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Sample records for bulb onion production

  1. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. Methods A cultivar (Allium cepa ‘Copra’) with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 °C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO2 and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Key results Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO2 production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Conclusions Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy. PMID:18940850

  2. Factors contributing to bacterial bulb rots of onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of bacterial rots of onion bulbs is increasing and has become a serious problem for growers. This increase is likely due to a combination of factors, such as high bacterial populations in soils and irrigation water, heavy rains flooding production fields, higher temperatures, etc. It m...

  3. EFFICIENCY OF MINERAL FERTILIZER IN ONION SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Knjazkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer dressing acts to raise the yield of mother onion bulbs and seeds. The different doses of mineral fertilizers influence on storage, biochemical content of mother onion bulbs and seed productivity in different ways.

  4. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  5. Nitrogen requirements at bulb initiation for production of intermediate-day onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of nitrogen application on growth, nitrogen (N) uptake, yield, and quality of intermediate-day onion (Allium cepa L. ‘Guimar’) was evaluated in the field in southern Portugal. Plants were fertilized with 30 kg/ha N at transplanting, 10 kg/ha N at 29 days after transplanting (DAT) during ...

  6. Residue dynamics of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves, mature onion bulb and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M; Jagdish, G K

    2011-12-01

    Residue persistence of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves (spring onion), mature onion bulb and soil was studied following their spray applications 3 times. The applications were untreated control; tebuconazole @ 187.5 and 375 g a.i. ha(-1); quinalphos @ 300 and 600 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of tebuconazole in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.628 and 1.228 mg kg(-1). The residues of tebuconazole dissipated with the half-life of 5 and 7.7 days. The safe pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for consumption of immature onion bulb with leaves were 16 and 35 days, respectively. Initial residue deposits of quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.864 and 2.283 mg kg(-1). Loss of quinalphos residues from immature onion bulb with leaves was very fast. The residues dissipated with the half-life of 1.7 and 2.6 days and the required PHI was 5 and 11 days, respectively. At harvest mature onion bulbs were free from residues of both tebuconazole and quinalphos.

  7. Analysis of group and financial evaluation of productive units of bulb onion (Allium cepa L. in the District of Irrigation of Alto Chicamocha (Boyacá-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Cristina Sanabria Neira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the cultivation of bulb onion (Allium cepa L is a major generator of incomes and handwork for small growers in the departments of Boyacá, Nariño and Cundinamarca. Its production is 320,000 t year-1, of which 185,000 t (58 % are produced by the department of Boyacá, becoming the first producer at national level. The Irrigation District of the Alto Chicamocha (Drach produces between 35,000 to 40,000 t, i.e. 12.5 % of the national volume and 21.62 % of the departmental one, this productive line is most relevant in the influence area of the district and it is the main source of income and employment both direct and indirect. It was used the methodology of group analysis to develop the general objective of this research to determine the profitability in the different units; information was collected on primary sources such as: social relations, cost structures, aspects of technical and administrative management, as well as the productivity gained. It was found three groups of profitability of the different units: head, medium and tail. It was concluded that the production costs of the onion bulb are classified in explicit (handwork,inputs, services, and others and implicit (family work, lease, depreciation and capital income. It is proposed to the owners of the production units of the cola group, the optimization of irrigation, the appropriate use of agrochemicals and the implementation of appropriate cultural practices.

  8. Effects of postharvest onion curing parameters on bulb rot caused by Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea ananatis, and Pantoea allii in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop loss of onion bulbs during storage carries an exceptionally high economic impact since a large portion of the production expenses have been expended before storage occurs. Because of this, it is important to define practices that can reduce onion bulb losses caused by storage rots. This study...

  9. RESPONSE OF ONION (Allium cepa L.) BULB YIELD TO DAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    2012-06-17

    Jun 17, 2012 ... to the significance of onion bulbs in Nigeria, research efforts at the National Horticultural ... of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. O. A. T. Namo, Department of Plant Science and Technology, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria ... plants to a source of light (two mercury solar light fluorescence bulbs of 150 watts ...

  10. Physiological, biochemical and transcriptional analysis of onion bulbs during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chope, Gemma A.; Cools, Katherine; Hammond, John P.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Terry, Leon A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims During the transition from endo-dormancy to eco-dormancy and subsequent growth, the onion bulb undergoes the transition from sink organ to source, to sustain cell division in the meristematic tissue. The mechanisms controlling these processes are not fully understood. Here, a detailed analysis of whole onion bulb physiological, biochemical and transcriptional changes in response to sprouting is reported, enabling a better knowledge of the mechanisms regulating post-harvest onion sprout development. Methods Biochemical and physiological analyses were conducted on different cultivars (‘Wellington’, ‘Sherpa’ and ‘Red Baron’) grown at different sites over 3 years, cured at different temperatures (20, 24 and 28 °C) and stored under different regimes (1, 3, 6 and 6 → 1 °C). In addition, the first onion oligonucleotide microarray was developed to determine differential gene expression in onion during curing and storage, so that transcriptional changes could support biochemical and physiological analyses. Key Results There were greater transcriptional differences between samples at harvest and before sprouting than between the samples taken before and after sprouting, with some significant changes occurring during the relatively short curing period. These changes are likely to represent the transition from endo-dormancy to sprout suppression, and suggest that endo-dormancy is a relatively short period ending just after curing. Principal component analysis of biochemical and physiological data identified the ratio of monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) to disaccharide (sucrose), along with the concentration of zeatin riboside, as important factors in discriminating between sprouting and pre-sprouting bulbs. Conclusions These detailed analyses provide novel insights into key regulatory triggers for sprout dormancy release in onion bulbs and provide the potential for the development of biochemical or transcriptional markers for sprout

  11. The role of onion-associated fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to onion seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, Tal; Gal, Shira; Inbar, Moshe; Lebiush-Mordechai, Sara; Tsror, Leah; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In Israel Rhizoglyphus robini is considered to be a pest in its own right, even though the mite is usually found in association with fungal pathogens. Plant protection recommendations are therefore to treat germinating onions seedlings, clearly a crucial phase in crop production, when mites are discovered. The aim of this study was to determine the role of fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to germinating onion seedlings. Accordingly we (1) evaluated the effect of the mite on onion seedling germination and survival without fungi, (2) compared the attraction of the mite to species and isolates of various fungi, (3) assessed the effect of a relatively non-pathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum on mite fecundity, and (4) determined the effects of the mite and of F. oxysporum separately and together, on onion seedling germination and sprout development. A significant reduction of seedling survival was recorded only in the 1,000 mites/pot treatment, after 4 weeks. Mites were attracted to 6 out of 7 collected fungi isolates. Mite fecundity on onion sprouts infested with F. oxysporum was higher than on non-infested sprouts. Survival of seedlings was affected by mites, fungi, and their combination. Sprouts on Petri dishes after 5 days were significantly longer in the control and mite treatments than both fungi treatments. During the 5-day experiment more mites were always found on the fungi-infected sprouts than on the non-infected sprouts. Future research using suppressive soils to suppress soil pathogens and subsequent mite damage is proposed.

  12. Sensory quality of irradiated onion and garlic bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Urioste, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The radioinhibition process has shown to prolong shelf-life of ''Valenciana sintetica 14'' onion variety and ''Colorado'' garlic variety. Sensory attributes of the irradiated bulbs were tested monthly by trained judges during extended storage in warehouse conditions (6-32C, R.H. 40-50%). The sensory properties observed were external and internal appearance, firmness and odor. The irradiated bulbs were judged to be superior in quality with respect to internal and external appearance (p 0.01) and firmness (p 0.01), after 180 days postharvest. The irradiated bulbs showed no difference in odor (p 0.05), when compared to unirradiated ones, through the storage period

  13. ( Tetracarpidium conophorum ) leaf and onion ( Allium cepa ) bulb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protective effect of walnut ( Tetracarpidium conophorum ) leaf and onion ( Allium cepa ) bulb residues on the experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in ... Fish were exposed to 0.5ml of 107 Pseudomonas aeruginosa of 24h old culture with the percentage mortality and relative level of protection recorded for 4 ...

  14. Production and characterization of tearless and non-pungent onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masahiro; Masamura, Noriya; Shono, Jinji; Okamoto, Daisaku; Abe, Tomoko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2016-04-06

    The onion lachrymatory factor (LF) is produced from trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) through successive reactions catalyzed by alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) and lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS), and is responsible for the tear inducing-property and the pungency of fresh onions. We developed tearless, non-pungent onions non-transgenically by irradiating seeds with neon-ion at 20 Gy. The bulbs obtained from the irradiated seeds and their offspring bulbs produced by selfing were screened by organoleptic assessment of tear-inducing property or HPLC analysis of LF production. After repeated screening and seed production by selfing, two tearless, non-pungent bulbs were identified in the third generation (M3) bulbs. Twenty M4 bulbs obtained from each of them showed no tear-inducing property or pungency when evaluated by 20 sensory panelists. The LF production levels in these bulbs were approximately 7.5-fold lower than those of the normal onion. The low LF production levels were due to reduction in alliinase activity, which was a result of low alliinase mRNA expression (less than 1% of that in the normal onion) and consequent low amounts of the alliinase protein. These tearless, non-pungent onions should be welcomed by all who tear while chopping onions and those who work in facilities where fresh onions are processed.

  15. No Reported Species, Botrytis aclada Causing Gray Mold Neck Rot Disease on Onion Bulbs in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Sun–Kyoung; Lee, Seung–Yeol; Back, Chang–Gi; Kang, In–Kyu; Lee, Hyang–Burm; Jung, Hee-Young; Ohga, Shoji; Oga, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Gray mold neck rot was observed on onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) in low–temperature warehouses in Changnyeong–gun, Korea. The causative pathogen was isolated from rotted onion bulb lesions and identified as Botrytis aclada based on morphological and culture characteristics, the sequences of three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, and RPB2), and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) for Botrytis spp. identification. Although onion gray mold disease caused by B...

  16. Evaluation of the quality of hot air dehydrated onion coming from gamma radiated bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elman, L.; Pezzutti, A.; Croci, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of hot air dehydrated onion, as regards physical and chemical characteristics, coming from the regional product that was gamma irradiated for sprout inhibition. We worked with the onion variety Valenciana Sintetica 14. Radio inhibition was made 30 days post harvest with gamma radiation from a 60 Co source at the Centro Atomico Ezeiza-CNEA, using a dose of 60 Gy. The skin of the bulbs was manually removed and the bulbs were cut in pieces 3 mm thick and between 1 and 3 cm long. The material was dehydrated in a rotating dryer with forced air circulation at 60 C degrees, between 0.8 and 1.7 m/s air speed and at ambient relative humidity. Dehydration was made 80 days after post-irradiation. The quality of the dehydrated onion was evaluated by the following physical- chemical analysis: total solids content, pungency (indirectly measured by pyruvic acid content assessment), color, pH, carbon hydrates and sensorial analysis. All analytical determinations were made in triplicate. The results obtained showed there are no significant changes between the averages of the physical-chemical properties of the control dehydrated samples and those coming from the radio-inhibited raw matter. According to the sensorial analysis, only the color of dehydrated onion was affected by the radio inhibition process. However, and according to the panel members comment, the greatest browning degree observed in ionizing radiation treated onion seemed to result more attractive to them. It may be concluded that radio inhibited regional onion can be useful as raw matter for hot air dehydrated product. It must be remarked that its use would extend the product use by dehydration plants, thus implying an increase of their processing capacity with the corresponding financial benefit. (author)

  17. Flavonoid content in fresh, home-processed, and light-exposed onions and in dehydrated commercial onion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Un; Lee, Jong Ha; Choi, Suk Hyun; Lee, Jin Shik; Ohnisi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2008-09-24

    Onion plants synthesize flavonoids as protection against damage by UV radiation and by intracellular hydrogen peroxide. Because flavonoids also exhibit health-promoting effects in humans, a need exists to measure their content in onions and in processed onion products. To contribute to the knowledge about the levels of onion flavonoids, HPLC and LC-MS were used to measure levels of seven quercetin and isorhamnetin glucosides in four Korean commercial onion bulb varieties and their distribution within the onion, in scales of field-grown onions exposed to home processing or to fluorescent light and in 16 commercial dehydrated onion products sold in the United States. Small onions had higher flavonoid content per kilogram than large ones. There was a graduated decrease in the distribution of the flavonoids across an onion bulb from the first (outside) to the seventh (innermost) scale. Commercial, dehydrated onion products contained low amounts or no flavonoids. Losses of onion flavonoids subjected to "cooking" (in percent) ranged as follows: frying, 33; sauteing, 21; boiling, 14-20; steaming, 14; microwaving, 4; baking, 0. Exposure to fluorescent light for 24 and 48 h induced time-dependent increases in the flavonoid content. The results extend the knowledge about the distribution of flavonoids in fresh and processed onions.

  18. Effect of gamma radiation on post harvest storage life of onion bulb under ordinary room condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Badshah, N.; Mahboob, F.; Ayub, G.

    2003-01-01

    Post harvest storage life of radiated onion bulbs harvested at different stages of maturity and stored at ordinary room temperature (30-39 degree C) was studied at the Department of Horticulture, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, during August 2002. Onion bulbs were harvested at two stages i.e. drooping and complete dried leaf. Four radiation doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kilo rad (Kr) were applied with normal (control). The data of experiment was collected from weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. The results revealed that various radiation doses significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. Onion bulbs radiated with 8 Kr showed minimum percent weight loss (28.59%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency. Minimum percent rot attack (6.3%) was observed in 6 and 8 Kr. Radiation doses of 4, 6 and 8 Kr showed no sprouting at all. Maximum weight loss (43.20%), rot attack (16.2%), sprouting (40.78%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency were recorded for control. The results showed that harvesting stages are statistically non-significant. The interaction between radiation doses and harvesting stages are also non-significant. Harvesting stages significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting and taste pungency. Onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage recorded maximum percent weight loss (35.42%), percent sprouting (11.7%) and taste pungency while minimum percent weight loss (31.62%), percent sprouting (5.01%) and taste pungency was observed in onion bulbs of drooping stage. Maximum percent rot attack (10.9%) was noted in onion bulbs of drooping stage while minimum (7.3%) in onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage. Radiation dose of 8 Kr is recommended to reduce the post-harvest losses in onion bulbs. Drooping stage comparatively prolonged the shelf life of bulb

  19. Association of Enterobacter cloacae and other bacteria with onion bulb rot in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 1.6 million metric tons of onion bulbs are produced annually in the Pacific Northwest USA. Bulb decay can be a major problem and is caused by a variety of plant pathogens. Onion bulbs exhibiting symptoms of bacterial rot were sampled to determine the causal agents. Enterobacter cloacae...

  20. Produtividade e rendimento comercial de bulbos de cebola em função da densidade de cultivo Productivity and commercial yield of onion bulbs in function of growth density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Baier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição adequada das plantas de cebola (Allium cepa L. na lavoura torna-se necessária devido a influência sobre a competição por água, luz e nutrientes, determinando o tamanho dos bulbos e a produtividade total. Objetivou-se, no trabalho, avaliar a produtividade e os padrões comerciais de bulbos de cebola, em função da densidade de plantio adotada. As mudas de cebola foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno de 200 células, com substrato comercial Plantimax®. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados (DBC com 4 repetições, com parcelas de 2 m². Utilizou-se a cultivar Buccaneer, nas densidades de 50, 75 e 100 plantas m-2. Foram avaliadas a produção comercial, a produção total e a massa média de bulbos. Observou-se que a densidade de 100 plantas m-2 proporcionou a maior produtividade (92,20 t ha-1. No entanto, a menor densidade de plantas avaliada proporcionou bulbos com a maior massa média (171g. As densidades de 50 e 75 plantas m-2 apresentaram os maiores valores distribuídos na classe 4 (> que 70 até 90 mm de diâmetro e 3 cheio (> que 60 até 70 mm de diâmetro, respectivamente. A densidade de 100 plantas m-2 proporcionou uma maior quantidade de bulbos na classificação 3 cheio. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o aumento na densidade de plantas proporcionou uma maior produtividade, uma menor massa média de bulbos e uma maior produção na classificação comercial 3 cheio, considerada ideal para comercialização em função da preferência pelos consumidores.The adequate distribution of onions (Allium cepa L. within a crop becomes necessary due to their influence on the competition for water, light, and nutrients, which determines the size of the bulbs and the total yield. The goal of this work was to evaluate the yield and commercial pattern of onion bulbs as a function of the crop density employed. The onion seedlings were produced on polystyrene trays with 200

  1. Study of Nutrient Content Variation in Bulb And Stalk of Onions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    element concentration in the bulbs was in the order Ca>Mg>K>P>Na while that of the stalks was. Mg>Ca>K>P>Na. ... Yahaya et al.; Study of Nutrient Content Variation in Bulb And Stalk of Onions (Allium Sepa) Cultivated in Aliero, Aliero, Kebbi State,. Nigeria. 84 ... and acetic acid mixture to reduce oxidation of ascorbic acid ...

  2. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  3. Changes in endogenous growth inhibitors in onion bulbs (Allium cepa L. cv. Sochaczewska during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kielak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in inhibitor activity in the onion bulbs (Allium cepa L. cv. Sochaczewska during storage were investigated. Onions were dried under an umbrella roof until October 15th or November 15th and thereafter stored in a cold-room at 0-1°C until May 15th. The activity of inhibitors fluctuated markedly during the storage period. At least two peaks and two decreases of inhibitor activity were observed. The weather conditions seemed to strongly influence the level and the date of appearance of inhibitors in onions. Higher inhibitor activity is usually connected with better storage and less sprouting of onions during storage. Prolonged drying under an umbrella roof enhanced onion quality after storage only in these cases when it actually improved the drying of onions.

  4. An improved method of preparing onion bulbs for the Alium test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wierzbicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests on storage and preparation of onion (Allium cepa L. bulbs presented in this paper were performed in order to obtain the highest possible number of roots of similar length, which would be suitable for performing the Allium test. The results were subject to a detailed statistical analysis and allowed the following procedure to be recommended: 1 Store the bulbs at room temperature rather than in a refrigerator for two weeks before starting the experiments. 2 Do not use the biggest bulbs (over 80-100 g; use medium and small bulbs with the largest possible diameter of the reduced stem. 3 Just before starting the culture, wash the bottom part of the bulb, cut out the central part of the reduced stem and cut off the upper part of the bulb. At least 70% of bulbs prepared this way are expected to be suitable for cytological tests.

  5. New vinegar production from onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, J; Kanno, T; Kobayashi, M

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of producing a new type of vinegar from worthless onions, which fail to meet the quality standards required for marketing, was investigated. Several kinds of onion were initially tested as raw material for vinegar production, and vinegar was successfully produced from the juice of a red onion, the cultivar Kurenai, by batch culture using yeast and Acetobacter aceti. Nutritional analysis revealed that the potassium content of onion vinegar was extremely high, while the amount of sodium was lower than that in conventional vinegars. It was also shown that the total amino acid and total organic acid contents of the onion vinegar were respectively 1.6-6.9 times and 3.5-11.5 times those in other kinds of vinegars.

  6. Response of onion ( Allium cepa L.) bulb yield to day length extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out between October 2007 and March 2008 at the permanent site of the University of Jos (08°53'E, 09°57'N; 1,159 m above mean sea level) to investigate the effect of day length extension on the yield of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.). Two varieties of onion ('Violet de Galmi' and 'Red Creole') were ...

  7. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 2. Onions and other bulb crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    The various factors contributing to post harvest losses in onions and other bulb crops are briefly outlined in terms of the current storage methods. The present status of research on sprout inhibition by irradiation is reviewed in detail with respect to dose requirements, effect of time interval between harvest and irradiation, and the influence of environment on sprouting during storage. Biochemical mechanisms of sprout inhibition, metabolic and compositional changes (particularly sugars, anthocyanins, flavor and lachrymatory principles), and the culinary and processing qualities of irradiated onions are discussed. The future prospects for the commercial irradiation for sprout inhibition of bulb crops are considered

  8. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongsukhyeon; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp.

  9. Genotoxicity Screening of Industrial Effluents using Onion bulbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    effects on the root tips showed strong growth retardation in high concentrations of all the wastewaters. Compared to the control, treatment with the ... effects on the onion root tip cells. The study also reveals that the Allium test is .... discharge of phosphate salts and detergents used for washing in the factory is a regular source ...

  10. Response of Physiological Growth Indices and Bulb Dry Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L. Genotypes to Priming and Seed Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadkhah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Priming is one of the most common methods of improving seed quality, which significantly affects their storability. Seed priming is a seed treatment that allows imbibition and activation of the initial metabolic events associated with seed germination, but prevents radicle emergence and growth. In other words, phase one and two of seed water imbibition curve are passed, but seeds do not enter the third phase of water uptake. Then seeds are dried back to their original water content. Seed priming is a pre-sowing strategy for influencing seed germination and seedling development by modulating pre-germination metabolic activity prior to emergence of the radicle and generally enhances germination rate and plant performance. Naturally, when speed and percentage emergence of germinating seeds are being high, growing sources like light, water and nutrient will be more used. Another factor that can affect the seed germination and seedling establishment is the seed size. As generally known, among producing factors, seed as the first consumer store, plays an important role in the transfer of genetic characters and improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits of production. One of the most important factors in maximizing crop yield is planting high quality seed. Seed size is an important physical indicator of seed quality that affects vegetative growth and is frequently related to yield, market grade factors and harvest efficiency. In the present paper, effects of different pre-sowing treatments and seed size on physiological growth indices and bulb dry yield of onion cultivars were investigated. Materials and Methods In order to determine the response of physiological growth indices and bulb dry yield of onion to priming and seed size, a field experiment was conducted in 2012-2013 cropping season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of East, Azarbayjan, Iran. This experiment was a factorial experiment based on a

  11. Effect of deep vs. shallow tillage on onion stunting and onion bulb yield, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted at a site inoculated with R. solani AG 8 at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Hermiston, OR to determine the effect of plowing (deep tillage) vs. rototilling (shallow tillage) on onion stunting caused by R. solani AG ...

  12. Local Community's Knowledge on Onion Production, Pests and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty per cent of small scale farmers produced onion on land size of 0.25-2.0 acres.Onion varieties grown were Red Bombay, Red Creole and Khaki with preference to Red Bombay (72%) for its high yield, marketability and bulb size while Khaki (21%) was chosen for its storability. Onion seed sources were from other farmers ...

  13. Different profiles of onion bulb in CIDP and CMT1A in relation to extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Teruaki; Unuma, Tsuneo; Shigematsu, Kazuo; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic neuropathy is usually intractable, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1A (CMT1A) are the representative disorders. The two disorders are sometimes confused both clinically and pathologically. The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in the pathology of large onion bulbs, focusing on the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Nine patients with CIDP and 14 with CMT1A were included. The opened interspaces in OB were frequently shown in CMT1A patients. In CIDP, interspaces of OB packed with collagen fibers were prominent. The mean ratio of opened OB was significantly increased in CMT1A (37.9%) compared to CIDP patients (10.6%) (p = 0.003). Among the ECM examined, tenascin-C (TNC) showed a distinct difference in the pattern of immunoreactivity of OB. The mean ratio of OB showing TNC immunoreactivity was significantly larger in CIDP (29.7%, p = 0.005) than in CMT1A (5.0%). TNC immunoreactivity was confined to the area around myelin sheaths in CMT1A. The increased deposition of collagen fibers in CIDP suggests the activity of nerve regeneration. TNC expression in Schwann cell lamellae comprising OB may also suggest the activity of regeneration. Schwann cell phenotypes in CIDP may be different from CMT1A regarding the production of ECM proteins.

  14. Bulb fresh weight mode of inheritance in onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important traits of onion bulb is its bulb fresh weight. Also, this trait is in a group of morphological markers that, together with RAPD, represent the parameter of the most precise identification of onion genotype. For the purpose of this study, the chosen genotypes were: Makoi bronzi, Piroska, AC 101, Jasenicki crveni, Bukino beo. Also, they were of a different geographical origin. Method of full diallel without reciprocals was applied in order to obtain F1 and F2 generation. Field trial with parents and hybrids F1 and F2 generation was set in a random block system with five replications at the Institute for Vegetable Crops, Smederevska Palanka, Serbia. Considering all crossing combinations, super-domination and domination are the modes of inheritance for bulb fresh weight. The best general combiner was the line Makoi bronzi. The highest level of SCA in F1 and F2 generation was found in hybrid combination Makoi bronzi x Piroska. Also, this hybrid combination had the highest values of heterosis.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database, starch and sucrose metabolism (147, 2.40% constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS, both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  16. Genetic analyses of anthocyanin concentrations and intensity of red bulb color among segregating haploid progenies of onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher concentrations of anthocyanins in vegetables are important for attractive appearance and may offer health benefits for consumers. The red color of onion bulbs is due primarily to the accumulation of anthocyanins. The goals of this study were to identify chromosome regions that condition yello...

  17. Quality of fresh and dry onion (Аllium cepa L. products for different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. Ф. Скалецька

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article features results of studying suitability to processing for various varieties of onion as grown in the conditions of Ukrainian Forest-Steppe. A complex assessment has been completed for fresh products of onion for 9 different varieties by the content of basic biochemical, biological, economic, organoleptic characteristics with the view of determining the most suitable for drying. Varieties are singled out , which bulbs accumulate the biggest dry matter, sugar, C vitamin content and display the highest yield of consumable products. Assessment of dry products against the set of organoleptic and technological indicators has been completed. This revealed loss of basic biochemical components of onions during drying and long-term storage of dried products, as well as established increasing of the content of dry matters and acids and decreasing of that of sugars and vitamin C while storing the dried onion. The set of examined parameters

  18. Furostanol Saponins from the Bulbs of Welsh Onion, Allium fistulosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Behzad; Yazdiniapour, Zeinab; Sadeghi, Masoud; Troiano, Raffaele; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2016-12-01

    An extensive phytochemical analysis of the polar extracts from bulbs of Welsh onion Allium fistulosum L. led to the isolation of nine saponins, four of them, named fistulosaponins G ( 1a/1b ), H ( 2 ), I ( 3a/3b ), and J ( 4 ), have never been reported previously. Fistulosaponins G and I were isolated as a couple of isomers in equilibrium. On the basis of 2D NMR and mass spectrometry data, the structure of the novel compounds were elucidated as (25 R )-26-[( β -D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3 β ,22 β -dihydroxyfurost-5-en-1 β -yl O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)- β -D-glucopyranoside ( 1a ) with its 22 α epimer ( 1b ), (25 R )-26-[( β -D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3 β -hydroxyfurost-5,20-dien-1 β -yl O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)- β -D-glucopyranoside ( 2 ), (25 R )-26-[( β -D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3 β ,22 β -dihydroxyfurost-5-en-1 β -yl O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)- β -D-glucopyranoside ( 3a ) with its 22 α epimer ( 3b ), and (25 R )-26-[( β -D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3 β -hydroxyfurost-5,20-dien-1 β -yl O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)- β -D-glucopyranoside ( 4 ). This is the first report of furostanol saponins in A. fistulosum bulbs. In addition, data on the antibacterial tests of the isolated saponins against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis are reported. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Stunted patches in onion bulb crops in Oregon and Washington: Etiology and yield loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an important soilborne disease in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. From 2010 to 2013, 251 isolates of Rhizoctonia or Rhizoctonia-like spp. were obtained from soil and onion plant samples collected from Oregon and Washington. Sequence analysis ...

  20. A comparison of juice extraction methods in the pungency measurement of onion bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Hamilton, Brian K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2016-02-01

    Onion pungency is estimated by measuring the pyruvic acid content in juice extracted from fresh tissues. We compared pyruvic acid content and its variation in the juices extracted by the pressing, maceration, blending with no water, or blending with water (blend/water) methods. There were considerable differences in the pyruvic acid content and coefficient of variation (CV) among these methods, and there was an interaction between the onion cultivars and the juice extraction methods. The pressing method showed over 30% CV in the quartered or composite samples. The blend/water method showed the greatest pyruvic acid content in the shortday-type ('TG1015Y' and 'Texas Early White') onions, while the pressing method showed the greatest pyruvic acid content in the longday-type onions. The blend/water method, which gave ratios between 1:1 and 1:4 (w/w), showed the same pyruvic acid content. The blending (no water) method had the highest correlation, followed by the maceration method. The lowest correlations were found with the pressing method and the blend/water method. Complete homogenisation of tissues with 1:1 or greater ratios of water was necessary for the maximum consistency and full development of the pyruvic acid reaction for onion pungency measurement. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Sustainable flower bulb production: prototyping integrated flower bulb production systems on sandy soils in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Snoek, A.J.; Wondergem, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Flower bulb production in The Netherlands is economically successful. However, production methods rely heavily on external inputs, causing contamination of surface and ground water. The use of pesticides has been estimated 100 kg active ingredient (a.i.) per ha in 1994. In the same year the annual

  2. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L. Bulbs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Wu

    Full Text Available The onion (Allium cepa L. is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE and upper epidermis (UE of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors.

  3. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Ning, Fen; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors.

  4. Influence of vernalization and bulb size on the production of lily cut flowers and lily bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Brito de Almeida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of bulbs to cold, a physiological phenomenon called vernalization, and bulb size are important factors in the production of lily bulbs and flowers. This study aimed to verify the influence of vernalization of bulbs on flowering cut lily plants, as well as the impact of size and shape of harvest on the production and quality of flowers and bulbs. In turn, the way the stems of the plants used for cut-flower production are cropped is of higher importance for the production of new flower bulbs. In this sense, the experiment was conducted in Viçosa, MG, in a greenhouse in a randomized block design, in split splot scheme with three replications, in which the vernalization periods (25, 35 and 45 days at 4 ± 1 C constituted the plots; bulb sizes (diameters of 3.2-3.8 cm; 2.5-3.2 cm 1.9- and 2.5 cm, subplots and ways to harvest (full harvest of the stem at the required length for the commercial harvest of the flower, commercial stem harvest at the commercial length, maintaining 10cm of stem in the soil; removal of the floral buds as soon as their appearance is observed and harvest at the end of the season, the sub subplots. The bulbs were planted in beds, with 15 x 20 cm spacing. It was evaluated the number of plants that flowered and the number of flowers, the length and the diameter of the floral buds, fresh and dry weights, diameter and plant height as well as number, perimeter and amount of fresh and dry bulbs. There was a decrease in the plant height with the increase of the vernalization period and a reduction of the diameter of the planted bulbs, as well as of the number and the fresh and dry weights of the produced buds. The production of flowers and buds in number, size and weight was directly proportional to the size of the planted bulbs, while the form of harvest with removal of flower buds increased the number, the perimeter and the fresh and dry weights of the buds. Bulbs with diameter between 3.2 - 3.8 cm, stored for 25 days in

  5. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykas, C.; Vegalas, I.; Gougaulias, N.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH), fresh mass (FM) and dry mass (DM) of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs. (Author)

  6. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lykas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH, fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs.

  7. Plant growth promotion rhizobacteria in onion production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colo, Josip; Hajnal-Jafari, Timea I; Durić, Simonida; Stamenov, Dragana; Hamidović, Saud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the effect of rhizospheric bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas fluorescens (strains 1 and 2) and Bacillus subtilis on the growth and yield of onion and on the microorganisms in the rhizosphere of onion. The ability of microorganisms to produce indole-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was also assessed. The experiment was conducted in field conditions, in chernozem type of soil. Bacillus subtilis was the best producer of IAA, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were better at producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphates. The longest seedling was observed with the application of Azotobacter chroococcum. The height of the plants sixty days after sowing was greater in all the inoculated variants than in the control. The highest onion yield was observed in Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum variants. The total number of bacteria and the number of Azotobacter chroococcum were larger in all the inoculated variants then in the control. The number of fungi decreased in most of the inoculated variants, whereas the number of actinomycetes decreased or remained the same.

  8. Planting time and mulching effect on onion development and seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of planting time and mulches on bulb growth and seed production of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Taherpuri. Planting time and mulches had significant influence on almost all parameters studied. Onion planted on 21 November had better agronomic traits contributing ...

