány, I. [Instituto Milenio de Astrofísica, Santiago (Chile); Minniti, D. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Majaess, D. [Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Zoccali, M.; Hajdu, G.; Catelan, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Alonso-García, J. [Unidad de Astronomía, Fac. Cs. Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avda. U. de Antofagasta 02800, Antofagasta (Chile); Gieren, W. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Borissova, J., E-mail: [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaso (Chile)


    Solid insight into the physics of the inner Milky Way is key to understanding our Galaxy’s evolution, but extreme dust obscuration has historically hindered efforts to map the area along the Galactic mid-plane. New comprehensive near-infrared time-series photometry from the VVV Survey has revealed 35 classical Cepheids, tracing a previously unobserved component of the inner Galaxy, namely a ubiquitous inner thin disk of young stars along the Galactic mid-plane, traversing across the bulge. The discovered period (age) spread of these classical Cepheids implies a continuous supply of newly formed stars in the central region of the Galaxy over the last 100 million years.

  8. Disc extrusions and bulges in nonspecific low back pain and sciatica: Exploratory randomised controlled trial comparing yoga therapy and normal medical treatment. (United States)

    Monro, Robin; Bhardwaj, Abhishek Kumar; Gupta, Ram Kumar; Telles, Shirley; Allen, Beth; Little, Paul


    Previous trials of yoga therapy for nonspecific low back pain (nsLBP) (without sciatica) showed beneficial effects. To test effects of yoga therapy on pain and disability associated with lumbar disc extrusions and bulges. Parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial. Sixty-one adults from rural population, aged 20-45, with nsLBP or sciatica, and disc extrusions or bulges. Randomised to yoga (n=30) and control (n=31). Yoga: 3-month yoga course of group classes and home practice, designed to ensure safety for disc extrusions. normal medical care. OUTCOME MEASURES (3-4 months) Primary: Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ); worst pain in past two weeks. Secondary: Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale; straight leg raise test; structural changes. Disc projections per case ranged from one bulge or one extrusion to three bulges plus two extrusions. Sixty-two percent had sciatica. Intention-to-treat analysis of the RMDQ data, adjusted for age, sex and baseline RMDQ scores, gave a Yoga Group score 3.29 points lower than Control Group (0.98, 5.61; p=0.006) at 3 months. No other significant differences in the endpoints occurred. No adverse effects of yoga were reported. Yoga therapy can be safe and beneficial for patients with nsLBP or sciatica, accompanied by disc extrusions and bulges.

  9. Supermassive black holes in disc-dominated galaxies outgrow their bulges and co-evolve with their host galaxies (United States)

    Simmons, B. D.; Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C.


    The deep connection between galaxies and their supermassive black holes is central to modern astrophysics and cosmology. The observed correlation between galaxy and black hole mass is usually attributed to the contribution of major mergers to both. We make use of a sample of galaxies whose disc-dominated morphologies indicate a major-merger-free history and show that such systems are capable of growing supermassive black holes at rates similar to quasars. Comparing black hole masses to conservative upper limits on bulge masses, we show that the black holes in the sample are typically larger than expected if processes creating bulges are also the primary driver of black hole growth. The same relation between black hole and total stellar mass of the galaxy is found for the merger-free sample as well as a sample that has experienced substantial mergers, indicating that major mergers do not play a significant role in controlling the co-evolution of galaxies and black holes. We suggest that more fundamental processes that contribute to galaxy assembly are also responsible for black hole growth.

  10. Chemical evolution of fluorine in the bulge. High-resolution K-band spectra of giants in three fields (United States)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Harper, G. M.; Cunha, K.; Schultheis, M.; Eriksson, K.; Kobayashi, C.; Smith, V. V.; Zoccali, M.


    Context. Possible main formation sites of fluorine in the Universe include asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, the ν-process in Type II supernova, and/or Wolf-Rayet stars. The importance of the Wolf-Rayet stars has theoretically been questioned and they are probably not needed in modeling the chemical evolution of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. It has, however, been suggested that Wolf-Rayet stars are indeed needed to explain the chemical evolution of fluorine in the bulge. The molecular spectral data, needed to determine the fluorine abundance, of the often used HF-molecule has not been presented in a complete and consistent way and has recently been debated in the literature. Aims: We intend to determine the trend of the fluorine-oxygen abundance ratio as a function of a metallicity indicator in the bulge to investigate the possible contribution from Wolf-Rayet stars. Additionally, we present here a consistent HF line list for the K- and L-bands including the often used 23 358.33 Å line. Methods: High-resolution near-infrared spectra of eight K giants were recorded using the spectrograph CRIRES mounted at the VLT. A standard setting was used that covered the HF molecular line at 23 358.33 Å. The fluorine abundances were determined using spectral fitting. We also re-analyzed five previously published bulge giants observed with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini using our new HF molecular data. Results: We find that the fluorine-oxygen abundance in the bulge probably cannot be explained with chemical evolution models that only include AGB stars and the ν-process in supernovae Type II, that is a significant amount of fluorine production in Wolf-Rayet stars is most likely needed to explain the fluorine abundance in the bulge. For the HF line data, we find that a possible reason for the inconsistencies in the literature, where two different excitation energies were used, is two different definitions of the zero-point energy for the HF molecule and therefore

  11. The Star-forming Histories of the Nucleus, Bulge, and Inner Disk of NGC 5102: Clues to the Evolution of a Nearby Lenticular Galaxy (United States)

    Davidge, T. J.


    Long slit spectra recorded with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini South are used to examine the star-forming history (SFH) of the lenticular galaxy NGC 5102. Structural and supplemental photometric information are obtained from archival Spitzer [3.6] images. Absorption features at blue and visible wavelengths are traced out along the minor axis to galactocentric radii ~60 arcsec (~0.9 kpc), sampling the nucleus, bulge, and disk components. Comparisons with model spectra point to luminosity-weighted metallicities that are consistent with the colors of resolved red giant branch stars in the disk. The nucleus has a luminosity-weighted age at visible wavelengths of {˜ } 1+0.2-0.1 Gyr, and the integrated light is dominated by stars that formed over a time period of only a few hundred Myr. For comparison, the luminosity-weighted ages of the bulge and disk are {˜ } 2+0.5-0.2 Gyr and 10+2-2 Gyr, respectively. The g' - [3.6] colors of the nucleus and bulge are consistent with the spectroscopically based ages. In contrast to the nucleus, models that assume star-forming activity spanning many Gyr provide a better match to the spectra of the bulge and disk than simple stellar population models. Isophotes in the bulge have a disky shape, hinting that the bulge was assembled from material with significant rotational support. The SFHs of the bulge and disk are consistent with the bulge forming from the collapse of a long-lived bar, rather than from the collapse of a transient structure that formed as the result of a tidal interaction. It is thus suggested that the progenitor of NGC 5102 was a barred disk galaxy that morphed into a lenticular galaxy through the buckling of its bar. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Bayesian Mass Estimates of the Milky Way: Inferring the Mass Profile from Globular Cluster Kinematics (United States)

    Eadie, Gwendolyn; Harris, William E.; Springford, Aaron; Widrow, Larry


    The mass and cumulative mass profile of the Milky Way's dark matter halo is a fundamental property of the Galaxy, and yet these quantities remain poorly constrained and span almost two orders of magnitude in the literature. There are a variety of methods to measure the mass of the Milky Way, and a common way to constrain the mass uses kinematic information of satellite objects (e.g. globular clusters) orbiting the Galaxy. One reason precise estimates of the mass and mass profile remain elusive is that the kinematic data of the globular clusters are incomplete; for some both line-of-sight and proper motion measurements are available (i.e. complete data), and for others there are only line-of-sight velocities (i.e. incomplete data). Furthermore, some proper motion measurements suffer from large measurement uncertainties, and these uncertainties can be difficult to take into account because they propagate in complicated ways. Past methods have dealt with incomplete data by using either only the line-of-sight measurements (and throwing away the proper motions), or only using the complete data. In either case, valuable information is not included in the analysis. During my PhD research, I have been developing a coherent hierarchical Bayesian method to estimate the mass and mass profile of the Galaxy that 1) includes both complete and incomplete kinematic data simultaneously in the analysis, and 2) includes measurement uncertainties in a meaningful way. In this presentation, I will introduce our approach in a way that is accessible and clear, and will also present our estimates of the Milky Way's total mass and mass profile using all available kinematic data from the globular cluster population of the Galaxy.

