WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulge metal-poor globular

  1. Near-Infrared Properties of Metal-poor Globular Clusters in the Galactic Bulge Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, S. -H.; Kim, J. -W.; Shin, I. -G.; Chung, C.; Lim, D. -W.; Park, J. -H.; Kim, H. -I.; Han, W.; Sohn, Y. -J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. J, H, and K' images obtained from the near-infrared imager CFHTIR on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to derive the morphological parameters of the red giant branch (RGB) in the near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams for 12 metal-poor globular clusters in the Galactic bulge direction. Using the compiled data set of the RGB parameters for the observed 12 clusters, in addition to the previously studied 5 clusters, we discuss the properties of the RGB morphology for the clusters...

  2. Tidal stripping stellar substructures around four metal-poor globular clusters in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Jung, DooSeok; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the spatial density configuration of stars around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642 and NGC 6723) in the Galactic bulge region using wide-field deep J, H, and K imaging data obtained with the WFCAM near-infrared array on United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. Statistical weighted filtering algorithm for the stars on the color-magnitude diagram is applied in order to sort cluster member candidates from the field star contamination. In two-dimensional isodensity contour maps of the clusters, we find that all of the four globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of tidally stripping stellar features beyond tidal radius, in the form of tidal tail or small density lobes or chunk. The orientations of the extended stellar substructures are likely to be associated with the effect of the dynamic interaction with the Galaxy and the cluster space motion. The observed radial density profiles of the four globular clusters also describe the extended substructures; they depart from t...

  3. High-resolution abundance analysis of red giants in the metal-poor bulge globular cluster HP~1

    CERN Document Server

    Barbuy, B; Vemado, A; Ernandes, H; Ortolani, S; Saviane, I; Bica, E; Minniti, D; Dias, B; Momany, Y; Hill, V; Zoccali, M; Siqueira-Mello, C

    2016-01-01

    The globular cluster HP~1 is projected at only 3.33 degrees from the Galactic center. Together with its distance, this makes it one of the most central globular clusters in the Milky Way. It has a blue horizontal branch (BHB) and a metallicity of [Fe/H]~-1.0. This means that it probably is one of the oldest objects in the Galaxy. Abundance ratios can reveal the nucleosynthesis pattern of the first stars as well as the early chemical enrichment and early formation of stellar populations. High-resolution spectra obtained for six stars were analyzed to derive the abundances of the light elements C, N, O, Na, and Al, the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, and the heavy elements Sr, Y , Zr, Ba, La, and Eu.} High-resolution spectra of six red giants that are confirmed members of the bulge globular cluster HP~1 were obtained with the 8m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph in FLAMES-UVES configuration. The spectroscopic parameter derivation was based on the excitation and ionization equilibrium of FeI...

  4. Sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster NGC 6397

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Sulphur (S) is a non-refractory alpha-element that is not locked into dust grains in the interstellar medium. Thus no correction to the measured, interstellar sulphur abundance is needed and it can be readily compared to the S content in stellar photospheres. Here we present the first measurement of sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, as detected in a MIKE/Magellan high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectrum of one red giant star. While abundance ratios of sulphur are available for a larger number of Galactic stars down to an [Fe/H] of ~ -3.5 dex, no measurements in globular clusters more metal poor than -1.5 dex have been reported so far. We find a NLTE, 3-D abundance ratio of [S/Fe] = +0.52 +/- 0.20 (stat.) +/- 0.08 (sys.), based on the S I, Multiplet 1 line at 9212.8A. This value is consistent with a Galactic halo plateau as typical of other alpha-elements in GCs and field stars, but we cannot rule out its membership with a second branch of increasing [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H],...

  5. The EMBLA Survey - Metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Louise M.; Asplund, Martin; Keller, Stefan C.; Casey, Andrew R.; Yong, David; Lind, Karin; Frebel, Anna; Hays, Austin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Bessell, Michael S.; Casagrande, Luca; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.; Owen, Christopher I.; Da Costa, Gary S.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Tisserand, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Cosmological models predict the oldest stars in the Galaxy should be found closest to the centre of the potential well, in the bulge. The EMBLA Survey successfully searched for these old, metal-poor stars by making use of the distinctive SkyMapper photometric filters to discover candidate metal-poor stars in the bulge. Their metal-poor nature was then confirmed using the AAOmega spectrograph on the AAT. Here we present an abundance analysis of 10 bulge stars with -2.8 <[Fe/H]<- 1.7 from MIKE/Magellan observations, in total determining the abundances of 22 elements. Combining these results with our previous high-resolution data taken as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we have started to put together a picture of the chemical and kinematic nature of the most metal-poor stars in the bulge. The currently available kinematic data is consistent with the stars belonging to the bulge, although more accurate measurements are needed to constrain the stars' orbits. The chemistry of these bulge stars deviates from that found in halo stars of the same metallicity. Two notable differences are the absence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor bulge stars, and the alpha-element abundances exhibit a large intrinsic scatter and include stars which are underabundant in these typically enhanced elements.

  6. The EMBLA Survey -- Metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, Louise M; Keller, Stefan C; Casey, Andrew R; Yong, David; Lind, Karin; Frebel, Anna; Hays, Austin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Bessell, Michael S; Casagrande, Luca; Marino, Anna F; Nataf, David M; Owen, Christopher I; Da Costa, Gary S; Schmidt, Brian P; Tisserand, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological models predict the oldest stars in the Galaxy should be found closest to the centre of the potential well, in the bulge. The EMBLA Survey successfully searched for these old, metal-poor stars by making use of the distinctive SkyMapper photometric filters to discover candidate metal-poor stars in the bulge. Their metal-poor nature was then confirmed using the AAOmega spectrograph on the AAT. Here we present an abundance analysis of 10 bulge stars with -2.8<[Fe/H]<-1.7 from MIKE/Magellan observations, in total determining the abundances of 22 elements. Combining these results with our previous high-resolution data taken as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we have started to put together a picture of the chemical and kinematic nature of the most metal-poor stars in the bulge. The currently available kinematic data is consistent with the stars belonging to the bulge, although more accurate measurements are needed to constrain the stars' orbits. The chemistry of these bulge stars deviates from that ...

  7. Chemistry of the Most Metal-poor Stars in the Bulge and the z > 10 Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Metal-poor stars in the Milky Way are local relics of the epoch of the first stars and the first galaxies. However, a low metallicity does not prove that a star formed in this ancient era, as metal-poor stars form over a range of redshift in different environments. Theoretical models of Milky Way formation have shown that at constant metallicity, the oldest stars are those closest to the center of the Galaxy on the most tightly-bound orbits. For that reason, the most metal-poor stars in the bulge of the Milky Way provide excellent tracers of the chemistry of the high-redshift universe. We report the dynamics and detailed chemical abundances of three stars in the bulge with [Fe/H] $\\lesssim-2.7$, two of which are the most metal-poor stars in the bulge in the literature. We find that with the exception of scandium, all three stars follow the abundance trends identified previously for metal-poor halo stars. These three stars have the lowest [Sc II/Fe] abundances yet seen in $\\alpha$-enhanced giant stars in the G...

  8. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, L M; Casey, A R; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-11-26

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon. PMID:26560034

  9. VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC BULGE FOUND BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite its importance for understanding the nature of early stellar generations and for constraining Galactic bulge formation models, at present little is known about the metal-poor stellar content of the central Milky Way. This is a consequence of the great distances involved and intervening dust obscuration, which challenge optical studies. However, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), a wide-area, multifiber, high-resolution spectroscopic survey within Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, is exploring the chemistry of all Galactic stellar populations at infrared wavelengths, with particular emphasis on the disk and the bulge. An automated spectral analysis of data on 2403 giant stars in 12 fields in the bulge obtained during APOGEE commissioning yielded five stars with low metallicity ([Fe/H] ≤ –1.7), including two that are very metal-poor [Fe/H] ∼ –2.1 by bulge standards. Luminosity-based distance estimates place the 5 stars within the outer bulge, where 1246 of the other analyzed stars may reside. A manual reanalysis of the spectra verifies the low metallicities, and finds these stars to be enhanced in the α-elements O, Mg, and Si without significant α-pattern differences with other local halo or metal-weak thick-disk stars of similar metallicity, or even with other more metal-rich bulge stars. While neither the kinematics nor chemistry of these stars can yet definitively determine which, if any, are truly bulge members, rather than denizens of other populations co-located with the bulge, the newly identified stars reveal that the chemistry of metal-poor stars in the central Galaxy resembles that of metal-weak thick-disk stars at similar metallicity.

  10. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, L M; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-01-01

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that the most metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through...

  11. Before the Bar: Kinematic Detection of a Spheroidal Metal-poor Bulge Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. M.; Koch, A.; Storm, J.; Nataf, D. M.; De Propris, R.; Walker, A. R.; Bono, G.; Johnson, C. I.; Shen, Juntai; Li, Z.-Y.

    2016-04-01

    We present 947 radial velocities of RR Lyrae variable stars in four fields located toward the Galactic bulge, observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA-RR). We show that these RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) exhibit hot kinematics and null or negligible rotation and are therefore members of a separate population from the bar/pseudobulge that currently dominates the mass and luminosity of the inner Galaxy. Our RRLs predate these structures and have metallicities, kinematics, and spatial distribution that are consistent with a “classical” bulge, although we cannot yet completely rule out the possibility that they are the metal-poor tail of a more metal-rich ([{Fe}/{{H}}]∼ -1 dex) halo–bulge population. The complete catalog of radial velocities for the BRAVA-RR stars is also published electronically.

  12. Before the Bar: Kinematic Detection of A Spheroidal Metal-Poor Bulge Component

    CERN Document Server

    Kunder, Andrea; Storm, J; Nataf, D M; De Propris, R; Walker, A R; Bono, G; Johnson, C I; Shen, J; Li, Z Y

    2016-01-01

    We present 947 radial velocities of RR Lyrae variable stars in four fields located toward the Galactic bulge, observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA-RR). We show that these RR Lyrae stars exhibit hot kinematics and null or negligible rotation and are therefore members of a separate population from the bar/pseudobulge that currently dominates the mass and luminosity of the inner Galaxy. Our RR Lyrae stars predate these structures, and have metallicities, kinematics, and spatial distribution that are consistent with a "classical" bulge, although we cannot yet completely rule out the possibility that they are the metal-poor tail of a more metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ -1 dex) halo-bulge population. The complete catalog of radial velocities for the BRAVA-RR stars is also published electronically.

  13. Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge: A population potpourri⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; McWilliam, Andrew; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.

    2016-03-01

    We present a comprehensive chemical abundance analysis of five red giants and two horizontal branch (HB) stars towards the southern edge of the Galactic bulge, at (l, b) ~ (0°,-11°). Based on high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph, we derived up to 23 chemical element abundances and identify a mixed bag of stars, representing various populations in the central regions of the Galaxy. Although cosmological simulations predict that the inner Galaxy was host to the first stars in the Universe, we see no chemical evidence of the ensuing massive supernova explosions: all of our targets exhibit halo-like, solar [Sc/Fe] ratios, which is in contrast to the low values predicted from Population III nucleosynthesis. One of the targets is a CEMP-s star at [Fe/H] = -2.52 dex, and another target is a moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.53 dex) CH star with strong enrichment in s-process elements (e.g., [Ba/Fe] = 1.35). These individuals provide the first contenders of these classes of stars towards the bulge. Four of the carbon-normal stars exhibit abundance patterns reminiscent of halo star across a metallicity range spanning -2.0 to -2.6 dex, i.e., enhanced α-elements and solar Fe-peak and neutron-capture elements, and the remaining one is a regular metal-rich bulge giant. The position, distance, and radial velocity of one of the metal-poor HB stars coincides with simulations of the old trailing arm of the disrupted Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. While their highly uncertain proper motions prohibit a clear kinematic separation, the stars' chemical abundances and distances suggest that these metal-poor candidates, albeit located towards the bulge, are not of the bulge, but rather inner halo stars on orbits that make them pass through the central regions. Thus, we caution similar claims of detections of metal-poor stars as true habitants of the bulge. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas

  14. Globular clusters in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, E; Barbuy, B

    2015-01-01

    A view of the Galactic bulge by means of their globular clusters is necessary for a deep understanding of its formation and evolution. Connections between the globular cluster and field star properties in terms of kinematics, orbits, chemical abundances and ages should shed light on different stellar population components. Based on spatial distribution and metallicity, we define a probable best list of bulge clusters, containing 43 entries. Future work on newly discovered objects, mostly from the VVV survey, is suggested. These candidates might alleviate the issue of missing clusters on the far side of the bulge. We discuss the reddening law affecting the cluster distances towards the center of the Galaxy, and conclude that the most suitable total-to-selective absorption value appears to be R$_{\\rm V}$=3.2, in agreement with recent analyses. An update of elemental abundances for bulge clusters is provided.

  15. Globular Clusters in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, E.; Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.

    2016-06-01

    A view of the Galactic bulge by means of their globular clusters is fundamental for a deep understanding of its formation and evolution. Connections between the globular cluster and field star properties in terms of kinematics, orbits, chemical abundances, and ages should shed light on different stellar population components. Based on spatial distribution and metallicity, we define a probable best list of bulge clusters, containing 43 entries. Future work on newly discovered objects, mostly from the VVV survey, is suggested. These candidates might alleviate the issue of missing clusters on the far side of the bulge. We discuss the reddening law affecting the cluster distances towards the centre of the Galaxy, and conclude that the most suitable total-to-selective absorption value appears to be R V=3.2, in agreement with recent analyses. An update of elemental abundances for bulge clusters is provided.

  16. An Age Difference of 2 Gyr between a Metal-Rich and a Metal-Poor Globular Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, B M S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-01-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of both our Galaxy and others, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the universe. They also exhibit a range of metallicities, with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and later swallowed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed in situ. Here we present an age determination of the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae by fitting the properties of the cluster white dwarf population, which implies an absolute age of 9.9 (0.7) Gyr at 95% confidence. This is about 2.0 Gyr younger than inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC 6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evi...

  17. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Detailed Abundances in the Metal-poor Globular Cluster NGC 4372

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, I San; Geisler, D; Villanova, S; Kacharov, N; Koch, A; Carraro, G; Tautvaišiene, G; Vallenari, A; Alfaro, E J; Bensby, T; Flaccomio, E; Francois, P; Korn, A J; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Heiter, U; Hourihane, A; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; de Laverny, P; Masseron, T; Morbidelli, L; Sbordone, L; Sousa, S G; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S

    2015-01-01

    We present the abundance analysis for a sample of 7 red giant branch stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4372 based on UVES spectra acquired as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey. This is the first extensive study of this cluster from high resolution spectroscopy. We derive abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni, Y, Ba, and La. We find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.19 $\\pm$ 0.03 and find no evidence for a metallicity spread. This metallicity makes NGC 4372 one of the most metal-poor galactic globular clusters. We also find an {\\alpha}-enhancement typical of halo globular clusters at this metallicity. Significant spreads are observed in the abundances of light elements. In particular we find a Na-O anti-correlation. Abundances of O are relatively high compared with other globular clusters. This could indicate that NGC 4372 was formed in an environment with high O for its metallicity. A Mg-Al spread is also present which spans a range of more than 0.5 dex in Al abundances. Na is correlated wit...

  18. Looking for imprints of the first stellar generations in metal-poor bulge field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira-Mello, C; Barbuy, B; Freeman, K; Ness, M; Depagne, E; Cantelli, E; Pignatari, M; Hirschi, R; Frischknecht, U; Meynet, G; Maeder, A

    2016-01-01

    Context. Efforts to look for signatures of the first stars have concentrated on metal-poor halo objects. However, the low end of the bulge metallicity distribution has been shown to host some of the oldest objects in the Milky Way and hence this Galactic component potentially offers interesting targets to look at imprints of the first stellar generations. As a pilot project, we selected bulge field stars already identified in the ARGOS survey as having [Fe/H] ~ -1 and oversolar [alpha/Fe] ratios, and we used FLAMES-UVES to obtain detailed abundances of key elements that are believed to reveal imprints of the first stellar generations. Aims. The main purpose of this study is to analyse selected ARGOS stars using new high-resolution (R~45,000) and high-signal-to-noise (S/N >100) spectra. We aim to derive their stellar parameters and elemental ratios, in particular the abundances of C, N, the alpha-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the neutron-capture s-process dominated elements Y, Z...

  19. Chemistry of the Most Metal-poor Stars in the Bulge and the z ≳ 10 Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Schlaufman, Kevin C.

    2015-08-01

    Metal-poor stars in the Milky Way are local relics of the epoch of the first stars and the first galaxies. However, a low metallicity does not prove that a star formed in this ancient era, as metal-poor stars form over a range of redshift in different environments. Theoretical models of Milky Way formation have shown that at constant metallicity, the oldest stars are those closest to the center of the Galaxy on the most tightly bound orbits. For that reason, the most metal-poor stars in the bulge of the Milky Way provide excellent tracers of the chemistry of the high-redshift universe. We report the dynamics and detailed chemical abundances of three stars in the bulge with [{Fe}/{{H}}]≲ -2.7, two of which are the most metal-poor stars in the bulge in the literature. We find that with the exception of scandium, all three stars follow the abundance trends identified previously for metal-poor halo stars. These three stars have the lowest [Sc ii/Fe] abundances yet seen in α-enhanced giant stars in the Galaxy. Moreover, all three stars are outliers in the otherwise tight [Sc ii/Fe]-[Ti ii/Fe] relation observed among metal-poor halo stars. Theoretical models predict that there is a 30% chance that at least one of these stars formed at z≳ 15, while there is a 70% chance that at least one formed at 10≲ z≲ 15. These observations imply that by z˜ 10, the progenitor galaxies of the Milky Way had both reached [{Fe}/{{H}}]˜ -3.0 and established the abundance pattern observed in extremely metal-poor stars. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  20. Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge - a population potpourri

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas; Preston, George W; Thompson, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive chemical abundance analysis of five red giants and two horizontal branch (HB) stars towards the southern Galactic bulge, at (l,b)$\\sim$(0$^{\\rm o}$,-11$^{\\rm o}$). Based on high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph, we derived up to 23 chemical element abundances and identify a mixed bag of stars, representing various populations in the central regions of the Galaxy. Although cosmological simulations predict that the inner Galaxy was host to the first stars in the Universe, we see no chemical evidence of the ensuing massive supernova explosions: all of our targets exhibit halo-like, solar [Sc/Fe] ratios, which is in contrast to the low values predicted from Population III nucleosynthesis. One of the targets is a CEMP-s star at [Fe/H]=-2.52 dex, and another one is a moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-1.53 dex) CH star with strong enrichment in s-process elements (e.g., [Ba/Fe]=1.35). These individuals provide the first contenders of these classes of stars ...

  1. Primordial r-process Dispersion in Metal-Poor Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U

    2011-01-01

    Heavy elements, those produced by neutron-capture reactions, have traditionally shown no star-to-star dispersion in all but a handful of metal-poor globular clusters (GCs). Recent detections of low [Pb/Eu] ratios or upper limits in several metal-poor GCs indicate that the heavy elements in these GCs were produced exclusively by an r-process. Reexamining GC heavy element abundances from the literature, we find unmistakable correlations between the [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] ratios in 4 metal-poor GCs (M5, M15, M92, and NGC 3201), only 2 of which were known previously. This indicates that the total r-process abundances vary star-to-star (by factors of 2-6) relative to Fe within each GC. We also identify potential dispersion in two other GCs (M3 and M13). Several GCs (M12, M80, and NGC 6752) show no evidence of r-process dispersion. The r-process dispersion is not correlated with the well-known light element dispersion, indicating it was present in the gas throughout the duration of star formation. The observations ava...

  2. Evidence for inhomogeneous reionization in the local Universe from metal-poor globular cluster systems

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, Lee R; Diemand, Jürg; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A; Moore, Ben; Brodie, Jean P

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting a fundamental characteristic of galaxy assembly in the {\\Lambda}CDM paradigm, the observed spatial biasing and kinematics of metal-poor globular star clusters are used to constrain the local reionization epoch around individual galaxies. Selecting three galaxies located in different environments, the first attempt at constraining the environmental propagation of reionization in the local Universe is carried out. The joint constraint from the three galaxies (z_reion = 10.5^{+1.0}_{-0.9}) agrees remarkably well with the latest WMAP constraint on z_reion for a simple instantaneous reionization model. More importantly, the range of z_reion values found here are consistent with the global range of z_reion estimates from other observations. We furthermore find a 1.7{\\sigma} indication that reionization completed in low-density environments before the intergalactic medium in high-density environments was reionized. This is consistent with certain theoretical models that predict that reionization was globa...

  3. Near-Infrared Imaging of the Central Regions of Metal-Poor Inner Spheroid Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Davidge, T J

    2001-01-01

    JHK images obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Adaptive Optics Bonnette (AOB) are used to investigate the near-infrared photometric properties of red giant branch (RGB) and horizontal branch (HB) stars in eight metal-poor globular clusters with R_GC < 2 kpc. The slope of the RGB on the (K, J-K) CMDs confirms the metal-poor nature of these clusters, four of which appear to have metallicities comparable to M92. The luminosity functions of RGB stars in inner spheroid and outer halo clusters have similar slopes, although there is a tendency for core-collapsed clusters to have slightly flatter luminosity functions than non-collapsed clusters. The distribution of red HB stars on the (K, J-K) CMDs of inner spheroid clusters with [Fe/H] ~ -1.5 is very different from that of clusters with [Fe/H] ~ -2.2, suggesting that metallicity is the main parameter defining HB content among these objects. The RGB-bump is detected in four of the inner spheroid clusters, and this feature is used to compute dis...

  4. Chemistry of the Most Metal-poor Stars in the Bulge and the z > 10 Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Andrew R.; Schlaufman, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Metal-poor stars in the Milky Way are local relics of the epoch of the first stars and the first galaxies. However, a low metallicity does not prove that a star formed in this ancient era, as metal-poor stars form over a range of redshift in different environments. Theoretical models of Milky Way formation have shown that at constant metallicity, the oldest stars are those closest to the center of the Galaxy on the most tightly-bound orbits. For that reason, the most metal-poor stars in the b...

  5. A differential chemical element analysis of the metal poor Globular Cluster NGC 6397

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We present chemical abundances in three red giants and two turn-off stars in the metal poor Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397 based on spectroscopy obtained with the MIKE high resolution spectrograph on the Magellan 6.5-m Clay telescope. Our results are based on a line-by-line differential abundance analysis relative to the well-studied red giant Arcturus and the Galactic halo field star Hip 66815. At a mean of -2.10 +/- 0.02 (stat.) +/- 0.07 (sys.) the differential iron abundance is in good agreement with other studies in the literature based on gf-values. As in previous, differential works we find a distinct departure from ionization equilibrium in that the abundances of Fe I and Fe II differ by ~0.1 dex, with opposite sign for the RGB and TO stars. The alpha-element ratios are enhanced to 0.4 (RGB) and 0.3 dex (TO), respectively, and we also confirm strong variations in the O, Na, and Al/Fe abundance ratios. Accordingly, the light-element abundance patterns in one of the red giants can be attributed ...

  6. The extreme chemistry of multiple stellar populations in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4833

    CERN Document Server

    Carretta, E; Gratton, R G; D'Orazi, V; Lucatello, S; Momany, Y; Sollima, A; Bellazzini, M; Catanzaro, G; Leone, F

    2014-01-01

    Our FLAMES survey of Na-O anticorrelation in globular clusters (GCs) is extended to NGC 4833, a metal-poor GC with a long blue tail on the horizontal branch (HB). We present the abundance analysis for a large sample of 78 red giants based on UVES and GIRAFFE spectra acquired at the ESO-VLT. We derived abundances of Na, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Ba, La, Nd. This is the first extensive study of this cluster from high resolution spectroscopy. On the scale of our survey, the metallicity of NGC 4833 is [Fe/H]=-2.015+/-0.004+/-0.084 dex (rms=0.014 dex) from 12 stars observed with UVES, where the first error is from statistics and the second one refers to the systematic effects. The iron abundance in NGC 4833 is homogeneous at better than 6%. On the other hand, the light elements involved in proton-capture reactions at high temperature show the large star-to-star variations observed in almost all GCs studied so far. The Na-O anticorrelation in NGC 4833 is quite extended, as expecte...

  7. Chemical Abundances in NGC 5053: A Very Metal-Poor and Dynamically Complex Globular Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Boberg, Owen M; Vesperini, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    NGC 5053 provides a rich environment to test our understanding of the complex evolution of globular clusters (GCs). Recent studies have found that this cluster has interesting morphological features beyond the typical spherical distribution of GCs, suggesting that external tidal effects have played an important role in its evolution and current properties. Additionally, simulations have shown that NGC 5053 could be a likely candidate to belong to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr dSph) stream. Using the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO-Hydra multi-object spectrograph, we have collected high quality (signal-to-noise ratio $\\sim$ 75-90), medium-resolution spectra for red giant branch stars in NGC 5053. Using these spectra we have measured the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances in the cluster. We measure an average cluster [Fe/H] abundance of -2.45 with a standard deviation of 0.04 dex, making NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor GCs in the Milky Way (MW). The [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] we measure are consist...

  8. Discovery of a Metal-Poor Field Giant with a Globular Cluster Second-Generation Abundance Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Robin, A. C.; Moreno, E; Schiavon, R. P.; Peréz, A. E. García; Vieira, K.; Cunha, K.; Zamora, O.; Sneden, C.; Carrera, R.; Johnson, J.A.; Shetrone, M.; Zasowski, G.; García-Hernándes, D. A.; Majewski, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the direct detection from observations obtained with the APOGEE survey of a metal-poor ([Fe/H]$=-1.3$) field giant star in the Milky Way, with an extreme Mg-Al abundance ([Mg/Fe]$=$-0.31; [Al/Fe]$=$1.49) seen only among the secondary population of globular clusters. This star, 2M16011638-1201525 found using SDSSIII/APOGEE data also shows particularly atypical light-element patterns not seen among Galactic disk field stars, indicating that it could have been born in a globular clu...

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge (Koch+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; McWilliam, A.; Preston, G. W.; Thompson, I. B.

    2015-11-01

    The stars studied here were identified in a search for EMP stars in the Galactic bulge (Preston et al. unpublished), near b=-10°, employing the 2.5-m du Pont and 1-m Swope telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory. Observations of seven EMP candidates presented here were taken spread over six nights in July 2007 with a median seeing of 0.95", while individual exposures reached as high as 2" and notably better conditions (~0.6") during several nights. Our chosen set-up included a 0.5" slit, 2x1 binning in spectral and spatial dimensions and resulted in a resolving power of R~45000. An observing log is given in Table 1. (3 data files).

  10. Discovery of a Metal-Poor Field Giant with a Globular Cluster Second-Generation Abundance Pattern

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Trincado, J G; Moreno, E; Schiavon, R P; Peréz, A E García; Vieira, K; Cunha, K; Zamora, O; Sneden, C; Carrera, R; Johnson, J A; Shetrone, M; Zasowski, G; García-Hernándes, D A; Majewski, S R; Reylé, C; Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Martinez-Medina, L A; Pérez-Villegas, A; Valenzuela, O; Pichardo, B; Meza, A; Mészáros, Sz; Sobeck, J; Geisler, D; Anders, F; Schultheis, M; Tang, B; Roman-Lopes, A; Mennickent, R E; Pan, K; Nitschelm, C; Allard, F

    2016-01-01

    We report on the direct detection from observations obtained with the APOGEE survey of a metal-poor ([Fe/H]$=-1.3$) field giant star in the Milky Way, with an extreme Mg-Al abundance ([Mg/Fe]$=$-0.31; [Al/Fe]$=$1.49) seen only among the secondary population of globular clusters. This star, 2M16011638-1201525 found using SDSSIII/APOGEE data also shows particularly atypical light-element patterns not seen among Galactic disk field stars, indicating that it could have been born in a globular cluster. We explore several explanations, in particular studying the orbit of the star to check the probability of it being related to known globular clusters. With the use of a Monte Carlo scheme, we performed simple orbital integrations assuming the estimated distance of 2M16011638-1201525 and the available six-dimensional phase-space coordinates of 63 globular clusters, looking for close encounters in the past with a minimum distance approach within the tidal radius for each cluster. We found a very low probability that 2...

  11. Clear evidence for the presence of second-generation asymptotic giant branch stars in metal-poor Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Monelli, M; Cassisi, S; Stetson, P B; Zamora, O; Shetrone, M; Lucatello, S

    2015-01-01

    Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are known to host multiple stellar populations: a first generation with a chemical pattern typical of halo field stars and a second generation (SG) enriched in Na and Al and depleted in O and Mg. Both stellar generations are found at different evolutionary stages (e.g., the main-sequence turnoff, the subgiant branch, and the red giant branch). The non detection of SG asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in several metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) GCs suggests that not all SG stars ascend the AGB phase, and that failed AGB stars may be very common in metal-poor GCs. This observation represents a serious problem for stellar evolution and GC formation/evolution theories. We report fourteen SG-AGB stars in four metal-poor GCs (M 13, M 5, M 3, and M 2) with different observational properties: horizontal branch (HB) morphology, metallicity, and age. By combining the H-band Al abundances obtained by the APOGEE survey with ground-based optical photometry, we identify SG Al-rich AGB stars in...

  12. A wide-field photometric survey for extratidal tails around five metal-poor globular clusters in the Galactic halo

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Sohn, Sangmo T; Park, Jang-Hyun; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Ho-Il; Lee, Young-Wook; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Wide-field deep gri images obtained with the Megacam of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) are used to investigate the spatial configuration of stars around five metal-poor globular cluster M15, M30, M53, NGC 5053, and NGC 5466, in a field-of-view ~3 degree. Applying a mask filtering algorithm to the color-magnitude diagrams of the observed stars, we sorted cluster's member star candidates that are used to examine the characteristics of the spatial stellar distribution surrounding the target clusters. The smoothed surface density maps and the overlaid isodensity contours indicate that all of the five metal-poor globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of extratidal overdensity features over their tidal radii, in the form of extended tidal tails around the clusters. The orientations of the observed extratidal features show signatures of tidal tails tracing the clusters' orbits, inferred from their proper motions, and effects of dynamical interactions with the Galaxy. Our findings include detections of ...

  13. The helium abundance in the metal-poor globular clusters M30 and NGC6397

    CERN Document Server

    Mucciarelli, A; Lanzoni, B; Ferraro, F R

    2014-01-01

    We present the helium abundance of the two metal-poor clusters M30 and NGC6397. Helium estimates have been obtained by using the high-resolution spectrograph FLAMES at the ESO Very Large Telescope and by measuring the HeI line at 4471 A in 24 and 35 horizontal branch stars in M30 and NGC6397, respectively. This sample represents the largest dataset of He abundances collected so far in metal-poor clusters. The He mass fraction turns out to be Y=0.252+-0.003 (sigma=0.021) for M30 and Y=0.241+-0.004 (sigma=0.023) NGC6397. These values are fully compatible with the cosmological abundance, thus suggesting that the horizontal branch stars are not strongly enriched in He. The small spread of the Y distributions are compatible with those expected from the observed main sequence splitting. Finally, we find an hint of a weak anticorrelation between Y and [O/Fe] in NGC6397 in agreement with the prediction that O-poor stars are formed by (He-enriched) gas polluted by the products of hot proton-capture reactions.

  14. Detailed Chemical Abundances in NGC 5824: Another Metal-Poor Globular Cluster with Internal Heavy Element Abundance Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Bailey, John I; Spencer, Meghin; Crane, Jeffrey D; Shectman, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundances of 39 elements derived from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the luminous, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5824. We observe 26 stars in NGC 5824 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and two stars using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph. We derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-1.94+/-0.02 (statistical) +/-0.10 (systematic). The metallicity dispersion of this sample of stars, 0.08 dex, is in agreement with previous work and does not exceed the expected observational errors. Previous work suggested an internal metallicity spread only when fainter samples of stars were considered, so we cannot exclude the possibility of an intrinsic metallicity dispersion in NGC 5824. The M2FS spectra reveal a large internal dispersion in [Mg/Fe], 0.28 dex, which is found in a few other luminous, metal-poor clusters. [Mg/Fe] is correlated with [O/Fe] and anti-correlated with [Na/Fe] and [Al/F...

  15. High resolution spectroscopic analysis of seven giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6723

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Zoccali, M.; Vásquez, S.; Ripepi, V.; Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Globular clusters associated with the Galactic bulge are important tracers of stellar populations in the inner Galaxy. High resolution analysis of stars in these clusters allows us to characterize them in terms of kinematics, metallicity, and individual abundances, and to compare these fingerprints with those characterizing field populations. Aims: We present iron and element ratios for seven red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC 6723, based on high resolution spectroscopy. Methods: High resolution spectra (R ~ 48 000) of seven K giants belonging to NGC 6723 were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph at the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope. Photospheric parameters were derived from ~130 Fe i and Fe ii transitions. Abundance ratios were obtained from line-to-line spectrum synthesis calculations on clean selected features. Results: An intermediate metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.98 ± 0.08 dex and a heliocentric radial velocity of vhel = -96.6 ± 1.3 km s-1 were found for NGC 6723. Alpha-element abundances present enhancements of [O/Fe] = 0.29 ± 0.18 dex, [Mg/Fe] = 0.23 ± 0.10 dex, [Si/Fe] = 0.36 ± 0.05 dex, and [Ca/Fe] = 0.30 ± 0.07 dex. Similar overabundance is found for the iron-peak Ti with [Ti/Fe] = 0.24 ± 0.09 dex. Odd-Z elements Na and Al present abundances of [Na/Fe] = 0.00 ± 0.21 dex and [Al/Fe] = 0.31 ± 0.21 dex, respectively. Finally, the s-element Ba is also enhanced by [Ba/Fe] = 0.22 ± 0.21 dex. Conclusions: The enhancement levels of NGC 6723 are comparable to those of other metal-intermediate bulge globular clusters. In turn, these enhancement levels are compatible with the abundance profiles displayed by bulge field stars at that metallicity. This hints at a possible similar chemical evolution with globular clusters and the metal-poor of the bulge going through an early prompt chemical enrichment.

  16. On the kinematic separation of field and cluster stars across the bulge globular NGC 6528

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma-Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Prada Moroni, P. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Dall' Ora, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Aparicio, A.; Monelli, M. [Instituto de Astrofìsica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Calamida, A.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00044 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Gilmozzi, R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Matsunaga, N. [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 10762-30, Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, 3 Nagano 97-0101 (Japan); Walker, A., E-mail: eplagioia@roma2.infn.it [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-02-10

    We present deep and precise multi-band photometry of the Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6528. The current data set includes optical and near-infrared images collected with ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The images cover a time interval of almost 10 yr, and we have been able to carry out a proper-motion separation between cluster and field stars. We performed a detailed comparison in the m {sub F814W}, m {sub F606W} – m {sub F814W} color-magnitude diagram with two empirical calibrators observed in the same bands. We found that NGC 6528 is coeval with and more metal-rich than 47 Tuc. Moreover, it appears older and more metal-poor than the super-metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. The current evidence is supported by several diagnostics (red horizontal branch, red giant branch bump, shape of the sub-giant branch, slope of the main sequence) that are minimally affected by uncertainties in reddening and distance. We fit the optical observations with theoretical isochrones based on a scaled-solar chemical mixture and found an age of 11 ± 1 Gyr and an iron abundance slightly above solar ([Fe/H] = +0.20). The iron abundance and the old cluster age further support the recent spectroscopic findings suggesting a rapid chemical enrichment of the Galactic bulge.

  17. A study of rotating globular clusters - the case of the old, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4372

    CERN Document Server

    Kacharov, N; Koch, A; Frank, M J; Martin, N F; van de Ven, G; Puzia, T H; McDonald, I; Johnson, C I; Zijlstra, A A

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present the first in-depth study of the kinematic properties and derive the structural parameters of NGC 4372 based on the fit of a Plummer profile and a rotating, physical model. We explore the link between internal rotation to different cluster properties and together with similar studies of more GCs, we put these in the context of globular cluster formation and evolution. Methods: We present radial velocities for 131 cluster member stars measured from high-resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations. Their membership to the GC is additionally confirmed from precise metallicity estimates. Using this kinematic data set we build a velocity dispersion profile and a systemic rotation curve. Additionally, we obtain an elliptical number density profile of NGC 4372 based on optical images using a MCMC fitting algorithm. From this we derive the cluster's half-light radius and ellipticity as r_h=3.4'+/-0.04' and e=0.08+/-0.01. Finally, we give a physical interpretation of the observed morphological and kinematic...

  18. The SLUGGS survey: inferring the formation epochs of metal-poor and metal-rich globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Duncan A; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Usher, Christopher; Brodie, Jean P; Strader, Jay

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel, observationally-based framework for the formation epochs and sites of globular clusters (GCs) in a cosmological context. Measuring directly the mean ages of the metal-poor and metal-rich GC subpopulations in our own Galaxy, and in other galaxies, is observationally challenging. Here we apply an alternative approach utilising the property that the galaxy mass-metallicity relation is a strong function of redshift (or look-back age) but is relatively insensitive to galaxy mass for massive galaxies. Assuming that GCs follow galaxy mass-metallicity relations that evolve with redshift, one can estimate the mean formation epochs of the two GC subpopulations by knowing their mean metallicities and the growth in host galaxy mass with redshift. Recently, the SLUGGS survey has measured the spectroscopic metallicities for over 1000 GCs in a dozen massive early-type galaxies. Here we use these measurements, and our new metallicity matching method, to infer a mean age for metal-rich GCs of 11.5 Gyr (z =...

  19. The metal content of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6528

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, M.; Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Ortolani, S.; Renzini, A.; Bica, E.; Momany, Y.; Pasquini, L.; Minniti, D.; Rich, R. M.

    2004-08-01

    High resolution spectra of five stars in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6528 were obtained at the 8m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph. Out of the five stars, two of them showed evidence of binarity. The target stars belong to the horizontal and red giant branch stages, at 4000 elemental ratios for this template bulge cluster, as a basis for the fundamental calibration of metal-rich populations. The present analysis provides a metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.1±0.2 and the α-elements O, Mg and Si, show [α/Fe] ≈ +0.1, whereas Ca and Ti are around the solar value or below, resulting in an overall metallicity Z ≈ Z⊙. Observations collected both at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal and La Silla, Chile (ESO programme 65.L-0340) and with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by AURA Inc. under contract to NASA. Tables \\ref{targets}, \\ref{logobs}, \\ref{tablines} and Fig. \\ref{chart} are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  20. VI Photometry of Globular Clusters NGC6293 and NGC6541: The Formation of the Metal-Poor Inner Halo Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J W; Lee, Jae-Woo; Carney, Bruce W.

    2006-01-01

    We present VI photometry of the metal-poor inner halo globular clusters NGC6293 and NGC6541 using the planetary camera of the WFPC2 on board HST. Our color-magnitude diagrams of the clusters show well-defined BHB populations, consistent with their low metallicities and old ages. NGC6293 appears to have blue straggler stars in the cluster's central region. We discuss the interstellar reddening and the distance modulus of NGC6293 and NGC6541 and obtain E(B-V) = 0.40 and (m-M)_0 = 14.61 for NGC6293 and E(B-V) = 0.14 and (m-M)_0 = 14.19 for NGC6541. Our results confirm that NGC6293 and NGC6541 are clearly located in the Galaxy's central regions (R_{GC} < 3 kpc). We also discuss the differential reddening across NGC6293. The interstellar reddening value of NGC6293 appears to vary by Delta E(B-V) ~ 0.02 -- 0.04 mag within our small field of view. The most notable result of our study is that the inner halo clusters NGC6293 and NGC6541 essentially have the same ages as M92, confirming the previous result from the ...

  1. New Analyses of Star-to-Star Abundance Variations Among Bright Giants in the Mildly Metal-Poor Globular Cluster M5

    CERN Document Server

    Ivans, I I; Sneden, C; Smith, G H; Rich, R M; Shetrone, M; Ivans, Inese I.; Kraft, Robert P.; Sneden, Christopher; Smith, Graeme H.; Shetrone, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    We present a chemical composition analysis of 36 giant stars in the mildly metal-poor globular cluster M5 (NGC 5904). The analysis makes use of high resolution data acquired at the Keck I telescope as well as a re-analysis of high resolution spectra acquired for an earlier study at Lick Observatory. We employed two analysis techniques: one, adopting standard spectroscopic constraints, and two, adopting an analysis consistent with the non-LTE precepts as recently described by Thevenin & Idiart. The abundance ratios we derive for magnesium, silicon, calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, nickel, barium and europium in M5 show no significant abundance variations and the ratios are comparable to those of halo field stars. However, large variations are seen in the abundances of oxygen, sodium and aluminum, the elements that are sensitive to proton-capture nucleosynthesis. In comparing the abundances of M5 and M4 (NGC 6121), another mildly metal-poor globular cluster, we find that silicon, aluminum, barium and ...

  2. Red Variables in Globular Clusters: Comparison with the Bulge and the LMC

    CERN Document Server

    Matsunaga, N; Tanabé, T; Fukushi, H; Ita, Y

    2005-01-01

    We are conducting a project aimed at surveys and repeated observations of red variables (or long-period variables) in globular clusters. Using the IRSF/SIRIUS near-infrared facility located at South Africa, we are observing 145 globular clusters that are accessible from the site. In this contribution, we present our observations and preliminary results. We have discovered many red variables, especially in the Bulge region, whose memberships to the clusters remain to be confirmed. Using a sample of all red variables (both already known and newly discovered ones) in globular clusters except those projected to the Bulge region, we produce a log P-K diagram and compare it with those for the Bulge and the Large Magellanic Cloud. A prominent feature is that the bright part of overtone-pulsators' sequence (B+ and C') is absent.

  3. Red variables in globular clusters . Comparison with the Bulge and the LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, N.; Nakada, Y.; Tanabé, T.; Fukushi, H.; Ita, Y.

    We are conducting a project aimed at surveys and repeated observations of red variables (or long-period variables) in globular clusters. Using the IRSF/SIRIUS near-infrared facility located at South Africa, we are observing 145 globular clusters that are accessible from the site. In this contribution, we present our observations and preliminary results. We have discovered many red variables, especially in the Bulge region, whose memberships to the clusters remain to be confirmed. Using a sample of all red variables (both already known and newly discovered ones) in globular clusters except those projected to the Bulge region, we produce a log P-K diagram and compare it with those for the Bulge and the Large Magellanic Cloud. A prominent feature is that the bright part of overtone-pulsators' sequence (B+ and C\\prime) is absent. We discuss its implication on the evolution of red variables.

  4. Red Variables in Globular Clusters: Comparison with the Bulge and the LMC

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunaga, N; Nakada, Y; Tanabe, T; Fukushi, H.; Ita, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We are conducting a project aimed at surveys and repeated observations of red variables (or long-period variables) in globular clusters. Using the IRSF/SIRIUS near-infrared facility located at South Africa, we are observing 145 globular clusters that are accessible from the site. In this contribution, we present our observations and preliminary results. We have discovered many red variables, especially in the Bulge region, whose memberships to the clusters remain to be confirmed. Using a samp...

  5. Distances of the bulge globular clusters Terzan 5, Liller 1, UKS 1 and Terzan 4 based on HST NICMOS photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ortolani, S; Bica, E; Zoccali, M; Renzini, A

    2007-01-01

    A large number of pulsars and X-rays sources are detected in globular clusters. To understand the structure and content of these clusters, accurate distances are required. We derive the distances of Terzan 5, Liller 1 and UKS 1 using as a reference a recent distance determination of NGC 6528, based on HST/NICMOS and NTT/SOFI infrared photometry. The distance of the metal-poor cluster Terzan 4 was derived from a comparison with M92 in NICMOS bands. Distances of the metal-rich clusters are obtained by comparison of the Horizontal Branch (HB) level of the clusters, relative to the reddening line passing through the HB of NGC 6528. We use methods based on NICMOS bands and transformations to J and H magnitudes with different assumptions. Liller~1 and Terzan~4 are found to be at the central bulge distance, UKS~1 is beyond the Galactic center, while Terzan 5 is closer to the Sun than the other four clusters. The distance of Terzan 5 is of paramount importance, given the impact of its population of 21 pulsars, which ...

  6. The Abundance Evolution of Oxygen, Sodium and Magnesium in Extremely Metal-Poor Intermediate Mass Stars: Implications for the Self-Polution Scenario in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Denissenkov, P A

    2003-01-01

    We present full stellar evolution and parametric models of the surface abundance evolution of O16, Ne22, Na23 and the magnesium isotopes in an extremely metal-poor intermediate mass star M_ZAMS=5M_sun, Z=0.0001. O16 and Ne22 are injected into the envelope by the third dredge-up following thermal pulses on the asymptotic giant branch. These species and the initially present Mg24 are depleted by hot bottom burning (HBB) during the interpulse phase. As a result, Na23, Mg25 and Mg26 are enhanced. If the HBB temperatures are sufficiently high for this process to deplete oxygen efficiently, Na23 is first produced and then depleted during the interpulse phase. Although the simultaneous depletion of O16 and enhancement of Na23 is possible, the required fine tuning of the dredge-up and HBB casts some doubt on the robustness of this process as the origin of the O-Na anti-correlation observed in globular cluster stars. However, a very robust prediction of our models are low Mg24/Mg25 and Mg24/Mg26 ratios whenever signif...

  7. A Fossil Bulge Globular Cluster revealed by VLT Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Ortolani, Sergio; Momany, Yazan; Saviane, Ivo; Bica, Eduardo; Jilkova, Lucie; Salerno, Gustavo Malta; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The globular cluster HP1 is projected on the bulge, very close to the Galactic center. The Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) Demonstrator (MAD) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) allowed to acquire high resolution deep images that, combined with first epoch New Technology Telescope (NTT) data, enabled to derive accurate proper motions. The cluster and bulge field stellar contents were disentangled by means of this process, and produced unprecedented definition in the color-magnitude diagrams for this cluster. The metallicity of [Fe/H] ~ -1.0 from previous spectroscopic analysis is confirmed, which together with an extended blue horizontal branch, imply an age older than the halo average. Orbit reconstruction results suggest that HP1 is spatially confined within the bulge.

  8. Anisotropic Models for Globular Clusters, Galactic Bulges and Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, P H

    2013-01-01

    Spherical systems with a polytropic equation of state are of great interest in astrophysics. They are widely used to describe neutron stars, red giants, white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, main sequence stars, galactic halos and globular clusters of diverse sizes. In this paper we construct analytically a family of self-gravitating spherical models in the post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity. These models present interesting cusps in their density profiles which are appropriate for the modeling of galaxies and dark matter halos. The systems described here are anisotropic in the sense that their equiprobability surfaces in velocity space are non-spherical, leading to an overabundance of radial or circular orbits, depending on the parameters of the model in consideration. Among the family, we find the post-Newtonian generalization of the Plummer and Hernquist models. A close inspection of their equation of state reveals that these solutions interpolate smoothly between a polytropic sphere in the asymptoti...

  9. High resolution spectroscopic analysis of seven giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6723

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas-Arriagada, A; Vásquez, S; Ripepi, V; Musella, I; Marconi, M; Grado, A; Limatola, L

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters associated with the Galactic bulge are important tracers of stellar populations in the inner Galaxy. High resolution analysis of stars in these clusters allows us to characterize them in terms of kinematics, metallicity, and individual abundances, and to compare these fingerprints with those characterizing field populations. We present iron and element ratios for seven red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC~6723, based on high resolution spectroscopy. High resolution spectra ($R\\sim48~000$) of seven K giants belonging to NGC 6723 were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph at the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope. Photospheric parameters were derived from $\\sim130$ FeI and FeII transitions. Abundance ratios were obtained from line-to-line spectrum synthesis calculations on clean selected features. An intermediate metallicity of [Fe/H]$=-0.98\\pm0.08$ dex and a heliocentric radial velocity of $v_{hel}=-96.6\\pm1.3~km s^{-1}$ were found for NGC 6723. Alpha-element abundances present enhancements of $[O/...

  10. Ultra-deep GEMINI near-infrared observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6624

    CERN Document Server

    Saracino, S; Ferraro, F R; Geisler, D; Mauro, F; Lanzoni, B; Origlia, L; Miocchi, P; Cohen, R E; Villanova, S; Bidin, C Moni

    2016-01-01

    We used ultra-deep $J$ and $K_s$ images secured with the near-infrared GSAOI camera assisted by the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system GeMS at the GEMINI South Telescope in Chile, to obtain a ($K_s$, $J-K_s$) color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6624. We obtained the deepest and most accurate near-infrared CMD from the ground for this cluster, by reaching $K_s$ $\\sim$ 21.5, approximately 8 magnitudes below the horizontal branch level. The entire extension of the Main Sequence (MS) is nicely sampled and at $K_s$ $\\sim$ 20 we detected the so-called MS "knee" in a purely near-infrared CMD. By taking advantage of the exquisite quality of the data, we estimated the absolute age of NGC 6624 ($t_{age}$ = 12.0 $\\pm$ 0.5 Gyr), which turns out to be in good agreement with previous studies in the literature. We also analyzed the luminosity and mass functions of MS stars down to M $\\sim$ 0.45 M$_{\\odot}$ finding evidence of a significant increase of low-mass stars at increasing distances f...

  11. Tidal radii and destruction rates of globular clusters in the Milky Way due to bulge-bar and disk shocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate orbits, tidal radii, and bulge-bar and disk shocking destruction rates for 63 globular clusters in our Galaxy. Orbits are integrated in both an axisymmetric and a nonaxisymmetric Galactic potential that includes a bar and a three-dimensional model for the spiral arms. With the use of a Monte Carlo scheme, we consider in our simulations observational uncertainties in the kinematical data of the clusters. In the analysis of destruction rates due to the bulge-bar, we consider the rigorous treatment of using the real Galactic cluster orbit instead of the usual linear trajectory employed in previous studies. We compare results in both treatments. We find that the theoretical tidal radius computed in the nonaxisymmetric Galactic potential compares better with the observed tidal radius than that obtained in the axisymmetric potential. In both Galactic potentials, bulge-shocking destruction rates computed with a linear trajectory of a cluster at its perigalacticons give a good approximation of the result obtained with the real trajectory of the cluster. Bulge-shocking destruction rates for clusters with perigalacticons in the inner Galactic region are smaller in the nonaxisymmetric potential than those in the axisymmetric potential. For the majority of clusters with high orbital eccentricities (e > 0.5), their total bulge+disk destruction rates are smaller in the nonaxisymmetric potential.

  12. Tidal radii and destruction rates of globular clusters in the Milky Way due to bulge-bar and disk shocking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Edmundo; Pichardo, Bárbara [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 México, D. F. (Mexico); Velázquez, Héctor [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, 22800 Ensenada (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    We calculate orbits, tidal radii, and bulge-bar and disk shocking destruction rates for 63 globular clusters in our Galaxy. Orbits are integrated in both an axisymmetric and a nonaxisymmetric Galactic potential that includes a bar and a three-dimensional model for the spiral arms. With the use of a Monte Carlo scheme, we consider in our simulations observational uncertainties in the kinematical data of the clusters. In the analysis of destruction rates due to the bulge-bar, we consider the rigorous treatment of using the real Galactic cluster orbit instead of the usual linear trajectory employed in previous studies. We compare results in both treatments. We find that the theoretical tidal radius computed in the nonaxisymmetric Galactic potential compares better with the observed tidal radius than that obtained in the axisymmetric potential. In both Galactic potentials, bulge-shocking destruction rates computed with a linear trajectory of a cluster at its perigalacticons give a good approximation of the result obtained with the real trajectory of the cluster. Bulge-shocking destruction rates for clusters with perigalacticons in the inner Galactic region are smaller in the nonaxisymmetric potential than those in the axisymmetric potential. For the majority of clusters with high orbital eccentricities (e > 0.5), their total bulge+disk destruction rates are smaller in the nonaxisymmetric potential.

  13. Metal-Poor Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Frebel, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The abundance patterns of metal-poor stars provide us a wealth of chemical information about various stages of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. In particular, these stars allow us to study the formation and evolution of the elements and the involved nucleosynthesis processes. This knowledge is invaluable for our understanding of the cosmic chemical evolution and the onset of star- and galaxy formation. Metal-poor stars are the local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and offer cru...

  14. Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The abundance patterns of metal-poor stars provide us a wealth of chemical information about various stages of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. In particular, these stars allow us to study the formation and evolution of the elements and the involved nucleosynthesis processes. This knowledge is invaluable for our understanding of the cosmic chemical evolution and the onset of star- and galaxy formation. Metal-poor stars are the local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and offer crucial observational constraints on the nature of the first stars. This review presents the history of the first discoveries of metal-poor stars that laid the foundation to this field. Observed abundance trends at the lowest metallicities are described, as well as particular classes of metal-poor stars such as r-process and C-rich stars. Scenarios on the origins of the abundances of metal-poor stars and the application of large samples of metal-poor stars to cosmological questions are discussed.

  15. The X-ray luminosity function of low mass X-ray binaries in early-type galaxies, their metal-rich, and metal-poor globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Peacock, Mark B

    2015-01-01

    We present the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the globular clusters (GCs) and fields of seven early-types galaxies. These galaxies are selected to have both deep Chandra observations, which allow their LMXB populations to be observed to X-ray luminosities of $10^{37}-10^{38}$ erg/s, and HST optical mosaics which enable the X-ray sources to be separated into field LMXBs, GC LMXBs, and contaminating background and foreground sources. We find that at all luminosities the number of field LMXBs per stellar mass is similar in these galaxies. This suggests that the field LMXB populations in these galaxies are not effected by the GC specific frequency, and that properties such as binary fraction and the stellar initial mass function are either similar across the sample, or change in a way that does not effect the number of LMXBs. We compare the XLF of the field LMXBs to that of the GC LMXBs and find that they are significantly different with a p-value of $3\\times10^{-6}$ (equiva...

  16. The Abundances of Neutron Capture Species in the Very Metal-Poor Globular Cluster M15: An Uniform Analysis of RGB and RHB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sobeck, J S; Sneden, C; Preston, G W; Cowan, J J; Smith, G H; Thompson, I B; Shectman, S A; Burley, G S

    2011-01-01

    The globular cluster M15 is unique in its display of star-to-star variations in the neutron-capture elements. Comprehensive abundance surveys have been previously conducted for handfuls of M15 red giant branch (RGB) and red horizontal branch (RHB) stars. No attempt has been made to perform a single, self-consistent analysis of these stars, which exhibit a wide range in atmospheric parameters. In the current effort, a new comparative abundance derivation is presented for three RGB and six RHB members of the cluster. The analysis employs an updated version of the line transfer code MOOG, which now appropriately treats coherent, isotropic scattering. The apparent discrepancy in the previously reported values for the metallicity of M15 RGB and RHB stars is addressed and a resolute disparity of $\\Delta(RHB-RGB) \\approx 0.1$ dex in the iron abundance was found. The anti-correlative behavior of the light neutron capture elements (Sr, Y, Zr) is clearly demonstrated with both Ba and Eu, standard markers of the {\\it s}...

  17. Radiative transfer modelling of dust in IRAS 18333-2357: the only planetary nebula in the metal-poor globular cluster M22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthumariappan, C.; Parthasarathy, M.; Ita, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We report results from our 1D radiative transfer modelling of dust in the hydrogen-deficient planetary nebula IRAS 18333-2357 located in the globular cluster M22. A spectral energy distribution was constructed from archival UV, optical and IR data including Akari photometry at its 18, 65, 90, 140 and 160 μm bands. An archival Spitzer spectrum shows several aromatic infrared bands indicating a carbon-rich dust shell. The spectral energy distribution is well fitted by a model which considers a modified Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck grain size distribution and a radial density function which includes compression of the nebula by its interaction with the Galactic halo gas. The model indicates that a significant amount of cold dust, down to a temperature of 50 K, is present at the outer edge of the nebula. At the inner edge, the dust temperature is 97 K. The dust shell has a size of 26 ± 6.3 arcsec. We find a large amount of excess emission, over the emission from thermal equilibrium dust, in the mid-IR region. This excess emission may have originated from the thermally fluctuating dust grains with size ˜12 Å in the UV field of the hot central star. These grains, however, come from the same population and conditions as the thermal equilibrium grains. The dust mass of this grain population is (1.2 ± 0.73) × 10-3 M⊙ and for the thermal equilibrium grains it is (1.4 ± 0.60) × 10-4 M⊙, leading to a total dust mass of (1.3 ± 0.91) × 10-3 M⊙. The derived dust-to-gas mass ratio is 0.3 ± 0.21. For a derived bolometric luminosity of (1700 ± 1230) L⊙ and an assumed central star mass of (0.55 ± 0.02) M⊙, the surface gravity is derived to be log g = 4.6 ± 0.24. We propose that the progenitor of IRAS 18333-2357 had possibly evolved from an early stellar merger case and the hydrogen-deficient nebula results from a late thermal pulse. The hydrogen-rich nebula, which was ejected by the progenitor during its normal asymptotic giant branch evolution, might have been

  18. Model for common growth of supermassive black holes, bulges and globular star clusters: ripping off Jeans clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M

    2011-01-01

    It is assumed that a galaxy starts as a dark halo of a few million Jeans clusters (JCs), each of which consists of nearly a trillion micro brown dwarfs, MACHOs of earth mass. JCs in the galaxy center heat up their MACHOs by tidal forces, which makes them expand, so that coagulation and star formation occurs. Being continuously fed by matter from bypassing JCs, the star(s) may transform into a super massive black hole. It has a fast $t^3$ growth during the first mega years, and a slow $t^{1/3}$ growth at giga years. JCs disrupted by a close encounter can provide matter for the bulge. Those that survive can be so agitated that they form stars and become globular star clusters. Thus black holes mostly arise together with galactic bulges in their own environment and are about as old as the oldest globular clusters. The age 13.2 Gyr of the star HE 1523-0901 (Frebel et al. 2007) puts forward that the Galactic halo was fully assembled at that moment. In case of merging super massive black holes the JCs passing near ...

  19. High Angular Resolution JHK Imaging of the Centers of the Metal-Poor Globular Clusters NGC5272 (M3), NGC6205 (M13), NGC6287, and NGC6341 (M92)

    CERN Document Server

    Davidge, T J

    1998-01-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Adaptive Optics Bonnette (AOB) has been used to obtain high angular resolution JHK images of the centers of the metal-poor globular clusters NGC5272 (M3), NGC6205 (M13), NGC6287, and NGC6341 (M92). The color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) derived from these data include the upper main sequence and most of the red giant branch (RGB), and the cluster sequences agree with published photometric measurements of bright stars in these clusters. The photometric accuracy is limited by PSF variations, which introduce systematic errors of a few hundredths of a magnitude near the AO reference star. The clusters are paired according to metallicity, and the near-infrared CMDs and luminosity functions are used to investigate the relative ages within each pair. The near-infrared CMDs provide the tightest constraints on the relative ages of the classical second parameter pair NGC5272 and NGC6205, and indicate that these clusters have ages that differ by no more than +/- 1 Gyr. These result...

  20. Tidal radii and destruction rates of globular clusters in the Milky Way due to bulge-bar and disk shocking

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, Edmundo; Velazquez, Hector

    2014-01-01

    We calculate orbits, tidal radii, and bulge-bar and disk shocking destruction rates for 63 globular clusters in our Galaxy. Orbits are integrated in both an axisymmetric and a non-axisymmetric Galactic potential that includes a bar and a 3D model for the spiral arms. With the use of a Monte Carlo scheme, we consider in our simulations observational uncertainties in the kinematical data of the clusters. In the analysis of destruction rates due to the bulge-bar, we consider the rigorous treatment of using the real Galactic cluster orbit, instead of the usual linear trajectory employed in previous studies. We compare results in both treatments. We ?nd that the theoretical tidal radius computed in the nonaxisymmetric Galactic potential compares better with the observed tidal radius than that obtained in the axisymmetric potential. In both Galactic potentials, bulge-shocking destruction rates computed with a linear trajectory of a cluster at its perigalacticons give a good approximation to the result obtained with...

  1. Near-Infrared photometry and spectroscopy of NGC 6539 and UKS 1: two intermediate metallicity Bulge Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Origlia, L; Rich, R M; Ferraro, F R

    2005-01-01

    Using the SofI imager at ESO/NTT and NIRSPEC spectrograph at KeckII, we have obtained J,K images and echelle spectra covering the range 1.5 - 1.8 micron for the intermediate metallicity Bulge globular clusters NGC6539 and UKS1. We find [Fe/H]=-0.76 and -0.78, respectively, and an average alpha-enhancement of +0.44 dex and +0.31 dex, consistent with previous measurements of metal rich Bulge clusters, and favoring the scenario of rapid chemical enrichment. We also measure very low 12C/13C=4.5 +/-1 isotopic ratios in both clusters, suggesting that extra-mixing mechanisms due to cool bottom processing are at work during the evolution along the Red Giant Branch. Finally, we measure accurate radial velocities of =+31 +/-4Km/s and =+57 +/-6Km/s and velocity dispersion of about 8 Km/s and 11 Km/s for NGC6539 and UKS1, respectively.