  9. SCREENING OF LOCAL AND EXOTIC ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L. CULTIVARS FOR SEED PRODUCTION POTENTIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Aminul Islam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted aiming to find out the seed production potentiality of 19 local and exotic onion cultivars. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the genotypes for all characters except sprouting percentage, number of flowers per umbel and number of umbel per bulb. Maximum number of days to 50% bolting (52.67 was exhibited by the genotype G2 and minimum by G6 (27.00 days. The larger bulb size after harvest was obtained from G14 and G19 (18.11 g. Genotypes G4 and G11 required the maximum (16.66 and the minimum (9.00 days for 100% sprouting, respectively. The highest stalk length was found in the genotype G1 (67.23 cm and the lowest in G8 (38.47 cm. Maximum number (5.75 of stalk was produced by the genotype G7 and minimum number (2.09 of stalk by the genotype G11. The genotype G1 produced the highest number of seeds per umbel (1395.92 and seed yield per plant (4.29 g. The lowest (0.45 g seed yield per plant and maximum bulb weight was obtained by the genotype G8.

  10. Response to increasing levels of NK in the production of onion (Allium cepa L. var. “Roja Arequipeña”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Estuardo Amaya Robles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to determine the influence of increasing levels of nitrogen and potassium in the growth and yield of onion bulbs, an experiment was carried in the Experimental Institute for Agricultural Research and Technology located in Pampas de San Juan, Laredo, La Libertad (Peru. The experimental design was randomized complete block with 3x4 factorial arrangement with three replicates and twelve treatments resulting from combinations 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1 , and 40, 80 and 160 kg K2O has -1 , using 80 kg as a single dose of P2O5.ha-1 . We used certified seed onion var. "Roja Arequipeña”. Linear responses were obtained for the weight of bulbs with yields of 1.010 and 1.006 g -1 average of 10 bulbs, with combinations of N120xK80 x K80 and N60, and quadratic response to N dose of 120 kg.ha-1 with which promoted the increased production of onion bulbs.

  11. IN VITRO BULB PRODUCTION IN HIPPEASTRUM (HIPPEASTRUM HYBRIDUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sutlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro experiment was conducted to find out the optimum hormonal supplement and sucrose level for the bulb production of Hippeastrum. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different hormone concentrations of BAP (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 mg/L and CCC (0.0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/L and sucrose levels (30, 60, 80, 90 and 110 g/L were used in this study. Sucrose level at 90 g/L produced the maximum average weight as well as the highest regeneration percentage. The increasing rate of CCC increased the number and average weight of bulb. The maximum bulb formation observed in media supplement with 6.0 mg/L BAP and 500 mg/L CCC fortified with 90 g/L sucrose.

  12. Hydroponic technology for lily flowers and bulbs production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... This experiment was carried out to investigate the potential of nutrient film technique (NFT) hydroponic system for flowers and bulbs production of the Asiatic hybrid lily cv. "Blackout" using rainwater and some common nutrient solutions (Hoagland No. 2 Basal Salt Mixture, Murashige and Skoog Basal Salt.

  13. Hydroponic Technology for Lily Flowers and Bulbs Production Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the potential of nutrient film technique (NFT) hydroponic system for flowers and bulbs production of the Asiatic hybrid lily cv. "Blackout" using rainwater and some common nutrient solutions (Hoagland No. 2 Basal Salt Mixture, Murashige and Skoog Basal Salt Mixture and ...

  14. 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in field-grown onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of soil amendments on concentrations of two volatile organic compounds, 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, in onion bulbs. The soil in five plots was mixed with sewage sludge, five plots were mixed with yard waste compost, five plots were mixed with laying hen manure each at 15 t acre(-1), and five unamended plots that never received soil amendments were used for comparison purposes. Plots (n = 20) were planted with onion, Allium cepa L. var. Super Star-F1 bulbs. Gas chromatographic/mass spetrometric (GC/MS) analyses of mature onion bulbs crude extracts revealed the presence of two major fragment ions that correspond to 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone. Soil amended with yard waste compost enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 31 and 59%, respectively. Soil amended with chicken manure enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 28 and 43%, respectively. Concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone were lowest in onion bulbs of plants grown in sewage sludge and unamended soil, respectively. The increased concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in onion bulbs may provide a protective character against insect and spider mite attack in field grown onions.

  15. Changes in endogenous gibberellin-like substances in onion bulbs (Allium cepa L. cv. Sochaczewska during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kielak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Onions cv. Sochaczewska were dried up under an umbrella roof till October 15th or till November 15th and thereafter stored in a cold room at 0-1°C until May 15th. During 4-year of experiment gibberellin activity was determined each month during storage. Three periods of high activity of gibberellins were found in most cases: in December, in February-March and in late spring. In general, onions dried longer (till November 15th, showed lower gibberellin activity than onions dried shorter. Gibberellin-like substances under investigation are localized in almost all Rf zones of chromatogram. Sprouting and rooting was related to gibberellin activity.

  16. Microbiological Aspects Considering the Production of Nutraceutical Curd Containing Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dumuţa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The curd is a traditional Romanian dairy product highly appreciated by the consumers. The purpose of this study was to produce and analyze from the microbiological point of view a nutraceutical curd containing onion, as a prebiotic source. The synbiotics generate among the organoleptic benefits also health improvement due to the different actions taken by probiotics and prebiotics, working together. The curd was produced by the traditional method using buffalo milk with reduced cholesterol content due to the treatment with crosslinked β-ciclodextrin with adipic acid.The curd prepared by rennet adding and coagulation at 30°C during 30-45 minutes was subjected to the maturation at a temperature of 12-16°C. Considering the microbiological tests, the curd recorded a pozitive evolution, being characterized by a lower microbial load compared with a control curd, prepared without onion.

  17. Onion seedling production in styrofoam trays under controlled environment, as summer-planted onions Plantas de cebola produzidas em bandejas sob cultivo protegido, no verão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Veiga De Vincenzo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Summer-planted onion (Allium cepa L. can increase grower profits, but the production of seedlings for transplant is difficult. This experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, with the objective of studying the behavior of the short-day onion hybrid Mercedes, in its initial stage, under controlled greenhouse environment, as summer-planted onions. Four formulated substrates, two different numbers of plants per cell were tested, and 288-cell styrofoam trays used. Trials were set up in split-plot design (n=3. Substrate and number of plants per cell represented main plots, and N application (2 and 3 times a week the subplots. The number of three plants per cell decrease the earlier onset of bulbing and increase plant height; substrates did not show differences; and the N application 3 times a week increased plant height and leaf dry weight, but did not result in earlier onset of bulbing.Uma das dificuldades do cultivo do verão da cebola (Allium cepa L., que permite maior lucro pois esta é a época de entressafra, é a produção de plantas para o transplante. Com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento na fase de muda do híbrido Mercedes, sob cultivo protegido como cultura de verão, o experimento foi instalado em estufa, em Piracicaba, SP com bandejas de isopor de 288 células. Foram testados quatro substratos. e dois números de plantas por células (3 e 4 plantas/célula, sendo sub-plot a suplementação mineral com nitrogênio 2 e 3 vezes por semana com nitrato de cálcio + nitrato de potássio. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com fatorial 4 x 2 em parcelas subdivididas, e três repetições. A densidade de três plantas por célula apresentou menor taxa de bulbificação precoce e maior altura da planta; não houve diferença quanto aos substratos e que a aplicação de nitrogênio três vezes por semana apresentou os maiores valores de altura da planta e peso da matéria seca da parte aérea, n

  18. Effects of an onion by-product on bioactivity and safety markers in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Marin, Eduvigis; Krath, Britta; Poulsen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    -glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene expression was upregulated but only in rats given the onion residue. The onion by-products as well as the soluble and insoluble fractions had prebiotic effects as evidenced by decreased pH, increased butyrate production and altered gut microbiota enzyme activities...... of this onion by-product were shared by either of two derived fractions, an extract containing the onion FOS and polyphenols and a residue fraction containing mainly cell wall materials. We report here on the effects of feeding these products on markers of potential toxicity, protective enzymes and gut......Onions are excellent sources of bioactive compounds including fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and polyphenols. An onion by-product was characterised in order to be developed as a potentially bioactive food ingredient. Our main aim was to investigate whether the potential health and safety effects...

  19. Response of Onion(Allium cepa L.) to Nutrient Sources and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onion is an important vegetable in Nigeria, but its production and quality are often low due to inappropriate agronomic practices like good nutrient sources and proper weed control. A study was carried out for two years to investigate the response of onion (Allium cepa L.) to nutrient sources and weeding regimes on the bulb ...

  20. Local Community's Knowledge on Onion Production, Pests and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and grasshopper (6.3%) (Fig. 4). Fifty five per cent of the onion farmer respondents indicated that fungal diseases and especially onion purple blotch was the most destructive especially on crops planted during rainy season. Respondents. (73%) reported to be using chemical control methods in combating onion pests and ...

  1. Enzymatic production of pectic oligosaccharides from onion skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbar, Neha; Baldassarre, Stefania; Maesen, Miranda; Prandi, Barbara; Dejonghe, Winnie; Sforza, Stefano; Elst, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Onion skins are evaluated as a new raw material for the enzymatic production of pectic oligosaccharides (POS) with a targeted degree of polymerization (DP). The process is based on a two-stage process consisting of a chelator-based crude pectin extraction followed by a controlled enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment of the extracted crude onion skin's pectin with various enzymes (EPG-M2, Viscozyme and Pectinase) shows that EPG-M2 is the most appropriate enzyme for tailored POS production. The experiments reveal that the highest amount of DP2 and DP3 is obtained at a time scale of 75-90min with an EPG-M2 concentration of 26IU/mL. At these conditions the production amounts 2.5-3.0% (w/w) d.m for DP2 and 5.5-5.6% (w/w) d.m for DP3 respectively. In contrast, maximum DP4 production of 5.2-5.5% (w/w) d.m. is obtained with 5.2IU/mL at a time scale of 15-30min. Detailed LC-MS analysis reveals the presence of more methylated oligomers compared to acetylated forms in the digests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Produção de cebola de dias curtos no Alentejo. Influência da adubação localizada Short-day onion bulb yield in Alentejo. Influence of fertilizer band placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Almeida Machado

    2008-12-01

    Spring Star” and “Mineutaka” and fertilizer application method at plantation (broadcasting and banding at 10 cm ± 2 depth, under the crop row. Fertilizer banding did not affect root density (cm cm-3 under the crop row, nor onion bulb yield which was 8.3 and 9.0 kg m-2 for “Spring Star” and “Mineutaka” respectively. Since the studied cultivars presented resistance to waterlogging and low temperature that occurred during the growing season with good production, short - day onion has great agronomical potential for Alentejo region. Additionally, having in consideration the growing season conditions, water will not be a limiting factor.

  3. 77 FR 4810 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ..., chinese onion, daylily bulb, fritillaria bulb, great-headed, garlic, lily bulb, pearl onion, potato onion..., spinach vine, Chinese onion, daylily bulb, fritillaria bulb, great-headed, garlic, lily bulb, pearl onion...-OPP-2011-0477. Company name and address: Bayer CropScience, LP, 2 T.W. Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 12014...

  4. Comparison of mono- and di-saccharides release in aqueous solutions by raw or fried dice of onion (Allium Cepa L.) bulbs using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, Audrey; Guerez, Alice; Phana, Sidarin; de Man, Walter; This, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Although onion bulb tissues, either raw or thermally processed, are widely used as culinary ingredients in homes, in restaurants, and in the food industry, especially for sauces, little is known about the chemical constituents released from such systems. To get a straightforward and fast analysis of sugars released from onion dice soaked in model aqueous solutions, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy was applied, and the effect of a preliminary thermal processing in oil was investigated. Soaking of raw or fried onion bulb dice at room temperature was followed for 11 d as a model of long-term storage. For the Armstrong cultivar, the extracted dry matter (in milligrams per gram of fresh weight) as well as the content in 3 sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) increased up to a maximum after about 48 h of soaking. Frying induces no measurable new water-soluble compounds. However, extraction kinetics are different (about 3 times faster with frying). Using additional microscopic studies, a possible extraction mechanism is proposed: compounds from sap-including sugars-would diffuse through conductive tissue channels.

  5. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  6. Productive and qualitative evaluation of onion cultivars under agro-climatic conditions of faisalabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, S.; Amjad, M.; Ziaf, K.; Cheema, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Onion varieties are very specific in their photoperiod and vernalization requirements and therefore vary for yield, yield related traits and bolting in a specific agro-climate. Therefore, performance of nineteen onion varieties for these traits was evaluated at Vegetable Research Institute, Faisalabad. The maximum bolting percentage was recorded in Desi Red (46.67%) that indicates less vernalization requirement of this variety while it was the minimum in Faisal Red and VRIO-6 (13.33%). The cultivar Phulkara produced larger size bulbs (73.22 mm diameter) as well as highest yield (21.90 t ha/sup -1/) and bulb to neck diameter ratio (6.75). Similarly, minimum weight loss during curing was observed in Desi Red (4.64%), Pusa Red (4.76%) and Phulkara (4.83%), indicating higher dry matter contents while maximum weight loss (6%) was recorded in VRIO-6. Overall results revealed that both Phulkara and Desi Red are excellent for processing while Dark Red for cooking purpose under agro-climatic conditions of Faisalabad. (author)

  7. Leaf waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion thrips is an important insect pest of onion that damages leaves and bulbs, reduces yields, and transmits important diseases such as iris yellow spot virus and bacterial rots. Growers would benefit from onions resistant to thrips in order to reduce insecticide applications and provide more sust...

  8. Molecular characterization of black Aspergillus species from onion and their potential for ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherbawy, Youssuf; Elhariry, Hesham; Kocsubé, Sándor; Bahobial, Abdulaziz; Deeb, Bahig El; Altalhi, Abdulla; Varga, János; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2015-05-01

    Onion bulbs can become contaminated with various molds during the storage period, the most important causal agents being black aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri). Taxonomic studies have revealed that this group of Aspergillus contains many species that cannot be reliably identified using standard morphological methods. Therefore, it is necessary to define the fungus causing this problem in the onion exactly, especially since some species assigned to section Nigri are well known as ochratoxin and/or fumonisin producers. Sixty fungal isolates belonging to 10 fungal genera were isolated from 40 onion samples originated from the Taif region in Saudi Arabia. Black aspergilli were detected in 37 onion samples. Using primer pairs (awaspec and Cmd6) designed based on partial calmodulin gene sequence data, 37 isolates were identified as A. welwitschiae. The ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 contents of the onion samples were examined. No ochratoxins were detected in the collected samples, while fumonisin B2 was detected in 37.5% of the onion samples. Eighteen of 37 isolates of Aspergillus welwitschiae were recognized as potential producers for fumonisin B2. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions designed to detect biosynthetic genes of fumonisins confirmed these results.

  9. Rizobactérias no crescimento e na produtividade da cebola Rhizobacteria on the production and yield of onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Emilio Ludtke Harthmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A associação de plantas com rizobactérias pode promover o crescimento vegetal, reduzindo custos de produção. As rizobactérias benéficas podem ser uma alternativa para a produção de cebola. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da aplicação de rizobactérias no crescimento e na produtividade da cebola da cultivar 'Bola Precoce'. A aplicação foi realizada na Estação Experimental da Epagri, em Ituporanga, Santa Catarina (SC, no ano de 2008. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, sendo utilizadas as rizobactérias Pseudomonas spp. W6, Bacillus megaterium W19 e Bacillus cereus UFV40, microbiolizadas isoladamente nas sementes ou em mistura, juntamente com uma testemunha não tratada. Os tratamentos com aplicação de rizobactérias proporcionaram maior altura, diâmetro de pseudocaule e número de folhas nas plantas avaliadas aos 90 dias após o transplante. Plantas que receberam os tratamentos com rizobactérias apresentaram maior rendimento de bulbos em relação à testemunha. A massa dos bulbos foi afetada positivamente pelos tratamentos, com destaque para Bacillus megaterium W19.The association of plants with rhizobacteria can enhance plant growth, reducing production costs. Benefic rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth being an alternative for production of onions. This research assesses the impact of applying rhizobacteria in the growth and productivity of cv. Bola Precoce onions. The study was conducted in the Experimental Station of Epagri, Ituporanga, SC, Brazil in 2008. The experimental design was in random blocks with five repetitions using Pseudomonas spp. W6, B Bacillus megaterium W19 e Bacillus cereus UFV40 rhizobacteria, microbiolized singly in seeds or in a formula together with non-treated control. The treatments involving rhizobacteria application yielded higher heights, diameter of pseudo-trunk and number of leaves in the plants assessed at 90 days after transplant. All the

  10. Economic feasibility studies on radiation preservation of dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Karim, A.; Quaiyum, M.A.; Bhuiya, A.D.; Matin, M.A.; Siddiqui, A.K.; Hossain, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes face enormous storage losses in Bangladesh due to insect infestation and sprouting. Research and development work was carried out to assess the suitability of introducing irradiation processing of these products in the country. Experiments showed that a dose of 0.04-0.68 kGy could inhibit sprouting in onions. Sprouting in potatoes could be inhibited at 0.10 kGy. Dried and cured fishery products could be disinfested of insects at a dose of 0.30 kGy. Infrastructure such as transportation, storage, marketing and existing systems of post-harvest handling were analysed. Post-harvest storage losses of onion and dried fish were more than 50% after 6 months of storage. Potatoes could not be kept at ambient conditions for over 3 months after the harvesting season. Irradiation of onions and dried fish, if they were stored in suitable conditions after proper packaging, could save significant storage losses. Irradiated potatoes could be stored at 14 deg. C instead of 2-4 deg. C as practised normally. On the basis of the data collected on dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes, economic feasibility studies were conducted. Assumptions for calculation of cost of the irradiation facility were: (i) strength of the irradiator source: 7.40 PBq of 60 Co; (ii) construction period: 2 years; (iii) operating time: 7200 hours per year; (iv) economic life: 20 years; (v) capacity utilization: 80-90%. In addition to dried and cured fish, potatoes and onions, this facility would also treat fresh fish and medical products in order to maximize its use. It would have an investment cost of US $1.9 million. The payback period was found to be less than 4 years. If additional warehouses could be built along with the facility, such a venture would be more profitable. 23 refs, 8 figs, 28 tabs

  11. Pelargonic acid for weed control in organic Vidalia sweet onion production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivation using a tine weeder is a proven means to manage weeds in organic Vidalia® sweet onion production. If the initial cultivation is delayed, emerged weeds are not controlled by the tine weeder. In these cases, herbicides derived from natural products could be used to control the emerged we...

  12. A Toolkit for bulk PCR-based marker design from next-generation sequence data: application for development of a framework linkage map in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Samantha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although modern sequencing technologies permit the ready detection of numerous DNA sequence variants in any organisms, converting such information to PCR-based genetic markers is hampered by a lack of simple, scalable tools. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop with a complex, heterozygous genome where genome-based research has previously been hindered by limited sequence resources and genetic markers. Results We report the development of generic tools for large-scale web-based PCR-based marker design in the Galaxy bioinformatics framework, and their application for development of next-generation genetics resources in a wide cross of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.. Transcriptome sequence resources were developed for the homozygous doubled-haploid bulb onion line ‘CUDH2150’ and the genetically distant Indian landrace ‘Nasik Red’, using 454™ sequencing of normalised cDNA libraries of leaf and shoot. Read mapping of ‘Nasik Red’ reads onto ‘CUDH2150’ assemblies revealed 16836 indel and SNP polymorphisms that were mined for portable PCR-based marker development. Tools for detection of restriction polymorphisms and primer set design were developed in BioPython and adapted for use in the Galaxy workflow environment, enabling large-scale and targeted assay design. Using PCR-based markers designed with these tools, a framework genetic linkage map of over 800cM spanning all chromosomes was developed in a subset of 93 F2 progeny from a very large F2 family developed from the ‘Nasik Red’ x ‘CUDH2150’ inter-cross. The utility of tools and genetic resources developed was tested by designing markers to transcription factor-like polymorphic sequences. Bin mapping these markers using a subset of 10 progeny confirmed the ability to place markers within 10 cM bins, enabling increased efficiency in marker assignment and targeted map refinement. The major genetic loci conditioning red bulb colour (R and fructan

  13. Relationship Between Consumer Acceptability and Pungency-Related Flavor Compounds of Vidalia Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Yeon; Jackson, Daniel; Adhikari, Koushik; Riner, Cliff; Sanchez-Brambila, Gabriela

    2017-10-01

    A consumer study was conducted to evaluate preferences in Vidalia onions, and define consumer acceptability thresholds for commonly analyzed flavor compounds associated with pungency. Two varieties of Vidalia onions (Plethora and Sapelo Sweet) were grown at 3 fertilizer application rates (37.5 and 0; 134.5 and 59.4; and 190 and 118.8 kg/ha of nitrogen and sulfur, respectively), creating 6 treatments with various flavor attributes to use in the study. Bulb soluble solids, sugars, pyruvic acid, lachrymatory factor (LF; propanethial S-oxide), and methyl thiosulfinate (MT) content were determined and compared to sensory responses for overall liking, intensity of the sharp/pungent/burning sensation (SPB), and intent to buy provided by 142 consumers. Onion pyruvate, LF, MT, and sugar content increased as fertilization rate increased, regardless of onion variety. Consumer responses showed participants preferred onions with low SPB, which correlated positively to lower pyruvate, LF and MT concentrations, but showed no relationship to total sugars in the onion bulb. Regression analyses revealed that the majority of consumers (≥55%) found the flavor of Vidalia onions acceptable when the concentrations of LF, pyruvic acid, and MT within the bulbs were below 2.21, 4.83, and 0.43 nmol/mL, respectively. These values will support future studies aimed at identifying the optimal cultivation practices for production of sweet Vidalia onions, and can serve as an industry benchmark for quality control, thus ensuring the flavor of Vidalia onions will be acceptable to the majority of consumers. This study identified the relationship between consumer preferences and commonly analyzed flavor compounds in Vidalia onions, and established thresholds for these compounds at concentrations which the majority of consumers will find desirable. These relationships and thresholds will support future research investigating how cultural practices impact onion quality, and can be used to assist

  14. Weed control using ammonium nonanoate and cultivation in organic Vidalia sweet onion production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium nonanoate is registered for weed control in certified organic crop production and may be useful to control cool-season weeds in organic Vidalia® sweet onion. Cultivation with a tine weeder has been identified as a cost-effective means of weed control, but delays in cultivation cause some w...

  15. Phenotypic diversity of basic characteristics of genotypes from the Serbia onion collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdanović-Varga Jelica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The onion is a widely distributed vegetable crop, which takes an important place in the vegetable production in Serbia. The traditional planting method is the one from sets. Old cultivars and populations and, in recent years, foreign cultivars are grown. The large variety of genotypes, including both domestic populations and cultivars, comprises the significant gene pool of this region. The onion collection of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad is based on the populations and cultivars from the territory of the former Yugoslavia. This paper reviews 30 onion genotypes on the basic IPGRI descriptors (ANNEX I. Variability of the reviewed characteristics was determined by PC analysis. High variability values have been established for bulb skin color, bulb flesh color, bulb hearting and bulb skin thickness. The genotypes varied in bulb skin color as well as in bulb flesh color from white to dark violet. These two characteristics had the largest impact on clustering, with a single genotype being heterogeneous exactly for these two characteristics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31030

  16. Efecto del Fosfito de Potasio en Combinación con el Fungicida Metalaxyl + Mancozeb en el Control de Mildeo Velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk en Cebolla de Bulbo (Allium cepa L. Effect of the Potasium Phosphite in Combination with the Fungicide Metalaxyl plus Mancozeb on the Control of Downy Mildew (Peronospora destructor Berk in Onion Bulb (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Velandia Monsalve

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El hongo Peronospora destructor causa considerables pérdidas en la producción de cebolla de bulbo en el mundo. Fosfito de potasio en combinación con el fungicida Metalaxyl + Mancozeb, fue evaluado por su eficiencia en el control de este patógeno en el híbrido de cebolla de bulbo Yellow Granex. Los tratamientos consistieron en una aplicación de fosfito (5 mL L-1 alternada con una de fungicida (2 g L-1; dos y tres aplicaciones consecutivas de fosfito alternadas con una de fungicida; una aplicación de fungicida alternada con una de fosfito; dos y tres aplicaciones consecutivas de fungicida alternadas con una de fosfito; aplicaciones de sólo fosfito y sólo fungicida y un testigo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad, el número, tamaño y peso de bulbos de primera, segunda, tercera y peso total de bulbos. Los resultados mostraron que las aplicaciones de fosfito de potasio durante dos semanas consecutivas alternadas en la tercera semana con una de fungicida y las aplicaciones semanales de sólo fosfito, tuvieron efectos altamente significativos en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor y diferencias significativas en el peso de los bulbos de primera (28,1 y 27,9 t ha-1 y peso total de bulbos (55,5 y 52,1 t ha-1, representando en relación al testigo, un incremento de 200 y 196% en el peso de los bulbos de primera y de 55 y 45,7% en el peso total de bulbos, respectivamente. Se concluye que con el fosfito de potasio se reduce la aplicación de fungicidas y ello es una alternativa viable para el manejo ecológico de P. destructor en la producción de cebolla de bulbo.Abstract. Peronospora destructor fungi causes considerable loses in the production of onion bulb in the world. Potassium phosphite in combination with the fungicide Metalaxyl + Mancozeb was evaluated for its efficiency in the control of this pathogen

  17. Structural analyses and immunomodulatory properties of fructo-oligosaccharides from onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V Prasanna; Prashanth, K V Harish; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-03-06

    Onion (Allium cepa) is an immune-boosting food rich in fructans. The major aim of this study is to characterize and investigate the immunomodulatory properties of onion fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). FOS was isolated from onion bulbs by hot 80% ethanol extraction (yield: ∼4.5 g/100 g fw) followed by gel permeation chromatography. NMR of onion FOS revealed unusual β-D-Glc terminal residue at the non-reducing end. TLC and ESI-MS analyses showed that onion FOS ranged from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. Onion FOS (50 μg/mL) significantly increased (∼3-fold) the proliferation of mouse splenocytes/thymocytes vs. control. Further, onion FOS enhanced (∼2.5-fold) the production of nitric oxide by peritoneal exudates cells (PECs) from Wistar rats; intracellular free radicals production and phagocytic activity of isolated murine PECs were also augmented. Our structural and in vitro results indicate that onion FOS comprising of tri- to hexasaccharide units belongs to inulin-type fructans, and possess immunostimulatory activities towards murine lymphocytes and macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation for epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) and thrips-vectored Iris Yellow Spot Virus (IYSV) routinely cause significant losses to the bulb and seed crops of onion. Both pests have become more problematic as global temperatures rise. Natural variation exists in onion for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on...

  19. Onion dehydration: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S. L.; Rao, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum micro...

  20. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Onion rings made from diced onion. 102.39 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.39 Onion rings made from diced onion. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as onion rings, except that it is composed of comminuted...

  1. Evaluation of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in two onion varieties grown under organic and conventional production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feiyue; Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; Kerry, Joseph P; Hossain, Mohammad; Rai, Dilip K

    2017-07-01

    Onions contain a number of bioactive compounds, in particular polyphenols. They are rich sources of such compounds in the human diet and offer significant health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is steadily increasing partly based on the expected health benefits of organic food consumption. The current study examines the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on bioactive polyphenolic content of onion. We examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in two varieties of onion grown over 4 years in a split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year-on-year variation and were significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. The levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in general were significantly higher (P onion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Economical Analysis of Onion(Allium Cepa L. Production in Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassanzadeh Aval

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current conventional agricultural systems using intensive energy have to be revitalized through new integrated approaches relying on renewable energy resources, which can allow farmers to stop dependence on fossil resources. The aim of this study was determining the amount of input–output energy used in onion (Allium cepa L. production in Khorasan Razavi province. For this purpose, the data was collected from 55 onion farm workers in Khorasan Razavi. Inquiries were conducted in face-to-face interviews in April-May 2011. Farm workers were selected based on random sampling method. The results indicated that total energy input was 98479 MJ.ha-1. The share of electricity and nitrogen fertilizer was 50.9 and 14.7%, respectively out of total energy input. The average onion yield under normal conditions was 73227 kg.ha-1 on irrigated farms. The net energy and energy productivity values were estimated to be 18684 MJ.ha-1 and 0.74 kg.MJ-1, respectively, and the ratio of energy output to energy input was found to be 1.19. This indicated an intensive use of input in onion production, which is not parallel to the increase in the final yield. Approximately 77.3% of the total energy input used in onion production was non-renewable (machinery, diesel, fertilizers, chemicals and electricity and only 22.7% was renewable energy form (human labor, manure, water for irrigation, seeds. Cost analysis revealed that total cost of onion production for one hectare was 79262908 Rials. Benefit–cost ratio was calculated as 1.65. Although energy efficiency of onion production in Khorasan Razavi province is low, it is economically justified.

  3. Analyse des systèmes de production de l'oignon bulbe autour du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyse des systèmes de production de l'oignon bulbe autour du barrage de Goinré dans la province du Yatenga au Nord du Burkina Faso. ... L'utilisation des motopompes et le système d'irrigation à la raie engendrent des coûts de maintenance élevés, des risques de pannes fréquentes et des pertes importantes en eau ...

  4. Desenvolvimento e produção de duas cultivares de cebola irrigadas por gotejamento Development and production of two onion cultivars irrigated by drip system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Vilas Boas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes tensões da água no solo sobre o desenvolvimento e produção de duas cultivares de cebola irrigadas por gotejamento. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do DAG/UFLA, no período de junho a outubro de 2008; o delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos se constituíram de duas cultivares de cebola, cultivar híbrida Optima F1 e cultivar não híbrida Alfa Tropical, além de seis tensões da água no solo, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60 e 75 kPa. Concluiu-se que o híbrido Optima F1 apresentou melhores respostas com relação às seguintes características analisadas: produtividade total de bulbos, produtividade de bulbos comerciais e massa média de bulbos comerciais. A altura da planta e o diâmetro do colo apresentaram respostas lineares decrescentes, sempre que se aumentaram as tensões da água no solo, para ambas as cultivares. Referidas cultivares devem ser irrigadas no momento em que a tensão da água no solo estiver em torno de 15 kPa, na profundidade de 0,15 m, para obtenção de plantas mais altas, maiores produtividades de bulbos (total e comercial e maior massa média de bulbos comerciais.This work aimed to assess the effect of different water tensions in soil over the development and production of two onion cultivars irrigated by drip system. The experiment was carried in the experimental area of the DAG/UFLA, from June to October 2008. The experimental was conducted in randomized block design in 2 x 6 factorial scheme, with four repetitions. The treatments were two onion cultivars, the hybrid Optima F1 and the non hybrid Alfa Tropical and six soil water tensions, i.e., 15, 25, 35, 45, 60 and 75 kPa. It was verified that the hybrid Optima F1 presented the best responses regarding the following analyzed characteristics: total bulb yield, commercial bulb yield and average mass of

  5. Indirect Effects of Field Management on Pollination Service and Seed Set in Hybrid Onion Seed Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Williams, Neal

    2015-12-01

    Pollination in crops, as in native ecosystems, is a stepwise process that can be disrupted at any stage. Healthy pollinator populations are critical for adequate visitation, but pollination still might fail if crop management interferes with the attraction and retention of pollinators. Farmers must balance the direct benefits of applying insecticide and managing irrigation rates against their potential to indirectly interfere with the pollination process. We investigated these issues in hybrid onion seed production, where previous research has shown that high insecticide use reduces pollinator attraction. We conducted field surveys of soil moisture, nectar production, pollinator visitation, pollen-stigma interactions, and seed set at multiple commercial fields across 2 yr. We then examined how management actions, such as irrigation rate (approximated by soil moisture), or insecticide use could affect the pollination process. Onions produced maximum nectar at intermediate soil moisture, and high nectar production attracted more pollinators. Insecticide use weakly affected pollinator visitation, but when applied close to bloom reduced pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Ultimately, neither soil moisture nor insecticide use directly affected seed set, but the high correlation between pollinator visitation and seed set suggests that crop management will ultimately affect yields via indirect effects on the pollination process. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Shedding Some Light on Fluorescent Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Nicholas R.

    1996-01-01

    Explores some of the principles behind the working of fluorescent bulbs using a specially prepared fluorescent bulb with the white inner fluorescent coating applied along only half its length. Discusses the spectrum, the bulb plasma, and light production. (JRH)

  7. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation.