  13. New Cataclysmic Variables and other Exotic Binaries in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae (United States)

    Rivera-Sandoval, L. E.; van den Berg, M.; Heinke, C. O.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Anderson, J.; Cool, A. M.; Edmonds, P. D.; Wijnands, R.; Ivanova, N.; Grindlay, J. E.


    We present 22 new (+3 confirmed) cataclysmic variables (CVs) in the non core-collapsed globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc). The total number of CVs in the cluster is now 43, the largest sample in any globular cluster so far. For the identifications we used near-ultraviolet (NUV) and optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope, in combination with X-ray results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This allowed us to build the deepest NUV CV luminosity function of the cluster to date. We found that the CVs in 47 Tuc are more concentrated towards the cluster center than the main sequence turnoff stars. We compared our results to the CV populations of the core-collapsed globular clusters NGC 6397 and NGC 6752. We found that 47 Tuc has fewer bright CVs per unit mass than those two other clusters. That suggests that dynamical interactions in core-collapsed clusters play a major role creating new CVs. In 47 Tuc, the CV population is probably dominated by primordial and old dynamically formed systems. We estimated that the CVs in 47 Tuc have total masses of ˜1.4 M⊙. We also found that the X-ray luminosity function of the CVs in the three clusters is bimodal. Additionally, we discuss a possible double degenerate system and an intriguing/unclassified object. Finally, we present four systems that could be millisecond pulsar companions given their X-ray and NUV/optical colors. For one of them we present very strong evidence for being an ablated companion. The other three could be CO- or He-WDs.

  14. Intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters: observations and simulations (United States)

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Kruijssen, Diederik; Noyola, Eva; Neumayer, Nadine; de Zeeuw, Tim; Feldmeier, Anja; van der Helm, Edwin; Pelupessy, Inti; Portegies Zwart, Simon


    The study of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is a young and promising field of research. If IMBHs exist, they could explain the rapid growth of supermassive black holes by acting as seeds in the early stage of galaxy formation. Formed by runaway collisions of massive stars in young and dense stellar clusters, intermediate-mass black holes could still be present in the centers of globular clusters, today. Our group investigated the presence of intermediate-mass black holes for a sample of 10 Galactic globular clusters. We measured the inner kinematic profiles with integral-field spectroscopy and determined masses or upper limits of central black holes in each cluster. In combination with literature data we further studied the positions of our results on known black-hole scaling relations (such as M • - σ) and found a similar but flatter correlation for IMBHs. Applying cluster evolution codes, the change in the slope could be explained with the stellar mass loss occurring in clusters in a tidal field over its life time. Furthermore, we present results from several numerical simulations on the topic of IMBHs and integral field units (IFUs). We ran N-body simulations of globular clusters containing IMBHs in a tidal field and studied their effects on mass-loss rates and remnant fractions and showed that an IMBH in the center prevents core collapse and ejects massive objects more rapidly. These simulations were further used to simulate IFU data cubes. For the specific case of NGC 6388 we simulated two different IFU techniques and found that velocity dispersion measurements from individual velocities are strongly biased towards lower values due to blends of neighboring stars and background light. In addition, we use the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment (AMUSE) to combine gravitational physics, stellar evolution and hydrodynamics to simulate the accretion of stellar winds onto a black hole.

  15. De novo structure prediction of globular proteins aided by sequence variation-derived contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kosciolek

    Full Text Available The advent of high accuracy residue-residue intra-protein contact prediction methods enabled a significant boost in the quality of de novo structure predictions. Here, we investigate the potential benefits of combining a well-established fragment-based folding algorithm--FRAGFOLD, with PSICOV, a contact prediction method which uses sparse inverse covariance estimation to identify co-varying sites in multiple sequence alignments. Using a comprehensive set of 150 diverse globular target proteins, up to 266 amino acids in length, we are able to address the effectiveness and some limitations of such approaches to globular proteins in practice. Overall we find that using fragment assembly with both statistical potentials and predicted contacts is significantly better than either statistical potentials or contacts alone. Results show up to nearly 80% of correct predictions (TM-score ≥0.5 within analysed dataset and a mean TM-score of 0.54. Unsuccessful modelling cases emerged either from conformational sampling problems, or insufficient contact prediction accuracy. Nevertheless, a strong dependency of the quality of final models on the fraction of satisfied predicted long-range contacts was observed. This not only highlights the importance of these contacts on determining the protein fold, but also (combined with other ensemble-derived qualities provides a powerful guide as to the choice of correct models and the global quality of the selected model. A proposed quality assessment scoring function achieves 0.93 precision and 0.77 recall for the discrimination of correct folds on our dataset of decoys. These findings suggest the approach is well-suited for blind predictions on a variety of globular proteins of unknown 3D structure, provided that enough homologous sequences are available to construct a large and accurate multiple sequence alignment for the initial contact prediction step.

  16. The Slowest Spinning X-Ray Pulsar in an Extragalactic Globular Cluster (United States)

    Zolotukhin, Ivan Yu.; Bachetti, Matteo; Sartore, Nicola; Chilingarian, Igor V.; Webb, Natalie A.


    Neutron stars are thought to be born rapidly rotating and then exhibit a phase of rotation-powered pulsations as they slow down to 1-10 s periods. The significant population of millisecond pulsars observed in our Galaxy is explained by the recycling concept: during an epoch of accretion from a donor star in a binary system, the neutron star is spun up to millisecond periods. However, only a few pulsars are observed during this recycling process, with relatively high rotational frequencies. Here we report the detection of an X-ray pulsar with {P}{spin}=1.20 {{s}} in the globular cluster B091D in the Andromeda galaxy, the slowest pulsar ever found in a globular cluster. This bright (up to 30% of the Eddington luminosity) spinning-up pulsar, persistent over the 12 years of observations, must have started accreting less than 1 Myr ago and has not yet had time to accelerate to hundreds of Hertz. The neutron star in this unique wide binary with an orbital period {P}{orb}=30.5 {hr} in a 12 Gyr old, metal-rich star cluster accretes from a low-mass, slightly evolved post-main-sequence companion. We argue that we are witnessing a binary formed at a relatively recent epoch by getting a ˜0.8 {M}⊙ star in a dynamical interaction—a viable scenario in a massive, dense globular cluster like B091D with high global and specific stellar encounter rates. This intensively accreting non-recycled X-ray pulsar therefore provides a long-sought missing piece in the standard pulsar recycling picture.

  17. GeMS MCAO observations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808: the absolute age (United States)

    Massari, D.; Fiorentino, G.; McConnachie, A.; Bono, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Turri, P.; Tolstoy, E.


    Context. Globular clusters are the oldest stellar systems in the Milky Way, and they probe the early epoch of the Galaxy formation. However, the uncertainties on their absolute age are still too large to soundly constrain how the Galactic structures have assembled. Aims: The aim of this work is to obtain an accurate estimate of the absolute age of the globular cluster NGC 2808 using deep IR data obtained with the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system operating at the Gemini South telescope (GeMS). Methods: This exquisite photometry, combined with that obtained in V and I-bands with HST, allowed us to detect the faint Main Sequence Knee feature in NGC 2808 colour magnitude diagram. The difference between this point and the main sequence turn-off is a good age estimator that provides ages with unprecedented accuracy. Results: We find that NGC 2808 has an age of t = 10.9 ± 0.7 (intrinsic) ±0.45 (metallicity term) Gyr. A possible contamination by He-enhanced population could make the cluster up to 0.25 Gyr older. Although this age estimate agrees with the age coming from the classical turn-off method (t = 11.0 Gyr), its uncertainty is a factor ~3 better, since it avoids systematics in reddening, distance assumptions, and photometric zero point determination. The final absolute age indicates that NGC 2808 is slightly younger than other Galactic globular clusters with similar metallicity. Tables of the photometry are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  18. Predictions of Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Cluster Millisecond Pulsars Above 100 MeV (United States)

    Venter, C.; de Jaker, O.C.; Clapson, A.C.