  2. A Fossil Bulge Globular Cluster Revealed by very Large Telescope Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.; Momany, Y.; Saviane, I.; Bica, E.; Jílková, L.; Salerno, G.M.; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 737, č. 1 (2011), 31/1-31/9. ISSN 0004-637X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxy * globular clusters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.024, year: 2011

  3. The combined tidal effect of the stellar bulge and a central black hole on the dynamical evolution of a globular cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miocchi, P.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    Some aspects of the dynamical evolution of a globular cluster as satellite of a galaxy still deserves a deep investigation. Here we study the effects produced by the tidal interaction of a globular cluster with the bulge as well as with a massive black hole sited in the central galactic region. Detailed studies of such dynamical mechanisms are rather hard to be performed by analytical means (unless heavy simplifying assumptions are made). For this reason we pesent here results obtained by our preliminary N-body simulations, which indicate that: 1) the time scale of the bulge tidal disruption is longer than 3×108 yr for a globular cluster (mass 106Msolar, core radius 1 pc) moving in the inner kpc of a 109 Msolar bulge (with core radius 200 pc); 2) the close tidal interaction between a massive black hole and a cluster moving along small quasi-circular orbits (with radius temperature" of the cluster in less than 108 yr. Such simulations have been carried out with both a serial and a parallel "tree-code" (implemented on a CRAY T3E machine), using a leap-frog scheme with individual and variable time steps for the integration of particles' trajectories.

  4. The Abundances of Neutron-capture Species in the Very Metal-poor Globular Cluster M15: A Uniform Analysis of Red Giant Branch and Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Kraft, Robert P.; Sneden, Christopher; Preston, George W.; Cowan, John J.; Smith, Graeme H.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.

    2011-06-01

    The globular cluster M15 is unique in its display of star-to-star variations in the neutron-capture elements. Comprehensive abundance surveys have been previously conducted for handfuls of M15 red giant branch (RGB) and red horizontal branch (RHB) stars. No attempt has been made to perform a single, self-consistent analysis of these stars, which exhibit a wide range in atmospheric parameters. In the current effort, a new comparative abundance derivation is presented for three RGB and six RHB members of the cluster. The analysis employs an updated version of the line transfer code MOOG, which now appropriately treats coherent, isotropic scattering. The apparent discrepancy in the previously reported values for the metallicity of M15 RGB and RHB stars is addressed and a resolute disparity of Δ(RHB - RGB) ≈ 0.1 dex in the iron abundance was found. The anti-correlative behavior of the light neutron-capture elements (Sr, Y, Zr) is clearly demonstrated with both Ba and Eu, standard markers of the s- and r-process, respectively. No conclusive detection of Pb was made in the RGB targets. Consequently for the M15 cluster, this suggests that the main component of the s-process has made a negligible contribution to those elements normally dominated by this process in solar system material. Additionally for the M15 sample, a large Eu abundance spread is confirmed, which is comparable to that of the halo field at the same metallicity. These abundance results are considered in the discussion of the chemical inhomogeneity and nucleosynthetic history of M15.

  5. THE ABUNDANCES OF NEUTRON-CAPTURE SPECIES IN THE VERY METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15: A UNIFORM ANALYSIS OF RED GIANT BRANCH AND RED HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The globular cluster M15 is unique in its display of star-to-star variations in the neutron-capture elements. Comprehensive abundance surveys have been previously conducted for handfuls of M15 red giant branch (RGB) and red horizontal branch (RHB) stars. No attempt has been made to perform a single, self-consistent analysis of these stars, which exhibit a wide range in atmospheric parameters. In the current effort, a new comparative abundance derivation is presented for three RGB and six RHB members of the cluster. The analysis employs an updated version of the line transfer code MOOG, which now appropriately treats coherent, isotropic scattering. The apparent discrepancy in the previously reported values for the metallicity of M15 RGB and RHB stars is addressed and a resolute disparity of Δ(RHB - RGB) ∼ 0.1 dex in the iron abundance was found. The anti-correlative behavior of the light neutron-capture elements (Sr, Y, Zr) is clearly demonstrated with both Ba and Eu, standard markers of the s- and r-process, respectively. No conclusive detection of Pb was made in the RGB targets. Consequently for the M15 cluster, this suggests that the main component of the s-process has made a negligible contribution to those elements normally dominated by this process in solar system material. Additionally for the M15 sample, a large Eu abundance spread is confirmed, which is comparable to that of the halo field at the same metallicity. These abundance results are considered in the discussion of the chemical inhomogeneity and nucleosynthetic history of M15.

  6. Spectroscopy of globular clusters in the low-luminosity spiral galaxy NGC 45

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, Marcelo D; Kissler-Patig, Markus

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Extragalactic globular clusters have been studied in elliptical galaxies and in a few luminous spiral galaxies, but little is known about globular clusters in low-luminosity spirals. AIMS: Past observations with the ACS have shown that NGC 45 hosts a large population of globular clusters (19), as well as several young star clusters. In this work we aim to confirm the bona fide globular cluster status for 8 of 19 globular cluster candidates and to derive metallicities, ages, and velocities. METHODS: VLT/FORS2 multislit spectroscopy in combination with the Lick/IDS system was used to derive velocities and to constrain metallicities and [alpha/Fe] element ratio of the globular clusters. RESULTS: We confirm the 8 globular clusters as bona fide globular clusters. Their velocities indicate halo or bulge-like kinematics, with little or no overall rotation. From absorption indices such as H_beta, H_gamma, and H_delta and the combined [MgFe]' index, we found that the globular clusters are metal-poor [Z/H]<...

  7. Stroemgren - near-infrared photometry of the Baade's Window. I. The bulge globular cluster NGC6528 and the surrounding field

    CERN Document Server

    Calamida, Annalisa; Lagioia, Edoardo P; Milone, Antonino P; Fabrizio, Michele; Saviane, Ivo; Bidin, Christian Moni; Mauro, Francesco; Buonanno, Roberto; Ferraro, Ivan; Iannicola, Giacinto; Zoccali, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    We present Stroemgren-NIR photometry of NGC6528 and its surroundings in the Baade's Window. uvby images were collected with EFOSC2@NTT, while NIR catalogs are based on VIRCAM@VISTA and SOFI@NTT data. The matching with HST photometry allowed us to obtain proper-motion-cleaned samples of cluster and bulge stars. The huge color sensitivity of Stroemgren-NIR CMDs helped us in disentangling age and metallicity effects. The RGB of NGC6528 is reproduced by scaled-solar isochrones with solar abundance or alpha-enhanced isochrones with the same iron content, and an age of t = 11+/-1 Gyr. These findings support literature age estimates for NGC6528. We also performed a theoretical metallicity calibration based on the Stroemgren index m1 and on visual-NIR colors for RGs, by adopting scaled-solar and alpha-enhanced models. We applied the calibration to estimate the metallicity of NGC6528, finding [Fe/H] = -0.04+/-0.02, with an intrinsic dispersion of 0.27 dex (by averaging abundances based on the scaled-solar [m], y - J a...

  8. The spectroscopic evolution of novae in the bulge of M31 and a search for their possible origin in the M31 globular cluster system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaney, Austin Bede

    Results are presented from a three year (1987 to 1989) spectroscopic and photometric survey of novae in M3l's bulge, the first comprehensive study of novae outside the Galactic and Magellanic Cloud systems. Nine novae were detected and monitored and their spectra cover a range of outburst states from early decline to the early nebular phases. Broad agreement in spectral morphology and evolution is found with Galactic novae. Since Galactic novae are mainly disk objects, this indicates that novae outburst properties are not critically dependent on the metallicity of the progenitor population. However, in this sample, and in a sample of four M31 nova spectra taken in 1983, no fast, violent outbursts frequently associated with nova systems containing ONeMg white dwarfs were found, suggestive of a systematic difference between the observed proportion of such outbursts between Galactic and M31 bulge novae. Three novae in the sample were observed on succeeding nights during the transition phase of their evolution. Extraordinary variations in some nightly line strengths, particularly the N III lines, were discovered. It is argued that this variability reflects the deposition of drag energy by the secondary star during the common envelope phase of nova evolution and is indicative of a key phase in mass loss from nova systems. Observations include the spectroscopic coverage of an extremely slow nova from 1987 to l990, during the object's evolution in the nebula phase. This provided a unique opportunity to make the first detailed comparison of the evolution and properties of an extra galactic nova with those in our own Galaxy. The roughly solar abundances obtained are typical of similar slow Galactic novae. Further observations are also presented of a unique outburst in 1988 that was independently discovered and reported by Rich et al. These data confirm the inferences of other observers that the outburst differed markedly from that of a typical classical nova. Finally an

  9. Relative abundance determinations in extremely metal poor giants. II. Transition probabilities and the abundance determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abundances of Fe and other elements are determined for a star of intermediate metallicity and for nine extremely metal poor stars, including two members of the globular cluster M92 and CD -38 deg 245. The accuracy of the transition probabilities for Fe I and other elements is evaluated. The distribution of the abundances of other elements with respect to Fe is the same for most of the cases studied. Manganese is the only element that shows a different relative abundance in an extremely metal poor star. 120 refs

  10. Serendipitous Discovery of a Thin Stellar Stream near the Galactic Bulge in the Pan-STARRS1 3Pi Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Edouard J; Schlafly, Edward F; Abbas, Mohamad; Bell, Eric F; Deacon, Niall R; Martin, Nicolas F; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sesar, Branimir; Slater, Colin T; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Wyse, Rosemary F G; Burgett, William S; Chambers, Kenneth C; Draper, Peter W; Hodapp, Klaus W; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A; Metcalfe, Nigel; Morgan, Jeffrey S; Price, Paul A; Tonry, John L; Wainscoat, Richard J; Waters, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a thin stellar stream found in Pan-STARRS1 photometry near the Galactic bulge in the constellation of Ophiuchus. It appears as a coherent structure in the colour-selected stellar density maps produced to search for tidal debris around nearby globular clusters. The stream is exceptionally short and narrow; it is about 2.5{\\deg} long and 6' wide in projection. The colour-magnitude diagram of this object, which harbours a blue horizontal-branch, is consistent with an old and relatively metal-poor population ([Fe/H]~-1.3) located 9.5 +/- 0.9 kpc away at (l,b) ~ (5{\\deg},+32{\\deg}), and 5.0 +/- 1.0 kpc from the Galactic centre. These properties argue for a globular cluster as progenitor. The finding of such a prominent, nearby stream suggests that many streams could await discovery in the more densely populated regions of our Galaxy.

  11. Lithium Abundance of Metal-poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Zhang; Gang Zhao

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra have been obtained for 32 metal-poor stars. The equivalent widths of Li λ6708A were measured and the lithium abundances were derived. The average lithium abundance of 21 stars on the lithium plateau is 2.33±0.02 dex. The Lithium plateau exhibits a marginal trend along metallicity, dA(Li)/d[Fe/H] = 0.12±0.06, and no clear trend with the effective temperature. The trend indicates that the abundance of lithium plateau may not be primordial and that a part of the lithium was produced in Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE).

  12. Abundances In Very Metal Poor Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; McWilliam, A; Shectman, S; Thompson, I; Wasserburg, G J; Ivans, I I; Dehn, M; Karlsson, T; Melendez, J; Cohen, Judith G.; Christlieb, Norbert; William, Andrew Mc; Shectman, Steve; Thompson, Ian; Ivans, Inese; Dehn, Matthias; Karlsson, Torgny

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the detailed composition of 28 extremely metal-poor dwarfs, 22 of which are from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, based on Keck Echelle spectra. Our sample has a median [Fe/H] of -2.7 dex, extends to -3.5 dex, and is somewhat less metal-poor than was expected from [Fe/H](HK,HES) determined from low resolution spectra. Our analysis supports the existence of a sharp decline in the distribution of halo stars with metallicity below [Fe/H] = -3.0 dex. So far no additional turnoff stars with [Fe/H]}<-3.5 have been identified in our follow up efforts. For the best observed elements between Mg and Ni, we find that the abundance ratios appear to have reached a plateau, i.e. [X/Fe] is approximately constant as a function of [Fe/H], except for Cr, Mn and Co, which show trends of abundance ratios varying with [Fe/H]. These abundance ratios at low metallicity correspond approximately to the yield expected from Type II SN with a narrow range in mass and explosion parameters; high mass Type II SN progenitors are requir...

  13. Th Ages for Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, J A; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Bolte, Michael

    2001-01-01

    With a sample of 22 metal-poor stars, we demonstrate that the heavy element abundance pattern (Z > 55) is the same as the r-process contributions to the solar nebula. This bolsters the results of previous studies that there is a universal r-process production pattern. We use the abundance of thorium in five metal-poor stars, along with an estimate of the initial Th abundance based on the abundances of stable r-process elements, to measure their ages. We have four field red giants with errors of 4.2 Gyr in their ages and one M92 giant with an error of 5.6 Gyr, based on considering the sources of observational error only. We obtain an average age of 11.4 Gyr, which depends critically on the assumption of an initial production ratio of Th/Eu of 0.496. If the Universe is 15 Gyr old, then the initial Th/Eu value should be 0.590, in agreement with some theoretical models of the r-process.

  14. Bulge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    1999-01-01

    The currently discussed theories of bulge formation are reviewed, including the primordial scenario, where bulges form rapidly and then accrete disks, the secular scenario, where bulges are formed by dynamical evolution of disks through bars and galaxy interactions, and some combinations of both, where formation of bulges and disks are more continuous and interleaved. The various scenarios make specific predictions about the relative masses, angular momenta, colours, metallicities of bulges relative to disks, and the bulge-to-disk ratio as a function of time. Dynamical processes relevant to the formation of bulges (bar instabilities, mergers) are described and tested against observed statistics. Current data suggest a dynamical feedback from gravitational instabilities in bulge and disk formation. It is very difficult to discriminate between the various scenarios from surveys at z=0 only, and observations at high redshift are presently the best hope for large progress.

  15. Globular Cluster Formation in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, C Corbett; Lake, G

    2014-01-01

    Metal poor globular clusters (MPGCs) are a unique probe of the early universe, in particular the reionization era. Systems of globular clusters in galaxy clusters are particularly interesting as it is in the progenitors of galaxy clusters that the earliest reionizing sources first formed. Although the exact physical origin of globular clusters is still debated, it is generally admitted that globular clusters form in early, rare dark matter peaks (Moore et al. 2006; Boley et al. 2009). We provide a fully numerical analysis of the Virgo cluster globular cluster system by identifying the present day globular cluster system with exactly such early, rare dark matter peaks. A popular hypothesis is that that the observed truncation of blue metal poor globular cluster formation is due to reionization (Spitler et al. 2012; Boley et al. 2009; Brodie & Strader 2006); adopting this view, constraining the formation epoch of MPGCs provides a complementary constraint on the epoch of reionization. By analyzing both the l...

  16. The Chemical Properties of Milky Way and M31 Globular Clusters: II. Stellar Population Model Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, M A; Strader, J; Forbes, D A; Proctor, R N; Barmby, P; Huchra, J P; Beasley, Michael A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A.; Proctor, Robert N.; Barmby, Pauline; Huchra, John P.

    2004-01-01

    We derive ages, metallicities and [alpha/Fe] ratios from the integrated spectra of 23 globular clusters in M31, by employing multivariate fits to two stellar population models. In parallel we analyze spectra of 21 Galactic globular clusters in order to facilitate a differential analysis. We find that the M31 globular clusters separate into three distinct components in age and metallicity. We identify an old, metal-poor group (7 clusters), an old, metal-rich group (10 clusters) and an intermediate age (3-6 Gyr), intermediate-metallicity ([Z/H]~-1) group (6 clusters). This third group is not identified in the Galactic globular cluster sample. The majority of globular clusters in both samples appear to be enhanced in alpha-elements, the degree of enhancement being model-dependent. The intermediate age GCs appear to be the most enhanced, with [alpha/Fe]~0.4. These clusters are clearly depressed in CN with respect to the models and the bulk of the M31 and Milky Way sample. Compared to the bulge of M31, M32 and NGC...

  17. Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxies: The Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, M E; Muñoz-Tuñón, C; Nuza, S E; Kitaura, F; Heß, S

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the HI component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbours. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local Universe: ~60% occupy underdense regions, and ~75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the frac...

  18. Toward ab initio extremely metal poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Jeremy S; Milosavljevic, Milos; Bromm, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Extremely metal poor stars have been the focus of much recent attention owing to the expectation that their chemical abundances can shed light on the metal and dust yields of the earliest supernovae. We present our most realistic simulation to date of the astrophysical pathway to the first metal enriched stars. We simulate the radiative and supernova hydrodynamic feedback of a 60 Msun Population III star starting from cosmological initial conditions realizing Gaussian density fluctuations. We follow the gravitational hydrodynamics of the supernova remnant at high spatial resolution through its freely-expanding, adiabatic, and radiative phases, until gas, now metal-enriched, has resumed runaway gravitational collapse. Our findings are surprising: while the Population III progenitor exploded with a low energy of 10^51 erg and injected an ample metal mass of 6 Msun, the first cloud to collapse after the supernova explosion is a dense surviving primordial cloud on which the supernova blastwave deposited metals on...

  19. THE TERZAN 5 PUZZLE: DISCOVERY OF A THIRD, METAL-POOR COMPONENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the discovery of three metal-poor giant stars in Terzan 5, a complex stellar system in the Galactic bulge, known to have two populations at [Fe/H] = –0.25 and +0.3. For these three stars we present new echelle spectra obtained with NIRSPEC at Keck II, which confirm their radial velocity membership and provide an average [Fe/H] = –0.79 dex iron abundance and [α/Fe] = +0.36 dex enhancement. This new population extends the metallicity range of Terzan 5 to 0.5 dex more metal poor, and it has properties consistent with having formed from a gas polluted by core-collapse supernovae

  20. Toward ab initio extremely metal poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jeremy S.; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Extremely metal poor stars have been the focus of much recent attention owing to the expectation that their chemical abundances can shed light on the metal and dust yields of the earliest supernovae. We present our most realistic simulation to date of the astrophysical pathway to the first metal enriched stars. We simulate the radiative and supernova hydrodynamic feedback of a 60 M⊙ Population III star starting from cosmological initial conditions realizing Gaussian density fluctuations. We follow the gravitational hydrodynamics of the supernova remnant at high spatial resolution through its freely-expanding, adiabatic, and radiative phases, until gas, now metal-enriched, has resumed runaway gravitational collapse. Our findings are surprising: while the Population III progenitor exploded with a low energy of 1051 erg and injected an ample metal mass of 6 M⊙, the first cloud to collapse after the supernova explosion is a dense surviving primordial cloud on which the supernova blast wave deposited metals only superficially, in a thin, unresolved layer. The first metal-enriched stars can form at a very low metallicity, of only 2 - 5 × 10-4 Z⊙, and can inherit the parent cloud's highly elliptical, radially extended orbit in the dark matter gravitational potential.

  1. Star Clusters in M31. VII. Global Kinematics and Metallicity Subpopulations of the Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Nelson; Romanowsky, Aaron J.

    2016-06-01

    We carry out a joint spatial–kinematical–metallicity analysis of globular clusters (GCs) around the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), using a homogeneous, high-quality spectroscopic data set. In particular, we remove the contaminating young clusters that have plagued many previous analyses. We find that the clusters can be divided into three major metallicity groups based on their radial distributions: (1) an inner metal-rich group ([Fe/H] > -0.4); (2) a group with intermediate metallicity (with median [Fe/H] = ‑1) and (3) a metal-poor group, with [Fe/H] < -1.5. The metal-rich group has kinematics and spatial properties like those of the disk of M31, while the two more metal-poor groups show mild prograde rotation overall, with larger dispersions—in contrast to previous claims of stronger rotation. The metal-poor GCs are the least concentrated group; such clusters occur five times less frequently in the central bulge than do clusters of higher metallicity. Despite some well-known differences between the M31 and Milky Way GC systems, our revised analysis points to remarkable similarities in their chemodynamical properties, which could help elucidate the different formation stages of galaxies and their GCs. In particular, the M31 results motivate further exploration of a metal-rich GC formation mode in situ, within high-redshift, clumpy galactic disks.

  2. Star Clusters in M31: VII. Global Kinematics and Metallicity Subpopulations of the Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    We carry out a joint spatial-kinematical-metallicity analysis of globular clusters (GCs) around the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), using a homogeneous, high-quality spectroscopic dataset. In particular, we remove the contaminating young clusters that have plagued many previous analyses. We find that the clusters can be divided into three major metallicity groups based on their radial distributions: (1) an inner metal-rich group ([Fe/H] > -0.4), (2) a group with intermediate metallicity (with median [Fe/H]=-1), (3) and a metal-poor group, with [Fe/H] < -1.5. The metal-rich group has kinematics and spatial properties like the disk of M31, while the two more metal-poor groups show mild prograde rotation overall, with larger dispersions - in contrast to previous claims of stronger rotation. The metal-poor GCs are the least concentrated group; such clusters occur five times less frequently in the central bulge than do clusters of higher metallicity. Despite some well-known differences between the M31 and Milky Way GC ...

  3. AN EXTREMELY CARBON-RICH, EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STAR IN THE SEGUE 1 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the analysis of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio, spectra of an extremely metal-poor, extremely C-rich red giant, Seg 1-7, in Segue 1-described in the literature alternatively as an unusually extended globular cluster or an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. The radial velocity of Seg 1-7 coincides precisely with the systemic velocity of Segue 1, and its chemical abundance signature of [Fe/H] = -3.52, [C/Fe] = +2.3, [N/Fe] = +0.8, [Na/Fe] = +0.53, [Mg/Fe] = +0.94, [Al/Fe] = +0.23, and [Ba/Fe] < -1.0 is similar to that of the rare and enigmatic class of Galactic halo objects designated CEMP-no (carbon-rich, extremely metal-poor with no enhancement (over solar ratios) of heavy neutron-capture elements). This is the first star in a Milky Way 'satellite' that unambiguously lies on the metal-poor, C-rich branch of the Aoki et al. bimodal distribution of field halo stars in the ([C/Fe], [Fe/H])-plane. Available data permit us only to identify Seg 1-7 as a member of an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy or as debris from the Sgr dwarf spheroidal galaxy. In either case, this demonstrates that at extremely low abundance, [Fe/H ] <-3.0, star formation and associated chemical evolution proceeded similarly in the progenitors of both the field halo and satellite systems. By extension, this is consistent with other recent suggestions that the most metal-poor dwarf spheroidal and ultra-faint dwarf satellites were the building blocks of the Galaxy's outer halo.

  4. METAL-POOR LITHIUM-RICH GIANTS IN THE RADIAL VELOCITY EXPERIMENT SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchti, Gregory R.; Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Bloomberg Center for Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gilmore, Gerard F. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Grebel, Eva K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bienayme, Olivier; Siebert, Arnaud [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11 Rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Freeman, Ken C. [RSAA Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gibson, Brad K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Astrophysics and Super-computing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Munari, Ulisse [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Via dell' Osservatorio 8, I-36012 Asiago (Italy); Navarro, Julio F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Station CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Parker, Quentin A.; Watson, Fred G. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, Coonabarabran, NSW 2357 (Australia); Reid, Warren [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Seabroke, George M. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Siviero, Alessandro [Department of Astronomy, Padova University, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Steinmetz, Matthias; Williams, Mary [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Zwitter, Tomaz, E-mail: gruchti@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SK-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-12-20

    We report the discovery of eight lithium-rich field giants found in a high-resolution spectroscopic sample of over 700 metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -0.5) selected from the Radial Velocity Experiment survey. The majority of the Li-rich giants in our sample are very metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx}< -1.9), and have a Li abundance (in the form of {sup 7}Li), A(Li) = log (n(Li)/n(H)) + 12, between 2.30 and 3.63, well above the typical upper red giant branch (RGB) limit, A(Li) < 0.5, while two stars, with A(Li) {approx} 1.7-1.8, show similar lithium abundances to normal giants at the same gravity. We further included two metal-poor, Li-rich globular cluster giants in our sample, namely the previously discovered M3-IV101 and newly discovered (in this work) M68-A96. This comprises the largest sample of metal-poor Li-rich giants to date. We performed a detailed abundance analysis of all stars, finding that the majority of our sample stars have elemental abundances similar to that of Li-normal halo giants. Although the evolutionary phase of each Li-rich giant cannot be definitively determined, the Li-rich phase is likely connected to extra mixing at the RGB bump or early asymptotic giant branch that triggers cool bottom processing in which the bottom of the outer convective envelope is connected to the H-burning shell in the star. The surface of a star becomes Li-enhanced as {sup 7}Be (which burns to {sup 7}Li) is transported to the stellar surface via the Cameron-Fowler mechanism. We discuss and discriminate among several models for the extra mixing that can cause Li production, given the detailed abundances of the Li-rich giants in our sample.

  5. Detailed abundance analysis of a metal-poor giant in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Ryde, N; Rich, R M; Thorsbro, B; Schultheis, M; Origlia, L; Chatzopoulos, S

    2016-01-01

    We report the first results from our program to examine the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster connected to SgrA*, with the goal of inferring the star formation and enrichment history of this system, as well as its connection and relationship with the central 100 pc of the bulge/bar system. We present the first high resolution (R~24,000), detailed abundance analysis of a K=10.2 metal-poor, alpha-enhanced red giant projected at 1.5 pc from the Galactic Center, using NIRSPEC on Keck II. A careful analysis of the dynamics and color of the star locates it at about 26 pc line-of-sight distance in front of the nuclear cluster. It probably belongs to one of the nuclear components (cluster or disk), not to the bar-bulge or classical disk. A detailed spectroscopic synthesis, using a new linelist in the K band, finds [Fe/H]~-1.0 and [alpha/Fe]~+0.4, consistent with stars of similar metallicity in the bulge. As known giants with comparable [Fe/H] and alpha enhancement are old, we conclude tha...

  6. Evidence for Enrichment by Supernovae in the Globular Cluster NGC 6273

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang-Il; Seo, Hyunju; Lee, Young-Wook

    2015-01-01

    In our recent investigation (Lim et al. 2015), we have shown that narrow-band photometry can be combined with low-resolution spectroscopy to effectively search for globular clusters (GCs) with supernovae (SNe) enrichments. Here we apply this technique to the metal-poor bulge GC NGC 6273, and find that the red giant branch stars in this GC are clearly divided into two distinct subpopulations having different calcium abun- dances. The Ca rich subpopulation in this GC is also enhanced in CN and CH, showing a positive correlation between them. This trend is identical to the result we found in M22, suggesting that this might be a ubiquitous nature of GCs more strongly affected by SNe in their chemical evolution. Our results suggest that NGC 6273 was massive enough to retain SNe ejecta which would place this cluster in the growing group of GCs with Galactic building block characteristics, such as {\\omega} Centauri and Terzan 5.

  7. uvby(-$\\beta$) photometry of high-velocity and metal-poor stars X. Stars of very low metal abundance: observations, reddenings, metallicities, classifications, distances, and relative ages

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, W J; Michel, R; Nissen, P E; García, G

    2004-01-01

    uvby(--$\\beta$) photometry has been obtained for an additional 411 very metal-poor stars selected from the HK survey, and used to derive basic parameters such as interstellar reddenings, metallicities, photometric classifications, distances, and relative ages... These very metal-poor stars are compared to M92 in the c_0,(b-y)_0 diagram, and evidence is seen for field stars 1-3 Gyrs younger than this globular cluster. The significance of these younger very metal-poor stars is discussed in the context of Galactic evolution, mentioning such possibilities as hierarchical star-formation/mass-infall of very metal-poor material and/or accretion events whereby this material has been acquired from other (dwarf) galaxies with different formation and chemical-enrichment histories

  8. Abundance analysis of extremely metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T.; Hansen, C. J.; Christlieb, N.; Andersen, J.

    2016-01-01

    The outer atmosphere of the first generations of low-mass (M elements into the early ISM. Thus a detailed abundance analysis of low-mass, metal-poor stars can help us track these gasses and provide insight into the formation processes that took place in the very early stages of our Galaxy. Preliminary result of a 25-star homogeneously analysed sample of metal- poor candidates from the Hamburg/ESO survey is presented. The main focus is on the most metal-poor stars of the sample; stars with [Fe/H] abundance pattern of these ultra metal-poor (UMP) stars is used to extract key information of the earliest ongoing formation processes (ranging from hydrostatic burning to neutron-capture processes).

  9. Galactic bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier; Gadotti, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews on Galactic Bulges written by experts in the field. A central point of the book is that, while in the standard picture of galaxy formation a significant amount of the baryonic mass is expected to reside in classical bulges, the question what is the fraction of galaxies with no classical bulges in the local Universe has remained open. The most spectacular example of a galaxy with no significant classical bulge is the Milky Way. The reviews of this book attempt to clarify the role of the various types of bulges during the mass build-up of galaxies, based on morphology, kinematics, and stellar populations, and connecting their properties at low and high redshifts. The observed properties are compared with the predictions of the theoretical models, accounting for the many physical processes leading to the central mass concentration and their destruction in galaxies. This book serves as an entry point for PhD students and non-specialists and as a reference work for researchers...

  10. Where Are the Universe's Globular Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Observations of globular clusters gravitationally-bound, spherical clusters of stars that orbit galaxies as satellites are critical to studies of galactic and stellar evolution. What type of galaxies host the largest total number of globular clusters in todays universe? A recent study answers this question.Total number of globular clusters vs. host galaxy luminosity for a catalog of ~400 galaxies of all types. [Harris 2016]Globular FavoritismGlobular clusters can be found in the halos of all galaxies above a critical brightness of about 107 solar luminosities (in practice, all but the smallest of dwarfs). The number of globulars a galaxy hosts is related to its luminosity: the Milky Way is host to ~150 globulars, the slightly brighterAndromeda galaxy may have several hundred globulars, and the extremelybright giant elliptical galaxy M87 likely has over ten thousand.But the number of galaxies is not evenly distributed in luminosity; tiny dwarf galaxies are extremely numerous in the universe, whereas giant ellipticals are far less common. So are most of the universes globulars found around dwarfs, simply because there are more dwarfs to host them? Or are the majority ofglobular clusters orbiting large galaxies? A scientist at McMaster University in Canada, William Harris, has done some calculations to find the answer.Finding the PeakHarris combines two components in his estimates:The Schechter function, a function that describes the relative number of galaxies per unit luminosity. This function drops off near a characteristic luminosity roughly that of our galaxy.Empirical data from ~400 galaxies that describe the average number of globulars per galaxy as a function of galaxy luminosity.Relative number of globular clusters in all galaxies at a given luminosity, for metal-poor globulars only (blue), metal-rich globulars only (red), and all globulars (black). The curves peak around the Schechter characteristic luminosity, and metal-poor globulars outnumber metal

  11. MACHO RR lyrae in the inner halo and bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, A.; Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T.S.; Becker, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Minniti, D.; Peterson, B. A.; Pratt, M. R.; Quinn, P. J.; Rodgers, A. W.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sutherland, W.; Tomaney, A.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D.

    1998-10-01

    The RR Lyrse in the bulge have been proposed to be the oldest populations in the Milky Way, tracers of how the galaxy formed. We study here the distribution of ?{approximately}1600 bulge RR Lyrae stars found by the MACHO Project. The RR Lyrae with 0.4 ? R ? 3 kpc show a density law that is well fit by the extension of the metal-poor stellar halo present in the outer regions of the Milky Way.

  12. Extremely metal-poor star candidates in the SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Si-Yao; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Wei

    2013-03-01

    For a sample of metal-poor stars (-3.3 Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), calculated effective temperatures from (g - z)0 color, deduced stellar surface gravities by fitting stellar isochrones, and determined metallicities based on the aforementioned quantities. Metallicities thus derived from the Ca II K line are in much better agreement with the results determined from high-resolution spectra than the values given in the SDSS Data Release 7. The metallicities derived from the Mg I b lines have a large dispersion owing to the large measurement errors, whereas those deduced from the Ca II triplet lines are too high due to both non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) effects and measurement errors. Abundances after correction for the NLTE effect for the Mg I b lines and Ca II triplet lines are also presented. Following this method, we have identified six candidates of ultra-metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] ~ -4.0 from a sample of 166 metal-poor star candidates. One of them, SDSS J102915+172927, was recently confirmed to be an ultra-metal-poor ([Fe/H] 4.0) star with the lowest metallicity ever measured. Follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy for the other five ultra-metal-poor stars in our sample will therefore be of great interest.

  13. Near-Field Cosmology with Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The oldest, most metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo and satellite dwarf galaxies present an opportunity to explore the chemical and physical conditions of the earliest star forming environments in the Universe. We review the fields of stellar archaeology and dwarf galaxy archaeology by examining the chemical abundance measurements of various elements in extremely metal-poor stars. Focus on the carbon-rich and carbon-normal halo star populations illustrates how these provide insight into the Population III star progenitors responsible for the first metal enrichment events. We extend the discussion to near-field cosmology, which is concerned with the formation of the first stars and galaxies and how metal-poor stars can be used to constrain these processes. Complementary abundance measurements in high-redshift gas clouds further help to establish the early chemical evolution of the Universe. The data appear consistent with the existence of two distinct channels of star formation at the earliest times.

  14. r-Process Abundance Signatures in Metal-Poor Halo Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, John J; Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E

    2011-01-01

    Abundance observations indicate the presence of rapid-neutron capture (i.e., r-process) elements in old Galactic halo and globular cluster stars. Recent observations of the r-process-enriched star BD +17 3248 include new abundance determinations for the neutron-capture elements Cd I (Z=48), Lu II (Z = 71) and Os II (Z = 76), the first detections of these elements in metal-poor r-process-enriched halo stars. Combining these and previous observations, we have now detected 32 n-capture elements in BD +17 3248. This is the most of any metal-poor halo star to date. For the most r-process-rich (i.e. [Eu/Fe] ~= 1) halo stars, such as CS 22892-052 and BD +17 3248, abundance comparisons show that the heaviest stable n-capture elements (i.e., Ba and above, Z >= 56) are consistent with a scaled solar system r-process abundance distribution. The lighter n-capture element abundances in these stars, however, do not conform to the solar pattern. These comparisons, as well as recent observations of heavy elements in metal-po...

  15. The RAVE Survey : Rich in Very Metal-poor Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Ruchti, Gregory R.; Gilmore, G. F.; Grebel, Eva; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Zwitter, T.

    2010-01-01

    Very metal-poor stars are of obvious importance for many problems in chemical evolution, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Finding complete samples of such stars which are also bright enough to allow high-precision individual analyses is of considerable interest. We demonstrate here that stars w

  16. Behavior of sulfur in extremely metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    The LTE abundances of sulfur (S) were explored in the sample of 15 metal-poor stars with the metallicity range of -4Takada-Hidai et al. (2005), we found that the behavior of [S/Fe] against [Fe/H] shows a nearly flat trend in the range of metallicity down to [Fe/H]˜-4.

  17. Global results from the HARPS metal-poor sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ségransan D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the global results of a HARPS-GTO program to search for planets orbiting a sample of metal-poor stars. The detection of several giant planets in long period orbits is discussed in the context of the metallicitygiant planet correlation.

  18. Modeling the Metallicity Distribution of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Muratov, Alexander L

    2010-01-01

    Observed metallicities of globular clusters reflect physical conditions in the interstellar medium of their high-redshift host galaxies. Globular cluster systems in most large galaxies display bimodal color and metallicity distributions, which are often interpreted as indicating two distinct modes of cluster formation. The metal-rich and metal-poor clusters have systematically different locations and kinematics in their host galaxies. However, the red and blue clusters have similar internal properties, such as the masses, sizes, and ages. It is therefore interesting to explore whether both metal-rich and metal-poor clusters could form by a common mechanism and still be consistent with the bimodal distribution. We present such a model, which prescribes the formation of globular clusters semi-analytically using galaxy assembly history from cosmological simulations coupled with observed scaling relations for the amount and metallicity of cold gas available for star formation. We assume that massive star clusters...

  19. Europium Isotopic Abundances in Very Metal-poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sneden, C; Lawler, J E; Burles, S M; Beers, T C; Fuller, G M; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Lawler, James E.; Burles, Scott; Beers, Timothy C.; Fuller, George M.

    2002-01-01

    Europium isotopic abundance fractions are reported for the very metal-poor, neutron-capture-rich giant stars CS 22892-052, HD 115444, and BD +17 3248. The abundance fractions, derived from analysis of several strong Eu II lines appearing in high-resolution spectra of these stars, are in excellent agreement with each other and with their values in the Solar System: fraction(\\iso{Eu}{151}) ~= fraction(\\iso{Eu}{153}) ~= 0.5. Detailed abundance studies of very metal-poor stars have previously shown that the total elemental abundances of stable atoms with atomic numbers z >= 56 typically match very closely those of a scaled solar-system r-process abundance distribution. The present results for the first time extend this agreement to the isotopic level.

  20. Asteroseismic modelling of the metal-poor star Tau Ceti

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Yanke; 10.1051/0004-6361/201014886

    2010-01-01

    Context. Asteroseismology is an effcient tool not only for testing stellar structure and evolutionary theory but also constraining the parameters of stars for which solar-like oscillations are detected, presently. As an important southern asteroseismic target, Tau Ceti, is a metal-poor star. The main features of the oscillations and some frequencies of ? Ceti have been identified. Many scientists propose to comprehensively observe this star as part of the Stellar Observations Network Group. Aims. Our goal is to obtain the optimal model and reliable fundamental parameters for the metal-poor star Tau Ceti by combining all non-asteroseismic observations with these seismological data. Methods. Using the Yale stellar evolution code (YREC), a grid of stellar model candidates that fall within all the error boxes in the HR diagram have been constructed, and both the model frequencies and large- and small- frequency separations are calculated using the Guenther's stellar pulsation code. The \\chi2c minimization is perf...

  1. THE RAVE SURVEY: RICH IN VERY METAL-POOR STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very metal-poor stars are of obvious importance for many problems in chemical evolution, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Finding complete samples of such stars which are also bright enough to allow high-precision individual analyses is of considerable interest. We demonstrate here that stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <-2 dex, and down to below -4 dex, can be efficiently identified within the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of bright stars, without requiring additional confirmatory observations. We determine a calibration of the equivalent width of the calcium triplet lines measured from the RAVE spectra onto true [Fe/H], using high spectral resolution data for a subset of the stars. These RAVE iron abundances are accurate enough to obviate the need for confirmatory higher-resolution spectroscopy. Our initial study has identified 631 stars with [Fe/H] ≤-2, from a RAVE database containing approximately 200,000 stars. This RAVE-based sample is complete for stars with [Fe/H] ∼<-2.5, allowing statistical sample analysis. We identify three stars with [Fe/H] ∼<-4. Of these, one was already known to be 'ultra metal-poor', one is a known carbon-enhanced metal-poor star, but we obtain [Fe/H] = -4.0, rather than the published [Fe/H] = -3.3, and derive [C/Fe] = +0.9, and [N/Fe] = +3.2, and the third is at the limit of our signal-to-noise ratio. RAVE observations are ongoing and should prove to be a rich source of bright, easily studied, very metal-poor stars.

  2. The physics of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancliffe, Richard

    2014-09-01

    A surprising fraction of metal-poor stars turn out to be rich in carbon. Of these, many show enhanced levels of heavy elements, particularly those formed by the slow neutron capture process. The proposed formation scenario for these objects involves mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star in a binary system. I will discuss (some) of the important (and uncertain!) physical processes that we must understand if we wish to learn the origin of these enigmatic, ancient objects.

  3. The Best and Brightest Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schlaufman, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    The chemical abundances of large samples of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be used to investigate metal-free stellar populations, supernovae, and nucleosynthesis as well as the formation and galactic chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its progenitor halos. However, current progress on the study of EMP stars is being limited by their faint apparent magnitudes. The acquisition of high signal-to-noise spectra for faint EMP stars requires a major telescope time commitment, making the construction of large samples of EMP star abundances prohibitively expensive. We have developed a new, efficient selection that uses only public, all-sky APASS optical, 2MASS near-infrared, and WISE mid-infrared photometry to identify bright metal-poor star candidates through their lack of molecular absorption near 4.6 microns. We have used our selection to identify 11,916 metal-poor star candidates with V < 14, increasing the number of publicly-available candidates by more than a factor of five in this magnitude range....

  4. NGC 6273: Towards Defining A New Class of Galactic Globular Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, Robert Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario L.; Ira Bailey, John; Crane, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of observations have found that several Galactic globular clusters exhibit abundance dispersions beyond the well-known light element (anti-)correlations. These clusters tend to be very massive, have >0.1 dex intrinsic metallicity dispersions, have complex sub-giant branch morphologies, and have correlated [Fe/H] and s-process element enhancements. Interestingly, nearly all of these clusters discovered so far have [Fe/H]~-1.7. In this context, we have examined the chemical composition of 18 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the massive, metal-poor Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 using high signal-to-noise, high resolution (R~27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph mounted on the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that the cluster exhibits a metallicity range from [Fe/H]=-1.80 to -1.30 and is composed of two dominant populations separated in [Fe/H] and [La/Fe] abundance. The increase in [La/Eu] as a function of [La/H] suggests that the increase in [La/Fe] with [Fe/H] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. The most metal-rich star in our sample is not strongly La-enhanced, but is α-poor and may belong to a third "anomalous" stellar population. The two dominant populations exhibit the same [Na/Fe]-[Al/Fe] correlation found in other "normal" globular clusters. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins ω Centauri, M 22, M 2, and NGC 5286 as a possible new class of Galactic globular clusters.

  5. The Metallicity Distribution of the Milky Way Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, M

    2015-01-01

    The Galactic bulge of the Milky Way is made up of stars with a broad range of metallicity, -3.0 < [Fe/H] < 1 dex. The mean of the Metallicity Distribution Function (MDF) decreases as a function of height z from the plane and, more weakly, with galactic radius. The most metal rich stars in the inner Galaxy are concentrated to the plane and the more metal poor stars are found predominantly further from the plane, with an overall vertical gradient in the mean of the MDF of about -0.45 dex/kpc. This vertical gradient is believed to reflect the changing contribution with height of different populations in the inner-most region of the Galaxy. The more metal rich stars of the bulge are part of the boxy/peanut structure and comprise stars in orbits which trace out the underlying X-shape. There is still a lack of consensus on the origin of the metal poor stars ([Fe/H] < -0.5) in the region of the bulge. Some studies attribute the more metal poor stars of the bulge to the thick disk and stellar halo that are p...

  6. Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yong; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Gao, Yu; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gu, Qiusheng

    2014-01-01

    The first galaxies contain stars born out of gas with few or no ‘metals’ (that is, elements heavier than helium). The lack of metals is expected to inhibit efficient gas cooling and star formation, but this effect has yet to be observed in galaxies with an oxygen abundance (relative to hydrogen) below a tenth of that of the Sun. Extremely metal poor nearby galaxies may be our best local laboratories for studying in detail the conditions that prevailed in low metallicity galaxies at early epoc...

  7. Fluorine in a Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Star

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, S. C.; Cunha, K.; Smith, V.V.; Sivarani, T.; Beers, T. C.; Lee, Y. S.

    2007-01-01

    The fluorine abundance of the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) star HE 1305+0132 has been derived by analysis of the molecular HF (1-0) R9 line at 2.3357 microns in a high-resolution (R = 50,000) spectrum obtained with the Phoenix spectrometer and Gemini-South telescope. Our abundance analysis makes use of a CNO-enhanced ATLAS12 model atmosphere characterized by a metallicity and CNO enhancements determined utilizing medium-resolution (R = 3,000) optical and near-IR spectra. The effective ir...

  8. THE ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XVII. THE SPATIAL ALIGNMENT OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS WITH EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiushi; Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordan, Andres [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Mei, Simona [University of Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); West, Michael J., E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn [Maria Mitchell Observatory, 4 Vestal Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We study the azimuthal distribution of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies and compare them to their host galaxies using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. We find that in host galaxies with visible elongation ({epsilon} > 0.2) and intermediate to high luminosities (M{sub z} < -19), the GCs are preferentially aligned along the major axis of the stellar light. The red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations show strong alignment with the major axis of the host galaxy, which supports the notion that these GCs are associated with metal-rich field stars. The metal-rich GCs in lenticular galaxies show signs of being more strongly associated with disks rather than bulges. Surprisingly, we also find that the blue (metal-poor) GCs can also show the same correlation. If the metal-poor GCs are part of the early formation of the halo and built up through mergers, then our results support a picture where halo formation and merging occur anisotropically, and that the present-day major axis is an indicator of the preferred merging axis.

  9. Radioactive Ages of Metal-Poor Halo Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Li; Gang Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The abundances of long-lived radioactive elements Th and U observed in metal-poor halo stars can be used as chronometers to determine the age of individual stars, and hence set a lower limit on the age of the Galaxy and hence of the universe.This radioactive dating requires the zero-decay productions of Th and U, which involves complicated r-process nucleosynthesis calculations. Several parametric rprocess models have been used to calculate the initial abundance ratios of Th/Eu and U/Th, but, due to the sharp sensitivity of these models to nuclear physics inputs, the calculations have relatively large uncertainties which lead to large uncertainties in the age determinations. In order to reduce these uncertainties, we present a simple method to estimate the initial productions of Th and U, which only depends on the solar system abundances and the stellar abundances of stable r-process elements.From our calculations of the initial abundance ratios of Th/Eu and U/Th, we reestimate the ages of those very metal-poor halo stars with published abundances of Th and U. Our age estimates are consistent, within the errors, with the other age determinations derived from r-process models, and offer useful constrains for r-process theoretical calculations. The advantages and limitations of our simple method of radioactive dating are discussed.

  10. Binarity in Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Starkenburg, Else; McConnachie, Alan W; Venn, Kim A

    2014-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the lowest metallicity stars show very high enhancements in carbon. It is debated whether these enhancements reflect the stars' birth composition, or if their atmospheres were subsequently polluted, most likely by accretion from an AGB binary companion. Here we investigate and compare the binary properties of three carbon-enhanced sub-classes: The metal-poor CEMP-s stars that are additionally enhanced in barium; the higher metallicity (sg)CH- and Ba II stars also enhanced in barium; and the metal-poor CEMP-no stars, not enhanced in barium. Through comparison with simulations, we demonstrate that all barium-enhanced populations are best represented by a ~100% binary fraction with a shorter period distribution of at maximum ~20,000 days. This result greatly strengthens the hypothesis that a similar binary mass transfer origin is responsible for their chemical patterns. For the CEMP-no group we present new radial velocity data from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for 15 stars to supplement t...

  11. A New Type of Extremely Metal Poor Star

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; Christlieb, N; Shectman, S; Thompson, I; Melendez, J; Reimers, L W D; Cohen, Judith G.; William, Andrew Mc; Christlieb, Norbert; Shectman, Stephen; Thompson, Ian; Melendez, Jorge; Reimers, Lutz Wisotzki & Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We present an abundance analysis for the extremely metal poor star HE1424-0241 based on high dispersion spectra from HIRES at Keck. This star is a giant on the lower red giant branch with [Fe/H] ~ -4.0 dex. Relative to Fe, HE1424-0241 has normal Mg, but it shows a very large deficiency of Si, with epsilon(Si)/epsilon(Fe) ~ 1/10 and epsilon(Si)/epsilon(Mg) ~ 1/25 that of all previously known extremely metal poor giants or dwarfs. It also has a moderately large deficiency of Ca and a smaller deficit of Ti, combined with enhanced Mn and Co and normal or low C. We suggest that in HE1424-0241 we see the effect of a very small number of contributing supernovae, and that the SNII contributing to the chemical inventory of HE1424-0241 were biased in progenitor mass or in explosion characteristics so as to reproduce its abnormal extremely low Si/Mg ratio. HE1424-0241 shows a deficiency of the explosive alpha-burning elements Si, Ca and Ti coupled with a ratio [Mg/Fe] normal for EMP stars; Mg is produced via hydrostatic...

  12. Lithium abundance in the metal-poor open cluster NGC 2243

    CERN Document Server

    Francois, P; Biazzo, K; Bonifacio, P; Palsa, R

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is a fundamental element for studying the mixing mechanisms acting in the stellar interiors, for understanding the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the Big Bang nucleosynthesis. The study of Li in stars of open clusters (hereafter OC) allows a detailed comparison with stellar evolutionary models and permits us to trace its galactic evolution. The OC NGC 2243 is particularly interesting because of its low metallicity ([Fe/H]=$-0.54 \\pm0.10$ dex). We measure the iron and lithium abundance in stars of the metal-poor OC NGC 2243. The first aim is to determine whether the Li dip extends to such low metallicities, the second is to compare the results of our Li analysis in this OC with those present in 47 Tuc, a globular cluster of similar metallicity. We performed a detailed analysis of high-resolution spectra obtained with the multi-object facility FLAMES at the ESO VLT 8.2m telescope. Lithium abundance was derived through line equivalent widths and the OSMARCS atmosphere models. We determine a Li dip ...

  13. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in different environments

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Stefania; de Bennassuti, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and their possible connections with the chemical elements produced by the first stellar generations is still highly debated. We briefly review observations of CEMP stars in different environments (Galactic stellar halo, ultra-faint and classical dwarf galaxies) and interpret their properties using cosmological chemical-evolution models for the formation of the Local Group. We discuss the implications of current observations for the properties of the first stars, clarify why the fraction of carbon-enhanced to carbon-normal stars varies in dwarf galaxies with different luminosity, and discuss the origin of the first CEMP(-no) star found in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy.

  14. La and Eu Abundances in Metal-poor Halo Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Harrison; Burris, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Elements with atomic number greater than Z=26 (the Iron Peak) cannot be formed through fusion in a star's core; the majority of these elements are produced through one of two neutron-capture processes. Early in the history of the Galaxy, the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is believed to be responsible for the production of elements Z=56 and beyond. These elements require at least one generation of stars to have completed their life cycle in order to be synthesized. Therefore, if we observe the heavy metal abundances in what are called Population II stars (metal-poor stars), then we can begin to make inferences about the chemistry of the earliest stars in the Galaxy. To contribute to this picture of the early universe, the Lanthanum and Europium abundances of low-metallicity stars will be measured and trends in these abundances based on comparisons to existing related literature will be sought.

  15. The frequency of giant planets around metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mortier, A; Sozzetti, A; Mayor, M; Latham, D; Bonfils, X; Udry, S

    2012-01-01

    Context. The discovery of about 700 extrasolar planets, so far, has lead to the first statistics concerning extrasolar planets. The presence of giant planets seems to depend on stellar metallicity and mass. For example, they are more frequent around metal-rich stars,with an exponential increase in planet occurrence rates with metallicity. Aims. We analyzed two samples of metal-poor stars (-2.0 \\leq [Fe/H] \\leq 0.0) to see if giant planets are indeed rare around these objects. Radial velocity datasets were obtained with two different spectrographs (HARPS and HIRES). Detection limits for these data,expressed in minimum planetary mass and period, are calculated. These produce trustworthy numbers for the planet frequency. Methods. A general Lomb Scargle (GLS) periodogram analysis was used together with a bootstrapping method to produce the detection limits. Planet frequencies were calculated based on a binomial distribution function within metallicity bins. Results. Almost all hot Jupiters and most giant planets ...

  16. Formation of Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, J; Silk, Joseph; Bouwens, Rychard J.

    1998-01-01

    Bulges, often identified with the spheroidal component of a galaxy, have a complex pedigree. Massive bulges are generally red and old, but lower mass bulges have broader dispersions in color that may be correlated with disk colors. This suggests different formation scenarios. I will review possible formation sequences for bulges, describe the various signatures that distinguish these scenarios, and discuss implications for the high redshift universe.

  17. The formation of the Galactic bulge of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We aim to determine if the bulge formed via mergers as predicted by Cold Dark Matter (CDM theory, or from disk instabilities, as suggested by its boxy shape, or both processes. We are observing about 28,000 bulge stars in fields that span longitudes of − 31 to + 26° and latitudes of − 5° to − 10°, targeting mostly red clump giants and we are measuring stellar velocities and chemical abundances. We have almost concluded our observations and have analysed data of 23,000 stars. We find a cylindrical rotation profile for the bulge which blends smoothly out into the disk and from the [Fe/H] results we find the bulge to be comprised of separate components, with an underlying slowly rotating metal poor subsample which we believe to be the inner halo stars and metal weak thick disk. We find only a small [Fe/H] gradient with latitude in the bulge, of − 0.07dex/kpc. This weak gradient does not necessarily support a merger origin for our bulge and the composite nature of the bulge is consistent with formation out of the thin disk as per instability formation models.

  18. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. IX. CONSTRAINING ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH EVOLUTION WITH OLD METAL-POOR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to constrain evolutionary models of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase at the limit of low masses and low metallicities, we have examined the luminosity functions and number ratios between AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars from a sample of resolved galaxies from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. This database provides Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry together with maps of completeness, photometric errors, and star formation histories for dozens of galaxies within 4 Mpc. We select 12 galaxies characterized by predominantly metal-poor populations as indicated by a very steep and blue RGB, and which do not present any indication of recent star formation in their color-magnitude diagrams. Thousands of AGB stars brighter than the tip of the RGB (TRGB) are present in the sample (between 60 and 400 per galaxy), hence, the Poisson noise has little impact in our measurements of the AGB/RGB ratio. We model the photometric data with a few sets of thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) evolutionary models with different prescriptions for the mass loss. This technique allows us to set stringent constraints on the TP-AGB models of low-mass, metal-poor stars (with M sun, [Fe/H]∼sun. This is also in good agreement with recent observations of white dwarf masses in the M4 old globular cluster. These constraints can be added to those already derived from Magellanic Cloud star clusters as important mileposts in the arduous process of calibrating AGB evolutionary models.

  19. Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Gao, Yu; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gu, Qiusheng

    2014-10-16

    The first galaxies contain stars born out of gas with few or no 'metals' (that is, elements heavier than helium). The lack of metals is expected to inhibit efficient gas cooling and star formation, but this effect has yet to be observed in galaxies with an oxygen abundance (relative to hydrogen) below a tenth of that of the Sun. Extremely metal poor nearby galaxies may be our best local laboratories for studying in detail the conditions that prevailed in low metallicity galaxies at early epochs. Carbon monoxide emission is unreliable as a tracer of gas at low metallicities, and while dust has been used to trace gas in low-metallicity galaxies, low spatial resolution in the far-infrared has typically led to large uncertainties. Here we report spatially resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below ten per cent of the solar value, and show that stars formed very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps in these galaxies. The efficiencies are less than a tenth of those found in normal, metal rich galaxies today, suggesting that star formation may have been very inefficient in the early Universe. PMID:25318522

  20. Germanium, Arsenic, and Selenium Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U

    2012-01-01

    The elements germanium (Ge, Z=32), arsenic (As, Z=33), and selenium (Se, Z=34) span the transition from charged-particle or explosive synthesis of the iron-group elements to neutron-capture synthesis of heavier elements. Among these three elements, only the chemical evolution of germanium has been studied previously. Here we use archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope and observations from several ground-based facilities to study the chemical enrichment histories of seven stars with metallicities -2.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4. We perform a standard abundance analysis of germanium, arsenic, selenium, and several other elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. When combined with previous derivations of germanium abundances in metal-poor stars, our sample reveals an increase in the [Ge/Fe] ratios at higher metallicities. This could mark the onset of the weak s-process contribution to germanium. In contrast, the [As/Fe] and [Se/Fe] ratios rema...

  1. The RAVE Survey: Rich in Very Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fulbright, Jon P; Ruchti, Gregory R; Gilmore, G F; Grebel, Eva; ~Bienayme, O; Binney, J; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Campbell, R; Freeman, K C; Gibson, B K; Helmi, A; Munari, U; Navarro, J F; Parker, Q A; Reid, W; Seabroke, G M; Siebert, A; Siviero, A; Steinmetz, M; Watson, F G; Williams, M; Zwitter, T

    2010-01-01

    Very metal-poor stars are of obvious importance for many problems in chemical evolution, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Finding complete samples of such stars which are also bright enough to allow high-precision individual analyses is of considerable interest. We demonstrate here that stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2 dex, and down to below -4 dex, can be efficiently identified within the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of bright stars, without requiring additional confirmatory observations. We determine a calibration of the equivalent width of the Calcium triplet lines measured from the RAVE spectra onto true [Fe/H], using high spectral resolution data for a subset of the stars. These RAVE iron abundances are accurate enough to obviate the need for confirmatory higher-resolution spectroscopy. Our initial study has identified 631 stars with [Fe/H] <= -2, from a RAVE database containing approximately 200,000 stars. This RAVE-based sample is complete for stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5, a...

  2. Spatially resolved dust emission of extremely metal poor galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Luwenjia; Diaz-Santos, Taino; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Li, Aigen

    2016-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of individual star-forming regions in four extremely metal poor (EMP) galaxies with metallicity Z around Zsun/10 as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. With the good wavelength coverage of the SED, it is found that these EMP star-forming regions show distinct SED shapes as compared to those of grand design Spirals and higher metallicity dwarfs: they have on average much higher f70um/f160um ratios at a given f160um/f250um ratio; single modified black-body (MBB) fittings to the SED at \\lambda >= 100 um still reveal higher dust temperatures and lower emissivity indices compared to that of Spirals, while two MBB fittings to the full SED with a fixed emissivity index (beta = 2) show that even at 100 um about half of the emission comes from warm (50 K) dust, in contrast to the cold (~20 K) dust component. Our spatially resolved images further reveal that the far-IR colors including f70um/f160um, f160um/f250um and f250um/f350um are all related to ...

  3. Searching for Dust around Hyper Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Venn, Kim A; Divell, Mike; Cote, Stephanie; Lambert, David L; Starkenburg, Else

    2014-01-01

    We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for metal-poor stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] $\\lesssim-5$, as well as two CEMP-no stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excess. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g. a warm debris disk ($T\\!\\le\\!290$ K), or debris disks with inner radii $\\le1$ AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-AGB spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g. a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 microns is detected at ...

  4. Searching for dust around hyper metal poor stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venn, Kim A.; Divell, Mike; Starkenburg, Else [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Puzia, Thomas H. [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Côté, Stephanie [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Lambert, David L., E-mail: kvenn@uvic.ca [McDonald Observatory and the Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, RLM 15.308, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <–5, and other metal-poor stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excesses. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g., a warm debris disk (T ≤ 290 K), or debris disks with inner radii ≤1 AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-asymptotic giant branch spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g., a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 μm is detected at the 2σ level; if the excess is real and associated with this star, it may indicate the presence of (recent) dust-gas winnowing or a binary system.

  5. Inefficient Star Formation In Extremely Metal Poor Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yong; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Gao, Yu; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gu, Qiusheng

    2014-01-01

    The first galaxies contain stars born out of gas with little or no metals. The lack of metals is expected to inhibit efficient gas cooling and star formation but this effect has yet to be observed in galaxies with oxygen abundance relative to hydrogen below a tenth of that of the Sun. Extremely metal poor nearby galaxies may be our best local laboratories for studying in detail the conditions that prevailed in low metallicity galaxies at early epochs. Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission is unreliable as tracers of gas at low metallicities, and while dust has been used to trace gas in low-metallicity galaxies, low-spatial resolution in the far-infrared has typically led to large uncertainties. Here we report spatially-resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below 10 per cent solar, and show that stars form very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps of these galaxies. The star formation efficiencies are more than ten times lower than found in normal, metal rich galaxies today, sugge...

  6. The lithium isotopic ratio in very metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lind, Karin; Asplund, Martin; Collet, Remo; Magic, Zazralt

    2013-01-01

    Un-evolved, very metal-poor stars are the most important tracers of the cosmic abundance of lithium in the early universe. Combining the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis model with Galactic production through cosmic ray spallation, these stars at [Fe/H]<-2 are expected to show an undetectably small 6Li/7Li isotopic signature. Evidence to the contrary may necessitate an additional pre-galactic production source or a revision of the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We revisit the isotopic analysis of four halo stars, two with claimed 6Li-detections in the literature, to investigate the influence of improved model atmospheres and line formation treatment. For the first time, a combined 3D, NLTE (non-local thermodynamic equilibrium) modelling technique for Li, Na, and Ca lines is utilised to constrain the intrinsic line-broadening and to determine the Li isotopic ratio. We discuss the influence of 3D NLTE effects on line profile shapes and assess the realism of our modelling using the Ca excitation...

  7. Abundances of 30 elements in 23 metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, J A

    2002-01-01

    We report the abundances of 30 elements in 23 metal-poor ([Fe/H] 0.10 dex, the relative abundances, especially between closely allied atoms such as the rare earth group, often show only small (<0.03 dex) changes. We found that some strong lines of FeI, MnI and CrI consistently gave lower abundances by ~0.2 dex, a number larger than the quoted errors in the gf values. After considering a model with depth-dependent microturbulent velocity and a model with hotter temperatures in the upper layers, we conclude that the latter did a better job of resolving the problem and agreeing with observational evidence for the structure of stars. The error analysis includes the effects of correlation of Teff, log g, and microturbulent velocity errors, which is crucial for certain element ratios, such as [Mg/Fe]. The abundances presented here are being analyzed and discussed in a separate series of papers.