  8. Morphological Performance of Onion under Exogenous Treatments of GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Dulal SARKAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess the morphological response of onion plants to different GA3 levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 ppm. The factor levels of GA3 were applied during transplanting by root soaking and foliar spray at 30 and 60 days after transplanting. The gibberellic acid had a great effect on increasing plant height (46.50 cm, shoot biomass (641.67 g m-2, bulb biomass (1125.00 g m-2 and also dry matter accumulation in onion plants under the effect of 60 ppm compared to control. Plants grown up without GA3 application were shorter than those grown with GA3 spray where the lowest plant height (34.67 cm was remarked. The leaf number (11.43 was considerably increased when 60 ppm GA3 was used as the growth promoter factor in comparison to control. The plants attain minimum fresh biomass at harvesting time in the shoot (441.67 g m-2 and bulb (641.67 g m-2 grown in control plot. Considerably (41.63% more dry shoot biomass accumulation was recorded in 60 ppm GA3 treated plants in comparison with the control at harvesting stages. Insignificant effect by all concentration of GA3 was found in bulb length, fresh root biomass and dry root biomass. Thus, the use of 60 ppm GA3 can be recommend for onion production due to the significantly increased of the fresh bulb biomass with about 42.96% over control.

  9. Sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa L.) by gamma irradiation. Part of a coordinated programme on pre-commercial scale radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.

    1982-04-01

    With the aim of verifying the possibilities and circumstances of sprout inhibition and storage life extension of onion and garlic by gamma irradiation, onion bulbs of variety Valenciana Sintetica 14 and garlic bulbs of a coloured locally grown variety were subjected to irradiation with 3 Krad of 60 Co gamma rays. The dose rate was 2440 rad/min; the irradiation conditions warranted a Dsub(max)/Dsub(min) ratio of 1.25. The irradiated bulbs and control samples of non-irradiated bulbs were investigated for a period of 270 to 330 days. Weight loss, external and internal sprouting, signs of decay, and the percentage of commercial bulbs were observed with the following results. Weight loss was found to be less in irradiated bulbs than in controls - 22% against 40% for onion and 33% against 65% for garlic. The dose of gamma radiation employed was proved to be sufficient for sprout inhibition in both species and for partial inhibition of decay and softening. The aroma of garlic was not impaired by irradiation. For both products, gamma irradiation was found to prolong the period of commercial utilizability

  10. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs; Inhibicion de brotes en raices, tuberculos y bulbos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  11. Bulb Miser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Bulb-Miser was developed during NASA's Apollo program to protect the Saturn launch vehicle from electrical current surge. It is now being produced for the commercial market by Bulb-Miser, Inc., Houston, Texas. Technically known as a "temperature compensating thermistor," the Bulb-Miser is a simple, inexpensive device which looks like a washer about the size of a quarter. It is slipped between bulb and socket and can be used with any incandescent bulb that screws into a standard socket. In addition to delaying burnout, the Bulb-Miser also offers some reduction of electrical energy. But the economy of the device goes beyond energy use or bulb cost; to big users of bulbs, it makes possible substantially lower maintenance labor costs. One field test involving an apartment complex showed that it took two men 30 man hours monthly to replace light bulbs; after Bulb-Miser installation only nine man hours a month were needed. Bulb-Misers are used not only in private homes but also by hospitals, schools, hotels and motels, restaurants, banks and firms providing contract maintenance for large outdoor electric signs. The broadest use is in industrial facilities; the list of big companies which have purchased the Bulb-Miser reads like a Who's Who of American industry.

  12. POST-HARVEST QUALITY OF ONION 'ATACAMA' PRODUCED WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Figueiredo Neto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The onion is an economically important crop for Brazil and its production is increasing in several regions of the country. The Northeast region uses onion seeds of lower quality than other regions of Brazil, and this causes lower production. The region of the São Francisco Valley is considered of great agricultural potential and many companies are investing in agriculture. So, researchers develop varieties of onions to suit the conditions of the semi-arid northeast. This study aimed to evaluate the physical and chemical conditions of the onion híbrida ‘Atacama’, produced at the experimental station of EMBRAPA in Mandacaru, Juazeiro-BA. The experiments were performed on the storage of agricultural products of the College of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering UNIVASF, where it was observed that the bulbs stored at refrigeration temperature have lower mass loss laboratory than fruits stored at room temperature. Onion color after 30 days storage darkens and the steadiness decreases as the fruit is stored. There were no variations in the quality of post- harvest onion by varying the dosage of 120 kg/ha and 70 kg/ha of nitrogen.

  13. Radiation treatment of onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.

    1988-06-01

    The comprehensive report comprises 15 papers closely related to the leading article. The irradiation of onions (Allium cepa L.) serves to prevent sprouting associated with long-term storage or transport and storage of onions in climatic conditions which stimulate sprouting. The papers contain results of physiological investigations on the optimum conditions for onion irradiation, and technical and economic parameters of the process under national economy and business management aspects. For two different types of irradiation plants, a bulk-type plant and a multi-purpose large-scale irradiation plant, technical specifications and economic results in relation to product throughput, loading and price of 60 Co are presented. (author)

  14. Onion dehydration: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S

    2012-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here. These techniques are mainly used for preservation and value addition of onion. Several researchers have tried for decades to model the drying kinetics and quality parameters, which are also compiled here briefly.

  15. concentration levels of major and trace metals in onion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    like stews, soups, tomato sauces, cooked vegetables and meat by slicing, chopping, dicing or grating. Onion is ... various countries, e.g., Nigeria [1, 13, 17, 18], China [19], Chile [20], Pakistan [21], UAE [22],. Korea [15] ... Chopping board (PTFE, China) and Teflon (PTFE) knife were used to cut onion bulbs in to pieces while ...

  16. Growth responses of tropical onion cultivars to photoperiod and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are widely produced within the tropics, but little is known about the Eritrean cultivars Hagaz Red 1 and 2 (HR 1, and HR 2) and Red Creole (RC). Responses of the onion cvs. HR 1, HR 2 and RC to photoperiod and temperature on bulbing were compared. Plants were grown in growth rooms under ...

  17. Measuring onion cultivars with image analysis using inflection points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Vossepoel, A.M.; Polder, G.

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of image analysis was studied to measure bulb characteristics for varietal testing of onions (Allium cepa L.). Eighteen genotypes were used, which covered a whole range of onion shapes, including some quite identical ones. The characteristic height and diameter were measured both by

  18. Association of Pectolytic Fluorescent PSeudomonas with Postharvest Rots of Onion

    OpenAIRE

    H.H. El-Hendawy

    2004-01-01

    Five isolates of pectolytic fluorescent pseudomonads were obtained from a rotted onion bulb and identified as Pseudomonas marginalis. At both 4 and 25oC, all isolates caused soft rot to detached plant parts of onion and to carrot, celery, cucumber, pepper, spinach, tomato and turnip (but not garlic). They did not however cause any symptoms in living plants of these same species. These results suggest that the onion isolates are a postharvest pathogen which is not destructive in th...

  19. Idaho–Eastern Oregon Onion Industry Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotova, Yuliya; Jemmett, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Idaho–Eastern Oregon onion industry operates in a market environment characterized by a high level of onion price and supply volatility. Years of relatively high onion prices are often followed by years of very low prices which do not allow onion growers to recover their onion production costs. This feature of the industry adversely affects the profi tability of onion growers and the economic performance of their industry. This study conducts an analysis of alternative market scenarios ...

  20. The presence and survival of soft rot (Erwinia) in flower bulb production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Dees, R.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot is causing increasing damage in the flower bulb industry. Bulbous ornamentals such as Hyacinthus, Dahlia, Iris, Muscari, Freesia and Zantedeschia can be infected. Soft rot in flower bulbs is mainly caused by Dickeya spp. (Dickeya spp.) and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora

  1. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND, USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin as sub-plots. Neither tillage nor herbicide treatments affected onion stand counts. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album densities were lower in strip tillage compared to conventional tillage up to three weeks after the post-emergence applied herbicides. In general, micro-rate post-emergence herbicide treatments provided greater early-season broadleaf weed control than pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Onion yield and grade did not differ among herbicide treatments because the mid-season herbicide application provided sufficient control/suppression of the early-season weed escapes that these initial weed escapes did not impact onion yield or bulb diameter. In 2007, onion in the strip tillage treatment were larger in diameter resulting in greater total and marketable yields compared to conventional tillage. Marketable onion yield was 82.1 Mg ha−1 in strip tillage and 64.9 Mg ha−1 in conventional tillage. Results indicate that strip tillage use in direct-seeded onion production was beneficial, especially when growing conditions were conducive to higher yields and that the use of strip tillage in onion may provide an alternative to using a companion crop as it did not interfere with either early-season weed management system.

  2. Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Feeding Promotes Infection By Pantoea ananatis in Onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grode, Ari; Chen, Shicheng; Walker, Edward D; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2017-12-05

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a primary insect pest of onions (Allium cepa) worldwide. Onion thrips cause feeding damage by destroying epidermal tissue. They are also vectors of Pantoea ananatis (Serrano) Mergaert, the bacteria that causes center rot. Onions with center rot develop white streaks with water-soaked margins along the onion leaves, which turn necrotic and lead to bulb rot during storage. The role of thrips feeding on the establishment and progression of bacterial infection in onions has not been investigated. Onions infested with thrips and inoculated with P. ananatis had more necrotic tissue and symptoms were more severe with increasing thrips density. We conducted a fluorescence microscopy study that examined how P. ananatis (expressing a fluorescence protein gene) colonized a control group of onions without thrips in comparison to a test group of onions with thrips. We found that P. ananatis colonized some onions in the control group because of naturally existing wounds in the epidermal tissue but more colonization was found in the thrips infested group because of the increased presence of entry points caused by thrips feeding. Overall, our results demonstrate that wounds caused by thrips feeding facilitate center rot development by providing entry sites for the bacteria into leaf tissue. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Chilling effect on soluble sugars, respiration rate, total phenolics, peroxidase activity and dormancy of onion bulbs Efeito do resfriamento sobre açúcares solúveis, taxa de respiração, fenóis totais, atividade de peroxidase e dormência de bulbos de cebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides onions being one of the most cultivated and consumed vegetables, during storage onion bulbs are still affected by many physiological, biochemical and technological factors which can influence their quality. Respiration rate (RR O2, soluble sugars (SS, total phenolics (TP, and peroxidase (POD activity were measured in inner bud tissues during a dormancy break of onion bulbs treated four weeks at 0ºC and stored in the dark at 20ºC. Control bulbs were stored simultaneously in the same condition. Breakage of dormancy was checked by the appearance of first green internal leaves by cutting longitudinally 30 bulbs. After eight weeks, RR O2 of sprouted onions was 52% higher than that of freshly harvested and dormant bulbs. One week after cooling SS decreased from 15 to 9 mg g-1 fresh weight, and then peaked from 9 to 19 mg g-1 after three weeks. For control bulbs, a similar peak was observed after six weeks. For inner buds of cold-treated onions, a slight increase of TP (from 0.17 to 0.2 mg g-1; fresh weight was observed during the first two weeks of cooling, and then a decrease to 0.11 mg g-1 was observed after eight weeks. For inner buds of control bulbs, TP also increased slightly from 0.17 to 0.2 mg g-1 after five weeks, and decreased to 0.15 mg g-1 after seven weeks when bulbs began to sprout. POD activity showed a similar pattern in relation to TP. For cold-treated bulbs, POD activity increased to 1.7 U g-1 fresh weight after two weeks, and decreased to 1.1 U g-1 during the last four weeks. For control samples, POD activity was stable during 4 weeks and decreased progressively by 29% during the last four weeks. This decrease in POD activity coincided with the decrease in TP, and coincided with onset of sprouting. With cold treatment, first sprouts were observed during the third week, while total sprouting was observed after eight weeks. In comparison, only 20% of the control bulbs sprouted after the period of 8 weeks.Além de ser uma das

  4. Pathogenicity for onion and genetic diversity of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Phyllachoraceae) from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, M X Vila; Borges, L R; de Sousa, A C B; Brasileiro, B T R V; Lima, E A L A; da Costa, A F; de Oliveira, N T

    2011-02-22

    Onion anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the main diseases of onions in the State of Pernambuco. We examined the pathogenicity of 15 C. gloeosporioides strains and analyzed their genetic variability using RAPDs and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the rDNA region. Ten of the strains were obtained from substrates and hosts other than onion, including chayote (Sechium edule), guava (Psidium guajava), pomegranate (Punica granatum), water from the Capibaribe River, maracock (Passiflora sp), coconut (Cocus nucifera), surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), and marine soil; five isolates came from onions collected from four different regions of the State of Pernambuco and one region of the State of Amazonas. Pathogenicity tests were carried out using onion leaves and bulbs. All strains were capable of causing disease in leaves, causing a variable degree of lesions on the leaves; four strains caused the most severe damage. In the onion bulb tests, only three of the above strains caused lesions. Seven primers of arbitrary sequences were used in the RAPD analysis, generating polymorphic bands that allowed the separation of the strains into three distinct groups. The amplification products generated with the primers ITS1 and ITS4 also showed polymorphism when digested with three restriction enzymes, DraI, HaeIII and MspI. Only the latter two demonstrated genetic variations among the strains. These two types of molecular markers were able to differentiate the strain from the State of Amazonas from those of the State of Pernambuco. However, there was no relationship between groups of strains, based on molecular markers, and degree of pathogenicity for onion leaves and bulbs.

  5. The presence and survival of soft rot (Erwinia) in flower bulb production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, van, J.; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; Leeuwen, van, P.J.; Dees, R.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot is causing increasing damage in the flower bulb industry. Bulbous ornamentals such as Hyacinthus, Dahlia, Iris, Muscari, Freesia and Zantedeschia can be infected. Soft rot in flower bulbs is mainly caused by Dickeya spp. (Dickeya spp.) and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Pectobacterium carotovorum spp. carotovorum).To identify and detect these soft rot bacterial species in several bulbous ornamentals, standard PCR methods were used. During the last four years, research was dire...

  6. 78 FR 14539 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ...Science, P.O. Box 12014, 2 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Active Ingredient...), fritillaria (bulb), garlic (bulbs of common, great-headed, serpent), lily (bulb), onion (bulbs of common...

  7. Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Américo Wordell Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K, calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias. Somente a pulverização semanal com fungicidas sintéticos ou com o fertilizante (03-00-16; 400 mL de p.c./100 L foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a severidade do míldio, em 60 ou 23%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha não pulverizada, sem aumentar o rendimento de bulbos. O tratamento com fertilizantes ricos em potássio resultou em maior incidência da podridão de bulbos armazenados por cinco meses. O conteúdo de açúcares solúveis e incidência da podridão de bulbos de cebola foram correlacionados significativamente (-0,629, p A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar sprays with the following treatments on the downy mildew (Peronospora destructor and bulb rot (Burkholderia cepacia in onions: non-treated control, fungicide chlorotalonil/metalaxyl + chlorotalonil, potassium phosphite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, N-P-K, bordeaux mixture, bordeaux mixture/potassium phosphite, acibenzolar-S-methyl weekly applied; extract of alga Ulva fasciata and ulvan sprayed every 7, 14 and 21 days. Only the weekly spraying of fungicides and fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L significantly reduced the mildew severity by 60 and 23%, respectively, but did not increase the bulb yield. The foliar application of potassium rich fertilizers resulted in a higher incidence of rotten bulbs after 5 months in storage. Soluble sugar content and rot incidence of onion bulbs were significantly correlated (-0,629, p < 0,05.

  8. Produção de cebola orgânica em função do uso de cobertura morta e torta de mamona Production of organically grown onions depending on the use of mulch and castor bean cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio da S Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A cebola é uma hortaliça consumida em grande quantidade e tem sua produção concentrada no âmbito da agricultura familiar, sendo responsável pela geração de emprego e renda para grande número de produtores rurais que tem no cultivo desta espécie sua única fonte de renda. É crescente a demanda por tecnologias para produção de cebola adequadas à agricultura familiar, com ênfase em técnicas agroecológicas. Neste aspecto, destaca-se a utilização de coberturas mortas e adubos orgânicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes coberturas mortas, associados a doses crescentes de torta de mamona aplicadas em cobertura, na produção total e no diâmetro dos bulbos de cebola produzidos em sistema orgânico. Observou-se efeito significativo da cobertura morta na produção total e nas diferentes classes de diâmetro de bulbo. Não foram observados efeitos significativos da adubação com a torta de mamona e da interação entre cobertura e adubação com torta de mamona. O efeito benéfico da cobertura morta na produtividade e na qualidade da cebola foi, provavelmente, decorrente da manutenção de maior umidade e da redução da amplitude térmica do solo.Onion is a highly consumed vegetable whose production is based on smallholder agriculture. The onion production is responsible for the generation of jobs and income for many farmers who have this as the only source of income. There is a growing demand for onion production technologies suitable for smallholders, with emphasis on agroecology. In this respect, we highlight the use of mulches and organic fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different mulches, associated to increasing doses of castor bean cake applied in side dressing on total production and diameter of onion bulbs grown in organic system. There was a significant effect of the mulch over the total yield and the yield obtained of different diameter classes of bulbs. There

  9. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  10. The onion (Allium cepa L. R2R3-MYB gene MYB1 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Schwinn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulb colour is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales. The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red, flavonols (pale yellow and chalcones (bright yellow. Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterised in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1 or flavonol (SG7, MYB29 production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5. MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressd and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (A. sativum L. plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  11. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A; Albert, Nick W; McCallum, John A; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion ( Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic ( Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum maju s of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  12. The production of consuming less: Energy efficiency, climate change, and light bulbs in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoyre, Autumn

    In this research, I have analyzed the production of consuming less electricity through a case study of promotions of compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs). I focused on the CFL because it has been heavily promoted by environmentalists and electricity companies as a key tool for solving climate change, yet such promotions appear counter-intuitive. The magnitude of CFL promotions by environmentalists is surprising because CFLs can only impact less than 1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. CFL promotions by electricity providers are surprising given such companies' normal incentives to sell more of their product. I used political ecological and symbolic interactionist theories, qualitative methods of data collection (including interviews, participant-observation, texts, and images), and a grounded theory analysis to understand this case. My findings suggest that, far from being a self-evident technical entity, energy efficiency is produced as an idea, a part of identities, a resource, and a source of value through social, political, and economic processes. These processes include identity formation and subjectification; gender-coded household labor; and corporate appropriation of household value resulting from environmental governance. I show how environmentalists use CFLs to make and claim neoliberal identities, proposing the concept of green neoliberal identity work as a mechanism through which neoliberal ideologies are translated into practices. I analyze how using this seemingly easy energy efficient technology constitutes labor that is gendered in ways that reflect and reproduce inequalities. I show how electricity companies have used environmental governance to valorize and appropriate home energy efficiency as an accumulation strategy. I conclude by discussing the symbolic power of CFLs, proposing a theory of green obsolescence, and framing the production of energy efficiency as a global production network. I found that promoting energy efficiency involves

  13. Doubled Haploid ‘CUDH2107’ as a Reference for Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) Research: Development of a Transcriptome Catalogue and Identification of Transcripts Associated with Male Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Jiffinvir S.; Lee, Robyn; Bräuning, Sophia; Lord, Janice; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; McCallum, John; Macknight, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers working on model plants have derived great benefit from developing genomic and genetic resources using ‘reference’ genotypes. Onion has a large and highly heterozygous genome making the sharing of germplasm and analysis of sequencing data complicated. To simplify the discovery and analysis of genes underlying important onion traits, we are promoting the use of the homozygous double haploid line ‘CUDH2107’ by the onion research community. In the present investigation, we performed transcriptome sequencing on vegetative and reproductive tissues of CUDH2107 to develop a multi-organ reference transcriptome catalogue. A total of 396 million 100 base pair paired reads was assembled using the Trinity pipeline, resulting in 271,665 transcript contigs. This dataset was analysed for gene ontology and transcripts were classified on the basis of putative biological processes, molecular function and cellular localization. Significant differences were observed in transcript expression profiles between different tissues. To demonstrate the utility of our CUDH2107 transcriptome catalogue for understanding the genetic and molecular basis of various traits, we identified orthologues of rice genes involved in male fertility and flower development. These genes provide an excellent starting point for studying the molecular regulation, and the engineering of reproductive traits. PMID:27861615

  14. Irradiation of onions with the commercial potato irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shohei; Kawashima, Koji; Hayasi, Toru

    1983-01-01

    Three varieties of onion harvested in Hokkaido were irradiated with the Shohoro Potato Irradiator on 29th September, 1981. One ton of each of the varieties, Kitamiki (KI), Ohohtsuku (OH) and Furanui (FU), was used in this investigation. Onions had longer dormancy period in the order of FU>OH>KI. Higher sprouting percentage was obtained in the unirradiated onions, while they were stored at a higher temperature or stored for a longer period. Generally, unirradiated onions sprouted before they were deteriorated. Thus the number of deteriorated bulbs in the unirradiated onions was superficially less than that in the irradiated ones. When the onions which were taken from warehouses on 26th March, 1982 were stored at room temperature, the percentage of wholesome bulbs was higher in KI and OH than FU. Small buds in some of the irradiated onions turned dark after a long storage time. Quantitative estimation of this phenomena is left to be resolved. There was little relationship between the weight loss and the number of wholesome onions. (author)

  15. Long-term storage effect on chemical composition, nutritional value and quality of Greek onion landrace "Vatikiotiko".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, S A; Ntatsi, G; Fernandes, Â; Barros, L; Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Antoniadis, V

    2016-06-15

    The effect of storage at two temperatures (5±1 and 25±1 °C and 60-70±5% RH for both temperatures) on marketability and quality features of dry bulbs of local landrace "Vatikiotiko", "Sivan F1", "Red Cross F1" and "Creamgold" was examined. During storage measurements for fresh and dry weight of bulbs, tunic and flesh color, bulb firmness, nutritional value and mineral composition were taken at regular intervals. Storage concluded when either bulbs lost marketable quality or sprouting occurred. "Vatikiotiko" onion can be stored for at least 7months at 25±1 °C, whereas at 5±1 °C storage could be prolonged without significant marketability and quality loss. The fact that "Vatikiotiko" landrace can be considered a "storage" onion has to be capitalized in order to increase total production and yield, since storage could cover the market needs that arise throughout the year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of D-tagatose and bioethanol from onion waste by an intergrating bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-10-20

    The rapid increase of agricultural waste is becoming a burgeoning problem and considerable efforts are being made by numerous researchers to convert it into a high-value resource material. Onion waste is one of the biggest issues in a world of dwindling resource. In this study, the potential of onion juice residue (OJR) for producing valuable rare sugar or bioethanol was evaluated. Purified Paenibacillus polymyxaL-arabinose isomerase (PPAI) has a molecular weight of approximately 53kDa, and exhibits maximal activity at 30°C and pH 7.5 in the presence of 0.8mM Mn 2+ . PPAI can produce 0.99g D-tagatose from 10g OJR. In order to present another application for OJR, we produced 1.56g bioethanol from 10g OJR through a bioconversion and fermentation process. These results indicate that PPAI can be used for producing rare sugars in an industrial setting, and OJR can be converted to D-tagatose and bioethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Residue decline and risk assessment of fluopyram + tebuconazole (400SC) in/on onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Badal V; Chawla, Suchi; Gor, Hetal; Upadhyay, Payal; Parmar, Kaushik D; Patel, Anil R; Shah, Paresh G

    2016-10-01

    A method was validated for estimating fluopyram and tebuconazole in onion on LC-MS/MS using dispersive QuEChERS. Three sprays of a combination fungicide fluopyram + tebuconazole (Luna experience, 400 SC) were applied @ 75 + 75 and 150 + 150 g a.i. ha -1 at an interval of 10 days on onion using Knapsack sprayer. First spray was made at bulb setting stage. Spring onion samples were drawn at 0 (1 h), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 days and matured onion bulb at harvest (52 days) after the last spray. Soil samples were also drawn at harvest. Foliar application of the combination product resulted in 1.14 and 2.86 mg kg -1 fluopyram residues on spring onion at standard and double dose, respectively, one hour after the last application. The levels of fluopyram residues gradually declined and recorded 0.25 and 0.58 mg kg -1 on 20th day of application with half-lives of 8.8 and 9.1 days at standard and double dose, respectively. For tebuconazole, the corresponding residues observed after 1 h (0 day) of application were 0.92 and 2.29 mg kg -1 . The levels declined gradually to 0.12 and 0.33 mg kg -1 on 20th days with half-life of 6.7 to 7.7 days at standard and double dose, respectively. Here, we are proposing a pre-harvest interval of 7 day for fluopyram and tebuconazole in spring onion when applied at 75 + 75 g a.i. ha -1 (400 SC). Risk assessment was done by calculating hazard quotient and by comparing theoretical maximum residue intake (TMRI) with maximum permissible intake (MPI). In all the cases, results of the study showed that HQ (Hazard Quotient) ≤1 and TMDI < MPI. Hence, the use of this combination product can be recommended with pre harvest interval of 7 days. The data can be used in establishing MRLs (maximum residue limits) for spring onion after considering multilocation trials.

  18. Effect of onion and ginger juice extract on the quality of hot smoked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of extracts from ginger rhizome and onion bulbs, in retarding lipid oxidation and on the organoleptic quality of smoked meat. Brine solution consisting of potassium sorbate, sodium chloride with or without butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), onion juice extract and ...

  19. Effect of planting methods on maturity and yield of onion ( Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onion dry bulb are commonly established in the field either by direct sowing of seeds to the field, or by transplanting seedling from seedbed or from sets depending on the growing conditions of the specific region. However, the potential of the different methods have not been tested particularly in the potential onion ...

  20. Interactions among cultivation, weeds, and a bio-fungicide in organic Vidalia sweet onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed management in organic Vidalia® sweet onion (Allium cepa) is largely dependent on multiple cultivations with a tine weeder. Earlier research suggested cultivation with a tine weeder did not predispose onion bulbs to infection during storage. Trials were conducted from 2012 through 2014 near Ly...

  1. Effect of Planting Methods on Maturity and Yield of Onion (Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onion dry bulb are commonly established in the field either by direct sowing of seeds to the field, or by transplanting seedling from seedbed or from sets depending on the growing conditions of the specific region. However, the potential of the different methods have not been tested particularly in the potential onion ...

  2. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus in bulb and stem vegetables, and carrots)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    Bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots may be minimally processed to obtain ready-to-eat products, and these steps include selection, washing, cleaning, cutting, packaging and storage. Risk factors for the contamination of bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots with Salmonella, Yersinia...... types associated with public health risks, i.e. carrots, onion and garlic. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence the occurrence and persistence of pathogens in the primary production of these vegetables. Appropriate implementation...

  3. Efeitos de doses de nitrogênio e potássio e densidade populacional sobre a classificação de bulbos de cebola Effect of onion bulb classification as a result of nitrogen and potassium levels and planting density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André May

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de doses de nitrogênio e de potássio e da população de plantas foi avaliado na classificação de bulbos de duas cultivares de cebola. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 x 4 x 4, correspondentes a, respectivamente, cultivares (Optima e Superex, nitrogênio (0; 50; 100 e 150 kg ha-1 de N, potássio (0; 75; 150 e 225 kg ha-1 de K2O e população de plantas (60; 76; 92 e 108 plantas m-2. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os fertilizantes utilizados foram nitrato de amônio e cloreto de potássio para o fornecimento de N e K, respectivamente. A aplicação de nitrogênio e de potássio reduziu para aproximadamente zero a porcentagem de bulbos não-comerciais para as duas cultivares. A maior percentagem de bulbos com diâmetro transversal entre 50 e 70 mm foi alcançada com 60 plantas m-2 e com a aplicação de 150 kg ha-1 de N, principalmente para a Superex. As maiores porcentagens de bulbos duplos ocorreram na cultivar Superex, com a aplicação de 150 kg ha-1 de N (17% do total de bulbos produzidos e sob população de 60 plantas m-2 (22% do total de bulbos.The effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer doses and planting densities were evaluated in bulb classification of two onion cultivars. The treatments were arranged in factorial 2 x 4 x 4 x 4, respectively correspondent by cultivars (Optima and Superex, nitrogen (0; 50; 150 and 150 kg ha-1 of N, potassium (0; 75; 150 and 225 kg ha-1 of K2O and planting density (60; 76; 92 and 108 plants m-2. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications The fertilizers ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride were employed to provide N and K, respectively. The nitrogen and potassium application reduced to near to zero the incidence of non-comercial bulbs in both cultivars. The largest percentage of bulbs measuring 50 to 70 mm was reached with 60 plants m-2 and application of 150 kg ha-1 of N

  4. Evaluation of the effect of efficient microorganisms and Trichoderma harzianum application on the production of onion plantlets (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Liriano González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was done in the intensive-farming areas of the Cooperative of Credits and Services “Ramón Ruiz del Sol”, in Los Arabos, Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the application effects of effective microorganism (EM and Trichoderma harzianum on the main growth indexes of onion seedlings (Allium cepa L. during nursery stage. Six treatments were studied ( control, organic matter at 24 kg.m-2, T. harzianum at 30 g.m-2, Effective Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at the moment of sowing and 15 and 30 days after the germination of the seeds, organic matter at 24 kg.m-2 + T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after germination of the seeds, and T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after the germination of the seeds. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. 55 days after seed germination, the height of the seedlings, number of leaves per seedlings, diameter of the false stem, root length, as well as the fresh and dry weight of the radical system and the foliate area were evaluated. The results proved that the Effective Microorganisms (EM and T. harzianum application improved the production of quality onion seedlings. The treatment 5 (organic matter 24 kg.m-2 + T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after germination had better results in the evaluated variables.

  5. The Use of Bio-Guided Fractionation to Explore the Use of Leftover Biomass in Dutch Flower Bulb Production as Allelochemicals against Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Verpoorte

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A major problem in flower bulb cultivation is weed control. Synthetic herbicides are mainly used, although they cause a range of problems, and integrated weed control through application of naturally occurring allelochemicals would be highly desirable. Flower bulb production creates large amounts of leftover biomass. Utilizing this source for weed control may provide new applications of the bulb crops. We therefore screened 33 flower bulb extracts for allelochemical activity against weeds. Several methanol and chloroform extracts were observed to inhibit germination and growth of Senecio vulgaris L. and Lolium perenne L., as representatives of di- and mono-cotyledonous weeds, respectively. Narciclasine was identified as the bioactive compound in Narcissus. The extract of Amaryllis belladonna L. was equally active, but did not contain any narciclasine. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the A. belladonna extract resulted in the identification of lycorine as the bio-active compound. The IC50 measured for radicle growth inhibition was 0.10 µM for narciclasine and 0.93 µM for lycorine, compared to 0.11 mM of chlorpropham, a synthetic herbicide. Therefore, the leftover biomass from the spring bulb industry represents an interesting potential source for promising allelochemicals for further studies on weed growth inhibition.

  6. The organic fertilization in the onion cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Llorente Villa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the UBPC “The Coast”, belonging to the Miscellaneous Crops Enterprise of Campechuela municipality, Granma province, during the period from November to March of the year 2010 – 2011. It was carried out in a reddish brown fersialitic soil, according with the new genetic classification of the soils of Cuba MINAGRI, (2000, with the objective of studying and evaluating the influence of different organic fertilizers in the growth, development and yield in the cultivation of onion, variety Texas Early Grain. For this reason it was necessary to work on blocks with 4 treatments and 4 replies. The treatments applied were: treatment 1 (vermicompost, treatment 2 (cow dung, treatment 3 (cachaça and treatment 4 (control, those were applied in a solid way. The growth variables that were evaluated were number of leaves, height of the plant, equatorial diameter, polar diameter and fresh weight of the bulb. The yield was also evaluated in t.ha-1 per treatment. High yields are achieved with the application of organic fertilizer, among 27 and 30 t.ha-1, this is an alternative for the sustainable production of this product which is highly demanded by the population.

  7. A less energy intensive process for dehydrating onion

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Jha, S. N.; Patil, R. T.; Dhatt, A. S.; Kaur, Amandeep; Jaiswal, P.

    2013-01-01

    Onion powder has an extensive demand and wide application worldwide as flavour additive in convenience foods and medicinal products. Conventionally onion powder is prepared by hot air drying of onion slices followed by grinding. Convective air drying when used alone demands longer drying time and thus has a high expense of energy. As bulk of onion is water (82–87 %), removal of moisture prior to drying can reduce moisture loading on dryer and hence the energy consumption. Keeping this in view...