    The recent Fermi detection of the globular cluster (GC) 47 Tucanae highlighted the importance of modeling collective gamma-ray emission of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in GCs. Steady flux from such populations is also expected in the very high energy (VHE) domain covered by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. We present pulsed curvature radiation (CR) as well as unpulsed inverse Compton (IC) calculations for an ensemble of MSPs in the GCs 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. We demonstrate that the CR from these GCs should be easily detectable for Fermi, while constraints on the total number of MSps and the nebular B-field may be derived using the IC flux components.

  19. Wide-Field Precision Kinematics of the M87 Globular Cluster System


    Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron; Brodie, Jean; Spitler, Lee; Beasley, Michael; Arnold, Jacob; Tamura, Naoyuki; Sharples, Ray; Arimoto, Nobuo


    We present the most extensive combined photometric and spectroscopic study to date of the enormous globular cluster (GC) system around M87, the central giant elliptical galaxy in the nearby Virgo cluster. Using observations from DEIMOS and LRIS at Keck, and Hectospec on the MMT, we derive new, precise radial velocities for 451 GCs around M87, with projected radii from ~ 5 to 185 kpc. We combine these measurements with literature data for a total sample of 737 objects, which we use for a re-ex...

  20. On the Variability of Blue Straggler Stars in the Globular Cluster M53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Chang Rey


    Full Text Available We present the results of a search for photometric variable blue straggler stars (BSSs in the globular cluster M53. Six of the 151 probable BSSs are identified as variable candidates based on the robust variable star detection technique of Welch & Stetson (1993. Most variable BSS candidates appear to occupy the instability strip in the color-magnitude diagram, and they appear to have visual light amplitudes of 0.2 mag - 0.3 mag. Further observations are required, however, to resolve the nature of variability between pulsating stars and eclipsing binaries for these variable BSS candidates.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Updated catalog of variable stars in globular clusters (Clement+ 2017) (United States)

    Clement, C. M.


    This Catalogue is an update to Helen Sawyer Hogg's Third Catalogue on Variable Stars in Globular Clusters (1973, David Dunlap Observatory Publications, Volume 3, Number 6: 1973PDDO....3....6S; see Cat V/97; see also Clement+, 2001AJ....122.2587C). This catalogue is based on the individual cluster files downloaded on on the 01-Feb-2017. Later updates are indicated in clusters.dat; column "Update". (7 data files).

  2. The globularization hypothesis of the language-ready brain as a developmental frame for prosodic bootstrapping theories of language acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz eIrurtzun


    Full Text Available In recent research Boeckx & Benítez-Burraco (2014a,b have advanced the hypothesis that our species-specific language-ready brain should be understood as the outcome of developmental changes that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans, which resulted in a more globular braincase configuration in comparison to our closest relatives, who had elongated endocasts. According to these authors, the development of a globular brain is an essential ingredient for the language faculty and in particular, it is the centrality occupied by the thalamus in a globular brain that allows its modulatory or regulatory role, essential for syntactico-semantic computations. Their hypothesis is that the syntactico-semantic capacities arise in humans as a consequence of a process of globularization, which significantly takes place postnatally (cf. Neubauer et al. (2010. In this paper, I show that Boeckx & Benítez-Burraco’s hypothesis makes an interesting developmental prediction regarding the path of language acquisition: it teases apart the onset of phonological acquisition and the onset of syntactic acquisition (the latter starting significantly later, after globularization. I argue that this hypothesis provides a developmental rationale for the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis of language acquisition (cf. i.a. Gleitman & Wanner (1982; Mehler et al. (1988, et seq.; Gervain & Werker (2013, which claim that prosodic cues are employed for syntactic parsing. The literature converges in the observation that a large amount of such prosodic cues (in particular, rhythmic cues are already acquired before the completion of the globularization phase, which paves the way for the premises of prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis, allowing babies to have a rich knowledge of the prosody of their target language before they can start parsing the primary linguistic data syntactically.

  3. The "Globularization Hypothesis" of the Language-ready Brain as a Developmental Frame for Prosodic Bootstrapping Theories of Language Acquisition. (United States)

    Irurtzun, Aritz


    In recent research (Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco, 2014a,b) have advanced the hypothesis that our species-specific language-ready brain should be understood as the outcome of developmental changes that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans, which resulted in a more globular braincase configuration in comparison to our closest relatives, who had elongated endocasts. According to these authors, the development of a globular brain is an essential ingredient for the language faculty and in particular, it is the centrality occupied by the thalamus in a globular brain that allows its modulatory or regulatory role, essential for syntactico-semantic computations. Their hypothesis is that the syntactico-semantic capacities arise in humans as a consequence of a process of globularization, which significantly takes place postnatally (cf. Neubauer et al., 2010). In this paper, I show that Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco's hypothesis makes an interesting developmental prediction regarding the path of language acquisition: it teases apart the onset of phonological acquisition and the onset of syntactic acquisition (the latter starting significantly later, after globularization). I argue that this hypothesis provides a developmental rationale for the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis of language acquisition (cf. i.a. Gleitman and Wanner, 1982; Mehler et al., 1988, et seq.; Gervain and Werker, 2013), which claim that prosodic cues are employed for syntactic parsing. The literature converges in the observation that a large amount of such prosodic cues (in particular, rhythmic cues) are already acquired before the completion of the globularization phase, which paves the way for the premises of the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis, allowing babies to have a rich knowledge of the prosody of their target language before they can start parsing the primary linguistic data syntactically.

  4. La Función de Luminosidad de las poblaciones de cúmulos globulares alrededor de NGC 1399 (United States)

    Ostrov, P. G.; Forte, J. C.; Geisler, D.

    Mediante el empleo de una técnica especial para filtrar el pattern de fringing, se ha obtenido una función de luminosidad de los cúmulos globulares de NGC 1399 superando por ~ 1 mag el turn-over en la banda T1 del sistema de Washington. El análisis de los resultados de la fotometría multibanda (C, M, T1) permite determinar que las mitades mas brillantes de las funciones de luminosidad de las dos principales poblaciones de cúmulos globulares asociadas con esta galaxia son similares.

  5. TeV gamma rays from millisecond pulsars and the detectability of globular clusters (United States)

    Smith, I. A.


    I investigate the detectability of TeV gamma rays from millisecond pulsars, assuming the energy source that powers this emission is the loss of rotational energy of the spinning neutron star. I show that although individual sources may be too weak to detect, the contribution of many (about 1000) active millisecond pulsars may lead to currently detectable TeV gamma-ray emissions from globular clusters, provided the average pulsar converts about 0.1 percent of its spin-down energy into TeV gamma rays. Future detections of TeV gamma rays from globular clusters (or more restrictive upper limits on the fluxes) will lead to better estimates of the number of active millisecond pulsars the clusters contain, and to a better understanding of the pulsar emission mechanism. I also derive flux estimates for the following sources: (1) the Crab Nebula, (2) PSR 19374-21, PSR 1953 4-29, and PSR 1855 4-09, and (3) nearby millisecond pulsars in the galactic disk.

  6. The effects of congenital deafness on auditory nerve synapses and globular bushy cells in cats. (United States)

    Redd, E E; Pongstaporn, T; Ryugo, D K


    It is well known that auditory deprivation affects the structure and function of the central nervous system. Congenital deafness represents one form of deprivation, and in the adult white cat, it has been shown to have a clear effect upon the synaptic interface between endbulbs of Held and spherical bushy cells. It is not known, however, whether all primary synapses are affected and/or whether they are affected in the same way and to the same extent. Thus, we studied a second neuronal circuit in the deaf white cat involving modified (small) endbulbs and globular bushy cells. Compared to normal hearing cats, modified endbulbs of congenitally deaf cats were 52.2% smaller but unchanged in structural complexity. There was also a striking loss of extracellular space between ending and cell body. The somata of postsynaptic globular bushy cells were 13.4% smaller and had enlarged postsynaptic densities. These data reveal that axosomatic synapses demonstrate abnormal structure as a consequence of deafness and that the extent of the abnormalities can vary with respect to the circuits involved. The implication of these observations is that synaptic anomalies would introduce differential delays within separate circuits, thereby desynchronizing neural activity from sound stimuli. This loss of synchronization could in turn disrupt temporal processing and compromise a host of related functions, including language comprehension.