  8. Searching for dust around hyper metal poor stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <–5, and other metal-poor stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excesses. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g., a warm debris disk (T ≤ 290 K), or debris disks with inner radii ≤1 AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-asymptotic giant branch spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g., a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 μm is detected at the 2σ level; if the excess is real and associated with this star, it may indicate the presence of (recent) dust-gas winnowing or a binary system.

  9. First stars VII. Lithium in extremely metal poor dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Sivarani, T; Cayrel, R; Spite, M; Spite, F; Plez, B; Andersen, J; Barbuy, B; Beers, T C; Depagne, E; Hill, V; François, P; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2006-01-01

    Aims. This study aims to determine the level and constancy of the Spite plateau as definitively as possible from homogeneous high-quality VLT-UVES spectra of 19 of the most metal-poor dwarf stars known. Methods. Our high-resolution (R ~ 43000), high S/N spectra are analysed with OSMARCS 1D LTE model atmospheres and turbospectrum synthetic spectra to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities as well as Li abundances for our stars. Results. Eliminating a cool subgiant and a spectroscopic binary, we find 8 stars to have -3.5 < [Fe/H] < -3.0 and 9 stars with -3.0 < [Fe/H] < -2.5. Our best value for the mean level of the plateau is A(Li) =2.10 +- 0.09. The scatter around the mean is entirely explained by our estimate of the observational error and does not allow for any intrinsic scatter in the Li abundances. In addition, we conclude that a systematic error of the order of 200 K in any of the current temperature scales remains possible. The iron excitation equilibria in our...

  10. Chemical abundances of distant extremely metal-poor unevolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Caffau, E; Ludwig, H -G; Spite, M; Hernández, J I González; Behara, N T

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of our study is to determine the chemical composition of a sample of 16 candidate Extremely Metal-Poor (EMP) dwarf stars, extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). There are two main purposes: in the first place to verify the reliability of the metallicity estimates derived from the SDSS spectra; in the second place to see if the abundance trends found for the brighter nearer stars studied previously also hold for this sample of fainter, more distant stars. Methods: We used the UVES at the VLT to obtain high-resolution spectra of the programme stars. The abundances were determined by an automatic analysis with the MyGIsFOS code, with the exception of lithium, for which the abundances were determined from the measured equivalent widths of the Li I resonance doublet. Results: All candidates are confirmed to be EMP stars, with [Fe/H]<= -3.0. The chemical composition of the sample of stars is similar to that of brighter and nearer samples. We measured the lithium abundance for 12 st...

  11. Extremely metal-poor stars in SDSS fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, Piercarlo; François, Patrick; Sbordone, Luca; Ludwig, Hans-G; Spite, Monique; Molaro, Paolo; Spite, François; Cayrel, Roger; Hammer, François; Hill, Vanessa; Nonino, Mario; Randich, Sofia; Stelzer, Beate; Zaggia, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Some insight on the first generation of stars can be obtained from the chemical composition of their direct descendants, extremely metal-poor stars (EMP), with metallicity less than or equal to 1/1000 of the solar metalllicity. Such stars are exceedingly rare, the most successful surveys, for this purpose, have so far provided only about 100 stars with 1/1000 the solar metallicity and 4 stars with about 1/10000 of the solar metallicity. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has the potential to provide a large number of candidates of extremely low metallicity. X-Shooter has the unique capability of performing the necessary follow-up spectroscopy providing accurate metallicities and abundance ratios for several elements (Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, Sr,...) for EMP candidates. We here report on the results for the first two stars observed in the course of our franco-italian X-Shooter GTO. The two stars were targeted to be of metallicity around -3.0, the analysis of the X-Shooter spectra showed them to be of metallicity around -...

  12. Gravitational interactions between globular and open clusters: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, R de la Fuente; Reilly, D

    2014-01-01

    Historically, it has been assumed that globular and open clusters never interact. However, recent evidence suggests that: globular clusters passing through the disk may be able to perturb giant molecular clouds (GMCs) triggering formation of open clusters and some old open clusters may be linked to accreted globulars. Here, we further explore the existence of possible dynamical connections between globular and open clusters, and realize that the most obvious link must be in the form of gravitational interactions. If open clusters are born out of GMCs, they have to move in similar orbits. If we accept that globulars can interact with GMCs, triggering star formation, it follows that globular and open clusters must also interact. Consistently, theoretical arguments as well as observational evidence, show that globular and open clusters certainly are interacting populations and their interactions are far more common than usually thought, especially for objects part of the bulge/disk. Monte Carlo calculations conf...

  13. The Metallicity Distribution of the Milky Way Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, M.; Freeman, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Galactic bulge of the Milky Way is made up of stars with a broad range of metallicity, -3.0 function decreases as a function of height z from the plane and, more weakly, with galactic radius R GC. The most metal-rich stars in the inner Galaxy are concentrated to the plane and the more metal-poor stars are found predominantly further from the plane, with an overall vertical gradient in the mean of the metallicity distribution function of about - 0.45 dex kpc-1. This vertical gradient is believed to reflect the changing contribution with height of different populations in the innermost region of the Galaxy. The more metal-rich stars of the bulge are part of the boxy/peanut structure and comprise stars in orbits which trace out the underlying X-shape. There is still a lack of consensus on the origin of the metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] function of the bulge, and identifying if there is a unique bulge population which has formed separately from the disk and halo, has important consequences for identifying the relevant processes in the formation and evolution of the Milky Way.

  14. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. III. THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION AND CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR FRACTION , ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in a sample that includes 86 stars with [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0, based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, of which some 32 objects lie below [Fe/H] = –3.5. After accounting for the completeness function, the 'corrected' MDF does not exhibit the sudden drop at [Fe/H] = –3.6 that was found in recent samples of dwarfs and giants from the Hamburg/ESO survey. Rather, the MDF decreases smoothly down to [Fe/H] = –4.1. Similar results are obtained from the 'raw' MDF. We find that the fraction of CEMP objects below [Fe/H] = –3.0 is 23% ± 6% and 32% ± 8% when adopting the Beers and Christlieb and Aoki et al. CEMP definitions, respectively. The former value is in fair agreement with some previous measurements, which adopt the Beers and Christlieb criterion.

  15. Spatially resolved dust emission of extremely metal-poor galaxies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luwenjia; Shi, Yong; Diaz-Santos, Taino; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Li, Aigen

    2016-05-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of individual star-forming regions in four extremely metal-poor (EMP) galaxies with metallicity Z ≲ Z⊙/10 as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. With the good wavelength coverage of the SED, it is found that these EMP star-forming regions show distinct SED shapes as compared to those of grand design Spirals and higher metallicity dwarfs: they have on average much higher f70μm/f160 μm ratios at a given f160 μm/f250 μm ratio; single modified blackbody (MBB) fittings to the SED at λ ≥ 100 μm still reveal higher dust temperatures and lower emissivity indices compared to that of Spirals, while two MBB fittings to the full SED with a fixed emissivity index (β = 2) show that even at 100 μm, about half of the emission comes from warm (50 K) dust, in contrast to the cold (˜20 K) dust component. Our spatially resolved images furthermore reveal that the far-IR colours including f70 μm/f160 μm, f160 μm/f250 μm and f250 μm/f350 μm are all related to the surface densities of young stars as traced by far-UV, 24 μm and star formation rates (SFRs), but not to the stellar mass surface densities. This suggests that the dust emitting at wavelengths from 70 to 350 μm is primarily heated by radiation from young stars.

  16. The 3D structure of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Zoccali, M

    2016-01-01

    We review the observational evidences concerning the three-dimensional structure of the Galactic bulge. Although the inner few kpc of our Galaxy are normally referred to as {\\it the bulge}, all the observations demonstrate that this region is dominated by a bar, i.e., the bulge is a bar. The bar has a boxy/peanut (X\\--shaped) structure in its outer regions, while it seems to become less and less elongated in its innermost region. A thinner and longer structure departing from the main bar has also been found, although the observational evidences that support the scenario of two separate structures has been recently challenged. Metal poor stars ([Fe/H]$\\lesssim -0.5$ dex) trace a different structure, and also have different kinematics.

  17. Polar-bulge galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnikov, V P; Mosenkov, A V; Sotnikova, N Ya; Bizyaev, D V

    2015-01-01

    Based on SDSS data, we have selected a sample of nine edge-on spiral galaxies with bulges whose major axes show a high inclination to the disk plane. Such objects are called polar-bulge galaxies. They are similar in their morphology to polar-ring galaxies, but the central objects in them have small size and low luminosity. We have performed a photometric analysis of the galaxies in the g and r bands and determined the main characteristics of their bulges and disks. We show that the disks of such galaxies are typical for the disks of spiral galaxies of late morphological types. The integrated characteristics of their bulges are similar to the parameters of normal bulges. The stellar disks of polar-bulge galaxies often show large-scale warps, which can be explained by their interaction with neighboring galaxies or external accretion from outside.

  18. Atomic diffusion in metal poor stars The influence on the Main Sequence fitting distance scale, subdwarfs ages and the value of Delta Y/DeltaZ

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, M; Weiss, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of atomic diffusion on the Main Sequence (MS) of metal-poor low mass stars is investigated. Since diffusion alters the stellar surface chemical abundances with respect to their initial values, one must ensure - by calibrating the initial chemical composition of the theoretical models - that the surface abundances of the models match the observed ones of the stellar population under scrutiny. Since the observed surface abundances of subdwarfs are different from the initial ones due to the effect of diffusion, while the globular clusters stellar abundances are measured in Red Giants, which have practically recovered their initial abundances after the dredge-up, the isochrones to be employed for studying globular clusters and Halo subdwarfs with the same observational value of [Fe/H] are different and do not coincide. We find, however,that the current MS-fitting distances derived from HIPPARCOS subdwarfs using colour corrections from standard isochrones are basically unaltered when diffusion is taken ...

  19. Understanding AGB evolution in Galactic bulge stars from high-resolution infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttenthaler, S.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Wood, P. R.; Lebzelter, T.; Aringer, B.; Schultheis, M.; Ryde, N.

    2015-08-01

    An analysis of high-resolution near-infrared spectra of a sample of 45 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars towards the Galactic bulge is presented. The sample consists of two subsamples, a larger one in the inner and intermediate bulge, and a smaller one in the outer bulge. The data are analysed with the help of hydrostatic model atmospheres and spectral synthesis. We derive the radial velocity of all stars, and the atmospheric chemical mix ([Fe/H], C/O, 12C/13C, Al, Si, Ti, and Y) where possible. Our ability to model the spectra is mainly limited by the (in)completeness of atomic and molecular line lists, at least for temperatures down to Teff ≈ 3100 K. We find that the subsample in the inner and intermediate bulge is quite homogeneous, with a slightly subsolar mean metallicity and only few stars with supersolar metallicity, in agreement with previous studies of non-variable M-type giants in the bulge. All sample stars are oxygen-rich, C/O isotopic ratios suggest that third dredge-up (3DUP) is absent among the sample stars, except for two stars in the outer bulge that are known to contain technetium. These stars are also more metal-poor than the stars in the intermediate or inner bulge. Current stellar masses are determined from linear pulsation models. The masses, metallicities and 3DUP behaviour are compared to AGB evolutionary models. We conclude that these models are partly in conflict with our observations. Furthermore, we conclude that the stars in the inner and intermediate bulge belong to a more metal-rich population that follows bar-like kinematics, whereas the stars in the outer bulge belong to the metal-poor, spheroidal bulge population.

  20. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... causing bulging also presses on the optic nerve. Causes The most common cause is Graves disease, which ...

  1. Observational nuclear astrophysics: neutron-capture element abundances in old, metal-poor stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical abundances of metal-poor stars provide a great deal of information regarding the individual nucleosynthetic processes that created the observed elements and the overall process of chemical enrichment of the galaxy since the formation of the first stars. Here we review the abundance patterns of the neutron-capture elements (Z ⩾ 38) in those metal-poor stars and our current understanding of the conditions and sites of their production at early times. We also review the relative contributions of these different processes to the build-up of these elements within the galaxy over time, and outline outstanding questions and uncertainties that complicate the interpretation of the abundance patterns observed in metal-poor stars. It is anticipated that future observations of large samples of metal-poor stars will help discriminate between different proposed neutron-capture element production sites and better trace the chemical evolution of the galaxy. (paper)

  2. Signatures of bulge triaxiality from kinematics in Baade's window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongsheng; Spergel, David N.; Rich, R. Michael

    1994-01-01

    We study a sample of 62 Baade's Window, (l,b) = (1, -4)deg, K giants that have published proper motions, radial velocity, and metallicity. Using R(sub 0) = 8 kpc, we construct the velocity ellipsoids, namely the 3x3 velocity dispersion tensors, for the metal rich stars ((Fe/H) greater than or equal to 0) and metal poor stars ((Fe/H) less than or equal to -0.2). After diagonalizing the tensor, we find a vertex deviation characteristic of a nonaxisymmetric system. Eigenvalues for the two velocity ellipsoids (sigma(sub 1), sigma(sub 2), sigma(sub 3)) are (126, 89, 65) +/- 13 km/s for the metal rich sample and (154, 77, 83) +/- 25 km/s for the metal poor sample with their long axes pointing to two nearly perpendicular directions (l(sub v), b(sub v)) = (-65 +/- 9 deg, +14 +/- 9 deg) and (l(sub v), b(sub v)) = (25 +/- 14 deg, -11 +/- 14 deg), respectively. The vertex deviations of the velocity ellipsoids cannot be consistently explained by any oblate model. We are able to reject the hypothesis that the metal poor and metal rich populations are drawn from the same distribution at better than the 97% confidence level. We populate orbits in a realistic bar potential with a Gaussian velocity distribution, allowing us to simulate and interpret observations. We conclude that the data are consistent with a triaxial bulge pointing towards (l,b) with l less than 0 deg and b = 0 deg as suggested by earlier work on gas dynamics and the observed light distribution. We also predict that low latitude (absolute value of b less than or equal to 4 deg) bulge fields should show the vertex deviation more strongly and would therefore be the best locations for future proper motion studies. In the classification scheme of Athanassoula et al. (1983) the metal rich stars appear to occupy the B-family orbits which rotate in the prograde sense in the rest frame and have boxy shapes that are aligned with and supporting the bar. The metal poor stars in the sample lag behind the metal rich bulge and

  3. THE ACCRETION OF DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of where the low-metallicity globular clusters in early-type galaxies came from has profound implications for the formation of those galaxies. Our work supports the idea that the metal-poor globular cluster systems of giant early-type galaxies formed in dwarf galaxies that have been subsumed by the giants. To support this hypothesis, two linear relations, one involving globular cluster metallicity versus host galaxy luminosity and one involving metallicity versus velocity dispersion were studied. Tentatively, these relations show that the bright ellipticals do not obey the same trend as the dwarfs, suggesting that the low-metallicity globular clusters did not form within their parent bright ellipticals.

  4. Galactic Globular Cluster Relative Ages. II

    CERN Document Server

    De Angeli, F; Cassisi, S; Busso, G; Recio-Blanco, A; Salaris, M; Aparicio, A; Rosenberg, A L

    2005-01-01

    We present accurate relative ages for a sample of 55 Galactic globular clusters. The ages have been obtained by measuring the difference between the horizontal branch and the turnoff in two, internally photometrically homogeneous databases. The mutual consistency of the two data sets has been assessed by comparing the ages of 16 globular clusters in common between the two databases. We have also investigated the consistency of our relative age determination within the recent stellar model framework. All clusters with [Fe/H]-0.8 are ~1 Gyr younger than the most metal poor ones, with a relatively small age dispersion, though the metal rich sample is still too small to allow firmer conclusions. There is no correlation of the cluster age with the Galactocentric distance. We briefly discuss the implication of these observational results for the formation history of the Galaxy.

  5. FORMATION HISTORY OF METAL-POOR HALO STARS WITH THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL AND THE EFFECT OF INTERSTELLAR MATTER ACCRETION ON THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS

    OpenAIRE

    Komiya, Yutaka; Habe, Asao; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the star formation and chemical evolution in the early universe by considering the merging history of the Galaxy in the {\\Lambda}CDM scenario according to the extended Press-Schechter theory. We give some possible constraints from comparisons with observation of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. We demonstrate that (1) The hierarchical structure formation can explain the characteristics of the observed metallicity distribution function (MDF) including a break around [Fe/H]~-4. ...

  6. Spectroscopic Studies of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars with the Subaru High Dispersion Spectrograph. V. The Zn-Enhanced Metal-Poor Star BS 16920-017

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Satoshi; Beers, Timothy C; Takada-Hidai, Masahide

    2011-01-01

    We report Zn abundances for 18 very metal-poor stars studied in our previous work, covering the metallicity range -3.2 < [Fe/H] < -2.5. The [Zn/Fe] values of most stars show an increasing trend with decreasing [Fe/H] in this metallicity range, confirming the results found by previous studies. However, the extremely metal-poor star BS 16920-017 ([Fe/H] = -3.2) exhibits a significantly high [Zn/Fe] ratio ([Zn/Fe] = +1.0). Comparison of the chemical abundances of this object with HD 4306, which has similar atmospheric parameters to BS 16920-017, clearly demonstrates a deficiency of alpha elements and neutron-capture elements in this star, along with enhancements of Mn and Ni, as well as Zn. The association with a hypernova explosion that has been proposed to explain the high Zn abundance ratios found in extremely metal-poor stars is a possible explanation, although further studies are required to fully interpret the abundance pattern of this object.

  7. Spectroscopic analysis of metal-poor stars from LAMOST: early results

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hai-Ning; Christlieb, Norbert; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Yuan, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan~II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars...

  8. The Weak Carbon Monoxide Emission In An Extremely Metal Poor Galaxy, Sextans A

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yong; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Yu; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Gu, Qiusheng; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the primary coolants of gas and an easily accessible tracer of molecular gas in spiral galaxies but it is unclear if CO plays a similar role in metal poor dwarfs. We carried out a deep observation with IRAM 30 m to search for CO emission by targeting the brightest far-IR peak in a nearby extremely metal poor galaxy, Sextans A, with 7% Solar metallicity. A weak CO J=1-0 emission is seen, which is already faint enough to place a strong constraint on the conversion factor (a_CO) from the CO luminosity to the molecular gas mass that is derived from the spatially resolved dust mass map. The a_CO is at least seven hundred times the Milky Way value. This indicates that CO emission is exceedingly weak in extremely metal poor galaxies, challenging its role as a coolant in these galaxies.

  9. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF TWO VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae (SNe). These SNe could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two MW dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[α/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of SN yields is the cause. The earliest SNe in low-mass dSphs have less gas to pollute than the earliest SNe in massive halo progenitors. As a result, dSph stars at –3 < [Fe/H] < –2 sample SNe with [Fe/H] << –3, whereas halo stars in the same metallicity range sample SNe with [Fe/H] ∼ –3. Consequently, enhancements in [Na/Fe] and [r/Fe] were deferred to higher metallicity in dSphs than in the progenitors of the inner halo.

  10. Heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu in 56 Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaelmen, M; Hill, V; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu in 56 bulge giants (red giant branch and red clump) with metallicities ranging from -1.3 dex to 0.5 dex. Methods. We obtained high-resolution spectra of our giant stars using the FLAMES-UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. We inspected four bulge fields along the minor axis. Results. We measure the chemical evolution of heavy elements, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. Conclusions. The [Ba, La, Ce, Nd/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] ratios decrease with increasing metallicity, in which aspect they differ from disc stars. In our metal-poor bulge stars, La and Ba are enhanced relative to their thick disc counterpart, while in our metal-rich bulge stars La and Ba are underabundant relative to their disc counterpart. Therefore, this contrast between bulge and discs trends indicates that bulge and (solar neighbourhood) thick disc stars could behave differently. An increase in [La, Nd/Eu] with increasing m...

  11. Metal-Poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope. III. New Extremely and Ultra Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE and Insights on the Formation of Ultra Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Lee, Young Sun; Jacobson, Heather R; Beers, Timothy C; Pena, Jose M; Chan, Conrad; Heger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of one extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H]<-3) and one ultra metal-poor (UMP; [Fe/H]<-4) star selected from the SDSS/SEGUE survey. These stars were identified as EMP candidates based on their medium-resolution (R~2,000) spectra, and were followed-up with high-resolution (R~35,000) spectroscopy with the Magellan-Clay Telescope. Their derived chemical abundances exhibit good agreement with those of stars with similar metallicities. We also provide new insights on the formation of the UMP stars, based on comparison with a new set of theoretical models of supernovae nucleosynthesis. The models were matched with 20 UMP stars found in the literature, together with one of the program stars (SDSS J1204+1201), with [Fe/H]=-4.34. From fitting their abundances, we find that the supernovae progenitors, for stars where carbon and nitrogen are measured, had masses ranging from 20.5 M_sun to 28 M_sun and explosion energies from 0.3 to 0.9x10^51 erg. These results are highly sensitive to the carbo...

  12. Metal-poor stars: The fingerprints of the first stars and the early galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David K.

    2008-10-01

    The chemical composition of metal-poor stars are fossil records of the first generations of stars and of the early Galactic environment. In this thesis I cover two of the main challenges in studying metal-poor stars. The first is finding metal-poor candidates, and the second is the high-resolution spectral follow-up study of a sample of metal-poor stars. In the first part of my thesis I explore one process to identify and study very metal-poor stars (VMP, [Fe/H] = 1.0. I explore how the metallicity distribution function of any particular sample is an important aspect in determining this fraction. The second part of this thesis is a detailed study of a sample of VMP stars using high-resolution spectral analysis. Most of the stars in the sample came from the ESI study. These observations were carried out with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) instrument at Keck, with spectral resolution of R~45,000. From these HIRES spectra, I have measured the abundances of up to 25 elements from C through Eu in 28 VMP stars. In this sample I have discovered a new star that is highly enhanced by r-process material, CS 31078-018, and a new [Fe/H]= -4.0 star, CS 30336-049. The abundance ratios in the stars in this sample may be the products of nucleosynthesis in the very first stars. With this in mind I have compared the abundance ratios of the sample in aggregate, as well as the abundance ratios of CS 30336-049, with the zero-metallicity supernova type II nucleosynthesis models of Heger & Woosley (2008). From this comparison I show that metal-free progenitor with masses ~ 10 to 20 [Special characters omitted.] can match our abundances very well. In the last part of this dissertation I discuss a future direction in the study of metal-poor stars. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and in particular by its extension, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE), has greatly increased the number of metal-poor candidates to date. Through a well

  13. Abundances of heavy elements in ultra-metal-poor star CS 22892-052

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 张彩霞; 李冀; 梁艳春; 彭秋和

    1999-01-01

    Based on the heavy element nucleosynthesis theory, with the solar heavy-nuclide abundances and the observed abundances of three elements which are the representatives of the individul neutron-capture processes, a method to determine the relative contributions from the individul neutron-capture processes to the abundances of heavy elements in metal-poor stars is applied. With this method, the abundances of heavy elements in ultra-metal-poor star CS 22892-052 are calculated. It is found that the observed abundances of heavy elements in this star are well matched by our calculations in error limits, except for thorium.

  14. DETECTION OF A DISTINCT METAL-POOR STELLAR HALO IN THE EARLY-TYPE GALAXY NGC 3115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Brodie, Jean P., E-mail: mpeacock@msu.edu [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We present the resolved stellar populations in the inner and outer halo of the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115. Using deep Hubble Space Telescope observations, we analyze stars 2 mag fainter than the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We study three fields along the minor axis of this galaxy, 19, 37, and 54 kpc from its center—corresponding to 7, 14, and 21 effective radii (r{sub e} ). Even at these large galactocentric distances, all of the fields are dominated by a relatively enriched population, with the main peak in the metallicity distribution decreasing with radius from [Z/H] ∼ –0.5 to –0.65. The fraction of metal-poor stars ([Z/H] < –0.95) increases from 17% at 16-37 kpc to 28% at ∼54 kpc. We observe a distinct low-metallicity population (peaked at [Z/H] ∼ –1.3 and with total mass 2 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} ∼ 14% of the galaxy's stellar mass) and argue that this represents the detection of an underlying low-metallicity stellar halo. Such halos are generally predicted by galaxy formation theories and have been observed in several late-type galaxies, including the Milky Way and M31. The metallicity and spatial distribution of the stellar halo of NGC 3115 are consistent with the galaxy's globular cluster system, which has a similar low-metallicity population that becomes dominant at these large radii. This finding supports the use of globular clusters as bright chemodynamical tracers of galaxy halos. These data also allow us to make a precise measurement of the magnitude of the TRGB, from which we derive a distance modulus of NGC 3115 of 30.05 ± 0.05 ± 0.10{sub sys} (10.2 ± 0.2 ± 0.5{sub sys} Mpc)

  15. Test observations that search for metal-poor stars with the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal-deficient stars are regarded as fossils of the early generation of stars and therefore make crucial observational targets related to stellar astrophysics. They provide fundamental information and insights on properties of the very early stage of the chemical history of the Galaxy and have been investigated for decades. The unique design of the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST), such as its large field and multi-object observational capability, enables it to be an excellent tool for searching for these metal-poor stars in the Milky Way. This work reports the result of test observations which search for metal-poor stars with LAMOST, during which nine candidate metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] ≤ -1.0 were newly detected based on the low-resolution spectroscopic observations of the LAMOST commissioning data. The sample of stars demonstrates the efficiency of selecting from the input catalog, as well as the ability of LAMOST to enlarge the sample of metal-poor stars in the Milky Way. Furthermore, the sample of stars could be used for future calibrations of the LAMOST stellar parameter pipeline. (research papers)

  16. Identification of metal-poor stars using the artificial neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Giridhar, Sunetra; Kunder, Andrea; Muneer, S; Selvakumar, G

    2013-01-01

    Identification of metal-poor stars among field stars is extremely useful for studying the structure and evolution of the Galaxy and of external galaxies. We search for metal-poor stars using the artificial neural network (ANN) and extend its usage to determine absolute magnitudes. We have constructed a library of 167 medium-resolution stellar spectra (R ~ 1200) covering the stellar temperature range of 4200 to 8000 K, log g range of 0.5 to 5.0, and [Fe/H] range of -3.0 to +0.3 dex. This empirical spectral library was used to train ANNs, yielding an accuracy of 0.3 dex in [Fe/H], 200 K in temperature, and 0.3 dex in log g. We found that the independent calibrations of near-solar metallicity stars and metal-poor stars decreases the errors in T_eff and log g by nearly a factor of two. We calculated T_eff, log g, and [Fe/H] on a consistent scale for a large number of field stars and candidate metal-poor stars. We extended the application of this method to the calibration of absolute magnitudes using nearby stars ...

  17. 3D molecular line formation in dwarf carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Behara, N T; Bonifacio, P; Sbordone, L; Hernandez, J I Gonzalez; Caffau, E

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the carbon and nitrogen abundances of two dwarf carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars: SDSS J1349-0229 and SDSS J0912+0216. We also report the oxygen abundance of SDSS J1349-0229. These stars are metal-poor, with [Fe/H] < -2.5, and were selected from our ongoing survey of extremely metal-poor dwarf candidates from the Sloan Digital SkySurvey (SDSS). The carbon, nitrogen and oxygen abundances rely on molecular lines which form in the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere. It is known that convection in metal-poor stars induces very low temperatures which are not predicted by `classical' 1D stellar atmospheres. To obtain the correct temperature structure, one needs full 3D hydrodynamical models. Using CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres and the Linfor3D line formation code, molecular lines of CH, NH, OH and C2 were computed, and 3D carbon, nitrogen and oxygen abundances were determined. The resulting carbon abundances were compared to abundances derived using atom...

  18. High-resolution spectroscopic studies of ultra metal-poor stars found in the LAMOST survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haining; Aoki, Wako; Zhao, Gang; Honda, Satoshi; Christlieb, Norbert; Suda, Takuma

    2015-10-01

    We report on the observations of two ultra metal-poor (UMP) stars with [Fe/H] ˜ -4.0, including one new discovery. The two stars are studied in the on-going and quite efficient project to search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with LAMOST and Subaru. Detailed abundances or upper limits of abundances have been derived for 15 elements from Li to Eu based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted in the Subaru Telescope. The abundance patterns of both UMP stars are consistent with the "normal population" among the low-metallicity stars. Both of the two program stars show carbon-enhancement without any excess of heavy neutron-capture elements, indicating that they belong to the subclass of (carbon-enhanced metal-poor) CEMP-no stars, as is the case of most UMP stars previously studied. The [Sr/Ba] ratios of both CEMP-no UMP stars are above [Sr/Ba] ˜ -0.4, suggesting the origin of the carbon-excess is not compatible with the mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch companion where the s-process has operated. Lithium abundance is measured in the newly discovered UMP star LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1, making it the second UMP turnoff star with Li detection. The Li abundance of LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1 is slightly lower than the values obtained for less metal-poor stars with similar temperatures, and provides a unique data point at [Fe/H] ˜ -4.2 to support the "meltdown" of the Li Spite plateau at extremely low metallicity. Comparison with the other two UMP and HMP (hyper metal-poor, with [Fe/H] < -5.0) turnoff stars suggests that the difference in lighter elements such as CNO and Na might cause notable difference in lithium abundances among CEMP-no stars.

  19. Metal-poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope. III. New Extremely and Ultra Metal-poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE and Insights on the Formation of Ultra Metal-poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Lee, Young Sun; Jacobson, Heather R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Pena, Jose M.; Chan, Conrad; Heger, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of one extremely metal-poor (EMP; [{Fe}/{{H}}] \\lt -3) and one ultra metal-poor (UMP; [{Fe}/{{H}}] \\lt -4) star selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration survey. These stars were identified as EMP candidates based on their medium-resolution (R ˜ 2000) spectra, and were followed up with high-resolution (R ˜ 35,000) spectroscopy with the Magellan/Clay Telescope. Their derived chemical abundances exhibit good agreement with those of stars with similar metallicities. We also provide new insights on the formation of the UMP stars, based on comparisons with a new set of theoretical models of supernovae (SNe) nucleosynthesis. The models were matched with 20 UMP stars found in the literature, together with one of the program stars (SDSS J1204+1201), with [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-4.34. From fitting their abundances, we find that the SNe progenitors, for stars where carbon and nitrogen are measured, had masses ranging from 20.5 {M}⊙ to 28 {M}⊙ and explosion energies from 0.3 to 0.9× {10}51 {erg}. These results are highly sensitive to the carbon and nitrogen abundance determinations, which is one of the main drivers for a future high-resolution follow-up of UMP candidates. In addition, we are able to reproduce the different CNO abundance patterns found in UMP stars with a single progenitor type by varying its mass and explosion energy. Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  20. Super and massive AGB stars - III. Nucleosynthesis in metal-poor and very metal-poor stars - Z=0.001 and 0.0001

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Carolyn L; Lau, Herbert H B; Lattanzio, John C; Siess, Lionel; Campbell, Simon W

    2014-01-01

    We present a new grid of stellar models and nucleosynthetic yields for super-AGB stars with metallicities Z=0.001 and 0.0001, applicable for use within galactic chemical evolution models. Contrary to more metal rich stars where hot bottom burning is the main driver of the surface composition, in these lower metallicity models the effect of third dredge-up and corrosive second dredge-up also have a strong impact on the yields. These metal-poor and very metal-poor super-AGB stars create large amounts of He4, C13 and N14, as well as the heavy magnesium isotopes Mg25 and Mg26. There is a transition in yield trends at metallicity Z approximately 0.001, below which we find positive yields of C12, O16, N15, Al27 and Si28, which is not the case for higher metallicities. We explore the large uncertainties derived from wind prescriptions in super-AGB stars, finding approximately 2 orders of magnitude difference in yields of Ne22, Na23, Mg24,25,26, Al27 and our s-process proxy isotope g. We find inclusion of variable co...

  1. The Gaia-ESO survey: Metal-rich bananas in the bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Angus A; Molloy, Matthew; Kordopatis, Georges; Smith, M C; Shen, J; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Bensby, T; Francois, P; Koposov, S E; Recio-Blanco, A; Bayo, A; Carraro, G; Casey, A; Costado, T; Franciosini, E; Hourihane, A; de Laverny, P; Lewis, J; Lind, K; Magrini, L; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Worley, C; Zaggia, S; Mikolaitis, S

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the kinematics of $\\sim 2000$ giant stars in the direction of the Galactic bulge, extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey in the region $-10^\\circ \\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 10^\\circ$ and $-11^\\circ \\lesssim b \\lesssim -3^\\circ$. We find distinct kinematic trends in the metal rich ($\\mathrm{[M/H]}>0$) and metal poor ($\\mathrm{[M/H]}<0$) stars in the data. The velocity dispersion of the metal-rich stars drops steeply with latitude, compared to a flat profile in the metal-poor stars, as has been seen previously. We argue that the metal-rich stars in this region are mostly on orbits that support the boxy-peanut shape of the bulge, which naturally explains the drop in their velocity dispersion profile with latitude. The metal rich stars also exhibit peaky features in their line-of-sight velocity histograms, particularly along the minor axis of the bulge. We propose that these features are due to stars on resonant orbits supporting the boxy-peanut bulge. This conjecture is strengthened through the comparison ...

  2. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Metal-rich Bananas in the Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angus A.; Evans, N. W.; Molloy, Matthew; Kordopatis, Georges; Smith, M. C.; Shen, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Bensby, T.; Francois, P.; Koposov, S. E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A.; Costado, T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Mikolaitis, Š.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the kinematics of ˜2000 giant stars in the direction of the Galactic bulge, extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey in the region -10^\\circ ≲ {\\ell }≲ 10^\\circ and -11^\\circ ≲ b≲ -3^\\circ . We find distinct kinematic trends in the metal-rich ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\\gt 0) and metal-poor ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\\lt 0) stars in the data. The velocity dispersion of the metal-rich stars drops steeply with latitude, compared to a flat profile in the metal-poor stars, as has been seen previously. We argue that the metal-rich stars in this region are mostly on orbits that support the boxy–peanut shape of the bulge, which naturally explains the drop in their velocity dispersion profile with latitude. The metal-rich stars also exhibit peaky features in their line of sight velocity histograms, particularly along the minor axis of the bulge. We propose that these features are due to stars on resonant orbits supporting the boxy–peanut bulge. This conjecture is strengthened through the comparison of the minor axis data with the velocity histograms of resonant orbits generated in simulations of buckled bars. The “banana” or 2:1:2 orbits provide strongly bimodal histograms with narrow velocity peaks that resemble the Gaia-ESO metal-rich data.

  3. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Metal-rich Bananas in the Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angus A.; Evans, N. W.; Molloy, Matthew; Kordopatis, Georges; Smith, M. C.; Shen, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Bensby, T.; Francois, P.; Koposov, S. E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A.; Costado, T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Mikolaitis, Š.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the kinematics of ∼2000 giant stars in the direction of the Galactic bulge, extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey in the region -10^\\circ ≲ {\\ell }≲ 10^\\circ and -11^\\circ ≲ b≲ -3^\\circ . We find distinct kinematic trends in the metal-rich ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\\gt 0) and metal-poor ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\\lt 0) stars in the data. The velocity dispersion of the metal-rich stars drops steeply with latitude, compared to a flat profile in the metal-poor stars, as has been seen previously. We argue that the metal-rich stars in this region are mostly on orbits that support the boxy–peanut shape of the bulge, which naturally explains the drop in their velocity dispersion profile with latitude. The metal-rich stars also exhibit peaky features in their line of sight velocity histograms, particularly along the minor axis of the bulge. We propose that these features are due to stars on resonant orbits supporting the boxy–peanut bulge. This conjecture is strengthened through the comparison of the minor axis data with the velocity histograms of resonant orbits generated in simulations of buckled bars. The “banana” or 2:1:2 orbits provide strongly bimodal histograms with narrow velocity peaks that resemble the Gaia-ESO metal-rich data.

  4. Shedding Light on Lithium Evolution: The Globular Cluster Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Korn, A J

    2012-01-01

    I shall review what has been learnt during 20 years of lithium observations in stars belonging to metal-poor globular clusters. The focus will be on little evolved main-sequence, turnoff-point (TOP) and subgiant-branch (SGB) stars expected to display Spite-plateau lithium abundances like those found in the majority of field stars of similar metallicities. But is the Spite plateau of globular clusters the same as those of field stars? What effect does, e.g., cluster-internal pollution have on lithium abundances in the now dominant second generation of stars? It will be shown that it is primarily our incomplete knowledge of the temperature scale of Population II stars which currently limits the diagnostic power of globular clusters as regards the stellar-surface evolution of lithium.

  5. Variable stars in the VVV globular clusters. I. 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is opening a new window to study inner Galactic globular clusters (GCs) using their variable stars. These GCs have been neglected in the past due to the difficulties caused by the presence of elevated extinction and high field stellar densities in their lines of sight. However, the discovery and study of any present variables in these clusters, especially RR Lyrae stars, can help to greatly improve the accuracy of their physical parameters. It can also help to shed some light on the questions raised by the intriguing Oosterhoff dichotomy in the Galactic GC system. In a series of papers we plan to explore variable stars in the GCs falling inside the field of the VVV survey. In this first paper, we search for and study the variables present in two highly reddened, moderately metal-poor, faint, inner Galactic GCs: 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10. We report the discovery of sizable populations of RR Lyrae stars in both GCs. We use near-infrared period–luminosity relations to determine the color excess of each RR Lyrae star, from which we obtain both accurate distances to the GCs and the ratios of the selective-to-total extinction in their directions. We find the extinction toward both clusters to be elevated, non-standard, and highly differential. We also find both clusters to be closer to the Galactic center than previously thought, with Terzan 10 being on the far side of the Galactic bulge. Finally, we discuss their Oosterhoff properties, and conclude that both clusters stand out from the dichotomy followed by most Galactic GCs.

  6. Variable stars in the VVV globular clusters. I. 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-García, Javier; Dékány, István; Catelan, Márcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Gran, Felipe; Leyton, Paul; Minniti, Dante [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Amigo, Pía, E-mail: jalonso@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: idekany@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: rcontrer@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: fgran@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: pia.amigo@uv.cl, E-mail: pleyton@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: dante@astrofisica.cl [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-03-01

    The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is opening a new window to study inner Galactic globular clusters (GCs) using their variable stars. These GCs have been neglected in the past due to the difficulties caused by the presence of elevated extinction and high field stellar densities in their lines of sight. However, the discovery and study of any present variables in these clusters, especially RR Lyrae stars, can help to greatly improve the accuracy of their physical parameters. It can also help to shed some light on the questions raised by the intriguing Oosterhoff dichotomy in the Galactic GC system. In a series of papers we plan to explore variable stars in the GCs falling inside the field of the VVV survey. In this first paper, we search for and study the variables present in two highly reddened, moderately metal-poor, faint, inner Galactic GCs: 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10. We report the discovery of sizable populations of RR Lyrae stars in both GCs. We use near-infrared period–luminosity relations to determine the color excess of each RR Lyrae star, from which we obtain both accurate distances to the GCs and the ratios of the selective-to-total extinction in their directions. We find the extinction toward both clusters to be elevated, non-standard, and highly differential. We also find both clusters to be closer to the Galactic center than previously thought, with Terzan 10 being on the far side of the Galactic bulge. Finally, we discuss their Oosterhoff properties, and conclude that both clusters stand out from the dichotomy followed by most Galactic GCs.

  7. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF METAL-POOR STARS FROM LAMOST: EARLY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hailong [Key Lab of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100012 (China); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui, E-mail: lhn@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn [Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2015-01-10

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5 dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-processes may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.

  8. A high-velocity bulge RR Lyrae variable on a halo-like orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Kunder, Andrea; Hawkins, Keith; Poleski, Radek; Storm, Jesper; Johnson, Christian I; Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhao-Yu; Cordero, Maria Jose; Nataf, David M; Bono, Giuseppe; Walker, Alistair R; Koch, Andreas; De Propris, Roberto; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymanski, Michal K; Soszynski, Igor; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz; Pietrukowicz, Pawel; Skowron, Jan; Kozlowski, Szymon; Mroz, Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA-RR), which has the unusual radial velocity of -372 +- 8 km/s and true space velocity of -482 +- 22 km/s relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l,b)=(3,-2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it...

  9. The Stellar Populations of Nuclei, Globular Clusters, and Stars in dE Galaxies in Virgo and Fornax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield Miller, Bryan; Hyazinth Puzia, Thomas; Hilker, Michael; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Kissler-Patig, Markus

    2015-08-01

    We present ages and metallicities for globular clusters, nuclei, and underlying stars in nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxies (dE,N) in the Virgo and Fornax Cluster based on Lick/IDS index measurements and SSP models. Gemini/GMOS spectroscopy shows that the globular clusters are mostly old and metal-poor, very similar to the globular clusters in the Milky Way halo. The nuclei and underlying stars tend to be more metal-rich than the globular clusters and have a wide range of ages. The [α/Fe] ratios for both the globular clusters and nuclei range between 0.0 and 0.3. Formation scenarios for globular clusters and nuclei will be discussed.

  10. Are the Formation and Abundances of Metal-Poor Stars the Result of Dust Dynamics?

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F

    2015-01-01

    Large dust grains can fluctuate dramatically in their local density, relative to gas, in neutral, turbulent disks. Small, high-redshift galaxies (before reionization) represent ideal environments for this process. We show via simple arguments and simulations that order-of-magnitude fluctuations are expected in local abundances of large grains under these conditions. This can have important consequences for star formation and stellar abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. Low-mass stars could form in dust-enhanced regions almost immediately after some dust forms, even if the galaxy-average metallicity is too low for fragmentation to occur. The abundances of these 'promoted' stars may contain interesting signatures, as the CNO abundances (concentrated in large carbonaceous grains and ices) and Mg and Si (in large silicate grains) can be enhanced or fluctuate independently. Remarkably, otherwise puzzling abundance patterns of some metal-poor stars can be well-fit by standard core-collapse SNe yields, if we al...

  11. The origin of low [alpha/Fe] ratios in extremely metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-01-01

    We show that the low ratios of $\\alpha$ elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) to Fe recently found for a small fraction of extremely metal-poor stars can be naturally explained with the nucleosynthesis yields of core-collapse supernovae, i.e., $13-25M_\\odot$ supernovae, or hypernovae. For the case without carbon enhancement, the ejected iron mass is normal, consistent with observed light curves and spectra of nearby supernovae. On the other hand, the carbon enhancement requires much smaller iron production, and the low [$\\alpha$/Fe] of carbon enhanced metal-poor stars can also be reproduced with $13-25M_\\odot$ faint supernovae or faint hypernovae. Iron-peak element abundances, in particular Zn abundances, are important to put further constraints on the enrichment sources from galactic archaeology surveys.

  12. THE ORIGIN OF LOW [α/Fe] RATIOS IN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Ishigaki, Miho N.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken' ichi, E-mail: c.kobayashi@herts.ac.uk [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-04-10

    We show that the low ratios of α elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) to Fe recently found for a small fraction of extremely metal-poor stars can be naturally explained with the nucleosynthesis yields of core-collapse supernovae, i.e., 13-25 M {sub ☉} supernovae, or hypernovae. For the case without carbon enhancement, the ejected iron mass is normal, consistent with observed light curves and spectra of nearby supernovae. On the other hand, the carbon enhancement requires much smaller iron production, and the low [α/Fe] of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars can also be reproduced with 13-25 M {sub ☉} faint supernovae or faint hypernovae. Iron-peak element abundances, in particular Zn abundances, are important to put further constraints on the enrichment sources from galactic archaeology surveys.

  13. The Extreme Overabundance of Molybdenum in Two Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Ruth C

    2011-01-01

    We report determinations of the molybdenum abundances in five mildly to extremely metal-poor turnoff stars using five Mo II lines near 2000A. In two of the stars, the abundance of molybdenum is found to be extremely enhanced, as high or higher than the neighboring even-Z elements ruthenium and zirconium. Of the several nucleosynthesis scenarios envisioned for the production of nuclei in this mass range in the oldest stars, a high-entropy wind (HEW) acting in a core-collapse supernova seems uniquely capable of the twin aspects of a high molybdenum overproduction confined to a narrow mass range. Whatever the details of the nucleosynthesis mechanism, however, this unusual excess suggests that very few individual nucleosynthesis events were responsible for the synthesis of the light trans-Fe heavy elements in these cases, an unexpected result given that both are only moderately metal-poor.

  14. Chemical Abundances in 35 Metal-Poor Stars. I. Basic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Deok; Kim, Kang-Min

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a homogeneous abundance study for various elements, including $\\alpha$-elements, iron peak elements and $n$-capture elements for 35 metal-poor stars with a wide metallicity range ($-3.0\\lesssim$[Fe/H]$\\lesssim-0.5$). High-resolution ($R\\simeq30$k), high signal-to-noise($S/N\\geq110$) spectra with a wavelength range of 3800 to 10500 \\AA using the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph (BOES). Equivalent widths were measured by means of the Gaussian-fitting method for numerous isolated weak lines of elements. Atmospheric parameters were determined by a self-consistent LTE analysis technique using Fe I and Fe II lines. In this study, we present the EWs of lines and atmospheric parameters for 35 metal-poor stars.

  15. Globular Cluster Formation Within The Aquarius Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Griffen, B F; Thomas, P A; Helly, J C; Pimbblet, K A

    2009-01-01

    The Aquarius project is the first simulation that can resolve the full mass range of potential globular cluster formation sites. With a particle mass $m_\\mathrm{p}=1.4 \\times 10^4$\\Msun, Aquarius yields more than 100 million particles within the virial radius of the central halo which has a mass of $1.8 \\times 10^{12}$\\Msun, similar to that of the Milky Way. With this particle mass, dark matter concentrations (haloes) as small as 10$^6$ M$_\\odot$ will contain a minimum of 100 particles.Here, we use this simulation to test a model of metal-poor globular cluster formation based on collapse physics. In our model, globular clusters form when the virial temperatures of haloes first exceed $10^4$ K as this is when electronic transitions allow the gas to cool efficiently. We calculate the ionising flux from the stars in these first clusters and stop the formation of new clusters when all the baryonic gas of the galaxy is ionised. This is achieved by adopting reasonable values for the star formation efficiencies and ...

  16. Extremely-Metal Poor Stars in the Milky Way: A Second Generation Formed after Reionization

    OpenAIRE

    Trenti, Michele; Shull, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Cosmological simulations of Population III star formation suggest an initial mass function (IMF) biased toward very massive stars (M>100Msun) formed in minihalos at redshift z>20, when the cooling is driven by molecular hydrogen. However, this result conflicts with observations of extremely-metal poor (EMP) stars in the Milky Way halo, whose r-process elemental abundances appear to be incompatible with those expected from very massive Population III progenitors. We propose a new solution to t...

  17. Bipolar Supernova Explosions: Nucleosynthesis & Implication on Abundances in Extremely Metal-Poor Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, K.; Nomoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrodynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis in bipolar supernova explosions are examined to account for some peculiar properties of hypernovae as well as peculiar abundance patterns of metal-poor stars. The explosion is supposed to be driven by bipolar jets which are powered by accretion onto a central remnant. We explore the features of the explosions with varying progenitors' masses and jet properties. The outcomes are different from conventional spherical models. (1) In the bipolar models,...

  18. Modelling the evolution and nucleosynthesis of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pols, O R; Lugaro, M; de Mink, S E

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of binary population simulations of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. We show that nitrogen and fluorine are useful tracers of the origin of CEMP stars, and conclude that the observed paucity of very nitrogen-rich stars puts strong constraints on possible modifications of the initial mass function at low metallicity. The large number fraction of CEMP stars may instead require much more efficient dredge-up from low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch stars.

  19. THE r-PROCESS IN METAL-POOR STARS AND BLACK HOLE FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in metal-poor stars is generally thought to occur via the r-process because the r-process is a primary process that would have operated early in the Galaxy's history. This idea is strongly supported by the fact that the abundance pattern in many metal-poor stars matches well the inferred solar r-process abundance pattern in the mass range between the second and third r-process abundance peaks. Nevertheless, a significant number of metal-poor stars do not share this standard r-process template. In this Letter, we suggest that the nuclides observed in many of these stars are produced by the r-process, but that it is prevented from running to completion in more massive stars by collapse to black holes before the r-process is completed, creating a 'truncated r-process', or 'tr-process'. We find that the observed fraction of tr-process stars is qualitatively what one would expect from the initial mass function and that an apparent sharp truncation observed at around mass 160 could result from a combination of collapses to black holes and the difficulty of observing the higher mass rare-earth elements. We test the tr-process hypothesis with r-process calculations that are terminated before all r-process trajectories have been ejected. We find qualitative agreement between observation and theory when black hole collapse and observational realities are taken into account.

  20. The Frequency of Carbon Stars Among Extremely Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; Thompson, I; McWilliam, A; Christlieb, N; Melendez, J; Zickgraf, F J; Swenson, S R A; Cohen, Judith G.; Shectman, Stephen; Thompson, Ian; William, Andrew Mc; Christlieb, Norbert; Melendez, Jorge; Zickgraf, Franz-Josef; Swenson, Solange Ramirez & Amber

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that there are systematic scale errors in the [Fe/H] values determined by the Hamburg/ESO Survey (and by inference by the HK Survey in the past) for certain extremely metal poor highly C-enhanced giants. The consequences of these scale errors are that a) the fraction of carbon stars at extremely low metallicities has been overestimated in several papers in the recent literature b) the number of extremely metal poor stars known is somewhat lower than has been quoted in the recent literature c) the yield for extremely metal poor stars by the HES Survey is somewhat lower than is stated in the recent literature. A preliminary estimate for the frequency of Carbon stars among the giants in the HES sample with -4 1.0 dex without detectable C2 bands raises the fraction to 14 +-4$%. We rely on the results of an extensive set of homogeneous detailed abundance analyses of stars expected to have [Fe/H] < -3.0 dex selected from the HES to establish these claims. We have found that the Fe-metallicity of ...

  1. The Chemical Composition and Age of the Metal-Poor Halo Star BD +17^\\circ 3248

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, J J; Burles, S M; Ivans, I I; Beers, T C; Truran, J W; Lawler, J E; Primas, F; Fuller, G M; Pfeiffer, B; Kratz, K L; Cowan, John J.; Sneden, Christopher; Burles, Scott; Ivans, Inese I.; Beers, Timothy C.; Truran, James W.; Lawler, James E.; Primas, Francesca; Fuller, George M.; Pfeiffer, Bernd; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2002-01-01

    We have combined new high-resolution spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based facilities to make a comprehensive new abundance analysis of the metal-poor, halo star BD +17^\\circ 3248. We have detected the third r-process peak elements osmium, platinum, and (for the first time in a metal-poor star) gold, elements whose abundances can only be reliably determined using HST. Our observations illustrate a pattern seen in other similar halo stars with the abundances of the heavier neutron-capture elements, including the third r-process peak elements, consistent with a scaled solar system r-process distribution. The abundances of the lighter neutron-capture elements, including germanium and silver, fall below that same scaled solar r-process curve, a result similar to that seen in the ultra-metal-poor star CS 22892--052. A single site with two regimes or sets of conditions, or perhaps two different sites for the lighter and heavier neutron-capture elements, might explain the abundance ...

  2. The black hole mass-bulge mass correlation: bulges versus pseudo-bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the scaling relations between the supermassive black holes mass (M_bh) and the host bulge mass in elliptical galaxies, classical bulges, and pseudo-bulges. We use two-dimensional image analysis software BUDDA to obtain the structural parameters of 57 galaxies with dynamical M_bh measurement, and determine the bulge K-band luminosities (L_bul,K), stellar masses (M_s), and dynamical masses (M_d). The updated M_bh-L_bul,K, M_bh-M_s, and M_bh-M_d correlations for elliptical galaxies and classical bulges give M_bh~0.006M_s or 0.003M_d. The most tight relationship is log(M_bh/M_sun)=a+b log(M_d/10^11 M_sun), with a=8.46+/-0.05, b=0.90+/-0.06, and intrinsic scatter 0.27 dex. The pseudo-bulges follow their own relations, they harbor an order of magnitude smaller black holes than those in the same massive classical bulges, i.e. M_bh~0.0003M_s or 0.0002M_d. Besides the M_bh-\\sigma (bulge stellar velocity dispersion) relation, these bulge type dependent M_bh-M_bul scaling relations provide information for...

  3. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF METAL-POOR RR LYRAE STARS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present for the first time a detailed spectroscopic study of chemical element abundances of metal-poor RR Lyrae stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud (LMC and SMC). Using the MagE echelle spectrograph at the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes, we obtain medium resolution (R ∼ 2000-6000) spectra of six RR Lyrae stars in the LMC and three RR Lyrae stars in the SMC. These stars were chosen because their previously determined photometric metallicities were among the lowest metallicities found for stars belonging to the old populations in the Magellanic Clouds. We find the spectroscopic metallicities of these stars to be as low as [Fe/H]spec = –2.7 dex, the lowest metallicity yet measured for any star in the Magellanic Clouds. We confirm that for metal-poor stars, the photometric metallicities from the Fourier decomposition of the light curves are systematically too high compared to their spectroscopic counterparts. However, for even more metal-poor stars below [Fe/H]phot < –2.8 dex this trend is reversed and the spectroscopic metallicities are systematically higher than the photometric estimates. We are able to determine abundance ratios for 10 chemical elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Sr, and Ba), which extend the abundance measurements of chemical elements for RR Lyrae stars in the Clouds beyond [Fe/H] for the first time. For the overall [α/Fe] ratio, we obtain an overabundance of 0.36 dex, which is in very good agreement with results from metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo as well as from the metal-poor tail in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Comparing the abundances with those of the stars in the Milky Way halo we find that the abundance ratios of stars of both populations are consistent with another. Therefore, we conclude that from a chemical point of view early contributions from Magellanic-type galaxies to the formation of the Galactic halo as claimed in cosmological models are plausible.

  4. PROPER MOTIONS IN THE GALACTIC BULGE: PLAUT'S WINDOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper motion study of a eld of 20' x20' inside Plaut's low extinction window (l,b=(0 ;-8 , has been completed. Relative proper motions and photographic BV photometry have been derived for -21; 000 stars reaching to V - 20:5 mag, based on the astrometric reduction of 43 photographic plates, spanning over 21 years of epoch di erence. Proper motion errors are typically 1 mas yr-1. Cross-referencing with the 2MASS catalog yielded a sample of - 8700 stars, from which predominantly disk and bulge subsamples were selected photometrically from the JH color-magnitude diagram. The two samples exhibited di erent proper-motion distributions, with the disk displaying the expected re ex solar motion. Galactic rotation was also detected for stars between -2 and -3 kpc from us. The bulge sample, represented by red giants, has an intrinsic proper motion dispersion of (l; b = (3:39; 2:91 = (0:11; 0:09 mas yr-1, which is in good agreement with previous results. A mean distance of 6:37+0:87 -0:77 kpc has been estimated for the bulge sample, based on the observed K magnitude of the horizontal branch red clump. The metallicity [M=H] distribution was also obtained for a subsample of 60 bulge giants stars, based on calibrated photometric indices. The observed [M=H] shows a peak value at [M=H]-0:1 with an extended metal poor tail and around 30% of the stars with supersolar metallicity. No change in proper motion dispersion was observed as a function of [M=H]. We are currently in the process of obtaining CCD UBV RI photometry for the entire proper-motion sample of - 21; 000 stars.

  5. Comparing the properties of the X-shaped bulges of NGC 4710 and the Milky Way with MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, O. A.; Gadotti, D. A.; Debattista, V. P.; Rejkuba, M.; Valenti, E.; Zoccali, M.; Coccato, L.; Minniti, D.; Ness, M.

    2016-06-01

    comprised of the oldest, most metal-poor stars, which is not part of the boxy-peanut bulge structure. Such a population is not observed in NGC 4710, but could be hidden in the integrated light we observed. Based on observations collected at the ESO La Silla-Paranal Observatory within MUSE science verification program 60.A-9307(A).

  6. Globular cluster system and Milky Way properties revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, E; Barbuy, B; Ortolani, S; Bica, Eduardo; Bonatto, Charles; Barbuy, Beatriz; Ortolani, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Updated data of the 153 Galactic globular clusters are used to readdress fundamental parameters of the Milky Way. We build a reduced sample, decontaminated of the clusters younger than 10Gyr, those with retrograde orbits and/or evidence of relation to dwarf galaxies. The 33 metal-rich globular clusters of the reduced sample extend basically to the Solar circle and distribute over a region with projected axial-ratios typical of an oblate spheroidal, $\\rm\\Delta x:\\Delta y:\\Delta z\\approx1.0:0.9:0.4$. The 81 metal-poor globular clusters span a nearly spherical region of axial-ratios $\\approx1.0:1.0:0.8$ extending from the central parts to the outer halo. A new estimate of the Sun's distance to the Galactic center is provided, $\\rm R_O=7.2\\pm0.3 kpc$. The metal-rich and metal-poor radial-density distributions flatten for $\\rm R_{GC}\\leq2 kpc$ and are well represented both by a power-law with a core-like term and S\\'ersic's law; at large distances they fall off as $\\rm\\sim R^{-3.9}$. Both metallicity components ap...

  7. The most metal-poor damped Lyα systems: insights into chemical evolution in the very metal-poor regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, Ryan; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.;

    2011-01-01

    We present a high spectral resolution survey of the most metal-poor damped Lyα absorption systems (DLAs) aimed at probing the nature and nucleosynthesis of the earliest generations of stars. Our survey comprises 22 systems with iron abundance less than 1/100 solar; observations of seven of these...... confirm the near-solar values of C/O in DLAs at the lowest metallicities probed, and find that their distribution is in agreement with that seen in Galactic halo stars. We find that the O/Fe ratio in VMP DLAs is essentially constant, and shows very little dispersion, with a mean [〈O/Fe〉]=+0.39 ± 0.12, in...... good agreement with the values measured in Galactic halo stars when the oxygen abundance is measured from the [O i] λ6300 line. We speculate that such good agreement in the observed abundance trends points to a universal origin for these metals. In view of this agreement, we construct the abundance...

  8. Elemental abundances of metal poor carbon rich lead star: CS29497-030

    OpenAIRE

    Sivarani, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Molaro, P.; Cayrel, R.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Plez, B.; Andersen, J.; Barbuy, B.; Beers, T. C.; Depagne, E.; Hill, V.; Francois, P.; Nordstrom, B.; Primas, F.

    2002-01-01

    We present here the abundance analysis of a metal poor carbon rich lead star, CS29497-030. High resolution and high signal to noise spectra were obtained using the UVES spectrograph on the 8.2m VLT-Kueyen telescope. The observations were made as a part of the Large Programme 165.N-0276, P.I. R. Cayrel. Abundance analysis was done using the latest version of the MARCS model atmospheres (Plez et. al. 1992) and the turbospectrum spectrum synthesis code. We have derived Teff = 6650K from the FeI ...

  9. Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Roederer, Ian U.; Lawler, James E.; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2007-01-01

    We have derived isotopic fractions of europium, samarium, and neodymium in two metal-poor giants with differing neutron-capture nucleosynthetic histories. These isotopic fractions were measured from new high resolution (R ~ 120,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ~ 160-1000) spectra obtained with the 2dCoude spectrograph of McDonald Observatory's 2.7m Smith telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated using recent high-precision laboratory measurements of hyperfine and isotopic subcomponents of se...

  10. Rotation and Macroturbulence in Metal-Poor Field Red Giant and Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Bruce W.; Gray, David F.; Yong, David; Latham, David W.; Manset, Nadine; Zelman, Rachel; Laird, John B.

    2008-03-01

    We report the results for rotational velocities, Vrot sin i, and macroturbulence dispersions, ζRT, for 12 metal-poor field red giant branch (RGB) stars and 7 metal-poor field red horizontal branch (RHB) stars. The results are based on Fourier transform analyses of absorption line profiles from high-resolution (R ≈ 120,000), high-S/N (≈215 per pixel; ≈345 per resolution element) spectra obtained with the Gecko spectrograph at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The stars were selected from the authors' previous studies of 20 RHB and 116 RGB stars, based primarily on larger-than-average line-broadening values. We find that ζRT values for the metal-poor RGB stars are very similar to those for metal-rich disk giants studied earlier by Gray and his collaborators. Six of the RGB stars have small rotational values, less than 2.0 km s-1, while five show significant rotation/enhanced line broadening, over 3 km s-1. We confirm the rapid rotation rate for RHB star HD 195636, found earlier by Preston. This star's rotation is comparable to that of the fastest known rotating blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars, when allowance is made for differences in radii and moments of inertia. The other six RHB stars have somewhat lower rotation but show a trend to higher values at higher temperatures (lower radii). Comparing our results with those for BHB stars from Kinman et al., we find that the fraction of rapidly rotating RHB stars is somewhat lower than is found among BHB stars. The number of rapidly rotating RHB stars is also smaller than we would have expected from the observed rotation of the RGB stars. We devise two empirical methods to translate our earlier line-broadening results into Vrot sin i for all the RGB and RHB stars they studied. Binning the RGB stars by luminosity, we find that most metal-poor field RGB stars show no detectable sign, on average, of rotation, which is not surprising given the stars' large radii. However, the most luminous stars, with MV

  11. Discovery of a Gas-Rich Companion to the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy DDO 68

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, John M.; Johnson, Megan; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Alfvin, Erik D.; Bailin, Jeremy; Ford, H. Alyson; Girardi, Léo; Hirschauer, Alec S.; Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J.; Van Sistine, Angela; Dolphin, Andrew; Elson, E. C.; Koribalski, Baerbel; Marigo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We present HI spectral-line imaging of the extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68. This system has a nebular oxygen abundance of only 3% Z$_{\\odot}$, making it one of the most metal-deficient galaxies known in the local volume. Surprisingly, DDO 68 is a relatively massive and luminous galaxy for its metal content, making it a significant outlier in the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relationships. The origin of such a low oxygen abundance in DDO 68 presents a challenge for models of ...