  8. Production of inulinase by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli using onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) peels in solid state cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyachamy, M; Khelawan, K; Pillay, D; Permaul, K; Singh, S

    2007-10-01

    To access inulinase production by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli using the submerged and solid state cultivation (SSC) methods. Various carbon sources, inulin-rich solid substrates and pure synthetic inulin were tested for their efficiency in inulinase induction. The highest inulinase production (17.42 IU ml(-1)) in submerged cultures of X. campestris was observed with inulin as a carbon source with an initial pH, temperature and agitation of 7.0, 37 degrees C and 150 rev min(-1) respectively. Among the various substrates, garlic peels (117 IU gds(-1)) and onion peels (101 IU gds(-1)) were found to be the best for inulinase production. The inulinase production level of X. campestris was 6.7-fold higher in garlic and 5.8-fold in onion, under optimized SSC conditions compared with the submerged culture. This is the first report on inulinase production from garlic and onion peels by X. campestris using SSC. SSC is an efficient method for inulinase production by X. campestris for commercial applications.

  9. Fusarium proliferatum - Causal agent of garlic bulb rot in Spain: Genetic variability and mycotoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Laura; Urbaniak, Monika; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz; Palmero, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is a world-wide occurring fungal pathogen affecting several crops included garlic bulbs. In Spain, this is the most frequent pathogenic fungus associated with garlic rot during storage. Moreover, F. proliferatum is an important mycotoxigenic species, producing a broad range of toxins, which may pose a risk for food safety. The aim of this study is to assess the intraspecific variability of the garlic pathogen in Spain implied by analyses of translation elongation factor (tef-1α) and FUM1 gene sequences as well as the differences in growth rates. Phylogenetic characterization has been complemented with the characterization of mating type alleles as well as the species potential as a toxin producer. Phylogenetic trees based on the sequence of the translation elongation factor and FUM1 genes from seventy nine isolates from garlic revealed a considerable intraspecific variability as well as high level of diversity in growth speed. Based on the MAT alleles amplified by PCR, F. proliferatum isolates were separated into different groups on both trees. All isolates collected from garlic in Spain proved to be fumonisin B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 producers. Quantitative analyses of fumonisins, beauvericin and moniliformin (common secondary metabolites of F. proliferatum) showed no correlation with phylogenetic analysis neither mycelial growth. This pathogen presents a high intraspecific variability within the same geographical region and host, which is necessary to be considered in the management of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was conducted in the period of April to October of 2009, under protected cropping, in the experimental area of the horticulture sector of the Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC, in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. A randomized block design was adopted, in a split-plot arrangement, the plots being comprised of soil coverings: coffee bean husks, grass straw (Brachiaria decumbens; dessicated bamboo leaves (Bambusa spp. and uncovered soil (control treatment, and the subplots comprised of three onion cultivars (IPA 10, IPA 11 and IPA 12, with four repetitions. The variables analyzed were total bulb yield (t ha-1, marketable bulb yield (t ha-1, fresh mass of the bulb (g bulb-1, classification of the bulbs and loss of mass as a function of storage time. There was no interaction effect between the soil coverings and the cultivars. Cultivars IPA 10 and IPA 11 showed greater agronomic performance of the studied variables. The soil coverings did not affect the yield and average mass of the bulbs under organic cultivation. The three cultivars presented more than approximately 70% of the bulbs in class 2 and a maximum of 5% of unmarketable bulbs. The loss of mass after 49 days of storage was 10% independent of the cultivar or soil covering.

  11. Evaluation Of Onion Production On Sandy Soils By Use Of Reduced Tillage And Controlled Traffic Farming With Wide Span Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Hans Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of vegetables is often characterised by intensive field traffic and use of heavy machines. By implementing controlled traffic farming (CTF, compaction of the growth zone can be avoided. An experiment was established in an onion field on a coarse sandy loam. Treatments were applied in the field that for five years had been managed by seasonal CTF (SCTF, where harvest is performed by random traffic due to lack of suitable harvest machines. The main treatment was compaction with a fully loaded potato harvester. The split treatment in the crossed split plot design was mechanical loosening. Bulk density, macroporosity, penetration resistance, water retention characteristics and yield were measured. Mechanical loosening caused improvements in the physical soil measurements and more roots were found in the upper soil layers. The highest yield was however found in the CTF simulation plots (19% higher than in the SCTF simulated plots. Using wide span tractors as a harvest platform will enable CTF in vegetable production. Avoidance of compaction will enable reduced tillage intensity and productivity can be improved both through higher yield of the area that is cropped and by a larger percentage of fields can be cropped area as less area will be needed for tracks.

  12. Effects of levels of potassium and nitrogen on yields and post-harvest conservation of onions in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Potassium and nitrogen are the elements present in the highest percentage in the onion dry matter. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate yield and post-harvest conservation of Vale Ouro IPA-11 onion cultivar regarding to nitrogen and potassium levels. The experiment was carried out in Petrolina-PE, Brazil, from June to September 2009. The experimental design was a completely randomized block in a 4 x 3 factorial design, composed of four nitrogen levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 and three potassium levels (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 with three replications. The highest yield of commercial bulbs was achieved at an estimated N level of 172.6 kg ha-1. The lowest yield of noncommercial bulbs was estimated at N level of 147.0 kg ha-1. Lower percentage of smaller bulbs (class 2 were obtained by increasing levels of N x K, with a quadratic effect at the dose of 90 kg ha-1 K2O and minimum production point with 127.6 kg N ha-1 (20.3%. Regarding larger caliber bulbs (class 4, linear effects were found both in the absence and for the level of 90 kg ha-1 of K2O as levels of N were increased. When the highest level of 180 kg ha-1 K2O was applied, the level of 92.8 kg ha-1 of N was estimated as the one that would promote the highest bulb yield of this class (35.4%, and 5.3% was found in the lack of potassium fertilization.

  13. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  14. Oriented Onion Sowing by a Forked-Roller Sowing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr G.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The existing sowing machines do not provide a single feeding of the bulbs with a planting (sowing unit that leads to a violation of the agrotechnical requirements of planting bulbs. It is necessary to search new solutions to preserve the position of the bulbs in the furrow with the bottom down and their regularly spaced distribution. Materials and Methods: The article presents the design for a prototype for a planting machine equipped with a forked-roller sowing unit for orienting the onion-sowing into a furrow. Testing the forked-roller sowing unit were carried out on a flat area where the physical and mechanical properties of the soil were determined on the days of sowing, and the indices of the quality of the onion-sowing were determined. The study of the effect of the sowing machine speed on the quality of the onion-seed bulb landing was determined by the change in the translational speed of the sowing unit in the range of 0.8 m/s to 1.2 m/s with a variation interval of 0.1 m/s. The indicators of the quality of the planting of the bulbs were determined by the opening of the closed furrow. The results of laboratory-field studies of the planting machine prototype are presented. Results: The results of laboratory-field studies of a planting machine equipped with a forked-roller sowing unit for planting onion bulbs are presented. The optimal technological parameters are determined experimentally. It was determined the number of bulbs that are for up is 51 % and the regularity of planting by the forked-roller sowing unit – 79 %. These figures are provided at the forward speed of the planting machine VM = 0.9–1.0 m/s, the height of the fall of the bulb HA = 0.12 m, and the rotation frequency of the landing drum nБ = 0.47 c-1. Discussion and Conclusions: The use of a forked-roller sowing unit makes it possible to increase the proportion of onions planted by bottom down by 200 %, and the uniformity of planting bulbs by 19 %, in

  15. Combination of liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry with 13C-labeling for chemical assignment of sulfur-containing metabolites in onion bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Sawada, Yuji; Yamada, Yutaka; Suzuki, Makoto; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki

    2013-02-05

    Phytochemicals containing heteroatoms (N, O, S, and halogens) often have biological activities that are beneficial to humans. Although targeted profiling methods for such phytochemicals are expected to contribute to rapid chemical assignments, thus making phytochemical genomics and crop breeding much more efficient, there are few profiling methods for the metabolites. Here, as an ultrahigh performance approach, we propose a practical profiling method for S-containing metabolites (S-omics) using onions (Allium cepa) as a representative species and (12)C- and (13)C-based mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses by liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR-MS). Use of the ultrahigh quality data from FTICR-MS enabled simplifying the previous methods to determine specific elemental compositions. MS analysis with a resolution of >250,000 full width at half-maximum and a mass accuracy of ions from other ions on the basis of the natural abundance of (32)S and (34)S and the mass differences among the S isotopes. Comprehensive peak picking using the theoretical mass difference (1.99579 Da) between (32)S-containing monoisotopic ions and their (34)S-substituted counterparts led to the assignment of 67 S-containing monoisotopic ions from the (12)C-based MS spectra, which contained 4693 chromatographic ions. The unambiguous elemental composition of 22 ions was identified through comparative analysis of the (12)C- and (13)C-based MS spectra. Finally, of these, six ions were found to be derived from S-alk(en)ylcysteine sulfoxides and glutathione derivatives. This S-atom-driven approach afforded an efficient chemical assignment of S-containing metabolites, suggesting its potential application for screening not only S but also other heteroatom-containing metabolites in MS-based metabolomics.

  16. Genotypic variation in sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) III. Characterization of sulfite reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic and cDNA sequences corresponding to a ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) have been cloned from bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) and the expression of the gene and activity of the enzyme characterised with respect to sulfur (S) supply. Cloning, mapping and expression studies revealed that onion ha...

  17. Effect of Initial Weight of Shallot Bulb and Farm Manure on Reproduction and Shallot Yield (Allium altissimumRegel. in Shirvan Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona arefkhani

    2017-12-01

    mother bulb weight increased mentioned characteristics. Different levels of manure and planted bulb weight had significant effect (P≤0.05 on mother and sister bulb weight and diameter and bulb and seed yield, so that the most sister bulb weight of single plant was related to planted bulbs between the range of 45-55 g and manure application by 60 t/ha for 12.81 and 8.51 g, respectively. The highest value of dry bulb weight was for planted bulbs between 45-55 g and manure application by 40 t.ha-1 for 386.2 and 88.94 g.m-2 and the lowest value of dry bulb weight was for planted bulbs between 15-25 g and control (no manure application. It seems that bulb plantation with higher weight results in higher value in leaf area extension, production of photosynthetic materials and carbohydrates for supplying in storage parts of shallot. Several researches have confirmed the accuracy of this content. For instance, increasing the planted bulb weight causes higher leaf area extension and photosynthesis rate in red onion. Rezvan Bidokhti (2011 reported that plantation of bulbs with higher weight increased yield components of seed and dry yield of shallot bulb. Interaction effect of manure and bulb weight on production percentage of sister onion was significant at 5% level, so that the most reproduction is related to the planted bulbs between the weight range of 15-25 g and manure application by 60 ton/ha for %133 and the least reproduction is related to planted bulbs between the weight range of 45-55 g and control %33 Conclusion The results of this experiment showed that with increasing weight of sowing bulbs up to 45 g.bulb-1 and applying manure up to 40 t.ha-1, dry matter was increased. It seems planting bulbs with high weight, produced more leaves so LAI was higher which caused the ability to absorb more radiation by the plant canopy.

  18. Comparative profitability of onions harvested as green and dry (mature in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Baliyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to calculate and compare the profitability of onions harvested as green and dry (mature in Botswana. Half of the planted onions were harvested and sold as green and half were harvested and sold as dry onions. The cost of production of green onions was 32.78% higher than the cost of production of dry onions. The irrigation and marketing expenses contributed the highest difference in the cost of production of green and dry onions. The major cost item contributing to the cost of green onions production was marketing cost (32.86% followed by irrigation cost (23.77% and harvesting cost (18.53% whereas the highest cost of production for dry onions was contributed by irrigation (38.58% followed by marketing (19.45% and planting (11.96%. The marketing cost for green onions was almost double (35.6% as compare to the dry onions (18.2%. The total return from green onions was 50.90% higher than the returns from dry onions. Gross margin of onions harvested as green was 63% higher than the gross margin from dry onions, which indicated that the production of green onions is more profitable as compare to production of dry onions. The farmers preferred onion harvested as green because it generates regular and higher returns than onions harvested as mature. Government should support farmers through some policies such as Minimum Support Price (MSP for dry onions, distribution of Mini Ferti–Seed Kit (Seeds of improved varieties and fertilizer package, construction of storages and formation of cooperatives.

  19. Detection of yellow dwarf virus onion (OYDV) and garlic common latent virus (GCLV) in Costa Rican garlic (Allium sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen Watson, Anny Vannesa; Chacon Cerdas, Randall; Zuniga Vega, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Viral diseases have been responsible for significant losses in crop yield of garlic in the world. Costa Rican material Garlic has been analyzed to determine the incidence of : onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), the leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), shallot latent virus (SLV) and garlic common latent virus (GLCV). The DAS-ELISA technique has been used for status native plant material. Bulbs field apparently normal (N), normal with yellow tunic (TA) and deformed (D) and normal field sheets (N), symptomatic (S) and possible presence of viral vectors (VT) were used. Vitroplants product have analyzed the introduction of apices of 1,0 and 0,5 cm in length teeth from normal (N) and yellow tunic (TA). The 33% of the bulbs GCLV field were analyzed for positive (TA), whereas OYDV was detected 100% appearance regardless. 100% of the plantlets have presented without infection of GCLV, the OYDV only those introduced in apices of 1,0 cm from bulbs with yellow robes have shown without effect. GCLV is determined for 100% of the samples for both batches OYDV bulb formation in vitro and in only 50%. In the Costa Rican garlic has concluded that are present the viruses of GCLV and OYDV, with a high incidence on local material and differential infection according to the organ analyzed. Various methodologies combined are recommended together with the apexes vitro cultivation, for more effective viral clearance and thus increase the value and boost the local seed crop. (author) [es

  20. Gamma irradiation of onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, D.

    1975-01-01

    Technological and economic feasibility of gamma irradiation of onions and garlic on an industrial scale are studied. Statistical data on production, consumption, exportation and losses during storage are analyzed. Traditional methods of food preservation are reviewed and gamma irradiation techniques are presented as an alternative to sprout inhibition. Requirements for the irradiation of onions and garlic on a commercial scale including a cost benefit analysis are discussed. Some conclusions are formulated on licensing and prospects

  1. Evaluating an Action Threshold-Based Insecticide Program on Onion Cultivars Varying in Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Huseth, Anders S

    2016-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a highly destructive pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and its management relies on multiple applications of foliar insecticides. Development of insecticide resistance is common in T. tabaci populations, and new strategies are needed to relax existing levels of insecticide use, but still provide protection against T. tabaci without compromising marketable onion yield. An action threshold-based insecticide program combined with or without a thrips-resistant onion cultivar was investigated as an improved approach for managing T. tabaci infestations in commercial onion fields. Regardless of cultivar type, the average number of insecticide applications needed to manage T. tabaci infestations in the action-threshold based program was 4.3, while the average number of sprays in the standard weekly program was 7.2 (a 40% reduction). The mean percent reduction in numbers of applications following the action threshold treatment in the thrips-resistant onion cultivar, 'Advantage', was 46.7% (range 40-50%) compared with the standard program, whereas the percentage reduction in applications in action threshold treatments in the thrips-susceptible onion cultivar, 'Santana', was 34.3% (range 13-50%) compared with the standard program, suggesting a benefit of the thrips-resistant cultivar. Marketable bulb yields for both 'Advantage' and 'Santana' in the action threshold-based program were nearly identical to those in the standard program, indicating that commercially acceptable bulb yields will be generated with fewer insecticide sprays following an action threshold-based program, saving money, time and benefiting the environment. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  3. Evaluation of onion cultivars for resistance to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-06-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L., can reduce onion yield by > 50% and be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). Because T. tabaci is difficult to control with insecticides and other strategies, field studies on onion, Allium cepa L., resistance to T. tabaci and IYSV were conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two locations in New York state. Forty-nine cultivars were evaluated for resistance by counting the number of larvae weekly and recording leaf damage. In another experiment, the impact of T. tabaci and IYSV on plant growth and yield was examined by spraying half of the plants with an insecticide. Eleven of the 49 cultivars had very little leaf damage and were considered resistant to T. tabaci. Visual assessment indicated that all resistant cultivars had yellow-green- colored foliage, whereas the other 38 had blue-green- colored foliage. The visual assessment of color agreed with data on color taken with a HunterLab Ultra Scan XE colorimeter. The onions 'Colorado 6' and 'NMSU 03-52-1' had the lowest numbers of T. tabaci, suggesting strong antibiosis and/or antixenosis. The other nine cultivars had variable numbers of T. tabaci, indicating a possible combination of categories of resistance. In the nonprotected treatments there were significant reductions in plant height and plant weight in most of the resistant cultivars, but there were reductions in bulb weight only in a few of them. The average of plants infected with IYSV was 10% in 2007 and 60% in 2008. Our findings indicate potential for developing onion resistance to T. tabaci as part of an overall integrated pest management strategy but suggest difficulties in identifying resistance to IYSV.

  4. New report of Lolium multiflorum and Rumex crispus as weed hosts of epiphytic populations of Psuedomonas sp., causal agent of yellow bud in onion in Geogia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow bud, an emerging bacterial disease of onion (Allium cepa L.), has been spreading throughout the Vidalia onion-growing region in Georgia since 2007. Symptoms of yellow bud include intense chlorosis in emerging leaves and severe blight in the older leaves leading to stand loss and reduced bulb ...

  5. The Effect of Walnut ( Tetracarpidium Conophorum ) Leaf and Onion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of walnut leaf (WL) and onion bulb (OB) residues on tissue bacteriology of Clarias gariepinus juveniles by dietary intake was investigated. Nine experimental diets: control (0%), OB2 (0.5%), OB3 (1.0%), OB4 (1.5%), OB5 (2.0%), WL6 (0.5%), WL7 (1.0%), WL8 (1.5%) and WL9 (2.0%) were formulated ...

  6. Effect of medium and post-irradiation storage on rooting of irradiated onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita

    2000-01-01

    Rooting test for detection of irradiation in onion bulbs was studied. Onions were exposed to different dose levels of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 Gy. The effects of irradiation dose, cultivar difference, rooting medium and post-irradiation storage on the rooting were investigated. The number and the length of the roots formed in onions were found to decrease on irradiation. The effect was more at higher doses. The effect of irradiation on rooting was also evident after 120 days of storage. (author)

  7. Association of Pectolytic Fluorescent PSeudomonas with Postharvest Rots of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. El-Hendawy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of pectolytic fluorescent pseudomonads were obtained from a rotted onion bulb and identified as Pseudomonas marginalis. At both 4 and 25oC, all isolates caused soft rot to detached plant parts of onion and to carrot, celery, cucumber, pepper, spinach, tomato and turnip (but not garlic. They did not however cause any symptoms in living plants of these same species. These results suggest that the onion isolates are a postharvest pathogen which is not destructive in the field but becomes a threat to fresh vegetables stored at low-temperature. Analysis of cellulosolytic and pectic enzymes revealed that pectic lyases, but not polygalacturonases, pectin methyl esterases and cellulases were produced in culture by each isolate.

  8. STRUCTURE OF THE FRESH ONION MARKET IN THE SPRING SEASON: A FOCUS ON TEXAS AND ITS COMPETITION

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Stephen W.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Bello, Haruna; Shafer, Carl E.

    1991-01-01

    A structural model of the spring onion economy is developed to analyze forces affecting the onion-producing sector in Texas. Spring onion prices in Texas are influenced by own shipments, shipments from storage stocks, and variety. Texas's decline in market share is largely the result of expanded late summer (storage) onion production. A decline in the U.S. real tariff and a weakening of the real exchange rate (pesos/$) encouraged onion imports from Mexico during the study period. However, thi...

  9. Elemental Sulphur Content Of Onion Bulb (Allium cepa L.) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2007 dry season under irrigation at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching and Research Fadama Farm at. Kwalkwallawa, Sokoto (Latitude 1301'N and Longitude 50 13'E, 350m above sea level) to study the effect of cow-dung, nitrogen and ...

  10. Water use and onion crop production in no-tillage and conventional cropping systems Uso de água e produção de cebola em sistemas de plantio direto e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Aparecido Marouelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of crop residue covers (0.0; 4.5; 9.0; 13.5 t ha-1 millet dry matter on water use and production of onion cultivated in no-tillage planting system (NT as compared to conventional tillage system (CT. The study was carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brazil, under the typical Savanna biome. Irrigations were performed using a sprinkle irrigation system when soil-water tension reached between 25 and 30 kPa. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications. Total net water depth applied to NT treatment was 19% smaller than the CT treatment, however, water savings increased to 30% for the first 30 days following seedlings transplant. Crop biomass, bulb size and yield, and rate of rotten bulbs were not significantly affected by treatments. The water productivity index increased linearly with increasing crop residue in NT conditions. Water productivity index of NT treatments with crop residue was on average 30% higher than that in the CT system (8.13 kg m-3.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito do nível de palhada no solo (0,0; 4,5; 9,0; 13,5 t ha-1 de matéria seca de milheto em sistema de plantio direto (PD sobre o uso de água e produção de cebola, tendo como controle o sistema de plantio convencional (PC. O ensaio foi conduzido na Embrapa Hortaliças, em região típica do bioma Cerrado. As irrigações foram realizadas por aspersão a todo o momento que a tensão de água no solo atingiu entre 25 e 30 kPa. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso com três repetições. A lâmina de água aplicada em PD foi de até 19% menor que no tratamento PC durante o ciclo da cultura, sendo que durante os primeiros 30 dias do ciclo após o transplante das mudas a economia chegou a 30%. O desenvolvimento de plantas, o tamanho e o rendimento de bulbos, e a taxa de bulbos podres não foram afetados significativamente pelos tratamentos. O índice de

  11. Improving N-use efficiency in onion plants grown in desert soils using 15N through fertigation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thabet, E.M.A.; Abdallah, A.A.G.; Battah, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Two field experiments were performed at the Experimental Farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, during the two successive growing seasons of 2003 and 2004, in a clay loam textured soil. Seedlings of onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivar Giza-20 were transplanted in the field prepared with drip irrigation system for studying onion production under fertigation technique. Three nitrogen rates (50, 100 and 150 kg N/fed) as ammonium sulphate contain 21.2% N were used. These experiments aim to apply nitrogen along an extended time in order to maximize its use efficiency. Each rate was subjected to four splitting, i.e. one, two, three and four times of application, at 45 days from transplanting. Nitrogen was added every 15 days started 45 days after transplanting through a fertigation technique. In the first experiment (2003), labelled nitrogen (N-15) as ammonium sulphate contain 3.33% N-15 atom excess was applied for to estimate nitrogen use efficiency. One vegetative sample was harvested at 105 days from transplanting (15 days after the fourth application of nitrogen) to determine dry matter characters and N-15 analysis. At harvest, yield and yield components were determined for unit area. Results indicated that onion plants did not use more than about 20% of the applied nitrogen. Also yield did not respond to increasing rate up to splitting of nitrogen. The second growing season (2004) was conducted to measure bulbs yield under the same previous treatments

  12. Profitability And Resource Use Efficiency In Dry Season Onion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated profitability and resource use efficiency in dry season onion production in Sokoto and Kebbi States. Eight local government areas (L. G. As), four from each State, were purposively selected for the study. From each L.G.A., four villages were selected and from each village, five dry season onion farmers ...

  13. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  14. Storage rot fungi and seed-borne pathogens of onion | Adongo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotten onion bulbs obtained from the four markets (Abinchi, Anloga, Kwadaso and Central markets) were infected by five fungal species: Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium oxysporum. Of these, A. niger and Penicillium sp. were the most frequently isolated fungi. A. flavus was the ...

  15. Timing of glyphosate applications to wheat cover crops to reduce onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is economically important in irrigated onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, where cereal winter cover crops commonly are planted the previous fall to prevent wind erosion of soil. The cover crop is killed with herbicide applic...

  16. Genecology and seed zones for tapertip onion in the US Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Johnson; Barbara C. Hellier; Ken W. Vance-Borland

    2013-01-01

    The choice of germplasm is critical for sustainable restoration, yet seed transfer guidelines are lacking for all but a few herbaceous species. Seed transfer zones based on genetic variability and climate were developed using tapertip onion (Allium acuminatum Hook.) collected in the Great Basin and surrounding areas in the United States. Bulbs from 53 locations were...

  17. Genetic analyses of anthocyanin concentrations and the intensity of red color in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher concentrations of anthocyanins in vegetables are important for attractive appearance and may offer health benefits for consumers. The red color of onion bulbs is due primarily to the accumulation of anthocyanins. Segregating haploid plants from the cross of yellow and red inbreds were asexual...

  18. Facilitating trade in irradiated onions in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustre, A.O.; Vito, F.R.; Manalastas, Z.I.

    2001-01-01

    The irradiation of large volumes of three varieties of onions (56 tons of red creole, 20 tons of yellow granex and 14 tons of shallots) at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, was carried out by the private sector (National Onion Growers Marketing Cooperative) with the technical assistance of government. The data confirmed increased profits from sale of irradiated onions due to the presence of significantly higher percentages of good bulbs after storage (26%, 36% and 69% more for the yellow granex, red creole and shallot varieties respectively) due to inhibition of sprouting. Industry's acceptance of the process was indicated by the large volume of onions irradiated during the period (96 tons) and the application of the treatment to shallots for the first time. In spite of the significant benefits, the high capital cost of the plant did not justify its operation solely for onions. The opening of markets for other applications was considered essential. The percentage of consumers willing to purchase irradiated food was low but this increased from 15% to 79% when appropriate information on the technology was provided to them. It was concluded that the provision of information is the key to consumer acceptance. However, the opening of profitable markets in order to achieve economic feasibility is the key to the commercialization of the technology. (author)

  19. The Applications of Toyota Production System to Reduce Wastes in Agricultural Products Packing Process: A Study of Onion Packing Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Paisarn Larpsomboonchai

    2015-01-01

    Agro-industry is one of major industries that have strong impacts on national economic incomes, growth, stability, and sustainable development. Moreover, this industry also has strong influences on social, cultural and political issues. Furthermore, this industry, as producing primary and secondary products, is facing challenges from such diverse factors such as demand inconsistency, intense international competition, technological advancements and new competitors. In ord...

  20. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are consumed on a daily basis universally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Produtividade de cultivares de cebola no Semi-Árido piauiense Yield of onion cultivars in the semi-arid region of Piauí State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lúcia R. Duarte

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando selecionar e indicar cultivares de cebola mais produtivas para a região semi-árida, conduziu-se um experimento no período de maio a outubro de 1999, sob regime de irrigação por microaspersão no município de Sussuapara, PI. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com 18 tratamentos e quatro repetições. As cultivares avaliadas foram: Granex 33, Composto IPA-6, Belém IPA-9, Franciscana IPA-10, Vale Ouro IPA-11, Texas Grano 502, Conquista, Crioula, Serrana, Granex 429, Régia, Princesa, Mercedes, Duquesa, Linda Vista, Piraouro, Granex Ouro e Baia Periforme Precoce. As características avaliadas foram produtividade de bulbos comerciais e não comerciais. Dividiu-se as cultivares em três grupos considerando a produtividade de bulbos, pelo teste de Scott-Knott (PThe yield of onion cultivars was evaluated in the Picos region, Brazil, from May to October 1999. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with 18 treatments and four replications. The cultivars Granex 33, Composto IPA-6, Belém IPA-9, Franciscana IPA-10, Vale Ouro IPA-11, Texas Grano 502, Conquista, Crioula, Serrana, Granex 429, Régia, Princesa, Mercedes, Duquesa, Linda Vista, Piraouro, Granex Ouro and Baia Periforme Precoce were evaluated. We evaluated the commercial and noncommercial bulb yield. The cultivars were grouped in three classes according to bulb yield (>40 t/ha; 39.9-34.6 t/ha; 32.4-26.9 t/ha. The average onion bulbs yield was 41,9 t/ha. The most productive cultivars (commercial bulbs were Vale Ouro IPA-11 (43,7 t/ha, Franciscana IPA-10 (41,5 t/ha and Mercedes (40,5 t/ha.

  2. Carbon Onions: Synthesis and Electrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough, John K. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Gogotsi, Y. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2013-01-01

    Onion-like carbon structures have been synthesized in many ways and large scale production is currently under study. The annealing method can satisfy the need for large scale production, though the ideal spherical shape is unachievable, and the temperature attainable in this method is not sufficient for treating the entire particle. The arc-discharge method provides an alternate pathway toward large scale synthesis. Due to its structure and electrochemical properties, carbon onions can be used as materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) and can be used to store energy across a much wider temperature range, which gives these materials advantages over conventional EDLCs. This and other aspects of carbon onions are discussed in this article.

  3. Protective effect of onion extract against experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The wrong use of drugs results in disturbances in the immunity that affect human health. These drugs have side effects that may lead to death because of lake of immunity. Human beings need to use natural products to strength the immune system and avoid such side effects. Of these products is the onion that ...

  4. Detection of Argentine onions treated with 60 Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, Maria Fernanda; Sebastiao, Katia I.; Leite, Quilma R.; Koseki, Paula M.; Hamasaki, Koji; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia H.; Croci, Clara

    2000-01-01

    Brazil has been the most important MERCOSUL's purchaser of fresh onions from Argentina. The increased claim for this fresh product has forced a consensus between the members nations, as regards to phytosanitary restrictions. The radio inhibition is described on National Food Codes in Brazil and Argentina. Methods of food irradiation detection must be performed, since they increase the consumer confidence. Quick and simple screening tests indicate whether a food product has been irradiated or not. This present study verified the DNA fragments of argentine fresh onions, produced during radiation process and 6 months of storage period. The DNA fragments are analyzed for detection of irradiated foods. The irradiated onions presented extensive DNA migrations, as comets, when submitted to agarose gel electrophoresis. They also showed more shelf life compared to the unirradiated onions. The unirradiated samples exhibited only limited DNA migration. This initial screen method showed to be effective for detection of irradiated onions. (author)

  5. Motors and Bulbs in Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    One of Paul Hewitt's "Figuring Physics" that appeared in this journal dealt with the heating of a motor. This phenomenon can be demonstrated with a miniature motor and a bulb as part of a series of activities with "batteries and bulbs." Students examine the effect on the brightness of a single bulb when a second, identical bulb is placed in series…

  6. Experimenting with Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth M.

    1998-04-01

    What questions come about as learners explore physical materials? How does their learning deepen through inventing experiments and making and testing their own interpretations? I present episodes from the investigatory work of three adult learners who met regularly with me to explore batteries, bulbs and wires. I taught by engaging the learners' interest in these materials and by interactively researching their developing understandings. As both teacher and researcher, I used what I learned about their understandings to support their efforts to extend the body of experimental knowledge they were developing. Development is evident in experimental details. Initially, by hand-holding, they light a bulb with a wire and battery. Later, in soldering connections, they wonder about the bulb's internal structure. They research thoughts about this through dissecting a bulb -- and lighting its exposed filament. Such experimenting changed thinking: from imagining sequential loops, to questioning electrical contacts, to inferring circuital paths.

  7. A less energy intensive process for dehydrating onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Jha, S N; Patil, R T; Dhatt, A S; Kaur, Amandeep; Jaiswal, P

    2015-02-01

    Onion powder has an extensive demand and wide application worldwide as flavour additive in convenience foods and medicinal products. Conventionally onion powder is prepared by hot air drying of onion slices followed by grinding. Convective air drying when used alone demands longer drying time and thus has a high expense of energy. As bulk of onion is water (82-87 %), removal of moisture prior to drying can reduce moisture loading on dryer and hence the energy consumption. Keeping this in view, onions were partially dewatered using centrifugal force before convective drying. The effect of partial mechanical dewatering and drying air temperature was studied on drying time, specific energy consumption and onion powder quality (colour and flavour). The combination process was also optimized to achieve increased drying rate and product quality comparable to products obtained using convective drying alone. Onions subjected to 60 % partial mechanical dewatering and hot air drying at 70 °C exhibited significantly (p ≤ 0.5) shortened drying time, decreased energy consumption and maintained colour and flavour of the dried product.