  7. AAOmega spectroscopy of 29 351 stars in fields centered on ten Galactic globular clusters (United States)

    Lane, R. R.; Kiss, L. L.; Lewis, G. F.; Ibata, R. A.; Siebert, A.; Bedding, T. R.; Székely, P.; Szabó, G. M.


    Galactic globular clusters have been pivotal in our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena. Here we publish the extracted stellar parameters from a recent large spectroscopic survey of ten globular clusters. A brief review of the project is also presented. Stellar parameters have been extracted from individual stellar spectra using both a modified version of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) pipeline and a pipeline based on the parameter estimation method of RAVE. We publish here all parameters extracted from both pipelines. We calibrate the metallicity and convert this to [Fe/H] for each star and, furthermore, we compare the velocities and velocity dispersions of the Galactic stars in each field to the Besançon Galaxy model. We find that the model does not correspond well with the data, indicating that the model is probably of little use for comparisons with pencil beam survey data such as this. The data described in Tables 1-3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  8. Another Nonsegregated Blue Straggler Population in a Globular Cluster: the Case of NGC 2419 (United States)

    Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Vespe, F.; Bellazzini, M.; Rood, R. T.


    We have used a combination of ACS HST high-resolution and wide-field Subaru data in order to study the blue straggler star (BSS) population over the entire extension of the remote Galactic globular cluster NGC 2419. The BSS population presented here is among the largest ever observed in any stellar system, with more than 230 BSSs in the brightest portion of the sequence. The radial distribution of the selected BSSs is essentially the same as that of the other cluster stars. In this sense the BSS radial distribution is similar to that of ω Centauri and unlike that of all Galactic globular clusters studied to date, which have highly centrally segregated distributions and, in most cases, a pronounced upturn in the external regions. As in the case of ω Centauri, this evidence indicates that NGC 2419 is not yet relaxed even in the central regions. This observational fact is in agreement with estimated half-mass relaxation time, which is of the order of the cluster age. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA HST, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also based on Subaru observations collected at the Hawaii National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, William E.; O' Halloran, Heather; Cockcroft, Robert, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); and others


    We present the first results from our Hubble Space Telescope brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) survey of seven central supergiant cluster galaxies and their globular cluster (GC) systems. We measure a total of 48,000 GCs in all seven galaxies, representing the largest single GC database. We find that a log-normal shape accurately matches the observed the luminosity function (LF) of the GCs down to the globular cluster luminosity function turnover point, which is near our photometric limit. In addition, the LF has a virtually identical shape in all seven galaxies. Our data underscore the similarity in the formation mechanism of massive star clusters in diverse galactic environments. At the highest luminosities (L ≳ 10{sup 7} L {sub ☉}), we find small numbers of ''superluminous'' objects in five of the galaxies; their luminosity and color ranges are at least partly consistent with those of ultra-compact dwarfs. Last, we find preliminary evidence that in the outer halo (R ≳ 20 kpc), the LF turnover point shows a weak dependence on projected distance, scaling as L {sub 0} ∼ R {sup –0.2}, while the LF dispersion remains nearly constant.

  10. Constraints on helium enhancement in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121): The horizontal branch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Física, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Centro de Astroingeniería, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Alonso-García, J. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Cortés, C. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Departamento de Física, Av. José Pedro Alessandri 774, Santiago (Chile)


    Recent pieces of evidence have revealed that most, and possibly all, globular star clusters are composed of groups of stars that formed in multiple episodes with different chemical compositions. In this sense, it has also been argued that variations in the initial helium abundance (Y) from one population to the next are also the rule, rather than the exception. In the case of the metal-intermediate globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121), recent high-resolution spectroscopic observations of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars (i.e., HB stars hotter than the RR Lyrae instability strip) suggest that a large fraction of blue HB stars are second-generation stars formed with high helium abundances. In this paper, we test this scenario by using recent photometric and spectroscopic data together with theoretical evolutionary computations for different Y values. Comparing the photometric data with the theoretically derived color-magnitude diagrams, we find that the bulk of the blue HB stars in M4 have ΔY ≲ 0.01 with respect to the cluster's red HB stars (i.e., HB stars cooler than the RR Lyrae strip)—a result which is corroborated by comparison with spectroscopically derived gravities and temperatures, which also favor little He enhancement. However, the possible existence of a minority population on the blue HB of the cluster with a significant He enhancement level is also discussed.

  11. The devil is in the tails: the role of globular cluster mass evolution on stream properties (United States)

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Gieles, Mark


    We present a study of the effects of collisional dynamics on the formation and detectability of cold tidal streams. A semi-analytical model for the evolution of the stellar mass function was implemented and coupled to a fast stellar stream simulation code, as well as the synthetic cluster evolution code EMACSS for the mass evolution as a function of a globular cluster orbit. We find that the increase in the average mass of the escaping stars for clusters close to dissolution has a major effect on the observable stream surface density. As an example, we show that Palomar 5 would have undetectable streams (in an SDSS-like survey) if it was currently three times more massive, despite the fact that a more massive cluster loses stars at a higher rate. This bias due to the preferential escape of low-mass stars is an alternative explanation for the absence of tails near massive clusters, than a dark matter halo associated with the cluster. We explore the orbits of a large sample of Milky Way globular clusters and derive their initial masses and remaining mass fraction. Using properties of known tidal tails, we explore regions of parameter space that favour the detectability of a stream. A list of high-probability candidates is discussed.

  12. The nature of protein interactions governing globular protein-polymer block copolymer self-assembly. (United States)

    Lam, Christopher N; Kim, Minkyu; Thomas, Carla S; Chang, Dongsook; Sanoja, Gabriel E; Okwara, Chimdimma U; Olsen, Bradley D


    The effects of protein surface potential on the self-assembly of protein-polymer block copolymers are investigated in globular proteins with controlled shape through two approaches: comparison of self-assembly of mCherry-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) bioconjugates with structurally homologous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-PNIPAM bioconjugates, and mutants of mCherry with altered electrostatic patchiness. Despite large changes in amino acid sequence, the temperature-concentration phase diagrams of EGFP-PNIPAM and mCherry-PNIPAM conjugates have similar phase transition concentrations. Both materials form identical phases at two different coil fractions below the PNIPAM thermal transition temperature and in the bulk. However, at temperatures above the thermoresponsive transition, mCherry conjugates form hexagonal phases at high concentrations while EGFP conjugates form a disordered micellar phase. At lower concentration, mCherry shows a two-phase region while EGFP forms homogeneous disordered micellar structures, reflecting the effect of changes in micellar stability. Conjugates of four mCherry variants with changes to their electrostatic surface patchiness also showed minimal change in phase behavior, suggesting that surface patchiness has only a small effect on the self-assembly process. Measurements of protein/polymer miscibility, second virial coefficients, and zeta potential show that these coarse-grained interactions are similar between mCherry and EGFP, indicating that coarse-grained interactions largely capture the relevant physics for soluble, monomeric globular protein-polymer conjugate self-assembly.

  13. The chemical composition of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6362 (United States)

    Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Dalessandro, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Cassisi, S.; Fiorentino, G.; Ibata, R. A.; Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.


    We present chemical abundances for 17 elements in a sample of 11 red giant branch stars in NGC 6362 from UVES spectra. NGC 6362 is one of the least massive globulars where multiple populations have been detected, yet its detailed chemical composition has not been investigated so far. NGC 6362 turns out to be a metal-intermediate ([Fe/H] = -1.07 ± 0.01 dex) cluster, with its α-peak and Fe-peak elements content compatible with that observed in clusters with similar metallicity. It also displays an enhancement in its s-process element abundances. Among the light elements involved in the multiple populations phenomenon, only [Na/Fe] shows star-to-star variations, while [Al/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] do not show any evidence for abundance spreads. A differential comparison with M4, a globular cluster with similar mass and metallicity, reveals that the two clusters share the same chemical composition. This finding suggests that NGC 6362 is indeed a regular cluster, formed from gas that has experienced the same chemical enrichment of other clusters with similar metallicity.