  12. The Synthetic-Oversampling Method: Using Photometric Colors to Discover Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars ([Fe/H] ≤ −3.0 dex) provide a unique window into understanding the first generation of stars and early chemical enrichment of the universe. EMP stars are exceptionally rare, however, and the relatively small number of confirmed discoveries limits our ability to exploit these near-field probes of the first ~500 Myr after the Big Bang. Here, a new method to photometrically estimate [Fe/H] from only broadband photometric colors is presented. I show that the metho...

  13. THE FORMATION OF SPHEROIDS IN EARLY-TYPE SPIRALS: CLUES FROM THEIR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use deep Hubble Space Telescope images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F475W and F814W filters to investigate the globular cluster (GC) systems in four edge-on Sa spiral galaxies covering a factor of four in luminosity. The specific frequencies of the blue GCs in the galaxies in our sample fall in the range 0.34-0.84, similar to typical values found for later-type spirals. The number of red GCs associated with the bulges generally increases with the bulge luminosity, similar to what is observed for elliptical galaxies, although the specific frequency of bulge clusters is a factor of 2-3 lower for the lowest luminosity bulges than for the higher-luminosity bulges. We present a new empirical relation between the fraction of red GCs and total bulge luminosity based on the elliptical galaxies studied by ACSVCS (ACS Virgo Cluster Survey) and discuss how this diagram can be used to assess the importance of dissipative processes in building spiral bulges. Our results suggest a picture where dissipative processes, which are expected during gas-rich major mergers, were more important for building luminous bulges of Sa galaxies, whereas secular evolution may have played a larger role in building lower-luminosity bulges in spirals.

  14. The Chemical Evolution of Very Metal-Poor Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, David; Sutherland, Ralph S

    2015-01-01

    In earlier work we showed that a dark matter halo with a virial mass of $10^7$ M$_\\odot$ can survive feedback from its own massive stars and form stars for $\\gtrsim100$ Myr. We also found that our modelled systems were consistent with observations of ultrafaint dwarfs (UFDs), the least massive known galaxies. Very metal-poor damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) recently identified at $z\\sim2$ may represent the gas that formed at least some of the observed stars in UFDs. We compare projected sightlines from our simulations to the observed metal-poor DLAs and find that our models can reach the densities of the observed sightlines; however the metallicities are inconsistent with the single supernova simulations, suggesting enrichment by multiple supernovae. We model two scenarios for the history of these systems. The first explains the gas abundances in DLAs by a single burst of star formation. This model can produce the observed DLA abundances, but does not provide an explanation as to why the DLAs show suppres...

  15. First stars XIII. Two extremely metal-poor RR Lyrae stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, C J; Bonifacio, P; Spite, M; Andersen, J; Beers, T C; Cayrel, R; Spite, F; Molaro, P; Barbuy, B; Depagne, E; Hill, P Francois V; Plez, B; Sivarani, T

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of extremely metal-poor stars (EMP stars; [Fe/H]<~ -3) is a unique tracer of early nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. As such stars are rare, we wish to find classes of luminous stars which can be studied at high resolution. We aim to determine the detailed chemical composition of the two EMP stars CS30317-056 and CS22881-039, originally thought to be red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars, and compare it to earlier results for EMP stars as well as to nucleosynthesis yields from various supernova (SN) models. In the analysis, we discovered that our targets are in fact the two most metal-poor RR Lyrae stars known. Our detailed abundance analysis, taking into account the variability of the stars, is based on VLT/UVES spectra (R~ 43000) and 1D LTE OSMARCS model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. For comparison with SN models we also estimate NLTE corrections for a number of elements. We derive LTE abundances for the 16 elements O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr and Ba, i...

  16. Stellar populations and Star Formation History of the Metal-Poor Dwarf Galaxy DDO 68

    CERN Document Server

    Sacchi, E; Cignoni, M; Aloisi, A; Sohn, T; Tosi, M; van der Marel, R P; Grocholski, A J; James, B

    2016-01-01

    We present the star formation history of the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy DDO~68, based on our $V-$ and $I-$ band photometry with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board of the Hubble Space Telescope. With a metallicity of only $12+\\log(O/H)=7.15$ and an isolated location in the periphery of the nearby Lynx-Cancer void, DDO~68 is one of the most metal poor galaxies known. It has been argued in the past that DDO~68 is a young system that started forming stars only $\\sim 0.15$~Gyr ago. Our data provide a deep and uncontaminated optical color-magnitude diagram that now allows us to disprove this hypothesis, since we find a population of at least $\\sim 1$~Gyr old stars. The star formation activity has been fairly continuous over all the look-back time. The current rate is quite low, and the highest activity occurred between 10 and 100 Myr ago. The average star formation rate over the whole Hubble time is \\mbox{$\\simeq 0.01$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$}, providing a total mass of formed stars of \\mbox{$\\simeq 1.3 ...

  17. The Kennicutt-Schmidt Relation in Extremely Metal-Poor Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, M E; Amorín, R; Muñoz-Tuñón, C; Elmegreen, B G; Elmegreen, D M

    2016-01-01

    The Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation between the gas mass and star formation rate (SFR) describes the star formation regulation in disk galaxies. It is a function of gas metallicity, but the low metallicity regime of the KS diagram is poorly sampled. We have analyzed data for a representative set of extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), as well as auxiliary data, and compared these to empirical and theoretical predictions. The majority of the XMPs possess high specific SFRs, similar to high redshift star-forming galaxies. On the KS plot, the XMP HI data occupy the same region as dwarfs, and extend the relation for low surface brightness galaxies. Considering the HI gas alone, a considerable fraction of the XMPs already fall off the KS law. Significant quantities of 'dark' H$_2$ mass (i.e., not traced by CO) would imply that XMPs possess low star formation efficiencies (SFE$_{\\rm gas}$). Low SFE$_{\\rm gas}$ in XMPs may be the result of the metal-poor nature of the HI gas. Alternatively, the HI reservoir may be ...

  18. Radiative levitation in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with s-process enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Matrozis, E

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of all metal-poor stars are carbon-rich. Most of these carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars also show enhancement in elements produced mainly by the s-process (CEMP-s stars) and evidence suggests that the origin of these non-standard abundances can be traced to mass transfer from a binary asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companion. Thus, observations of CEMP-s stars are commonly used to infer the nucleosynthesis output of low-metallicity AGB stars. A crucial step in this exercise is understanding what happens to the accreted material after mass transfer ceases. Here we present models of the post-mass-transfer evolution of CEMP-s stars considering the physics of thermohaline mixing and atomic diffusion, including radiative levitation. We find that stars with typical CEMP-s star masses (M ~ 0.85 Msun) have very shallow convective envelopes (Menv +4). We are therefore unable to reproduce the spread in the observed abundances with these models and conclude that some other physical process m...

  19. Abundance anomalies in metal-poor stars from Population III supernova ejecta hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sluder, Alan; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljevic, Milos; Bromm, Volker

    2015-01-01

    We present a simulation of the long-term evolution of a Population III supernova remnant in a cosmological minihalo. Employing passive Lagrangian tracer particles, we investigate how chemical stratification and anisotropy in the explosion can affect the abundances of the first low-mass, metal-enriched stars. We find that reverse shock heating can leave the inner mass shells at entropies too high to cool, leading to carbon-enhancement in the re-collapsing gas. This hydrodynamic selection effect could explain the observed incidence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars at low metallicity. We further explore how anisotropic ejecta distributions, recently seen in direct numerical simulations of core-collapse explosions, may translate to abundances in metal-poor stars. We find that some of the observed scatter in the Population II abundance ratios can be explained by an incomplete mixing of supernova ejecta, even in the case of only one contributing enrichment event. We demonstrate that the customary hypothes...

  20. Atomic diffusion in metal-poor stars II. Predictions for the Spite plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, M; Salaris, Maurizio; Weiss, Achim

    2001-01-01

    We have computed a grid of up-to-date stellar evolutionary models including atomic diffusion, in order to study the evolution with time of the surface Li abundance in low-mass metal-poor stars. We discuss in detail the dependence of the surface Li evolution on the initial metallicity and stellar mass, and compare the abundances obtained from our models with the available Li measurements in Pop II stars. While it is widely accepted that the existence of the Spite Li-plateau for these stars is a strong evidence that diffusion is inhibited, we show that, when taking into account observational errors, uncertainties in the Li abundance determinations, in the effective temperature scale, and in particular the size of the observed samples of stars, the Spite plateau and the Li abundances in subgiant branch stars can be reproduced also by models including fully efficient diffusion, provided that the most metal-poor field halo objects are between 13.5 and 14 Gyr old. We provide the value of the minimum number of plate...

  1. HS 2134+0400 - new very metal-poor galaxy, a representative of void population?

    CERN Document Server

    Pustilnik, S A; Kniazev, A Yu; Pramsky, A G; Ugryumov, A V; Hagen, H J

    2005-01-01

    We present the SAO 6m telescope spectroscopy of a blue compact galaxy (BCG) HS 2134+0400 discovered in frame of the dedicated Hamburg/SAO survey for Low Metallicity BCGs (HSS-LM). Its very low abundance of oxygen (12+log(O/H) = 7.44), as well as other heavy elements (S, N, Ne, Ar), assigns this dwarf galaxy to the group of BCGs with the lowest metal content. There are only eight that low metallicity among several thousand known BCGs in the nearby Universe. The abundance ratios for the heavy elements (S/O, Ne/O, N/O, and Ar/O) are well consistent with the typical values of other very metal-poor BCGs. The global environment of HS 2134+0400 is atypical of the majority of BCGs. The object falls within the Pegasus void, the large volume with the very low density of galaxies with the normal (M_B* = -19.6) or high luminosity. Since we found in voids a dozen more the very metal-poor galaxies, we discuss the hypothesis that such objects can be representative of a substantial fraction of the void dwarf galaxy populatio...

  2. The Physical Nature of the Most Metal-Poor Damped Lyman Alpha Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Sihan

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the high-resolution, large-scale LAOZI cosmological simulations we investigate the nature of the metal-poor (${\\rm [Z/H]<-2}$) damped Lyman alpha systems (mpDLA) at $z=3$. The following physical picture of mpDLAs emerges. The majority of mpDLAs inhabit regions $\\ge 20$~kpc from the host galaxy center on infalling cold gas streams originating from the intergalactic medium, with infall velocity of $\\sim 100$ km/s and temperature of $\\sim 10^{4}$ K. For each host galaxy, on average, about $1\\%$ of the area within a radius $150$~kpc is covered by mpDLAs. The mpDLAs are relatively diffuse ($n_{\\rm{gas}} \\sim 10^{-2}$ cm$^{-3}$), Jeans quasi-stable, and have very low star formation rate ($\\dot{\\Sigma} \\le 10^{-4} \\msun \\rm{\\ yr}^{-1} \\rm{\\ kpc}^{-2}$). As mpDLAs migrate inward to the galaxy center, they mix with high metallicity gas and stellar outflows in the process, removing themselves from the metal-poor category and rendering the central ($\\le 5$ kpc) regions of galaxies devoid of mpDLAs. Thus, th...

  3. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars: Relics from the Dark Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We use detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and a realistic prescription for the environment of the first stars to explore the first episodes of chemical enrichment that occurred during the dark ages. Based on these calculations, we propose a novel explanation for the increased prevalence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with decreasing Fe abundance: The observed chemistry for the most metal-poor Galactic halo stars is the result of an intimate link between the explosions of the first stars and their host minihalo's ability to retain its gas. Specifically, high energy supernovae produce a near solar ratio of C/Fe, but are effective in evacuating the gas from their host minihalo, thereby suppressing the formation of a second generation of stars. On the other hand, minihalos that host low energy supernovae are able to retain their gas and form a second stellar generation but, as a result, the second stars are borne with a supersolar ratio of C/Fe. Our models are able to accurately reproduce the obser...

  4. A new sample of extremely/ultra metal-poor stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa Perez, A E; Ryan, S G [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Christlieb, N [Center for Astronomy, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69177 (Germany); Beers, T C [Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Aoki, W [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Asplund, M [Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, Postfach 1317, Garching b. Muenchen 8574 (Germany); Barklem, P S; Eriksson, K; Gustafsson, B; Korn, A J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 515, Uppsala 75120 (Sweden); Bessell, M S; Norris, J E [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frebel, A [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Nordstroem, B [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark)], E-mail: a.e.garcia-perez@herts.ac.uk

    2008-12-15

    A sample of 30 very metal-poor stars from the Hamburg-European Southern Observatory (ESO) objective-prism survey have been observed at high spectral resolution at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). Two of the observed stars are very interesting not only because of their very low iron content, approximately four orders of magnitude lower than the solar value, but also because we detected the neutral lithium resonance line at 670.8 nm. Hydrogen lines suggest that the two observed stars have effective temperatures around 6000-6250 K and according to isochrones, they are either on the main-sequence or on the subgiant branch, in which case they would probably be the most metal-poor dwarfs or warm subgiants with lithium detections known. These detections would allow to determine more accurately the slope of the trend of the lithium abundance with [Fe/H] than was possible with samples of unevolved stars restricted to higher metallicities.

  5. On the Binarity of Carbon-Enhanced, Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tsangarides, S A; Beers, T C

    2004-01-01

    We report on a programme to monitor the radial velocities of a sample of candidate and confirmed carbon-enhanced, metal-poor (CEMP) stars. We observed 45 targets using the Echelle Spectrographs of three 4m class telescopes. Radial velocities for these objects were calculated by cross-correlation of their spectra with the spectrum of HD 140283, and have errors < 1 km/s. Sixteen of our programme's targets have reported carbon excess, and nine of these objects also exhibit s-process enhancements (CEMP-s). We combine these stars' radial velocities with other literature studies in search of binarity. The search reveals that four of our CEMP-s stars (44%) are in binary systems. Using the analysis of Lucatello et al. (2004), we find that all the CEMP-s stars in our sample are binaries. This conclusion implies that CEMP-s stars may be the very metal-poor relatives of CH and Ba II stars, which are believed to have acquired their peculiar abundance patterns by mass transfer from a thermally-pulsing AGB companion.

  6. High-resolution spectroscopic studies of ultra metal-poor stars found in LAMOST survey

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haining; Zhao, Gang; Honda, Satoshi; Christlieb, Norbert; Suda, Takuma

    2015-01-01

    We report on the observations of two ultra metal-poor (UMP) stars with [Fe/H]~-4.0 including one new discovery. The two stars are studied in the on-going and quite efficient project to search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with LAMOST and Subaru. Detailed abundances or upper limits of abundances have been derived for 15 elements from Li to Eu based on high-resolution spectra obtained with Subaru/HDS. The abundance patterns of both UMP stars are consistent with the "normal-population" among the low-metallicity stars. Both of the two program stars show carbon-enhancement without any excess of heavy neutron-capture elements, indicating that they belong to the subclass of CEMP-no stars, as is the case of most UMP stars previously studied. The [Sr/Ba] ratios of both CEMP-no UMP stars are above [Sr/Ba]~-0.4, suggesting the origin of the carbon-excess is not compatible with the mass transfer from an AGB companion where the s-process has operated. Lithium abundance is measured in the newly discovered UMP star L...

  7. Abundances of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars as constraints on their formation

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, C J; Hansen, T T; Kennedy, C R; Placco, V M; Beers, T C; Andersen, J; Cescutti, G; Chiappini, C

    2015-01-01

    An increasing fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars is found as their iron abundance, [Fe/H], decreases below [Fe/H] = -2.0. The CEMP-s stars have the highest absolute carbon abundances, [C/H], and are thought to owe their enrichment in carbon and the slow neutron-capture (s-process) elements to mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant-branch (AGB) binary companion. The most Fe-poor CEMP stars are normally single, exhibit somewhat lower [C/H] than CEMP-s stars, but show no s-process element enhancement (CEMP-no stars). CNO abundance determinations offer clues to their formation sites. C, N, Sr, and Ba abundances (or limits) and 12C/13C ratios where possible are derived for a sample of 27 faint metal-poor stars for which the X-shooter spectra have sufficient S/N ratios. These moderate resolution, low S/N (~10-40) spectra prove sufficient to perform limited chemical tagging and enable assignment of these stars into the CEMP sub-classes (CEMP-s and CEMP-no). According to the derived abundances,...

  8. Abundance Profiling of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars and Supernova Properties in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2013-01-01

    The first metal enrichment in the universe was made by a supernova (SN) explosion of a population (Pop) III star and chemical evolution of the universe is recorded in abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. Increasing number of the EMP stars are now being discovered. This allows us to statistically constrain properties of SNe of Pop III stars (Pop III SNe). We investigate the properties of Pop III SNe by comparing their nucleosynthetic yields with the abundance patterns of the EMP stars. We focus on the most metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] $\\lsim-3.5$ and present Pop III SN models that reproduce well their individual abundance patterns. From these models we derive relations between abundance ratios and properties of Pop III SNe: [(C+N)/Fe] vs. an ejected Fe mass, and [(C+N)/Mg] vs. a remnant mass. Using fitting formulae, distribution of the abundance ratios of EMP stars is converted to those of the properties of Pop III SNe, which can be compared with SNe in the present day. Large samples of EMP ...

  9. S-process in low-mass extremely metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Monique A; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor low-mass stars experience an ingestion of protons into the helium-rich layer during the core He-flash, resulting in the production of neutrons through the reactions ^{12}C(p,\\gamma)^{13}N(\\beta)^{13}C(\\alpha,n)^{16}O. This is a potential site for the production of s-process elements in extremely metal-poor stars not occurring in more metal-rich counterparts. Observationally, the signatures of s-process elements in the two most iron deficient stars observed to date, HE1327-2326 & HE0107-5240, still await for an explanation. We investigate the possibility that low-mass EMP stars could be the source of s-process elements observed in extremely iron deficient stars, either as a result of self-enrichment or in a binary scenario as the consequence of a mass transfer episode. We present evolutionary and post-processing s-process calculations of a 1Msun stellar model with metallicities Z=0, 10^{-8} and 10^{-7}. We assess the sensitivity of nucleosynthesis results to uncertainties in the input ...

  10. First Stars XIV. Sulphur abundances in extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, Monique; Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A; Depagne, E; Spite, F; Bonifacio, P; Ludwig, H -G; Cayrel, R; Francois, P; Hill, V; Plez, B; Andersen, J; Barbuy, B; Beers, T C; Molaro, P; Nordstrom, B; Primas, F

    2010-01-01

    Sulphur is important: the site of its formation is uncertain, and at very low metallicity the trend of [S/Fe] against [Fe/H] is controversial. Below [Fe/H]=-2.0, [S/Fe] remains constant or it decreases with [Fe/H], depending on the author and the multiplet used in the analysis. Moreover, although sulphur is not significantly bound in dust grains in the ISM, it seems to behave differently in DLAs and in old metal-poor stars. We aim to determine precise S abundance in a sample of extremely metal-poor stars taking into account NLTE and 3D effects. NLTE profiles of the lines of the multiplet 1 of SI have been computed using a new model atom for S. We find sulphur in EMP stars to behave like the other alpha-elements, with [S/Fe] remaining approximately constant below [Fe/H]=-3. However, [S/Mg] seems to decrease slightly as a function of [Mg/H]. The overall abundance patterns of O, Na, Mg, Al, S, and K are best matched by the SN model yields by Heger & Woosley. The [S/Zn] ratio in EMP stars is solar, as found a...

  11. Lithium abundances in extremely metal-poor turn-off stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sbordone, L; Caffau, E

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the current status of the sample of Lithium abundances in extremely metal poor (EMP) turn-off (TO) stars collected by our group, and compare it with the available literature results. In the last years, evidences have accumulated of a progressive disruption of the Spite plateau in stars of extremely low metallicity. What appears to be a flat, thin plateau above [Fe/H]\\sim-2.8 turns, at lower metallicities, into a broader distribution for which the plateau level constitutes the upper limit, but more and more stars show lower Li abundances. The sample we have collected currently counts abundances or upper limits for 44 EMP TO stars between [Fe/H]=-2.5 and -3.5, plus the ultra-metal poor star SDSS J102915+172927 at [Fe/H]=-4.9. The "meltdown" of the Spite plateau is quite evident and, at the current status of the sample, does not appear to be restricted to the cool end of the effective temperature distribution. SDSS J102915+172927 displays an extreme Li depletion that contrasts with its otherwise quite...

  12. The metal-poor Knee in the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Lanfranchi, Gustavo A; Boeche, Corrado; Walker, Matthew; Johnson, Christian I; Penarrubia, Jorge; Gilmore, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    We present alpha-element abundances of Mg, Si, and Ti for a large sample of field stars in two outer fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph), obtained with VLT/GIRAFFE (R~16,000). Due to the large fraction of metal-poor stars in our sample, we are able to follow the alpha-element evolution from [Fe/H]=-2.5 continuously to [Fe/H]=-0.7 dex. For the first time we are able to resolve the turnover from the Type II supernovae (SNe) dominated, alpha-enhanced plateau down to subsolar [alpha/Fe] values due to the onset of SNe Ia, and thus to trace the chemical enrichment efficiency of the galaxy. Our data support the general concept of an alpha-enhanced plateau at early epochs, followed by a well-defined "knee", caused by the onset of SNe Ia, and finally a second plateau with sub-solar [alpha/Fe] values. We find the position of this knee to be at [Fe/H]=-1.9 and therefore significantly more metal-poor than expected from comparison with other dSphs and standard evolutionary models. Surprisingly, this value ...

  13. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. I. DISCOVERY, DATA, AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of 34 stars in the Hamburg/ESO Survey for metal-poor stars and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that have [Fe/H] ∼eff), and surface gravity (log g), which are critical in the determination of the chemical abundances and the evolutionary status of these stars. Three techniques were used to derive these parameters. Spectrophotometric fits to model atmosphere fluxes were used to derive T eff, log g, and an estimate of E(B – V); Hα, Hβ, and Hγ profile fitting to model atmosphere results provided the second determination of T eff and log g; and finally, we used an empirical T eff-calibrated Hδ index, for the third, independent T eff determination. The three values of T eff are in good agreement, although the profile fitting may yield systematically cooler T eff values, by ∼100 K. This collective data set will be analyzed in future papers in the present series to utilize the most metal-poor stars as probes of conditions in the early universe.

  14. CARMA CO Observations of Three Extremely Metal-Poor, Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Steven R; Cannon, John M; Bolatto, Alberto D; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Jameson, Katie; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Rhode, Katherine L; Salzer, John J; Skillman, Evan D

    2015-01-01

    We present sensitive CO (J = 1 - 0) emission line observations of three metal-poor dwarf irregular galaxies Leo P (Z ~ 3% Z_Solar), Sextans A (Z ~ 7.5% Z_Solar), and Sextans B (Z ~ 7.5% Z_Solar), all obtained with the Combined Array for Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) interferometer. While no CO emission was detected, the proximity of the three systems allows us to place very stringent (4 sigma) upper limits on the CO luminosity (L_CO) in these metal-poor galaxies. We find the CO luminosities to be L_CO < 2900 K km/s pc^2 for Leo P, L_CO < 12400 K km/s pc^2 for Sextans A, and L_CO < 9700 K km/s pc^2 for Sextans B. Comparison of our results with recent observational estimates of the factor for converting between L_CO and the mass of molecular hydrogen, as well as theoretical models, provides further evidence that either the CO-to-H_2 conversion factor increases sharply as metallicity decreases, or that stars are forming in these three galaxies very efficiently, requiring little molecular hydrogen.

  15. Follow-up observations of extremely metal-poor stars identified from SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, D S; Hernández, J I González; Carrera, R; Rebolo, Rafael; Shetrone, M; Lambert, D L; Fernández-Alvar, E

    2016-01-01

    The most metal-poor stars in the Milky Way witnessed the early phases of formation of the Galaxy, and have chemical compositions that are close to the pristine mixture from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, polluted by one or few supernovae. Only two dozen stars with ([Fe/H]< -4) are known, and they show a wide range of abundance patterns. It is therefore important to enlarge this sample. We present the first results of an effort to identify new extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo. Our targets have been selected from low-resolution spectra obtained as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and followed-up with medium resolution spectroscopy on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope and, in a few cases, at high resolution on the the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Stellar parameters and the abundances of magnesium, calcium, iron, and strontium have been inferred from the spectra using classical model atmospheres. We have also derived carbon abundances from the G band. We find consistency between the metalli...

  16. FORMATION HISTORY OF METAL-POOR HALO STARS WITH THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL AND THE EFFECT OF INTERSTELLAR MATTER ACCRETION ON THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate star formation and chemical evolution in the early universe by considering the merging history of the Galaxy in the Λ cold dark matter scenario according to the extended Press-Schechter theory. We give some possible constraints from comparisons with observation of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, made available by the recent large-scale surveys and by the follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy. We demonstrate that (1) the hierarchical structure formation can explain the characteristics of the observed metallicity distribution function including a break around [Fe/H] = -4; (2) a high-mass initial mass function (IMF) of peak mass ∼10 Msun with the contribution of binaries, derived from the statistics of carbon-enhanced EMP stars, predicts the frequency of low-mass survivors consistent with the number of EMP stars observed for -4 ∼ [Fe/H] ∼> -2.5, or even larger, as far as the field stars of the Galactic halo are concerned. We further study the effects of surface pollution through the accretion of interstellar matter (ISM) along the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy for low-mass Population III and EMP survivors. Because of the shallower potential of smaller halos, the accretion of ISM in the mini-halos in which these stars were born dominates the surface metal pollution. This can account for the surface iron abundances as observed for the HMP stars if the cooling and concentration of gas in their birth mini-halos are taken into account. We also study the feedback effect from the very massive Population III stars. The metal pre-pollution by pair-instability SNe is shown to be compatible with the observed lack of their nucleosynthetic signatures when some positive feedback on gas cooling works and changes the IMF from being very massive to being high mass.

  17. Composition of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliam, A; William, Andrew Mc

    2003-01-01

    We present detailed abundance results for 9 Galactic bulge stars in Baade's Window, based on HIRES (R=45,000--60,000) spectra taken with the Keck I telescope. The alpha elements show non-uniform enhancements relative to the Solar neighborhood trends: Mg and Si are enhanced in all our bulge stars by $\\sim$0.5--0.3 dex, showing a slight decrease with increasing [Fe/H]. Oxygen is enhanced in most bulge stars, similar to the Galactic halo, but the [O/Fe] ratios suddenly decline beginning at [Fe/H]=$-$0.5 dex, with a slope consistent with no oxygen production in the bulge for [Fe/H]$\\geq

  18. Ceci N'est Pas a Globular Cluster: The Metallicity Distribution of the Stellar System Terzan 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Origlia, L.; Rich, R. M.; Lanzoni, B.; Dalessandro, E.; Valenti, E.; Ibata, R.; Lovisi, L.; Bellazzini, M.; Reitzel, D.

    2014-11-01

    We present new determinations of the iron abundance for 220 stars belonging to the stellar system Terzan 5 in the Galactic bulge. The spectra have been acquired with FLAMES at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory and DEIMOS at the Keck II Telescope. This is by far the largest spectroscopic sample of stars ever observed in this stellar system. From this data set, a subsample of targets with spectra unaffected by TiO bands was extracted and statistically decontaminated from field stars. Once combined with 34 additional stars previously published by our group, a total sample of 135 member stars covering the entire radial extent of the system has been used to determine the metallicity distribution function of Terzan 5. The iron distribution clearly shows three peaks: a super-solar component at [Fe/H] ~= 0.25 dex, accounting for ~29% of the sample, a dominant sub-solar population at [Fe/H] ~= -0.30 dex, corresponding to ~62% of the total, and a minor (6%) metal-poor component at [Fe/H] ~= -0.8 dex. Such a broad, multi-modal metallicity distribution demonstrates that Terzan 5 is not a genuine globular cluster but the remnant of a much more complex stellar system. Based on FLAMES observations performed at the European Southern Observatory, proposal numbers 087.D-0716(B), 087.D-0748(A), and 283.D-5027(A), and at the W. M. Keck Observatory. Keck is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  19. The metallicity distribution of bulge clump giants in Baade's Window

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, V; Gomez, A; Zoccali, M; Schultheis, M; Babusiaux, C; Royer, F; Barbuy, B; Arenou, F; Minniti, D; Ortolani, S

    2011-01-01

    We seek to constrain the formation of the Galactic bulge by means of analysing the detailed chemical composition of a large sample of red clump stars in Baade's window. We measure [Fe/H] in a sample of 219 bulge red clump stars from R=20000 resolution spectra obtained with FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the VLT, using an automatic procedure, differentially to the metal-rich local reference star muLeo. For a subsample of 162 stars, we also derive [Mg/H] from spectral synthesis around the MgI triplet at 6319A. The Fe and Mg metallicity distributions are both asymmetric, with median values of +0.16 and +0.21 respectively. The iron distribution is clearly bimodal, as revealed both by a deconvolution (from observational errors) and a Gaussian decomposition. The decomposition of the observed Fe and Mg metallicity distributions into Gaussian components yields two populations of equal sizes (50% each): a metal-poor component centred around [Fe/H]=-0.30 and [Mg/H]=-0.06 with a large dispersion and a narrow metal-rich component cen...

  20. Spectroscopy of the globular clusters in M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, J. R.; Oke, J. B.; Nemec, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    With a velocity dispersion of 370 + or - 50 km/sec the globular cluster system of M87 is kinematically hotter than the stars in the giant elliptical itself. This is consistent with the clusters' shallower density distribution for isotropic orbits. The mean metallicity of the 27 clusters in the sample analyzed here is no more than a factor of 2 more metal rich than the cluster system of the Milky Way, but considerably more metal poor than the integrated starlight in the field at a radius of 1' from the center of M87. There is no evidence for the existence of young clusters in the system. The mass-radius relation between 1' and 5' required to contain the globular clusters joins on to that required to contain the hot gas around M87.

  1. Inhomogeneous halo collapse and early Galactic chemical evolution - Globular cluster metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinie, G.; Hartmann, D. H.; Mathews, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    A new solution to the observed Galactic globular cluster metallicity distribution is proposed by considering inhomogeneous collapse of a centrally condensed proto-Galaxy. In contrast to the standard one-zone model, it is shown that, for inhomogeneous models, the metallicity distribution can be reproduced without the need to decrease the nucleosynthetic yield for metal-poor stars. Chemical evolution in free fall is calculated analytically. A hybrid hydroparticle code is developed to study the effect of supernova induced pressure.

  2. Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Lawler, James E.; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2008-03-01

    We have derived isotopic fractions of europium (Eu), samarium (Sm), and neodymium (Nd) in two metal-poor giants with differing neutron-capture nucleosynthetic histories. These isotopic fractions were measured from new very high resolution (R~120,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N~160-1000) spectra obtained with the 2dCoudé spectrograph of McDonald Observatory's 2.7 m Smith telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated using recent high-precision laboratory measurements of hyperfine and isotopic subcomponents of several transitions of these elements and matched quantitatively to the observed spectra. We interpret our isotopic fractions by the nucleosynthesis predictions of the stellar model, which models s-process nucleosynthesis in the physical conditions expected in a low-mass, thermally-pulsing star on the AGB, and the classical method, which assumes that s-process nucleosynthesis can be approximated by a steady neutron flux impinging upon Fe-peak seed nuclei. These two approaches predict the relative contributions to the Solar System n-capture abundances from the s- and r-processes and, by extension, the relative contributions of these two process to material in metal-poor stars. Our Eu isotopic fraction in HD 175305 is consistent with an r-process origin by the classical method and is consistent with both an r-process and s-process origin by the stellar model. Our Sm isotopic fraction in HD 175305 is consistent with a predominantly r-process origin by both methods, and our Sm isotopic fraction in HD 196944 is consistent with a pure s-process origin by both methods as well. Our Nd isotopic fractions in both stars are consistent with either r-process and s-process origins by both methods. The Eu and Sm isotopic fraction estimates argue for an r-process origin for the rare-earth elements in HD 175305 and an s-process origin for them in HD 196944, in excellent agreement with previous studies of the elemental abundance distributions in these stars. This study for the

  3. The Controversial Star-Formation History and Helium Enrichment of the Milky Way Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Nataf, David M

    2015-01-01

    The stellar population of the Milky Way bulge is thoroughly studied, with a plethora of measurements from virtually the full suite of instruments available to astronomers. It is thus perhaps surprising that alongside well-established results lies some substantial uncertainty in its star-formation history. Cosmological models predict the bulge to host the Galaxy's oldest stars for [Fe/H]$\\lesssim -1$, and this is demonstrated by RR Lyrae stars and globular cluster observations. There is consensus that bulge stars with [Fe/H]$\\lesssim0$ are older than $t \\approx10$ Gyr. However, at super-solar metallicity, there is a substantial unresolved discrepancy. Data from spectroscopic measurements of the main-sequence turnoff and subgiant branch, the abundances of asymptotic giant branch stars, the period distribution of Mira variables, the chemistry and central-star masses of planetary nebulae, all suggest a substantial intermediate-age population ($t \\approx 3$ Gyr). This is in conflict with predictions from cosmologi...

  4. Molecular line formation in the extremely metal-poor star BD+44 493

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Wako

    2015-01-01

    Molecular absorption lines of OH (99 lines) and CH (105 lines) are measured for the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star BD+44 493 with [Fe/H]=-3.8. The abundances of oxygen and carbon determined from individual lines based on an 1D-LTE analysis exhibit significant dependence on excitation potentials of the lines; d log e/d chi ~ -0.15 - -0.2 dex/eV, where e and chi are elemental abundances from individual spectral lines and their excitation potentials, respectively. The dependence is not explained by the uncertainties of stellar parameters, but suggests that the atmosphere of this object possesses a cool layer that is not reproduced by the 1D model atmosphere. This result agrees with the predictions by 3D model calculations. Although absorption lines of neutral iron exhibit similar trend, it is much weaker than found in molecular lines and that predicted by 3D LTE models.

  5. Chromospheres in Metal-Poor Stars Evidenced from the He I 10830A Line

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Based on the near-IR spectra of 33 late-type stars in the wide metallicity range (mainly dwarfs and partly giants) obtained with IRCS+AO188 of the Subaru Telescope, we confirmed that He I 10830A line is seen in absorption in almost all moderately to extremely metal-poor stars of thick disk and halo population (from [Fe/H]~ -0.5 down to [Fe/H]~ -3.7), the strength of which is almost constant irrespective of the metallicity. This is an evidence that chromospheric activity at a basal level persists even for such old stars, despite that their rotations are considered to be slowed down and incapable of sustaining a dynamo, suggesting that some kind of chromospheric heating mechanism independent of rotation/magnetism (e.g., acoustic heating) may take place.

  6. Galactic Cosmochronometry from Radioactive Elements in the Spectra of Very Old Metal-Poor Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneden, Christopher [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory; Lawler, James E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cowan, John J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2002-08-01

    In a short review of neutron-capture elemental abundances in Galactic halo stars, emphasis is placed on the use of these elements to estimate the age of the Galactic halo. Two prominent characteristics of neutron-capture elements in halo stars are their large star-to-star scatter in the overall abundance level with respect to lighter elements, and the dominance of r-process abundance patterns at lowest stellar metallicities. The r-process abundance signature potentially allows the direct determination of the age of the earliest Galactic halo nucleosynthesis events, but further developments in r-process theory, high resolution spectroscopy of very metal-poor stars, and in basic atomic data are needed to narrow the uncertainties in age estimates. Attention is brought to the importance of accurate transition probabilities in neutron-capture element cosmochronometry Recent progress in the transition probabilities of rare earth elements is discussed, along with suggestions for future work on other species.

  7. HST Observations of Heavy Elements in Metal-Poor Galactic Halo Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, J J; Beers, T C; Lawler, J E; Simmerer, J; Truran, J W; Primas, F; Collier, J L; Burles, S; Cowan, John J.; Sneden, Christopher; Beers, Timothy C.; Lawler, James E.; Simmerer, Jennifer; Truran, James W.; Primas, Francesca; Collier, Jason; Burles, Scott

    2005-01-01

    We present new abundance determinations of neutron-capture elements Ge, Zr, Os, Ir, and Pt in a sample of 11 metal-poor (-3.1 56) elements. However, the large (and correlated) scatters of [Eu,Os,Ir,Pt/Fe] suggests that the heaviest neutron-capture r-process elements are not formed in all supernovae. In contrast, the Ge abundances of all program stars track their Fe abundances, very well. An explosive process on iron-peak nuclei (e.g., the alpha-rich freeze-out in supernovae), rather than neutron capture, appears to have been the dominant synthesis mechanism for this element at low metallicities -- Ge abundances seem completely uncorrelated with Eu.

  8. Galactic Cosmochronometry from Radioactive Elements in the Spectra of Very Old Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2001-01-01

    In a short review of neutron-capture elemental abundances in Galactic halo stars, emphasis is placed on the use of these elements to estimate the age of the Galactic halo. Two prominent characteristics of neutron-capture elements in halo stars are their large star-to-star scatter in the overall abundance level with respect to lighter elements, and the dominance of r-process abundance patterns at lowest stellar metallicities. The r-process abundance signature potentially allows the direct determination of the age of the earliest Galactic halo nucleosynthesis events, but further developments in r-process theory, high resolution spectroscopy of very metal-poor stars, and in basic atomic data are needed to narrow the uncertainties in age estimates. Attention is brought to the importance of accurate transition probabilities in neutron-capture element cosmochronometry. Recent progress in the transition probabilities of rare earth elements is discussed, along with suggestions for future work on other species.

  9. DETECTION OF THE SECOND r-PROCESS PEAK ELEMENT TELLURIUM IN METAL-POOR STARS ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schatz, Hendrik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Using near-ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we detect neutral tellurium in three metal-poor stars enriched by products of r-process nucleosynthesis, BD +17 3248, HD 108317, and HD 128279. Tellurium (Te, Z = 52) is found at the second r-process peak (A Almost-Equal-To 130) associated with the N = 82 neutron shell closure, and it has not been detected previously in Galactic halo stars. The derived tellurium abundances match the scaled solar system r-process distribution within the uncertainties, confirming the predicted second peak r-process residuals. These results suggest that tellurium is predominantly produced in the main component of the r-process, along with the rare earth elements.

  10. Detection of the Second r-process Peak Element Tellurium in Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Cowan, John J; Beers, Timothy C; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I; Schatz, Hendrik; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Sneden, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Using near-ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we detect neutral tellurium in three metal-poor stars enriched by products of r-process nucleosynthesis, BD+17 3248, HD 108317, and HD 128279. Tellurium (Te, Z=52) is found at the second r-process peak (A=130) associated with the N=82 neutron shell closure, and it has not been detected previously in Galactic halo stars. The derived tellurium abundances match the scaled solar system r-process distribution within the uncertainties, confirming the predicted second peak r-process residuals. These results suggest that tellurium is predominantly produced in the main component of the r-process, along with the rare earth elements.

  11. Galactic Cosmochronometry from Radioactive Elements in the Spectra of Very Old Metal-Poor Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a short review of neutron-capture elemental abundances in Galactic halo stars, emphasis is placed on the use of these elements to estimate the age of the Galactic halo. Two prominent characteristics of neutron-capture elements in halo stars are their large star-to-star scatter in the overall abundance level with respect to lighter elements, and the dominance of r-process abundance patterns at lowest stellar metallicities. The r-process abundance signature potentially allows the direct determination of the age of the earliest Galactic halo nucleosynthesis events, but further developments in r-process theory, high resolution spectroscopy of very metal-poor stars, and in basic atomic data are needed to narrow the uncertainties in age estimates. Attention is brought to the importance of accurate transition probabilities in neutron-capture element cosmochronometry Recent progress in the transition probabilities of rare earth elements is discussed, along with suggestions for future work on other species

  12. An Elemental Assay of Very, Extremely, and Ultra Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T; Christlieb, N; Beers, T C; Yong, D; Bessell, M S; Frebel, A; Perez, A E Garcia; Placco, V M; Norris, J E; Asplund, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-resolution elemental-abundance analysis for a sample of 23 very metal-poor (VMP; [Fe/H] 0. The stars with [C/N] < 0 suggest a larger degree of mixing; the few CEMP-no stars that exhibit this signature are only found at [Fe/H] < -3.4, a metallicity below which we also find the CEMP-no stars with large enhancements in Na, Mg, and Al. We confirm the existence of two plateaus in the absolute carbon abundances of CEMP stars, as suggested by Spite et al. We also present evidence for a "floor" in the absolute Ba abundances of CEMP-no stars at A(Ba)~ -2.0.

  13. Detailed abundances in extremely metal poor dwarf stars extracted from SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Sbordone, Luca; Caffau, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Hans-Gunther

    2012-01-01

    We report on the result of an ongoing campaign to determine chemical abundances in extremely metal poor (EMP) turn-off (TO) stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) low resolution spectra. This contribution focuses principally on the largest part of the sample (18 stars out of 29), observed with UVES@VLT and analyzed by means of the automatic abundance analysis code MyGIsFOS to derive atmosphere parameters and detailed compositions. The most significant findings include i) the detection of a C-rich, strongly Mg-enhanced star ([Mg/Fe]=1.45); ii) a group of Mn-rich stars ([Mn/Fe]>-0.4); iii) a group of Ni-rich stars ([Ni/Fe]>0.2). Li is measured in twelve stars, while for three upper limits are derived.

  14. A Giant Planet Around a Metal-poor Star of Extragalactic Origin

    CERN Document Server

    Setiawan, Johny; Henning, Thomas; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rochau, Boyke; Rodmann, Jens; Schulze-Hartung, Tim; Heidelberg, MPIA; Noordwijk, ESTEC; 10.1126/science.1193342

    2010-01-01

    Stars in their late stage of evolution, such as Horizontal Branch stars, are still largely unexplored for planets. We report the detection of a planetary companion around HIP 13044, a very metal-poor star on the red Horizontal Branch, based on radial velocity observations with a high-resolution spectrograph at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope. The star's periodic radial velocity variation of P=16.2 days caused by the planet can be distinguished from the periods of the stellar activity indicators. The minimum mass of the planet is 1.25 Jupiter masses and its orbital semi-major axis 0.116 AU. Because HIP 13044 belongs to a group of stars that have been accreted from a disrupted satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, the planet most likely has an extragalactic origin.

  15. A SEARCH FOR UNRECOGNIZED CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a new procedure to search for carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars from the Hamburg/ESO (HES) prism-survey plates. This method employs an extended line index for the CH G band, which we demonstrate to have superior performance when compared to the narrower G-band index formerly employed to estimate G-band strengths for these spectra. Although CEMP stars have been found previously among candidate metal-poor stars selected from the HES, the selection on metallicity undersamples the population of intermediate-metallicity CEMP stars (-2.5 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -1.0); such stars are of importance for constraining the onset of the s-process in metal-deficient asymptotic giant branch stars (thought to be associated with the origin of carbon for roughly 80% of CEMP stars). The new candidates also include substantial numbers of warmer carbon-enhanced stars, which were missed in previous HES searches for carbon stars due to selection criteria that emphasized cooler stars. A first subsample, biased toward brighter stars (B< 15.5), has been extracted from the scanned HES plates. After visual inspection (to eliminate spectra compromised by plate defects, overlapping spectra, etc., and to carry out rough spectral classifications), a list of 669 previously unidentified candidate CEMP stars was compiled. Follow-up spectroscopy for a pilot sample of 132 candidates was obtained with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR 4.1 m telescope. Our results show that most of the observed stars lie in the targeted metallicity range, and possess prominent carbon absorption features at 4300 A. The success rate for the identification of new CEMP stars is 43% (13 out of 30) for [Fe/H] < -2.0. For stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5, the ratio increases to 80% (four out of five objects), including one star with [Fe/H] < -3.0.

  16. NEW HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN FOUR METAL-POOR STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Thompson, Ian B. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schatz, Hendrik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy-element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy-element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements heavier than zinc. The bulk of the heavy elements in these four stars are produced by r-process nucleosynthesis. These observations affirm earlier results suggesting that the tellurium found in metal-poor halo stars with moderate amounts of r-process material scales with the rare earth and third r-process peak elements. Cadmium often follows the abundances of the neighboring elements palladium and silver. We identify several sources of systematic uncertainty that must be considered when comparing these abundances with theoretical predictions. We also present new isotope shift and hyperfine structure component patterns for Lu II and Pb I lines of astrophysical interest.

  17. VERY METAL-POOR OUTER-HALO STARS WITH ROUND ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Kohei; Yoshii, Yuzuru [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carollo, Daniela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109 NSW (Australia); Lee, Young Sun, E-mail: khattori@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    The orbital motions of halo stars in the Milky Way reflect the orbital motions of the progenitor systems in which they formed, making it possible to trace the mass-assembly history of the Galaxy. Direct measurement of three-dimensional velocities, based on accurate proper motions and line-of-sight velocities, has revealed that the majority of halo stars in the inner-halo region move in eccentric orbits. However, our understanding of the motions of distant, in situ halo-star samples is still limited, due to the lack of accurate proper motions for these stars. Here we explore a model-independent analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and spatial distribution of a recent sample of 1865 carefully selected halo blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars within 30 kpc of the Galactic center. We find that the mean rotational velocity of the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.0) BHB stars significantly lags behind that of the relatively more metal-rich ([Fe/H] > -2.0) BHB stars. We also find that the relatively more metal-rich BHB stars are dominated by stars with eccentric orbits, as previously observed for other stellar samples in the inner-halo region. By contrast, the very metal-poor BHB stars are dominated by stars on rounder, lower-eccentricity orbits. Our results indicate that the motion of the progenitor systems of the Milky Way that contributed to the stellar populations found within 30 kpc correlates directly with their metal abundance, which may be related to their physical properties such as gas fractions. These results are consistent with the existence of an inner/outer halo structure for the halo system, as advocated by Carollo et al.

  18. Very Metal-poor Outer-halo Stars with Round Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kohei; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Beers, Timothy C.; Carollo, Daniela; Lee, Young Sun

    2013-01-01

    The orbital motions of halo stars in the Milky Way reflect the orbital motions of the progenitor systems in which they formed, making it possible to trace the mass-assembly history of the Galaxy. Direct measurement of three-dimensional velocities, based on accurate proper motions and line-of-sight velocities, has revealed that the majority of halo stars in the inner-halo region move in eccentric orbits. However, our understanding of the motions of distant, in situ halo-star samples is still limited, due to the lack of accurate proper motions for these stars. Here we explore a model-independent analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and spatial distribution of a recent sample of 1865 carefully selected halo blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars within 30 kpc of the Galactic center. We find that the mean rotational velocity of the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] -2.0) BHB stars. We also find that the relatively more metal-rich BHB stars are dominated by stars with eccentric orbits, as previously observed for other stellar samples in the inner-halo region. By contrast, the very metal-poor BHB stars are dominated by stars on rounder, lower-eccentricity orbits. Our results indicate that the motion of the progenitor systems of the Milky Way that contributed to the stellar populations found within 30 kpc correlates directly with their metal abundance, which may be related to their physical properties such as gas fractions. These results are consistent with the existence of an inner/outer halo structure for the halo system, as advocated by Carollo et al.

  19. TESTING THE ASTEROSEISMIC MASS SCALE USING METAL-POOR STARS CHARACTERIZED WITH APOGEE AND KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental stellar properties, such as mass, radius, and age, can be inferred using asteroseismology. Cool stars with convective envelopes have turbulent motions that can stochastically drive and damp pulsations. The properties of the oscillation frequency power spectrum can be tied to mass and radius through solar-scaled asteroseismic relations. Stellar properties derived using these scaling relations need verification over a range of metallicities. Because the age and mass of halo stars are well-constrained by astrophysical priors, they provide an independent, empirical check on asteroseismic mass estimates in the low-metallicity regime. We identify nine metal-poor red giants (including six stars that are kinematically associated with the halo) from a sample observed by both the Kepler space telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey. We compare masses inferred using asteroseismology to those expected for halo and thick-disk stars. Although our sample is small, standard scaling relations, combined with asteroseismic parameters from the APOKASC Catalog, produce masses that are systematically higher (<ΔM > =0.17 ± 0.05 M ☉) than astrophysical expectations. The magnitude of the mass discrepancy is reduced by known theoretical corrections to the measured large frequency separation scaling relationship. Using alternative methods for measuring asteroseismic parameters induces systematic shifts at the 0.04 M ☉ level. We also compare published asteroseismic analyses with scaling relationship masses to examine the impact of using the frequency of maximum power as a constraint. Upcoming APOKASC observations will provide a larger sample of ∼100 metal-poor stars, important for detailed asteroseismic characterization of Galactic stellar populations

  20. The chemical imprint of silicate dust on the most metal-poor stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the impact of dust-induced gas fragmentation on the formation of the first low-mass, metal-poor stars (<1 M ☉) in the early universe. Previous work has shown the existence of a critical dust-to-gas ratio, below which dust thermal cooling cannot cause gas fragmentation. Assuming that the first dust is silicon-based, we compute critical dust-to-gas ratios and associated critical silicon abundances ([Si/H]crit). At the density and temperature associated with protostellar disks, we find that a standard Milky Way grain size distribution gives [Si/H]crit = –4.5 ± 0.1, while smaller grain sizes created in a supernova reverse shock give [Si/H]crit = –5.3 ± 0.1. Other environments are not dense enough to be influenced by dust cooling. We test the silicate dust cooling theory by comparing to silicon abundances observed in the most iron-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -4.0). Several stars have silicon abundances low enough to rule out dust-induced gas fragmentation with a standard grain size distribution. Moreover, two of these stars have such low silicon abundances that even dust with a shocked grain size distribution cannot explain their formation. Adding small amounts of carbon dust does not significantly change these conclusions. Additionally, we find that these stars exhibit either high carbon with low silicon abundances or the reverse. A silicate dust scenario thus suggests that the earliest low-mass star formation in the most metal-poor regime may have proceeded through two distinct cooling pathways: fine-structure line cooling and dust cooling. This naturally explains both the carbon-rich and carbon-normal stars at extremely low [Fe/H].

  1. The Synthetic-Oversampling Method: Using Photometric Colors to Discover Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars ([Fe/H] ≤ ‑3.0 dex) provide a unique window into understanding the first generation of stars and early chemical enrichment of the universe. EMP stars are exceptionally rare, however, and the relatively small number of confirmed discoveries limits our ability to exploit these near-field probes of the first ∼500 Myr after the Big Bang. Here, a new method to photometrically estimate [Fe/H] from only broadband photometric colors is presented. I show that the method, which utilizes machine-learning algorithms and a training set of ∼170,000 stars with spectroscopically measured [Fe/H], produces a typical scatter of ∼0.29 dex. This performance is similar to what is achievable via low-resolution spectroscopy, and outperforms other photometric techniques, while also being more general. I further show that a slight alteration to the model, wherein synthetic EMP stars are added to the training set, yields the robust identification of EMP candidates. In particular, this synthetic-oversampling method recovers ∼20% of the EMP stars in the training set, at a precision of ∼0.05. Furthermore, ∼65% of the false positives from the model are very metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] ≤ ‑2.0 dex). The synthetic-oversampling method is biased toward the discovery of warm (∼F-type) stars, a consequence of the targeting bias from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding survey. This EMP selection method represents a significant improvement over alternative broadband optical selection techniques. The models are applied to >12 million stars, with an expected yield of ∼600 new EMP stars, which promises to open new avenues for exploring the early universe.

  2. Chemical composition and constraints on mass loss for globular clusters in dwarf galaxies: WLM and IKN

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, S S; Forbes, D A; Strader, J

    2014-01-01

    We determine the metallicities for globular clusters (GCs) in the WLM and IKN dwarf galaxies, using VLT/UVES and Keck/ESI spectroscopy. For the WLM GC we also measure detailed abundance ratios for a number of light, alpha, Fe-peak and n-capture elements. We find low metallicities of [Fe/H]=-2.0 and -2.1 for the WLM GC and the GC IKN-5, respectively. We estimate that 17%-31% of the metal-poor stars in WLM belong to the GC, and IKN-5 may even contain a similar number of metal-poor stars as the whole of the IKN dwarf itself. These high ratios of metal-poor GCs to field stars are in tension with GC formation scenarios that require GCs to have lost a very large fraction of their initial mass. The GCs in the WLM and IKN dwarf galaxies resemble those in the Fornax dSph by being significantly more metal-poor than a typical halo GC in the Milky Way and other large galaxies. They are also substantially more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars in their parent galaxies. The overall abundance patterns in the WLM G...

  3. Zinc abundances in Galactic bulge field red giants: implications for DLA systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barbuy, B; da Silveira, C R; Hill, V; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Renzini, A; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A

    2015-01-01

    Zinc in stars is an important reference element because it is a proxy to Fe in studies of damped Lyman-alpha systems, permitting a comparison of chemical evolution histories of bulge stellar populations and DLAs. In terms of nucleosynthesis, it behaves as an alpha element because it is enhanced in metal-poor stars. The aim of this work is to derive the iron-peak element Zn abundances in 56 bulge giants from high resolution spectra. These results are compared with data from other bulge samples, as well as from disk and halo stars, and damped Lyman-alpha systems, in order to better understand the chemical evolution in these environments. High-resolution spectra were obtained using FLAMES+UVES on the Very Large Telescope. We find [Zn/Fe]=+0.24+-0.02 in the range -1.3 -0.1, it shows a spread of -0.60 < [Zn/Fe] < +0.15, with most of these stars having low [Zn/Fe]<0.0. These low zinc abundances at the high metallicity end of the bulge define a decreasing trend in [Zn/Fe] with increasing metallicities. A c...

  4. Bulge Formation via Mergers in Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Alyson M

    2015-01-01

    The latest generation of cosmological simulations are on the verge of being able to resolve the structure of bulges for the first time. Hence, we review the current state of bulge formation in cosmological simulations, and discuss open questions that can be addressed in the near future by simulators, with a particular focus on merger-driven bulge growth. Galaxy mergers have long been assumed to produce classical bulges in disk galaxies. Under this bulge-formation model, though, the high rates of mergers in Cold Dark Matter galaxy formation theory predict many more classical bulges than are observed. Furthermore, simulations of galaxy formation continue to generally produce too massive of bulges. Feedback offers a promising avenue for reducing merger-driven bulge growth by maintaining high gas fractions in galaxies and ejecting low-angular momentum gas driven to the centers of galaxies. After reviewing the results of relevant research that has been published to date, we use cosmological simulations to explore ...

  5. Radiative levitation in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with s-process enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrozis, E.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    A significant fraction of all metal-poor stars are carbon-rich. Most of these carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars also show enhancement in elements produced mainly by the s-process (CEMP-s stars), and evidence suggests that the origin of these non-standard abundances can be traced to mass transfer from a binary asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companion. Thus, observations of CEMP-s stars are commonly used to infer the nucleosynthesis output of low-metallicity AGB stars. A crucial step in this exercise is understanding what happens to the accreted material after mass transfer ceases. Here we present models of the post-mass-transfer evolution of CEMP-s stars considering the physics of thermohaline mixing and atomic diffusion, including radiative levitation. We find that stars with typical CEMP-s star masses, M ≈ 0.85 M⊙, have very shallow convective envelopes (Menv ≲ 10-7 M⊙). Hence, the surface abundance variations arising from the competition between gravitational settling and radiative levitation should be orders of magnitude larger than observed (e.g. [C/Fe] +4). Lower-mass stars (M ≈ 0.80 M⊙) retain thicker convective envelopes and thus show variations more in line with observations, but are generally too unevolved (log g > 4) when they reach the age of the Universe. We are therefore unable to reproduce the spread in the observed abundances with these models and conclude that some other physical process must largely suppress atomic diffusion in the outer layers of CEMP-s stars. We demonstrate that this could be achieved by some additional (turbulent) mixing process operating at the base of the convective envelope, as found by other authors. Alternatively, mass-loss rates around 10-13 M⊙yr-1 could also negate most of the abundance variations by eroding the surface layers and forcing the base of the convective envelope to move inwards in mass. Since atomic diffusion cannot have a substantial effect on the surface abundances of CEMP-s stars, the

  6. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: relics from the dark ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Madau, Piero, E-mail: rcooke@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We use detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and a realistic prescription for the environment of the first stars to explore the first episodes of chemical enrichment that occurred during the dark ages. Based on these calculations, we propose a novel explanation for the increased prevalence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with decreasing Fe abundance: the observed chemistry for the most metal-poor Galactic halo stars is the result of an intimate link between the explosions of the first stars and their host minihalo's ability to retain its gas. Specifically, high-energy supernovae produce a near solar ratio of C/Fe, but are effective in evacuating the gas from their host minihalo, thereby suppressing the formation of a second generation of stars. On the other hand, minihalos that host low-energy supernovae are able to retain their gas and form a second stellar generation, but, as a result, the second stars are born with a supersolar ratio of C/Fe. Our models are able to accurately reproduce the observed distributions of [C/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the fraction of CEMP stars relative to non-CEMP stars as a function of [Fe/H] without any free parameters. We propose that the present lack of chemical evidence for very massive stars (≳ 140 M {sub ☉}) that ended their lives as a highly energetic pair-instability supernova does not imply that such stars were rare or did not exist; the chemical products of these very massive first stars may have been evacuated from their host minihalos and were never incorporated into subsequent generations of stars. Finally, our models suggest that the most Fe-poor stars currently known may have seen the enrichment from a small multiple of metal-free stars, and need not have been exclusively enriched by a solitary first star. These calculations also add further support to the possibility that some of the surviving dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are the relics of the first galaxies.

  7. High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor R-I stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The moderately r-process enriched stars (r-I; +0.3 ≤ [Eu/Fe] ≤ +1.0) are, at least, four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II; [Eu/Fe] > +1.0), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. In this contribution, we derived abundances for a sample of 7 metal-poor stars with -3.4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -2.4 classified as r-I stars, in order to understand the role of such stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. Based on high resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph, we have obtained abundances of the light elements Li, C and N, the alpha-elements Mg, Si, S, Ca and Ti, the odd-Z elements Al, K, and Sc, the iron-peak elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and the trans-iron elements from the first peak (Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, and Pd), the second peak (Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb), the third peak (Os and Ir, as upper limits), and the actinides (Th) regions. The results are compared with values for these elements for r-II and 'normal' very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature, ages based on radioactive chronometry are explored using different models, and a number of conclusions about the r-process and the r-I stars are presented. Hydrodynamical models were used for some elements and general behaviors for the 3D corrections were presented. Although the abundance ratios of the second r-process peak elements (usually associated with the main r-process) appear nearly identical for r-I and r-II stars, the first r-process peak abundance ratios (probably associated with the weak r-process) appear enhanced in r-I stars compared with r-II stars, suggesting that differing

  8. The Origin of Carbon-Enhancement and Initial Mass Function of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars in the Galactic Halo

    OpenAIRE

    Komiya, Yutaka; Suda, Takuma; Minaguchi, Hiroki; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Aoki, Wako; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2006-01-01

    It is known that the carbon-enhanced, extremely metal-poor (CEMP) stars constitute a substantial proportion in the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars of the Galactic Halo, by far larger than CH stars in Population II stars. We investigate their origin with taking into account an additional evolutionary path to the surface carbon-enrichment, triggered by hydrogen engulfment by the helium flash convection, in EMP stars of $[Fe/H] \\lesssim -2.5$. This process is distinct from the third dredge-up o...

  9. Short-term X-ray variability of the globular cluster source 4U 1820 - 30 (NGC 6624)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, L.; Kahn, S. M.; Grindlay, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical techniques for improved identification of the temporal and spectral variability properties of globular cluster and galactic bulge X-ray sources are described in terms of their application to a large set of observations of the source 4U 1820 - 30 in the globular cluster NGC 6624. The autocorrelation function, cross-correlations, time skewness function, erratic periodicities, and pulse trains are examined. The results are discussed in terms of current models with particular emphasis on recent accretion disk models. It is concluded that the analyzed observations provide the first evidence for shot-noise variability in a globular cluster X-ray source.