  8. Conservation of onions using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Frederico M.; Arthur, Valter

    1999-01-01

    An increase of shelf life of onions (Var. Valencia Sintetica-14) irradiated with doses from 20 and 80 Gy was observed and this increase varied from 30 per cent to 50 per cent of the irradiated bulbs in relation to the controls. The smallest diminishment on daily weight was achieved with doses of 46.46 Gy and 67.30 Gy calculated through regression analysis on the first and second experiments respectively. In relation to the discarded onions, two parameters were taken into account: external visible sprouting and rotting. The sprouting decreased from 58.3 per cent in the controls down to 0 per cent at the doses of 80 and 120 Gy. The rotting was 41.7 per cent in the controls and increased to 100 per cent at the doses of 80 and 120 Gy respectively after 382 and 262 days by an increase of shelf life of 75.2 per cent and 29.1 per cent on both the experiments. The best dose for prolonging shelf life was considered to be 40 Gy reaching a 90.4 per cent longer life. (author)

  9. The importance of using the irradiation technology in the post-harvest Preservation of onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Enriquez, Isora

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba post-harvest preservation of onions and garlic for different uses have been performed by irradiation bulbs with a minimal dose range of 80 to 90 Gy of Gamma radiation (Co60 ) at commercial level in the Food Irradiation Plant (PIA) Producto 1 which in 1986 held a nominal activity of 110 000 ci. Results showed that the irradiated products could be preserved up to 8 and 11 months, respectively, resulting un total losses lower than 30 %. Products were stored in a warehouse with forced air distribution system of 22 0C to 32 0C and 70 to 100 % RH, resulting in 30 air changes /hour. An important economic benefit was obtained from this method as compared to other traditional storage methods using controlled temperature chambers ( 1 0C to 3 0C ) to preserve un-irradiated onions an garlic's. It is concluded that the irradiated products could be stored at atmospheric temperature and forced air distribution system resulting in lower losses and energy savings and non-imported product, which to reached more of the 5 dollars millions

  10. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L. germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreto eFayos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2 to 3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09% and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%. These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%, whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20-23%. Different amiprofos-methyl (APM treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 µM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 µM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the 4 regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their

  11. Antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from different cultivars of Italian onion (Allium cepa) and relative human immune cell proliferative induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Antonella; Formica, Vincenzo; Ianni, Federica; Albertini, Barbara; Marinozzi, Maura; Sardella, Roccaldo; Natalini, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    The total antioxidant activity (TAC) may vary considerably between onion cultivars. Immunological effects of onion phenolic compounds are still underestimated. The objective of this study is to determine the total phenol content (TPC) and the relative TAC of three Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae) onion cultivars cultivated in Cannara (Italy): Rossa di Toscana, Borettana di Rovato, and Dorata di Parma, and to evaluate the phenol extracts ability to induce human immune cell proliferation. TPC was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, TAC with FRAP, TEAC/ABTS, and DPPH methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy human donors were incubated for 24 h at 37 °C with 1 ng/mL of phenolic extract in PBS, immunostained, and then analyzed by 4-color flow cytometry for the phenotypic characterization of T helper cells (CD4+ cells), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+ cells), T regulatory cells (CD25high CD4+ cells), and natural killer cells/monocytes (CD16+ cells). Rossa di Toscana displayed the highest TPC (6.61 ± 0.87 mg GA equivalents/g onion bulb DW) and the highest TAC with the experienced methods: FRAP, 9.19 ± 2.54 μmol Trolox equivalents/g onion bulb DW; TEAC/ABTS, 21.31 ± 0.41 μmol Trolox equivalents/g onion bulb DW; DPPH, 22.90 ± 0.01 μmol Trolox equivalents/g onion bulb DW. Incubation with Rossa di Toscana extract determined an increase in the frequency of the antitumor/anti-infection NK CD16+ immune cells (23.0 ± 0.4%). Content of health-promoting phenols and the deriving antioxidant and immunostimulating activity vary considerably among the investigated cultivars. Rossa di Toscana can be considered as a potential functional food.

  12. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as onions...

  13. Illuminating Physics with Light Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Harvey S.

    1990-01-01

    Presents ideas on how common household light bulbs can be used to develop interest in learning physics. Focuses on supermarket data taking and analyses, filament temperatures, detective work with three-way bulbs, and lifetime statistics. (YP)

  14. Viabilidade do sistema de produção de mudas em bandejas em três cultivares de cebola Viability of onion seedling production on polyestyrene trays in three cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Yamamoto Reghin

    2007-08-01

    cultivo da cebola em um mercado cada vez mais competitivo.The present trial was realized in Ponta Grossa (PR and aimed to evaluate the viability of onion seedling production in polyestyrene trays, compared to conventional system on seedbed, using three cultivars The experimental design used was a randomized block with three replications. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme 3x3, being three seedlings type (from trays with 200 and 288 cells and from seedbed, and three cultivars (Mercedes, Bola Precoce and Crioula. Seedlings production on trays were realized under protected cultivation and seedlings from seedbeds produced in the field. Seeds were sowed in May,15th. At 57 days the seedlings were evaluated and then transplanted in plots with four rows and plants arranged in 0,40x0,08m, with 312.500 plants.ha-1. The harvest was realized according to the plant maturation stage. Bulbs were dried and then yield were evaluated. The production cost and seedlings viability were calculated. It was observed the seedlings from trays were superior when compared to seedlings from seedbed, mainly those from 200 cells.This higher seedling quality reflected on later performance obtaining the highest yield from trays of 200 cells. It was intermediary with 288 trays and lower from seedbed seedling. It was observed low seedling useful from seedbed during the selection process (50%. In the case of hybrid the cost of seedling production in seedbed was high, almost comparable to seedling production of open pollinated cultivars on trays of 288 cells. The best cultivars were Crioula and Mercedes. Seedlings production on trays mainly on 200 cells showed viability and represents an important alternative to increase onion yield in a competitive market.

  15. Nitrogen Transfer from Cover Crop Residues to Onion Grown under Minimum Tillage in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoncio de Paula Koucher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen derived from cover crop residues may contribute to the nutrition of onion grown under minimum tillage (MT and cultivated in rotation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the N transferred from different cover crop residues to the onion crop cultivated under MT in southern Brazil. In June 2014, oilseed radish, black oat, and oilseed radish + black oat residues labeled with 15N were deposited on the soil surface before transplanting onions. During the growth season and at harvest, young expanded onion leaves, complete plants, and samples from different soil layers were collected and analyzed for recovery of 15N-labeled residue. Oilseed radish decomposed faster than other residues and 4 % of residue N was recovered in leaves and bulbs at harvest, but in general, N in plant organs was derived from sources other than the cover crop residues. In addition, leaf N was in the proper range for all treatments and was adequately mobilized to the bases for bulbing. The N derived from decomposing residues contributed little to onion development and the use of these plants should be chosen based on their advantages for physical and biological soil quality.

  16. Arsenic and trace elements in soil, water, grapevine and onion in Jáchal, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes Pinter, Iván; Salomon, M Victoria; Gil, Raúl; Mastrantonio, Leandro; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2018-02-15

    Contamination by trace elements (TE) is an increasing concern worldwide. In some areas, crop production could be limited by the presence of metals and metalloids, so it is important to determine their concentrations and mobility. The region of Jáchal, province of San Juan, Argentina, has good growing conditions for onion and grapevine production, but their quality and yield are affected by high TE concentration in soils and water. Soils, water, grapevine and onion were sampled and TE content determined. In soils elevated As, B, Cr, Hg, and Tl concentrations were detected (506±46, 149±3, 2714±217, 16±7, and 12±3μgg -1 , respectively, for maximum values measured), and physicochemical properties of the soil promotes these elements mobility. Water samples had high As, B, Cr, and Fe concentrations (1438±400, 10,871±471, 11,516±2363, and 3071±257μgL -1 , respectively, for maximum values measured) while in onion bulbs and grapevine berries, As, Cr, Cu, and Fe (92±7 and 171±20, 1412±18 and 2965±32, 17±3 and 126±88, and 418±204 and 377±213μgg -1 , respectively, for maximum values measured) exceeded the limits for food consumption established by Argentinian law. Correlation analyses indicated that: i) there is a common source of TE in this area, ii) each elements concentration in plants is associated with different soil variables and different soils depths, and iii) the lack of correlation between soil and water indicates that concentration in water is not constant over the time and/or there exists a differential accumulation of elements in soils depending on their own properties. Data obtained demonstrate very high concentration of TE in soil, grapevines, and onion plants in Jáchal region, and different remediation techniques are necessary to stabilize and minimize the bioavailability of these elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cover Crops Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Onion Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops contribute to nutrient cycling and may improve soil chemical properties and, consequently, increase crop yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate cover crop residue decomposition and nutrient release, and the effects of these plants on soil chemical properties and on onion (Allium cepa L. yield in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in an Inceptisol in southern Brazil, where cover crops were sown in April 2012 and 2013. In July 2013, shoots of weeds (WD, black oats (BO, rye (RY, oilseed radish (RD, oilseed radish + black oats (RD + BO, and oilseed radish + rye (RD + RY were cut at ground level and part of these material from each treatment was placed in litter bags. The litter bags were distributed on the soil surface and were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after distribution (DAD. The residues in the litter bags were dried, weighed, and ground, and then analyzed to quantify lignin, cellulose, non-structural biomass, total organic carbon (TOC, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. In November 2012 and 2013, onion crops were harvested to quantify yield, and bulbs were classified according to diameter, and the number of rotted and flowering bulbs was determined. Soil in the 0.00-0.10 m layer was collected for chemical analysis before transplanting and after harvesting onion in December 2012 and 2013. The rye plant residues presented the highest half-life and they released less nutrients until 90 DAD. The great permanence of rye residue was considered a protection to soil surface, the opposite was observed with spontaneous vegetation. The cultivation and addition of dry residue of cover crops increased the onion yield at 2.5 Mg ha-1.

  18. 78 FR 37150 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 956 [Docket No. AMS-FV-13-0024; FV13-956-1 CR] Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla... conducted among eligible producers of sweet onions in the Walla Walla Valley of southeast Washington and... of sweet onions produced in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from...

  19. Effect of gamma-irradiation and extended storage on chemical quality in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, C.A.; Banek, S.A.; Curzio, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation and long-term storage on the chemical quality of the Valenciana sintética 14 onion variety were determined under warehouse conditions in two sets of bulbs grown consecutively in 1988 and 1989. In both years irradiated and non-irradiated bulbs showed similar behaviour in terms of carbohydrate and ascorbic acid contents throughout the 300 days of storage. It was found that the carbohydrate content significantly decreased in irradiated and non-irradiated samples up to 180 days of storage. The storage time was found not to have a significant effect on the ascorbic acid content of bulbs. The carbohydrate and ascorbic acid contents were found to be higher in the irradiated and non-irradiated bulbs grown in 1988. Neither storage time nor gamma-irradiation nor the specific year significantly affected dry matter or acidity. Gamma-irradiation did not significantly affect flavour strength in terms of total pyruvate content

  20. Efeito da polinização por abelhas e outros insetos na produção de sementes de cebola Effect of pollination by bees and other insects on the production of onion seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidia Witter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência de polinização tem sido apontada como uma das causas da baixa produção de sementes na cultura da cebola. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação da presença de abelhas e outros insetos em flores de duas cultivares de cebola, Allium cepa L. (Alliaceae, com a produção de sementes. Foram registradas a diversidade e a freqüência de insetos nas flores de cebola e o efeito polinizador foi testado. O comportamento de Apis mellifera foi observado diretamente nas flores e a fidelidade verificada a partir do pólen nas corbículas. Representantes de Hymenoptera e Diptera foram os visitantes florais mais abundantes. Houve correlação entre a freqüência de A. mellifera com número de umbelas com flores, em ambas cultivares, e de outros insetos em Crioula Alto Vale. A produção de sementes com livre visitação de insetos apresentou acréscimo superior a 20% em relação às parcelas sem insetos e com visita de uma abelha. A. mellifera transportou mais de 70% de pólen de cebola. A presença de A. mellifera é indispensável para a produção comercial de sementes de cebola.Pollination's deficit has been pointed as one of the causes of the low onion seed production. The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship of the presence of bees and other insects in flowers of two cultivars of onion, Allium cepa L. (Alliaceae, with seed production. The diversity and frequency of insects in flowers of onion was registered and their pollinizing effect was tested. The behavior of Apis mellifera was directly observed in the flowers and the fidelity was testified from the presence of pollen in the corbiculas. Representatives of Hymenoptera and Diptera were the most abundant flower visitors. There was a correlation between frequency of A. mellifera and the number of umbels with flowers in both cultivars and of other insects in Crioula Alto Vale. The production of seeds with free insect visitation had an increase of more

  1. TECHNOLOGY AND FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY OF ONION IN KEEROM DISTRICT, PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrizal Malik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessment to determine the performance of the technology and financial feasibility of onion farming in production centers, especially in Keerom, conducted in August and September 2013. The sample survey method involving 45 farmers primary responden. Data includes input and output onion farming tabulated and analyzed using analysis costs and benefits as well as the analysis of efficiency (R/C. Results: the average age of onion farmers are in the productive age (41.86 years. Average area of onion 0.057 ha per farmer, expenditures for seed IDR 2.93 million, the use of urea 13.53 kg, 32.53 kg SP-36, KCl 6.88 kg, 35.53 kg Phonska, DGW 3,6 kg, 1.04 kg KNO, and pesticides and herbicides IDR 1,010,777 and labor flow male 26 working days and female 6.82 working days per 0.057 ha per growing season to the productivity of 616.11 kg. Total farm revenue of onion with acreage 0 IDR 18,483,333 per 0.057 ha per growing season for a total expenditure of IDR 7,733,792. Income of IDR 10,749,541 (R/C of 2.39, meaning onion farming in Kampung Dukwia profitable, suggested further development with the guidance of extension agents. The role of the local Department of Agriculture is very necessary because it involves the availability of inputs (seeds and fertilizers and pesticides

  2. Nuclear light bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear light bulb engine is a closed cycle concept. The nuclear light bulb concept provides containment by keeping the nuclear fuel fluid mechanically suspended in a cylindrical geometry. Thermal heat passes through an internally cooled, fused-silica, transparent wall and heats hydrogen propellant. The seeded hydrogen propellant absorbs radiant energy and is expanded through a nozzle. Internal moderation was used in the configuration which resulted in a reduced critical density requirement. This result was supported by criticality experiments. A reference engine was designed that had seven cells and was sized to fit in what was then predicted to be the shuttle bay mass and volume limitations. There were studies done of nozzle throat cooling schemes to remove the radiant heat. Elements of the nuclear light bulb program included closed loop critical assembly tests done at Los Alamos with UF6 confined by argon buffer gas. It was shown that the fuel region could be seeded with constituents that would block UV radiation from the uranium plasma. A combination of calculations and experiments showed that internal moderation produced a critical mass reduction. Other aspects of the research are presented.

  3. The jugular bulb diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadin, K.; Wilbrand, H.

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred and forty-five temporal bone specimens were examined radiographically. Subsequently the topographic relationship between the jugular fossa and surrounding structures was evaluated in plastic casts of the specimens. Fifty-eight casts showed a high jugular fossa and in 17 a jugular bulb diverticulum was found. A diverticulum is regarded as an anomaly of the high jugular bulb and presumably has a potential for expansion. Most frequently a diverticulum was directed medially into the space between the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular aqueduct and the posterior cranial fossa. Seven diverticula reached the level of the internal acoustic meatus. Encroachment upon the vestibular aqueduct was seen in 4 casts and both the internal acoustic meatus and the cochlear aqueduct were very close to the diverticulum. A few diverticula were directed postero-laterally close to the facial canal and the stapedius muscle. The investigation was supplemented with a selected clinical material of radiographs of temporal bones with high fossae. The results corresponded to those of the experimental investigation. The jugular bulb diverticulum is a relatively common feature and should be regarded as an anomaly with a potential to give rise to clinical symptoms consequent to its intrusion upon surrounding structures. (orig.)

  4. External bulb variable volume maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Cervenka, P. O. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A maser functioning as a frequency standard stable to one part in 10 to the 14th power includes a variable volume, constant surface area storage bulb having a fixed volume portion located in a resonant cavity from which the frequency standard is derived. A variable volume portion of the bulb, exterior to the resonant cavity, has a maximum volume on the same order of magnitude as the fixed volume bulb portion. The cavity has a length to radius ratio of at least 3:1 so that the operation is attained without the need for a feedback loop. A baffle plate, between the fixed and variable volume bulb portions, includes apertures for enabling hydrogen atoms to pass between the two bulb portions and is an electromagnetic shield that prevents coupling of the electromagnetic field of the cavity into the variable volume bulb portion.

  5. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions. Onions...

  6. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid yellow...

  7. Measurement of the distribution of non-structural carbohydrate composition in onion populations by a high-throughput microplate enzymatic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanna, Roopashree; Turnbull, Matthew H; Shaw, Martin L; Wright, Kathryn M; Butler, Ruth C; Jameson, Paula E; McCallum, John A

    2013-08-15

    Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC; glucose, fructose, sucrose and fructan) composition of onions (Allium cepa L.) varies widely and is a key determinant of market usage. To analyse the physiology and genetics of onion carbohydrate metabolism and to enable selective breeding, an inexpensive, reliable and practicable sugar assay is required to phenotype large numbers of samples. A rapid, reliable and cost-effective microplate-based assay was developed for NSC analysis in onions and used to characterise variation in tissue hexose, sucrose and fructan content in open-pollinated breeding populations and in mapping populations developed from a wide onion cross. Sucrose measured in microplates employing maltase as a hydrolytic enzyme was in agreement with HPLC-PAD results. The method revealed significant variation in bulb fructan content within open-pollinated 'Pukekohe Longkeeper' breeding populations over a threefold range. Very wide segregation from 80 to 600 g kg(-1) in fructan content was observed in bulbs of F2 genetic mapping populations from the wide onion cross 'Nasik Red × CUDH2150'. The microplate enzymatic assay is a reliable and practicable method for onion sugar analysis for genetics, breeding and food technology. Open-pollinated onion populations may harbour extensive within-population variability in carbohydrate content, which may be quantified and exploited using this method. The phenotypic data obtained from genetic mapping populations show that the method is well suited to detailed genetic and physiological analysis. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Persistence and dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in onion and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2014-01-01

    The persistence and dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on onion were studied after application of their combination formulation at a standard and double dose of 75 + 150 and 150 + 300 g a.i. ha(-1). The fungicides were extracted with acetone, cleaned-up using activated charcoal (trifloxystrobin) and neutral alumina (tebuconazole). Analysis was carried out by gas chromatograph (GC) and confirmed by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The recovery was above 80% and limit of quantification (LOQ) 0.05 mg kg(-1) for both fungicides. Initial residue deposits of trifloxystrobin were 0.68 and 1.01 mg kg(-1) and tebuconazole 0.673 and 1.95 mg kg(-1) from standard and double dose treatments, respectively. Dissipation of the fungicides followed first-order kinetics and the half life of degradation was 6-6.6 days. Matured onion bulb (and field soil) harvested after 30 days was free from fungicide residues. These findings suggest recommended safe pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 14 and 25 days for spring onion consumption after treatment of Nativo 75 WG at the standard and double doses, respectively. Matured onion bulbs at harvest were free from fungicide residues.

  9. Caracterização e estimativa da variabilidade genética de genótipos de cebola Characterization and estimation of genetic variability of onion genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Henrique Wamser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar genótipos de cebola cultivados em Santa Catarina e estimar a variabilidade genética existente entre os mesmos. Para isto foram avaliados quinze genótipos de cebola em dois ambientes, Ituporanga e Lages. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com três repetições em cada ambiente. Foram avaliados o comprimento do pseudocaule; número de folhas por pseudocaule; diâmetro do pseudocaule; diâmetro do bulbo; altura do bulbo; peso do bulbo; relação altura:diâmetro do bulbo; produção total de bulbos; formato do bulbo; porcentagem de florescimento e porcentagem de bulbos podres. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância multivariada. Houve efeito significativo para a interação genótipos x ambientes, fato que causou diferenças nos valores de dissimilaridade em cada local. Foi elaborada uma matriz de dissimilaridade utilizando a distância de Mahalanobis. Os caracteres morfológicos e agronômicos utilizados foram suficientes para caracterizar os genótipos, indicando que os programas de melhoramento dispõem de uma ampla base genética para o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares.This study aimed to characterize onion genotypes grown in Santa Catarina state, Brazil and to estimate their genetic variability. Fifteen onion genotypes were evaluated in two locations, Ituporanga and Lages. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replications in each environment. We evaluated the length of the pseudostem, number of leaves per pseudostem, stem diameter, bulb diameter, height of the bulb, bulb weight, height:diameter ratio; total production of bulbs, bulb shape, flowering percentage and percentage of rotten bulbs. The data were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant effects for genotype-environment interaction, fact that was reflected in the values of dissimilarity in each location. A matrix of dissimilarity was prepared

  10. Higher Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonols, and Specific Quercetin Glucosides in Two Different Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties Grown under Organic Production: Results from a 6-Year Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feiyue; Reilly, Kim; Kerry, Joseph P; Gaffney, Michael; Hossain, Mohammad; Rai, Dilip K

    2017-06-28

    We carried out a 6-year study to assess the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on bioactive compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity in onion. Total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, individual flavonols, individual anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were measured in two varieties ('Hyskin' and 'Red Baron') grown in a long-term split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. This is the first report of repeated measurements of bioactive content over an extensive time period in a single crop type within the same trial. Antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonol content, and levels of Q 3,4' D and Q 3 G were higher in both varieties under fully organic compared to fully conventional management. Total flavonoids were higher in 'Red Baron' and when onions were grown under organic soil treatment. Differences were primarily due to different soil management practices used in organic agriculture rather than pesticide/ herbicide application.

  11. Qualidade de cebola minimamente processada e armazenada sob refrigeração Quality of minimally processed onions stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina A. Miguel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do armazenamento refrigerado em cebolas, na vida útil e na qualidade de seu produto minimamente processado (PMP. Cebolas ´Superex', tipo comercial, foram armazenadas em câmara fria a 10°C e 60% UR, por 1; 16; 31; 61 e 91 dias. Nestas datas, amostras de bulbos foram minimamente processados e armazenados a 11°C e 61% UR. Estes produtos foram avaliados em dias alternados quanto à massa fresca e a aparência e a cada 2-3 dias quanto à coloração instrumental (luminosidade, ângulo Hue ou de cor e cromaticidade, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS e de acidez titulável (AT e atividade da aliinase. O armazenamento dos bulbos levou os PMP a menor perda de massa, até o agravamento da senescência, observada nos bulbos armazenados por 91 dias. Os produtos dos bulbos armazenados mantiveram aparência adequada até o 12°-13 dia, exceção feita aos bulbos armazenados por 91 dias que conservaram-na por apenas 9 dias. Os PMP tornaram-se mais amarelados, com ligeira redução nos teores de SS, aumento inicial nos de AT e redução na atividade da aliinase. As cebolas 'Superex' podem ser armazenadas a 10ºC e 60% UR por até 61 dias, com produção de produtos minimamente processados com vida útil de até 13 dias, a 11ºC e 61% UR.The effect of refrigerated storage was evaluated on onion shelf-life and quality of fresh-cut products. ´Superex´ onions, commercial type, were stored in a cold room at 10°C and 60% RH for 1; 16; 31; 61, and 91 days. During these days, samples of bulbs were minimally processed and stored at 11°C and 61% RH. These products were evaluated on alternated days, for loss of fresh mass and appearance and every 2-3 days for color (luminosity, Hue angle, and chromaticity, soluble solids (SS and titratable acidy (TA contents and alliinase activity. Bulbs storage reduced the fresh-cut weight loss during storage, until the senescence aggravating, observed in bulbs stored for 91 days. Minimally processed products

  12. Inhibition of platelet activation by lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS)-silenced (tearless) onion juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Susan J; Rippon, Paula; Butts, Chrissie; Olsen, Sarah; Shaw, Martin; Joyce, Nigel I; Eady, Colin C

    2013-11-06

    Onion and garlic are renowned for their roles as functional foods. The health benefits of garlic are attributed to di-2-propenyl thiosulfinate (allicin), a sulfur compound found in disrupted garlic but not found in disrupted onion. Recently, onions have been grown with repressed lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) activity, which causes these onions to produce increased amounts of di-1-propenyl thiosulfinate, an isomer of allicin. This investigation into the key health attributes of LFS-silenced (tearless) onions demonstrates that they have some attributes more similar to garlic and that this is likely due to the production of novel thiosulfinate or metabolites. The key finding was that collagen-induced in vitro platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by tearless onion extract over normal onion extract. Thiosulfinate or derived compounds were shown not to be responsible for the observed changes in the inflammatory response of AGS (stomach adenocarcinoma) cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) when pretreated with model onion juices. A preliminary rat feeding trial indicated that the tearless onions may also play a key role in reducing weight gain.

  13. Population growth rate of dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae (Keifer) (Acariformes: Eriophyidae) on agriculturally important plants and implications on taxonomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bulb mite (DBM), Aceria tulipae, is an economically important mite with a worldwide distribution and a broad host range. As a generalist, it is the most important eriophyoid mite attacking bulbous plants such as garlic, onion, and tulip. To date, DBM has been recorded on host plants belonging to...

  14. Economical and environmentally-friendly approaches for usage of onion (Allium cepa L.) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Lee, Eul Tal; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-08-10

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most commonly cultivated crops across the globe, and its production is increasing every year due to increasing consumer demand. Simultaneously, huge amounts of waste are produced from different parts of the onion, which ultimately affect the environment in various ways. Hence, proper usage as well as disposal of this waste is important from the environmental aspect. This review summarizes various usage methods of onion waste material, and processes involved to achieve maximum benefits. Processing industries produce the largest amount of onion waste. Other sources are storage systems, domestic usage and cultivation fields. Particular emphasis has been given to the methods used for better extraction and usage of onion waste under specific topics: viz. organic synthesis, production of biogas, absorbent for pollutants and value added products.

  15. Bio-fortification and isotopic labelling of Se metabolites in onions and carrots following foliar application of Se and 77Se

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kápolna, Emese; Laursen, Kristian H.; Husted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The aims were to bio-fortify onions by foliar application of selenium (Se) and to intrinsically label bioactive Se-metabolites in onion and carrot by enriched, stable 77Se for use in human physiological studies. Onion bulbs and leaves were enriched in Se by repeated foliar spraying of 10 or 100μg......Seml−1 solutions of sodium selenite (Se(IV)) or sodium selenate (Se(VI)). ICP-MS analysis of onion leaves and bulbs showed that the Se concentration was enhanced by up to a factor of approximately 50 and 200 in bulbs and leaves, respectively. HPLC–ICP-MS analysis of proteolytic plant extracts showed...... that foliar application of Se(IV) gave rise to bio-synthesis of a higher fraction of the desired organic Se species and was better tolerated by the plants than Se(VI). Based on these findings onions and carrots were bio-fortified by foliar application of a solution of 77Se(IV) that was enriched to 99.7% as 77...

  16. Super-resolution imaging with Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4BS enables direct visualization of cellulose orientation and cell connection architecture in onion epidermis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Ziomkiewicz, Iwona; Schulz, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    approaches have been developed; in this paper we explore the potential of such approaches for the direct visualization of cellulose. Results To ensure optimal imaging we determined the spectral properties of PFS-stained tissue. PFS was found not to affect cell viability in the onion bulb scale epidermis. We...

  17. Lamp bulb with integral reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Izrail; Shanks, Bruce; Sumner, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    An improved electrodeless discharge lamp bulb includes an integral ceramic reflector as a portion of the bulb envelope. The bulb envelope further includes two pieces, a reflector portion or segment is cast quartz ceramic and a light transmissive portion is a clear fused silica. In one embodiment, the cast quartz ceramic segment includes heat sink fins or stubs providing an increased outside surface area to dissipate internal heat. In another embodiment, the quartz ceramic segment includes an outside surface fused to eliminate gas permeation by polishing.

  18. Efficiency of onions marketing Ikeduru rural markets of Owerri area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the performance of onions marketing in Ikeduru rural markets of Owerri area of Imo State, Nigeria. The study measured market structure using gross margin analysis and the productive efficiency using the production function analysis. Percentages and means were used to measure the respondents ...

  19. What Is the Real Efficiency of Bulbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacek, Lubos

    2012-01-01

    Bulbs are considered to be very inefficient sources of light. Bulbs give light and heat. As we use them for a long time, especially in winter, a large part of the heat produced by bulbs lowers the power consumption of the heating system. In this paper the problem of the real efficiency of a bulb is solved when both the lighting and heating effects…

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation and ethyl methane sulphonate on growth, flowering and bulbs production in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L) cv. double

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajbir; Goyal, R.K.; Gupta, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The bulbs of tuberose cv. Double were treated with a combination of gamma rays and EMS at the rate 1Kr+0.25%; 1Kr+0.50%; 2Kr+0.25% and 2Kr+0.50%. The bulbs were first treated with gamma rays and later on same bulbs were treated in aqueous solution of EMS (pH 7) for 16 hrs before planting. The plant height and number of leaves decreased with increased doses of the gamma irradiation and EMS combinations. The diameter of spike in VM 1 ranged from 4.99 to 5.53 mm and in 1Kr + 0.25 % EMS proved most significant in increasing the diameter of spike where diameter of spike was recorded maximum (5.53 mm). In VM 2 generation, the diameter of spike ranged from 6.01 to 6.54mm. The length of spike in VM 1 generation ranged from 50.13 to 62.54 cm. The maximum length of spike (62.54 cm) was observed under control, which was followed by using 1 Kr + 0.25 and 0.50% EMS. The higher concentration of EMS with 2 Kr dose of gamma irradiation significantly decreased the length of spike. In VM 2 generation the pattern was different from VM 1 generation. In VM 2 generation, the length of spike under control and other treatments was more in comparison to VM 1 generation and maximum length of spike was recorded under control (75.43 cm). The lowest dose of EMS i.e., 1 Kr + 0.25%EMS was found significantly effective in producing maximum number of florets per spike followed by 1 Kr + 0.50% EMS in VM 1 generation. In VM 2 generation 1 Kr + 0.25% EMS was found significant and produced maximum number of florets per spike (29.89) followed by control. The weight of hundred florets ranged from 169.42 -173.43 g in VM 1 generation. In VM 2 generation, a significant improvement was found in weight of hundred florets by using 1 Kr + 0.25 to 0.50% EMS and maximum weight of hundred florets (144.33 g) was recorded under 1 Kr + 0.25%EMS. Maximum number of bulbs (17.45) were recorded in 1Kr + 0.50% EMS combination in VM 2 generation, on the other hand maximum weight of the bulbs (274.56g) per plant was found

  1. Unions of onions: preprocessing imprecise points for fast onion decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let D be a set of n pairwise disjoint unit disks in the plane. We describe how to build a data structure for D so that for any point set P containing exactly one point from each disk, we can quickly find the onion decomposition (convex layers of P.Our data structure can be built in O(n log n time and has linear size. Given P, we can find its onion decomposition in O(nlog k time, where k is the number of layers. We also provide a matching lower bound.Our solution is based on a recursive space decomposition, combined with a fast algorithm to compute the union of two disjoint onion decompositions. 

  2. Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CFLs can help you save money, use less energy, reduce light bulb changes, and lower greenhouse gas emissions, which lead to climate change. Learn about proper cleanup, recycling and disposal, labels, mercury, and UV radiation.

  3. The properties and tastes of soaking onion

    OpenAIRE

    玉木, 雅子; 鵜飼, 光子; Masako, TAMAKI; Mitsuko, UKAI

    2000-01-01

    Soak process of food was used commonly for vegetables to take away odor, harshness and color. In this study, the effect of soak on the properties and tastes of onion were investigated. In soaking onion with water, the bitter and hot taste in the slice decreased, and stimulus taste softened. In addition, the odor specific to the raw onion slice decreased after soaking with water. For texture characteristics, the onion soaked water was softer and less fibrous. The properties and tastes of water...

  4. Radiosensitivity of garlic air bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhila, Eh.D.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents data on the radiosensitivity of various sorts of garlic. It is shown that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the irradiated aerial bulbs of stemmed varieties of garlic is directly dependent upon the gmma-ray dose. With increasing dose the germination capacity and the viability of the plants diminishes. A dose of 750 r was found to be critical for the bulbs of the garlic varieties studied

  5. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.

  6. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedong Xu

    Full Text Available Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.

  7. A Rapid, Highly Efficient and Economical Method of Agrobacterium-Mediated In planta Transient Transformation in Living Onion Epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  8. Combined effect of organic manure and potassium on growth and yield of onion cv. BARI piaz-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Barman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to find out the combined effect of cowdung and potassium on the growth and yield of onion cv. BARI piaz-I at Horticulture Farm, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from December 2010 to March 2011. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The two factors experiment had four levels of cowdung, viz., 0, 5, 10 and 20 tons ha-1 and four levels of potassium, viz. 0, 50, 150 and 250 kg K ha-1. Doses of cowdung and potassium showed significant variation in respect of all the parameters studied. The combination of 10 tons cowdung and 250 kg K ha-1 gave the tallest plant (46.60 cm, the highest number of leaves plant-1 (6.40, the highest length of bulb (3.27 cm, the highest diameter of bulb (4.83 cm, individual weight of bulb (51.23 g, dry matter content (12.66% and yield of bulb ha-1 (12.83 tons; whereas the control treatment gave the shortest plant (38.15 cm, lowest number of leaves plant-1 (5.68, diameter of bulb (3.41, individual weight of bulb (35.65g and gave lowest bulb yield ha-1 (9.16 tons.