  14. Sodium content as a predictor of the advanced evolution of globular cluster stars. (United States)

    Campbell, Simon W; D'Orazi, Valentina; Yong, David; Constantino, Thomas N; Lattanzio, John C; Stancliffe, Richard J; Angelou, George C; Wylie-de Boer, Elizabeth C; Grundahl, Frank


    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase is the final stage of nuclear burning for low-mass stars. Although Milky Way globular clusters are now known to harbour (at least) two generations of stars, they still provide relatively homogeneous samples of stars that are used to constrain stellar evolution theory. It is predicted by stellar models that the majority of cluster stars with masses around the current turn-off mass (that is, the mass of the stars that are currently leaving the main sequence phase) will evolve through the AGB phase. Here we report that all of the second-generation stars in the globular cluster NGC 6752--70 per cent of the cluster population--fail to reach the AGB phase. Through spectroscopic abundance measurements, we found that every AGB star in our sample has a low sodium abundance, indicating that they are exclusively first-generation stars. This implies that many clusters cannot reliably be used for star counts to test stellar evolution timescales if the AGB population is included. We have no clear explanation for this observation.

  15. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang. (United States)

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G


    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Patch bulging after plaque incision and grafting procedure for Peyronie’s disease. Surgical repair with a collagen fleece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fabiani


    Full Text Available The incision/excision and grafting techniques (PIG for surgical therapy of Peyronie’s disease (PD have gained popularity in recent years. Several different graft materials have been used but the ideal graft has yet to be established. The use of grafting materials could cause complications. In the daily clinical practice it will always be more frequent to manage complications arising from their use. We present herein the case of a patch bulging repaired with a ready-to-use collagen fleece (Tachosil®, Takeda, Linz, Austria, Europe in a 61 years old man subjected to intervention of geometric corporoplasty with Paulo Egydio technique using an acellular collagen material (Xenform® patch, Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA as graft. We also discuss the possible implications of PIG procedure.

  17. INTEGRAL sees transient activity in the Galactic Bulge: XTE J1751-305 and GRS 1741.9-2853 in outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chenevez, J.; Kuulkers, E.; Beckmann, V.; Bird, A.; Brandt, S.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Jonker, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.; Oosterbroek, T.; Paizis, A.; Risquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Shaw, S.; Wijnands, R.


    INTEGRAL monitoring observations of the Galactic Bulge (e.g. ATels #438 and #1944) have been performed between 2009 Oct 7th 20:29 and 8th 00:11 (UTC) during which transient activity from a few known sources has been recorded with respect to an observation 6 days earlier. The transient low-mass X-ray

  18. INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations of GRO J1750-27 (AX J1749.1-2639), H1743-322 and SLX 1746-331

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuulkers, E.; Beckmann, V.; Shaw, S.; Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Jonker, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.; Oosterbroek, T.; Paizis, A.; Risquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Wijnands, R.


    A new season of the INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring program (see ATels #438, #874, #1005; Kuulkers et al. 2007, A&A 466, 595) started, with observations on UT 11 Feb 2008, 16:33-18:07. We here report on results from three currently active transient sources. The IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X1 images show a

  19. INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations of GRO J1750-27 (AX J1749.1-2639), H1743-322 and SLX 1746-331

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Beckmann, V.; Shaw, S.


    A new season of the INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring program (see ATels #438, #874, #1005; Kuulkers et al. 2007, A&A 466, 595) started, with observations on UT 11 Feb 2008, 16:33-18:07. We here report on results from three currently active transient sources. The IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X1 images sho...

  20. Reduction of foveal bulges and other anatomical changes in fellow eyes of patients with unilateral idiopathic macular hole without vitreomacular pathologic changes. (United States)

    Delas, Barbara; Julio, Gemma; Fernández-Vega, Álvaro; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Nadal, Jeroni


    To compare the foveal characteristics in fellow eyes (FE) of patients with unilateral idiopathic macular hole without vitreomacular pathologic changes with eyes of healthy controls. Forty-seven FE and 52 eyes of 52 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. Quantitative assessment of the dome-shaped appearance of the hyperreflective lines that represent external limiting membrane (ELM_bulge) and inner outer segment junctions (IS/OS_bulge) were made by optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Inner retinal complex thickness (IRCT) was quantitatively assessed at 1000 and 2000 μm of the foveal center in nasal and temporal quadrants. Presence of alterations in the inner retinal outer layers and central foveal thickness (CFT) were also analyzed. Significantly lower ELM_bulge (p < 0.0001; Mann-Whitney test) and IS/OS_bulge (p < 0.001; student t test) and higher cases with COST alterations, expressed as a diffuse line (p < 0.006; Chi2 test) were found in FE than control eyes. IRCT were significantly reduced in FE at all the studied locations when comparing to control eyes (p < 0.05; student t test), maintaining anatomical proportionality among locations. FE without pathologic vitreomacular interactions seems to present some central cone alterations that may be related to other causes than vitreomacular traction.

  1. Sediment budget on African passive margins: a record of margin bulges and far field very long wavelength deformations (United States)

    Guillocheau, Francois; Robin, Cécile; Baby, Guillaume; Simon, Brendan; Rouby, Delphine; Loparev, Artiom


    The post-rift siliciclastic sediment budget of passive margins is a function of (1) the deformation (uplift) of the upstream catchment, of (2) the climate (precipitation) regime and of (3) the oceanic circulation (mainly since Miocene times). The main questions in source to sink studies are (1) to quantify the relative importance of the erosion due to uplifts or to precipitation changes and (2) to characterize the source of the sediments. A source to sink study was carried out in Western, Central and Austral Africa, characterized by anorogenic relief (plains and plateaus) that record long (several 100 km) to very long (several 1000 km) wavelength deformations respectively of lithospheric and mantle origin. The sink measurement was based on seismic lines and wells (industrial - IODP) using the VolumeEstimator software including the calculation of the uncertainties (Guillocheau et al., 2013, Basin Research). The source study was performed using dated stepped planation surfaces (etchplains and pediplains), mappable at catchments-scale (Guillocheau et al., in press, Gondwana Research). Results: (1) Deformation (uplift) is the dominant control of the sediment budget. Climate (precipitation) changes only enhance or inhibit a deformation-controlled flux. (2) The sources of siliciclastic sediments are either closed marginal bulges or far field domes due to mantle dynamics with river by-passing over long-lasting polygenic surfaces located between the bulges and domes. Two main periods of African-scale deformations (contemporaneous with an increase of the sedimentary flux) are confirmed, one during Late Cretaceous (Turonian-Coniacian) and the second around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary with a gap and intense chemical erosion from 75 Ma and mainly from 65 to 40 Ma.

  2. OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb: The First Spitzer Bulge Planet Lies Near the Planet/Brown-dwarf Boundary (United States)

    Ryu, Y.-H.; Yee, J. C.; Udalski, A.; Bond, I. A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Zang, W.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Zhu, W.; Huang, C. X.; Jung, Y. K.; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Hwang, K.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Kim, H.-W.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Lee, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; KMTNet Collaboration; Calchi Novati, S.; Carey, S.; Henderson, C. B.; Beichman, C.; Gaudi, B. S.; Spitzer team; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Skowron, J.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE Collaboration; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Evans, P.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Kawasaki, K.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Ranc, C.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Yamada, T.; Yamada, T.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Bryden, G.; Howell, S. B.; Jacklin, S.; UKIRT Microlensing Team; Penny, M. T.; Mao, S.; Fouqué, Pascal; Wang, T.; CFHT-K2C9 Microlensing Survey group; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Hundertmark, M.; Bachelet, E.; Dominik, M.; Li, Z.; Cross, S.; Cassan, A.; Horne, K.; Schmidt, R.; Wambsganss, J.; Ment, S. K.; Maoz, D.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; RoboNet Team; Bozza, V.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D’Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Hinse, T. C.; Kerins, E.; Kokotanekova, R.; Longa, P.; MacKenzie, J.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Sajadian, S.; Skottfelt, J.; Southworth, J.; von Essen, C.; MiNDSTEp Team


    We report the discovery of OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb, which is likely to be the first Spitzer microlensing planet in the Galactic bulge/bar, an assignation that can be confirmed by two epochs of high-resolution imaging of the combined source–lens baseline object. The planet’s mass, M p = 13.4 ± 0.9 M J , places it right at the deuterium-burning limit, i.e., the conventional boundary between “planets” and “brown dwarfs.” Its existence raises the question of whether such objects are really “planets” (formed within the disks of their hosts) or “failed stars” (low-mass objects formed by gas fragmentation). This question may ultimately be addressed by comparing disk and bulge/bar planets, which is a goal of the Spitzer microlens program. The host is a G dwarf, M host = 0.89 ± 0.07 M ⊙, and the planet has a semimajor axis a ∼ 2.0 au. We use Kepler K2 Campaign 9 microlensing data to break the lens-mass degeneracy that generically impacts parallax solutions from Earth–Spitzer observations alone, which is the first successful application of this approach. The microlensing data, derived primarily from near-continuous, ultradense survey observations from OGLE, MOA, and three KMTNet telescopes, contain more orbital information than for any previous microlensing planet, but not quite enough to accurately specify the full orbit. However, these data do permit the first rigorous test of microlensing orbital-motion measurements, which are typically derived from data taken over <1% of an orbital period.