  10. The r-Process in Metal Poor Stars and Black Hole Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in metal-poor stars is generally ascribed to the r-process, as the abundance pattern in many such stars agrees with the inferred Solar r-process abundances. Nonetheless, a significant number of these stars do not share this r-process template. they suggest that many such stars have begun an r-process, but it was prevented from running to completion in more massive stars by collapse to black holes, creating a 'truncated r-process,' or 'tr-process'. The observed fraction of tr-process stars is found to be consistent with expectations from the initial mass function (IMF), and they suggest that an apparent sharp truncation observed at around mass 160 could result from a combination of collapses to black holes and the difficulty of observing the higher mass rare earths. They test the tr-process hypothesis with calculations that are terminated before all r-process trajectories have been ejected. These produce qualitative agreement with observation when both black hole collapse and observational realities are taken into account.

  11. Formation and evolution of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars play a key role in characterising the star formation history of the Galactic halo. In particular, the fraction of CEMP stars among extremely metalpoor stars (EMP stars, defined by [Fe/H] < -2.5) is useful information in constraining the stellar IMF in the early universe. In our previous work, it is proposed that the typical mass of EMP stars should be around 10 Msun at [Fe/H] < -2 under the assumption that all the CEMP stars belong to binary systems and originate from a mass transfer from the former AGB stars. In this paper, we explore the origin of CEMP stars without the enhancement of s-process element abundances (so called CEMP-no stars) that dominate the CEMP population at [Fe/H] < -3.5. The reason for the large CEMP-no fraction is currently an important issue to elucidate the star formation history in the early universe in terms of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, the contribution of AGB stars to the CEMP populations, and the IMF of first stars and EMP stars. We will discuss the reason for the increasing CEMP-no fraction (or decreasing CEMP-s (CEMP stars with s-process element enhancement) fraction) with decreasing metallicity, using binary population synthesis based on the stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis of first stars and EMP stars, taking into account the possible effect of mass loss and the hot bottom burning at low metallicity. (author)

  12. Estimating R-Process Yields from Abundances of the Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongjie; Cui, Wenyuan; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical abundances of metal-poor stars provide important clues to explore stellar formation history and set significant constraints on models of the r-process. In this work, we find that the abundance patterns of the light and iron group elements of the main r-process stars are very close to those of the weak r-process stars. Based on a detailed abundance comparison, we find that the weak r-process occurs in supernovae with a progenitor mass range of $\\sim11-26M_{\\odot}$. Using the SN yields given by Heger & Woosley and the abundances of the weak r-process stars, the weak r-process yields are derived. The SNe with a progenitor mass range of $15M_{\\odot}

  13. New Detections of Arsenic, Selenium, and Other Heavy Elements in Two Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Lawler, James E; Beers, Timothy C; Cowan, John J; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain new high-quality spectra covering the 1900 to 2360 Angstrom wavelength range for two metal-poor stars, HD 108317 and HD 128279. We derive abundances of Cu II, Zn II, As I, Se I, Mo II, and Cd II, which have not been detected previously in either star. Abundances derived for Ge I, Te I, Os II, and Pt I confirm those derived from lines at longer wavelengths. We also derive upper limits from the non-detection of W II, Hg II, Pb II, and Bi I. The mean [As/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and five others in the literature is unchanged over the metallicity range -2.8 = +0.28 +/- 0.14 (std. dev. = 0.36 dex). The mean [Se/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and six others in the literature is also constant, = +0.16 +/- 0.09 (std. dev. = 0.26 dex). The As and Se abundances are enhanced relative to a simple extrapolation of the iron-peak abundances to higher masses, suggesting that this mass region (75 = +0.56 +/- ...

  14. The primordial deuterium abundance of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha system

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Ryan; Nollett, Kenneth M; Jorgenson, Regina

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery and analysis of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) system currently known, which also displays the Lyman series absorption lines of neutral deuterium. The average [O/H] abundance of this system is [O/H] = -2.804 +/- 0.015, which includes an absorption component with [O/H] = -3.07 +/- 0.03. Despite the unfortunate blending of many weak D I absorption lines, we report a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance of this system. Using the six highest quality and self-consistently analyzed measures of D/H in DLAs, we report tentative evidence for a subtle decrease of D/H with increasing metallicity. This trend must be confirmed with future high precision D/H measurements spanning a range of metallicity. A weighted mean of these six independent measures provides our best estimate of the primordial abundance of deuterium, 10^5 (D/H)_P = 2.547 +/- 0.033 (log_10 (D/H)_P = -4.5940 +/- 0.0056). We perform a series of detailed Monte Carlo calculations of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BB...

  15. The r-Process in Metal Poor Stars and Black Hole Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R N; Famiano, M A; Meyer, B S; Motizuki, Y; Kajino, T; Roederer, I U

    2011-11-30

    Nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in metal-poor stars is generally ascribed to the r-process, as the abundance pattern in many such stars agrees with the inferred Solar r-process abundances. Nonetheless, a significant number of these stars do not share this r-process template. they suggest that many such stars have begun an r-process, but it was prevented from running to completion in more massive stars by collapse to black holes, creating a 'truncated r-process,' or 'tr-process'. The observed fraction of tr-process stars is found to be consistent with expectations from the initial mass function (IMF), and they suggest that an apparent sharp truncation observed at around mass 160 could result from a combination of collapses to black holes and the difficulty of observing the higher mass rare earths. They test the tr-process hypothesis with calculations that are terminated before all r-process trajectories have been ejected. These produce qualitative agreement with observation when both black hole collapse and observational realities are taken into account.

  16. The intermediate neutron-capture process and carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hampel, Melanie; Lugaro, Maria; Meyer, Bradley S

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the Galactic Halo display enrichments in heavy elements associated with either the s (slow) or the r (rapid) neutron-capture process (e.g., barium and europium respectively), and in some cases they display evidence of both. The abundance patterns of these CEMP-s/r stars, which show both Ba and Eu enrichment, are particularly puzzling since the s and the r processes require neutron densities that are more than ten orders of magnitude apart, and hence are thought to occur in very different stellar sites with very different physical conditions. We investigate whether the abundance patterns of CEMP-s/r stars can arise from the nucleosynthesis of the intermediate neutron-capture process (the i process), which is characterised by neutron densities between those of the s and the r processes. Using nuclear network calculations, we study neutron capture nucleosynthesis at different constant neutron densities n ranging from $10^7$ to $10^{15}$ cm$^{-3}$. With respect to the cl...

  17. Binary properties of CH and Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jorissen, A; Van Winckel, H; Merle, T; Boffin, H M J; Andersen, J; Nordstroem, B; Udry, S; Masseron, T; Lenaerts, L; Waelkens, C

    2015-01-01

    The HERMES spectrograph installed on the 1.2-m Mercator telescope has been used to monitor the radial velocity of 13 low-metallicity carbon stars, among which 7 Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars and 6 CH stars. All stars but one show clear evidence for binarity. New orbits are obtained for 8 systems. The sample covers an extended range in orbital periods, extending from 3.4 d (for the dwarf carbon star HE 0024-2523) to about 54 yr (for the CH star HD 26, the longest known among barium, CH and extrinsic S stars). Three systems exhibit low-amplitude velocity variations with periods close to 1 yr superimposed on a long-term trend. In the absence of an accurate photometric monitoring of these systems, it is not clear yet whether these variations are the signature of a very low-mass companion, or of regular envelope pulsations. The period - eccentricity (P - e) diagram for the 40 low-metallicity carbon stars with orbits now available shows no difference between CH and CEMP-s stars (the latter corresponding t...

  18. The Frequency of Carbon Rich Stars Among Extremely Metal Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; Thompson, I; McWilliam, A; Christlieb, N; Melendez, J; Zickgraf, F J; Swenson, S R A; Cohen, Judith G.; Shectman, Stephen; Thompson, Ian; William, Andrew Mc; Christlieb, Norbert; Melendez, Jorge; Zickgraf, Franz-Josef; Swenson, Solange Ram\\'{\\i}rez & Amber

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that there are systematic scale errors in the [Fe/H] values determined by the Hamburg/ESO Survey (and by the HK Survey by inference) for certain extremely metal poor (EMP) highly C-enhanced giants. The consequences of these scale errors are that a) the fraction of carbon stars at extremely low metallicities has been substantially overestimated in several papers in the recent literature b) the number of EMP stars known is somewhat lower than has been quoted in the recent literature c) the yield for EMP stars by the HK and the HES Survey is somewhat lower than is stated in the recent literature. A preliminary estimate for the frequency of Carbon stars among the giants in the HES sample with -4 +1.0 dex is 14.4 \\pm 4%. Here we present the key results of detailed abundance analyses of 14 C-stars selected from the HES as candidate EMP stars, of ~50 such stars analyzed. About 80% of such C-stars show highly enhanced Ba as well, with C enhanced by a factor of about 100, and [Ba/C] roughly Solar. Thes...

  19. Discovery of a Gas-Rich Companion to the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy DDO 68

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, John M; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Alfvin, Erik D; Bailin, Jeremy; Ford, H Alyson; Girardi, Léo; Hirschauer, Alec S; Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J; Van Sistine, Angela; Dolphin, Andrew; Elson, E C; Koribalski, Baerbel; Marigo, Paola; Rosenberg, Jessica L; Rosenfield, Philip; Skillman, Evan D; Venkatesan, Aparna; Warren, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    We present HI spectral-line imaging of the extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68. This system has a nebular oxygen abundance of only 3% Z$_{\\odot}$, making it one of the most metal-deficient galaxies known in the local volume. Surprisingly, DDO 68 is a relatively massive and luminous galaxy for its metal content, making it a significant outlier in the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relationships. The origin of such a low oxygen abundance in DDO 68 presents a challenge for models of the chemical evolution of galaxies. One possible solution to this problem is the infall of pristine neutral gas, potentially initiated during a gravitational interaction. Using archival HI spectral-line imaging obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we have discovered a previously unknown companion of DDO 68. This low-mass (M$_{\\rm HI}$ $=$ 2.8$\\times$10$^{7}$ M$_{\\odot}$), recently star-forming (SFR$_{\\rm FUV}$ $=$ 1.4$\\times$10$^{-3}$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, SFR$_{\\rm H\\alpha}$ $<$ 7$\\times$10$^{-5}$ M$_{\\...

  20. Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars and Chemical Evolution of the Early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Wasserburg, G J

    2008-01-01

    We have attributed the elements from Sr through Ag in stars of low metallicities ([Fe/H] -0.32 for all metal-poor stars. This is in direct conflict with the high-resolution data now available, which show that there is a great shortfall of Sr relative to Fe in many stars with [Fe/H] < -3. The same conflict also exists for the CPR elements Y and Zr. We show that the data require a stellar source leaving behind black holes and that hypernovae (HNe) from progenitors of ~ 25 to 50 M_sun are the most plausible candidates. If we expand our previous model to include three components (low-mass and normal SNe and HNe), we find that essentially all of the data are very well described by the new model. The HN yield pattern for the low-A elements from Na through Zn (including Fe) is inferred from the stars deficient in Sr, Y, and Zr. We estimate that HNe contributed ~ 24% of the bulk solar Fe inventory while normal SNe contributed only ~ 9% (not the usually assumed ~ 33%). This implies a greatly reduced role of normal...

  1. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-poor Gas-rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Gordon, Alex J. R.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Aver, Erik

    2016-05-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H i in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H i masses in the range of 106–107.2 M ⊙, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H ii region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O iii]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H i survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  2. Very metal poor stars in the Milky Way: constraints on stellar nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently Cayrel et al. [Cayrel, R., Depagne, E., Spite, M. et al. 2004, AfeA 416, 1117] have derived the abundances of several a and Fe-peak elements for a sample of very metal poor giants ([Fe/H] from -4.0 to -3.0 dex) thus allowing us to test chemical evolution models in a metallicity range never reached before. Moreover, the small spread in the [el/Fe] ratios in the metallicity range from [Fe/H]=-4.0 up to -3.0 dex [Cayrel, R., Depagne, E., Spite, M. et al. 2004, AfeA 416, 1117] is a clear sign that the halo of the Milky Way was well mixed even in the earliest phases of its evolution. We computed the evolution of the abundances of O, Mg, Si, Ca, K, Ti, Sc, Ni, Mn, Co, Fe and Zn in the Milky Way. We made use of the most widely adopted nucleosynthesis calculations and compared the model results with observational data with the aim of imposing constraints upon stellar yields

  3. The dust content of the most metal-poor star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Raffaella; Valiante, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Although dust content is usually assumed to depend uniquely on metallicity, recent observations of two extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies have suggested that this may not always be true. At a similar oxygen abundance of ~ 3% Zsun, the dust-to-gas and dust-to-stellar mass ratios in SBS 0335-052 and IZw 18 differ by a factor 40-70 according to including molecular gas or excluding it. Here we investigate a possible reason for this dramatic difference through models based on a semi-analytical formulation of chemical evolution including dust. Results suggest that the greater dust mass in SBS 0335-052 is due to the more efficient grain growth allowed by the high density in the cold interstellar medium (ISM), observationally inferred to be almost 20 times higher than in IZw 18. Our models are able to explain the difference in dust masses, suggesting that efficient dust formation and dust content in galaxies, including those with the highest measured redshifts, depend sensitively on the ISM density, rather than only...

  4. Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Pilachowski, Catherine A

    2007-01-01

    We have derived isotopic fractions of europium, samarium, and neodymium in two metal-poor giants with differing neutron-capture nucleosynthetic histories. These isotopic fractions were measured from new high resolution (R ~ 120,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ~ 160-1000) spectra obtained with the 2dCoude spectrograph of McDonald Observatory's 2.7m Smith telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated using recent high-precision laboratory measurements of hyperfine and isotopic subcomponents of several transitions of these elements and matched quantitatively to the observed spectra. We interpret our isotopic fractions by the nucleosynthesis predictions of the stellar model, which reproduces s-process nucleosynthesis from the physical conditions expected in low-mass, thermally-pulsing stars on the AGB, and the classical method, which approximates s-process nucleosynthesis by a steady neutron flux impinging upon Fe-peak seed nuclei. Our Eu isotopic fraction in HD 175305 is consistent with an r-process origin by the ...

  5. Dust and hydrogen molecules in the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy SBS 0335-052

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, H; Ferrara, A

    2002-01-01

    During the early stages of galaxy evolution, the metallicity is generally low and nearby metal-poor star-forming galaxies may provide templates for primordial star formation. In particular, the dust content of such objects is of great importance since early molecular formation can take place on grains. To gain insight into primeval galaxies at high redshift, we examine the dust content of the nearby extremely low-metallicity galaxy SBS 0335-052 which hosts a very young starburst (< 10 Myr). In young galaxies, the dust formation rate in Type II supernovae governs the amount of dust, and by incorporating recent results on dust production in Type II supernovae we model the evolution of dust content. If the star-forming region is compact (< 100 pc), as suggested by observations of SBS 0335-052, our models consistently explain the quantity of dust, far-infrared luminosity, and dust temperature in this low-metallicity object. We also discuss the H_2 abundance. The compactness of the region is important to H_2...

  6. The Barium Isotopic Abundance in the Metal-Poor Star HD140283

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, R; Nissen, P E

    2008-01-01

    We derive the mixture of odd to even barium isotopes in the atmosphere of the metal-poor subgiant HD140283 from the analysis of the Ba II transition at 455.4 nm in a high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectrum of the star. The detailed shape of this spectral line depends on the relative contributions of odd and even isotopes via isotopic and hyperfine splitting. We measure the fractional abundance of odd Ba isotopes by modelling the formation of the Ba II 455.4 nm line profile with the use of both a classical 1D hydrostatic and a 3D hydrodynamical model atmosphere of HD140283. We interpret the results in terms of contributions by the slow (s-) and rapid (r-) neutron-capture processes to the isotopic mix. While the result of the 1D analysis of the Ba II feature indicates a (64 +/- 36)% contribution of the r-process to the isotopic mix, the 3D analysis points toward a mere (15 +/- 34)% contribution from this process, that is consistent with a solar-like mixture of barium isotopes.

  7. Very Metal-Poor Outer-Halo Stars with Round Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Kohei; Beers, Timothy C; Carollo, Daniela; Lee, Young Sun

    2012-01-01

    The orbital motions of halo stars in the Milky Way reflect the orbital motions of the progenitor systems in which they formed, making it possible to trace the mass-assembly history of the Galaxy. Direct measurement of three-dimensional velocities, based on accurate proper motions and line-of-sight velocities, has revealed that the majority of halo stars in the inner-halo region move on eccentric orbits. However, our understanding of the motions of distant, in-situ halo-star samples is still limited, due to the lack of accurate proper motions for these stars. Here we explore a model-independent analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and spatial distribution of a recent sample of 1865 carefully selected halo blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars within 30 kpc of the Galactic center. We find that the mean rotational velocity of the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] -2.0) BHB stars. We also find that the relatively more metal-rich BHB stars are dominated by stars with eccentric orbits, as previously observed for other stel...

  8. An Infrared High Resolution Spectroscopic Abundance Study of the Metal-Poor Giant HD 122563

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneden, Christopher; Afsar, Melike; Jaffe, Daniel Thomas; Kim, Hwiyun; Mace, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    A high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectrum of the very metal-poor giant star HD 122563 has been obtained with the newly commissioned IGRINS H- and K-band high resolution (R = 40,000) spectrograph on the McDonald Observatory 2.7m Smith telescope. With complete spectral coverage in the range 1.5-1.8 and 1.9-2.4 microns and high signal-to-noise (S/N > 200) in the reduced spectrum, we have so far detected about 50neutral-species transitions of elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe, as well as many transitions of OH and CO.Assuming atmosphere parameters from the literature of this well-studied bright giant (Teff~4600K, log(g)~1.3) we have derived a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.8, in agreement with past results. The alpha-elements are enhanced: [(Mg,Si,Ca)/Fe] = +0.3 to +0.4. The OH lines yield an O abundance in good accord with past claims from analyses of the [O I] lines in the visible part of the spectrum. Study of other features in the IGRINSspectrum is ongoing.Support for this research from the US National Science Foundation (AST-1211585) and the The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK, project No. 112T929) are acknowledged with thanks.

  9. Detailed Abundances for 28 Metal-poor Stars: Stellar Relics in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, David K; Johnson, Jennifer A; Lucatello, Sara; Heger, Alexander; Woosley, S E

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of an abundance analysis for a sample of stars with $-4<$[Fe/H]$<-2$. The data were obtained with the HIRES spectrograph at Keck Observatory. The set includes 28 stars, with effective temperature ranging from 4800 K to 6600 K. For 13 stars with [Fe/H]$<-2.6$, including nine of with [Fe/H]$<-3.0$, and one with [Fe/H]$=-4.0$, these are the first reported detailed abundances. For the most metal-poor star in our sample, CS 30336-049, we measure an abundance pattern that is very similar to stars in the range [Fe/H]$\\sim-3.5$, including a normal C+N abundance. We also find that it has very low but measurable Sr and Ba, indicating some neutron-capture activity even at this low of a metallicity. We explore this issue further by examining other very neutron-capture-deficient stars, and find that at the lowest levels, [Ba/Sr] exhibits the ratio of the main r-process. We also report on a new r-process enhanced star, CS 31078-018. This star has [Fe/H]$=-2.85$, [Eu/Fe]$=1.23$, and [Ba/Eu...

  10. Systematic search for extremely metal poor galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Morales-Luis, A B; Aguerri, J A L; Munoz-Tunon, C

    2011-01-01

    We carry out a systematic search for extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies in the spectroscopic sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 7 (DR7). The XMP candidates are found by classifying all the galaxies according to the form of their spectra in a region 80AA wide around Halpha. Due to the data size, the method requires an automatic classification algorithm. We use k-means. Our systematic search renders 32 galaxies having negligible [NII] lines, as expected in XMP galaxy spectra. Twenty one of them have been previously identified as XMP galaxies in the literature -- the remaining eleven are new. This was established after a thorough bibliographic search that yielded only some 130 galaxies known to have an oxygen metallicity ten times smaller than the Sun (explicitly, with 12+log(O/H) <= 7.65). XMP galaxies are rare; they represent 0.01% of the galaxies with emission lines in SDSS/DR7. Although the final metallicity estimate of all candidates remains pending, strong-line empirical calibration...

  11. Is atomic carbon a good tracer of molecular gas in metal-poor galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Glover, Simon C O

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is widely used as a tracer of molecular hydrogen (H2) in metal-rich galaxies, but is known to become ineffective in low metallicity dwarf galaxies. Atomic carbon has been suggested as a superior tracer of H2 in these metal-poor systems, but its suitability remains unproven. To help us to assess how well atomic carbon traces H2 at low metallicity, we have performed a series of numerical simulations of turbulent molecular clouds that cover a wide range of different metallicities. Our simulations demonstrate that in star-forming clouds, the conversion factor between [CI] emission and H2 mass, $X_{\\rm CI}$, scales approximately as $X_{\\rm CI} \\propto Z^{-1}$. We recover a similar scaling for the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, $X_{\\rm CO}$, but find that at this point in the evolution of the clouds, $X_{\\rm CO}$ is consistently smaller than $X_{\\rm CI}$, by a factor of a few or more. We have also examined how $X_{\\rm CI}$ and $X_{\\rm CO}$ evolve with time. We find that $X_{\\rm CI}$ does not vary ...

  12. Bipolar Supernova Explosions Nucleosynthesis & Implication on Abundances in Extremely Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, K

    2003-01-01

    Hydrodynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis in bipolar supernova explosions are examined to account for some peculiar properties of hypernovae as well as peculiar abundance patterns of metal-poor stars. The explosion is supposed to be driven by bipolar jets which are powered by accretion onto a central remnant. We explore the features of the explosions with varying progenitors' masses and jet properties. The outcomes are different from conventional spherical models. (1) In the bipolar models, Fe-rich materials are ejected at high velocities along the jet axis, while O-rich materials occupy the central region whose density becomes very high as a consequence of continuous accretion from the side. This configuration can explain some peculiar features in the light curves and the nebular spectra of hypernovae. (2) Production of $^{56}$Ni tends to be smaller than in spherical thermal bomb models. To account for a large amount of $^{56}$Ni observed in hypernovae, the jets should be initiated when the compact remnant...

  13. The low Sr/Ba ratio on some extremely metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, M; Bonifacio, P; Caffau, E; François, P; Sbordone, L

    2014-01-01

    It has been noted that, in classical extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, the abundance ratio of Sr and Ba, is always higher than [Sr/Ba] = -0.5, the value of the solar r-only process; however, a handful of EMP stars have recently been found with a very low Sr/Ba ratio. We try to understand the origin of this anomaly by comparing the abundance pattern of the elements in these stars and in the classical EMP stars. Four stars with very low Sr/Ba ratios were observed and analyzed within LTE approximation through 1D (hydrostatic) model atmosphere, providing homogeneous abundances of nine neutron-capture elements. In CS 22950-173, the only turnoff star of the sample, the Sr/Ba ratio is, in fact, found to be higher than the r-only solar ratio, so the star is discarded. The remaining stars (CS 29493-090, CS 30322-023, HE 305-4520) are cool evolved giants. They do not present a clear carbon enrichment. The abundance patterns of the neutron-capture elements in the three stars are strikingly similar to a theoretical s-pro...

  14. The first carbon-enhanced metal-poor star found in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal

    CERN Document Server

    Skuladottir, Asa; Salvadori, Stefania; Hill, Vanessa; Pettini, Max; Shetrone, Matthew D; Starkenburg, Else

    2014-01-01

    The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and their possible connection with the chemical elements produced by the first stellar generation is still highly debated. In contrast to the Galactic halo, not many CEMP stars have been found in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky Way. Here we present detailed abundances from ESO VLT/UVES high-resolution spectroscopy for ET0097, the first CEMP star found in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal. This star has $\\text{[Fe/H]}=-2.03\\pm0.10$, $\\text{[C/Fe]}=0.51\\pm0.10$ and $\\text{[N/Fe]}=1.18\\pm0.20$. The traditional definition of CEMP stars is $\\text{[C/Fe]}\\geq0.70$, but taking into account that this luminous red giant branch star has undergone mixing, it was intrinsically less nitrogen enhanced and more carbon-rich when it was formed, and so it falls under the definition of CEMP stars, as proposed by Aoki et al. (2007) to account for this effect. By making corrections for this mixing, we conclude that the star had $\\text{[C/Fe]}\\approx0.8$ during its e...

  15. New Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Heavy Elements in Four Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Beers, Timothy C; Cowan, John J; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Thompson, Ian B

    2012-01-01

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements hea...

  16. Extremely Metal-Poor Stars and a Hierarchical Chemical Evolution Model

    CERN Document Server

    Komiya, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Early phases of the chemical evolution and formation history of extremely metal poor (EMP) stars are investigated using hierarchical galaxy formation models. We build a merger tree of the Galaxy according to the extended Press-Schechter theory. We follow the chemical evolution along the tree, and compare the model results to the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and abundance ratio distribution of the Milky Way halo. We adopt three different initial mass functions (IMFs). In a previous studies, we argue that typical mass of EMP stars should be high-mass(~10Msun) based on studies of binary origin carbon-rich EMP stars. In this study, we show that only the high-mass IMF can explain a observed small number of EMP stars. For relative element abundances, the high-mass IMF and the Salpeter IMF predict similar distributions. We also investigate dependence on nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae (SNe). The theoretical SN yields by Kobayashi et al.(2006) and Chieffi & Limonge (2004) show reasonable agreement...

  17. DUST-TO-GAS RATIO IN THE EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXY I Zw 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 is one of the most metal-poor systems known in the local universe (12+log(O/H) = 7.17). In this work we study I Zw 18 using data from Spitzer, Herschel Space Telescope, and IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our data set includes the most sensitive maps of I Zw 18, to date, in both the far-infrared and the CO J = 1 → 0 transition. We use dust emission models to derive a dust mass upper limit of only Mdust ≤ 1.1 × 104 M☉ (3σ limit). This upper limit is driven by the non-detection at 160 μm, and it is a factor of 4-10 times smaller than previous estimates (depending on the model used). We also estimate an upper limit to the total dust-to-gas mass ratio of MDust/Mgas ≤ 5.0 × 10–5. If a linear correlation between the dust-to-gas mass ratio and metallicity (measured as O/H) were to hold, we would expect a ratio of 3.9 × 10–4. We also show that the infrared spectral energy distribution is similar to that of starbursting systems.

  18. A new L-dwarf member of the moderately metal-poor triple system HD 221356

    CERN Document Server

    Gauza, B; Rebolo, R; Ramírez, K Peña; Osorio, M R Zapatero; Pérez-Garrido, A; Lodieu, N; Pinfield, D J; McMahon, R G; González-Solares, E; Emerson, J P; Boudreault, S; Banerji, M

    2012-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a fourth component in the HD 221356 star system, previously known to be formed by an F8V, slightly metal-poor primary ([Fe/H]=-0.26), and a distant M8V+L3V pair. In our ongoing common proper motion search based on VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS) and 2MASS catalogues, we have detected a faint (J=13.76+/-0.04 mag) co-moving companion of the F8 star located at angular separation of 12.13+/-0.18 arcsec (position angle of 221.8+/-1.7), corresponding to a projected distance of ~312 AU at 26 pc. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the new companion, covering the 1.5-2.4 micron wavelength range with a resolving power of R~600, indicates an L1+/-1 spectral type. Using evolutionary models the mass of the new companion is estimated at ~0.08 solar masses, which places the object close to the stellar-substellar borderline. This multiple system provides an interesting example of objects with masses slightly above and below the hydrogen burning mass limit. The low mass companions of HD 221356 have slig...

  19. A holistic approach to carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Masseron, T; Plez, B; Van Eck, S; Primas, F; Goriely, S; Jorissen, A

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars are known to be the direct witnesses of the nucleosynthesis of the first low- and intermediate-mass stars, because they have been polluted by a now-extinct AGB star. To put CEMP stars in a broad context, we collect abundances for about 180 stars of various metallicities (from solar down to [Fe/H]=-4), luminosity classes (dwarfs and giants), and abundance patterns (C-rich and poor, Ba-rich and poor, etc), from our own sample and from literature. First, we introduce a class of CEMP stars sharing the properties of CEMP-s stars and CEMP-no stars. We also show that there is a strong correlation between Ba and C in the s-only CEMP stars. This strongly points at the operation of the 13C neutron source in low-mass AGB stars. For the CEMP-rs stars (enriched with elements from both the s- and r-processes), the correlation of the N abundances with abundances of heavy elements from the 2nd and 3rd s-process peaks bears instead the signature of the 22Ne neutron source. Adding to the...

  20. A Planetary Companion around a Metal-Poor Star with Extragalactic Origin

    CERN Document Server

    Setiawan, J; Henning, T; Rix, H -W; Rochau, B; Schulze-Hartung, T; Rodmann, J

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of a planetary companion around HIP 13044, a metal-poor star on the red Horizontal Branch. The detection is based on radial velocity observations with FEROS, a high-resolution spectrograph at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope, located at ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. The periodic radial velocity variation of P = 16.2 days can be distinguished from the periods of the stellar activity indicators. We computed a minimum planetary mass of 1.25 MJup and an orbital semi-major axis of 0.116 AU for the planet. This discovery is unique in three aspects: First, it is the first planet detection around a star with a metallicity much lower than few percent of the solar value; second, the planet host star resides in a stellar evolutionary stage that is still unexplored in the exoplanet surveys; third, the star HIP 13044 belongs to one of the most significant stellar halo streams in the solar neighborhood, implying an extragalactic origin of the planetary system HIP 13044 in a disrupted former satellit...

  1. The dust content of the most metal-poor star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Raffaella; Hunt, Leslie; Valiante, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Although dust content is usually assumed to depend uniquely on metallicity, recent observations of two extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies have suggested that this may not always be true. At a similar oxygen abundance of ˜3 per cent Z⊙, the dust-to-gas and dust-to-stellar mass ratios in SBS 0335-052 and I Zw 18 differ by a factor of 40-70 according to including molecular gas or excluding it. Here, we investigate a possible reason for this dramatic difference through models based on a semi-analytical formulation of chemical evolution including dust. Results suggest that the greater dust mass in SBS 0335-052 is due to the more efficient grain growth allowed by the high density in the cold interstellar medium (ISM), observationally inferred to be almost 20 times higher than in I Zw 18. Our models are able to explain the difference in dust masses, suggesting that efficient dust formation and dust content in galaxies, including those with the highest measured redshifts, depend sensitively on the ISM density, rather than only on metallicity.

  2. Beryllium and Alpha-Element Abundances in a Large Sample of Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Levesque, Emily M; Bowler, Brendan P

    2011-01-01

    The light elements, Li, Be, and B, provide tracers for many aspects of astronomy including stellar structure, Galactic evolution, and cosmology. We have taken spectra of Be in 117 metal-poor stars ranging in metallicity from [Fe/H] = -0.5 to -3.5 with Keck I + HIRES at a resolution of 42,000 and signal-to-noise ratios of near 100. We have determined the stellar parameters spectroscopically from lines of Fe I, Fe II, Ti I and Ti II. The abundances of Be and O were derived by spectrum synthesis techniques, while abundances of Fe, Ti, and Mg were found from many spectral line measurements. There is a linear relationship between [Fe/H] and A(Be) with a slope of +0.88 +-0.03 over three orders of magnitude in [Fe/H]. We fit the relationship between A(Be) and [O/H] with both a single slope and with two slopes. The relationship between [Fe/H] and [O/H] seems robustly linear and we conclude that the slope change in Be vs. O is due to the Be abundance. Although Be is a by-product of CNO, we have used Ti and Mg abundanc...

  3. New Keck Observations of Lithium in Very Metal-poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, A M; Stephens, A; Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Novicki, Megan C.

    2005-01-01

    Lithium abundances have been determined in more than 100 metal-poor halo stars both in the field and in clusters. From these data we find trends of Li with both temperature and metallicity and a real dispersion in Li abundances in the Spite Li plateau. We attribute this dispersion primarily to Li depletion (presumably due to extra mixing induced by stellar rotation) and to Galactic chemical evolution. We derive a primordial Li of 2.44 $\\pm$0.18 for A(Li)$_p$ = log N(Li/H) + 12.00. This agrees with the Li abundances predicted by the $WMAP$ results. For stars cooler than the Li plateau we have evidence that Li depletion sets in at hotter temperatures for the higher metallicity stars than for the low-metal stars. This is the opposite sense of predictions from stellar models. The smooth transition of the Li content from the Li plateau stars to the cool stars adds weight to the inference of Li depletion in the plateau stars.

  4. Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Camilo, F; Camilo, Fernando; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 100 radio pulsars have been detected in 24 globular clusters. The largest observed samples are in Terzan 5 and 47 Tucanae, which together contain 45 pulsars. Accurate timing solutions, including positions in the cluster, are known for many of these pulsars. Here we provide an observational overview of some properties of pulsars in globular clusters, as well as properties of the globular clusters with detected pulsars. The many recent detections also provide a new opportunity to re-examine theoretically the formation and evolution of recycled pulsars in globular clusters. Our brief review considers the most important dynamical interaction and binary evolution processes: collisions, exchange interactions, mass transfer, and common-envelope phases.

  5. FAST WINDS AND MASS LOSS FROM METAL-POOR FIELD GIANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echelle spectra of the infrared He I λ10830 line were obtained with NIRSPEC on the Keck 2 telescope for 41 metal-deficient field giant stars including those on the red giant branch (RGB), asymptotic giant branch (AGB), and red horizontal branch (RHB). The presence of this He I line is ubiquitous in stars with T eff∼> 4500 K and MV fainter than -1.5, and reveals the dynamics of the atmosphere. The line strength increases with effective temperature for T eff∼> 5300 K in RHB stars. In AGB and RGB stars, the line strength increases with luminosity. Fast outflows (∼> 60 km s-1) are detected from the majority of the stars and about 40% of the outflows have sufficient speed as to allow escape of material from the star as well as from a globular cluster. Outflow speeds and line strengths do not depend on metallicity for our sample ([Fe/H]= -0.7 to -3.0), suggesting the driving mechanism for these winds derives from magnetic and/or hydrodynamic processes. Gas outflows are present in every luminous giant, but are not detected in all stars of lower luminosity indicating possible variability. Mass loss rates ranging from ∼3 x 10-10 to ∼6 x 10-8 M sun yr-1 estimated from the Sobolev approximation for line formation represent values with evolutionary significance for red giants and RHB stars. We estimate that 0.2 M sun will be lost on the RGB, and the torque of this wind can account for observations of slowly rotating RHB stars in the field. About 0.1-0.2 M sun will be lost on the RHB itself. This first empirical determination of mass loss on the RHB may contribute to the appearance of extended horizontal branches in globular clusters. The spectra appear to resolve the problem of missing intracluster material in globular clusters. Opportunities exist for 'wind smothering' of dwarf stars by winds from the evolved population, possibly leading to surface pollution in regions of high stellar density.

  6. Chemistry of the Galactic Bulge: New Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Manuela; Hill, Vanessa; Barbuy, Beatriz; Lecureur, Aurelie; Minniti, Dante; Renzini, Alvio; Gonzalez, Oscar; Gómez, Ana; Ortolani, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    VLT-FLAMES observations provide by far the largest sample of high dispersion spectra of Bulge red giants available. Five years of work on these 900 spectra have yielded the abundances of different elements in the Milky Way Bulge, and new results on its formation. The results so far include the Bulge metallicity distribution, the Bulge metallicity gradient, the metallicity dependence on kinematics, the history of enrichment with alpha-elements, as well as the lithium abundance. The evidence collected on Milky Way Bulge chemical enrichment supports a rapid early formation scenario, and the metallicity gradient argues against formation via secular bar evolution.

  7. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Study of Extremely Metal-Poor Star Candidates from the SkyMapper Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Heather R; Frebel, Anna; Casey, Andrew R; Asplund, Martin; Bessell, Michael S; Da Costa, Gary S; Lind, Karin; Marino, Anna F; Norris, John E; Pena, Jose M; Schmidt, Brian P; Tisserand, Patrick; Walsh, Jennifer M; Yong, David; Yu, Qinsi

    2015-01-01

    The SkyMapper Southern Sky Survey is carrying out a search for the most metal-poor stars in the Galaxy. It identifies candidates by way of its unique filter set that allows for estimation of stellar atmospheric parameters. The set includes a narrow filter centered on the Ca II K 3933A line, enabling a robust estimate of stellar metallicity. Promising candidates are then confirmed with spectroscopy. We present the analysis of Magellan-MIKE high-resolution spectroscopy of 122 metal-poor stars found by SkyMapper in the first two years of commissioning observations. 41 stars have [Fe/H] 2. Only one other star is known to have a comparable value. Seven stars are "CEMP-no" stars ([C/Fe] > 0.7, [Ba/Fe] = 1.0. These results demonstrate the ability to identify extremely metal-poor stars from SkyMapper photometry, pointing to increased sample sizes and a better characterization of the metal-poor tail of the halo metallicity distribution function in the future.

  8. 2MASS J18082002-5104378: The brightest (V=11.9) ultra metal-poor star

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jorge; Tucci-Maia, Marcelo; Ramirez, Ivan; Li, Ting S; Perez, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Context. The most primitive metal-poor stars are important for studying the conditions of the early galaxy and are also relevant to big bang nucleosynthesis. Aims. Our objective is to find the brightest (V<14) most metal-poor stars. Methods. Candidates were selected using a new method, which is based on the mismatch between spectral types derived from colors and observed spectral types. They were observed first at low resolution with EFOSC2 at the NTT/ESO to obtain an initial set of stellar parameters. The most promising candidate, 2MASS J18082002-5104378 (V=11.9), was observed at high resolution (R=50 000) with UVES at the VLT/ESO, and a standard abundance analysis was performed. Results. We found that 2MASS J18082002-5104378 is an ultra metal-poor star with stellar parameters Teff = 5440 K, log g = 3.0 dex, vt = 1.5 km/s, [Fe/H] = -4.1 dex. The star has [C/Fe]<+0.9 in a 1D analysis, or [C/Fe]<=+0.5 if 3D effects are considered; its abundance pattern is typical of normal (non-CEMP) ultra metal-poor ...

  9. X-Shooter GTO: evidence for a population of extremely metal-poor, alpha-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, E; Francois, P; Sbordone, L; Spite, M; Monaco, L; Plez, B; Spite, F; Zaggia, S; Ludwig, H -G; Cayrel, R; Molaro, P; Randich, S; Hammer, F; Hill, V

    2013-01-01

    The extremely metal-poor stars are the direct descendants of the first generation stars. They carry the chemical signature of the pristine Universe at the time they formed, shortly after the Big Bang. We aim to derive information about extremely metal-poor stars from their observed spectra. Four extremely metal-poor stars were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed during the guaranteed observing time of X-Shooter. The X-Shooter spectra were analysed using an automatic code, MyGIsFOS, which is based on a traditional analysis method. It makes use of a synthetic grid computed from one-dimensional, plane-parallel, hydrostatic model atmospheres. The low metallicity derived from the SDSS spectra is confirmed here. Two kinds of stars are found. Two stars are confirmed to be extremely metal-poor, with no evidence of any enhancement in carbon. The two other stars are strongly enhanced in carbon. We could not derive iron abundance for one of them, while [Ca/H] is below -4.5. Two of the stars ar...

  10. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE: II. Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C; Honda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor, Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported three double-lined spectroscopic...

  11. The SLUGGS survey: Combining stellar and globular cluster metallicities in the outer regions of early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay; Spitler, Lee R; Alabi, Adebusola B; Foster, Caroline; Jennings, Zachary G; Kartha, Sreeja S; Pota, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The outer halo regions of early-type galaxies carry key information about their past accretion history. However, spectroscopically probing the stellar component at such galactocentric radii is still challenging. Using Keck/DEIMOS, we have been able to measure the metallicities of the stellar and globular cluster components in 12 early-type galaxies out to more than $10~\\rm{R_{e}}$. We find similar metallicity gradients for the metal-poor and metal-rich globular cluster subpopulations, suggesting a common formation process for the two subpopulations. This is in conflict with most current theoretical predictions, where the metal-poor globular clusters are thought to be purely accreted and metal-rich globular clusters mostly formed in-situ. Moreover, we find that the globular cluster metallicity gradients show a trend with galaxy mass, being steeper in lower-mass galaxies than in higher-mass galaxies. This is similar to what we find for the outermost galaxy stars and suggests a more active accretion history, wit...

  12. Discovery in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    In our efforts to map our galaxys structure, one region has remained very difficult to probe: the galactic center. A new survey, however, uses infrared light to peer through the gas and dust in the galactic plane, searching for variable stars in the bulge of the galaxy. This study has discovered a population of very young stars in a thin disk in the galactic center, providing clues to the star formation history of the Milky Way over the last 100 million years.Obscured CenterThe center of the Milky Way is dominated by a region known as the galactic bulge. Efforts to better understand this region in particular, its star formation history have been hindered by the stars, gas, and dust of the galactic disk, which prevent us from viewing the galactic bulge at low latitudes in visible light.The positions of the 35 classical Cepheids discovered in VVV data, projected onto an image of the galactic plane. Click for a better look! The survey area is bounded by the blue lines, and the galactic bar is marked with a red curve. The bottom panel shows the position of the Cepheids overlaid on the VVV bulge extinction map. [Dkny et al. 2015]Infrared light, however, can be used to probe deeper through the dust than visible-light searches. A new survey called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) uses the VISTA telescope in Chile to search, in infrared, for variable stars in the inner part of the galaxy. The VVV survey area spans the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the mid-plane where star formation activity is high.Led by Istvn Dkny, a researcher at the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics and the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, a team has now used VVV data to specifically identify classical Cepheid variable stars in the bulge. Why? Cepheids are pulsating stars with a very useful relation between their periods and luminosities that allows them to be used as distance indicators. Moreover, classical Cepheids are indicators of young stellar populations which can

  13. Imprints of fast-rotating massive stars in the Galactic Bulge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Cristina; Frischknecht, Urs; Meynet, Georges; Hirschi, Raphael; Barbuy, Beatriz; Pignatari, Marco; Decressin, Thibaut; Maeder, André

    2011-04-28

    The first stars that formed after the Big Bang were probably massive, and they provided the Universe with the first elements heavier than helium ('metals'), which were incorporated into low-mass stars that have survived to the present. Eight stars in the oldest globular cluster in the Galaxy, NGC 6522, were found to have surface abundances consistent with the gas from which they formed being enriched by massive stars (that is, with higher α-element/Fe and Eu/Fe ratios than those of the Sun). However, the same stars have anomalously high abundances of Ba and La with respect to Fe, which usually arises through nucleosynthesis in low-mass stars (via the slow-neutron-capture process, or s-process). Recent theory suggests that metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars are able to boost the s-process yields by up to four orders of magnitude, which might provide a solution to this contradiction. Here we report a reanalysis of the earlier spectra, which reveals that Y and Sr are also overabundant with respect to Fe, showing a large scatter similar to that observed in extremely metal-poor stars, whereas C abundances are not enhanced. This pattern is best explained as originating in metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars, which might point to a common property of the first stellar generations and even of the 'first stars'. PMID:21525928

  14. Abundances of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars as constraints on their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Nordström, B.; Hansen, T. T.; Kennedy, C. R.; Placco, V. M.; Beers, T. C.; Andersen, J.; Cescutti, G.; Chiappini, C.

    2016-04-01

    Context. An increasing fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars is found as their iron abundance, [Fe/H], decreases below [Fe/H] =-2.0. The CEMP-s stars have the highest absolute carbon abundances, [C/H], and are thought to owe their enrichment in carbon and the slow neutron-capture (s-process) elements to mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant branch (AGB) binary companion. The most Fe-poor CEMP stars are normally single, exhibit somewhat lower [C/H] than CEMP-s stars, but show no s-process element enhancement (CEMP-no stars). Abundance determinations of CNO offer clues to their formation sites. Aims: Our aim is to use the medium-resolution spectrograph X-Shooter/VLT to determine stellar parameters and abundances for C, N, Sr, and Ba in several classes of CEMP stars in order to further classify and constrain the astrophysical formation sites of these stars. Methods: Atmospheric parameters for our programme stars were estimated from a combination of V-K photometry, model isochrone fits, and estimates from a modified version of the SDSS/SEGUE spectroscopic pipeline. We then used X-Shooter spectra in conjunction with the 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium spectrum synthesis code MOOG, 1D ATLAS9 atmosphere models to derive stellar abundances, and, where possible, isotopic 12C/13C ratios. Results: Abundances (or limits) of C, N, Sr, and Ba are derived for a sample of 27 faint metal-poor stars for which the X-Shooter spectra have sufficient signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). These moderate resolution, low S/N (~10-40) spectra prove sufficient to perform limited chemical tagging and enable assignment of these stars into the CEMP subclasses (CEMP-s and CEMP-no). According to the derived abundances, 17 of our sample stars are CEMP-s and 3 are CEMP-no, while the remaining 7 are carbon-normal. For four CEMP stars, the subclassification remains uncertain, and two of them may be pulsating AGB stars. Conclusions: The derived stellar abundances trace the formation

  15. Carbon Abundance Plateaus among Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinmi; He, Siyu; Placco, Vinicius; Carollo, Daniela; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial fraction of low-metallicity stars in the Milky Way, the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars, exhibit enhancements of their carbon-to-iron relative to the solar value ([C/Fe] > +0.7). They can be divided into several sub-classes, depending on the nature and degree of the observed enhancements of their neutron-capture elements, providing information on their likely progenitors. CEMP-s stars (which exhibit enhanced s-process elements) are thought to be enhanced by mass transfer from an evolved AGB companion, while CEMP-no stars (which exhibit no over-abundances of neutron-capture elements) appear to be associated with explosions of the very first generations of stars. High-resolution spectroscopic analyses are generally required in order to make these sub-classifications.Several recent studies have suggested the existence of bimodality in the distribution of absolute carbon abundances among CEMP stars -- most CEMP-no stars belong to a low-C band ((A(C) ˜ 6.5), while most CEMP-s stars reside on a high-C band (A(C) ˜ 8.25). The number of CEMP stars considered by individual studies is, however, quite small, so we have compiled all available high-resolution spectroscopic data for CEMP stars, in order to further investigate the existence of the claimed carbon bi-modality, and to consider what can be learned about the progenitors of CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars based on the observed distribution of A(C) on the individual plateaus.We acknowledge partial support from the grant PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  16. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS AND A HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL EVOLUTION MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early phases of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and formation history of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are investigated using hierarchical galaxy formation models. We build a merger tree of the Galaxy according to the extended Press-Schechter theory. We follow the chemical evolution along the tree and compare the model results to the metallicity distribution function and abundance ratio distribution of the Milky Way halo. We adopt three different initial mass functions (IMFs). In a previous study, we argued that the typical mass, Mmd, of EMP stars should be high, Mmd ∼ 10 Msun, based on studies of binary origin carbon-rich EMP stars. In this study, we show that only the high-mass IMF can explain an observed small number of EMP stars. For relative element abundances, the high-mass IMF and the Salpeter IMF predict similar distributions. We also investigate dependence on nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae (SNe). The theoretical SN yields by Kobayashi et al. and Chieffi and Limongi show reasonable agreement with observations for α-elements. Our model predicts a significant scatter of element abundances at [Fe/H] < -3. We adopted the stellar yields derived in the work of Francois et al., which produce the best agreement between the observational data and the one-zone chemical evolution model. Their yields well reproduce a trend of the averaged abundances of EMP stars but predict much larger scatter than do the observations. The model with hypernovae predicts Zn abundance, in agreement with the observations, but other models predict lower [Zn/Fe]. Ejecta from the hypernovae with large explosion energy is mixed in large mass and decreases the scatter of the element abundances.

  17. New detections of arsenic, selenium, and other heavy elements in two metal-poor stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schatz, Hendrik; Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain new high-quality spectra covering the 1900 ≤λ ≤ 2360 Å wavelength range for two metal-poor stars, HD 108317 and HD 128279. We derive abundances of Cu II, Zn II, As I, Se I, Mo II, and Cd II, which have not been detected previously in either star. Abundances derived for Ge I, Te I, Os II, and Pt I confirm those derived from lines at longer wavelengths. We also derive upper limits from the non-detection of W II, Hg II, Pb II, and Bi I. The mean [As/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and five others in the literature is unchanged over the metallicity range –2.8 < [Fe/H] <–0.6, ([As/Fe]) = +0.28 ± 0.14 (σ = 0.36 dex). The mean [Se/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and six others in the literature is also constant, ([Se/Fe]) = +0.16 ± 0.09 (σ = 0.26 dex). The As and Se abundances are enhanced relative to a simple extrapolation of the iron-peak abundances to higher masses, suggesting that this mass region (75 ≤A ≤ 82) may be the point at which a different nucleosynthetic mechanism begins to dominate the quasi-equilibrium α-rich freezeout of the iron peak. ([Cu II/Cu I]) = +0.56 ± 0.23 in HD 108317 and HD 128279, and we infer that lines of Cu I may not be formed in local thermodynamic equilibrium in these stars. The [Zn/Fe], [Mo/Fe], [Cd/Fe], and [Os/Fe] ratios are also derived from neutral and ionized species, and each ratio pair agrees within the mutual uncertainties, which range from 0.15 to 0.52 dex.

  18. DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH COMPANION TO THE EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXY DDO 68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present H I spectral-line imaging of the extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68. This system has a nebular oxygen abundance of only ∼3% Z ☉, making it one of the most metal-deficient galaxies known in the local volume. Surprisingly, DDO 68 is a relatively massive and luminous galaxy for its metal content, making it a significant outlier in the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relationships. The origin of such a low oxygen abundance in DDO 68 presents a challenge for models of the chemical evolution of galaxies. One possible solution to this problem is the infall of pristine neutral gas, potentially initiated during a gravitational interaction. Using archival H I spectral-line imaging obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we have discovered a previously unknown companion of DDO 68. This low-mass (MH I = 2.8 × 107 M ☉), recently star-forming (SFRFUV = 1.4 × 10–3 M ☉ yr–1, SFRHα < 7 × 10–5 M ☉ yr–1) companion has the same systemic velocity as DDO 68 (V sys = 506 km s–1; D = 12.74 ± 0.27 Mpc) and is located at a projected distance of ∼42 kpc. New H I maps obtained with the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope provide evidence that DDO 68 and this companion are gravitationally interacting at the present time. Low surface brightness H I gas forms a bridge between these objects

  19. Possible evidence for metal accretion onto the surfaces of metal-poor main-sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entire evolution of the Milky Way, including its mass-assembly and star-formation history, is imprinted onto the chemo-dynamical distribution function of its member stars, f(x, v, [X/H]), in the multi-dimensional phase space spanned by position, velocity, and elemental abundance ratios. In particular, the chemo-dynamical distribution functions for low-mass stars (e.g., G- or K-type dwarfs) are precious tracers of the earliest stages of the Milky Way's formation, since their main-sequence lifetimes approach or exceed the age of the universe. A basic tenet of essentially all previous analyses is that the stellar metallicity, usually parameterized as [Fe/H], is conserved over time for main-sequence stars (at least those that have not been polluted due to mass transfer from binary companions). If this holds true, any correlations between metallicity and kinematics for long-lived main-sequence stars of different masses, effective temperatures, or spectral types must strictly be the same, since they reflect the same mass-assembly and star-formation histories. By analyzing a sample of nearby metal-poor halo and thick-disk stars on the main sequence, taken from Data Release 8 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the median metallicity of G-type dwarfs is systematically higher (by about 0.2 dex) than that of K-type dwarfs having the same median rotational velocity about the Galactic center. If it can be confirmed, this finding may invalidate the long-accepted assumption that the atmospheric metallicities of long-lived stars are conserved over time.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH COMPANION TO THE EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXY DDO 68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; Alfvin, Erik D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Johnson, Megan; Koribalski, Baerbel [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, NSW 1710, Epping (Australia); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, P.O. Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Ford, H. Alyson [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Girardi, Léo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Hirschauer, Alec S.; Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J.; Van Sistine, Angela [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Elson, E. C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Marigo, Paola; Rosenfield, Philip [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Rosenberg, Jessica L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Venkatesan, Aparna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton Street, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Warren, Steven R., E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, CSS Bldg., Rm. 1024, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present H I spectral-line imaging of the extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68. This system has a nebular oxygen abundance of only ∼3% Z {sub ☉}, making it one of the most metal-deficient galaxies known in the local volume. Surprisingly, DDO 68 is a relatively massive and luminous galaxy for its metal content, making it a significant outlier in the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relationships. The origin of such a low oxygen abundance in DDO 68 presents a challenge for models of the chemical evolution of galaxies. One possible solution to this problem is the infall of pristine neutral gas, potentially initiated during a gravitational interaction. Using archival H I spectral-line imaging obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we have discovered a previously unknown companion of DDO 68. This low-mass (M{sub H} {sub I} = 2.8 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}), recently star-forming (SFR{sub FUV} = 1.4 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, SFR{sub Hα} < 7 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) companion has the same systemic velocity as DDO 68 (V {sub sys} = 506 km s{sup –1}; D = 12.74 ± 0.27 Mpc) and is located at a projected distance of ∼42 kpc. New H I maps obtained with the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope provide evidence that DDO 68 and this companion are gravitationally interacting at the present time. Low surface brightness H I gas forms a bridge between these objects.

  1. A Search for Coronal Activity Among Two Metal-poor Subdwarfs and One Subgiant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme H.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Günther, Hans Moritz

    2016-08-01

    A search has been made using the XMM-Newton satellite for coronal soft X-ray emission from HD 19445, HD 25329, and HD 140283, three Population II stars in the Galactic halo having metallicities of {{[Fe/H]}}˜ -2. The program stars, consisting of two subdwarfs and one metal-poor subgiant, were pre-selected from ground-based observations to have He i λ10830 absorption lines with an equivalent width (EW) of 30 mÅ or more. If such stars follow a relation between He i EW and soft X-ray flux applicable to Population I dwarf stars, then they would be expected to have X-ray luminosities ˜ 5× {10}-7 times their bolometric luminosity, and as such would yield detectable sources in 20 ks exposures with the XMM-Newton EPIC-PN and MOS cameras. No detections were found in such exposures made with XMM-Newton. Upper limits to soft X-ray emission from the two program stars that have effective temperatures most similar to that of the Sun, namely HD 19445 and HD 140283, are comparable to the level of the quiet Sun. The star HD 25329, a cooler subdwarf, exhibits an upper limit similar to the Sun at maximum activity. These measurements suggest that coronal activity appears to decrease with age among the oldest G dwarfs, but K-M subdwarfs possibly have maintained a solar-like level of activity. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  2. A support vector machine to search for metal-poor galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fei; Liu, Yu-Yan; Kong, Xu; Chen, Yang; Li, Zhong-Hua; Zhi, Shu-Teng

    2014-10-01

    To develop a fast and reliable method for selecting metal-poor galaxies (MPGs), especially in large surveys and huge data bases, a support vector machine (SVM) supervized learning algorithms is applied to a sample of star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 9 provided by the Max Planck Institute and the Johns Hopkins University (http://www.sdss3.org/dr9/spectro/spectroaccess.php). A two-step approach is adopted: (i) the SVM must be trained with a subset of objects that are known to be either MPGs or metal-rich galaxies (MRGs), treating the strong emission line flux measurements as input feature vectors in n-dimensional space, where n is the number of strong emission line flux ratios. (ii) After training on a sample of star-forming galaxies, the remaining galaxies are classified in the automatic test analysis as either MPGs or MRGs using a 10-fold cross-validation technique. For target selection, we have achieved an acquisition accuracy for MPGs of ˜96 and ˜95 per cent for an MPG threshold of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.00 and 12 + log(O/H) = 8.39, respectively. Running the code takes minutes in most cases under the MATLAB 2013a software environment. The code in the Letter is available on the web (http://fshi5388.blog.163.com). The SVM method can easily be extended to any MPGs target selection task and can be regarded as an efficient classification method particularly suitable for modern large surveys.

  3. Nonlinear Color-Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. III. On the Discrepancy in Metallicity between Globular Cluster Systems and their Parent Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Blakeslee, John P; Peng, Eric W; Sohn, Sangmo T; Cho, Jaeil; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Kim, Sooyoung; Lee, Young-Wook

    2011-01-01

    One of the conundrums in extragalactic astronomy is the discrepancy in observed metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) between the two prime stellar components of early-type galaxies-globular clusters (GCs) and halo field stars. This is generally taken as evidence of highly decoupled evolutionary histories between GC systems and their parent galaxies. Here we show, however, that new developments in linking the observed GC colors to their intrinsic metallicities suggest nonlinear color-to-metallicity conversions, which translate observed color distributions into strongly-peaked, unimodal MDFs with broad metal-poor tails. Remarkably, the inferred GC MDFs are similar to the MDFs of resolved field stars in nearby elliptical galaxies and those produced by chemical evolution models of galaxies. The GC MDF shape, characterized by a sharp peak with a metal-poor tail, indicates a virtually continuous chemical enrichment with a relatively short timescale. The characteristic shape emerges across three orders of magni...

  4. Hu1-2: a metal-poor bipolar planetary nebula with fast collimated outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Xuan; Miranda, Luis F; Riera, Angels; Velazquez, Pablo F; Raga, Alejandro C

    2015-01-01

    We present narrow-band optical and near-IR imaging and optical long-slit spectroscopic observations of Hu1-2, a Galactic planetary nebula (PN) with a pair of [N II]-bright, fast-moving (> 340 km/s) bipolar knots. Intermediate-dispersion spectra are used to derive physical conditions and abundances across the nebula, and high-dispersion spectra to study the spatio-kinematical structure. Generally Hu1-2 has high He/H (~0.14) and N/O ratios (~0.9), typical of Type I PNe. On the other hand, its abundances of O, Ne, S, and Ar are low as compared with the average abundances of Galactic bulge and disc PNe. The position-velocity maps can be generally described as an hour-glass shaped nebula with bipolar expansion, although the morphology and kinematics of the innermost regions cannot be satisfactorily explained with a simple, tilted equatorial torus. The spatio-kinematical study confines the inclination angle of its major axis to be within 10 degrees of the plane of sky. As in the irradiated bow-shocks of IC4634 and ...

  5. Clumpy Disc and Bulge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J; Tissera, P; Michel-Dansac, L

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of hydrodynamical/Nbody controlled simulations of isolated gas rich galaxies that self-consistently include SN feedback and a detailed chemical evolution model, both tested in cosmological simulations. The initial conditions are motivated by the observed star forming galaxies at z ~ 2-3. We find that the presence of a multiphase interstellar media in our models promotes the growth of disc instability favouring the formation of clumps which in general, are not easily disrupted on timescales compared to the migration time. We show that stellar clumps migrate towards the central region and contribute to form a classical-like bulge with a Sersic index, n > 2. Our physically-motivated Supernova feedback has a mild influence on clump survival and evolution, partially limiting the mass growth of clumps as the energy released per Supernova event is increased, with the consequent flattening of the bulge profile. This regulation does not prevent the building of a classical-like bulge even for the most ...

  6. Multivariate analysis of the globular clusters in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sukanta; Davoust, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    An objective classification of 147 globular clusters in the inner region of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 is carried out with the help of two methods of multivariate analysis. First independent component analysis is used to determine a set of independent variables that are linear combinations of various observed parameters (mostly Lick indices) of the globular clusters. Next K-means cluster analysis is applied on the independent components, to find the optimum number of homogeneous groups having an underlying structure. The properties of the four groups of globular clusters thus uncovered are used to explain the formation mechanism of the host galaxy. It is suggested that M87 formed in two successive phases. First a monolithic collapse, which gave rise to an inner group of metal-rich clusters with little systematic rotation and an outer group of metal-poor clusters in eccentric orbits. In a second phase, the galaxy accreted low-mass satellites in a dissipationless fashion, from the gas of which the two othe...

  7. Homogeneous photometry and metal abundances for a large sample of Hipparcos metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Clementini, G; Carretta, E; Sneden, C

    1998-01-01

    Homogeneous photometric data (Johnson V, B-V, V-K, Cousins V-I and Stromgren b-y), radial velocities, and abundances of Fe, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr and Ni are presented for 99 stars with high precision parallaxes measured by the Hipparcos satellite. These data have been previously used to assist the derivation of accurate distances and ages of galactic globular clusters. Magnitudes and colours for the programme stars were obtained combining and standardizing carefully selected literature data available in the Simbad data-base and V and B-V values measured by the Hipparcos/Tycho mission. Comparison of colours for our targets suggests: (i) ground-based and Tycho B-V's agree well for colours bluer than 0.75 mag, but have a lot of scatter for redder colours; (ii) the Hipparcos V-I colours have a very large scatter and a zero point offset of +0.02 mag compared to the literature values. The programme stars have metal abundances in the range -2.5200) spectra obtained at the Asiago and McDonald Observatories for 66 sta...