  9. Fresh onion juice enhanced copulatory behavior in male rats with and without paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Daradka, Haytham M; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Mustafa, Ayman G

    2014-02-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most commonly cultivated species of the family Liliaceae, and has long been used in dietary and therapeutic applications. Treatment with fresh onion juice has been reported to promote testosterone production in male rats. Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for enhancing sexual libido and potency. This study aimed to investigate the effects of onion juice on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats and in male rats with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. Sexually experienced male rats were divided into seven groups: a control group, three onion juice-treated groups, a paroxetine-treated group, and two groups treated with paroxetine plus different doses of onion juice. At the end of the treatments, sexual behavior parameters and testosterone levels were measured and compared among the groups. Administration of onion juice significantly reduced mount frequency and latency and increased the copulatory efficacy of potent male rats. In addition, administration of onion juice attenuated the prolonged ejaculatory latency period induced by paroxetine and increased the percentage of ejaculating rats. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly by onion juice administration. However, a significant reduction in testosterone because of paroxetine therapy was observed. This reduction was restored to normal levels by administration of onion juice. This study conclusively demonstrates that fresh onion juice improves copulatory behavior in sexually potent male rats and in those with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction by increasing serum testosterone levels.

  10. Isolation and characterization of onion degrading bacteria from onion waste produced in South Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinland, María Emilia; Gómez, Marisa Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Onion production in Argentina generates a significant amount of waste. Finding an effective method to recycle it is a matter of environmental concern. Among organic waste reuse techniques, anaerobic digestion could be a valuable alternative to current practices. Substrate inoculation with appropriate bacterial strains enhances the rate-limiting step (hydrolysis) of anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Selection of indigenous bacteria with the ability to degrade onion waste could be a good approach to find a suitable bioaugmentation or pretreatment agent. We isolated bacterial strains from onion waste in different degradation stages and from different localities. In order to characterize and select the best candidates, we analyzed the growth patterns of the isolates in a medium prepared with onion juice as the main source of nutrients and we evaluated carbon source utilization. Nine strains were selected to test their ability to grow using onion tissue and the five most remarkable ones were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains belonged to the genera Pseudoxanthomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas. Two strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtillis MB2-62 and Pseudomonas poae VE-74 have characteristics that make them promising candidates for bioaugmentation or pretreatment purposes.

  11. COMPLEX OF TRAITS OF WELSH ONION IN THE ANNUAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the central region of Russia welsh onion is a promising crop for bunch onion combined with a high sappy sheath. The annual crop in open field allows getting the product at August- September. For this purpose the cv. Nezhnosty, Aprelyskyi, Sprinter (length of sheath is 15 cm, yield is 3.7 – 3.8 kg/m2 are the most suitable. In order to get bunching onion during September-October, the cv. Long Tokio, Ishikura long wait (yield is 3.1-3.2 kg / m2, Totem F1, and Performer (yield is 2.5 kg / m2 characterized by the medium height and the vertical position of leaves (5 leaves per plant are recommended.

  12. COMPLEX OF TRAITS OF WELSH ONION IN THE ANNUAL CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Ivanova; A. F. Bukharov; A. I. Kashleva; D. N. Baleev

    2015-01-01

    In the central region of Russia welsh onion is a promising crop for bunch onion combined with a high sappy sheath. The annual crop in open field allows getting the product at August- September. For this purpose the cv. Nezhnosty, Aprelyskyi, Sprinter (length of sheath is 15 cm, yield is 3.7 – 3.8 kg/m2) are the most suitable. In order to get bunching onion during September-October, the cv. Long Tokio, Ishikura long wait (yield is 3.1-3.2 kg / m2), Totem F1, and Performer (yield is 2.5 kg / m2...

  13. Heated apple juice supplemented with onion has greatly improved nutritional quality and browning index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonggi; Seo, Jeong Dae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Choon Young

    2016-06-15

    Although fruit juices are very popular, enzymatic browning occurs easily. Browning of fruit juice deteriorates nutrition value and product quality due to oxidation of polyphenol compounds. Therefore, development of natural food additives that reduce browning will be beneficial for improving quality of fruit juices. Onion has been reported to be a potent natural anti-browning agent. Here, we compared unheated and heated apple juices pre-supplemented with onion with respect to browning and nutritional quality. The unheated apple juice supplemented with onion showed reduced browning as well as increased total soluble solid, total phenol concentration, radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing and copper chelating activities without any change in flavonoid concentration. On the other hand, heated juice supplemented with onion not only showed improved values for these parameters but also markedly increased flavonoid concentration. Thus, we conclude that application of heating and onion addition together may greatly improve quality of apple juice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of nitrogen rates on onion yield, quality and storability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out on onions (Allium cepa) using nitrogen rates ranging from 0 to 180 kg/ha. The highest yield and percentage of marketable production was obtained from applying 60 kg N/ha. Higher level of nitrogen decreased yield, while application of 180 kg N/ha gave yield that was even lower than that ...

  15. Effective onion leaf fleck management and variability of storage pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasiukevičiūtė Neringa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis spp. cause several diseases in Allium crops and depending on meteorological conditions economic losses can exceed 50%. Forecasting models improve plant protection and sometimes reduce consumption of fungicides, because applications are made precisely during the favourable periods for disease development. Our aim was to evaluate the iMETOS®sm B. cinerea forecasting model as an effective onion leaf fleck management system and estimate the variability of onion bulb pathogens during storage. Assessment of forecasting model data showed that favourable conditions for leaf fleck development arise in July, but greatly depend on that year’s meteorological conditions. During an experimental year the first sprayings with fungicides were applied as forecasted from the model, which resulted in application 19, 6 and 23 days earlier than conventional treatment application times. In 2012-2014 iMETOS®sm treatment yield increased by 3.51 t ha-1, 3.87 t ha-1 and3.40 t ha-1 relative to the control. During storage most frequent injuries were fungal (44% and bacterial (41%, followed by insects (7% and physiological (9%. The highest prevalence of injuries was detected after 2 months of storage.

  16. Sanitation of onion powder by irradiation and heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delkinova, S.M.; Dupuy, P.

    1973-01-01

    Onion powder is frequently contaminated by a mesophile bacterial flora containing some spore-forming strains. Heating is not an admissible method of sterilization in this case, because of the volatile aromatic substances formed by the enzyme system present. After irradiation with 0.8 Mrad the surviving microbial flora contained Clostridium, Bacillus, Enterococcus and Micrococcus strains. These Micrococcus strains are less resistant than M.radiodurans and do not develop as spoilage organisms in foods. During the months following irradiation no growth was observed, on the contrary the number of cells surviving diminished in the same way both in the irradiated and the untreated samples. In soup powders with short cooking time, if the irradiated or untreated onion powder is added after boiling, a chance is caused by the growth of Lactobacillus or Bacillus strains. A radiation treatment with 0.4 Mrad gives a sterile soup, when boiled for 5 minutes. In meat pastes the most dangerous microbial flora is that consisting mainly of spora-forming anaerobic bacteria. It was shown that if the pasta was aromatized with onion powder treated with 0.2 Mrad before cooking, no growth occurred. The control sample containing untreated onion powder was spoiled by a microbial flora dominated by spore-forming aerobic bacteria. These two experiments proved that onion powder can be decontaminated by treatment with 0.2 or 0.4 Mrad. It is known that this dose has no detrimental effect on the organoleptic quality of the onion powder and the cost of irradiation is compatible with the price of the product treated. (F.J.)

  17. Effect of environmental factors and bulb mass on the invasive geophyte Oxalis pes-caprae development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer, Dolors; Sala, Anna; Vilà, Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Oxalis pes-caprae is an invasive pseudoannual plant that reproduces exclusively via offspring bulbs in the introduced range. It is most abundant in disturbed, fertile sites such as agricultural fields, but it is also found in undisturbed shrublands and shadier forest habitats. Oxalis infestation depends on long distance bulb dispersal (mainly anthropogenic) and on the ability of bulbs to grow and reproduce successfully. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to test the effects of parent bulb size on Oxalis growth and offspring production as a function of light availability (ambient and shade), planting depth (surface vs. 9 cm deep), and soil volume (full pots and pots with reduced soil volume). Oxalis grew and reproduced prolifically in all treatments. However, plant development and final offspring bulb production were sensitive to environmental conditions. Shading and reduced soil volume reduced maximum plant biomass relative to control and planting depth treatments, which produced either higher number of offspring bulbs (control) or larger offspring bulbs and higher total offspring bulb biomass (planting depth). Parent bulb size and vegetative reproductive organs had little effect on plant growth and offspring production. Our results are consistent with the lower abundance of Oxalis in undisturbed soils and shadier habitats in the field but indicate that even in these marginal habitats Oxalis can reproduce prolifically and contribute to further spread.

  18. Biological parameters of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman on onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraiet Maher Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological parameters of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman were studied on the following onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars: Nasik Red Plus N-53, Onion Dr-301 (Krishna, Onion White, and Nasik Red, at 25±1°C and 65±5% RH. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were found in the life stages and fertility life tables on different cultivars except in the pupal stages. More information about the biological parameters of T. tabaci on onion cultivars can help in designing Integrated Pest Management programs for onion thrips.

  19. Dissection of Trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (Allium cepa L.) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma; El-Sayed, Magdi; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. Target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC), through triggering a number of primary and secondary metabolite pathways. Onion seeds primed with Trichoderma T1 strain displayed early seedling emergence and enhanced growth compared with Trichoderma T2-treatment and untreated control. Therefore, T1 was selected for further investigations under greenhouse conditions, which revealed remarkable improvement in the onion bulb growth parameters and resistance against FOC. The metabolite platform of T1-primed onion (T1) and T1-primed onion challenged with FOC (T1+FOC) displayed significant accumulation of 25 abiotic and biotic stress-responsive metabolites, representing carbohydrate, phenylpropanoid and sulfur assimilation metabolic pathways. In addition, T1- and T1+FOC-treated onion plants showed discrete antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared with control. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of T. longibrachiatum to the accumulation of key metabolites, which subsequently leads to the improvement of onion growth, as well as its resistance to oxidative stress and FOC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of optical constants of a bio-thin layer (onion epidermis), using SPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Saif-ur-; Hayashi, Shinji; Sekkat, Zouheir; Mumtaz, Huma; Shaukat, S F

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the optical constants of a biological thin layer (Allium cepa) by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. For this study, the fresh inner thin epidermis of an onion bulb was used and stacked directly on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) film surfaces in order to identify the shift in SPR mode of each metal film at an operating wavelength of 632.8 nm. The thickness and dielectric constants of the biological thin layer were determined by matching the experimental SPR curves to theoretical ones. The thickness and roughness of bare Au and Ag thin films were also measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM); the results of which are in good agreement with those obtained through experiment. Due to the high surface roughness of the natural onion epidermis layer, AFM could not measure the exact thickness of an onion epidermis. It is estimated that the value of the real part of the dielectric constant of an onion epidermis is between the dielectric constants of water and air. (paper)

  1. Field dissipation of oxyfluorfen in onion and its dynamics in soil under Indian tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki, P; Sathya Priya, R; Chinnusamy, C

    2013-01-01

    Oxyfluorfen, a diphenyl-ether herbicide is being used to control annual and perennial broad-leaved weeds and sedges in a variety of field crops including onion. The present study was aimed to investigate the dynamics and field persistence of oxyfluorfen in onion plant, bulb and soil under Indian tropical conditions. Application of four rates of oxyfluorfen viz., 200, 250, 300 and 400 g AI ha(-1) as pre-emergence gave good weed control in field experiment with onion. The oxyfluorfen residue dissipated faster in plant than in soil respectively, with a mean half-life of 6.1 and 11.2 days. Dissipation followed first-order kinetics. In laboratory column leaching experiments, 17 percent of the applied oxyfluorfen was recovered from the soil and indicates its solubility in water and mobility in sandy clay loam soil was low. A sorption study revealed that the adsorption of oxyfluorfen to the soil was highly influenced by the soil organic carbon with the Koc value of 5450. The study concludes that the dissipation of oxyfluorfen in soil and onion was dependent on the physico-chemical properties of the soil and environmental conditions.

  2. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme. In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wave length against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 505.6 mg GAE/kg ±25.18 to 621.49 mgGAE/kg ±13.41. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 32.20 %± 0.58 to 44.67 % ±0.68.

  3. Corrosion Inhibitor of Carbon Steel from Onion Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Samsudin Asep

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon steels composed by two main elements, they are iron (Fe and carbon (C elements which widely used in industrial because of its resistance and more affordable than stainless steel, but their weakness is they have low corrosion resistance. One way to modify carbon steel is by coating them with antioxidant compounds that can delay, slow down, and prevent lipid oxidation process, which obtained from onion peel extract. Several studies on corrosion inhibitors have been performed. However, the efficiency was not reach the optimum. This study aims to examine the effect of onion peel extract concentration on the efficiency of corrosion inhibitor and characterization of the green corrosion inhibitor from onion peel extract. This research method begins by extracting onion peel to 200 ml solvent which we use aquadest and methanol and mixed with 5 grams of crushed onion peel, then let them be extracted for 60 minutes with room temperature. Once it was filtered and the solution obtained, followed by evaporating process with rotary evaporator to decrease the content of solvent. The product is ready to be used as a green corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 mol/L HCl. While the analysis used is HPLC qualitative analysis, and electroplatting process. The impedance is measured at a frequency of 100 kHz to 4 mHz with an AC current of 10mV. Inhibitor concentrations are vary between 2 ml and 4 ml of onion peel extract. Electroplatting is done within 30 minutes with 10 minutes each checking time. Furthermore, quantitative analysis was done for the analysis of corrosion rate and weight loss. Based on HPLC analysis, it is known that the extract of onion peel contains 1mg/L of quercetin, which is belong to flavonoid group as green inhibitor. While electroplatting process, aquadest solvent having average efficiency of 99,57% for 2 ml of extract, and 99,60% for 4 ml of extract. Methanol solvent having average efficiency of 99,52% for 2 ml of extract and 99

  4. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss.

  5. Production of Fully Homozygous Genotypes from Various Edible Alliums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. ALAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Allium is a very large genus containing over 700 distinct species including the various edible onions, garlics, chives, and leeks. About a dozen of the species are economically important as crops or garden vegetables where as many others are cultivated as ornamental plants. Allium breeding programs generally take very long time with low success due to problems such as long life cycle, sterility, polyploidy, high levels of heterozygosity. Development of inbreed lines is a very difficult process due to severe inbreeding depression. Doubled haploid (DH techniques can be utilized to obtain fully homozygous Allium materials. In Alliums, gynogenesis is the major technique used to produce haploid and DH plants from unfertilized female gamets with reduced chromosome number. We are in the process of developing gynogenesis induction protocols for several edible Allium species. We showed that gynogenic embryos can be obtained from a wide range of Allium materials. About half of the gynogenic embryos continue to grow and become plantlets. In general, gynogenic plantlets are green, but some of them show chlorophyll abnomalities. Results obtained from flow cytometric analysis of nuclei isolated from gynogenic materials indicate that majority of the gynogenic Allium materials are haploid and DH plants. DH onion lines developed in our program are generally vigorous plants with high levels of fecundity. The seeds obtained from DH onions show high germination. Plants of DH onion lines grow uniformly and produce bulbs very uniform in size, shape, color and quality features. These DH lines are excellent inbreds to be used as male parents in the production of F1 hybrid onion lines. Success obtained in DH onion materials indicates that a similar approach can be applied in the breeding programs of other important Alliums.

  6. EFEITO DE CYNAZINE E LINURON NO CONTROLE DE PLANTAS DANINHAS E NA PRODUTIVIDADE DA CEBOLA (Allium cepa L.d EFFECT OF CYANAZINE AND LINURON ON WEEDS AND PRODUCTIVITY IN ONION CROP (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Fontoura da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi realizado um experimento com cebola (Allium cepa L. cv . Texas Early Grano - 502, transplantada em Goiânia, Goiás, no período de junho a novembro de 1988, visando ao controle de plantas daninhas com cyanazine e linuron aplicados após o transplante da cultura. Nas condições em que o ensaio foi realizado, concluiu-se que cyanazine e linuron provocaram fitotoxicidade na cultura da cebola, causando redução na produção em relação à testemunha. Cyanazine controlou Portulaca oleracea e Amaranthus spp. até 45 dias e Commelina virginica, Eleusine indica e Brachiaria plantaginea até 30 dias após a aplicação. Linuron controlou P. oleracea, Amaranthus spp. e B. plantaginea até 45 dias após a aplicação, mas não controlou eficientemente C. virginica, E. indica e Digitaria horizontalis.

    This work presents the results of a field experiment carried out in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil, to estimate the efficiency of herbicides in controlling weeds in onion crop of Texas Early Grano 502. Cyanazine controlled Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus spp. till 45 days, and Commelina virginica. Eleusine indica and Brachiaria plantaginea till 30 days after application. Linuron controlled P. oleracea, Amaranthus spp. and B. plantaginea during 45 days. Both herbicides showed phytotoxicity decreasing the onion productivity.

  7. Differential responses of onion and garlic against plant growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oozunidou, G.; Asif, M.; Giannakuola, A.; Iliass, A.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Gibberellic acid-GA3, Prohexadione-Calcium, and Ethephon pre-harvest application on yield, biomass production, photosynthetic function, lipid peroxidation and quality characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants were investigated. Shoot length and biomass of onion and garlic, expressed either in fresh or dry weight, increased significantly under GA3, while a progressive decrease under Prohex-Ca and Ethephon occurred. Higher MDA (lipid peroxidation) values were recorded after Prohex-Ca and Ethephon supply on onion and garlic plants; it seems that GA3 treatment prevents lipid peroxidation as measured with the help of the TBARS method. Plants treated with Prohex-Ca and Ethephon revealed higher peroxidase activity compared to control and GA3 treated plants. Considering the results of MDA content and peroxidase activities it can be assumed that GA3 treated plants are slightly protected from the natural course of oxidative stress, which occurs during ageing as observed for control samples. The fluctuations of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters represent a general decline in chloroplasts function after plant growth regulators exposure, whereas in combination to the suppressed chlorophyll content, structural malformations of photo systems may also occur. The production of ascorbic acid, glucose and fructose content seems to be enhanced under GA3 in both species, while their values were depressed under Prohex-Ca and Ethephon. Overall, only GA3 supply leads to a vigorous onion and garlic growth and yield. (author)

  8. Shallot root distribution and bulb yield as influenced by irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    root depth) was unaffected by irrigation frequency to any significant extent. Number of bulbs per plant was the same in all the three irrigation treatments. The wet- treated shallots had the highest bulb diameter, bulb weight, and bulb yield.

  9. No-Light Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A thumbnail sketch of some of the light bulbs manufactured for a purpose other than seeing. These "dark" lamps perform varied tasks including keeping food fresh, detecting and preventing disease, spurring plant growth, heating, and copying printed material. (Author/MLF)

  10. Atomic force microscopy based nanoindentation study of onion abaxial epidermis walls in aqueous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xiaoning; Tittmann, Bernhard [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Kim, Seong H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-01-14

    An atomic force microscopy based nanoindentation method was employed to study how the structure of cellulose microfibril packing and matrix polymers affect elastic modulus of fully hydrated primary plant cell walls. The isolated, single-layered abaxial epidermis cell wall of an onion bulb was used as a test system since the cellulose microfibril packing in this cell wall is known to vary systematically from inside to outside scales and the most abundant matrix polymer, pectin, can easily be altered through simple chemical treatments such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and calcium ions. Experimental results showed that the pectin network variation has significant impacts on the cell wall modulus, and not the cellulose microfibril packing.

  11. EFEITO DA COBERTURA MORTA NO CRESCIMENTO E NA PRODUÇÃO DO ALHO (Allium sativum L. THE EFFECT OF THE MULCHING IN THE GROWTH AND BULB PRODUCTION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi avaliado o efeito das coberturas mortas do solo: palha de arroz, casca de arroz, cepilho de madeira, grama cortada e folhas de árvores, no crescimento e na produção do alho (Allium sativum L. cultivar Cateto Roxo. Os tratamentos de cobertura do solo foram feitos logo após o plantio e em camada suficiente apenas para cobrir o solo. Concluiu-se que a cobertura morta favoreceu o crescimento inicial e a produção de bulbos. Os materiais testados em cobertura do solo mostraram-se equivalentes, porém com tendência para o tratamento com casca de arroz superar os demais.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alho; AIlium sativum; cobertura morta dos solos; produção.

    The effect of flue mulching in the growth and bulb production of garlic (Allium sativum L. cv. ‘Cateto Roxo’, was evaluated. The soil cover treatments: rice straw, rice husk, smoothing plane, cut grass and dry leaves of tree, was done just after planting and in layers just to cover the soil. It was concluded that mulching favoured initial growing and bulb production. Tested materials were showed to be equivalent however with tendency to rice husk overcome the other ones.

    KEY-WORDS: Garlic; production; mulching; growth.

  12. Effectiveness of Onion Extract Gel on Surgical Scars in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumutnart Chanprapaph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Onion extracts have been shown in vitro to accelerate wound healing. Results from clinical studies on surgical scars in Caucasians were disappointing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of onion extract gel in improving the cosmetic and symptoms of surgical scars in Asians. Patients/Methods. Twenty Asians who had new Pfannenstiel’s cesarean section scars were recruited in this prospective double-blinded, split-scar study. Each side was randomly assigned treatment with onion extract gel or placebo at 7 days after surgery. The product was applied three times daily for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and 4th and 12th weeks. Scar redness was assessed by calorimeter, scar height and pliability were assessed by blinded investigators, and scar symptoms and overall cosmetic improvement were assessed by subjects. Results. Sixteen subjects completed the study. A statistically significant difference between two sides of scar in terms of scar height and scar symptoms was found. There was no statistically significant difference in scar redness, scar pliability, and overall cosmetic appearance between two sides. Conclusions. The early use of topical 12% onion extract gel on Pfannenstiel’s cesarean section scar in Asians resulted in the improvement of scar height and scar symptoms.

  13. Acúmulo de macronutrientes pela cebola 'Optima' estabelecida por semeadura direta Macronutrients accumulation by onion 'Optima' established by direct sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego R de Q Pôrto

    2006-12-01

    nutrients N, P, K and S, were accumulated preferably in the bulb; while Ca and Mg, in the aerial part. The nutrients in decreasing order of accumulation verified for the onion 'Optima' were: K > N > Ca > S > Mg > P. For a population of 420.000 plants ha-1 and a productivity of 72 t ha-1, and considering the observed values, it was verified that the onion 'Optima' hybrid exported by bulb 35.0; 5.3; 68.9; 25.8; 5.6 e 21.9 kg ha-1, respectively, of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S.

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation with onion (Allium cepa L. on performance, carcass traits and intestinal microflora composition in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Goodarzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of onion (Allium cepa L. as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, carcass traits, and microflora composition in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 192 one-day old mixed sex broiler chicks (Ross 308 were weighed and randomly allocated to four treatment groups, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control, antibiotic (15 mg virginiamycin/kg, and control+10 or 30 g fresh onions bulb/kg diet. Body weights of broilers were determined at Day 1, 21, and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At Day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of carcass and organ weights. The populations of Lactobacilli spp. and Escherichia coli were enumerated in ileum by conventional microbiological techniques using selective agar media. Results: Dietary supplementation of 30 g/kg onion increased final body weight of broilers at 42 d of age compared to that of the other treatments (P<0.05. Birds fed 30 g onion/kg in the diet had the highest feed intake than other treatments at different growth periods (P<0.05. Feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and internal organ weights were not affected by the dietary treatments at Day 42. The Lactobacilli spp. population in birds supplemented with onion at the level of 30 g/ kg significantly was higher than other groups at 42 d of age (P<0.05. The lowest Escherichia coli loads were detected in broilers fed diets containing 15 mg virginiamycin/kg. The Escherichia coli loads significantly decreased in broilers fed diets containing 10 or 30 g onion/kg (P<0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that supplementing broiler diet with 30 g onion/kg could induce favorable influences on performance and ileum microflora composition.

  15. Quercetin, a functional compound of onion peel, remodels white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gil; Parks, John S; Kang, Hye Won

    2017-04-01

    Adipocyte browning is a promising strategy for obesity prevention. Using onion-peel-derived extracts and their bioactive compounds, we demonstrate that onion peel, a by-product of onion, can change the characteristics of white adipocytes to those of brown-like adipocytes in the white adipose tissue of mice and 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of the following brown adipose tissue-specific genes was increased in the retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues of 0.5% onion-peel-extract-fed mice: PR domain-containing 16, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α, uncoupling protein 1, fibroblast growth factor 21 and cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, onion peel extract induced the expression of brown adipose tissue-specific genes and increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α. This effect was supported by decreased lipid levels and multiple small-sized lipid droplets. The ethyl acetate fraction of the onion peel extract that contained the highest proportion of hydrophobic molecules showed the same browning effect in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A high-performance liquid chromatography analysis further identified quercetin as a functional compound in the browning effect of onion peel. The quercetin-associated browning effect was mediated in part by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. In summary, our study provides the first demonstration of the browning effects of onion peel and quercetin using both animal and cell models. This result indicates that onion peel has the potential to remodel the characteristics of white adipocytes to those of brown-like adipocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador’, ‘Takstar F1’,‘Tęcza’, ‘Warna’, ‘Zorza’, Polan (‘Polanowska’, ‘Topolska’, PlantiCo Gołębiew (‘Alibaba’, ‘Efekt’, ‘Kristine’, ‘Niagara F1’,and PlantiCo Zielonki (‘Bila’, ‘Irka’, ‘Wenta’, ‘Zeta’. Plants produced from seedlings were grown in the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Kraków. After crop harvesting and additional drying, nitrate and dry matter content in bulbs of all cultivars were measured. The following cultivars: ‘Efekt’, ‘Labrador’ and red-skinned ‘Wenta’, were characterized by the lowest ability to accumulate NO3- in bulbs. The highest nitrate content was noted in bulbs of ‘Takstar F1’ (a very early-season cultivar, followed by ‘Bila’ and ‘Tęcza’. A weak, yet statistically significant negative correlation between nitrate and dry matter content was observed. The highest dry matter content was determined in bulbs of white-skinned ‘Alibaba’, while the lowest – in brown-skinned ‘Labrador’.

  17. Variability, heritability, and correlations of agronomic traits in an onion landrace and derived S1 lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Porta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed variability, heritability and correlations of agronomic traits in an onion (Allium cepa L. landrace and derived S1 lines after a single selfing generation. Bulbs used to develop S1 lines were selected for shape, colour and high number of skins. Fifty-one S1 lines and the original population were evaluated using an incomplete random block design. The original population and S1 lines were highly diverse for quantitative and qualitative traits. S1 lines were significantly different, with transgressive segregation for number and maximum leaf length, bulbing index, bulb weight, diameter, and dry matter content. Variances within S1 lines were greater than among S1 lines for all traits. Bulb colour and number of skins responded to selection. Heritabilities for dry matter and soluble solids were 52.6% and 36.1% respectively. Both traits were highly correlated. The development of S1 lines allowed the expression of genetic variation and the identification of better genotypes for agronomic traits of interest.

  18. Growth and production of onion cultivars in organic system in a nontraditional planting periodCrescimento e produção de sete cultivares de cebola em sistema orgânico em plantio fora de época

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Michelotti Bettoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the organic area of Canguiri experimental farm, in the metropolitan area of Curitiba-PR, aiming to evaluate the growth of open pollinated onion cultivars, in organic system, seeded in January – a nontraditional period. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three replications and seven cultivars: Franciscana IPA-10 (purple, Vale Ouro IPA-11 e Brisa IPA-12 (from Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária – IPA, Alfa Tropical (from Embrapa Hortaliças, Alfa São Francisco (VIII cycle e Alfa São Francisco-RT (thrips resistant – genotype under test; from Embrapa Semi-árido e BR-29 (Topseed- Agristar. Biometric linear and nonlinear evaluations and productive characteristics were undertaken. We verified that the organic production of onion established in a nontradicional period in metropolitan area of Curitiba is possible, mainly for the following cultivars of Embrapa: Alfa São Francisco, Alfa Tropical and Alfa São Francisco-RT that showed the best performance and productivity. O presente trabalho foi conduzido na área experimental de olericultura orgânica da estação do Canguiri-UFPR, região metropolitana de Curitiba, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento de cultivares de cebola de polinização aberta, em sistema orgânico, com semeadura em janeiro, fora da época tradicional. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e sete cultivares: Franciscana IPA-10 (roxa, Vale Ouro IPA-11 e Brisa IPA-12, (Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária-IPA, Alfa Tropical (Embrapa Hortaliças, Alfa São Francisco (ciclo VIII e Alfa São Francisco-RT (resistente ao tripes- genótipo em teste da Embrapa Semi-árido e BR-29 (Topseed- Agristar. Foram realizadas avaliações biométricas lineares e não lineares e características produtivas. Verificou-se que a produção orgânica de cebola estabelecida fora do período tradicional da região metropolitana

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDE TREATMENT IN ONION CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan OROIAN; Ioan OLTEAN; Viorel FLORIAN; Antonia ODAGIU; Ioan BRAŞOVEAN; Petru BURDUHOS

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was performed concerning the action of three herbicides (Pantera 40 CE, Fusilade Super and Agil 100 EC) on onion culture. The Amstrong onion hybrid was used on clay - aluviovertic chernosem, with NPK fertilization (N80P80K80) during the preparation of the germinative bed. The unfavorable climatic conditions infl uence the effi cacy of the post-emergent applied herbicides, but signifi cant differences were recorded between variants treated with different products. When Pant...

  20. Biological parameters of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman on onion cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Moraiet Maher Ahmed; Ansari Mohammad Shafiq; Basri Rabiya

    2017-01-01

    Biological parameters of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman were studied on the following onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars: Nasik Red Plus N-53, Onion Dr-301 (Krishna), Onion White, and Nasik Red, at 25±1°C and 65±5% RH. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were found in the life stages and fertility life tables on different cultivars except in the pupal stages. More information about the biological parameters of T. tabaci on onion cultivars can help in designing Integrated Pest Managemen...

  1. Groeimetingen bij de tulpebol = Growth measurements on the tulip bulb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, D.A.

    1960-01-01

    Tulips did not require a specific soil, if pH was not below 6.5 and water supply was sufficient. Influence of weather conditions was studied by comparing bulb production in different years and areas. Low temperatures after planting and during winter, a gradual increase in spring, sunshine in April

  2. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Fusarium are causal agents of onion rot in field and storage. Most prevalent are F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae and F. solani, and recently F. proliferatum, a toxigenic species. Most frequently isolated fungi in our field experiments were F. solani and F. proliferatum with different pathogenicity. Certain differences in antagonistic activity of Trichoderma asperellum on different isolates of F. proliferatum and F. solani have been found in in vitro study in dual culture, expressed as a slower inhibition of growth of the former, and faster of the latter pathogen. Antagonistic abilities of species from genus Trichoderma (T. asperellum are important, and have already been exploited in formulated biocontrol products in organic and conventional production, in order to prevent soil borne pathogens inducing fusarium wilt and rot. The importance of preventing onion infection by Fusarium spp., possible mycotoxin producers, has been underlined.