  3. X-Ray and optical study of low core density globular clusters NGC6144 and E3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, S.-H.; Kong, A.K.H.; Verbunt, F.W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068970374; Lewin, W.H.G.; Bassa, C.G.; Anderson, S.F.; Pooley, D.


    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of two low coredensity globular clusters, NGC6144 and E3. By comparing the number of X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius to those outside, we found six X-ray sources within the half-mass radius of NGC6144,

  4. X-ray sources and their optical counterparts in the Galactic Globular Cluster M12 (NGC 6218)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.-N.; Kong, A.K.H.; Bassa, C.G.; Verbunt, F.W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068970374; Lewin, W.H.G.; Anderson, S.F.; Pooley, D.


    We study a Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S observation of the Galactic globular cluster M12. With a 26 ks exposure time, we detect six X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius (2'.16) of which two are inside the core radius (0'.72) of the cluster. If we assume that these sources are all associated

  5. Lost and Found: Evidence of Second-generation Stars Along the Asymptotic Giant Branch of the Globular Cluster NGC 6752

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapenna, E.; Lardo, C.; Mucciarelli, A.; Salaris, M.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Massari, D.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.; Savino, A.


    We derived chemical abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, and Al in 20 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 6752. All these elements (but Mg) show intrinsic star-to-star variations and statistically significant correlations or anticorrelations analogous to those commonly

  6. Multiple stellar populations in the globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272) : a Strömgren perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, Davide; Lapenna, Emilio; Bragaglia, Angela; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Amigo, Pía


    We present Strömgren photometry of the Galactic Globular Cluster M3 to study its multiple generations phenomenon. The use of different colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and especially of the notoriously efficient cy index allowed us to detect a double red giant branch in the cluster CMD. After

  7. A blue tilt in the globular cluster system of the Milky Way-like galaxy NGC 5170

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, D.A.; Spitler, L. R.; Harris, W.E.; Bailin, J.; Strader, J.; Brodie, J.P.; Larsen, S.S.


    Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging, in the B and I bands, of the edge-on Sb/Sc galaxy NGC 5170. Excluding the central disc region, we detect 142 objects with colours and sizes typical of globular clusters (GCs). Our main result is the discovery of a

  8. AGB sodium abundances in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I. [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); and others


    A recent analysis comparing the [Na/Fe] distributions of red giant branch (RGB) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752 found that the ratio of Na-poor to Na-rich stars changes from 30:70 on the RGB to 100:0 on the AGB. The surprising paucity of Na-rich stars on the AGB in NGC 6752 warrants additional investigations to determine if the failure of a significant fraction of stars to ascend the AGB is an attribute common to all globular clusters. Therefore, we present radial velocities, [Fe/H], and [Na/Fe] abundances for 35 AGB stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc; NGC 104), and compare the AGB [Na/Fe] distribution with a similar RGB sample published previously. The abundances and velocities were derived from high-resolution spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan–Clay 6.5 m telescope. We find the average heliocentric radial velocity and [Fe/H] values to be 〈RV{sub helio.}〉 = −18.56 km s{sup −1} (σ = 10.21 km s{sup −1}) and 〈[Fe/H]〉 = −0.68 (σ = 0.08), respectively, in agreement with previous literature estimates. The average [Na/Fe] abundance is 0.12 dex lower in the 47 Tuc AGB sample compared to the RGB sample, and the ratio of Na-poor to Na-rich stars is 63:37 on the AGB and 45:55 on the RGB. However, in contrast to NGC 6752, the two 47 Tuc populations have nearly identical [Na/Fe] dispersion and interquartile range values. The data presented here suggest that only a small fraction (≲20%) of Na-rich stars in 47 Tuc may fail to ascend the AGB, which is a similar result to that observed in M13. Regardless of the cause for the lower average [Na/Fe] abundance in AGB stars, we find that Na-poor stars and at least some Na-rich stars in 47 Tuc evolve through the early AGB phase. The contrasting behavior of Na-rich stars in 47 Tuc and NGC 6752 suggests that the RGB [Na/Fe] abundance alone is insufficient for predicting if a star will

  9. Globular adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated restoration of microvascular insulin responses. (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi


    Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is present in muscle microvasculature and this may contribute to decreased insulin delivery to, and action in, muscle. In this study we examined whether adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance by affecting muscle microvascular recruitment. We demonstrated that a high-fat diet induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but globular adiponectin administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin's metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. This suggests that globular adiponectin might have a therapeutic potential for improving insulin resistance and preventing cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes via modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin action in muscle. Here we tested whether adiponectin replenishment could improve metabolic insulin sensitivity in male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) via the modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 weeks. Small resistance artery myograph changes in tension, muscle microvascular recruitment and metabolic response to insulin were determined. Compared with rats fed a LFD, HFD feeding abolished the vasodilatory actions of globular adiponectin (gAd) and insulin on pre-constricted distal saphenous arteries. Pretreatment with gAd improved insulin responses in arterioles isolated from HFD rats, which was blocked by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition. Similarly, HFD abolished microvascular responses to either gAd or insulin and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by

  10. The rarity of dust in metal-poor galaxies. (United States)

    Fisher, David B; Bolatto, Alberto D; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Draine, Bruce T; Donaldson, Jessica; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin M; Leroy, Adam K; Cannon, John; Gordon, Karl


    Galaxies observed at redshift z > 6, when the Universe was less than a billion years old, thus far very rarely show evidence of the cold dust that accompanies star formation in the local Universe, where the dust-to-gas mass ratio is around one per cent. A prototypical example is the galaxy Himiko (z = 6.6), which--a mere 840 million years after the Big Bang--is forming stars at a rate of 30-100 solar masses per year, yielding a mass assembly time of about 150 × 10(6) years. Himiko is thought to have a low fraction (2-3 per cent of the Sun's) of elements heavier than helium (low metallicity), and although its gas mass cannot yet be determined its dust-to-stellar mass ratio is constrained to be less than 0.05 per cent. The local dwarf galaxy I Zwicky 18, which has a metallicity about 4 per cent that of the Sun's and is forming stars less rapidly (assembly time about 1.6 × 10(9) years) than Himiko but still vigorously for its mass, is also very dust deficient and is perhaps one of the best analogues of primitive galaxies accessible to detailed study. Here we report observations of dust emission from I Zw 18, from which we determine its dust mass to be 450-1,800 solar masses, yielding a dust-to-stellar mass ratio of about 10(-6) to 10(-5) and a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 3.2-13 × 10(-6). If I Zw 18 is a reasonable analogue of Himiko, then Himiko's dust mass must be around 50,000 solar masses, a factor of 100 below the current upper limit. These numbers are quite uncertain, but if most high-z galaxies are more like Himiko than like the very-high-dust-mass galaxy SDSS J114816.64 + 525150.3 at z ≈ 6, which hosts a quasar, then our prospects for detecting the gas and dust inside such galaxies are much poorer than hitherto anticipated.

  11. Chemical Abundances of Metal-poor stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venn, Kim A.; Jablonka, Pascale; Hill, Vanessa; Starkenburg, Else; Lemasle, Bertrand; Shetrone, Matthew; Irwin, Mike; Norris, John; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerry; Salvadori, Stephania; Skuladottir, Asa; Tolstoy, Eline; Bragaglia, A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Romano, D.