  8. The Milky Way without X: An alternative interpretation of the double red clump in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Wook; Chung, Chul

    2015-01-01

    The presence of two red clumps (RCs) in high latitude fields of the Milky Way bulge is interpreted as evidence for an X-shaped structure originated from the bar instability. Here we show, however, that this double RC phenomenon is more likely to be another manifestation of multiple populations observed in globular clusters (GCs) in the metal-rich regime. As in the bulge GC Terzan 5, the helium enhanced second generation stars (G2) in the classical bulge component of the Milky Way are placed on the bright RC, which is about 0.5 mag brighter than the normal RC originated from the first generation stars (G1), producing the observed double RC. In a composite bulge, where a classical bulge can coexist with a boxy pseudo bulge, our models can also reproduce key observations, such as the dependence of the double RC feature on metallicity and Galactic latitude and longitude. If confirmed by Gaia trigonometric parallax distances, this would indicate that the Milky Way bar is not sufficiently buckled to form the X-shap...

  9. The metal-poor knee in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Koch, Andreas [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Lanfranchi, Gustavo A. [Núcleo de Astrofísica Teórica, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, R. Galvão Bueno 868, Liberdade, 01506-000, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boeche, Corrado [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Walker, Matthew [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Johnson, Christian I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Peñarrubia, Jorge [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Gilmore, Gerard, E-mail: ben.hendricks@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-20

    We present α-element abundances of Mg, Si, and Ti for a large sample of field stars in two outer fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, obtained with Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE (R ∼ 16, 000). Due to the large fraction of metal-poor (MP) stars in our sample, we are able to follow the α-element evolution from [Fe/H] ≈ –2.5 continuously to [Fe/H] ≈ –0.7. For the first time we are able to resolve the turnover from the Type II supernovae (SNe) dominated, α-enhanced plateau down to subsolar [α/Fe] values, due to the onset of SNe Ia, and thus to trace the chemical enrichment efficiency of the galaxy. Our data support the general concept of an α-enhanced plateau at early epochs, followed by a well-defined 'knee' caused by the onset of SNe Ia, and finally a second plateau with sub-solar [α/Fe] values. We find the position of this knee to be at [Fe/H] ≈ –1.9 and therefore significantly more MP than expected from comparison with other dSphs and standard evolutionary models. Surprisingly, this value is rather comparable to the knee in Sculptor, a dSph ∼10 times less luminous than Fornax. Using chemical evolution models, we find that the position of the knee and the subsequent plateau at the sub-solar level can hardly be explained unless the galaxy experienced several discrete star formation (SF) events with a drastic variation in SF efficiency, while a uniform SF can be ruled out. One possible evolutionary scenario is that Fornax experienced one or several major accretion events from gas-rich systems in the past, so that its current stellar mass is not indicative of the chemical evolution environment at ancient times. If Fornax is the product of several smaller buildings blocks, this may also have implications for the understanding of the formation process of dSphs in general.

  10. Fe-Group Elements in the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937: Abundances and their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Pignatari, Marco; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Wood, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    We have derived accurate relative abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn in the very metal-poor main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937. For this study we analyzed high resolution, high signal-to-noise HST/STIS and VLT/UVES spectra over a total wavelength range 2300-7000 Å. We employed only recent or newly-applied reliable laboratory transition data for all species. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species were combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. From parallel analyses of solar photospheric spectra we also derived new solar abundances of these elements. This in turn yielded internally-consistent relative HD 84937 abundances with respect to the Sun. For seven of the ten Fe-group elements the HD 84937 abundances were from both neutral and ionized transitions. In all of these cases the neutral and ionized species yield the same abundances within the measurement uncertainties. Therefore standard Saha ionization balance appears to hold in the HD 84937 atmosphere. We derived metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.32 with sample standard deviation of 0.06. Solid evidence is seen for departures from the solar abundance mix in HD 84937, for example [Co/Fe] = +0.14, [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, and = +0.31. Combining our Sc, Ti, and V abundances for this star with those from large-sample spectroscopic surveys suggests that these elements are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] analysis strongly suggests that different types of supernovae with a large scatter of explosion energies and asymmetries contributed to the creation of the Fe-group elements early in the Galaxy's history.This work has been supported in part by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (J.E.L.), by NSF grants AST-1211055 (J.E.L.), AST-1211585 (C.S.), PHY-1430152 (through JINA, J.J.C. and M.P.), EU MIRGCT-2006-046520 (M.P.), and by the ``Lendlet-2014'' Programme of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (M.P.) and from SNF (Switzerland, M.P.).

  11. The metal-poor knee in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present α-element abundances of Mg, Si, and Ti for a large sample of field stars in two outer fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, obtained with Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE (R ∼ 16, 000). Due to the large fraction of metal-poor (MP) stars in our sample, we are able to follow the α-element evolution from [Fe/H] ≈ –2.5 continuously to [Fe/H] ≈ –0.7. For the first time we are able to resolve the turnover from the Type II supernovae (SNe) dominated, α-enhanced plateau down to subsolar [α/Fe] values, due to the onset of SNe Ia, and thus to trace the chemical enrichment efficiency of the galaxy. Our data support the general concept of an α-enhanced plateau at early epochs, followed by a well-defined 'knee' caused by the onset of SNe Ia, and finally a second plateau with sub-solar [α/Fe] values. We find the position of this knee to be at [Fe/H] ≈ –1.9 and therefore significantly more MP than expected from comparison with other dSphs and standard evolutionary models. Surprisingly, this value is rather comparable to the knee in Sculptor, a dSph ∼10 times less luminous than Fornax. Using chemical evolution models, we find that the position of the knee and the subsequent plateau at the sub-solar level can hardly be explained unless the galaxy experienced several discrete star formation (SF) events with a drastic variation in SF efficiency, while a uniform SF can be ruled out. One possible evolutionary scenario is that Fornax experienced one or several major accretion events from gas-rich systems in the past, so that its current stellar mass is not indicative of the chemical evolution environment at ancient times. If Fornax is the product of several smaller buildings blocks, this may also have implications for the understanding of the formation process of dSphs in general.

  12. Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The Distance Scale Galactic Bulge - LMC - SMC

    CERN Document Server

    Udalski, A

    1998-01-01

    We analyze the mean luminosity of three samples of field RRab Lyr stars observed in the course of the OGLE microlensing experiment: 73 stars from the Galactic bulge and 110 and 128 stars from selected fields in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The fields are the same as in the recent distance determination to the Magellanic Clouds with the red clump stars method by Udalski et al (1998). We determine the relative distance scale d_{GB}:d_{LMC}:d_{SMC} equal to: (0.194+/-0.010):1.00:(1.30+/-0.08). We calibrate our RR Lyr distance scale with the recent calibration of Gould and Popowski (1998) based on statistical parallaxes. We obtain the following distance moduli to the Galactic bulge, LMC and SMC: m-M=14.53+/-0.15, m-M=18.09+/-0.16 and m-M=18.66+/-0.16 mag. We use the RR Lyr mean V-band luminosity at the Galactic bulge metallicity as the reference brightness and analyze the mean, I-band luminosity of the red clump stars in objects with different ages and metallicities. We add to our analysis the metal poor Carina...

  13. THE MOST METAL-POOR DAMPED Lyα SYSTEMS: AN INSIGHT INTO DWARF GALAXIES AT HIGH-REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Ryan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Pettini, Max [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jorgenson, Regina A., E-mail: rcooke@ucolick.org [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    In this paper we analyze the kinematics, chemistry, and physical properties of a sample of the most metal-poor damped Lyα systems (DLAs), to uncover their links to modern-day galaxies. We present evidence that the DLA population as a whole exhibits a ''knee'' in the relative abundances of the α-capture and Fe-peak elements when the metallicity is [Fe/H] ≅ –2.0, assuming that Zn traces the buildup of Fe-peak elements. In this respect, the chemical evolution of DLAs is clearly different from that experienced by Milky Way halo stars, but resembles that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. We also find a close correspondence between the kinematics of Local Group dwarf galaxies and of high-redshift metal-poor DLAs, which further strengthens this connection. On the basis of such similarities, we propose that the most metal-poor DLAs provide us with a unique opportunity to directly study the dwarf galaxy population more than ten billion years in the past, at a time when many dwarf galaxies were forming the bulk of their stars. To this end, we have measured some of the key physical properties of the DLA gas, including their neutral gas mass, size, kinetic temperature, density, and turbulence. We find that metal-poor DLAs contain a warm neutral medium with T {sub gas} ≅ 9600 K predominantly held up by thermal pressure. Furthermore, all of the DLAs in our sample exhibit a subsonic turbulent Mach number, implying that the gas distribution is largely smooth. These results are among the first empirical descriptions of the environments where the first few generations of stars may have formed in the universe.

  14. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XL. Searching for Neptunes around metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, J. P.; Santos, N. C.; Figueira, P.; Mortier, A.; Dumusque, X.; Boisse, I.; Lo Curto, G.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Melo, C.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Santerne, A.; Ségransan, D.; Sousa, S. G.; Sozzetti, A.; Udry, S.

    2016-04-01

    Context. As a probe of the metallicity of proto-planetary disks, stellar metallicity is an important ingredient for giant planet formation, most likely through its effect on the timescales in which rocky or icy planet cores can form. Giant planets have been found to be more frequent around metal-rich stars, in agreement with predictions based on the core-accretion theory. In the metal-poor regime, however, the frequency of planets, especially low-mass planets, and the way it depends on metallicity are still largely unknown. Aims: As part of a planet search programme focused on metal-poor stars, we study the targets from this survey that were observed with HARPS on more than 75 nights. The main goals are to assess the presence of low-mass planets and provide a first estimate of the frequency of Neptunes and super-Earths around metal-poor stars. Methods: We performed a systematic search for planetary companions, both by analysing the periodograms of the radial-velocities and by comparing, in a statistically meaningful way, models with an increasing number of Keplerians. Results: A first constraint on the frequency of planets in our metal-poor sample is calculated considering the previous detection (in our sample) of a Neptune-sized planet around HD 175607 and one candidate planet (with an orbital period of 68.42 d and minimum mass Mpsini = 11.14 ± 2.47 M⊕) for HD 87838, announced in the present study. This frequency is determined to be close to 13% and is compared with results for solar-metallicity stars. Based on observations collected at ESO facilities under programs 082.C-0212, 085.C-0063, 086.C-0284, and 190.C-0027 (with the HARPS spectrograph at the ESO 3.6-m telescope, La Silla-Paranal Observatory).

  15. Footprints of the weak s-process in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ET0097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guochao; Li, Hongjie; Liu, Nian; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Historically, the weak s-process contribution to metal-poor stars is thought to be extremely small, due to the effect of the secondary-like nature of the neutron source 22Ne(α , n)25Mg in massive stars, which means that metal-poor "weak s-process stars" could not be found. ET0097 is the first observed carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Because C is enriched and the elements heavier than Ba are not overabundant, ET0097 can be classified as a CEMP-no star. However, this star shows overabundances of lighter n-capture elements (i.e., Sr, Y and Zr). In this work, having adopted the abundance decomposition approach, we investigate the astrophysical origins of the elements in ET0097. We find that the light elements and iron-peak elements (from O to Zn) of the star mainly originate from the primary process of massive stars and the heavier n-capture elements (heavier than Ba) mainly come from the main r-process. However, the lighter n-capture elements such as Sr, Y and Zr should mainly come from the primary weak s-process. The contributed fractions of the primary weak s-process to the Sr, Y and Zr abundances of ET0097 are about 82 %, 84 % and 58 % respectively, suggesting that the CEMP star ET0097 should have the footprints of the weak s-process. The derived result should be a significant evidence that the weak s-process elements can be produced in metal-poor massive stars.

  16. High-resolution spectroscopy of extremely metal-poor stars from SDSS/Segue. II. Binary fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame,225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46656 (United States); Honda, Satoshi, E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: takuma.suda@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: tbeers@nd.edu, E-mail: honda@nhao.jp [Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2, Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] <−3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported 3 double-lined spectroscopic binaries and 11 CEMP stars, which we consider along with a sample of EMP stars from the literature compiled in the SAGA database. We have conducted measurements of the velocity components for stacked absorption features of different spectral lines for each double-lined spectroscopic binary. Our estimate indicates that the fraction of binary stars having orbital periods shorter than 1000 days is at least 10%, and possibly as high as 20% if the majority of CEMP stars are formed in such short-period binaries. This result suggests that the period distribution of EMP binary systems is biased toward short periods, unless the binary fraction of low-mass EMP stars is significantly higher than that of other nearby stars.

  17. Footprints of the weak s-process in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ET0097

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guochao; Liu, Nian; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the weak s-process contribution to metal-poor stars is thought to be extremely small, due to the effect of the secondary-like nature of the neutron source 22Ne(a;n)25Mg in massive stars, which means that metal-poor weak s-process stars could not be found. ET0097 is the first observed carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Because C is enriched and the elements heavier than Ba are not overabundant, ET0097 can be classified as a CEMP-no star. However, this star shows overabundances of lighter n-capture elements (i.e., Sr, Y and Zr). In this work, having adopted the abundance decomposition approach, we investigate the astrophysical origins of the elements in ET0097. We find that the light elements and iron-peak elements (from O to Zn) of the star mainly originate from the primary process of massive stars and the heavier n-capture elements (heavier than Ba) mainly come from the main r-process. However, the lighter n-capture elements such as Sr, Y and Zr shoul...

  18. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XL. Searching for Neptunes around metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Faria, J P; Figueira, P; Mortier, A; Dumusque, X; Boisse, I; Curto, G Lo; Lovis, C; Mayor, M; Melo, C; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Santerne, A; Ségransan, D; Sousa, S G; Sozzetti, A; Udry, S

    2016-01-01

    Stellar metallicity -- as a probe of the metallicity of proto-planetary disks -- is an important ingredient for giant planet formation, likely through its effect on the timescales in which rocky/icy planet cores can form. Giant planets have been found to be more frequent around metal-rich stars, in agreement with predictions based on the core-accretion theory. In the metal-poor regime, however, the frequency of planets, especially low-mass planets, and how it depends on metallicity are still largely unknown. As part of a planet search programme focused on metal-poor stars, we study the targets from this survey that were observed with HARPS on more than 75 nights. The main goals are to assess the presence of low-mass planets and provide a first estimate of the frequency of Neptunes and super-Earths around metal-poor stars. We perform a systematic search for planetary companions, both by analysing the periodograms of the radial-velocities and by comparing, in a statistically-meaningful way, models with an incre...

  19. Searches for Metal-Poor Stars from the Hamburg/ESO Survey using the CH G-band

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Beers, Timothy C; Christlieb, Norbert; Rossi, Silvia; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Lee, Young Sun; Reimers, Dieter; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new method to search for metal-poor candidates from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey (HES) based on identifying stars with apparently strong CH G-band strengths for their colors. The hypothesis we exploit is that large over-abundances of carbon are common among metal-poor stars. The selection was made by considering two line indices in the 4300A region, applied directly to the low-resolution prism spectra. This work also extends a previously published method by adding bright sources to the sample. The spectra of these stars suffer from saturation effects, compromising the index calculations and leading to an undersampling of the brighter candidates. Visual inspection and classification of the spectra from the HES plates yielded a list of 5,288 new metal-poor candidates, which are presently being used as targets for medium-resolution spectroscopic follow-up. Estimates of the stellar atmospheric parameters, as well as carbon abundances, are now available for 117 of the first candidates, base...

  20. Light, Alpha, and Fe-Peak Element Abundances in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christian I; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kunder, Andrea; Koch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l,b)=(+5.25,-3.02) and (0,-12). The (+5.25,-3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high resolution (R~20,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N>70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the ESO archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. The present work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H]>-0.5. In particular, the bulge [alpha/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick...

  1. The Age and Structure of the Galactic Bulge from Mira Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Catchpole, Robin M; Feast, Michael W; Hughes, Shaun M G; Irwin, Mike; Alard, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    We report periods and JHKL observations for 648 oxygen-rich Mira variables found in two outer bulge fields at b=-7 degrees and l=+/-8 degrees and combine these with data on 8057 inner bulge Miras from the OGLE, Macho and 2MASS surveys, which are concentrated closer to the Galactic centre. Distance moduli are estimated for all these stars. Evidence is given showing that the bulge structure is a function of age. The longer period Miras (log P > 2.6, age about 5 Gyr and younger) show clear evidence of a bar structure inclined to the line of sight in both the inner and outer regions. The distribution of the shorter period (metal-rich globular cluster age) Miras, appears spheroidal in the outer bulge. In the inner region these old stars are also distributed differently from the younger ones and possibly suggest a more complex structure. These data suggest a distance to the Galactic centre, R0, of 8.9 kpc with an estimated uncertainty of 0.4 kpc. The possible effect of helium enrichment on our conclusions is discus...

  2. Searching for intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters with gravitational microlensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kains, N.; Bramich, D.M.; Sahu, K. C.; Calamida, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the potential of the gravitational microlensing method as a unique tool to detect unambiguous signals caused by intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. We select clusters near the line of sight to the Galactic Bulge and the Small Magellanic Cloud, estimate the density of background stars for each of them, and carry out simulations in order to estimate the probabilities of detecting the astrometric signatures caused by black hole lensing. We find that for several cluster...

  3. TNG Near-IR Photometry of five Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, E; Perina, S; Origlia, L

    2004-01-01

    We present near--infrared J and K observations of giant stars in five metal-poor Galactic Globular Clusters (namely M3, M5, M10, M13 and M92) obtained at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). This database has been used to determine the main photometric properties of the red giant branch (RGB) from the (K,J-K) and, once combined with the optical data, in the (K,V-K) Color Magnitude Diagrams. A set of photometric indices (the RGB colors at fixed magnitudes) and the major RGB evolutionary features (slope, bump, tip) have been measured. The results have been compared with the relations obtained by Ferraro et al. 2000 and with the theoretical expectations, showing a very good agreement.

  4. Manganese Abundances in the Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, Katia; Bergemann, Maria; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Lambert, David L

    2010-01-01

    We present manganese abundances in 10 red-giant members of the globular cluster Omega Centauri; 8 stars are from the most metal-poor population (RGB MP and RGB MInt1) while two targets are members of the more metal rich groups (RGB MInt2 and MInt3). This is the first time Mn abundances have been studied in this peculiar stellar system. The LTE values of [Mn/Fe] in Omega Cen overlap those of Milky Way stars in the metal poor Omega Cen populations ([Fe/H] ~ -1.5 to -1.8), however unlike what is observed in Milky Way halo and disk stars, [Mn/Fe] declines in the two more metal-rich RGB MInt2 and MInt3 targets. Non-LTE calculations were carried out in order to derive corrections to the LTE Mn abundances. The non-LTE results for Omega Cen in comparison with the non-LTE [Mn/Fe] versus [Fe/H] trend obtained for the Milky Way confirm and strengthen the conclusion that the manganese behavior in Omega Cen is distinct. These results suggest that low-metallicity supernovae (with metallicities < -2) of either Type II or...

  5. 3-Dimensional dynamics of the galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soto Vicencio, Mario Humberto

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of a project which attempts to unveil the structure of the galactic bulge of our galaxy through the study of the kinematics of stars in low foreground extinction windows.Thus, in order to effectively constraint the phase-space distribution function of the galactic bulge, we have

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL DISTORTION OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shapes and sizes of 116 Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are presented, based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of 2MASS point sources. In general, Galactic GCs are slightly flattened in shape, with a median axial ratio of 0.87. The GCs close to the Galactic bulge have various degrees of flattening, and those exhibiting obvious flattening tend to have their elongation pointing toward the Galactic center, manifesting the tidal effect from the bulge. In comparison, GCs away from the Galactic center tend to be spherical. A few GCs in the halo are also found to have elongated shape. Three notable cases of highly flattened clusters were previously known to be associated with stellar streams or particular dynamical history: NGC 5897 is known to have a stellar tidal tail extending to its equatorial north and south; NGC 6838 had a recent encounter with the Galactic plane; and IC 4499 is spatially close to, and collimated with, the 'Magellanic Stream'. We also found 31 GCs associated with possible clumpy structures in stellar distributions, as diagnosed by possible cluster members selected by colors and magnitudes. Four such cases of stellar debris are presented: NGC 6366 is experiencing heavy tidal stripping and NGC 2808 has been known to have multiple main-sequence branches. NGC 3201 and NGC 6397, like the flattened cluster, NGC 6838, also have their recent passage through the Galactic plane. Our sample is derived from the most inclusive analysis of the morphology of Galactic GCs, and should provide a valuable database to probe the mass distribution, or merging history of the Milky Way galaxy.

  7. Far-ultraviolet energy distributions of the metal-poor A stars HD 109995 and HD 161817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    Low-resolution IUE spectra at wavelengths between 1300 and 3400 A of the metal-poor stars HD 109995 (A1p) and HD 161817 (A4p) have been compared with model-atmosphere energy distributions computed by Kurucz (1979). Good overall agreement is found. Effective temperatures, metal abundances, and angular diameters could be determined. Assuming an absolute visual magnitude of 0.7, the previously determined gravity log = 3 yields masses of 0.5 solar masses for both stars. It is found that the theoretical UBV colors calculated earlier agree reaonably well with the ones observed for these stars.

  8. New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Ivans, Inese I; Hartog, Elizabeth A Den

    2009-01-01

    We have derived new abundances of the rare-earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally-consistent Ba, rare-earth, and Hf (56<= Z <= 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  9. New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Cowan, John J.; Ivans, Inese I.; Hartog, Elizabeth A. Den

    2009-01-01

    We have derived new abundances of the rare-earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally-consistent Ba, rar...

  10. Synthesis of globular precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidor, Francesc; Sillanpää, Reijo; Pepiol, Ariadna; Lupu, Marius; Viñas, Clara

    2015-09-01

    o-Carborane (C2 B10 H12 ) was adapted to perform as the core of globular macromolecules, dendrons or dendrimers. To meet this objective, precisely defined substitution patterns of terminal olefin groups on the carborane framework were subjected to Heck cross-coupling reactions or hydroboration leading to hydroxyl terminated arms. These led to new terminal groups (chloro, bromo, and tosyl leaving groups, organic acid, and azide) that permitted ester production, click chemistry, and oxonium ring opening to be performed as examples of reactions that demonstrate the wide possibilities of the globular icosahedral carboranes to produce new dendritic or dendrimer-like structures. Polyanionic species were obtained in high yield through the ring-opening reaction of cyclic oxonium compound [3,3'-Co(8-C4 H8 O2 -1,2-C2 B9 H10 )(1',2'-C2 B9 H11 )] by using terminal hydroxyl groups as nucleophiles. These new polyanionic compounds that contain multiple metallacarborane clusters at their periphery may prove useful as new classes of compounds for boron neutron capture therapy with enhanced water solubility and as cores to make a new class of high-boron globular macromolecules. PMID:26228947

  11. Washington CCD Photometry of the Globular Cluster System of the Giant Elliptical Galaxy M60 in Virgo

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kim, Eunhyeuk; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kim, Sang Chul; Geisler, Doug

    2008-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the globular clusters in the giant elliptical galaxy M60 in the Virgo cluster, based on deep, relatively wide field Washington CT_1 CCD images. The color-magnitude diagram reveals a significant population of globular clusters in M60, and a large number of young luminous clusters in NGC 4647, a small companion spiral galaxy north-west of M60. The color distribution of the globular clusters in M60 is clearly bimodal, with a blue peak at (C-T_1)=1.37, and a red peak at (C-T_1)=1.87. We derive two new transformation relations between the (C-T_1)_0 color and [Fe/H] using the data for the globular clusters in our Galaxy and M49. Using these relations we derive the metallicity distribution of the globular clusters in M60, which is also bimodal: a dominant metal-poor component with center at [Fe/H]=-1.2, and a weaker metal-rich component with center at [Fe/H]=-0.2. The radial number density profile of the globular clusters is more extended than that of the stellar halo, and the radia...

  12. Globular Clusters: DNA of Early-Type galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, J C; Faifer, F R; Castelli, A V Smith; Escudero, Carlos; González, N M; Sesto, L A

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores if the mean properties of Early-Type Galaxies (ETG) can be reconstructed from "genetic" information stored in their GCs (i.e., in their chemical abundances, spatial distributions and ages). This approach implies that the formation of each globular occurs in very massive stellar environments, as suggested by some models that aim at explaining the presence of multi-populations in these systems. The assumption that the relative number of globular clusters to diffuse stellar mass depends exponentially on chemical abundance, [Z/H], and the presence of two dominant GC sub-populations blue and red, allows the mapping of low metallicity halos and of higher metallicity (and more heterogeneous) bulges. In particular, the masses of the low-metallicity halos seem to scale up with dark matter mass through a constant. We also find a dependence of the globular cluster formation efficiency with the mean projected stellar mass density of the galaxies within their effective radii. The analysis is based on a...

  13. Multiple populations in globular clusters and the origin of the Oosterhoff dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S.; Lee, Y.-W.

    2016-05-01

    The globular cluster community is now facing a new paradigm of multiple stellar populations. In light of this, we have recently proposed a new model to explain the origin of the difference in mean period of type ab RR Lyrae variables between the two Oosterhoff groups. In our model, the instability strip in the metal-poor group II clusters, such as M15, is populated by second-generation stars (G2) with mildly enhanced helium and CNO abundances, while the RR Lyraes in the relatively metal-rich group I clusters such as M3 are produced mostly by first-generation stars (G1) without these enhancements. When these models are extended to all metallicity regimes, the observed dichotomies in the inner and outer halo globular clusters can be naturally reproduced. We found that specific star formation histories are required for the inner and outer halos, which is consistent with the dual origin of the Milky Way halo.

  14. Fluorine Abundances in the Milky Way Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, K; Gibson, B K

    2008-01-01

    Fluorine (19F) abundances are derived in a sample of 6 bulge red giants in Baade's Window. These giants span a factor of 10 in metallicity and this is the first study to define the behavior of 19F with metallicity in the bulge. The bulge results show an increase in F/O with increasing oxygen. This trend overlaps what is found in the disk at comparable metallicities, with the most oxygen-rich bulge target extending the disk trend. The increase in F/O in the disk arises from 19F synthesis in both asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and metal-rich Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars through stellar winds. The lack of an s-process enhancement in the most fluorine-rich bulge giant in this study, suggests that WR stars represented a larger contribution than AGB stars to 19F production in the bulge when compared to the disk. If this result for fluorine is combined with the previously published overall decline in the O/Mg abundance ratios in metal-rich bulge stars, it suggests that WR winds played a role in shaping chemical evolut...

  15. Zinc abundances in Galactic bulge field red giants: Implications for damped Lyman-α systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, B.; Friaça, A. C. S.; da Silveira, C. R.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Zinc in stars is an important reference element because it is a proxy to Fe in studies of damped Lyman-α systems (DLAs), permitting a comparison of chemical evolution histories of bulge stellar populations and DLAs. In terms of nucleosynthesis, it behaves as an alpha element because it is enhanced in metal-poor stars. Abundance studies in different stellar populations can give hints to the Zn production in different sites. Aims: The aim of this work is to derive the iron-peak element Zn abundances in 56 bulge giants from high resolution spectra. These results are compared with data from other bulge samples, as well as from disk and halo stars, and damped Lyman-α systems, in order to better understand the chemical evolution in these environments. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using FLAMES+UVES on the Very Large Telescope. We computed the Zn abundances using the Zn i lines at 4810.53 and 6362.34 Å. We considered the strong depression in the continuum of the Zn i 6362.34 Å line, which is caused by the wings of the Ca i 6361.79 Å line suffering from autoionization. CN lines blending the Zn i 6362.34 Å line are also included in the calculations. Results: We find [Zn/Fe] = +0.24 ± 0.02 in the range -1.3 < [Fe/H] < -0.5 and [Zn/Fe] = + 0.06 ± 0.02 in the range -0.5 < [Fe/H] < -0.1, whereas for [Fe/H] ≥ -0.1, it shows a spread of -0.60 < [Zn/Fe] < + 0.15, with most of these stars having low [Zn/Fe] < 0.0. These low zinc abundances at the high metallicity end of the bulge define a decreasing trend in [Zn/Fe] with increasing metallicities. A comparison with Zn abundances in DLA systems is presented, where a dust-depletion correction was applied for both Zn and Fe. When we take these corrections into account, the [Zn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] of the DLAs fall in the same region as the thick disk and bulge stars. Finally, we present a chemical evolution model of Zn enrichment in massive spheroids, representing a typical classical bulge evolution

  16. FORMATION OF CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE PRESENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent discoveries of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars like SMSS J031300.36–670839.3 provide increasing observational insights into the formation conditions of the first second-generation stars in the universe, reflecting the chemical conditions after the first supernova explosion. Here, we present the first cosmological simulations with a detailed chemical network including primordial species as well as C, C+, O, O+, Si, Si+, and Si2+ following the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars. The presence of background UV flux delays the collapse from z = 21 to z = 15 and cool the gas down to the cosmic microwave background temperature for a metallicity of Z/Z ☉ = 10–3. This can potentially lead to the formation of lower-mass stars. Overall, we find that the metals have a stronger effect on the collapse than the radiation, yielding a comparable thermal structure for large variations in the radiative background. We further find that radiative backgrounds are not able to delay the collapse for Z/Z ☉ = 10–2 or a carbon abundance as in SMSS J031300.36–670839.3

  17. Molybdenum, Ruthenium, and the Heavy r-process Elements in Moderately Metal-Poor Main-Sequence Turnoff Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Ruth C

    2013-01-01

    The ratios of elemental abundances observed in metal-poor stars of the Galactic halo provide a unique present-day record of the nucleosynthesis products of its earliest stars. While the heaviest elements were synthesized by the r- and s-processes, dominant production mechanisms of light trans-ironic elements were obscure until recently. This work investigates further our 2011 conclusion that the low-entropy regime of a high-entropy wind (HEW) produced molybdenum and ruthenium in two moderately metal-poor turnoff stars that showed extreme overabundances of those elements with respect to iron. Only a few, rare nucleosynthesis events may have been involved. Here we determine abundances for Mo, Ru, and other trans-Fe elements for 28 similar stars by matching spectral calculations to well-exposed near-UV Keck HIRES spectra obtained for beryllium abundances. In each of the 26 turnoff stars with Mo or Ru line detections and no evidence for s-process production (therefore old), we find Mo and Ru to be three to six ti...

  18. Exploring the [S/Fe] Behavior of Metal-Poor Stars with the S I 1.046 micron Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt of clarifying the [S/Fe] behavior with the run of [Fe/H] in the metal-poor regime which has been a matter of debate, an extensive non-LTE analysis of near-IR S I triplet lines (multiplet 3) at 1.046 micron was carried out for selected 33 halo/disk stars in a wide metallicity range of [Fe/H] ~-3.7 to ~+0.3, based on the spectral data collected with IRCS+AO188 of the Subaru Telescope. We found an evidence of considerably large [S/Fe] ratio amounting to ~+0.7-0.8 dex at very low metallicity of [Fe/H] ~-3, which makes marked contrast with other alpha-elements (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) flatly showing moderately supersolar [alpha/Fe] of ~0.3 dex. Meanwhile, a locally-flat tendency of [S/Fe] at ~+0.3 is seen at -2.5 <[Fe/H]< -1.5. These results may suggest that the nature of [S/Fe] in metal-poor halo stars is not so simple as has been argued (i.e., neither being globally flat independent of [Fe/H] nor monotonically increasing with a decrease in [Fe/H]), but rather complicated with a local plateau around [...

  19. Carbon Abundances of Metal-Poor Star Determined from the C I 1.068-1.069 micron Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    A non-LTE analysis of C I lines at 1.068-1.069 micron was carried out for selected 46 halo/disk stars covering a wide metallicity range (-3.7 <[Fe/H]< +0.3), based on the spectral data collected with IRCS+AO188 of the Subaru Telescope, in order to examine whether and how these strong neutral carbon lines of multiplet 1 can be exploited for establishing stellar carbon abundances, especially for very metal-poor stars where CH molecular lines have been commonly used. These C I lines were confirmed to be clearly visible for all stars down to [Fe/H] ~ -3.7, from which C abundances could be successfully determined. The resulting [C/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagram revealed almost the same trend established from previous studies. When the results for individual stars are compared with the published data collected from various literature, while a reasonable agreement is seen as a whole, a tendency is observed that our abundances are appreciably higher than those from CH lines especially for very metal-poor giants of low ...

  20. ON THE USE OF THE INDEX N2 TO DERIVE THE METALLICITY IN METAL-POOR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N2 index ([N II] λ6584/Hα) is used to determine emission line galaxy metallicities at all redshifts, including high redshift, where galaxies tend to be metal-poor. The initial aim of this work was to improve the calibrations used to infer oxygen abundance from N2 by employing updated low-metallicity galaxy databases. We compare N2 and the metallicity determined using the direct method for the set of extremely metal-poor galaxies compiled by Morales-Luis et al. To our surprise, the oxygen abundance presents a tendency to be constant with N2, with a very large scatter. Consequently, we find that the existing N2 calibrators overestimate the oxygen abundance for most low-metallicity galaxies, and can therefore only be used to set upper limits to the true metallicity in low-metallicity galaxies. An explicit expression for this limit is given. In addition, we try to explain the observed scatter using photoionization models. It is mostly due to the different evolutionary state of the H II regions producing the emission lines, but it also arises due to differences in N/O among the galaxies

  1. Observational Constraints on First-Star Nucleosynthesis. II. Spectroscopy of an Ultra Metal-Poor CEMP-no Star

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Beers, Timothy C; Yoon, Jinmi; Chiti, Anirudh; Heger, Alexander; Chan, Conrad; Casey, Andrew R; Christlieb, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of HE0020-1741, a bright (V=12.9), ultra metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -4.1), carbon-enhanced ([C/Fe] = +1.7) star selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. This star exhibits low abundances of neutron-capture elements ([Ba/Fe] = -1.1), and an absolute carbon abundance A(C) = 6.1; based on either criterion, HE0020-1741 is sub-classified as a CEMP-no star. We show that the light-element abundance pattern of HE0020-1741 is consistent with predicted yields from a massive (M = 21.5 Mo), primordial composition, supernova (SN) progenitor. We also compare the abundance patterns of other ultra metal-poor stars from the literature with available measures of C, N, Na, Mg, and Fe abundances with an extensive grid of SN models (covering the mass range 10 Mo - 100 Mo), in order to probe the nature of their likely stellar progenitors. Our results suggest that at least two classes of progenitors are required at [Fe/H] < -4.0, as the abundance patterns for more than half of...

  2. Chemical abundances of the metal-poor horizontal-branch stars CS 22186-005 and CS 30344-033

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, S; Bonifacio, P; Christlieb, N; Monaco, L; Beers, T C; Albayrak, B; Sbordone, L

    2014-01-01

    We report on a chemical-abundance analysis of two very metal-poor horizontal-branch stars in the Milky Way halo: CS 22186-005 ([Fe/H]=-2.70) and CS 30344-033 ([Fe/H]=-2.90). The analysis is based on high-resolution spectra obtained at ESO, with the spectrographs HARPS at the 3.6 m telescope, and UVES at the VLT. We adopted one-dimensional, plane-parallel model atmospheres assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium. We derived elemental abundances for 13 elements for CS 22186-005 and 14 elements for CS 30344-033. This study is the first abundance analysis of CS 30344-033. CS 22186-005 has been analyzed previously, but we report here the first measurement of nickel (Ni; Z = 28) for this star, based on twenty-two NiI lines ([Ni/Fe]=-0.21$\\pm$0.02); the measurement is significantly below the mean found for most metal-poor stars. Differences of up to 0.5 dex in [Ni/Fe] ratios were determined by different authors for the same type of stars in the literature, which means that it is not yet possible to conclude that th...

  3. Search for Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (II): high electron temperature objects

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Morales-Luis, A B; Munoz-Tunon, C; Garcia-Benito, R; Nuza, S E; Kitaura, F S

    2016-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are defined to have gas-phase metallicity smaller than a tenth of the solar value (12 + log[O/H] < 7.69). They are uncommon, chemically and possibly dynamically primitive, with physical conditions characteristic of earlier phases of the Universe. We search for new XMPs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in a work that complements Paper I. This time high electron temperature objects are selected; since metals are a main coolant of the gas, metal- poor objects contain high-temperature gas. Using the algorithm k-means, we classify 788677 spectra to select 1281 galaxies having particularly intense [OIII]4363 with respect to [OIII]5007, which is a proxy for high electron temperature. The metallicity of these candidates was computed using a hybrid technique consistent with the direct method, rendering 196 XMPs. A less restrictive noise constraint provides a larger set with 332 candidates. Both lists are provided in electronic format. The selected XMP sample have mean stell...

  4. ON THE USE OF THE INDEX N2 TO DERIVE THE METALLICITY IN METAL-POOR GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Luis, A. B.; Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Pérez-Montero, E., E-mail: anabelen1516@gmail.com, E-mail: cmt@iac.es, E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: epm@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Apdo. de correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2014-12-20

    The N2 index ([N II] λ6584/Hα) is used to determine emission line galaxy metallicities at all redshifts, including high redshift, where galaxies tend to be metal-poor. The initial aim of this work was to improve the calibrations used to infer oxygen abundance from N2 by employing updated low-metallicity galaxy databases. We compare N2 and the metallicity determined using the direct method for the set of extremely metal-poor galaxies compiled by Morales-Luis et al. To our surprise, the oxygen abundance presents a tendency to be constant with N2, with a very large scatter. Consequently, we find that the existing N2 calibrators overestimate the oxygen abundance for most low-metallicity galaxies, and can therefore only be used to set upper limits to the true metallicity in low-metallicity galaxies. An explicit expression for this limit is given. In addition, we try to explain the observed scatter using photoionization models. It is mostly due to the different evolutionary state of the H II regions producing the emission lines, but it also arises due to differences in N/O among the galaxies.

  5. Detection of Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Zinc in the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Star BD+44 493

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Beers, Timothy C

    2016-01-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor star BD+44 493 ([Fe/H]=-3.9) has been proposed as a candidate second-generation star enriched by metals from a single Pop III star. We report the first detections of P and S and the second detection of Zn in any extremely metal-poor carbon-enhanced star, using new spectra of BD+44 493 collected by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We derive [P/Fe]=-0.34 +/- 0.21, [S/Fe]=+0.07 +/- 0.41, and [Zn/Fe]=-0.10 +/- 0.24. We increase by ten-fold the number of Si I lines detected in BD+44 493, yielding [Si/Fe]=+0.15 +/- 0.22. The solar [S/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] ratios exclude the hypothesis that the abundance pattern in BD+44 493 results from depletion of refractory elements onto dust grains. Comparison with zero-metallicity supernova models suggests that the stellar progenitor that enriched BD+44 493 was massive and ejected much less than 0.07 Msun of Ni-56, characteristic of a faint supernova.

  6. Discovery of a strongly r-process enhanced extremely metal-poor star LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haining; Honda, Satoshi; Zhao, Gang; Christlieb, Norbert; Suda, Takuma

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an extremely metal-poor (EMP) giant, LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8, which exhibits large excess of r-process elements with [Eu/Fe] ~ +1.16. The star is one of the newly discovered EMP stars identified from LAMOST low-resolution spectroscopic survey and the high-resolution follow-up observation with the Subaru Telescope. Stellar parameters and elemental abundances have been determined from the Subaru spectrum. Accurate abundances for a total of 23 elements including 11 neutron-capture elements from Sr through Dy have been derived for LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8. The abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 in the range of C through Zn is in line with the "normal" population of EMP halo stars, except that it shows a notable underabundance in carbon. The heavy element abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 is in agreement with other well studied cool r-II metal-poor giants such as CS 22892-052 and CS 31082-001. The abundances of elements in the range from Ba through Dy well...

  7. Exploring the Origin of Lithium, Carbon, Strontium and Barium with four new Ultra Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T; Christlieb, N; Yong, D; Bessell, M S; Pérez, A E García; Beers, T C; Placco, V M; Frebel, A; Norris, J E; Asplund, M

    2014-01-01

    We present an elemental abundance analysis for four newly discovered ultra metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO survey, with $\\mathrm{[Fe/H]}\\leq-4$. Based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra, we derive abundances for 17 elements in the range from Li to Ba. Three of the four stars exhibit moderate to large over-abundances of carbon, but have no enhancements in their neutron-capture elements. The most metal-poor star in the sample, HE~0233$-$0343 ($\\mathrm{[Fe/H]} = -4.68$), is a subgiant with a carbon enhancement of $\\mathrm{[C/Fe]}= +3.5$, slightly above the carbon-enhancement plateau suggested by Spite et al. No carbon is detected in the spectrum of the fourth star, but the quality of its spectrum only allows for the determination of an upper limit on the carbon abundance ratio of $\\mathrm{[C/Fe]} < +1.7$. We detect lithium in the spectra of two of the carbon-enhanced stars, including HE~0233$-$0343. Both stars with Li detections are Li-depleted, with respect to the Li plateau for metal-poo...

  8. MUSE searches for galaxies near very metal-poor gas clouds at z~3: new constraints for cold accretion models

    CERN Document Server

    Fumagalli, Michele; Dekel, Avishai; Morris, Simon L; O'Meara, John M; Prochaska, J Xavier; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We report on the search for galaxies in the proximity of two very metal-poor gas clouds at z~3 towards the quasar Q0956+122. With a 5-hour MUSE integration in a ~500x500 kpc^2 region centred at the quasar position, we achieve a >80% complete spectroscopic survey of continuum-detected galaxies with m3e41 erg/s. We do not identify galaxies at the redshift of a z~3.2 Lyman limit system (LLS) with log Z/Zsun = -3.35 +/- 0.05, placing this gas cloud in the intergalactic medium or circumgalactic medium of a galaxy below our sensitivity limits. Conversely, we detect five Ly{\\alpha} emitters at the redshift of a pristine z~3.1 LLS with log Z/Zsun < -3.8, while ~0.4 sources were expected given the z~3 Ly{\\alpha} luminosity function. Both this high detection rate and the fact that at least three emitters appear aligned in projection with the LLS suggest that this pristine cloud is tracing a gas filament that is feeding one or multiple galaxies. Our observations uncover two different environments for metal-poor LLSs,...

  9. FORMATION OF CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE PRESENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovino, S.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Latif, M. A. [Institut für Astrophysik Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Grassi, T., E-mail: sbovino@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-08-01

    Recent discoveries of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars like SMSS J031300.36–670839.3 provide increasing observational insights into the formation conditions of the first second-generation stars in the universe, reflecting the chemical conditions after the first supernova explosion. Here, we present the first cosmological simulations with a detailed chemical network including primordial species as well as C, C{sup +}, O, O{sup +}, Si, Si{sup +}, and Si{sup 2+} following the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars. The presence of background UV flux delays the collapse from z = 21 to z = 15 and cool the gas down to the cosmic microwave background temperature for a metallicity of Z/Z {sub ☉} = 10{sup –3}. This can potentially lead to the formation of lower-mass stars. Overall, we find that the metals have a stronger effect on the collapse than the radiation, yielding a comparable thermal structure for large variations in the radiative background. We further find that radiative backgrounds are not able to delay the collapse for Z/Z {sub ☉} = 10{sup –2} or a carbon abundance as in SMSS J031300.36–670839.3.

  10. NLTE strontium abundance in a sample of extremely metal poor stars and the Sr/Ba ratio in the early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A; Francois, P; Spite, M; Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; Hill, V

    2011-01-01

    Heavy element abundances in extremely metal-poor stars provide strong constraints on the processes of forming these elements in the first stars. We attempt to determine precise abundances of strontium in a homogeneous sample of extremely metal-poor stars. The abundances of strontium in 54 very or extremely metal-poor stars, was redetermined by abandoning the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) hypothesis, and fitting non-LTE (NLTE) profiles to the observed spectral lines. The corrected Sr abundances and previously obtained NLTE Ba abundances are compared to the predictions of several hypothetical formation processes for the lighter neutron-capture elements. Our NLTE abundances confirm the previously determined huge scatter of the strontium abundance in low metallicity stars. This scatter is also found (and is even larger) at very low metallicities (i. e. early in the chemical evolution). The Sr abundance in the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars is compatible with the main r-process involved in other processe...

  11. A spectroscopic study of the Globular Cluster NGC 4147

    CERN Document Server

    Villanova, Sandro; Bidin, Cristian Moni; Assmann, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    We present the abundance analysis for a sample of 18 red giant branch stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4147 based on medium and high resolution spectra. This is the first extensive spectroscopic study of this cluster. We derive abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y, Ba, and Eu. We find a metallicity of [Fe/H]=-1.84+-0.02 and an alpha-enhancement of +0.38+-0.05 (errors on the mean), typical of halo globular clusters in this metallicity regime. A significant spread is observed in the abundances of light elements C, N, O, Na, and Al. In particular we found a Na-O anti-correlation and Na-Al correlation. The cluster contains only 15% of stars that belong to the first generation (Na-poor and O-rich). This implies that it suffered a severe mass loss during its lifetime. Its [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] mean values agree better with the Galactic Halo trend than with the trend of extragalactic environments at the cluster metallicity. This possibly suggests that NGC 4147 is a genuine Galactic ...

  12. Metal-Poor, Cool Gas in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z = 2.4 Star-Forming Galaxy: Direct Evidence for Cold Accretion?

    OpenAIRE

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fuelled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R_perp = 58 kpc fro...

  13. The Globular Cluster Luminosity Function

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The main aspects of the globular cluster luminosity function needing to be explained by a general theory of cluster formation are reviewed, and the importance of simultaneously understanding globular cluster systematics (the fundamental plane) within such a theory is pointed out.

  14. The hydraulic bulge tester in fracture studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the behavior of different metals under biaxial hydraulic bulging was studied in terms of fracture mechanics. Three different materials, namely: SIC aluminium, mild steel and copper were examined and their fracture behavior was assessed by introducing starter cracks in the test pieces in different ways before bulging. The pressure-volume relationships were obtained and the crack growth rates were measured during bulging at different elliptical die ratios (1,1.5,2 and 3). It was found that increasing the die ratio, with everything else remaining as before, resulted in a remarkable reduction to the volume and increase in the pressure and subsequently an increase in the crack growth rates of all materials. Double Edge Notched (DEN) specimen experiments were also conducted on the three materials to measure their fracture toughness and the results compared with those obtained from bulging experiments. (author)

  15. Galaxy Bulges and Elliptical Galaxies - Lecture Notes

    CERN Document Server

    Gadotti, Dimitri A

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge on the central components of disk galaxies has grown substantially in the past few decades, particularly so in the last. This frantic activity and the complexity of the subject promote confusion in the community. In these notes, I discuss the concept of galactic bulge and its different flavors. I also address fundamental scaling relations and the bulge-elliptical galaxy connection, their central black holes and formation models. In particular, I aim at conveying three important notions: (i): box/peanuts are just the inner parts of bars; (ii): the physical reality of two different families of bulges is evident; and (iii): at the high mass end, at least, classical bulges are not just scaled down ellipticals surrounded by disks.

  16. Radio detection prospects for a bulge population of millisecond pulsars as suggested by Fermi LAT observations of the inner Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Calore, Francesca; Donato, Fiorenza; Hessels, Jason W T; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Analogously to globular clusters, the dense stellar environment of the Galactic center has been proposed to host a large population of as-yet undetected millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Recently, this hypothesis found support in the analysis of gamma rays from the inner Galaxy seen by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi satellite, which revealed a possible excess of diffuse GeV photons in the inner 15 deg about the Galactic center (Fermi GeV excess). The excess can be interpreted as the collective emission of thousands of MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with a spherical distribution that strongly peaks towards the Galactic center. In order to fully establish the MSP interpretation, it is essential to find corroborating evidence in multi-wavelength searches, most notably through the detection of radio pulsation from individual bulge MSPs. Based on globular cluster observations and the gamma-ray emission from the inner Galaxy, we investigate the prospects for detecting MSPs in the Galactic bulge. While previ...

  17. The role of non-gray model atmospheres in the evolution of low mass metal poor stars

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, G. J.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.; Tennyson, J.; Miller, S.

    2006-01-01

    Gray model atmospheres are generally considered a reasonable approximation to make upon stars of mass greater than about 0.6 M-circle dot. Here we show that non-gray atmospheres can significantly affect evolutionary models, with masses up to 0.9 M-circle dot. The effect of including a non-gray atmosphere is strongest in the pre-main and post-main Sequence. This may have implications for the ages of the oldest globular clusters.

  18. Light, alpha, and Fe-peak element abundances in the galactic bulge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l, b) = (+5.25,–3.02) and (0,–12). The (+5.25,–3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000), high signal-to-noise ration (S/N ≳ 70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the European Southern Observatory archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. This work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H] ≳ –0.5. In particular, the bulge [α/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick disk, and the Fe-peak elements Co, Ni, and Cu appear enhanced compared to the disk. There is also some evidence that the [Na/Fe] (but not [Al/Fe]) trends between the bulge and local disk may be different at low and high metallicity. We also find that the velocity dispersion decreases as a function of increasing [Fe/H] for both fields, and do not detect any significant cold, high-velocity populations. A comparison with chemical enrichment models indicates that a significant fraction of hypernovae may be required to explain the bulge abundance trends, and that initial mass functions that are steep, top-heavy (and do not include strong outflow), or truncated to avoid including contributions from stars >40 M ☉ are ruled out, in particular because of disagreement with the Fe-peak abundance data. For most elements, the NGC 6553 stars exhibit abundance trends nearly identical to comparable metallicity bulge field stars

  19. BOO-1137-AN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STAR IN THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY BOOeTES I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution (R ∼ 40,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio (20-90) spectra of an extremely metal-poor giant star Boo-1137 in the 'ultra-faint' dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Booetes I, absolute magnitude MV ∼ -6.3. We derive an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -3.7, making this the most metal-poor star as yet identified in an ultra-faint dSph. Our derived effective temperature and gravity are consistent with its identification as a red giant in Booetes I. Abundances for a further 15 elements have also been determined. Comparison of the relative abundances, [X/Fe], with those of the extremely metal-poor red giants of the Galactic halo shows that Boo-1137 is 'normal' with respect to C and N, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the iron-peak elements, and the neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, in comparison with the bulk of the Milky Way halo population having [Fe/H] ∼<-3.0. The α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti are all higher by Δ[X/Fe] ∼ 0.2 than the average halo values. Monte Carlo analysis indicates that Δ[α/Fe] values this large are expected with a probability ∼0.02. The elemental abundance pattern in Boo-1137 suggests inhomogeneous chemical evolution, consistent with the wide internal spread in iron abundances we previously reported. The similarity of most of the Boo-1137 relative abundances with respect to halo values, and the fact that the α-elements are all offset by a similar small amount from the halo averages, points to the same underlying galaxy-scale stellar initial mass function, but that Boo-1137 likely originated in a star-forming region where the abundances reflect either poor mixing of supernova (SN) ejecta, or poor sampling of the SN progenitor mass range, or both.

  20. Theoretical Models of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared images from the COBE satellite presented the first clear evidence that our Milky Way galaxy contains a boxy shaped bulge. Recent years have witnessed a gradual paradigm shift in the formation and evolution of the Galactic bulge. Bulges were commonly believed to form in the dynamical violence of galaxy mergers. However, it has become increasingly clear that the main body of the Milky Way bulge is not a classical bulge made by previous major mergers, instead it appears to be a bar seen somewhat end-on. The Milky Way bar can form naturally from a precursor disk and thicken vertically by the internal firehose/buckling instability, giving rise to the boxy appearance. This picture is supported by many lines of evidence, including the asymmetric parallelogram shape, the strong cylindrical rotation (i.e., nearly constant rotation regardless of the height above the disk plane), the existence of an intriguing X-shaped structure in the bulge, and perhaps the metallicity gradients. We review the major theor...

  1. The Controversial Star-Formation History and Helium Enrichment of the Milky Way Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataf, David M.

    2016-06-01

    The stellar population of the Milky Way bulge is thoroughly studied, with a plethora of measurements from virtually the full suite of instruments available to astronomers. It is thus perhaps surprising that alongside well-established results lies some substantial uncertainty in its star-formation history. Cosmological models predict the bulge to host the Galaxy's oldest stars for [Fe/H] ≲ -1, and this is demonstrated by RR Lyrae stars and globular cluster observations. There is consensus that bulge stars with [Fe/H] ≲ 0 are older than t ≈ 10 Gyr. However, at super-solar metallicity, there is a substantial unresolved discrepancy. Data from spectroscopic measurements of the main-sequence turnoff and subgiant branch, the abundances of asymptotic giant branch stars, the period distribution of Mira variables, the chemistry and central-star masses of planetary nebulae, all suggest a substantial intermediate-age population (t ≈ 3 Gyr). This is in conflict with predictions from cosmologically motivated chemical evolution models and photometric studies of the main-sequence turnoff region, which both suggest virtually no stars younger than t ≈ 8 Gyr. A possible resolution to this conflict is enhanced helium-enrichment, as this would shift nearly all of the age estimates in the direction of decreasing discrepancy.

  2. Star Clusters in Pseudo-Bulges of Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nino, Daiana; Stiavelli, Massimo; Carollo, C Marcella; Scarlata, Claudia; Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the properties of the star-cluster systems around pseudo-bulges of late-type spiral galaxies using a sample of 11 galaxies with distances from 17 to 37 Mpc. Star clusters are identified from multiband HST ACS and WFPC2 imaging data by combining detections in 3 bands (F435W and F814W with ACS and F606W with WFPC2). The photometric data are then compared to population synthesis models to infer the masses and ages of the star clusters. Photometric errors and completeness are estimated by means of artificial source Monte Carlo simulations. Dust extinction is estimated by considering F160W NICMOS observations of the central regions of the galaxies, augmenting our wavelength coverage. In all galaxies we identify star clusters with a wide range of ages, from young (age 100-250 Myr), more massive, red clusters. Some of the latter might likely evolve into objects similar to the Milky Way's globular clusters. We compute the specific frequencies for the older clusters with respect to the galaxy an...

  3. Abundances of light elements in metal-poor stars; 1, atmospheric parameters and a new T$_{eff}$ scale

    CERN Document Server

    Gratton, R G; Castelli, F

    1996-01-01

    We present atmospheric parameters for about 300 stars of different chemical composition, whose spectra will be used to study the galactic enrichment of Fe and light elements. These parameters were derived using an homogenous iterative procedure, which considers new calibrations of colour-\\teff\\ relations for F, G and K-type stars based on Infrared Flux Method (IRFM) and interferometric diameters for population~I stars, and the Kurucz (1992) model atmospheres. We found that these calibrations yield a self-consistent set of atmospheric parameters for \\teff>4400~K, representing a clear improvement over results obtained with older model atmospheres. Using this \\teff-scale and Fe equilibrium of ionization, we obtained very low gravities (implying luminosities incompatible with that expected for RGB stars) for metal-poor stars cooler than 4400~K; this might be due either to a moderate Fe overionization (expected from statistical equilibrium calculations) or to inadequacy of Kurucz models to describe the atmospheres...

  4. The origin of the spurious iron spread in the globular cluster NGC 3201

    CERN Document Server

    Mucciarelli, A; Massari, D; Ferraro, F R; Lanzoni, B

    2015-01-01

    NGC 3201 is a globular cluster suspected to have an intrinsic spread in the iron content. We re-analysed a sample of 21 cluster stars observed with UVES-FLAMES at the Very Large Telescope and for which Simmerer et al. found a 0.4 dex wide [Fe/H] distribution with a metal-poor tail. We confirmed that when spectroscopic gravities are adopted, the derived [Fe/H] distribution spans ~0.4 dex. On the other hand, when photometric gravities are used, the metallicity distribution from Fe I lines remains large, while that derived from Fe II lines is narrow and compatible with no iron spread. We demonstrate that the metal-poor component claimed by Simmerer et al. is composed by asymptotic giant branch stars that could be affected by non local thermodynamical equilibrium effects driven by iron overionization. This leads to a decrease of the Fe I abundance, while leaving the Fe II abundance unaltered. A similar finding has been already found in asymptotic giant branch stars of the globular clusters M5 and 47 Tucanae. We c...

  5. Mass Fraction of 13C-Pocket in Metal-Poor AGB Stars and the Primary Nature of Neutron Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Dong-Nuan; GENG Yuan-Yuan; CUI Wen-Yuan; ZHANG Bo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical abundances of very metal-poor s-rich stars contain excellent information to set new constraints on models of neutron-capture processes at low metalficity.Using the parametric approach based on the radiative s-process nucleosynthesis model,we obtain the mass fraction q of 13 C-pocket,the overlap factor r,the neutron exposure per interpulse △r,and the component coefficients of the s-process and the r-process for 25 s-rich stars,respectively. We find that q deduced for the lead stars is comparable to the overlap factor r,which is larger than the standard case (hereafter ST case) of the AGB model (q~0.05) about 10 times,and △r are about 10 times smaller than the ST case (△r = 7.0 mbarn-1).Although the two parameters obtained for the lead stars are very different from the ST case of the AGB stellar model,it is worth noting that the total amounts of 13C in metal-poor condition are close to the ST case.The above relation is a significant evidence for the primary nature of the neutron source and the lead stars could be polluted by low-mass AGB stars.Because interpulse period declines with increasing stellar mass,for high-mass A GB star,the neutron irradiation may be terminated due to their shorter interpulse period.Thus the neutron exposure per interpulse of the larger AGB stars should be about 10 times smaller than the ST case.In this case,the primary nature of the neutron source also exists.

  6. Detection of Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Zinc in the Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Star BD+44 493

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-06-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor star BD+44°493 ([Fe/H] = ‑3.9) has been proposed as a candidate second-generation star enriched by metals from a single Pop III star. We report the first detections of P and S and the second detection of Zn in any extremely metal-poor carbon-enhanced star, using new spectra of BD+44°493 collected by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We derive [P/Fe] = ‑0.34 ± 0.21, [S/Fe] = +0.07 ± 0.41, and [Zn/Fe] = ‑0.10 ± 0.24. We increase by 10-fold the number of Si i lines detected in BD+44°493, yielding [Si/Fe] = +0.15 ± 0.22. The [S/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] ratios exclude the hypothesis that the abundance pattern in BD+44°493 results from depletion of refractory elements onto dust grains. Comparison with zero-metallicity supernova (SN) models suggests that the stellar progenitor that enriched BD+44°493 was massive and ejected much less than 0.07 M ⊙ of 56Ni, characteristic of a faint SN. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-14231.

  7. Discovery of a strongly r-process enhanced extremely metal-poor star LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ning; Aoki, Wako; Honda, Satoshi; Zhao, Gang; Christlieb, Norbert; Suda, Takuma

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of an extremely metal-poor (EMP) giant, LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8, which exhibits a large excess of r-process elements with [Eu/Fe] ˜ +1.16. The star is one of the newly discovered EMP stars identified from the LAMOST low-resolution spectroscopic survey and a high-resolution follow-up observation with the Subaru Telescope. Stellar parameters and elemental abundances have been determined from the Subaru spectrum. Accurate abundances for a total of 23 elements including 11 neutron-capture elements from Sr through Dy have been derived for LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8. The abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 in the range of C through Zn is in line with the “normal” population of EMP halo stars, except that it shows a notable underabundance in carbon. The heavy element abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 is in agreement with other well studied cool r-II metal-poor giants such as CS 22892-052 and CS 31082-001. The abundances of elements in the range from Ba through Dy match the scaled solar r-process pattern well. LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 provides the first detailed measurements of neutron-capture elements among r-II stars at such low metallicity with [Fe/H] ≲ -3.4, and exhibits similar behavior as other r-II stars in the abundance ratio of Zr/Eu as well as Sr/Eu and Ba/Eu.

  8. A search for stars of very low metal abundance. VI. Detailed abundances of 313 metal-poor stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.; Kelson, Daniel D. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sneden, Christopher, E-mail: iur@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers.

  9. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  10. Chemical and kinematical properties of galactic bulge stars surrounding the stellar system Terzan 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a study aimed at determining the kinematical and chemical properties of Terzan 5, we present the first characterization of the bulge stars surrounding this puzzling stellar system. We observed 615 targets located well beyond the tidal radius of Terzan 5 and found that their radial velocity distribution is well described by a Gaussian function peaked at (v rad) = +21.0 ± 4.6 km s–1 with dispersion σ v = 113.0 ± 2.7 km s–1. This is one of the few high-precision spectroscopic surveys of radial velocities for a large sample of bulge stars in such a low and positive latitude environment (b = +1.°7). We found no evidence of the peak at (v rad) ∼ +200 km s–1 found in Nidever et al. Strong contamination of many observed spectra by TiO bands prevented us from deriving the iron abundance for the entire spectroscopic sample, introducing a selection bias. The metallicity distribution was finally derived for a subsample of 112 stars in a magnitude range where the effect of the selection bias is negligible. The distribution is quite broad and roughly peaked at solar metallicity ([Fe/H] ≅ +0.05 dex) with a similar number of stars in the super-solar and in the sub-solar ranges. The population number ratios in different metallicity ranges agree well with those observed in other low-latitude bulge fields, suggesting (1) the possible presence of a plateau for |b| < 4° in the ratio between stars in the super-solar (0 < [Fe/H] <0.5 dex) and sub-solar (–0.5 < [Fe/H] <0 dex) metallicity ranges; (2) a severe drop in the metal-poor component ([Fe/H] <–0.5) as a function of Galactic latitude.