  3. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura de cebola (Allium cepa transplantada Periods of weed interference with transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de períodos de convivência (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após o transplantio de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade de quatro cultivares de cebola (Mercedes, Granex 33, Superex e Serrana, em sistema de transplantio de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em Jaboticabal-SP, de abril a outubro de 2000, utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 8. As principais populações de plantas daninhas no final dos períodos de convivência foram de Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus e Cyperus rotundus. Os cultivares Mercedes (2,90 kgm-2 e Granex 33 (2,64 kgm-2 foram os mais produtivos, independentemente da interferência das plantas daninhas. A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante os primeiros 98 dias reduziu a produtividade da cebola em 95% e o peso médio de bulbos em 91%. O período anterior à interferência (PAI foi de 42 dias, não havendo diferença entre os cultivares de cebola.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of weed coexistence periods (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting on the productivity of four onion cultivars (Mercedez, Granex 33, Superex and Serrana. The experiment was installed in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil, from April to October 2000, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, in a factorial design 4 x 8. The main weed populations at the end of the coexistence periods were Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus and Cyperus rotundus. The cultivars Mercedez (2.90 kg m-2 and Granex-33 (2.64 kg m-2 were the most productive, under the conditions of weed interference.Weed interference during the first 98 days reduced production weight around 95% and the average weight of bulbs was reduced by 91%. For all the cultivars, weed coexistence the during the first 42 days after transplanting did not reduce the total

  4. How to handle and care for bulbs in ophthalmic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many devices used in eye care rely on light bulbs or lamps for their operation. All light bulbs have a limited lifespan and when the bulb fails the device becomes unusable. Therefore, knowing how to handle, how to inspect and how to replace bulbs is important. Just as important is keeping spare bulbs to hand!

  5. Effect of harvest time on storage loss and sprouting in onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SUOJALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Storability of onion is affected by timing of harvest. However, the optimal time for maximum yield and maximum storability do not necessarily coincide. This study aimed to determine the most suitable harvest time for obtaining a high bulb yield with high quality and storability. Storage experiments were conducted on onions produced in field experiments at a research field and on farms in four years. Results indicate that harvesting could be delayed to 100% maturity, or even longer, without a marked increase in storage loss. In rainy years, late harvest is likely to impair the quality. The incidence of sprouting in shelf life tests varied considerably between years. An early harvest before 50% maturity and a delayed harvest increased the risk of sprouting. It may be concluded that the harvesting of onions for long-term storage can be timed to take place between 50% maturity and even some weeks after complete maturity without a loss in storage quality. Therefore, it is possible to combine high yield and good storage quality.

  6. Microstructure characterization of onion (A.cepa) peels and thin films for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abodunrin, T.; Boyo, A.; Usikalu, M.; Obafemi, L.; Oladapo, O.; Kotsedi, L.; Yenus, Z.; Maaza, M.

    2017-03-01

    A.cepa peels are obtained from mature onion bulbs. Because of the continuous need for energy, alternative avenues for producing energy are gaining importance. The motivation for this work is based on an urgent need to source energy from readily available waste materials like domestic onion peels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated via doctor blade method and high temperature sintering from waste (onion peels) are investigated for their ability to convert solar to electrical energy. The charge carriers were revealed under phytochemical screening. Functional groups of compounds present in A.cepa peel were analyzed with Fourier transform in infrared (FTIR). The influence of different electrolyte sensitizer is observed on the DSSCs under standard air mass conditions of 1.5 AM. The microstructure properties of these A.cepa DSSCs were explored using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), x-ray diffraction and Fluorecence spectroscopy (XRF). The interfacial boundary between A.cepa dye, TiO2 framework of TiO2 and indium doped tin oxide (ITO) reveals several prominent anatase and rutile peaks. Photoelectric results, revealed dye-sensitized solar cells with a maximum power output of 126 W and incident photon to conversion energy (IPCE) of 0.13%.This work has established that A.cepa peels can be used as a source of micro-energy generation.

  7. Weed and Onion Response to multiple Applications of Goal Tender beginning at the 1-Leaf Stage of Onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadleaf weed control in onion is difficult in part due to a lack of postemergence herbicide options at an early growth stage of onions. Onion tolerance to sequential applications of oxyfluorfen (Goal-Tender) alone and with bromoxynil (Buctril) beginning at the 1-lf stage of onions was evaluated n...

  8. Interactions involving ozone, Botrytis cinerea, and B. squamosa on onion leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rist, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Interactions involving Botrytis cinerea Pers., B. squamosa Walker, and ozone on onion (alium cepae L.) were investigated. Initially, threshold dosages of ozone required to predispose onion leaves to greater infection by B. cinerea and B. squamosa were determined under controlled conditions in an ozone-exposure chamber. Subsequent experiments supported the hypothesis that nutrients leaking out of ozone-injured cells stimulated lesion production by B. cinerea. The electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of onion plants which had been exposed to ozone were greater than the electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of other, non-exposed onion plants. When conidia of B. cinerea were suspended in dew collected from leaves of plants which had been exposed to ozone and the resulting suspension atomized onto leaves of non-exposed plants, more lesions were induced than on leaves of other non-exposed plants inoculated with conidia suspended in dew collected from plants which had not been exposed to ozone. EDU protected onion leaves from ozone-induced predisposition to these fungi under controlled conditions. Experiments designed to detect interaction between B. cinerea and B. squamosa in onion leaf blighting indicated that such interaction did not occur. Leaves were blighted rapidly when inoculated with B. squamosa whether B. cinerea was present or absent.

  9. Consequences of co-applying insecticides and fungicides for managing Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A

    2013-07-01

    Insecticides and fungicides are commonly co-applied in a tank mix to protect onions from onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and foliar pathogens. Co-applications reduce production costs, but past research shows that an insecticide's performance can be reduced when co-applied with a fungicide. An evaluation was made of the effects of co-applying spinetoram, abamectin and spirotetramat with commonly used fungicides, with and without the addition of a penetrating surfactant, on onion thrips control in onion fields. Co-applications of insecticides with chlorothalonil fungicides reduced thrips control by 25-48% compared with control levels provided by the insecticides alone in three of five trials. Inclusion of a penetrating surfactant at recommended rates with the insecticide and chlorothalonil fungicide did not consistently overcome this problem. Co-applications of insecticides with other fungicides did not interfere with thrips control. Co-applications of pesticides targeting multiple organisms should be examined closely to ensure that control of each organism is not compromised. To manage onion thrips in onion most effectively, insecticides should be applied with a penetrating surfactant, and should be applied separately from chlorothalonil fungicides. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Nitric oxide fumigation for control of bulb mites on flower bulbs and tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide fumigation was studied for efficacy to control bulb mites in the genus Rhizoglyphus and effects on germination and growth of flower bulbs and tubers. Bulb mites on infested peanuts were fumigated with nitric oxide at different concentrations under ultralow oxygen conditions in 1.9L jar...

  11. Effects of Intercropping with Potato Onion on the Growth of Tomato and Rhizosphere Alkaline Phosphatase Genes Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Fengzhi; Zhou, Xingang; Fu, Xuepeng; Tao, Yue; Xu, Weihui; Pan, Kai; Liu, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: In China, excessive fertilization has resulted in phosphorus (P) accumulation in most greenhouse soils. Intercropping can improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization in crop production. In this study, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of intercropping with potato onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum G. Don) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings growth and P uptake, the diversity of rhizosphere phosphobacteria and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes in phosphorus-rich soil. Methods: The experiment included three treatments, namely tomato monoculture (TM), potato onion monoculture (OM), and tomato/potato onion intercropping (TI-tomato intercropping and OI-potato onion intercropping). The growth and P uptake of tomato and potato onion seedlings were evaluated. The dilution plating method was used to determine the population of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (PMB). The genomic DNAs of PSB and PMB in the rhizosphere of tomato and potato onions were extracted and purified, and then, with the primer set of 338f /518r, the PCR amplification of partial bacterial 16S rDNA sequence was performed and sequenced to determine the diversities of PSB and PMB. After extracting the total genomic DNAs from the rhizosphere, the copy numbers and diversities of ALP genes were investigated using real-time PCR and PCR-DGGE, respectively. Results: Intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato seedlings, but inhibited those of potato onion. After 37 days of transplanting, compared to the rhizosphere of TM, the soil pH increased, while the electrolytic conductivity and Olsen P content decreased (p onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato in phosphorus-rich soil and affected the community structure and function of phosphobacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Intercropping with potato onion also improved soil quality by lowering levels of soil acidification and

  12. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain; plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences; variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation; onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat; Triticum aestivum; baking

  13. Onion: nature protection against physiological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is found in various regions of Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa. It is one of the classic examples of Allium species used not only for culinary preparations but also for medicinal purposes. Onion with a variety of purposes is often used as a raw material in many dishes and accepts almost all of the traditions and culture. Owing to its storage characteristics and durability of shipping, onions have been traded more widely than most vegetables. The pungent fractions of garlic are mostly sulfur-containing moieties while its two chemical groups have marked effect on human health. These are flavonoids and ALK (EN)-based cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs). Compounds in onions have been reported with a range of health benefits, including anticancer properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic activity, and antibiotic effects.

  14. Impact of agricultural practices on onion Banao system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Valdivia Pérez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present article was carried out a descriptive statistical study in which different tools like non structured interviews, revision of files and the use of the SIG are integrated. The investigation was developed in 2010 - 2011. The population of Banao showed a high sense of ownership to the area and 70% is in labour age highlighting the range of 25 - 39 years, out of them 24,1% of the producers have been devoted to the agriculture for 10 and 20 years. 45,8% presents problems with the supply source, 71,8% should drive the water to more than 200 m to water. When analyzing the degradation of the soil it is appreciated that 97% of the soil that is dedicated to the cultivation of the onion is eroded, existing areas where the cultivation should not be fomented, for the excessive exploitation of its soils. Among the interviewed producers 59.7% knows that there is degradation of the soils in its property, however 51.7% doesn't apply any alternative of protection of the soil. The current production of onion compromises the stability of the ecosystem considerably. This study constitutes an indispensable premise to advance toward a sustainable model of the local onion system.

  15. Flowering pathway is regulated by bulb size in Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazare, S; Zaccai, M

    2016-07-01

    Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily) vegetative propagation occurs through production of underground bulbs containing apical and axillary meristems. In addition, sexual reproduction is achieved by flowering of elongated shoots above the bulb. It is generally accepted that L. longiflorum has an obligatory requirement for vernalisation and that long day (LD) regime hastens flowering. However, the effect of bulb size and origin, with respect to axillary or apical meristems on flowering, as well as the interactions between these meristems are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of bulb size, vernalisation and photoperiod on L. longiflorum flowering. To this end, we applied vernalisation and photoperiod treatments to the different bulb sizes and used a system of constant ambient temperature of 25 °C, above vernalisation spectrum, to avoid cold-dependent floral induction during plant growth. Vernalisation and LD hasten flowering in all bulbs. Large, non-vernalised bulbs invariably remained at a vegetative stage. However, small non-vernalised bulbs flowered under LD conditions. These results demonstrate for the first time that cold exposure is not an obligatory prerequisite for L. longiflorum flowering, and that an alternative flowering pathway can bypass vernalisation in small bulbs. We suggest that apical dominance interactions determine the distinct flowering pathways of the apical and axillary meristems. Similar floral induction is achieved in propagated bulblets from scaling. These innovative findings in the field of geophyte floral induction represent valuable applicative knowledge for lily production. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  17. Variation for epicuticular waxes on onion foliage and impacts on numbers of onion thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists in onion for amounts of epicuticular waxes on foliage, and plants with lower amounts of these waxes suffer less damage from the insect pest Thrips tabaci (thrips). Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of epicuticular waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessi...

  18. Epicuticular waxes on onion leaves and associated resistance to onion thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on onion foliage. Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessively inherited “glossy” phenotype has significantly less wax relative to waxy types and shows resistance to o...

  19. Eficácia de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da cebola em semeadura direta Efficacy of herbicides on weed control in onion direct sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino R. Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    plantaginea, with production of bulbs similar to the weeded control.

  20. Olfactory bulb as an alternative in neurotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Романович Новиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethical and legal aspects of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue, structure of the rat olfactory bulb. It is given substantiation for its use as a possible alternative version of the embryonic neural tissue at damage in the cerebral hemispheres in the experiment.Materials and methods. Detailed description of the fault model of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain of rats, olfactory bulb biopsy procedure, cultivation of olfactory bulb suspension and fetal neural tissue, comparison of the functional aspects of transplantation of the olfactory bulb and the embryonic neural tissue.Results. The obtained data are similar to structure of olfactory bulb and fetal tissues during culturing. Recovery in the motor areas varies by the time factor and less intense in the group of the olfactory bulb and the group without tissue transplantation.Conclusions. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue and olfactory bulb in the injured brain allows us to speak about the positive results of these groups to the difference in the duration of the recovery process

  1. LEDs Illuminate Bulbs for Better Sleep, Wake Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Life on the International Space Station (ISS) wreaks havoc on an astronaut’s biological rhythms, and one way NASA mitigates the problem is through the use of LED lighting to alternately stimulate energy and focus and induce relaxation. Satellite Beach, Florida-based Lighting Science partnered with Kennedy Space Center to commercialize an LED system designed for the ISS, resulting in its DefinityDigital product line of light bulbs now used in numerous homes, hotel chains, and resorts.

  2. Impact of Pretreatment and Drying Methods on Quality Attributes of Onion Shreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on dry untreated onion shreds (2 mm thickness or treated with salt (5 % solution and potassium metabisulphite (0.5 % solution in convective drier at 50 °C ((46±4 % relative humidity (RH, 55 °C ((35±4 % RH, 60 °C ((28±4 % RH and 65 °C ((20±4 % RH, heat pump-assisted convective drier at 35 °C ((32±2 % RH, 40 °C ((26±2 % RH, 45 °C ((19±2 % RH and 50 °C ((15±2 % RH and microwave-assisted convective drier at four microwave power levels, i.e. 120, 240, 360 and 480 W. The quality parameters of the dried onion shreds, namely rehydration ratio, colour diff erence, pyruvic and ascorbic acid contents and sensory scores were evaluated. The quality of dehydrated onion shreds was observed to be comparatively better when treated in heat pump drier at 50 °C, followed by that in microwave-assisted convective drier at 240 W and 50 °C, and last in convective drier at 60 °C. The onion shreds pretreated with potassium metabisulphite retained better colour of the dried product irrespective of drying methods. Therefore, heat pump drying may be recommended as one of the best drying methods for onion shreds, because it maintains the fi nal product quality, which has practical importance for the food industry.

  3. Impact of Pretreatment and Drying Methods on Quality Attributes of Onion Shreds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Nihar R.; Pal, Uma S.; Sahoo, Dipika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Experiments were conducted on dry untreated onion shreds (2 mm thickness) or treated with salt (5% solution) and potassium metabisulphite (0.5% solution) in convective drier at 50 °C ((46±4) % relative humidity (RH)), 55 °C ((35±4) % RH), 60 °C ((28±4) % RH) and 65 °C ((20±4) % RH), heat pump-assisted convective drier at 35 °C ((32±2) % RH), 40 °C ((26±2) % RH), 45 °C ((19±2) % RH) and 50 °C ((15±2) % RH) and microwave-assisted convective drier at four microwave power levels, i.e. 120, 240, 360 and 480 W. The quality parameters of the dried onion shreds, namely rehydration ratio, colour difference, pyruvic and ascorbic acid contents and sensory scores were evaluated. The quality of dehydrated onion shreds was observed to be comparatively better when treated in heat pump drier at 50 °C, followed by that in microwave-assisted convective drier at 240 W and 50 °C, and last in convective drier at 60 °C. The onion shreds pretreated with potassium metabisulphite retained better colour of the dried product irrespective of drying methods. Therefore, heat pump drying may be recommended as one of the best drying methods for onion shreds, because it maintains the final product quality, which has practical importance for the food industry. PMID:27904332

  4. The effect of bulb planting time and type of mulch on the yield of Allium aflatunense B. Fedtsch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Laskowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of bulb planting time and the type of mulch on the morphological traits of plants and on bulb yield of Allium aflatunense B. Fedtsch. 'Purple Sensation'. Bulbs of 12 cm diameter were used as the study material. The bulbs were planted in plots on three dates: September 15th, October 1st, and October 15th. The plantation was mulched after frost with two types of mulch: composted pine bark and wheat straw. Phenological phases of the plants were observed during the growing season. At the full flowering stage, several observations and measurements were taken: length of leaves, length of inflorescence peduncle, peduncle diameter, inflorescence diameter, and number of flowers per inflorescence. After harvest, total numerical and weight yield of bulbs were evaluated as well as number and weight of the largest bulbs (21–22 cm diameter. The study showed that in order to obtain Allium aflatunense of high ornamental value, which is determined by the number of flowers per inflorescence and the inflorescence peduncle diameter, bulbs need to be planted in the middle of September. Bulb planting in October leads to production of inflorescences of greater diameter. The optimum method of Allium aflatunense cultivation which ensures production of good total yield of bulbs, expressed in its weight, is bulb planting on September 15th and soil mulching with composted pine bark or straw. Mulching a plantation of Allium aflatunense planted on September 15th with bark has a positive effect on the number and weight of bulbs of 21–22 cm diameter.

  5. Mechanical grading in PGI Tropea red onion post harvest operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bernardi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest expressed by consumers toward food products quality as well as toward their linkage to the territory, has led producers to fit to the continuous rising demand for “typical products”, and to look for new and more efficient production and marketing strategies. An emblematic case is represented by Tropea red onion that, as a typical product, plays an important role in economical and rural development of the territory to which it is linked. The organoleptic features offered by “Tropea Red Onion”, PGI certified (Calabria, have to be associated as well to the quality of services that accompanies its processing. Technology application in post-harvest operations, has certainly contributed to make faster and less tiring all processing tasks. The main problem related to the mechanization of Tropea red onion post-harvest operations lies in the removal of the various layers of the external tunic, making it impossible for optical or electronic grader to achieve this task in a satisfactory way since the sensors are not able yet to separate the “bulb” from its involucre. In this context, the current study aims to assess the productivity of three different machines used for round Tropea red onion grading, and determine their work efficiency. The carried out analysis highlighted the ability of the studied machines to ensure a high work capacity, while maintaining a high level of precision during calibration process. Such precision allows to decrease laborer employment and increase processing chain speed, rising as well the annual use of the machines, allowing consequently processing cost savings. For a more profitable employment of such graders, it is, however, necessary from one hand, to properly form the technicians responsible of processing plants management, and from the other hand, to be able to take advantage of a technical assistance network, able to serve users in a short time.

  6. Jugular bulb diverticulum combined with high jugular bulb: a case report with CT and MRA findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seog Wan

    2004-01-01

    Jugular bulb diverticulum is a rare condition that is characterized by the outpouching of the jugular bulb, and this can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. A few reports have revealed the radiologic findings about jugular bulb diverticulum, but none of them have described the MRA findings concerning this lesion. We present here the CT and MR venography findings in regards to a large high jugular blub and diverticulum we observed in a 47-year-old woman

  7. Jugular bulb diverticulum combined with high jugular bulb: a case report with CT and MRA findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seog Wan [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    Jugular bulb diverticulum is a rare condition that is characterized by the outpouching of the jugular bulb, and this can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. A few reports have revealed the radiologic findings about jugular bulb diverticulum, but none of them have described the MRA findings concerning this lesion. We present here the CT and MR venography findings in regards to a large high jugular blub and diverticulum we observed in a 47-year-old woman.

  8. Genotypic variation in sulphur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.). II: Characterisation of ATP sulphurylase activity

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Ludivine

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the regulation of sulphur (S)-assimilation in onion further at the biochemical level, the pungent cultivar W202A and the milder cultivar Texas Grano 438 PVP (TG) have been grown in S-sufficient (S +; 4 meq S -1) or S-deficient (S -; 0.1 meq S -1) growth conditions, and tissues excised at the seedling stage (pre-bulbing; ca. 10-weeks-old) and at the mature stage (bulbing; ca. 16-weeks-old). S-supply negatively influenced adenosine-5′-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase (APR) enzyme activity in both cultivars at bulbing only, and a higher abundance of APR was observed in both cultivars at bulbing in response to low S-supply. In contrast, S-supply significantly influenced ATP sulphurylase (ATPS) activity in leaf tissues of W202A only, and only at bulbing, while an increase in abundance in response to high S-supply was observed for both cultivars at bulbing. To investigate the regulation of the ATPS enzyme activity and accumulation further, activity was shown to decrease significantly in roots at bulbing in the S-deficient treatment in both cultivars, a difference that was only supported by western analyses in W202A. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AcATPS1 groups in a broad monocot clade with the closest sequences identified in Sorghum bicolour, Zea mays and Oryza sativa, but with some support for a divergence of AcATPS1. Detection of ATPS in leaf extracts after two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed that the protein may undergo post-translational modification with a differential pattern of ATPS accumulation detected in both cultivars over the developmental progression from the seedling to the bulbing stage. Treatment of leaf extracts of W202A to dephosphorylate proteins resulted in the loss of immuno-recognised ATPS spots after 2-DE separation, although enzyme activity was not influenced. These results are discussed in terms of the tiers of control that operate at the biochemical level in the reductive S-assimilation pathway in a S

  9. Produtividade de cebola influenciada pela aplicação de micronutrientes Onion yield influenced by micronutrient application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Kurtz

    2010-02-01

    ção da exigência da cultura.The excessive use of fertilizers and liming as well as monoculture is rather common in the onion-producing region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Such practices have resulted in visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency, mainly of micronutrients. This study aimed to measure the effect of B, Zn and Mn fertilizers on yield and quality of onion bulbs. Three individual trials, one for each nutrient, were carried out in the field, in Ituporanga, southern Brazil, from 2006 until 2009. In each experiment, treatments consisted of increasing rates of each micronutrient applied to the soil before planting and also of a single rate sprayed onto the leaves six times per season. Rates applied to the soil varied from 0 to 4 kg ha-1 for Zn, from 0 to 4.4 kg ha-1 for B, and from 0 to 15.6 kg ha-1 for Mn. The spray solutions contained zinc sulfate, boric acid and manganese sulfate, at concentrations of 0.5, 0.25 and 1.0 %, respectively. The application of Mn or B, regardless of the form, and Zn sprays, had no effect on onion yield in any growing season. The application of Zn to the soil increased onion yield in all three years, by 10-14.5 %. Maximum yield was obtained with Zn rates of 2.7 kg ha-1 in 2006/2007 (22.3 t ha-1, up to an estimated quantity of 4.5 kg ha-1 in 2008/2009 (35.6 t ha-1. The bulb quality was not affected by micronutrient application (Mn, B, or Zn, regardless of the form. It is therefore important to apply Zn to the soil for onion production in the State of Santa Catarina, even where Zn concentration exceeds the critical level established for the region, which is probably due to the requirement of this crop.

  10. From Batteries and Bulbs to High Tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Maurice L.; Schwartz, Ivan C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a new, high-technology approach to making bulbs light in series and parallel circuits. Contains diagrams that illustrate the circuit patterns. Provides suggestions for applying the electronic principles that were addressed in the activities. (ML)

  11. Light On the Behavior of Light Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a problem (on page 523 of "College Physics," by Sears, Zemansky, and Young, published by Addison-Wesley, 1980) concerning light bulbs and resistance. Shows why the assumption of constant resistance is unrealistic and provides guidelines for revision. (DH)

  12. How the light bulb changed history

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Diane

    2015-01-01

    How the Light Bulb Changed History examines the invention of the light bulb, how it works, and how electric light changed the way people live and work. Features include essential facts, a glossary, selected bibliography, websites, source notes, and an index, plus a timeline and maps, charts, and diagrams. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Essential Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  13. Potential of bulb-associated bacteria for biocontrol of hyacinth soft rot caused by Dickeya zeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafra, S; Przysowa, J; Gwizdek-Wiśniewska, A; van der Wolf, J M

    2009-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were selected on the basis of antibiosis against D. zeae, siderophore production, and the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)-inactivation. In in vitro assays, 35 out of 565 hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates produced antimicrobial substances against D. zeae, whereas 20 degraded AHLs, and 35 produced siderophores. Isolates of interest were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and reaction in BIOLOG tests. Twenty-six isolates that differed in characteristics were selected for pathogenicity testing on hyacinth cultivars, Pink Pearl and Carnegie. Two strains identified as Rahnella aquatilis and one as Erwinia persicinus significantly reduced tissue maceration caused by D. zeae 2019 on hyacinth bulbs, but not on leaves. Hyacinth bulbs harbour bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups that are antagonistic to D. zeae, and some can attenuate decay of bulb tissue. Selected hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates have potential for control of soft rot disease caused by D. zeae in hyacinth bulb production.

  14. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  15. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish shipping...

  16. Determination of some trace metal levels in onion leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration (mg kg-1 dry weight) of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined in onion leaves samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 16 samples each of onion leaves freshly harvested were collected from the exposed and control sites for analysis. The trace metal (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) levels in the onion ...

  17. Onion root tip cell system for biodosimetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradiz, J; Druskovic, B.; Lovka, M.; Skrk, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methodology for radiation dose assessment based on chromosomal damage to plant cells has no yet been established, although root meristems have been the pioneer cytogenetic materials and profound analyses of irradiated meristematic cells of horse bean (Viciafaba L.) had been performed. Onion (Allium cepa L.) root tips frequently used for radiation cytogenetic studies, are recently considered to be one of the most promising plant test system for the detection of genotoxic environmental pollutants. We studied the possibility of using cytogenetic analyses of irradiated onion cells to determine the effective biological dose of ionizing radiation. The dose-effect relationships for chromosomal damages to onion meristematic cells were established after plants had been irradiated and subsequently grown in both laboratory and field conditions

  18. Application of indigenously prepared graphene oxide on onion in combination with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khade, H.D.; Gadly, T.; Jain, M.P.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a commonly used vegetable, it ranks third in the global production of major vegetables. Due to its delicious taste, flavour and pungency used in many culinary preparations and it has several medicinal properties also. The preservation of onion is a major thrust area since a long ago. In this study farm fresh onions of kharif season were harvested from farms nearby town of Dist. Satara, Maharashtra and were used for study. Variety named Lonand (Agri Dark Red (ADR)) were selected for study. Graphene oxide was sprayed and dried at ambient temperature for half an hour. Suitably packed in nylon mesh bag having capacity 3 Kg. Gamma radiation dose 70 Gy were given at Food package irradiator, FIPLY (dose rate 3.5 Gy/Min) at the centre

  19. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol López de Dicastillo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate, that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials.

  20. Large-scale synthesis of onion-like carbon nanoparticles by carbonization of phenolic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Mu [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 34, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China); Song Huaihe [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 34, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China)], E-mail: songhh@mail.buct.edu.cn; Chen Xiaohong; Lian Wentao [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 34, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2007-10-15

    Onion-like carbon nanoparticles have been synthesized on a large scale by carbonization of phenolic-formaldehyde resin at 1000 {sup o}C with the aid of ferric nitrate (FN). The effects of FN loading content on the yield, morphology and structure of carbonized products were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the onion-like carbon nanoparticles, which had a narrow size distribution ranging from 30 to 50 nm, were composed mainly of quasi-spherically concentric shells of well-aligned graphene layers with interlayer spacing of 0.336 nm. Based on the results of the investigation, the formation mechanism of onion-like carbon nanoparticles was also discussed.

  1. Economic feasibility study of onion and potato irradiation in the Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; El-Den-Sharabi, N.; Midani, M.Ayman

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the economic and financial feasibility of a food irradiation project proposed by the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. The prime purpose of the project was to irradiate two important agricultural products, namely, onion and potato. The irradiation process has the effect of reducing sprouting significantly. In Syria onions are usually stored in well ventilated warehouses at ambient temperature. Our investigation showed that sprouting started after 1.5 months of storage. It is estimated that the sprouting rate reaches 100% after five months of storage. This implies a waste factor of 50%. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs

  2. In vivo Investigation of Anti-diabetic Properties of Ripe Onion Juice in Normal and Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Won; Lee, Hyung-Seok; Cha, Yong-Jun; Joo, Woo-Hong; Kang, Dae-Ook; Moon, Ja-Young

    2013-01-01

    The acute and subacute hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of drinkable ripe onion juice (Commercial product name is “Black Onion Extract”) were investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. For tests of acute and subacute hypoglycemic effects, ripe onion juice (5 and 15 mL/kg b.w.) was administered by oral gavage to normal Sprague Dawley rats and measurements of fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Tolbutamide was used as a reference drug at a single oral dose of 250 mg/kg b.w. To test anti-hyper-glycemic activity, the ripe onion juice was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral gavage at single dose of 15 mL/kg b.w. per day for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of the ripe onion juice at either dosed level of 5 or 15 mL/kg b.w. showed no remarkable acute hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. The two dosed levels caused a relatively small reduction, only 18% and 12% (5 and 15 mL/kg b.w., respectively) decrease in glucose levels at 2 h after glucose loading in normal rats. However, at 3 h after glucose loading, blood glucose levels in the ripe onion juice-dosed rats were decreased to the corresponding blood glucose level in tolbutamide-dosed rats. Although showing weak hypoglycemic potential compared to that of tolbutamide, oral administration of ripe onion juice (15 mL/kg b.w.) for a short period (8 days) resulted in a slight reduction in the blood glucose levels that had elevated in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that the commercial product “Black Onion Extract” may possess anti-hyperglycemic potential in diabetes. PMID:24471128

  3. Larger-scale irradiation and marketing studies on onions. Part of a coordinated programme on pre-commercial scale radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, B.

    1982-08-01

    Seed grown onions of ''Alsogodi'' variety were harvested manually, partially defoliated, irradiated with a dose of 50 Gy at a throughput of 6 tons per hour in a pilot-irradiator specially designed for onions, and then stored at ambient conditions of temperature and humidity, together with non-irradiated onions. Texture, density, growth of inner bud, colour, storage losses and quality were determined. Results clearly demonstrated that irradiation for sprout inhibition has a favourable effect on maintaining good texture of onions during storage. By inhibiting the sprouting, no internal discolouration of the bud occurred during storage. This is important for the quality of fresh onions as well as for that of the final dried product, processed from fresh onions after various periods of storage. Due to sub-optimal initial quality of the onions and unsatisfactory control of storage conditions, total storage losses were too high, compared to the results of previous experiments. Yet, the beneficial effect of irradiation was demonstrated at the end of the considered storage period, since 55% of the irradiated and only 10% of the non-irradiated commodities were of acceptable marketing quality. Cost calculation based on 80% utilization of the pilot irradiator used in this study resulted in a treatment cost of 0.25 forint per kg, which is approximately 8% of the average purchasing price of onions in Hungary

  4. Once an Onion, Always an Onion (Artist Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates a massive star before and after it blew up in a cataclysmic 'supernova' explosion. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that this star -- the remains of which are named Cassiopeia A -- exploded with some degree of order, preserving chunks of its onion-like layers as it blasted apart. Cassiopeia A is located 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. It was once a massive star 15 to 20 times larger than our sun. Its fiery death would have been viewable from Earth about 340 years ago. The top figure shows the star before it died, when its layers of elements were stacked neatly, with the heaviest at the core and the lightest at the top. Spitzer found evidence that these layers were preserved when the star exploded, flinging outward in all directions, but not at the same speeds. As a result, some chunks of the layered material traveled farther out than others, as illustrated in the bottom drawing. The infrared observatory was able to see the tossed-out layers, because they light up upon ramming into a 'reverse' shock wave created in the aftermath of the explosion. When a massive star explodes, it creates two types of shock waves. The forward shock wave darts out quickest, and, in the case of Cassiopeia A, is now traveling at supersonic speeds up to 7,500 kilometers per second (4,600 miles/second). The reverse shock wave is produced when the forward shock wave slams into a shell of surrounding material expelled before the star died. It tags along behind the forward shock wave at slightly slower speeds. Chunks of the star that were thrown out fastest hit the shock wave sooner and have had more time to heat up to scorching temperatures previously detected by X-ray and visible-light telescopes. Chunks of the star that lagged behind hit the shock wave later, so they are cooler and radiate infrared light that was not seen until Spitzer came along. These lagging chunks are made up of gas and dust containing neon, oxygen

  5. Nitrogen form and mycorrhizal inoculation amount and timing affect flavonol biosynthesis in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Perner, Henrike; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2018-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is known to be the most prevalent form of fungal symbiosis with plants. Although some studies focus on the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis for enhanced flavonoids in the host plants, a comprehensive understanding of the relationship still is lacking. Therefore, we studied the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation of onions (Allium cepa L.) regarding flavonol concentration and the genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis when different forms of nitrogen were supplied. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal inoculation can act as a biotic stress and might lead to an increase in flavonols and expression of related genes. The three main quercetin compounds [quercetin-3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucoside (QDG), quercetin-4'-O-β-D-glucoside (QMG), and isorhamnetin-4'-O-β-D-glucoside (IMG)] of onion bulbs were identified and analyzed after inoculating with increasing amounts of mycorrhizal inocula at two time points and supplying either predominantly NO 3 - or NH 4 + nitrogen. We also quantified plant dry mass, nutrient element uptake, chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonol synthase (FLS), and phenyl alanine lyase (PAL) gene expression as key enzymes for flavonol biosynthesis. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (highest amount) and colonization at late development stages (bulb growth) increased QDG and QMG concentrations if plants were additionally supplied with predominantly NH 4 + . No differences were observed in the IMG content. RNA accumulation of CHS, FLS, and PAL was affected by the stage of the mycorrhizal symbiosis and the nitrogen form. Accumulation of flavonols was not correlated, however, with either the percentage of myorrhization or the abundance of transcripts of flavonoid biosynthesis genes. We found that in plants at late developmental stages, RNA accumulation as a reflection of a current physiological situation does not necessarily correspond with the content of metabolites that accumulate over a long period. Our findings suggest that

  6. Neuronal organization of olfactory bulb circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin eNagayama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, neurons in the olfactory bulb have conventionally been categorized based on the layers in which their cell bodies are found; namely, juxtaglomerular cells in the glomerular layer, tufted cells in the external plexiform layer, mitral cells in the mitral cell layer, and granule cells in the granule cell layer. More recently, numerous studies have revealed the heterogeneous nature of each of these cell types, allowing them to be further divided into subclasses based on differences in morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological properties. In addition, technical developments and advances have resulted in an increasing number of studies regarding cell types other than the conventionally categorized ones described above, including short-axon cells and adult-generated interneurons. Thus, the expanding diversity of cells in the olfactory bulb is now being acknowledged. However, our current understanding of olfactory bulb neuronal circuits is mostly based on the conventional and simplest classification of cell types. Few studies have taken neuronal diversity into account for understanding the function of the neuronal circuits in this region of the brain. This oversight may contribute to the roadblocks in developing more precise and accurate models of olfactory neuronal networks. The purpose of this review is therefore to discuss the expanse of existing work on neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb up to this point, so as to provide an overall picture of the olfactory bulb circuit.