    Stars in low-mass dwarf galaxies show a larger range in their chemical properties than those in the Milky Way halo. The slower star formation efficiency make dwarf galaxies ideal systems for testing nucleosynthetic yields. Not only are alpha-poor stars found at lower metallicities, and a higher

  12. M32: Is there an Ancient, Metal-Poor Population? (United States)

    Fiorentino, G.; Monachesi, A.; Trager, S.; Lauer, T.; Saha, A.; Mighell, K.; Freedman, W. L.; Dressler, A.; Grillmair, C. J.; Tolstoy, E.


    We observed two fields near M32 with the ACS/HRC on board the Hubble Space Telescope, located at distances of about 1.8' and 5.4' (hereafter Fl and F2, respectively) from the center of M32. To obtain a very detailed and deep color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and to look for short period variability, we obtained time-series imaging of each field in 32-orbit-long exposures using the F435W (B) and F555W (V) filters, spanning a temporal range of 2 days per filter. We focus on our detection of variability on RR Lyrae variable stars, which represents the only way to obtain information about the presence of a very old population (larger than 10 Gyr) in M32 from optical data. Here we present results obtained from the detection of 31 RR Lyrae in these fields: 17 in Fl and 14 in F2.

  13. Germanium, Arsenic, and Selenium Abundances in Metal-poor Stars (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.


    The elements germanium (Ge, Z = 32), arsenic (As, Z = 33), and selenium (Se, Z = 34) span the transition from charged-particle or explosive synthesis of the iron-group elements to neutron-capture synthesis of heavier elements. Among these three elements, only the chemical evolution of germanium has been studied previously. Here we use archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope and observations from several ground-based facilities to study the chemical enrichment histories of seven stars with metallicities -2.6 Administration. These data are associated with Programs H2aH, H6aH, and H39aH (PI: Boesgaard), N01H (PI: Latham), and U11H (PI: Prochaska).This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  14. Globular adiponectin controls insulin-mediated vasoreactivity in muscle through AMPKα2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Boer, Michiel P; Meijer, Rick I; Richter, Erik


    Decreased tissue perfusion increases the risk of developing insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in obesity, and decreased levels of globular adiponectin (gAdn) have been proposed to contribute to this risk. We hypothesized that gAdn controls insulin's vasoactive effects through AMP......-activated protein kinase (AMPK), specifically its α2 subunit, and studied the mechanisms involved. In healthy volunteers, we found that decreased plasma gAdn levels in obese subjects associate with insulin resistance and reduced capillary perfusion during hyperinsulinemia. In cultured human microvascular...... endothelial cells (HMEC), gAdn increased AMPK activity. In isolated muscle resistance arteries gAdn uncovered insulin-induced vasodilation by selectively inhibiting insulin-induced activation of ERK1/2, and the AMPK inhibitor compound C as well as genetic deletion of AMPKα2 blunted insulin...

  15. Kinematics of Globular Cluster: new Perspectives of Energy Equipartition from N-body Simulations (United States)

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Pasquato, Mario; Yoon, Suk-jin


    Globular clusters (GCs) evolve dynamically through gravitational two-body interactions between stars. We investigated the evolution towards energy equipartition in GCs using direct n-body simulations in NBODY6. If a GC reaches full energy equipartition, the velocity dispersion as a function of stars’ mass becomes a power law with exponent -1/2. However, our n-body simulations never reach full equipartition, which is similar to Trenti & van de Marel (2013) results. Instead we found that in simulations with a shallow mass spectrum the best fit exponent becomes positive slightly before core collapse time. This inversion is a new result, which can be used as a kinematic predictor of core collapse. We are currently exploring applications of this inversion indicator to the detection of intermediate mass black holes.

  16. Ghosts of Milky Way's past: the globular cluster ESO 37-1 (E 3) (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, R.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; Moni Bidin, C.; Ortolani, S.; Carraro, G.


    Context. In the Milky Way, most globular clusters are highly conspicuous objects that were found centuries ago. However, a few dozen of them are faint, sparsely populated systems that were identified largely during the second half of the past century. One of the faintest is ESO 37-1 (E 3) and as such it remains poorly studied, with no spectroscopic observations published so far although it was discovered in 1976. Aims: We investigate the globular cluster E 3 in an attempt to better constrain its fundamental parameters. Spectroscopy of stars in the field of E 3 is shown here for the first time. Methods: Deep, precise VI CCD photometry of E 3 down to V ~ 26 mag is presented and analysed. Low-resolution, medium signal-to-noise ratio spectra of nine candidate members are studied to derive radial velocity and metallicity. Proper motions from the UCAC4 catalogue are used to explore the kinematics of the bright members of E 3. Results: Isochrone fitting indicates that E 3 is probably very old, with an age of about 13 Gyr; its distance from the Sun is nearly 10 kpc. It is also somewhat metal rich with [Fe/H] = -0.7. Regarding its kinematics, our tentative estimate for the proper motions is (μα cosδ,μδ) = (-7.0 ± 0.8, 3.5 ± 0.3) mas yr-1 (or a tangential velocity of 382 ± 79 km s-1) and for the radial velocity 45 ± 5 km s-1 in the solar rest frame. Conclusions: E 3 is one of the most intriguing globular clusters in the Galaxy. Having an old age and being metal rich is clearly a peculiar combination, only seen in a handful of objects like the far more conspicuous NGC 104 (47 Tucanae). In addition, its low luminosity and sparse population make it a unique template for the study of the final evolutionary phases in the life of a star cluster. Unfortunately, E 3 is among the most elusive and challenging known globular clusters because field contamination severely hampers spectroscopic studies. This research note is based on observations made with the ESO VLT at the

  17. New Discoveries in the Search for Iron-Complex Globular Clusters (United States)

    Johnson, Christian; Caldwell, Nelson; Rich, R. Michael; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, Jeb; Walker, Matthew G.; M2FS Team


    A growing number of Galactic globular clusters have been discovered that possess large intrinsic [Fe/H] and heavy element abundance variations. These "iron-complex" clusters are among the most massive in the Galaxy, and frequently exhibit extended blue horizontal branches and low metallicities. Additionally, a handful of clusters with [Fe/H] > -1 may also have large metallicity spreads (e.g., Terzan 5), but are instead characterized by having bimodal red horizontal brances. We present chemical composition analyses of several potential iron-complex clusters spanning [Fe/H] = -1.8 to -0.8, and discover that horizontal branch morphology alone is insufficient to identify clusters with heavy element abundance variations. However, we find that several of these clusters contain 4-5 chemically distinct populations, and the outer halo cluster NGC 6229 is added to the growing list of iron-complex clusters that may be the remnant cores of former dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  18. Stellar envelopes of globular clusters embedded in dark mini-haloes (United States)

    Peñarrubia, Jorge; Varri, Anna Lisa; Breen, Philip G.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén


    We show that hard encounters in the central regions of globular clusters (GCs) embedded in dark matter (DM) haloes necessarily lead to the formation of gravitationally bound stellar envelopes that extend far beyond the nominal tidal radius of the system. Using statistical arguments and numerical techniques, we derive the equilibrium distribution function of stars ejected from the centre of a non-divergent spherical potential. Independently of the velocity distribution with which stars are ejected, GC envelopes have density profiles that approach asymptotically ρ ∼ r-4 at large distances and become isothermal towards the centre. Adding a DM halo component leaves two clear-cut observational signatures: (i) a flattening, or slightly increase of the projected velocity dispersion profile at large distances, and (ii) an outer surface density profile that is systematically shallower than in models with no DM.

  19. NLTE Effects in Globular Cluster Integrated Light Spectra and Photometric Colors (United States)

    Young, Mitchell; Short, C. Ian


    Our overall goal is to investigate the effect that modelling the atmospheres and spectra of Galactic globular cluster (GGCs) members in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) has on the integrated light (IL) spectrum, and the derivation of GGC ages and metallicities ([Fe/H] values) from IL photometric color and spectrum fitting. We create synthetic GGC populations and associated colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) using the Kroupa initial mass function (Kroupa, P., 2001, MNRAS, 322, 231-246) and the Teramo isochrones (Pietrinferni, A. et al, 2004, ApJ, 612, 168-190) with ages ranging from 9 to 15 Gyr, and [Fe/H] = -1.49 to -0.66 with α = +0.4. We investigate the dependence of predicted LTE and NLTE colors on the method and resolution of CMD discretization, and on the definition of representative stellar parameters in a discretized CMD.