  11. The Interstellar Extinction Toward the Milky Way Bulge with Planetary Nebulae, Red Clump, and RR Lyrae stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nataf, David M

    2016-01-01

    I review the literature covering the issue of interstellar extinction toward the Milky Way bulge, with emphasis placed on findings from planetary nebulae, RR Lyrae, and red clump stars. I also report on observations from HI gas and globular clusters. I show that there has been substantial progress in this field in recent decades, most particularly from red clump stars. The spatial coverage of extinction maps has increased by a factor $\\sim 100 \\times$ in the past twenty years, and the total-to-selective extinction ratios reported have shifted by $\\sim$20-25\\%, indicative of the improved accuracy and separately, of a steeper-than-standard extinction curve. Problems remain in modelling differential extinction, explaining anomalies involving the planetary nebulae, and understanding the difference between bulge extinction coefficients and "standard" literature values.

  12. Globular cluster winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current evolutionary theory indicates that the evolving stars in globular clusters arrive on the horizontal branch with approx. 30% less mass than they had on the main sequence. If, as seems likely, this mass loss results from the outflow of unprocessed material at the stellar surface during the giant stage, and if the ejected mass were retained within the cluster during the giant stage, and if the ejected mass were retained within the cluster between successive sweeps through the galactic plane (about 108 yr), sufficient hydrogen (100-2000Msub(o)) should accumulate for detection. Radio searches have failed to find evidence for either neutral or ionized gas. The search was therefore extended into the optical region and the time independant gas flow models were calculated to resolve this anomaly. (R.L.)

  13. The formation of galaxy bulges: Spectrophotometric constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugniel, Ph.; Maubon, G.; Simien, F.

    2001-01-01

    We have measured Mg2, Fe 5270 and Fe 5335 spectrophotometric indices (LICK system) in the bulge of 89 galaxies, mostly spirals from the Héraudeau (\\cite{her96}) sample. The indices are reduced to a null velocity dispersion and normalized to an aperture of 0.2 h-1 kpc. The mean errors are 0.009 mag on Mg2, and 0.3 Å on the iron indices. These measurements almost double the amount of similar data already available on spiral galaxies. Our data confirm the existence of the relation between Mg2, and sigma0, the central stellar velocity dispersion; we find an even tighter relation between Mg2, and Vmrot, the maximum rotational velocity of the galaxy, deduced from HI observations. For the most massive bulges, these correlations may be interpreted as a mass-metallicity relation. However, the presence of young stellar populations, traced by the detection of [OIII] lambda 5007 Å, emission, provides clear evidence that age effects do play a role. Since the contribution of the young population is anti-correlated to the mass of the galaxy, it continues the Mg2, vs. sigma0 , relation toward the low-sigma0, region and globally increases its slope. We also present evidence for a new positive correlation between Fe indices and sigma0, and for a significant correlation between the line-strength indices and the total or disk luminosity. We propose to model the whole sequence of bulges within the folowing framework: bulges are composed of a primary population formed prior to the disk, during the initial collapse, and of a secondary population formed during its evolution. The whole family of bulges can be classified into three classes: (A) the bulges dominated by young populations are generally small, have ionized gas, low velocity dispersion and low line strengths; (B) the bulges dominated by the primary population lie along the mass-metallicity sequence defined for elliptical galaxies; and (C) the bulges where the secondary population is significant are less Mg-over-abundant than

  14. The inner Galactic globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters located towards the inner regions of the Milky Way have been historically neglected, mainly due to the difficulties caused by the presence of an elevated extinction by foreground dust, and high field star densities along the lines of sight where most of them lie. To overcome these difficulties we have developed a new method to map the differential extinction suffered by these clusters, which was successfully applied to a sample of moderately-extincted, luminous, extended, inner Galactic globular clusters observed in the optical, for which we have been able to determine more accurate physical parameters. For the most extincted inner Galactic globular clusters, near-infrared wavelengths provide a more suitable window for their study. The VVV survey, which is currently observing the central regions of the Milky Way at these wavelengths, will provide a comprehensive view, from the inner regions out to their tidal radii and beyond, of most of these globular clusters.

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE LEAST EVOLVED GALAXIES: URSA MAJOR II and COMA BERENICES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present spectra of six metal-poor stars in two of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way (MW), Ursa Major II, and Coma Berenices obtained with the Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES). These observations include the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H] -3.0. Not only are our results broadly consistent with a galaxy formation model that predicts that massive dwarf galaxies are the source of the metal-rich component ([Fe/H]> - 2.5) of the MW halo, but they also suggest that the faintest known dwarfs may be the primary contributors to the metal-poor end of the MW halo metallicity distribution.

  16. Stellar Archaeology a Keck Pilot Program on Extremely Metal-Poor Stars From the Hamburg\\/ESO Survey. I Stellar Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; Beers, T C; Carretta, R; Gratton, E; Cohen, Judith G.; Christlieb, Norbert; Beers, Timothy C.

    2002-01-01

    In this series of two papers we present a high dispersion spectroscopic analysis of 8 candidate extremely metal poor stars selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey and of 6 additional very metal poor stars. We demonstrate that with suitable vetting using moderate-resolution spectra the yield of this survey for stars with [Fe/H] $\\le -3.0$ dex is very high; three out of the eight stars observed thus far at high resolution from the HES are actually that metal poor, three more have [Fe/H] $\\le -2.8$ dex, and the remainder are only slightly more metal rich. In preparation for a large scale effort to mine the Hamburg/ESO Survey database for such stars about to get underway, we lay out in this paper the basic principles we intend to use to determine in a uniform way the stellar parameters Teff, surface grav, and reddening.

  17. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  18. The Demographics of galactic bulges in the SDSS database

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Keunho; Jeong, Hyunjin; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2016-01-01

    We present a new database of our two-dimensional bulge-disk decompositions for 14,233 galaxies drawn from SDSS DR12 in order to examine the properties of bulges residing in the local universe ($0.005 < z < 0.05$). We performed decompositions in $g$ and $r$ bands by utilizing the {\\sc{galfit}} software. The bulge colors and bulge-to-total ratios are found to be sensitive to the details in the decomposition technique, and hence we hereby provide full details of our method. The $g-r$ colors of bulges derived are almost constantly red regardless of bulge size except for the bulges in the low bulge-to-total ratio galaxies ($B/T_{\\rm r} \\lesssim 0.3$). Bulges exhibit similar scaling relations to those followed by elliptical galaxies, but the bulges in galaxies with lower bulge-to-total ratios clearly show a gradually larger departure in slope from the elliptical galaxy sequence. The scatters around the scaling relations are also larger for the bulges in galaxies with lower bulge-to-total ratios. Both the depa...

  19. METAL-POOR STARS OBSERVED WITH THE MAGELLAN TELESCOPE. I. CONSTRAINTS ON PROGENITOR MASS AND METALLICITY OF AGB STARS UNDERGOING s-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Rossi, Silvia; Christlieb, N.; Stancliffe, Richard J.; Frebel, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of two newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. HE 2138?3336 is a s-process-rich star with [Fe/H] = -2.79, and has the highest [Pb/Fe] abundance ratio measured thus far, if non-local thermodynamic equilibrium corrections are included ([Pb/Fe] = +3.84). HE 2258?6358, with [Fe/H] = -2.67, exhibits enrichments in both s- and r-process elements. These stars were selected from a sample of candidate metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO...

  20. Metal-Poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope I. Constraints on Progenitor Mass and Metallicity of AGB Stars Undergoing s-Process Nucleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Rossi, Silvia; Christlieb, Norbert; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of two newly-discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. HE2138-3336 is a s-process-rich star with [Fe/H] = -2.79, and has the highest [Pb/Fe] abundance ratio measured thus far, if NLTE corrections are included ([Pb/Fe] = +3.84). HE2258-6358, with [Fe/H] = -2.67, exhibits enrichments in both s- and r-process elements. These stars were selected from a sample of candidate metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey, and foll...

  1. Are there carbon stars in the Bulge ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Y. K.

    1998-01-01

    The bulge carbon stars have been a mystery since their discovery, because they are about 2.5mag too faint to be regarded as genuine AGB stars, if located inside the metal-rich bulge (m-M=14.5mag). Part of the mystery can be solved if these carbon stars are related to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (SDG; m-M=17.0mag). They are in that case not old and metal-rich, but young, ~0.1 Gyr, with SMC-like metallicity. The sigma_RV=113+/-14 km/s radial velocity dispersion of the stars appears to be consi...

  2. Origins of the thick disk of the galaxy as traced by metal-poor stars selected from RAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchti G.R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Models of the formation of the thick disk of the Milky Way Galaxy make specific predictions about the chemical abundance properties of the metal-weak (and oldest stellar population in the thick disk. We have undertaken the study of the elemental abundances and kinematic properties of a sample of 319 candidate metal-poor thick-disk stars selected from the RAVE spectroscopic survey of bright stars. Our aim is to differentiate among the present scenarios of the formation of the thick disk. In this study, we measured the abundances of several alpha-elements and found that the thick-disk [alpha/Fe] ratios are enhanced, implying that enrichment proceeded by purely core-collapse supernovae. Further, the sample probes distances ranging out to about 2 kpc from the Sun, allowing for the investigation of the gradients in the thick disk. I will discuss the results from these investigations and how they compare to the predictions made by present models of the formation of the thick disk.

  3. Explosive Nucleosynthesis of Weak R-Process Elements in Extremely Metal-Poor Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutani, Natsuko; Umeda, Hideyuki; Tominaga, Nozomu

    2009-02-01

    There have been attempts to fit the abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with supernova (SN) nucleosynthesis models for the elements lighter than Zn. Observations have revealed the presence of EMP stars with a peculiarly high ratio of "weak r-process elements" Sr, Y, and Zr. Although several possible processes were suggested for the origin of these elements, a complete solution for reproducing those ratios has not yet been found. In order to reproduce the abundance patterns of such stars, we investigate a model with neutron-rich matter ejection from the inner region of the conventional mass-cut. We find that explosive nucleosynthesis in a high energy SN (or "hypernova") can reproduce the high abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr but that the enhancements of Sr, Y, and Zr are not achieved by nucleosynthesis in a normal SN. Our results imply that, if these elements are ejected from a normal SN, nucleosynthesis in higher entropy flow than that of the SN shock is required.

  4. The Origin of the Metal-Poor Common Proper Motion Pair HD 134439/134440: Insights from New Elemental Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu; Boesgaard, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    The low [alpha/Fe] ratio in the metal-poor ([Fe/H]= -1.50) common proper motion pair HD 134439 and HD 134440 has been variously attributed to chemical evolution in an extragalactic environment with an irregular star formation history, planetessimal accretion, and formation in an environment with an unusually high dust-to-gas ratio. We explore these various putative origins using CNO, Be, Ag, and Eu abundances derived from high-resolution near-UV Keck/HIRES spectroscopy. While we confirm a previously suggested correlation between elemental abundance ratios and condensation temperature at the 95% confidence level, these ratios lie within the continuum of values manifested by extant dSph data. We argue that the most plausible origin of our stars' distinctive abundance distribution relative to the Galactic halo field is formation in an environment chemically dominated by products of Type II SN of low progenitor mass; such a progenitor mass bias has been previously suggested as an explanation of low alpha-element ...

  5. Detection of Elements at All Three r-process Peaks in the Metal-Poor Star HD 160617

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; 10.1088/0004-637X/750/1/76

    2012-01-01

    We report the first detection of elements at all three r-process peaks in the metal-poor halo star HD 160617. These elements include arsenic and selenium, which have not been detected previously in halo stars, and the elements tellurium, osmium, iridium, and platinum, which have been detected previously. Absorption lines of these elements are found in archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We present up-to-date absolute atomic transition probabilities and complete line component patterns for these elements. Additional archival spectra of this star from several ground-based instruments allow us to derive abundances or upper limits of 45 elements in HD 160617, including 27 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. The average abundances of the elements at the three r-process peaks are similar to the predicted solar system r-process residuals when scaled to the abundances in the rare earth element domain. This result for arsenic and selen...

  6. On the necessity of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in metal-poor AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Constantino, Thomas; Gil-Pons, Pilar; Lattanzio, John

    2014-01-01

    The vital importance of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in low-mass (M 0.001 has recently been demonstrated (e.g. Marigo 2002; Ventura & Marigo 2010). Its significance to more metal-poor, intermediate mass (M > 2.5Msun) models has yet to be investigated. We show that its inclusion in lower-metallicity models ([Fe/H] < -2) is essential, and that there exists no threshold metallicity below which composition-dependent molecular opacity may be neglected. We find it to be crucial in all intermediate-mass models investigated ([Fe/H] < -2 and 2.5 < M/Msun < 5), because of the evolution of the surface chemistry, including the orders of magnitude increase in the abundance of molecule-forming species. Its effect on these models mirrors that previously reported for higher-metallicity models - increase in radius, decrease in Teff, faster mass loss, shorter thermally pulsing AGB lifetime, reduced enrichment in third dredge-up products (by a factor of three to ten), and an increase in the mas...

  7. An optical transmission spectrum of the transiting hot Jupiter in the metal-poor WASP-98 planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, L; Molliere, P; Southworth, J; Brahm, R; Ciceri, S; Henning, Th

    2016-01-01

    The WASP-98 planetary system represents a rare case of a hot Jupiter hosted by a metal-poor main-sequence star. We present a follow-up study of this system based on multi-band photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy. Two new transit events of WASP-98b were simultaneously observed in four passbands (g,r,i,z), using the telescope-defocussing technique, yielding eight high-precision light curves with point-to-point scatters of less than 1 mmag. We also collected three spectra of the parent star with a high-resolution spectrograph, which we used to remeasure its spectral characteristics, in particular its metallicity. We found this to be very low, Fe/H]=-0.49, but larger than was previously reported, [Fe/H]=-0.60. We used these new photometric and spectroscopic data to refine the orbital and physical properties of this planetary system, finding that the stellar and planetary mass measurements are significantly larger than those in the discovery paper. In addition, the multi-band light curves were used to cons...

  8. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE: I. Atmospheric Parameters and Chemical Compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Wako; Lee, Young Sun; Honda, Satoshi; Ito, Hiroko; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Frebel, Anna; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masatuki Y; Carollo, Daniela; Sivarani, Thirupathi

    2012-01-01

    Chemical compositions are determined based on high-resolution spectroscopy for 137 candidate extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its first stellar extension, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). High-resolution spectra with moderate signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios were obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph of the Subaru Telescope. Most of the sample (approximately 80%) are main-sequence turn-off stars, including dwarfs and subgiants. Four cool main-sequence stars, the most metal-deficient such stars known, are included in the remaining sample. Good agreement is found between effective temperatures estimated by the SEGUE stellar parameter pipeline, based on the SDSS/SEGUE medium-resolution spectra, and those estimated from the broadband $(V-K)_0$ and $(g-r)_0$ colors. Our abundance measurements reveal that 70 stars in our sample have [Fe/H] $ +0.7$) among the 25 giants in our sample is as high as 36%, while only a lowe...

  9. G64-12 and G64-37 are Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Reggiani, Henrique; Melendez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We present new high-resolution chemical-abundance analyses for the well-known high proper-motion subdwarfs G64-12 and G64-37, based on very high signal-to-noise spectra (S/N ~ 700/1) with resolving power R ~ 95,000. These high-quality data enable the first reliable determination of the carbon abundances for these two stars; we classify them as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars based on their carbonicities, which both exceed [C/Fe] = +1.0. They are sub-classified as CEMP- no Group-II stars, based on their location in the Yoon-Beers diagram of absolute carbon abundance, A(C) vs. [Fe/H], as well as on the conventional diagnostic [Ba/Fe]. The relatively low absolute carbon abundances of CEMP-no stars, in combination with the high effective temperatures of these two stars (Teff ~ 6500 K) weakens their CH molecular features to the point that accurate carbon abundances can only be estimated from spectra with very high S/N. A comparison of the observed abundance patterns with the predicted yields from massive, ...

  10. High-resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-poor Stars in the Least-evolved Galaxies: Bootes II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D.; Geha, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We present high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of the four brightest confirmed red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes II (Boo II). These stars all inhabit the metal-poor tail of the Boo II metallicity distribution function. The chemical abundance pattern of all detectable elements in these stars is consistent with that of the Galactic halo. However, all four stars have undetectable amounts of neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, with upper limits comparable to the lowest ever detected in the halo or in other dwarf galaxies. One star exhibits significant radial velocity variations over time, suggesting it to be in a binary system. Its variable velocity has likely increased past determinations of the Boo II velocity dispersion. Our four stars span a limited metallicity range, but their enhanced α-abundances and low neutron-capture abundances are consistent with the interpretation that Boo II has been enriched by very few generations of stars. The chemical abundance pattern in Boo II confirms the emerging trend that the faintest dwarf galaxies have neutron-capture abundances distinct from the halo, suggesting the dominant source of neutron-capture elements in halo stars may be different than in ultra-faint dwarfs. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  11. High-resolution spectroscopy of extremely metal-poor stars in the least evolved galaxies: Bootes II

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Alexander P; Simon, Joshua D; Geha, Marla

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of the four brightest confirmed red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Bootes II (Boo II). These stars all inhabit the metal-poor tail of the Boo II metallicity distribution function. The chemical abundance pattern of all detectable elements in these stars is consistent with that of the Galactic halo. However, all four stars have undetectable amounts of neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, with upper limits comparable to the lowest ever detected in the halo or in other dwarf galaxies. One star exhibits significant radial velocity variations over time, suggesting it to be in a binary system. Its variable velocity has likely increased past determinations of the Boo II velocity dispersion. Our four stars span a limited metallicity range, but their enhanced {\\alpha}-abundances and low neutron-capture abundances are consistent with the interpretation that Boo II has been enriched by very few generations of stars. The chemical abundance pattern in Boo II conf...

  12. Deuterium Abundance in the Most Metal-Poor Damped Lyman alpha System: Converging on Omega_baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Pettini, Max; Murphy, Michael T; Lewis, Antony; Steidel, Charles C

    2008-01-01

    The most metal-poor DLA known to date, at z = 2.61843 in the spectrum of the QSO Q0913+072, with an oxygen abundance only about 1/250 of the solar value, shows six well resolved D I Lyman series transitions in high quality echelle spectra recently obtained with the ESO VLT. We deduce a value of the deuterium abundance log (D/H) = -4.56+/-0.04 which is in good agreement with four out of the six most reliable previous determinations of this ratio in QSO absorbers. We find plausible reasons why in the other two cases the 1 sigma errors may have been underestimated by about a factor of two. The addition of this latest data point does not change significantly the mean value of the primordial abundance of deuterium, suggesting that we are now converging to a reliable measure of this quantity. We conclude that = -4.55+/-0.03 and Omega_b h^2 (BBN) = 0.0213+/-0.0010 (68% confidence limits). Including the latter as a prior in the analysis of the five year data of WMAP leads to a revised best-fitting value of the power...

  13. Abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr in Metal-Poor Stars and Implications for Chemical Evolution in the Early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Y -Z

    2008-01-01

    Studies of nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds from nascent neutron stars show that the elements from Sr through Ag with mass numbers A~88-110 are produced by charged-particle reactions (CPR) during the alpha-process in the winds. Accordingly, we have attributed all these elements in stars of low metallicities ([Fe/H]-0.32 for all metal-poor stars. The high-resolution data now available on Sr abundances in Galactic halo stars show that there is a great shortfall of Sr relative to Fe in many stars with [Fe/H]<-3. This is in direct conflict with the above prediction. The same conflict also exists for two other CPR elements Y and Zr. The very low abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr observed in stars with [Fe/H]<-3 thus require a stellar source that cannot be low-mass or normal SNe. We show that this observation requires a stellar source leaving behind black holes and that hypernovae (HNe) from progenitors of ~25-50M_sun are the most plausible candidates. (Abridged)

  14. DETECTION OF ELEMENTS AT ALL THREE r-PROCESS PEAKS IN THE METAL-POOR STAR HD 160617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lawler, James E., E-mail: iur@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We report the first detection of elements at all three r-process peaks in the metal-poor halo star HD 160617. These elements include arsenic and selenium, which have not been detected previously in halo stars, and the elements tellurium, osmium, iridium, and platinum, which have been detected previously. Absorption lines of these elements are found in archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We present up-to-date absolute atomic transition probabilities and complete line component patterns for these elements. Additional archival spectra of this star from several ground-based instruments allow us to derive abundances or upper limits of 45 elements in HD 160617, including 27 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. The average abundances of the elements at the three r-process peaks are similar to the predicted solar system r-process residuals when scaled to the abundances in the rare earth element domain. This result for arsenic and selenium may be surprising in light of predictions that the production of the lightest r-process elements generally should be decoupled from the heavier r-process elements.

  15. The Extremely Metal-Poor, Neutron-Capture-Rich Star CS 22892-052: A Comprehensive Abundance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sneden, C; Lawler, J E; Ivans, I I; Burles, S; Beers, T C; Primas, F; Hill, V; Truran, J W; Fuller, G M; Pfeiffer, B; Kratz, K L

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution spectra obtained with three ground-based facilities and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have been combined to produce a new abundance analysis of CS 22892-052, an extremely metal-poor giant with large relative enhancements of neutron-capture elements. A revised model stellar atmosphere has been derived with the aid of a large number of Fe-peak transitions, including both neutral and ionized species of six elements.Several elements, including Mo, Lu, Au, Pt and Pb, have been detected for the first time in CS 22892-052, and significant upper limits have been placed on the abundances of Ga, Ge, Cd, Sn, and U in this star. In total, abundance measurements or upper limits have been determined for 57 elements, far more than previously possible. New Be and Li detections in CS 22892-052 indicate that the abundances of both these elements are significantly depleted compared to unevolved main-sequence turnoff stars of similar metallicity. Abundance comparisons show an excellent agreement between the he...

  16. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury IX. Constraining asymptotic giant branch evolution with old metal-poor galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, Leo; Gilbert, Karoline M; Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Marigo, Paola; Boyer, Martha L; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel R; Melbourne, Jason; Olsen, Knut A G; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to constrain evolutionary models of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase at the limit of low masses and low metallicities, we have examined the luminosity functions and number ratio between AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars from a sample of resolved galaxies from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST). This database provides HST optical photometry together with maps of completeness, photometric errors, and star formation histories for dozens of galaxies within 4 Mpc. We select 12 galaxies characterized by predominantly metal-poor populations as indicated by a very steep and blue RGB, and which do not present any indication of recent star formation in their color--magnitude diagrams. Thousands of AGB stars brighter than the tip of the RGB (TRGB) are present in the sample (between 60 and 400 per galaxy), hence the Poisson noise has little impact in our measurements of the AGB/RGB ratio. We model the photometric data with a few sets of thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) evolutionary models...

  17. Non-LTE Analysis for the Sodium Abundances of Metal-Poor Stars in the Galactic Disk and Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Y; Takada-Hidai, M; Chen, Y Q; Saitô, Y; Zhang, H W; Takeda, Yoichi; Zhao, Gang; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Chen, Yu-Qin; Saito, Yu-ji; Zhang, Hua-Wei

    2003-01-01

    We performed an extensive non-LTE analysis of the neutral sodium lines of Na {\\sc i} 5683/5688, 5890/5896, 6154/6161, and 8183/8195 for disk/halo stars of F--K type covering a wide metallicity range ($-4 \\la$ [Fe/H] $\\la 0.4$), based on our own data as well as those collected from the literature. For comparatively metal-rich disk stars ($-1 \\la$ [Fe/H] $\\la 0$) where the weaker 6154/6161 lines are best abundance indicators, we confirmed [Na/Fe] $\\sim$ 0 with an ``upturn'' (i.e., a shallow/broad dip around $-0.5 \\la$ [Fe/H] $\\la 0$) as already reported by previous studies. Regarding the metal-deficient halo stars, where the much stronger 5890/5896 or 8183/8195 lines suffering considerable (negative) non-LTE corrections amounting to 0.5 dex have to be used, our analysis suggests mildly ``subsolar'' [Na/Fe] values down to $\\sim -0.4$ (with a somewhat large scatter of $\\sim \\pm 0.2$ dex) on the average at the typical halo metallicity of [Fe/H] $\\sim -2$, while they appear to rise again toward a very metal-poor re...

  18. The Chemical Compositions of Very Metal-Poor Stars HD 122563 and HD 140283; A View From the Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Afşar, Melike; Frebel, Anna; Kim, Hwihyun; Mace, Gregory N; Kaplan, Kyle F; Lee, Hye-In; Oh, Hee-Young; Oh, Jae Sok; Pak, Soojong; Park, Chan; Pavel, Michael D; Yuk, In-Soo; Jaffe, Daniel T

    2016-01-01

    From high resolution (R = 45,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N > 400) spectra gathered with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) in the H and K photometric bands, we have derived elemental abundances of two bright, well-known metal-poor halo stars: the red giant HD 122563 and the subgiant HD 140283. Since these stars have metallicities approaching [Fe/H] = -3, their absorption features are generally very weak. Neutral-species lines of Mg, Si, S and Ca are detectable, as well as those of the light odd-Z elements Na and Al. The derived IR-based abundances agree with those obtained from optical-wavelength spectra. For Mg and Si the abundances from the infrared transitions are improvements to those derived from shorter wavelength data. Many useful OH and CO lines can be detected in the IGRINS HD 122563 spectrum, from which derived O and C abundances are consistent to those obtained from the traditional [O I] and CH features. IGRINS high resolutions H- and K-band spectroscopy offers promising ways to...

  19. Search for Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. (II). High Electron Temperature Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Morales-Luis, A. B.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; García-Benito, R.; Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F. S.

    2016-03-01

    Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are defined to have a gas-phase metallicity smaller than a tenth of the solar value (12+{log}[{{O/H}}]k-means, we classify 788,677 spectra to select 1281 galaxies that have particularly intense [O III]λ4363 with respect to [O III]λ5007, which is a proxy for high electron temperature. The metallicity of these candidates was computed using a hybrid technique consistent with the direct method, rendering 196 XMPs. A less restrictive noise constraint provides a larger set with 332 candidates. Both lists are provided in electronic format. The selected XMP sample has a mean stellar mass around {10}8 {M}⊙ , with the dust mass ∼ {10}3{M}⊙ for typical star-forming regions. In agreement with previous findings, XMPs show a tendency to be tadpole-like or cometary. Their underlying stellar continuum corresponds to a fairly young stellar population (clusters. The puzzling 2%-solar low-metallicity threshold exhibited by XMPs remains.

  20. Chemical compositions of six metal-poor stars in the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy Bo\\"otes I

    CERN Document Server

    Ishigaki, Miho N; Arimoto, Nobuo; Okamoto, Sakurako

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies recently discovered around the Milky Way (MW) contain extremely metal-poor stars, and might represent the building blocks of low-metallicity components of the MW. Among them, the Bo\\"otes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy is of particular interest because of its exclusively old stellar population. We determine chemical compositions of six red giant stars in Bo\\"otes I, based on the high-resolution spectra obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph mounted on the Subaru Telescope. Abundances of 12 elements, including C, Na, alpha, Fe-peak, and neutron capture elements, were determined for the sample stars. The abundance results were compared to those in field MW halo stars previously obtained using an abundance analysis technique similar to the present study. We confirm the low metallicity of Boo-094 ([Fe/H]=-3.4). Except for this star, the abundance ratios ([X/Fe]) of elements lighter than zinc are generally homogeneous with small scatter around the mean values in the metallicities span...

  1. Molecular depletion times and the CO-to-H2 conversion factor in metal-poor galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, L K; Casasola, V; Caselli, P; Combes, F; Henkel, C; Lundgren, A; Maiolino, R; Menten, K M; Testi, L; Weiss, A

    2015-01-01

    Tracing molecular hydrogen content with carbon monoxide in low-metallicity galaxies has been exceedingly difficult. Here we present a new effort, with IRAM 30-m observations of 12CO(1-0) of a sample of 8 dwarf galaxies having oxygen abundances ranging from 12+logO/H=7.7 to 8.4. CO emission is detected in all galaxies, including the most metal-poor galaxy of our sample (0.1 Zsun); to our knowledge this is the largest number of 12CO(1-0) detections ever reported for galaxies with 12+logO/H<=8 (0.2 Zsun) outside the Local Group. We calculate stellar masses (Mstar) and star-formation rates (SFRs), and analyze our results by combining our observations with galaxy samples from the literature. Extending previous results for a correlation of the molecular gas depletion time, tau(dep), with Mstar and specific SFR (sSFR), we find a variation in tau(dep) of a factor of 200 or more (from <50 Myr to 10 Gyr) over a spread of 1000 in sSFR and Mstar. We exploit the variation of tau(dep) to constrain the CO-to-H2 mass c...

  2. 6Li detection in metal-poor stars: can 3D model atmospheres solve the second lithium problem?

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, M; Caffau, E; Bonifacio, P; Ludwig, H -G; Spite, M

    2012-01-01

    The presence of 6Li in the atmospheres of metal-poor halo stars is usually inferred from the detection of a subtle extra depression in the red wing of the 7Li doublet line at 670.8 nm. However, the intrinsic line asymmetry caused by convective flows in the photospheres of cool stars is almost indistinguishable from the asymmetry produced by a weak 6Li blend on a (presumed) symmetric 7Li profile. Previous determinations of the 6Li/ 7Li isotopic ratio based on 1D model atmospheres, ignoring the convection-induced line asymmetry, must therefore be considered as upper limits. By comparing synthetic 1D LTE and 3D non-LTE line profiles of the Li 670.8 nm feature, we quantify the differential effect of the convective line asymmetry on the derived 6Li abundance as a function of effective temperature, gravity, and metallicity. As expected, we find that the asymmetry effect systematically reduces the resulting 6Li/7Li ratios. Depending on the stellar parameters, the 3D-1D offset in 6Li/7Li ranges between -0.005 and -0....

  3. First stars XII. Abundances in extremely metal-poor turnoff stars,and comparison with the giants

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; Hill, V; Spite, F; François, P; Plez, B; Ludwig, H -G; Caffau, E; Molaro, P; Depagne, E; Andersen, J; Barbuy, B; Beers, T C; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT:The detailed chemical abundances of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are key guides to understanding the early chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Most existing data are, however, for giant stars which may have experienced internal mixing later. AIMS: We aim to compare the results for giants with new, accurate abundances for all observable elements in 18 EMP turnoff stars. METHODS:VLT/UVES spectra at R ~45,000 and S/N~ 130 per pixel (330-1000 nm) are analysed with OSMARCS model atmospheres and the TURBOSPECTRUM code to derive abundances for C, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, and Ba. RESULTS: For Ca, Ni, Sr, and Ba, we find excellent consistency with our earlier sample of EMP giants, at all metallicities. However, our abundances of C, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn and Co are ~0.2 dex larger than in giants of similar metallicity. Mg and Si abundances are ~0.2 dex lower (the giant [Mg/Fe] values are slightly revised), while Zn is again ~0.4 dex higher than in giants of similar [Fe/H] (6 stars only). CONCLUSIO...

  4. Characterizing the Chemistry of the Milky Way Stellar Halo: Detailed Chemical Analysis of a Metal-Poor Stellar Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Thompson, Ian B; Preston, George W; Shectman, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed abundance analysis of one of the confirmed building blocks of the Milky Way stellar halo, a kinematically-coherent metal-poor stellar stream. We have obtained high resolution and high S/N spectra of 12 probable stream members using the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the 2dCoude spectrograph on the Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We have derived abundances or upper limits for 51 species of 46 elements in each of these stars. The stream members show a range of metallicity (-3.4 < [Fe/H] < -1.5) but are otherwise chemically homogeneous, with the same star-to-star dispersion in [X/Fe] as the rest of the halo. This implies that, in principle, a significant fraction of the Milky Way stellar halo could have formed from accreted systems like the stream. The stream stars show minimal evolution in the alpha or Fe-group elements over the range of metallicity. This stream is enriched with material produced by the main an...

  5. A Statistical Model for Predicting the Average Abundance Patterns of Heavier Elements in Metal-Poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We have collected nearly all the available observed data of the elements from Ba to Dy in halo and disk stars in the metallicity range -4.0 <[Fe/H]< 0.5.Based on the observed data of Ba and Eu, we evaluated the least-squares regressions of [Ba/Fe] on [Fe/H], and [Eu/H] on [Ba/H]. Assuming that the heavy elements (heavier than Ba) are produced by a combination of the main components of s- and r-processes in metal-poor stars, and choosing Ba and Eu as respective representative elements of the main s- and the main r-processes, a statistical model for predicting the Galactic chemical evolution of the heavy elements is presented. With this model,we calculate the mean abundance trends of the heavy elements La, Ce, Pr, Nd,Sm, and Dy with the metallicity. We compare our results with the observed data at various metallicities, showing that the predicted trends are in good agreement with the observed trends, at least for the metallicity range [Fe/H]≥ -2.5. Finally,we discuss our results and deduce some important information about the Galactic chemical evolution.

  6. Deep SDSS Optical Spectroscopy of Distant Halo Stars. III. Chemical analysis of extremely metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Alvar, E; Beers, T C; Lee, Y S; Masseron, T; Schneider, D P

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis for 107 extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with metallicities less than [Fe/H] = -3.0, identified from medium-resolution spectra in SDSS. We follow a methodology based on comparisons of the observed spectra with synthetic spectra. The abundances of Fe, Ca, and Mg are determined by fitting spectral regions dominated by lines of each element. In addition, we present a technique to determine upper limits for elements whose features are not detected in a given spectrum. We also analyse our sample with the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline, in order to obtain additional determinations of the atmospheric parameters, iron and alpha-element abundances, to compare with ours, and to infer [C/Fe] ratios. We find that, in these moderate to low signal-to-noise and medium-resolution spectra in this metallicity regime, Ca is usually the only element that exhibits lines that are sufficiently strong to reliably measure its abundance. Fe and Mg exhibit weaker features that, in most cases, onl...

  7. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE LEAST EVOLVED GALAXIES: LEO IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectroscopy of the brightest star in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Leo IV. We measure an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -3.2, adding to the rapidly growing sample of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars being identified in Milky Way satellite galaxies. The star is enhanced in the α elements Mg, Ca, and Ti by ∼0.3 dex, very similar to the typical Milky Way halo abundance pattern. All of the light and iron-peak elements follow the trends established by EMP halo stars, but the neutron-capture elements Ba and Sr are significantly underabundant. These results are quite similar to those found for stars in the ultra-faint dwarfs Ursa Major II, Coma Berenices, Booetes I, and Hercules, suggesting that the chemical evolution of the lowest-luminosity galaxies may be universal. The abundance pattern we observe is consistent with predictions for nucleosynthesis from a Population III supernova explosion. The extremely low metallicity of this star also supports the idea that a significant fraction (∼>10%) of the stars in the faintest dwarfs have metallicities below [Fe/H] = -3.0.

  8. The stellar content of the Hamburg/ESO survey. IV. Selection of candidate metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Christlieb, N; Frebel, A; Beers, T C; Wisotzki, L; Reimers, D

    2008-01-01

    We present the quantitative methods used for selecting candidate metal-poor stars in the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey (HES). The selection is based on the strength of the Ca II K line, B-V colors (both measured directly from the digital HES spectra), as well as J-K colors from the 2 Micron All Sky Survey. The KP index for Ca II K can be measured from the HES spectra with an accuracy of 1.0 Angstrom, and a calibration of the HES B-V colors, using CCD photometry, yields a 1-sigma uncertainty of 0.07 mag for stars in the color range 0.3 -2.0 without sacrificing completeness at the lowest metallicities. A test of the selection using 1121 stars of the HK survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman present on HES plates suggests that the completeness at [Fe/H] -2.5 and 97% of all stars with [Fe/H] > -2.0 are rejected. The selection was applied to 379 HES fields, covering a nominal area of 8853 square degrees of the southern high Galactic latitude sky. The candidate sample consists of 20,271 stars in the magnitud...

  9. The visitor from an ancient galaxy: A planetary companion around an old, metal-poor red horizontal branch star

    CERN Document Server

    Klement, Rainer J; Henning, Thomas; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rochau, Boyke; Rodmann, Jens; Schulze-Hartung, Tim; Heidelberg, MPIA; ESTEC,

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of a planetary companion around HIP 13044, a metal-poor red horizontal branch star belonging to a stellar halo stream that results from the disruption of an ancient Milky Way satellite galaxy. The detection is based on radial velocity observations with FEROS at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope. The periodic radial velocity variation of P=16.2 days can be distinguished from the periods of the stellar activity indicators. We computed a minimum planetary mass of 1.25 Jupiter masses and an orbital semimajor axis of 0.116 AU for the planet. This discovery is unique in three aspects: First, it is the first planet detection around a star with a metallicity much lower than few percent of the solar value; second, the planet host star resides in a stellar evolutionary stage that is still unexplored in the exoplanet surveys; third, the planetary system HIP 13044 most likely has an extragalactic origin in a disrupted former satellite of the Milky Way.

  10. A Catalog of Globular Cluster Systems: What Determines the Size of a Galaxy's Globular Cluster Population?

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William E; Alessi, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of 422 galaxies with published measurements of their globular cluster (GC) populations. Of these, 248 are E galaxies, 93 are S0 galaxies, and 81 are spirals or irregulars. Among various correlations of the total number of GCs with other global galaxy properties, we find that N_GC correlates well though nonlinearly with the dynamical mass of the galaxy bulge M_dyn = 4 \\sigma_e^2 R_e /G, where \\sigma_e is the central velocity dispersion and R_e the effective radius of the galaxy light profile. We also present updated versions of the GC specific frequency S_N and specific mass S_M versus host galaxy luminosity and baryonic mass. These graphs exhibit the previously known U-shape: highest S_N or S_M values occur for either dwarfs or supergiants, but in the midrange of galaxy size (10^9 - 10^10 L_Sun) the GC numbers fall along a well defined baseline value of S_N ~ 1 or S_M ~ 0.1, similar among all galaxy types. Along with other recent discussions, we suggest that this trend may represent the e...

  11. Investigation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Jason P.

    This dissertation describes the study of abundance variations among stars in Galactic globular clusters using the large set of spectroscopic data collected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Globular clusters have typically been considered to be simple stellar populations---groups of stars that are coeval and chemically homogeneous. Observations within the last forty years have shed light on the possibility that they are not so simple after all by revealing the presence of star-to-star variations in light-element abundances. Additionally, several globular clusters are known to harbor multiple populations of stars by the presence of multiple sequences on a color-magnitude diagram. In this study, the procedure for membership selection is first described. Stars are selected from the vast data set available from SDSS Data Release 7 and several cuts are made to reduce the sample down to only those stars that are members of the globular clusters in this sample. This procedure is also performed on three open clusters as well and is further used to validate the current SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. CN and CH molecular absorption indices are then measured for all globular cluster member stars and their distributions are analyzed. Bimodal distributions in CN are seen on the red giant branch in all clusters with [Fe/H] > -2.1, and hints of bimodality are seen for two metal-poor clusters as well. CN-CH anticorrelations are also seen and the implications are discussed. The observed distributions of CN absorption bandstrengths are examined and compared to theoretical predictions from two-population models. These results are combined with radial distributions and positions on the color-magnitude diagram as evidence for the presence of multiple populations of stars within the clusters in this sample.

  12. Novae in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first light-curve analysis of Population II novae that appeared in M31 globular clusters. Our light-curve models, based on the optically thick wind theory, reproduce well both the X-ray turn-on and turnoff times with the white dwarf (WD) mass of about 1.2 M ☉ for M31N 2007-06b in Bol 111 and about 1.37 M ☉ for M31N 2010-10f in Bol 126. The transient supersoft X-ray source CXO J004345 in Bol 194 is highly likely a nova remnant of 1.2-1.3 M ☉ WD. These WD masses are quite consistent with the temperatures deduced from X-ray spectra. We also present the dependence of nova light curves on the metallicity in the range from [Fe/H] = 0.4 to –2.7. Whereas strong optically thick winds are accelerated in Galactic disk novae owing to a large Fe opacity peak, only weak winds occur in Population II novae with low Fe abundance. Thus, nova light curves are systematically slow in low Fe environment. For an extremely low Fe abundance normal nova outbursts may not occur unless the WD is very massive. We encourage V or y filter observation rather than R as well as high cadence X-ray monitorings to open quantitative studies of extragalactic novae.

  13. Novae in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Mariko; Henze, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We present the first light curve analysis of Population II novae that appeared in M31 globular clusters. Our light curve models, based on the optically thick wind theory, reproduce well both the X-ray turn-on and turnoff times with the white dwarf (WD) mass of about 1.2 Mo for M31N 2007-06b in Bol 111 and about 1.37 Mo for M31N 2010-10f in Bol 126. The transient supersoft X-ray source CXO J004345 in Bol 194 is highly likely a nova remnant of 1.2 -- 1.3 Mo WD. These WD masses are quite consistent with the temperatures deduced from X-ray spectra. We also present the dependence of nova light curves on the metallicity in the range from [Fe/H]=0.4 to -2.7. Whereas strong optically thick winds are accelerated in Galactic disk novae owing to a large Fe opacity peak, only weak winds occur in Population II novae with low Fe abundance. Thus, nova light curves are systematically slow in low Fe environment. For an extremely low Fe abundance normal nova outbursts may not occur unless the WD is very massive. We encourage V...

  14. Bulge formation in disk galaxies with MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2014-01-01

    The formation of galaxies and their various components can be stringent tests of dark matter models and of gravity theories. In the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model, spheroids are formed through mergers in a strongly hierarchical scenario, and also in the early universe through dynamical friction in clumpy galaxies. More secularly, pseudo-bulges are formed by the inner vertical resonance with bars. The high efficiency of bulge formation is in tension with observations in the local universe of a large amount of bulge-less spiral galaxies. In the present work, the formation of bulges in very gas-rich galaxies, as those in the early universe, is studied in the Milgrom's MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), through multi-grid simulations of the non-linear gravity, including the gas dissipation, star formation and feedback. Clumpy disks are rapidly formed, as in their Newtonian equivalent systems. However, the dynamical friction is not as efficient, in the absence of dark matter halos, and the clumps have no t...

  15. METAL-POOR, COOL GAS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A z = 2.4 STAR-FORMING GALAXY: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR COLD ACCRETION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (NH0=1019.50±0.16 cm-2) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log10(Z/Z ☉) = –2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10–3 solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature 0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM

  16. Four and one more: The formation history and total mass of globular clusters in the Fornax dSph

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, T. J. L.; Fraser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have determined the detailed star formation history and total mass of the globular clusters in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal using archival HST WFPC2 data. Colour-magnitude diagrams were constructed in the F555W and F814W bands and corrected for the effect of Fornax field star contamination, after which we used the routine Talos to derive the quantitative star formation history as a function of age and metallicity. The star formation history of the Fornax globular clusters shows that Fornax 1, 2, 3, and 5 are all dominated by ancient (>10 Gyr) populations. Clusters Fornax 1, 2, and 3 display metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = -2.5, while Fornax 5 is slightly more metal-rich at [Fe/H] = -1.8, consistent with resolved and unresolved metallicity tracers. Conversely, Fornax 4 is dominated by a more metal-rich ([Fe/H] = -1.2) and younger population at 10 Gyr, inconsistent with the other clusters. A lack of stellar populations overlapping with the main body of Fornax argues against the nucleus cluster scenario for Fornax 4. The combined stellar mass in globular clusters as derived from the SFH is (9.57 ± 0.93) × 105 M⊙, which corresponds to 2.5 ± 0.2 percent of the total stellar mass in Fornax. The mass of the four most metal-poor clusters can also be compared to the metal-poor Fornax field to yield a mass fraction of 19.6 ± 3.1 percent. Therefore, the SFH results provide separate supporting evidence for the unusually high mass fraction of the globular clusters compared to the Fornax field population.

  17. Sigma observations of the low mass X-ray binaries of the galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwurm, A.; Denis, M.; Paul, J.; Faisse, S.; Roques, J. P.; Bouchet, L.; Vedrenne, G.; Mandrou, P.; Sunyaev, R.; Churazov, E.

    1995-01-01

    The soft gamma-ray telescope (35-1300 keV) SIGMA aboard the high energy GRANAT space observatory has been monitoring the Galactic Bulge region for more than 2000 h of effective time since March 1990. In the resulting average 35-75 keV image we detected ten sources at a level of greater than 5 standard deviations, 6 of which can be identified with low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB). Among them, one is the 1993 X-ray nova in Ophiuchus (GRS 1726-249), one is an X-ray pulsar (GX 1+4), two are associated with X-ray bursters (GX 354-0 and A 1742-294) and two with bursting X-ray binaries in the globular clusters Terzan 2 and Terzan 1. Their spectral and long term variability behavior as measured by SIGMMA are presented and discussed.

  18. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies. II: NGC 6166

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William E; Whitmore, Bradley C; Gnedin, Oleg Y; Geisler, Douglas; Rothberg, Barry

    2015-01-01

    We present new deep photometry of the globular cluster system (GCS) around NGC 6166, the central supergiant galaxy in Abell 2199. HST data from the ACS and WFC3 cameras in F475W, F814W are used to determine the spatial distribution of the GCS, its metallicity distribution function (MDF), and the dependence of the MDF on galactocentric radius and on GC luminosity. The MDF is extremely broad, with the classic red and blue subpopulations heavily overlapped, but a double-Gaussian model can still formally match the MDF closely. The spatial distribution follows a Sersic-like profile detectably to a projected radius of at least $R_{gc} = 250$ kpc. To that radius, the total number of clusters in the system is N_{GC} = 39000 +- 2000, the global specific frequency is S_N = 11.2 +- 0.6, and 57\\% of the total are blue, metal-poor clusters. The GCS may fade smoothly into the Intra-Cluster Medium of A2199; we see no clear transition from the core of the galaxy to the cD halo or the ICM. The radial distribution, projected e...

  19. Metallicity distributions of globular cluster systems in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Eerik, H; Eerik, Helina; Tenjes, Peeter

    2002-01-01

    We collected a sample of 100 galaxies for which different observers have determined colour indices of globular cluster candidates. The sample includes representatives of galaxies of various morphological types and different luminosities. Colour indices (in most cases (V-I), but also (B-I) and (C-T1)) were transformed into metallicities [Fe/H] according to a relation by Kissler-Patig (1998). These data were analysed with the KMM software in order to estimate similarity of the distribution with uni- or bimodal Gaussian distribution. We found that 45 of 100 systems have bimodal metallicity distributions. Mean metallicity of the metal-poor component for these galaxies is = -1.40\\pm 0.02, of the metal-rich component = -0.69 \\pm 0.03. Dispersions of the distributions are 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. Distribution of unimodal metallicities is rather wide. These data will be analysed in a subsequent paper in order to find correlations with parameters of galaxies and galactic environment.

  20. Metallicity distributions of globular cluster systems in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerik, H.; Tenjes, P.

    We collected a sample of 100 galaxies for which different observers have determined colour indices of globular cluster candidates. The sample includes representatives of galaxies of various morphological types and different luminosities. Colour indices (in most cases (V-I), but also (B-I) and (C-T_1)) were transformed into metallicities [Fe/H] according to a relation by Kissler-Patig (1998). These data were analysed with the KMM software in order to estimate similarity of the distribution with uni- or bimodal Gaussian distribution. We found that 45 of 100 systems have bimodal metallicity distributions. Mean metallicity of the metal-poor component for these galaxies is = -1.40 +/- 0.02, of the metal-rich component = -0.69 +/- 0.03. Dispersions of the distributions are 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. Distribution of unimodal metallicities is rather wide. These data will be analysed in a subsequent paper in order to find correlations with parameters of galaxies and galactic environment.

  1. Multivariate Analysis of the Globular Clusters in M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sukanta; Chattopadhayay, Tanuka; Davoust, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    An objective classification of 147 globular clusters (GCs) in the inner region of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 is carried out with the help of two methods of multivariate analysis. First, independent component analysis (ICA) is used to determine a set of independent variables that are linear combinations of various observed parameters (mostly Lick indices) of the GCs. Next, K-means cluster analysis (CA) is applied on the independent components (ICs), to find the optimum number of homogeneous groups having an underlying structure. The properties of the four groups of GCs thus uncovered are used to explain the formation mechanism of the host galaxy. It is suggested that M87 formed in two successive phases. First a monolithic collapse, which gave rise to an inner group of metal-rich clusters with little systematic rotation and an outer group of metal-poor clusters in eccentric orbits. In a second phase, the galaxy accreted low-mass satellites in a dissipationless fashion, from the gas of which the two other groups of GCs formed. Evidence is given for a blue stellar population in the more metal rich clusters, which we interpret by Helium enrichment. Finally, it is found that the clusters of M87 differ in some of their chemical properties (NaD, TiO1, light-element abundances) from GCs in our Galaxy and M31.

  2. Multiple stellar populations in the globular cluster NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Carretta, Eugenio; Gratton, Raffaele; Bragaglia, A; D'Orazi, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] Detailed chemical tagging of individual stellar populations in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 1851 is presented. Abundances are derived from FLAMES spectra for the largest sample of giants (124) ever analysed in this peculiar GC using O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Sc, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Dy. We confirm a [Fe/H] spread in this GC, but too small to clearly separate different sub-populations. We instead propose a classification using a combination of Fe and Ba (much more abundant in the more metal-rich group) through a cluster analysis: we separated stars into a metal-rich (MR) and a metal-poor (MP) populations, each of them showing a Na-O anticorrelation, signature of genuine GC, although with different ratios of primordial to polluted stars. The ratio [alpha/H] tracks iron and is higher in the MR population, suggesting an additional contribution by core-collapse supernovae. The MR population shows a larger enrichment in s-process elements compared to the MP one. This i...

  3. The origins of light and heavy r-process elements identified by chemical tagging of metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration gamma-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A>130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process pr...

  4. Red galaxies with pseudo-bulges in the SDSS: closer to disk galaxies or to classical bulges?

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, B; Antón, S; Gomes, J M; Papaderos, P

    2015-01-01

    Pseudo-bulges are expected to markedly differ from classical, quasi-monolithically forming bulges in their star formation history (SFH) and chemical abundance patterns. To test this simple expectation, we carry out a comparative structural and spectral synthesis analysis of 106 red, massive galaxies issued from the SDSS, subdivided into bulgeless, pseudo-bulge and classical bulge galaxies according to their photometric characteristics, and further obeying a specific selection to minimize uncertainties in the analysis and ensure an unbiased derivation and comparison of SFHs. Our 2D photometry analysis suggests that disks underlying pseudo-bulges typically have larger exponential scale lengths than bulgeless galaxies, despite similar integral disk luminosities. Spectral synthesis models of the stellar emission within the 3" SDSS fiber aperture reveal a clear segregation of bulgeless and pseudo-bulge galaxies from classical bulges on the luminosity-weighted planes of age-metallicity and mass-metallicity, though ...

  5. An optical transmission spectrum of the transiting hot Jupiter in the metal-poor WASP-98 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, L.; Giordano, M.; Mollière, P.; Southworth, J.; Brahm, R.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, Th.

    2016-09-01

    The WASP-98 planetary system represents a rare case of a hot Jupiter hosted by a metal-poor main-sequence star. We present a follow-up study of this system based on multiband photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy. Two new transit events of WASP-98 b were simultaneously observed in four passbands (g', r', i', z'), using the telescope-defocusing technique, yielding eight high-precision light curves with point-to-point scatters of less than 1 mmag. We also collected three spectra of the parent star with a high-resolution spectrograph, which we used to remeasure its spectral characteristics, in particular its metallicity. We found this to be very low, [Fe/H] = -0.49 ± 0.10, but larger than was previously reported, [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.19. We used these new photometric and spectroscopic data to refine the orbital and physical properties of this planetary system, finding that the stellar and planetary mass measurements are significantly larger than those in the discovery paper. In addition, the multiband light curves were used to construct an optical transmission spectrum of WASP-98 b and probe the characteristics of its atmosphere at the terminator. We measured a lower radius at z' compared with the other three passbands. The maximum variation is between the r' and z' bands, has a confidence level of roughly 6σ and equates to 5.5 pressure scale heights. We compared this spectrum to theoretical models, investigating several possible types of atmospheres, including hazy, cloudy, cloud-free, and clear atmospheres with titanium and vanadium oxide opacities. We could not find a good fit to the observations, except in the extreme case of a clear atmosphere with TiO and VO opacities, in which the condensation of Ti and V was suppressed. As this case is unrealistic, our results suggest the presence of an additional optical-absorbing species in the atmosphere of WASP-98 b, of unknown chemical nature.

  6. An optical transmission spectrum of the transiting hot Jupiter in the metal-poor WASP-98 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, L.; Giordano, M.; Mollière, P.; Southworth, J.; Brahm, R.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, Th.

    2016-06-01

    The WASP-98 planetary system represents a rare case of a hot Jupiter hosted by a metal-poor main-sequence star. We present a follow-up study of this system based on multi-band photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy. Two new transit events of WASP-98 b were simultaneously observed in four passbands (g', r', i', z'), using the telescope-defocussing technique, yielding eight high-precision light curves with point-to-point scatters of less than 1 mmag. We also collected three spectra of the parent star with a high-resolution spectrograph, which we used to remeasure its spectral characteristics, in particular its metallicity. We found this to be very low, [Fe/H] = -0.49 ± 0.10, but larger than was previously reported, [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.19. We used these new photometric and spectroscopic data to refine the orbital and physical properties of this planetary system, finding that the stellar and planetary mass measurements are significantly larger than those in the discovery paper. In addition, the multi-band light curves were used to construct an optical transmission spectrum of WASP-98 b and probe the characteristics of its atmosphere at the terminator. We measured a lower radius at z' compared with the other three passbands. The maximum variation is between the r' and z' bands, has a confidence level of roughly 6σ and equates to 5.5 pressure scale heights. We compared this spectrum to theoretical models, investigating several possible types of atmospheres, including hazy, cloudy, cloud-free, and clear atmospheres with titanium and vanadium oxide opacities. We could not find a good fit to the observations, except in the extreme case of a clear atmosphere with TiO and VO opacities, in which the condensation of Ti and V was suppressed. As this case is unrealistic, our results suggest the presence of an additional optical-absorbing species in the atmosphere of WASP-98 b, of unknown chemical nature.

  7. The hydraulic bulge tester in fracture studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory and practice of hydrostatic bulge testing of thin diaphragms is reviewed. Circular, elliptical and rectangular orifices are considered in terms of pressure vs height of dome plots, strain-distributions etc. Differences in modes of failure (location of necks, existence or not of pressure peaks) between circular and rectangular diaphragms are highlighted both for metals and polymers. The use of the bulger to construct forming limit diagrams (FLD) and fracture forming limit diagrams (FFLD) is described. How bulging is used for both fracture initiating and propagation studies is indicated, particularly as it may relate to the prospect for results from a 'giant' bulger of 1 m diameter orifice to be used for investigating thick plate. (author)

  8. FORS2/VLT survey of Milky Way globular clusters II. Fe and Mg abundances of 51 Milky Way globular clusters on a homogeneous scale

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Bruno; Saviane, Ivo; Held, Enrico; Da Costa, Gary; Ortolani, Sergio; Gullieuszik, Marco; Vasquez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    (ABRIDGED) Globular clusters trace the formation and evolution of the Milky Way and surrounding galaxies, and outline their chemical enrichment history. To accomplish these tasks it is important to have large samples of clusters with homogeneous data and analysis to derive kinematics, chemical abundances, ages and locations. We obtain homogeneous metallicities and alpha-element enhancement for over 800 red giant stars in 51 Galactic bulge, disc, and halo globular clusters that are among the most distant and/or highly reddened in the Galaxy's globular cluster system. We observed R ~ 2000 spectra in the wavelength interval 456-586 nm and applied full spectrum fitting technique. We compared the mean abundances of all clusters with previous work and with field stars. We used the relation between mean metallicity and horizontal branch morphology defined by all clusters to select outliers for discussion. We find our metallicities are comparable to those derived from high-resolution data to within sigma = 0.08 dex o...

  9. Chemical abundances in the old LMC globular cluster Hodge 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateluna, R.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Grocholski, A.; Sarajedini, A.; Cole, A.; Smith, V.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The study of globular clusters is one of the most powerful ways to learn about a galaxy's chemical evolution and star formation history. They preserve a record of chemical abundances at the time of their formation and are relatively easy to age date. The most detailed knowledge of the chemistry of a star is given by high resolution spectroscopy, which provides accurate abundances for a wide variety of elements, yielding a wealth of information on the various processes involved in the cluster's chemical evolution. Aims: We studied red giant branch (RGB) stars in an old, metal-poor globular cluster of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Hodge 11 (H11), in order to measure as many elements as possible. The goal is to compare its chemical trends to those in the Milky Way halo and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in order to help understand the formation history of the LMC and our own Galaxy. Methods: We have obtained high resolution VLT/FLAMES spectra of eight RGB stars in H11. The spectral range allowed us to measure a variety of elements, including Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti, Si, Na, O, Ni, Cr, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Ba, La, Eu and Y. Results: We derived a mean [Fe/H] = -2.00 ± 0.04, in the middle of previous determinations. We found low [α/Fe] abundances for our targets, more comparable to values found in dwarf spheroidal galaxies than in the Galactic halo, suggesting that if H11 is representative of its ancient populations then the LMC does not represent a good halo building block. Our [Ca/Fe] value is about 0.3 dex less than that of halo stars used to calibrate the Ca IR triplet technique for deriving metallicity. A hint of a Na abundance spread is observed. Its stars lie at the extreme high O, low Na end of the Na:O anti-correlation displayed by Galactic and LMC globular clusters. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal ID 082.B-0458).Table 4 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Explaining the Formation of Bulges with MOND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Françoise

    In the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, bulges easily form through galaxy mergers, either major or minor, or through clumpy discs in the early universe, where clumps are driven to the center by dynamical friction. Also pseudobulges, with a more discy morphology and kinematics, can form more slowly through secular evolution of a bar, where resonant stars are elevated out of the plane, in a peanut/box shape. As a result, in CDM cosmological simulations, it is very difficult to find a bulgeless galaxy, while they are observed very frequently in the local universe. A different picture emerges in alternative models of the missing mass problem. In MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics), galaxy mergers are much less frequent, since the absence of dark matter halos reduces the dynamical friction between two galaxies. Also, while clumpy galaxies lead to rapid classical bulge formation in CDM, the inefficient dynamical friction with MOND in the early-universe galaxies prevents the clumps to coalesce together in the center to form spheroids. This leads to less frequent and less massive classical bulges. Bars in MOND are more frequent and stronger, and have a more constant pattern speed, which modifies significantly the pseudobulge morphology. The fraction of pseudobulges is expected to be dominant in MOND.

  11. Explaining the formation of bulges with MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2015-01-01

    In the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, bulges easily form through galaxy mergers, either major or minor, or through clumpy disks in the early universe, where clumps are driven to the center by dynamical friction. Also pseudo-bulges, with a more disky morphology and kinematics, can form more slowly through secular evolution of a bar, where resonant stars are elevated out of the plane, in a peanut/box shape. As a result, in CDM cosmological simulations, it is very difficult to find a bulgeless galaxy, while they are observed very frequently in the local universe. A different picture emerges in alternative models of the missing mass problem. In MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics), galaxy mergers are much less frequent, since the absence of dark matter halos reduces the dynamical friction between two galaxies. Also, while clumpy galaxies lead to rapid classical bulge formation in CDM, the inefficient dynamical friction with MOND in the early-universe galaxies prevents the clumps to coalesce together in the center...

  12. Are there carbon stars in the Bulge?

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y K

    1998-01-01

    The bulge carbon stars have been a mystery since their discovery, because they are about 2.5mag too faint to be regarded as genuine AGB stars, if located inside the metal-rich bulge (m-M=14.5mag). Part of the mystery can be solved if these carbon stars are related to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (SDG; m-M=17.0mag). They are in that case not old and metal-rich, but young, ~0.1 Gyr, with SMC-like metallicity. The sigma_RV=113+/-14 km/s radial velocity dispersion of the stars appears to be consistent with bulge membership. On the other hand, a similar velocity dispersion could be the result from an induced star formation event when the SDG crosses the galactic midplane. It is suggested that the carbon stars are tracers of such an event and that they therefore are located at distances related to the SDG. However, the majority of the carbon stars are not member of the SDG, nor are they similar to the C-stars which are member of the SDG. The radial velocities can be used to determine a possible membership to the SD...

  13. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Barbuy, B; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Renzini, A; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A; Trevisan, M; Dutra, N

    2013-01-01

    Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut beween the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Gala...

  14. Secular- and merger-built bulges in barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Corsini, E M; Aguerri, J A L

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We study the incidence, as well as the nature, of composite bulges in a sample of 10 face-on barred galaxies to constrain the formation and evolutionary processes of the central regions of disk galaxies. We analyze the morphological, photometric, and kinematic properties of each bulge. Then, by using a case-by-case analysis we identify composite bulges and classify every component into a classical or pseudobulge. In addition, bar-related boxy/peanut (B/P) structures were also identified and characterised. We find only three galaxies hosting a single-component bulge (two pseudobulges and one classical bulge). We find evidence of composite bulges coming in two main types based on their formation: secular-built and merger- and secular-built. We call secular-built to composite bulges made of entirely by structures associated with secular processes such as pseudo bulges, central disks, or B/P bulges. We find four composite bulges of this kind in our sample. On the other hand, merger- and secular-built b...

  15. Dependence of the Sr-to-Ba and Sr-to-Eu Ratio on the Nuclear Equation of State in Metal Poor Halo Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Famiano, M A; Aoki, W; Suda, T

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed in which the light r-process element enrichment in metal-poor stars is explained via enrichment from a truncated r-process, or "tr-process." The truncation of the r-process from a generic core-collapse event followed by a collapse into an accretion-induced black hole is examined in the framework of a galactic chemical evolution model. The constraints on this model imposed by observations of extremely metal-poor stars are explained, and the upper limits in the [Sr/Ba] distributions are found to be related to the nuclear equation of state in a collapse scenario. The scatter in [Sr/Ba] and [Sr/Eu] as a function of metallicity has been found to be consistent with turbulent ejection in core collapse supernovae. Adaptations of this model are evaluated to account for the scatter in isotopic observables. This is done by assuming mixing in ejecta in a supernova event.

  16. Metal-Poor, Cool Gas in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z = 2.4 Star-Forming Galaxy: Direct Evidence for Cold Accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Crighton, Neil H M; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2013-01-01

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fuelled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R_perp = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen [N(HI) = 10^(19.50 +/- 0.16) cm^-2] we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log10(Z / Zsolar) = -2.0 +/- 0.17, or (7-15) x 10^-3 solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature 0.1 solar, ten times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool,...

  17. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars in SDSS/SEGUE. I. Carbon Abundance Estimation and Frequency of CEMP Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Masseron, Thomas; Plez, Bertrand; Rockosi, Constance M.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Yanny, Brian; Lucatello, Sara; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its Galactic sub-survey, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N >= 15 Å-1 to a precision better than 0.35 dex for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T eff = [4400, 6700] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0], [Fe/H] = [-4.0, +0.5], and [C/Fe] = [-0.25, +3.5]. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] >= +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ~ -2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ~ -2.4 to [Fe/H] ~ -3.7. Although the number of stars known with [Fe/H] 4.0 remains small, the frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars below this value is around 75%. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] <= -3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] <= -3.5 a roughly constant value. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5, presumably due to the difficulty of identifying CEMP stars among warmer turnoff stars with weak CH G-bands. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = -2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] <= -3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to distance

  18. CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN SDSS/SEGUE. I. CARBON ABUNDANCE ESTIMATION AND FREQUENCY OF CEMP STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sun [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Masseron, Thomas [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Rockosi, Constance M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR7293), Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 04 (France); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Lucatello, Sara [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sivarani, Thirupathi [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd block Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Carollo, Daniela, E-mail: yslee@nmsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonic Research Center, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2019 (Australia)

    2013-11-01

    We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its Galactic sub-survey, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N ≥ 15 Å{sup –1} to a precision better than 0.35 dex for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T {sub eff} = [4400, 6700] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0], [Fe/H] = [–4.0, +0.5], and [C/Fe] = [–0.25, +3.5]. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] ≥ +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ∼ –2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ∼ –2.4 to [Fe/H] ∼ –3.7. Although the number of stars known with [Fe/H] < –4.0 remains small, the frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars below this value is around 75%. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.5; a roughly constant value. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5, presumably due to the difficulty of identifying CEMP stars among warmer turnoff stars with weak CH G-bands. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = –2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3

  19. Globular Clusters and Spur Clusters in NGC 4921, the Brightest Spiral Galaxy in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2016-01-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in Coma. Also we find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3x10^5 M_odot. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions (LF) of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70<(V-I)<1.05) in the halo are estimated to be V(max) =27.11+-0.09 mag and I(max)=26.21+-0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max)=26.25+-0.03 mag. Adopting M_I (max) = -8.56+-0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies, 91+-4 Mpc. Combining this and the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, ...

  20. The chemical composition of a regular halo globular cluster: NGC 5897

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time on the chemical composition of the halo cluster NGC 5897 (R=12.5 kpc), based on chemical abundance ratios for 27 alpha-, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements in seven red giants. From our high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph, we find a mean iron abundance from the neutral species of [Fe/H] = -2.04 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.15 (sys.), which is more metal-poor than implied by previous photometric and low-resolution spectroscopic studies. NGC 5897 is alpha-enhanced (to 0.34 +/- 0.01 dex) and shows Fe-peak element ratios typical of other (metal-poor) halo globular clusters (GCs) with no overall, significant abundance spreads in iron nor in any other heavy element. Like other GCs, NGC 5897 shows a clear Na-O anti-correlation, where we find a prominent primordial population of stars with enhanced O abundances and ~Solar Na/Fe ratios, while two stars are Na-rich, providing chemical proof of the presence of multiple populations in this...

  1. Younger and brighter New distances to globular clusters based on Hipparcos parallax measurements of local subdwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I N

    1997-01-01

    We have used new parallax measurements, obtained by the Hipparcos satellite, of fifteen nearby, metal-poor stars to re-define the subdwarf main-sequence. All of these stars have parallaxes determined to an accuracy of at least 12 %. Comparing these measurements against previous ground-based data for nine stars reveals a systematic offset of 5 %, in the sense that the Hipparcos parallaxes are smaller (i.e. the inferred distances are larger). The availability of the Hipparcos observations expands the local subdwarf sample to the extent that we can separate the stars by abundance into intermediate ([Fe/H] ~ -1.4) and extreme ([Fe/H] ~ -2) subsets. Main-sequence fitting techniques are then used to match stars of the appropriate abundance range to the colour-magnitude diagrams of the seven globular clusters M5, NGC 6752, M13, M15, M92, M30 and M68. We derive respective distance moduli of 14.45, 13.17, 14.48, 15.38, 14.93, 14.95 and 15.29 magnitudes, with formal uncertainties of +/- 0.1 magnitude. The metal-poor sy...

  2. LIGHT-ELEMENT ABUNDANCES OF GIANT STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M71 (NGC 6838)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, M. J. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, Heidelberg (Germany); Pilachowski, C. A.; Vesperini, E. [Astronomy Department, Indiana University Bloomington, Swain West 319, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Johnson, C. I., E-mail: mjcorde@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: catyp@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: evesperi@indiana.edu, E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Aluminum is the heaviest light element displaying large star-to-star variations in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). This element may provide additional insight into the origin of the multiple populations, now known to be common place in GCs, and also the nature of the first-generation stars responsible for a cluster's chemical inhomogeneities. In a previous analysis, we found that unlike more metal-poor GCs, 47 Tuc did not exhibit a strong Na-Al correlation, which motivates a careful study of the similar metallicity but less massive GC M71. We present chemical abundances of O, Na, Al, and Fe for 33 giants in M71 using spectra obtained with the WIYN-Hydra spectrograph. Our spectroscopic analysis finds that similar to 47 Tuc and in contrast with more metal-poor GCs, M71 stars do not exhibit a strong Na-Al correlation and span a relatively narrow range in [Al/Fe], which are characteristics that GC formation models must reproduce.

  3. A CATALOG OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS: WHAT DETERMINES THE SIZE OF A GALAXY'S GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of 422 galaxies with published measurements of their globular cluster (GC) populations. Of these, 248 are E galaxies, 93 are S0 galaxies, and 81 are spirals or irregulars. Among various correlations of the total number of GCs with other global galaxy properties, we find that NGC correlates well though nonlinearly with the dynamical mass of the galaxy bulge Mdyn= 4σe2 Re /G, where σe is the central velocity dispersion and Re the effective radius of the galaxy light profile. We also present updated versions of the GC specific frequency SN and specific mass SM versus host galaxy luminosity and baryonic mass. These graphs exhibit the previously known U-shape: highest SN or SM values occur for either dwarfs or supergiants, but in the midrange of galaxy size (109-1010 L☉) the GC numbers fall along a well-defined baseline value of SN ≅ 1 or SM = 0.1, similar among all galaxy types. Along with other recent discussions, we suggest that this trend may represent the effects of feedback, which systematically inhibited early star formation at either very low or very high galaxy mass, but which had its minimum effect for intermediate masses. Our results strongly reinforce recent proposals that GC formation efficiency appears to be most nearly proportional to the galaxy halo mass Mhalo. The mean 'absolute' efficiency ratio for GC formation that we derive from the catalog data is MGCS/Mhalo = 6 × 10–5. We suggest that the galaxy-to-galaxy scatter around this mean value may arise in part because of differences in the relative timing of GC formation versus field-star formation. Finally, we find that an excellent empirical predictor of total GC population for galaxies of all luminosities is NGC ∼ (Re σe)1.3, a result consistent with fundamental plane scaling relations

  4. Radio Detection Prospects for a Bulge Population of Millisecond Pulsars as Suggested by Fermi-LAT Observations of the Inner Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, F.; Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Weniger, C.

    2016-08-01

    The dense stellar environment of the Galactic center has been proposed to host a large population of as-yet undetected millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Recently, this hypothesis has found support in an analysis of gamma-rays detected using the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite, which revealed an excess of diffuse GeV photons in the inner 15 deg about the Galactic center. The excess can be interpreted as the collective emission of thousands of MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with a spherical distribution strongly peaked toward the Galactic center. In order to fully establish the MSP interpretation, it is essential to find corroborating evidence in multi-wavelength searches, most notably through the detection of radio pulsations from individual bulge MSPs. Based on globular cluster observations and gamma-ray emission from the inner Galaxy, we investigate the prospects for detecting MSPs in the Galactic bulge. While previous pulsar surveys failed to identify this population, we demonstrate that upcoming large-area surveys of this region should lead to the detection of dozens of bulge MSPs. Additionally, we show that deep targeted searches of unassociated Fermi sources should be able to detect the first few MSPs in the bulge. The prospects for these deep searches are enhanced by a tentative gamma-ray/radio correlation that we infer from high-latitude gamma-ray MSPs. Such detections would constitute the first clear discoveries of field MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with far-reaching implications for gamma-ray observations, the formation history of the central Milky Way, and strategy optimization for future deep radio pulsar surveys.

  5. The Demographics of galactic bulges in the SDSS database

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Keunho; Oh, Sree; Jeong, Hyunjin; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new database of our two-dimensional bulge-disk decompositions for 14,233 galaxies drawn from SDSS DR12 in order to examine the properties of bulges residing in the local universe ($0.005 < z < 0.05$). We performed decompositions in $g$ and $r$ bands by utilizing the {\\sc{galfit}} software. The bulge colors and bulge-to-total ratios are found to be sensitive to the details in the decomposition technique, and hence we hereby provide full details of our method. The $g-r$ colors of b...

  6. Which bulges are favoured by barred S0 galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    S0 galaxies are known to host classical bulges with a broad range of size and mass, while some such S0s are barred and some not. The origin of the bars has remained as a long-standing problem -- what made bar formation possible in certain S0s? By analysing a large sample of S0s with classical bulges observed by the Spitzer space telescope, we find that most of our barred S0s host comparatively low-mass classical bulges, typically with bulge-to-total ratio ($B/T$) less than $0.5$; whereas S0s with more massive classical bulges than these do not host any bar. Furthermore, we find that amongst the barred S0s, there is a trend for the longer and massive bars to be associated with comparatively bigger and massive classical bulges -- possibly suggesting bar growth being facilitated by these classical bulges. In addition, we find that the bulge effective radius is always less than the bar effective radius --indicating an interesting synergy between the host classical bulge and bars being maintained while bar growth ...

  7. Evolution of long-lived globular cluster stars. II. Sodium abundance variations on the asymptotic giant branch as a function of globular cluster age and metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, Corinne; Chantereau, William

    2016-02-01

    Context. Long-lived stars in globular clusters exhibit chemical peculiarities with respect to their halo counterparts. In particular, sodium-enriched stars are identified as belonging to a second stellar population born from cluster material contaminated by the hydrogen-burning ashes of a first stellar population. Their presence and numbers in different locations of the colour-magnitude diagram provide important constraints on the self-enrichment scenarios. In particular, the ratio of Na-poor to Na-rich stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) has recently been found to vary strongly from cluster to cluster (NGC 6752, 47 Tuc, and NGC 2808), while it is relatively constant on the red giant branch (RGB). Aims: We investigate the impact of both age and metallicity on the theoretical sodium spread along the AGB within the framework of the fast rotating massive star (FRMS) scenario for globular cluster self-enrichment. Methods: We computed evolution models of low-mass stars for four different metallicities ([Fe/H] = -2.2, -1.75, -1.15, -0.5) assuming the initial helium-sodium abundance correlation for second population stars derived from the FRMS models and using mass loss prescriptions on the RGB with two realistic values of the free parameter in the Reimers formula. Results: Based on this grid of models we derive the theoretical critical initial mass for a star born with a given helium, sodium, and metal content that determines whether that star will climb or not the AGB. This allows us to predict the maximum sodium content expected on the AGB for globular clusters as a function of both their metallicity and age. We find that (1) at a given metallicity, younger clusters are expected to host AGB stars exhibiting a larger sodium spread than older clusters and (2) at a given age, higher sodium dispersion along the AGB is predicted in the most metal-poor globular clusters than in the metal-rich ones. We also confirm the strong impact of the mass loss rate in the earlier

  8. Radio Emission from Globular Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Radio emission of globular clusters is studied by analyzing the VLA radio survey data of the NVSS and FIRST. We find that 13 clusters have radio sources within their half-mass radii of clusters. Sources detected previously in NGC 7078and NGC 6440 are identified. Pulsars in NGC 6121, NGC 6440 and NGC 7078cannot be detected because of the insufficient survey sensitivity and resolution.There may be a pulsar in the core of Terzan 1. The nature of the extended radio source near the core of NGC 6440 remains unclear. In the core of a globular cluster,there may be many neutron stars or an intermediate mass black hole, but this cannot be clarified with the current radio observations.

  9. FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE GALACTIC BULGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zoccali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance as the only galactic spheroid fully resolved in stars, our knowledge of the Galacticbulge has been historically quite poor. This was mainly due to the stellar crowding, to the heavy interstellar absorption in the plane, and to the foreground disk contamination. However, in the last few years, with the use of near IR detectors, 8 meter class (or space based telescopes, and the advent of multi-object spectrographs, we have learnt how to minimize the above e ects. This paper reviews the basic properties (structural parameters, age, chemical content of the Galactic bulge, as determined in the last 4{5 years.

  10. Bulges of disk galaxies at intermediate redshifts. I. Samples with and without bulges in the Groth Strip Survey

    OpenAIRE

    L. Domínguez Palmero; M. Balcells; Erwin, P; Prieto, M.; Cristóbal Hornillos, D.; Eliche Moral, María del Carmen; Guzmán, R.

    2008-01-01

    Context. Analysis of bulges to redshifts of up to z∽1 have provided ambiguous results as to whether bulges as a class are old structures akin to elliptical galaxies or younger products of the evolution of their host disks. Aims. We aim to define a sample of intermediate-z disk galaxies harbouring central bulges, and a complementary sample of disk galaxies without measurable bulges. We intend to provide colour profiles for both samples, as well as measurements of nuclear, disk, and global colo...

  11. Rotation and flattening of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, S. M.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring globular cluster ellipticities and the results of such measurements are reviewed, and the processes that determine the shapes of globular clusters and the ways in which they change with time are discussed. The use of the virial tensor theorem to study the connection between the global rotation, velocity anisotropy, and the shape of a self-gravitating system is addressed, and the employment of N-body models to simulate the evolution of globular clusters with initially anisotropic velocity distributions is examined. The application of a simple evaporation model and Fokker-Planck integrations to study the two-body diffusion in globular clusters is reviewed.

  12. Bulge-driven Fueling of Seed Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, KwangHo; Ricotti, Massimo; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Bogdanović, Tamara; Wise, John H.

    2016-02-01

    We examine radiation-regulated accretion onto intermediate-mass and massive black holes (BHs) embedded in a bulge component. Using spherically symmetric one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, we track the growth of BHs accreting from a cold, neutral gas reservoir with temperature {T}∞ ={10}4 K. We find that the accretion rate of BHs embedded in bulges is proportional to {r}{{B,eff}}/{r}{{B}}, where rB,eff is the increased effective Bondi radius that includes the gravitational potential of the bulge, and rB is the Bondi radius of the BH. The radiative feedback from the BH suppresses the cold accretion rate to ˜1% of the Bondi rate when a bulge is not considered. However, we find that the BH fueling rate increases rapidly when the bulge mass Mbulge is greater than the critical value of ˜106 M⊙ and is proportional to {r}{{B,eff}}/{r}{{B}}≃ {M}{{bulge}}/{M}{{BH}}, where {M}{{BH}} is the BH mass. Since the critical bulge mass is independent of the central BH mass, the growth rate of BHs with masses {M}{{BH}}={10}2, 104, and 106 M⊙ exhibits distinct dependencies on the bulge-to-BH mass ratio. Our results imply that light seed BHs (≲102 M⊙), which might be the remnants of the Pop III stars, cannot grow through accretion coevally with the early assembly of the bulge of the host galaxies until the bulge reaches the critical mass. However, massive BH seeds (≳105 M⊙), which may form via direct collapse, are more likely to be embedded in a supercritical bulge, and thus can grow efficiently coupling to the host galaxies and driving the early evolution of the MBH-σ relationship.

  13. FORS2/VLT survey of Milky Way globular clusters. II. Fe and Mg abundances of 51 Milky Way globular clusters on a homogeneous scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, B.; Barbuy, B.; Saviane, I.; Held, E. V.; Da Costa, G. S.; Ortolani, S.; Gullieuszik, M.; Vásquez, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Globular clusters trace the formation and evolution of the Milky Way and surrounding galaxies, and outline their chemical enrichment history. To accomplish these tasks it is important to have large samples of clusters with homogeneous data and analysis to derive kinematics, chemical abundances, ages and locations. Aims: We obtain homogeneous metallicities and α-element enhancement for 51 Galactic bulge, disc, and halo globular clusters that are among the most distant and/or highly reddened in the Galaxy's globular cluster system. We also provide membership selection based on stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. The implications of our results are discussed. Methods: We observed R ~ 2000 spectra in the wavelength interval 456-586 nm for over 800 red giant stars in 51 Galactic globular clusters. We applied full spectrum fitting with the code ETOILE together with libraries of observed and synthetic spectra. We compared the mean abundances of all clusters with previous work and with field stars. We used the relation between mean metallicity and horizontal branch morphology defined by all clusters to select outliers for discussion. Results: [Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], and [α/Fe] were derived in a consistent way for almost one-third of all Galactic globular clusters. We find our metallicities are comparable to those derived from high-resolution data to within σ = 0.08 dex over the interval -2.5chemical evolution of the host galaxy and to detect interesting objects for follow-up at higher resolution and with forthcoming giant telescopes. The technique used here can also be applied to globular cluster systems in nearby galaxies with current instruments and to distant galaxies with the advent of ELTs. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory/Paranal, Chile, under programmes 68.B-0482(A), 69.D-0455(A), 71.D-0219(A), 077.D-0775(A), and 089.D-0493(B).Full Tables 1 and A.2 with the derived average parameters for the 758 red giant

  14. The Chemical Composition of Red Giant Branch Stars in the Galactic Globular Clusters NGC 6342 and NGC 6366

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Christian I.; Caldwell, Nelson; Rich, R. Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Hsyu, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances for red giant branch stars in the Galactic bulge globular clusters NGC 6342 and NGC 6366. The velocities and abundances are based on measurements of high resolution (R > 20,000) spectra obtained with the MMT-Hectochelle and WIYN-Hydra spectrographs. We find that NGC 6342 has a heliocentric radial velocity of +112.5 km/s (sigma = 8.6 km/s), NGC 6366 has a heliocentric radial velocity of -122.3 km/s (sigma = 1.5 km/s), and that both clusters ...

  15. Bars rejuvenating bulges? Evidence from stellar population analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Paula

    2011-01-01

    We obtained stellar ages and metallicities via spectrum fitting for a sample of 575 bulges with spectra available from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The structural properties of the galaxies have been studied in detail in Gadotti (2009b) and the sample contains 251 bulges in galaxies with bars. Using the whole sample, where galaxy stellar mass distributions for barred and unbarred galaxies are similar, we find that bulges in barred and unbarred galaxies occupy similar loci in the age vs. metallicity plane. However, the distribution of bulge ages in barred galaxies shows an excess of populations younger than ~ 4 Gyr, when compared to bulges in unbarred galaxies. Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics confirm that the age distributions are different with a significance of 99.94%. If we select sub-samples for which the bulge stellar mass distributions are similar for barred and unbarred galaxies, this excess vanishes for galaxies with bulge mass log M < 10.1 M_Sun while for more massive galaxies we find a bimodal bulg...

  16. Stellar Ages through the Corners of the Boxy Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, E; Renzini, A; Brown, T M; Gonzalez, O; Minniti, D; Debattista, Victor P; Mayer, L

    2013-01-01

    In some scenarios for the formation of the Milky Way bulge the stellar population at the edges of the boxy bulge may be younger than those on the minor axis, or close to the Galactic center. So far the only bulge region where deep color-magnitude diagrams have been obtained is indeed along the minor axis. To overcome this limitation, we aim at age-dating the bulge stellar populations far away from the bulge minor axis. Color-magnitude diagrams and luminosity functions have been obtained from deep near-IR VLT/HAWK-I images taken at the two Southern corners of the boxy bulge, i.e., near the opposite edges of the Galactic bar. The foreground disk contamination has been statistically removed using a pure disk field observed with the same instrument and located approximately at similar Galactic latitudes of the two bulge fields, and 30deg in longitude away from the Galactic center. For each bulge field, mean reddening and distance are determined using the position of red clump stars, and the metallicity distributi...

  17. Bulge-driven Fueling of Seed Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Park, KwangHo; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Bogdanović, Tamara; Wise, John H

    2015-01-01

    We examine radiation-regulated accretion onto intermediate-mass and massive black holes (BHs) embedded in a bulge component. Using spherically symmetric one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, we track the growth of BHs accreting from a cold, neutral gas reservoir with temperature T=10^4 K. We find that the accretion rate of BHs embedded in bulges is proportional to r_{B,eff}/r_B, where r_{B,eff} is the increased effective Bondi radius that includes the gravitational potential of the bulge, and r_B is the Bondi radius of the BH. The radiative feedback from the BH suppresses the cold accretion rate to ~1 percent of the Bondi rate when a bulge is not considered. However, we find that the BH fueling rate increases rapidly when the bulge mass M_bulge is greater than the critical value of 10^6 M_sun and is proportional to M_bulge. Since the critical bulge mass is independent of the central BH mass M_{BH}, the growth rate of BHs with masses of 10^2, 10^4, and 10^6 M_sun exhibits distinct dependencies o...

  18. Colors of intermediate z bulges in the goya Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Domínguez-Palmero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronology of bulge and disk formation is a major unsolved issue in galaxy forma- tion, which impacts on our global understand- ing of the Hubble sequence. We present col- ors of the nuclear regions of intermediate- redshift disk galaxies, with the aim of obtain- ing empirical information of ages of bulges at 0:1 < z < 1:3.

  19. Improved Co I log(gf) & hfs data and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun & Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James E.; Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.

    2016-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 898 lines of the first spectrum of cobalt (Co I) from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with a 1m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high resolution echelle spectrometer are reported. Radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements are combined with the branching fractions to determine accurate log(gf)s for the 898 lines. Selected published hyperfine structure (hfs) constants for levels of neutral Co are used to generate complete hfs component patterns for 195 transitions of Co I. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Co abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log eps(Co) = 4.955 ± 0.007 (sigma = 0.059) based on 82 Co I lines and log eps(Co) = 2.785 ± 0.008 (sigma = 0.065) based on 66 Co I lines respectively. A Saha balance test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is performed using 16 UV lines of Co II, and good agreement is found with the Co I result in this metal-poor ([Fe I /H] = -2.32, [Fe II /H] = -2.32) dwarf star. The resulting value of [Co/Fe] = +0.14 supports a rise of Co/Fe at low metallicity that has been suggested in other studies. These new Co I data are part of a continuing effort to explore the limits of 1D/LTE photospheric models in metal-poor stars and to determine the relative abundance of Fe-group elements at low metallicity. This work is supported in part by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (J.E.L.), by NSF grant AST-1211055 (J.E.L.), and by NSF grant AST-1211585 (C.S.).

  20. Kinematics of a globular cluster with an extended profile: NGC5694

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, M; Sollima, A; Catelan, M; Dalessandro, E; Correnti, M; D'Orazi, V; Cortes, C; Amigo, P

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the kinematics of the remote globular cluster NGC5694 based on GIRAFFE@VLT medium resolution spectra. A sample of 165 individual stars selected to lie on the Red Giant Branch in the cluster Color Magnitude Diagram was considered. Using radial velocity and metallicity from Calcium triplet, we were able to select 83 bona-fide cluster members. The addition of six previously known members leads to a total sample of 89 cluster giants with typical uncertainties <1.0 km/s in their radial velocity estimates. The sample covers a wide range of projected distances from the cluster center, from ~0.2 arcmin to 6.5 arcmin = 23 half-light radii (r_h). We find only very weak rotation, as typical of metal-poor globular clusters. The velocity dispersion gently declines from a central value of sigma=6.1 km/s to sigma = 2.5 km/s at ~2 arcmin = 7.1= r_h, then it remainins flat out to the next (and last) measured point of the dispersion profile, at ~4 arcmin = 14.0 r_h, at odds with the predictions of isot...

  1. Deep Gemini/GMOS imaging of an extremely isolated globular cluster in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    MacKey, A D; Irwin, M J; Martin, N F; Huxor, A P; Tanvir, N R; Chapman, S C; Ibata, R A; Lewis, G F; McConnachie, A W

    2009-01-01

    We report on deep imaging of a remote M31 globular cluster, MGC1, obtained with Gemini/GMOS. Our colour-magnitude diagram for this object extends ~5 magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch and exhibits features consistent with an ancient metal-poor stellar population, including a long, well-populated horizontal branch. The red giant branch locus suggests MGC1 has a metal abundance [M/H] ~ -2.3. We measure the distance to MGC1 and find that it lies ~160 kpc in front of M31 with a distance modulus of 23.95 +/- 0.06. Combined with its large projected separation of 117 kpc from M31 this implies a deprojected radius of Rgc = 200 +/- 20 kpc, rendering it the most isolated known globular cluster in the Local Group by some considerable margin. We construct a radial brightness profile for MGC1 and show that it is both centrally compact and rather luminous, with Mv = -9.2. Remarkably, the cluster profile shows no evidence for a tidal limit and we are able to trace it to a radius of at least 450 pc, and possibl...

  2. The normal chemistry of multiple stellar populations in the dense globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80)

    CERN Document Server

    Carretta, E; Gratton, R G; D'Orazi, V; Lucatello, S; Sollima, A; Momany, Y; Catanzaro, G; Leone, F

    2015-01-01

    We present the abundance analysis of 82 red giant branch stars in the dense, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80), the largest sample of stars analyzed in this way for this cluster. From high resolution UVES spectra of 14 stars and intermediate resolution GIRAFFE spectra for the other stars we derived abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu. On our UVES metallicity scale the mean metal abundance of M 80 is [Fe/H]=-1.791+/-0.006+/-0.076 (+/-statistical +/-systematic error) with rms=0.023 (14 stars). M 80 shows star to star variations in proton-capture elements, and the extension of the Na-O anticorrelation perfectly fit the relations with (i) total cluster mass, (ii) horizontal branch morphology, and (iii) cluster concentration previously found by our group. The chemistry of multiple stellar populations in M 80 does not look extreme. The cluster is also a typical representative of halo globular clusters for what concerns the pattern o...

  3. Proper motions and membership probabilities of stars in the region of globular cluster NGC 6809

    CERN Document Server

    Sariya, Devesh P; Bellini, A

    2012-01-01

    NGC 6809 is a luminous metal-poor halo globular cluster that is relatively easy to study due to its proximity and low concentration. Because of its high Galactic latitude (b = -23deg), interstellar reddening and contamination is not very high. We aim to determine the relative proper motion and membership probability of the stars in the wide area of globular cluster NGC 6809. To target cluster members reliably during spectroscopic surveys and both spatial and radial distributions in the cluster outskirts without including field stars, a good proper motion and membership probability catalogue of NGC 6809 is required.The archival data of two epochs with a time-base line of 7.1 years have been collected with Wide Field Imager (WFI) mounted on the 2.2m MPG/ESO telescope. The CCD images of both epochs have been reduced using the astrometric techniques as described in Anderson et al. (2006). The calibrated UBVI magnitudes have been derived using Stetson's secondary standard stars. We derived the relative proper moti...

  4. The IMF of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars and the Probe into the Star-Formation Process of the Milky Way

    OpenAIRE

    Komiya, Yutaka; Suda, Takuma; Habe, Asao; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the star formation history of the Galaxy, based on the observations of extremely metal-poor stars (EMP) in the Galactic halo, to gain an insight into the evolution and structure formation in the early universe. The initialmass function (IMF) of EMP stars is derived from the observed fraction of carbon-enhanced EXP (CEMP) stars among the EMP survivors, which are thought to originate from the evolution in the close binary systems with mass transfer. Relying upon the theory of the evo...

  5. The Diverse Origins of Neutron-Capture Elements in the Metal-Poor Star HD 94028: Possible Detection of Products of i-process Nucleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roederer, Ian U.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the composition and nucleosynthetic origins of the heavy elements in the metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-1.62+/-0.09) star HD94028. Previous studies revealed that this star is mildly enhanced in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process; e.g., [Pb/Fe]=+0.79+/-0.32) and rapid neutron-capture process (r-process; e.g., [Eu/Fe]=+0.22+/-0.12), including unusually large molybdenum ([Mo/Fe]=+0.97+/-0.16) and ruthenium ([Ru/Fe]=+0.69+/-0.17) enhancements. ...

  6. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. III. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars - CEMP-s stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Placco, V. M.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Detailed spectroscopic studies of metal-poor halo stars have highlighted the important role of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in understanding the early production and ejection of carbon in the Galaxy and in identifying the progenitors of the CEMP stars among the first stars formed after the Big Bang. Recent work has also classified the CEMP stars by absolute carbon abundance, A(C), into high- and low-C bands, mostly populated by binary and single stars, respectively. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binary systems among the CEMP-s stars, which exhibit strong enhancements of neutron-capture elements associated with the s-process. This allows us to test whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their dramatic carbon excesses. Methods: We have systematically monitored the radial velocities of a sample of 22 CEMP-s stars for several years with ~monthly, high-resolution, low S/N échelle spectra obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) at La Palma, Spain. From these spectra, radial velocities with an accuracy of ≈100 m s-1 were determined by cross-correlation with optimised templates. Results: Eighteen of the 22 stars exhibit clear orbital motion, yielding a binary frequency of 82 ± 10%, while four stars appear to be single (18 ± 10%). We thus confirm that the binary frequency of CEMP-s stars is much higher than for normal metal-poor giants, but not 100% as previously claimed. Secure orbits are determined for eleven of the binaries and provisional orbits for six long-period systems (P > 3000 days), and orbital circularisation timescales are discussed. Conclusions: The conventional scenario of local mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant branch (AGB) binary companion does appear to account for the chemical composition of most CEMP-s stars. However, the excess of C and s-process elements in some single CEMP-s stars was apparently transferred to their

  7. Another Faint UV Object Associated with a Globular Cluster X-Ray Source The Case of M92

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Rood, R T; Pecci, F F; Buonanno, R; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Rood, Robert T.; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Buonanno, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    The core of the metal poor Galactic Globular Cluster M92 (NGC 6341) has been observed with WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope through visual, blue and mid-UV filters in a program devoted to study the evolved stellar population in a selected sample of Galactic Globular Clusters. In the UV $(m_{255}, m_{255}-U)$ color magnitude diagram we have discovered a faint `UV-dominant' object. This star lies within the error box of a Low Luminosity Globular Cluster X-ray source (LLGCX) recently found in the core of M92. The properties of the UV star discovered in M92 are very similar to those of other UV stars found in the core of some clusters (M13, 47 Tuc, M80, etc)---all of them are brighter in the UV than in the visible and are located in the vicinity of a LLGCX. We suggest that these stars are a new sub-class of cataclysmic variables.

  8. Integrated Light Chemical Tagging Analyses of Seven M31 Outer Halo Globular Clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sakari, Charli M; Mackey, Dougal; Shetrone, Matthew D; Dotter, Aaron; Ferguson, Annette M N; Huxor, Avon

    2015-01-01

    Detailed chemical abundances are presented for seven M31 outer halo globular clusters (with projected distances from M31 greater than 30 kpc), as derived from high resolution integrated light spectra taken with the Hobby Eberly Telescope. Five of these clusters were recently discovered in the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS)---this paper presents the first determinations of integrated Fe, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, and Eu abundances for these clusters. Four of the target clusters (PA06, PA53, PA54, and PA56) are metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1.5), alpha-enhanced (though they are possibly less alpha-enhanced than Milky Way stars at the 1 sigma level), and show signs of star-to-star Na and Mg variations. The other three globular clusters (H10, H23, and PA17) are more metal rich, with metallicities ranging from [Fe/H] = -1.4 to -0.9. While H23 is chemically similar to Milky Way field stars, Milky Way globular clusters, and other M31 clusters, H10 and PA17 have moderately low [Ca/Fe], compared to Milky Way fi...

  9. The bulge luminosity for low-mass black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yanfei; Ho, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We study the scaling between bulge magnitude and central black hole (BH) mass in galaxies with virial BH masses 10^7 solar mass. Specfically, bulges span a much wider range of bulge luminosity, and on average the luminosity is larger, at fixed black hole mass. The trend holds both for the active galaxies from Bentz et al. and the inactive sample of Gultekin et al. and cannot be explained by differences in stellar populations, as it persists when we use dynamical bulge masses. Put another way, the ratio between bulge and BH mass is much larger than $\\sim 1000$ for our sample. This is consistent with recent suggestions that black hole mass does not scale with the pseudobulge luminosity. The low-mass scaling relations appear to flatten, consistent with predictions from Volonteri & Natarajan for massive seed BHs.

  10. Natures of a clump-origin bulge: a pseudobulge-like but old metal-rich bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    Bulges in spiral galaxies have been supposed to be classified into two types: classical bulges or pseudobulges. Classical bulges are thought to form by galactic merger with bursty star formation, whereas pseudobulges are suggested to form by secular evolution due to spiral arms and a barred structure funneling gas into the galactic centre. Noguchi (1998, 1999) suggested another bulge formation scenario, `clump-origin bulge'. He demonstrated using a numerical simulation that a galactic disc suffers dynamical instability to form clumpy structures in the early stage of disc formation since the premature disc is expected to be highly gas-rich, then the clumps are sucked into the galactic centre by dynamical friction and merge into a single bulge at the centre. This bulge formation scenario expected happen only at the high-redshift is different from the galactic merger and the secular evolution. Therefore, clump-origin bulges may have their own unique properties. We perform a high-resolution N-body/smoothed partic...

  11. Dynamical Evolution of Globular Clusters in the Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武振宇; 束成钢; 陈文屏

    2003-01-01

    Given the initial conditions of spatial density distribution, velocity distribution and mass function, the dynamical evolution of globular clusters in the Milky Way is investigated in details by means of Monte Carlo simulations.Four dynamic mechanisms are considered: stellar evaporation, stellar evolution, tidal shocks due to both the disc and bulge, and dynamical friction. It is found that stellar evaporation dominates the evolution of low-mass clusters and all four are important for massive ones. For both the power-law and lognormal initial clusters mass functions, we can find the best-fitting models which can match the present-day observations with their main features of the mass function almost unchanged after evolution of several Gyr. This implies that it is not possible to determine the initial mass function only based on the observed mass function today. The dispersion of the modelled mass functions mainly depends on the potential wells of host galaxies with the almost constant peaks,which is consistent with current observations

  12. Variable stars in the MACHO bulge database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, P. J.; Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H., Drake, A.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Minniti, D.; Peterson, B. A.; Pratt, M. R.; Rodgers, A. W.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sutherland, W.; Tomaney, A.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D.

    1998-10-01

    The MACHO Project has been monitoring large fields in the direction of the Galactic bulge, the LMC and SMC for over 6 years. The nightly observations of this microlensing survey provide very large databases for astronomers. The MACHO database contains {approximately}5 Terabytes of data as of mid-1998. For comparison, the HST Archive contains about {approximately}2 Tb, and the Sloan. Digital Sky Survey will reach {approximately}1.0 Tb. Our database can be used to attack a variety of astrophysical problems, and has produced results relevant to microlensing, galactic structure, and stellar evolution. Of particular importance are the large numbers of variable stars (tens of thousands) found as byproducts of the microlensing search. In years to come, the microlensing databases will play a dominant role in variable star science. Important science can still be done with limited resources, even in places with no access to large telescopes (all you need is computer).

  13. Behavior of [S/Fe] in Very Metal-Poor Stars from the S I 1.046 µm Lines Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Takada-Hidai, Masahide

    2012-04-01

    With an aim to establish how the [S/Fe] ratios behave in the very low metallicity regime down to [Fe/H] ˜ -3, we conducted a non-LTE analysis of near-IR S I triplet lines (multiplet 3) at 10455-10459 Å for a dozen very metal-poor stars (-3.2 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -1.9) based on new observational data obtained with IRCS+AO188 of the Subaru Telescope. It turned out that the resulting [S/ Fe] values are only moderately supersolar at [S/Fe] ˜ +0.2-0.5, irrespective of the metallicity. While this ``flat'' tendency is consistent with a trend recently corroborated by Spite et al. (2011, A&A, 528, A9) based on the S I 9212/9228/9237 lines (multiplet 1), it disaffirms the possibility of a conspicuously large [S/Fe] (up to ˜ +0.8) at [Fe/H] ˜ -3 that we once suggested in our first report on the S abundances of disk/halo stars using S I 10455-10459 lines (Takeda & Takada-Hidai 2011, PASJ, 63, S537). Given these new observational facts, we withdraw our previous argument, since we consider that [S/Fe]'s of some most metal-poor objects were overestimated in that paper; the likely cause for this failure is also discussed.

  14. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars: CEMP-s and CEMP-no Sub-Classes in the Halo System of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Carollo, Daniela; Beers, Timothy; Placco, Vinicius; Tumlinson, Jason; Martell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    We explore the kinematics and orbital properties of a sample of 323 very metal-poor stars in the halo system of the Milky Way, and with high-resolution spectroscopy available, selected from the recent studies of Aoki et al. and Yong et al. The combined sample contains a significant fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars (22% or 29% depending on whether a strict or relaxed criterion is applied for this definition). Barium abundances (or upper limits) are available for the great majority of the CEMP stars, allowing for their separation into the CEMP-s and CEMP-no sub-classes. A new method to assign membership to the inner- and outer-halo populations of the Milky Way is developed, making use of the integrals of motion, and applied to determine the relative fractions of CEMP stars in these two sub-classes for each halo component. Although limited by small-number statistics, the data suggest that the inner halo of the Milky Way exhibits a somewhat higher relative number of CEMP-s stars than CEMP-no st...

  15. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. II. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars - CEMP-no stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T T; Nordström, B; Beers, T C; Placco, V M; Yoon, J; Buchhave, L A

    2015-01-01

    The detailed composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be very uniform. However, a fraction of 20-70% (increasing with decreasing metallicity) exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of carbon - the so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. A key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether this non-standard composition reflects that of the stellar natal clouds, or is due to local, post-birth mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion; CEMP stars should then all be members of binary systems. Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binaries among CEMP stars with and without over-abundances of neutron-capture elements - CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars, respectively - as a test of this local mass-transfer scenario. This paper discusses a sample of 24 CEMP-no stars, while a subsequent paper will consider a similar sample of CEMP-s stars. Most programme stars exhibit no statistically significant radial-velocit variation...

  16. Improved Co I log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 898 lines of the first spectrum of cobalt (Co i) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak, AZ and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. Published radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements are combined with the branching fractions to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 898 lines. Hyperfine structure (hfs) constants for levels of neutral Co in the literature are surveyed and selected values are used to generate complete hfs component patterns for 195 transitions of Co i. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Co abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ɛ(Co) = 4.955 ± 0.007 (σ = 0.059) based on 82 Co i lines and log ɛ(Co) = 2.785 ± 0.008 (σ = 0.065) based on 66 Co i lines, respectively. A Saha or ionization balance test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is performed using 16 UV lines of Co ii, and good agreement is found with the Co i result in this metal-poor ([Fe i/H] = -2.32, [Fe ii/H] = -2.32) dwarf star. The resulting value of [Co/Fe] = +0.14 supports a rise of Co/Fe at low metallicity that has been suggested in other studies.

  17. Explaining the Ba, Y, Sr, and Eu abundance scatter in metal-poor halo stars: constraints to the r-process

    CERN Document Server

    Cescutti, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Context. Thanks to the heroic observational campaigns carried out in recent years we now have large samples of metal-poor stars for which measurements of detailed abundances exist. [...] These data hold important clues on the nature of the contribution of the first stellar generations to the enrichment of our Galaxy. Aims. We aim to explain the scatter in Sr, Ba, Y, and Eu abundance ratio diagrams unveiled by the metal-poor halo stars. Methods. We computed inhomogeneous chemical evolution models for the Galactic halo assuming different scenarios for the r-process site: the electron-capture supernovae (EC) and the magnetorotationally driven (MRD) supernovae scenario. We also considered models with and without the contribution of fast-rotating massive stars (spinstars) to an early enrichment by the s-process. A detailed comparison with the now large sample of stars with measured abundances of Sr, Ba, Y, Eu, and Fe is provided (both in terms of scatter plots and number distributions for several abundance ratios)...

  18. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. III. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars -- CEMP-s stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T T; Nordström, B; Beers, T C; Placco, V M; Yoon, J; Buchhave, L A

    2016-01-01

    Detailed spectroscopic studies of metal-poor halo stars have highlighted the important role of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in understanding the early production and ejection of carbon in the Galaxy and in identifying the progenitors of the CEMP stars among the first stars formed after the Big Bang. Recent work has also classified the CEMP stars by absolute carbon abundance, A(C), into high- and low-C bands, mostly populated by binary and single stars, respectively. Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binary systems among the CEMP-s stars, which exhibit strong enhancements of neutron-capture elements associated with the s-process. This allows us to test whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their dramatic carbon excesses. Eighteen of the 22 stars exhibit clear orbital motion, yielding a binary frequency of 82+-10%, while four stars appear to be single (18+-10%). We thus confirm that the binary frequency of CEMP-s stars...

  19. KECK OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOUNG METAL-POOR HOST GALAXY OF THE SUPER-CHANDRASEKHAR-MASS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA SN 2007if

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy and g-band photometry of the metal-poor, low-luminosity host galaxy of the super-Chandrasekhar-mass Type Ia supernova SN 2007if. Deep imaging of the host reveals its apparent magnitude to be mg = 23.15 ± 0.06, which at the spectroscopically measured redshift of zhelio = 0.07450 ± 0.00015 corresponds to an absolute magnitude of Mg = -14.45 ± 0.06. Galaxy g - r color constrains the mass-to-light ratio, giving a host stellar mass estimate of log(M*/Msun) = 7.32 ± 0.17. Balmer absorption in the stellar continuum, along with the strength of the 4000 A break, constrains the age of the dominant starburst in the galaxy to be tburst = 123+165-77 Myr, corresponding to a main-sequence turnoff mass of M/Msun = 4.6+2.6-1.4. Using the R23 method of calculating metallicity from the fluxes of strong emission lines, we determine the host oxygen abundance to be 12 + log(O/H)KK04 = 8.01 ± 0.09, significantly lower than any previously reported spectroscopically measured Type Ia supernova host galaxy metallicity. Our data show that SN 2007if is very likely to have originated from a young, metal-poor progenitor.

  20. First stars IX -Mixing in extremely metal-poor giants. Variation of the 12C/13C, [Na/Mg] and [Al/Mg] ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, M; Hill, V; Spite, F; François, P; Plez, B; Bonifacio, P; Molaro, P; Depagne, E; Andersen, J; Barbuy, B; Beers, T C; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2006-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars preserve a fossil record of the composition of the ISM when the Galaxy formed. It is crucial, however, to verify whether internal mixing has modified their surface. We aim to understand the CNO abundance variations found in some, but not all EMP field giants analysed earlier. Mixing beyond the first dredge-up of standard models is required, and its origin needs clarification.The 12C/13C ratio is the most robust diagnostic of deep mixing, because it is insensitive to the adopted stellar parameters and should be uniformly high in near-primordial gas. We have measured 12C and 13C abundances in 35 EMP giants from high-quality VLT/UVES spectra. Correlations with other abundance data are used to study the depth of mixing.The 12C/13C ratio is found to correlate with [C/Fe] (and Li/H), and clearly anti-correlate with [N/Fe]. Evidence for such deep mixing is observed in giants above log L/Lsolar = 2.6, brighter than in less metal-poor stars, but matching the bump in the luminosity func...

  1. Metal-Poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope I. Constraints on Progenitor Mass and Metallicity of AGB Stars Undergoing s-Process Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Beers, Timothy C; Karakas, Amanda I; Kennedy, Catherine R; Rossi, Silvia; Christlieb, Norbert; Stancliffe, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of two newly-discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. HE2138-3336 is a s-process-rich star with [Fe/H] = -2.79, and has the highest [Pb/Fe] abundance ratio measured thus far, if NLTE corrections are included ([Pb/Fe] = +3.84). HE2258-6358, with [Fe/H] = -2.67, exhibits enrichments in both s- and r-process elements. These stars were selected from a sample of candidate metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey, and followed up with medium-resolution (R ~ 2,000) spectroscopy with GEMINI/GMOS. We report here on derived abundances (or limits) for a total of 34 elements in each star, based on high-resolution (R ~ 30,000) spectroscopy obtained with Magellan-Clay/MIKE. Our results are compared to predictions from new theoretical AGB nucleosynthesis models of 1.3 Mo with [Fe/H] = -2.5 and -2.8, as well as to a set of AGB models of 1.0 to 6.0 Mo at [Fe/H] = -2.3. The agreement with the model predictions suggests that the neutron-capture materia...

  2. Mapping a stellar disk into a boxy bulge: The outside-in part of the Milky Way bulge formation

    CERN Document Server

    Di Matteo, P; Gomez, A; van Damme, L; Combes, F; Halle, A; Semelin, B; Lehnert, M D; Katz, D

    2014-01-01

    By means of idealized, dissipationless N-body simulations which follow the formation and subsequent buckling of a stellar bar, we study the characteristics of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges and compare them with the properties of the stellar populations in the Milky Way bulge. The main results of our modeling, valid for the general family of boxy/peanut shaped bulges, are the following: (i) because of the redistribution of stars in the disk initiated at the epoch of bar formation, it is the whole stellar disk, from the innermost regions to the outer Lindblad resonance of the stellar bar, that is mapped into a boxy bulge; (ii) the contribution of stars to the local bulge density depends on their birth radius: stars born in the innermost disk tend to dominate the innermost regions of the boxy bulge, while stars originating closer to the OLR dominate the outer regions of the boxy/peanut structure; (iii) stellar birth radii are imprinted in the bulge kinematics, the larger the birth radii of stars ending up in the bul...

  3. Galactic bulge M giants. II. Content and structure of the bulge between b = -3 deg and -12 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHKL colors and CO and H2O indices for a sample of 250 M giants derived from surveys along the minor axis of the Galaxy at latitudes between -3 deg and -12 deg are presented and studied. The bolometric magnitudes for the stars are calculated. The effects of latitude on the colors, magnitudes, and indices are examined. The bolometric luminosity function for each bulge field is provided and the influence of latitude on luminosity is analyzed. Long-period variables in the bulge, the search for IRAS sources in the surveyed fields, and the IR surface brightness of the bulge are discussed. 74 refs

  4. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS, INTEGRATED RED GIANT BRANCH MASS LOSS, AND DUST PRODUCTION IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental parameters and time evolution of mass loss are investigated for post-main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104). This is accomplished by fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to existing optical and infrared photometry and spectroscopy, to produce a true Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We confirm the cluster's distance as d = 4611+213-200 pc and age as 12 ± 1 Gyr. Horizontal branch models appear to confirm that no more red giant branch mass loss occurs in 47 Tuc than in the more metal-poor ω Centauri, though difficulties arise due to inconsistencies between the models. Using our SEDs, we identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess, finding excess only among the brightest giants: dusty mass loss begins at a luminosity of ∼1000 Lsun, becoming ubiquitous above L = 2000 Lsun. Recent claims of dust production around lower-luminosity giants cannot be reproduced, despite using the same archival Spitzer imagery.

  5. WASP-36b: A NEW TRANSITING PLANET AROUND A METAL-POOR G-DWARF, AND AN INVESTIGATION INTO ANALYSES BASED ON A SINGLE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery, from WASP and CORALIE, of a transiting exoplanet in a 1.54 day orbit. The host star, WASP-36, is a magnitude V = 12.7, metal-poor G2 dwarf (Teff = 5959 ± 134 K), with [Fe/H] =–0.26 ± 0.10. We determine the planet to have mass and radius, respectively, 2.30 ± 0.07 and 1.28 ± 0.03 times that of Jupiter. We have eight partial or complete transit light curves, from four different observatories, which allow us to investigate the potential effects on the fitted system parameters of using only a single light curve. We find that the solutions obtained by analyzing each of these light curves independently are consistent with our global fit to all the data, despite the apparent presence of correlated noise in at least two of the light curves.

  6. Improved V II log($gf$) Values, Hyperfine Structure Constants, and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M P; Hartog, E A Den; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2014-01-01

    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Use of two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enables a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used t...

  7. IMPROVED Ni I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sneden, C. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cowan, J. J., E-mail: mpwood@wisc.edu, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 371 Ni I lines in the UV through near-IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrograph are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to previously reported Ni I transition probability measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrograph, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability uncertainty over previous measurements. The new Ni I data are applied to high-resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ni abundances. Lines covering a wide range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects.

  8. Improved Ni I log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M P; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2014-01-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 371 Ni I lines in the UV through near IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrograph are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to previously reported Ni I transition probability measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrograph, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability uncertainty over previous measurements. The new Ni I data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ni abundances. Lines covering a wide range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects.

  9. Improved Ti II log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M P; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2013-01-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 364 lines of Ti II in the UV through near IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. The new results are in generally good agreement with previously reported FTS measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrometer, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enables a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability accuracy over previous measurements. The new Ti II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ti abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. The Ti abundances derived using Ti II for these two stars match those derived using Ti I and support the relative Ti/...

  10. CAN THE GROWTH OF DUST GRAINS IN LOW-METALLICITY STAR-FORMING CLOUDS AFFECT THE FORMATION OF METAL-POOR LOW-MASS STARS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of a low-mass star with such a low metallicity as ≤4.5 × 10–5 Z☉ reveals the critical role of dust in the formation of extremely metal-poor stars. In this Letter, we explore the effect of the growth of dust grains through accretion of gaseous refractory elements in very low metallicity pre-stellar cores on cloud fragmentation induced by dust emission cooling. Employing a simple model of grain growth in a gravitationally collapsing gas, we show that Fe and Si grains can grow efficiently at hydrogen densities of ≅ 1010-1014 cm–3 in the clouds with metal abundances of –5 ∼crit ≅ 10–9-10–8, unless the initial grain radius is too large (∼>1 μm) or the sticking probability is too small (∼–5 Z☉.

  11. Abundance analysis of SDSS J134338.67+484426.6; an extremely metal-poor star from the MARVELS pre-survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha Rani, A.; Sivarani, T.; Beers, T. C.; Fleming, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Ge, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis of an extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] carbon and no enhancement of neutron-capture abundances. Strontium is underabundant, [Sr/Fe] = -0.47, but the derived lower limit on [Sr/Ba] indicates that Sr is likely enhanced relative to Ba. This star belongs to the sparsely populated class of α-poor EMP stars that exhibit low ratios of [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] compared to typical halo stars at similar metallicity. The observed variations in radial velocity from several epochs of (low- and high-resolution) spectroscopic follow-up indicate that SDSS J134338.67+484426.6 is a possible long-period binary. We also discuss the abundance trends in EMP stars for r-process elements, and compare with other magnesium-poor stars.

  12. HST/STIS abundances in the uranium rich metal poor star CS 31082-001: Constraints on the r-Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Spite, M.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, F.; Caffau, E.; Hill, V.; Wanajo, S.; Primas, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Sneden, C.; Beers, T. C.; Bonifacio, P.; François, P.; Molaro, P.

    2016-01-01

    As a brief revision, the origin of heavy elements and the role of abundances in extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are presented. Heavy element abundances in the EMP uranium-rich star CS 31082-001 based mainly on near-UV spectra from STIS/HST are presented. These results should be useful for a better characterisation of the neutron exposure(s) that produced the r-process elements in this star, as well as a guide for improving nuclear data and astrophysical site modelling, given that the new element abundances not available in previous works (Ge, Mo, Lu, Ta, W, Re, Pt, Au, and Bi) make CS 31082-001 the most completely well studied r-II object, with a total of 37 detections of n-capture elements.

  13. IMPROVED Ni I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 371 Ni I lines in the UV through near-IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrograph are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to previously reported Ni I transition probability measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrograph, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability uncertainty over previous measurements. The new Ni I data are applied to high-resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ni abundances. Lines covering a wide range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects

  14. Compact binaries in globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ivanova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En sistemas estelares densos, las frecuentes interacciones din amicas entre estrellas juegan un papel importante en la formaci on y evoluci on de las binarias compactas. Estudiamos esos procesos utilizando una nueva aproximaci on que combina los c odigos de s ntesis de poblaci on de binarias con un tratamiento simple de interacciones din amicas en centros de c umulos estelares densos. Nos enfocamos en los procesos din amicos y evolutivos que llevan a la formaci on de binarias compactas que contienen enanas blancas en c umulos globulares densos. Demostramos que la din amica puede incrementar en un factor de 2 100 los ritmos de producci on de binarias, tales como variables catacl smicas, \

  15. On the necessity of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in models of metal-poor asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vital importance of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in low-mass (M ≤ 3 M ☉) asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stellar models of metallicity Z ≥ 0.001 has recently been demonstrated. Its significance to more metal-poor, intermediate-mass (M ≥ 2.5 M ☉) models has yet to be investigated. We show that its inclusion in lower-metallicity models ([Fe/H] ≤–2) is essential and that there exists no threshold metallicity below which composition-dependent molecular opacity may be neglected. We find it to be crucial in all intermediate-mass models investigated ([Fe/H] ≤–2 and 2.5 ≤ M/M ☉ ≤ 5), because of the evolution of the surface chemistry, including the orders of magnitude increase in the abundance of molecule-forming species. Its effect on these models mirrors that previously reported for higher-metallicity models—increase in radius, decrease in T eff, faster mass loss, shorter thermally pulsing AGB lifetime, reduced enrichment in third dredge-up products (by a factor of 3-10), and an increase in the mass limit for hot bottom burning. We show that the evolution of low-metallicity models with composition-dependent low-temperature opacity is relatively independent of initial metal abundance because its contribution to the opacity is far outweighed by changes resulting from dredge-up. Our results imply a significant reduction in the expected number of nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars, which may help explain their observed paucity. We note that these findings are partially a product of the macrophysics adopted in our models, in particular, the Vassiliadis and Wood mass loss rate which is strongly dependent on radius.

  16. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Separating disk chemical substructures with cluster models. Evidence of a separate evolution in the metal-poor thin disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Schultheis, M.; Guiglion, G.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Kordopatis, G.; Hill, V.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bensby, T.; Koposov, S. E.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.; Chiappini, C.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Recent spectroscopic surveys have begun to explore the Galactic disk system on the basis of large data samples, with spatial distributions sampling regions well outside the solar neighborhood. In this way, they provide valuable information for testing spatial and temporal variations of disk structure kinematics and chemical evolution. Aims: The main purposes of this study are to demonstrate the usefulness of a rigorous mathematical approach to separate substructures of a stellar sample in the abundance-metallicity plane, and provide new evidence with which to characterize the nature of the metal-poor end of the thin disk sequence. Methods: We used a Gaussian mixture model algorithm to separate in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane a clean disk star subsample (essentially at RGC -0.25 dex) highlight a change in the slope at solar metallicity. This holds true at different radial regions of the Milky Way. The distribution of Galactocentric radial distances of the metal-poor part of the thin disk ([Fe/H] levels might be due to their origin from gas pre-enriched by outflows from the thick disk or the inner halo. The smooth trends of their properties (their spatial distribution with respect to the plane, in particular) with [Fe/H] and [Mg/Fe] suggested by the data indicates a quiet dynamical evolution, with no relevant merger events. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.

  17. A search for metal-poor stars pre-enriched by pair-instability supernovae I. A pilot study for target selection from Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a pilot study on identifying metal-poor stars pre-enriched by Pair-Instability Supernovae (PISNe). Very massive, first generation (Population III) stars (140 M☉ ≤ M ≤ 260 M☉) end their lives as PISNe, which have been predicted by theories, but no relics of PISNe have been observed yet. Among the distinct characteristics of the yields of PISNe, as predicted by theoretical calculations, are a strong odd-even effect, and a strong overabundance of Ca with respect to iron and the solar ratio. We use the latter characteristic to identify metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo that have been pre-enriched by PISNe, by comparing metallicites derived from strong, co-added Fe lines detected in low-resolution (i.e., R = λ/Δλ ∼ 2000) spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), with metallicities determined by the SDSS Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). The latter are based on the strength of the Ca II K line and assumptions on the Ca/Fe abundance ratio. Stars are selected as candidates if their metallicity derived from Fe lines is significantly lower than the SSPP metallicities. In a sample of 12 300 stars for which SDSS spectroscopy is available, we have identified 18 candidate stars. Higher resolution and signal-to-noise ratio spectra of these candidates are being obtained with the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory and the XSHOOTER spectrograph, to determine their abundance patterns, and to verify our selection method. We plan to apply our method to the database of several million stellar spectra to be acquired with the Guo Shou Jing Telescope (LAMOST) in the next five years. (research papers)

  18. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTiNGS). II. DISCOVERY OF METAL-POOR DUSTY AGB STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA-European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called ''extreme'' or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5] > 0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of ≈30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, 1 star in IC 1613, and 1 star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirm that 70 of the x-AGB variables are confirmed or likely carbon stars. We see an increase in the pulsation amplitude with increased dust production, supporting previous studies suggesting that dust production and pulsation are linked. We find no strong evidence linking dust production with metallicity, indicating that dust can form in very metal-poor environments.

  19. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTiNGS). II. DISCOVERY OF METAL-POOR DUSTY AGB STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called ''extreme'' or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5] > 0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of ≈30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, 1 star in IC 1613, and 1 star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirm that 70 of the x-AGB variables are confirmed or likely carbon stars. We see an increase in the pulsation amplitude with increased dust production, supporting previous studies suggesting that dust production and pulsation are linked. We find no strong evidence linking dust production with metallicity, indicating that dust can form in very metal-poor environments

  20. METAL-POOR STARS OBSERVED WITH THE MAGELLAN TELESCOPE. I. CONSTRAINTS ON PROGENITOR MASS AND METALLICITY OF AGB STARS UNDERGOING s-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia [Departamento de Astronomia-Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Karakas, Amanda I.; Kennedy, Catherine R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stancliffe, Richard J. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-06-20

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of two newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. HE 2138-3336 is a s-process-rich star with [Fe/H] = -2.79, and has the highest [Pb/Fe] abundance ratio measured thus far, if non-local thermodynamic equilibrium corrections are included ([Pb/Fe] = +3.84). HE 2258-6358, with [Fe/H] = -2.67, exhibits enrichments in both s- and r-process elements. These stars were selected from a sample of candidate metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey, and followed up with medium-resolution (R {approx} 2000) spectroscopy with GEMINI/GMOS. We report here on derived abundances (or limits) for a total of 34 elements in each star, based on high-resolution (R {approx} 30, 000) spectroscopy obtained with Magellan-Clay/MIKE. Our results are compared to predictions from new theoretical asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models of 1.3 M{sub Sun} with [Fe/H] = -2.5 and -2.8, as well as to a set of AGB models of 1.0 to 6.0 M{sub Sun} at [Fe/H] = -2.3. The agreement with the model predictions suggests that the neutron-capture material in HE 2138-3336 originated from mass transfer from a binary companion star that previously went through the AGB phase, whereas for HE 2258-6358, an additional process has to be taken into account to explain its abundance pattern. We find that a narrow range of progenitor masses (1.0 {<=} M(M{sub Sun }) {<=} 1.3) and metallicities (-2.8 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=}-2.5) yield the best agreement with our observed elemental abundance patterns.