  20. The Abundance of Lithium in an ABG Star in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272) (United States)

    Givens, R. A.; Pilachowski, C. A.


    A survey of red giants in the globular cluster M3 with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope indicated a prominent Li i 6707 Å feature in the red giant vZ 1050. Followup spectroscopy with the ARC 3.5 m telescope confirmed this observation and yielded a derived abundance of A(Li)NLTE = 1.6 ± 0.05. In addition, the high oxygen and low sodium abundances measured from the same spectrum suggest that vZ 1050 is a first generation cluster star. The location of vZ 1050 above the horizontal branch and blueward of the red giant branch in the cluster’s color-magnitude diagram places vZ 1050 on M3's asymptotic giant branch. The likely source for the enhanced lithium abundance is the Cameron-Fowler mechanism operating in vZ 1050 itself.

  1. The puzzling assembly of the Milky Way halo – contributions from dwarf Spheroidals and globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine S.


    Full Text Available While recent sky surveys have uncovered large numbers of ever fainter Milky Way satellites, their classification as star clusters, low-luminosity galaxies, or tidal overdensities remains often unclear. Likewise, their contributions to the build-up of the halo is yet debated. In this contribution we will discuss the current knowledge of the stellar populations and chemo-dynamics in these puzzling satellites, with a particular focus on dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the globular clusters in the outer Galactic halo. Also the question of whether some of the outermost halo objects are dynamically associated with the (Milky Way halo at all is addressed in terms of proper measurements in the remote Leo I and II dwarf galaxies.

  2. A 110-ms pulsar, with negative period derivative, in the globular cluster M15 (United States)

    Wolszczan, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Middleditch, J.; Backer, D. C.; Fruchter, A. S.; Dewey, R. J.


    The discovery of a 110-ms pulsar, PSR2127+11, in the globular cluster M15, is reported. The results of nine months of timing measurements place the new pulsar about 2 arcsec from the center of the cluster, and indicate that it is not a member of a close binary system. The measured negative value of the period derivative is probably the result of the pulsar being bodily accelerated in our direction by the gravitational field of the collapsed core of M15. This apparently overwhelms a positive contribution to the period derivative due to magnetic braking. Although the pulsar has an unexpectedly long period, it is argued that it belongs to the class of 'recycled' pulsars, which have been spun up by accretion in a binary system. The subsequent loss of the pulsar's companion is probably due to disruption of the system by close encounters with other stars.

  3. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VIII. Preliminary Public Catalog Release (United States)

    Soto, M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; van der Marel, R. P.; Milone, A. P.; Brown, T. M.; Cool, A. M.; King, I. R.; Sarajedini, A.; Granata, V.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D.


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GO-13297) has been specifically designed to complement the existing F606W and F814W observations of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Globular Cluster Survey (GO-10775) by observing the most accessible 47 of the previous survey’s 65 clusters in three WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. The new survey also adds super-solar metallicity open cluster NGC 6791 to increase the metallicity diversity. The combined survey provides a homogeneous 5-band data set that can be used to pursue a broad range of scientific investigations. In particular, the chosen UV filters allow the identification of multiple stellar populations by targeting the regions of the spectrum that are sensitive to abundance variations in C, N, and O. In order to provide the community with uniform preliminary catalogs, we have devised an automated procedure that performs high-quality photometry on the new UV observations (along with similar observations of seven other programs in the archive). This procedure finds and measures the potential sources on each individual exposure using library point-spread functions and cross-correlates these observations with the original ACS-Survey catalog. The catalog of 57 clusters we publish here will be useful to identify stars in the different stellar populations, in particular for spectroscopic follow-up. Eventually, we will construct a more sophisticated catalog and artificial-star tests based on an optimal reduction of the UV survey data, but the catalogs presented here give the community the chance to make early use of this HST Treasury survey.

  4. News from the Galactic suburbia: the chemical composition of the remote globular cluster NGC 2419 (United States)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Ibata, R.; Merle, T.; Chapman, S. C.; Dalessandro, E.; Sollima, A.


    We present the chemical analysis of 49 giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 2419, using medium resolution spectra collected with the multi-object spectrograph DEIMOS@Keck. Previous analysis of this cluster revealed a large dispersion in the line strength of the infrared Ca II triplet, suggesting an intrinsic star-to-star scatter in its Fe or Ca content. From our analysis, we assess that all the investigated stars share the same [Fe/H], [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] abundance ratios, while a large spread in Mg and K abundances is detected. The distribution of [Mg/Fe] is bimodal, with ˜40 per cent of the observed targets having subsolar [Mg/Fe], down to [Mg/Fe] ˜ -1 dex, a level of Mg deficiency never observed before in globular clusters. It is found that the large dispersion in Mg abundances is likely the main origin of the observed dispersion of the Ca II triplet lines strengths (that can be erroneously interpreted in terms of Fe or Ca abundance scatter) because Mg plays a relevant role in the atmosphere of giant stars as an electron donor. A strong depletion in the Mg abundance leads to an increase of the line strength of the Ca II triplet, due to the variation in the electronic pressure, at a constant Fe and Ca abundance. Finally, we detect an anti-correlation between Mg and K abundances, not easily explainable within the framework of the current nucleosynthesis models. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  5. The 10830 Å Helium Line Among Evolved Stars in the Globular Cluster M4 (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Dupree, A. K.; Smith, Graeme H.


    Helium is a pivotal element in understanding the multiple main sequences and extended horizontal branches observed in some globular clusters. Here we present a spectroscopic study of helium in the nearby globular cluster Messier 4 (M4). We have obtained spectra of the chromospheric He i 10830 Å line in 16 red horizontal branch (RHB), red giant branch, and asymptotic giant branch stars. Clear He i absorption or emission is present in most of the stars. Effective temperature is the principal parameter that correlates with 10830 Å line strength. Stars with {T}{eff}\\lt 4450 K do not exhibit the helium line. RHB stars, which are the hottest stars in our sample, all have strong He i line absorption. A number of these stars show very broad 10830 Å lines with shortward extensions indicating outflows as high as 80-100 km s-1 and the possibility of mass loss. We have also derived [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] abundances to see whether these standard tracers of “second generation” cluster stars are correlated with He i line strength. Unlike the case for our previous study of ω Cen, no clear correlation is observed. This may be because the sample does not cover the full range of abundance variations found in M4, or simply because the physical conditions in the chromosphere, rather than the helium abundance, primarily determine the He i 10830 Å line strength. A larger sample of high-quality He i spectra of both “first” and “second” generation red giants within a narrow range of {T}{eff} and luminosity is needed to test for the subtle spectroscopic variations in He i expected in M4.

  6. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

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    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Klegeris, Andis [Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Little, Jonathan P., E-mail: [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada)


    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  7. A Spectroscopic Analysis of the Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6273 (M19) (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Crane, Jeffrey D.


    A combined effort utilizing spectroscopy and photometry has revealed the existence of a new globular cluster class. These “anomalous” clusters, which we refer to as “iron-complex” clusters, are differentiated from normal clusters by exhibiting large (≳0.10 dex) intrinsic metallicity dispersions, complex sub-giant branches, and correlated [Fe/H] and s-process enhancements. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, we have measured radial velocities and chemical abundances for red giant branch stars in the massive, but scarcely studied, globular cluster NGC 6273. The velocities and abundances were determined using high resolution (R ˜ 27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay 6.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that NGC 6273 has an average heliocentric radial velocity of +144.49 km s-1 (σ = 9.64 km s-1) and an extended metallicity distribution ([Fe/H] = -1.80 to -1.30) composed of at least two distinct stellar populations. Although the two dominant populations have similar [Na/Fe], [Al/Fe], and [α/Fe] abundance patterns, the more metal-rich stars exhibit significant [La/Fe] enhancements. The [La/Eu] data indicate that the increase in [La/Fe] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. A third more metal-rich population with low [X/Fe] ratios may also be present. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins clusters such as ω Centauri, M2, M22, and NGC 5286 as a new class of iron-complex clusters exhibiting complicated star formation histories. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  8. The Horizontal Branch morphology in Globular Clusters: consequences for the selfpollution model (United States)

    D'Antona, Francesca

    The Joint Discussion 4 of the Sydney IAU General Assembly takes place at a very interesting stage for the