  7. Calorie Restriction Effect of Heat-Processed Onion Extract (ONI Using In Vitro and In Vivo Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ri Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is widely consumed as food or medicinal plant due to its well-defined health benefits. The antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of onion and its extracts have been reported well. However, very limited information on anti-hyperglycemic effect is available in processed onion extracts. In our previous study, we reported that Amadori rearrangement compounds (ARCs produced by heat-processing in Korean ginseng can reduce carbohydrate absorption by inhibiting intestinal carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in both in vitro and in vivo animal models. To prove the enhancement of anti-hyperglycemic effect and ARCs content by heat-processing in onion extract, a correlation between the anti-hyperglycemic activity and the total content of ARCs of heat-processed onion extract (ONI was investigated. ONI has a high content of ARCs and had high rat small intestinal sucrase inhibitory activity (0.34 ± 0.03 mg/mL, IC50 relevant for the potential management of postprandial hyperglycemia. The effect of ONI on the postprandial blood glucose increase was investigated in Sprague Dawley (SD rats fed on sucrose or starch meals. The maximum blood glucose levels (Cmax of heat-processed onion extract were significantly decreased by about 8.7% (from 188.60 ± 5.37 to 172.27 ± 3.96, p < 0.001 and 14.2% (from 204.04 ± 8.73 to 175.13 ± 14.09, p < 0.01 in sucrose and starch loading tests, respectively. These results indicate that ARCs in onion extract produced by heat-processing have anti-diabetic effect by suppressing carbohydrate absorption via inhibition of intestinal sucrase, thereby reducing the postprandial increase of blood glucose. Therefore, enhancement of ARCs in onion by heat-processing might be a good strategy for the development of the new product on the management of hyperglycemia.

  8. Epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next-generation sequencing of normalized cDNAs from two inbred lines of onion revealed over 3000 well supported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which over 800 have been mapped. This SNP-based map was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the amounts and types of epicu...

  9. Determination of maleic hydrazide residues in onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bursić Vojislava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple HPLC determination method of maleic hydrazide residues in onions was introduced. The homogenized onion samples were extracted with methanol. The crude ex- tract was purified on SPE SampliQ SCX column. The maleic hydrazide was analyzed by HPLC with UV detection of 313 nm. The HPLC separation was performed on SynChropak Q column with 0.25 M phosphate buffer as the mobile phase. The recoveries of maleic hydrazide from the spiked onions with 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 10.0 mg ml-1, ranged from 89-103%. The detection limit of maleic hydrazide was 0.4 mg ml-1, and the quantification limit was 1.25 mg ml-1. The linearity coefficient was 0.9998. Such an optimized method was applied to the determination of residue content of maleic hydrazide in onions, treated with Royal MH-30 in the amount of 8.0 and 12.0 l ha-1. The samples were analysed after 8, 16 and 25 days from the moment of spraying. The obtained values of maleic hydrazide residues were below the maximum tolerable amount in the Republic of Serbia (10 mg kg-1, as well as the amount regulated by the EU (15 mg kg-1. .

  10. Outline of sustainable energy technology for flower bulb businesses. An economic analysis of decentralized energy production options; Verkenning duurzame energietechnieken toepasbaar op bloembollenbedrijven. Een economische analyse van decentrale opwekkingsmogelijkheden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Putten, K. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    An overview is offered of the available sustainable energy sources and techniques that are available for decentralized energy generation in the flower bulb sector. By comparing the expected increase of gas and electricity prices to the expected price decrease of new, sustainable technologies, an estimate was made regarding the year in which these techniques will become financially appealing for flower bulb businesses. This comparison takes into account the various growth scenarios and the allocation of subsidies [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van beschikbare duurzame energiebronnen en technieken waarmee decentraal energie kan worden opgewekt in de bloembollensector. Door de verwachte stijging van de gas en elektriciteitsprijzen uit te zetten tegen de verwachte prijsdaling van de nieuwe, duurzame technologieen, is een schatting gemaakt van het jaar waarin deze technieken financieel aantrekkelijk worden voor bloembollenbedrijven. Hierbij is rekening gehouden met verschillende groeiscenario's en het wel of niet verkrijgen van subsidie.

  11. Sequencing and annotation of the chloroplast DNAs and identification of polymorphisms distinguishing normal male-fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kohn, Christopher; Kiełkowska, Agnieszka; Havey, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Male-sterile (S) cytoplasm of onion is an alien cytoplasm introgressed into onion in antiquity and is widely used for hybrid seed production. Owing to the biennial generation time of onion, classical crossing takes at least 4 years to classify cytoplasms as S or normal (N) male-fertile. Molecular markers in the organellar DNAs that distinguish N and S cytoplasms are useful to reduce the time required to classify onion cytoplasms. In this research, we completed next-generation sequencing of the chloroplast DNAs of N- and S-cytoplasmic onions; we assembled and annotated the genomes in addition to identifying polymorphisms that distinguish these cytoplasms. The sizes (153 538 and 153 355 base pairs) and GC contents (36.8%) were very similar for the chloroplast DNAs of N and S cytoplasms, respectively, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship. The size difference was primarily due to small indels in intergenic regions and a deletion in the accD gene of N-cytoplasmic onion. The structures of the onion chloroplast DNAs were similar to those of most land plants with large and small single copy regions separated by inverted repeats. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms, two polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites, and one indel distributed across 20 chloroplast genes in the large and small single copy regions were selected and validated using diverse onion populations previously classified as N or S cytoplasmic using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Although cytoplasmic male sterility is likely associated with the mitochondrial DNA, maternal transmission of the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs allows for polymorphisms in either genome to be useful for classifying onion cytoplasms to aid the development of hybrid onion cultivars.

  12. Wet-Bulb-Globe Temperature Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    ARL‐SR‐0317 ● MAR 2015          US Army Research Laboratory      Wet‐ Bulb –Globe Temperature Data Report    by David P Sauter...originator.         ARL‐SR‐0317 ● MAR 2015      US Army Research Laboratory      Wet‐ Bulb –Globe Temperature Data Report    by David P Sauter...March 2015 2. REPORT TYPE  Special Report 3. DATES COVERED (From ‐ To)  11 Aug 2014–23 Aug 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE  Wet- Bulb –Globe Temperature

  13. Anaerobic digestion of onion residuals using a mesophilic Anaerobic Phased Solids Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Rowena T.; Zhang, Ruihong

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of onion residual from an onion processing plant was studied under batch-fed and continuously-fed mesophilic (35 ± 2 o C) conditions in an Anaerobic Phased Solids (APS) Digester. The batch digestion tests were performed at an initial loading of 2.8 gVS L -1 and retention time of 14 days. The biogas and methane yields, and volatile solids reduction from the onion residual were determined to be 0.69 ± 0.06 L gVS -1 , 0.38 ± 0.05 L CH 4 gVS -1 , and 64 ± 17%, respectively. Continuous digestion tests were carried out at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.5-2.0 gVS L -1 d -1 . Hydrated lime (Ca(OH) 2 ) was added to the APS-Digester along with the onion residual at 16 mg Ca(OH) 2 gVS -1 to control the pH of the biogasification reactor above 7.0. At steady state the average biogas yields were 0.51, 0.56, and 0.62 L gVS -1 for the OLRs of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 gVS L -1 d -1 respectively. The methane yields at steady state were 0.29, 0.32, and 0.31 L CH 4 gVS -1 for the OLRs of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 gVS L -1 d -1 respectively. The study shows that the digestion of onion residual required proper alkalinity and pH control, which was possible through the use of caustic chemicals. However, such chemicals will begin to have an inhibitory effect on the microbial population at high loading rates, and therefore alternative operational parameters are needed. -- Highlights: → An APS-Digester was used to study biogas production from onion solid residues. → Biogas and methane yields from onion solids were determined. → Study showed substantial findings for treating onion solid residues.

  14. Roentgenologic image of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunin, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    When studying a series of aimed roentgenograms in patients with peptic ulcer a gas bubble of irregular spherical configuration or two-layer niche were determined near the bulb medial contour. Gas bubble was from 0.5-0.7 to 3.5 cm in diameter. In such cases penetrating ulcers were determined in operations. Along with other signs gas bubble symptom, sometimes two-layer signs may be used for timely and exact roentgenological diagnosis of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer in peptic ulcer disease

  15. Determination of alkaloids in onion nectar by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolina Soto, Verónica; Jofré, Viviana Patricia; Galmarini, Claudio Romulo; Silva, María Fernanda

    2016-07-01

    Nectar is the most important floral reward offered by plants to insects. Minor components such as alkaloid compounds in nectar affect bee foraging, with great influence in seed production. CE is an advantageous tool for the analysis of unexplored samples such as onion nectar due to the limited amounts of samples. Considering the importance of these compounds, a simultaneous determination of nicotine, theophylline, theobromine, caffeine, harmaline, piperine in onion nectar by MEKC-UV is herein reported. The extraction of alkaloid compounds in nectar was performed by SPE using a homemade miniaturized column (C18 ). Effects of several important factors affecting extraction efficiency as well as electrophoretic performance were investigated to acquire optimum conditions. Under the proposed conditions, the analytes can be separated within 15 min in a 50 cm effective length capillary (75 μm id) at a separation voltage of 20 kV in 20 mmol/L sodium tretraborate, 100 mmol/L SDS. The amount of sample requirement was reduced up to 2000 times, when compared to traditional methods, reaching limits of detection as low as 0.0153 ng/L. For the first time, this study demonstrates that there are marked qualitative and quantitative differences in nectar alkaloids between open pollinated and male sterile lines (MSLs) and also within MSLs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  17. Inactivation of internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in lettuce and green onion using ultraviolet C irradiation and chemical sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, C; Bohrerova, Z; Lee, J

    2013-05-01

    The internalized human pathogens in fresh produce are not effectively removed during conventional washing, and therefore, it may cause foodborne illness when the produce is consumed raw. Thus, effective nonthermal processes are needed to prevent this risk. Green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium was either sprayed on the surface of iceberg lettuce or injected into the bottom part (bulb) of green onions to induce bacterial internalization. The contaminated vegetables were collected after 2 days and subjected to surface disinfection. Different fluencies of UV-C radiation (75-900 mJ cm(-2)) and two fluencies of UV-C (450, 900 mJ cm(-2)) combined with chlorine and peracetic acid (PAA) were applied to the produce to examine the inactivation efficiency of internalized bacteria. A range of 1·96-2·52 log reduction in the internalized Salmonella was achieved when the lettuce was treated with higher UV-C fluency (150, 450, 900 mJ cm(-2)) or UV-C combined with chemical disinfectants. Significant reduction (1·00-1·49 log CFU g(-1)) in internalized Salmonella was observed in green onion treated with UV-C with the fluency of 150 or 900 mJ cm(-2) or UV-C-chlorine/PAA. No significant reduction was observed in either lettuce or green onion treatments when chlorine or PAA was used alone. The food quality measured with firmness was not changed during any treatments. However, a slight colour change was observed in lettuce only when UV-C was used at 900 mJ cm(-2). High fluency UV-C can significantly inactivate the internalized Salmonella in lettuce and green onion while maintaining the food quality. This research provides applicable research outcomes for developing nonthermal methods to inactivate internalized pathogens in fresh produce. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. MODELS OF HOURLY DRY BULB TEMPERATURE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hourly meteorological data of both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity for 18 locations in Nigeria for the period 1995 to 2009 were analysed to obtain the mean monthly average and monthly hourly average of each of the two meteorological variables for each month for each location. The difference between the ...

  19. If the Sun Were a Light Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students compare the sun's brightness with that of a light bulb of known luminosity (in watts) to determine the luminosity of the sun is presented. As an extension, the luminosity value that the student obtains for the sun can also be used to estimate the sun's surface temperature. (KR)

  20. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, H.; Oehler, G.; Schulz, A.; Rau, W.S.; Giessen Univ.; Giessen Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The radiological and clinical findings of 12 patients with ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb are presented. This is a defined disease with characteristic radiological features: multiple small nodular defects of the contrast medium of 1-3 mm diameter. Histology shows complete heterotopia. Pathogenesis and clinical significance are discussed with reference to the literature on this subject. (orig.) [de

  1. Flexible bulb large storage box hydrogen maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, V.

    1973-01-01

    The principal limitation on the accuracy of the hydrogen maser as a primary frequency standard has been the irreproducibility of the frequency shift caused by collisions of the radiating atoms with the walls of the vessel containing them. The flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser allows correction for this wall shift within a single device, sidestepping the reproducibility problem, and reducing the frequency error from the wall shift to the level imposed by the device's stability. The principles of the device are discussed including the flexible bulb technique and the complications caused by a multiple region storage bulb. The stability of the device is discussed including a comparison with an ordinary hydrogen maser. Data is presented from a working flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser demonstrating the feasibility of the device and showing some of its operating characteristics. The flexibility of the device is demonstrated by showing how the device's added degrees of freedom allow measurement of parameters unmeasurable in an ordinary hydrogen maser.

  2. Hydrogen maser - Measurement of wall shift with a flexible bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, D.

    1970-01-01

    Flexible bulb is squeezed to change mean free path of hydrogen atoms, and to change bulb's volume without changing its surface area. Volumes in the different configurations are measured to learn the change in mean free path and calculate wall shift. Various bulb coating materials are described.

  3. Organic Flower Bulbs From Holland - Outlook for the French Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Elise

    2002-01-01

    The Netherlands is a major exporter of flower bulbs in the world. France is amongst the top10 of the biggest importers of Dutch flower bulbs. However, the growing of bulbs is very damaging to the environment. With the use of 1,5 million kilograms of pesticide and 16 million kilograms of artificial

  4. Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Evaluation of Garlic Bulb ( Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum L. bulb has been shown to be nutritionally and medicinally useful. Consequently, the phytochemical constituents and ethnobotanical properties of the bulb were investigated in five localities in Nigeria where many people use the bulb for different purposes. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of ...

  5. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  6. Phytochemical screening and promiximate composition and onion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proximate analysis was also ran to determine the moisture content, ash value, protein, fats, carbohydrate and fibre value of the bulb. The results of the phytochemical screening showed that carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, acid compounds, reducing sugars and oils were present while ...

  7. Peeling the Onion: Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    March–April 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 24 Feature Peeling the Onion Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works Lt Col Alan Docauer...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Peeling the Onion : Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works 5a...Air & Space Power Journal | 25 Docauer Peeling the Onion Feature What Is Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution? Emerging in the aftermath of

  8. Effects of color temperatures (Kelvin) of LED bulbs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ocular welfare indices of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited data are available for comparing light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs that are currently available in commercial broiler production facilities. We evaluated the effects of color temperatures (Kelvin) of LED bulbs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ocular welfare indices of broil...

  9. Electronic properties of Bilayer Fullerene onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincak, R.; Shunaev, V. V.; Smotlacha, J.; Slepchenkov, M. M.; Glukhova, O. E.

    2017-10-01

    The HOMO-LUMO gaps of the bilayer fullerene onions were investigated. For this purpose, the HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated for the isolated fullerenes using the parametrization of the tight binding method with the Harrison-Goodwin modification. Next, the difference of the Fermi levels of the outer and inner shell was calculated by considering the hybridization of the orbitals on the base of the geometric parameters. The results were obtained by the combination of these calculations.

  10. Effects of fertilisation and irrigation practices on yield, maturity and storability of onions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SUOJALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to establish whether a high onion yield and good storage performance could be obtained with low fertilisation rates if irrigation was applied when necessary. Two-year experiments investigated the effects of three NPK fertiliser levels (N 50, 100, 125/150 kg/ha, with and without irrigation, on yield, advancement of maturity, storage losses and shelf life. High fertilisation advanced maturity but irrigation had no effect. High fertilisation increased yield only in 1996 (5B7%, but irrigation increased the yield noticeably: by 33.5% in 1995 and 8.5% in 1996. There was no interaction between fertilisation and irrigation. The low fertilisation optimum is attributed to the mineralisation of soil nitrogen, as the soil was rich in organic matter. At the low fertilisation level, plants took up twice as much nitrogen as present in the fertiliser, and with increased fertilisation the nitrogen uptake increased markedly. The foliage nitrogen content was low, evidently as a result of late harvesting. Treatments had only a minor effect on the storage performance and shelf life of onions. The results suggest that fertilisation rates could be reduced in onion production. Irrigation during warm and dry periods is essential to achieve the maximum yield potential and does not impair the storage quality of onions.;

  11. Impact of processing on odour-active compounds of a mixed tomato-onion puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutidou, Maria; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Acharya, Parag

    2017-08-01

    Gas chromatography-olfactometry revealed thirty-two odour-active compounds in a heat-processed tomato-onion puree, among which twenty-seven were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS). Based on the results of two olfactometric methods, i.e. detection frequency and aroma extract dilution analysis, the most potent aroma components include: dipropyl disulfide, S-propyl thioacetate, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, methional, dipropyl trisulfide, 4,5-dimethylthiazole, 2-phenylacetaldehyde and sotolone. Processing of mixed vegetable systems can add complexity in their aroma profiles due to (bio)chemical interactions between the components. Therefore, the impact of different processing steps (i.e. thermal blanching, all-in-one and split-stream processes) on the volatile profile and aroma of a mixed tomato-onion puree has been investigated using a GC-MS fingerprinting approach. Results showed the potential to control the aroma in a mixed tomato-onion system through process-induced enzymatic modulations for producing tomato-onion food products with distinct aroma characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Two Flavonol Synthases from Different-Colored Onions Provides Insight into Flavonoid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Da-Hye; Lee, Jong-Yeol; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Lim, Sun-Hyung

    2017-07-05

    We isolated cDNAs encoding flavonol synthase (FLS) from the red onion "H6" (AcFLS-H6) and the yellow onion "Hwangryongball" (AcFLS-HRB). We found three amino acid variations between the two sequences. Kinetic analysis with recombinant proteins revealed that AcFLS-HRB exhibited approximately 2-fold higher catalytic efficiencies than AcFLS-H6 for dihydroflavonol substrates and that both proteins preferred dihydroquercetin to dihydrokaempferol. The expression patterns of flavonoid biosynthesis genes corresponded to the accumulation patterns of flavonoid aglycones in both onions. Whereas the other flavonoid biosynthesis genes were weakly expressed in the HRB sheath compared to that of H6, the expression of FLS was similar in both onions. This relatively enhanced FLS expression, along with the higher activity of AcFLS-HRB, could increase the quercetin production in the HRB sheath. The quercetin content was approximately 12-fold higher than the cyanidin content in the H6 sheath, suggesting that FLS has priority in the competition between FLS and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) for their substrate dihydroquercetin.

  13. Improvement of in vitro gynogenesis induction in onion (Allium cepa L.) using polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez; Agüero; López; Galmarini

    2000-07-28

    The effects of polyamines on gynogenetic embryogenesis and regeneration of plantlets in onion were studied. Whole flowers from two onion genotypes, 'Valcatorce INTA' cultivar and 'Torrentina' population, were used as initial explants. Embryo induction was greatest with a combined treatment of 2 mM putrescine and 0.1 mM spermidine. Addition of putrescine alone, with a few exceptions, did not have any significant effect on either embryo induction or haploid plantlet production for both onion genotypes. 'Torrentina' showed a higher embryo generation capacity (9.5%) than 'Valcatorce INTA' (2.8%). Fast regeneration of embryos was achieved (from 60 to 90 days) as compared to a previously reported time of 46-152 days. The use of spermidine (0.1 mM) after 15 days of culture promoted further embryo maturation and plantlet formation. 'Torrentina' produced more haploid plants (1.90%). This is the first report of successful use of polyamines for induction of gynogenic embryos and regeneration of onion plantlets.

  14. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, I.; Silva, da F.R.; Sato, Y.; Lommen, S.T.E.

    2014-01-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in

  15. Neoseiulus Paspalivorus, a Predator from Coconut, as a Candidate for Controlling Dry Bulb Mites Infesting Stored Tulip Bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, I.; da Silva, F.R.; Sato, Y.; Sabelis, M.W.; Lommen, S.T.E.

    2014-01-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in

  16. Pilot-scale studies on the irradiation of Bangladesh onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two major varieties of onions were irradiated (50-80 Gy) and stored either at ambient temperature (20-37 deg. C) and humidity (70-90% RH) and/or under refrigeration (13-15 deg. C) for nine months. Raw and cooked irradiated onions had higher organoleptic ratings. Consumers found irradiated onions were of superior quality. There were no adverse comments on the sale and quality of irradiated onions purchased at competitive market prices. There were no adverse consumer comments nor negative reaction to purchase at competitive market prices

  17. Assessment of red onion on antioxidant activity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Jung, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative stress related to the aging process can increase the risk of degenerative disease. Red onions contain antioxidative compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary red onion peel and/or flesh on antioxidative activity in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (18 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Each group was raised for 4 weeks on a red onion free control diet (ND), red onion diet containing 5% red onion peel (RP), 5% red onion flesh (RF), or 5% red onion peel+flesh (RPF). The results demonstrated that serum SOD activity was significantly increased in the RP and RPF groups, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly higher in the RF group than in the ND group. Catalase activity and ORAC activity in liver showed upward tendency in the RP, RF, and RPF groups although the differences were not statistically significant. Liver malondialdehyde levels in the RPF group were significantly lower than those in the ND group were. In conclusion, red onion may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of plasma SOD and GPx activities and inhibited liver lipid peroxidation. Therefore, red onion may exert important protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth limit of carbon onions – A continuum mechanical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todt, Melanie; Bitsche, Robert; Hartmann, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of carbon onions is simulated using continuum mechanical shell models. With this models it is shown that, if a carbon onion has grown to a critical size, the formation of an additional layer leads to the occurrence of a structural instability. This instability inhibits further growth o...... model gives insight into mechanisms which are assumed to limit the size of carbon onions and can serve as basis for further investigations, e.g., of the formation of nanodiamonds in the center of carbon onions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Potential environmental impacts from the metals in incandescent, compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-01-15

    Artificial lighting systems are transitioning from incandescent to compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs in response to the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act and the EU Ecodesign Directive, which leads to energy savings and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Although CFLs and LEDs are more energy-efficient than incandescent bulbs, they require more metal-containing components. There is uncertainty about the potential environmental impacts of these components and whether special provisions must be made for their disposal at the end of useful life. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the resource depletion and toxicity potentials from the metals in incandescent, CFL, and LED bulbs to complement the development of sustainable energy policy. We assessed the potentials by examining whether the lighting products are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing U.S. federal and California state regulations and by applying life cycle impact-based and hazard-based assessment methods (note that "life cycle impact-based method" does not mean a general life cycle assessment (LCA) but rather the elements in LCA used to quantify toxicity potentials). We discovered that both CFL and LED bulbs are categorized as hazardous, due to excessive levels of lead (Pb) leachability (132 and 44 mg/L, respectively; regulatory limit: 5) and the high contents of copper (111,000 and 31,600 mg/kg, respectively; limit: 2500), lead (3860 mg/kg for the CFL bulb; limit: 1000), and zinc (34,500 mg/kg for the CFL bulb; limit: 5000), while the incandescent bulb is not hazardous (note that the results for CFL bulbs excluded mercury vapor not captured during sample preparation). The CFLs and LEDs have higher resource depletion and toxicity potentials than the incandescent bulb due primarily to their high aluminum, copper, gold, lead, silver, and zinc. Comparing the bulbs on an equivalent quantity basis with respect to the expected lifetimes of

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Affects Progenitor Cell Numbers in Olfactory Bulbs and Dentate Gyrus of Vervet Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Burke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE alters hippocampal cell numbers in rodents and primates, and this may be due, in part, to a reduction in the number or migration of neuronal progenitor cells. The olfactory bulb exhibits substantial postnatal cellular proliferation and a rapid turnover of newly formed cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus to (1 investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2 determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years. Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group. These data are unique with respect to fetal ethanol effects on progenitor proliferation in the primate brain and suggest that the olfactory bulb may be a useful structure for studies of cellular proliferation.

  1. Spectroscopic Analysis of Today's Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhar, Edward

    2012-03-01

    In today's consumer market, there are many different light bulbs that claim to produce `natural' light. In my research, I both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed this claim. First, utilizing a spectroscope, I compared the spectra emitted by different brands and types of compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs to the spectra emitted by the Sun. Once the bulbs were quantitatively analyzed, I proceeded to qualitatively analyze them by exposing subjects to the different bulbs. The subjects were asked to rate the quality of color in different pictures illuminated by each type of CFL. From these tests, I was able to determine the ``best'' CFL bulbs, and conclude whether the health risks associated with CFL bulbs outweigh the cost savings, longevity of the bulbs, and/or quality of light benefits.

  2. Genetic and Pathogenic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Isolated from Onion and Welsh Onion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakahara, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae causes Fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and Fusarium wilt in Welsh onion. Although these diseases have been detected in various areas in Japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is very limited. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was isolated from onion and Welsh onion grown in 12 locations in Japan, and a total of 55 F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates (27 from onion and 28 from Welsh onion) were characterized based on their rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) nucleotide sequences, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), and the presence of the SIX (secreted in xylem) homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of IGS sequences showed that these isolates were grouped into eight clades (A to H), and 20 onion isolates belonging to clade H were monophyletic and assigned to the same VCG. All the IGS-clade H isolates possessed homologs of SIX3, SIX5, and SIX7. The SIX3 homolog was located on a 4 Mb-sized chromosome in the IGS-clade H isolates. Pathogenicity tests using onion seedlings showed that all the isolates with high virulence were in the IGS-clade H. These results suggest that F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates belonging to the IGS-clade H are genetically and pathogenically different from those belonging to the other IGS clades.

  3. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects progenitor cell numbers in olfactory bulbs and dentate gyrus of vervet monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Inyatkin, Alexey; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts...... vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) to (1) investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2) determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years......). Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group...

  4. Mites as vector of Tulip Virus X in stored tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, S.T.E.; Conijn, C.G.M.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Pham, K.T.K.; Kock, de M.J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Tulip virus X (TVX) is a Potexvirus causing economic losses in tulip. Potexviruses are generally transmitted by mechanical contact and, indeed, several mechanical transmission pathways for TVX have been identified during tulip bulb production. However, TVX transmission does also seem to occur during

  5. Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

    2013-11-15

    This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  7. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alister U.; Sanchez-Andrade, Gabriela; Collado, Paloma; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odors and whether they can be investigated under anesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odor smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odor under anesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes) electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odor was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odor during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odor. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50%) of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odors prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odor many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odors as well as in evoked glutamate and GABA

  8. Unions of Onions: Preprocessing Imprecise Points for Fast Onion Layer Decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löffler, Maarten; Mulzer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Let D be a set of n pairwise disjoint unit disks in the plane. We describe how to build a data structure for D so that for any point set P containing exactly one point from each disk, we can quickly nd the onion decomposition (convex layers) of P. Our data structure can be built in O(n log n) time

  9. Onion: Anti Cancer Sulfur Compounds with High Cancer Chemo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onions are chock full of anti cancer sulfur compounds which are highly beneficial for cancer chemoprevention. Advanced studies have shown that onion may be inhibit liver, colon, prostate, lung cancer etc. with high antioxidant properties which also reduce not only oxidative stress, free radicals but also xenobiotics.

  10. Yield Performance of Four Onion ( Allium Cepa L.) Varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted from April to September, 2005 and 2006 planting seasons at the Vegetable Evaluation and Research Station Farm located at Anse Boileau, Seychelles to evaluate the yield performance of four onion varieties, 'Onion Orient\\', 'Lucy 15205\\', 'CAL 606\\', and 'Red Creole-2\\' against the ...

  11. Relationship between sensory and chemical attributes of Vidalia onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavor in fresh onions is dominated by sulfur containing volatiles that are released once tissues are disrupted and the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSOs) are hydrolyzed by the enzyme alliinase. Four intensities of flavor levels of Vidalia onions were induced by cultivating sweet (Num 1006) an...

  12. Garlic and onion sensitization among Saudi patients screened for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Detection of specific IgE antibodies against food materials indicates allergic sensitization. Some very widely consumed foods materials such as garlic and onion have rarely been investigated for their allergenic potential. Objectives: To assess the presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in patients ...

  13. Almacenamiento en frío de los bulbos y uso de paclobutrazol para producir tulipán en macetas Bulb cold storage and use of paclobutrazol for pot tulip production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Francescangeli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon los efectos del paclobutrazol (PBZ y del tiempo de almacenamiento en frío de los bulbos (TA sobre características comerciales de tulipán Tulipa gesneriana L. (Leen van der Mark en maceta. Se evaluaron las concentraciones de PBZ: 0 y 5 ppm aplicadas por inmersión de bulbos durante 24 horas, previo al transplante, y los TA a 5 °C: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 y 12 semanas. La temperatura promedio del aire de los ocho ciclos fue: 15 a 15,7 °C. El PBZ no afectó la longitud del ciclo, y los TA explicaron el 83% de la variabilidad en la duración del período transplante- momento de la venta, con una relación inversa. El PBZ no afectó el tamaño de la flor. La altura en el momento de la venta y a fin de floración mostró interacción de los tratamientos: a mayor TA aumentó la altura en todos los casos, pero este incremento fue menor en las plantas tratadas con PBZ. Sin utilizar PBZ y con bulbos de 5 a 8 semanas de almacenamiento fue posible producir plantas comerciales de altura equivalente o menor a las obtenidas con bulbos de 12 semanas de almacenamiento tratados con PBZ a 5 ppm por inmersión durante 24 horas.The effect of bulb cold storage time (ST and paclobutrazol (PBZ on commercial characteristics of pot tulips Tulipa gesneriana L. (Leen van der Mark was tested. PBZ concentrations (0 and 5 ppm applied by dipping bulbs for 24 hours before transplanting and 5 °C ST (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 weeks were evaluated. Mean air temperature throughout the experiment remained between 15 and 15.7 °C. PBZ did not affect the duration of the cycle. ST explained 83% of the variation in the duration of the period transplant-sale time, and the relationship was inverse. PBZ did not affect flower size. There was a significant interaction between treatments for plant height at sale time and at the end of flowering: plant height increased with ST in all cases, but the increase was lower in the PBZ treated plants. Without PBZ and with bulbs

  14. Valorisation of typical products through characterising and promoting actions: morpho-biometric traits, sensory analysis and flavonol content in Cipolla di Giarratana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Riggi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The performances of 9 accessions of Cipolla di Giarratana landrace were evaluated at 5 different sites located 2 in the area where this landrace is traditionally grown (South-Eastern Sicily, 550 m asl, 2 in the neighbor areas with similar average altitude, and one on the South East coast of Sicily (sea level. Biometric and morphological traits, flavonol content and sensory profile were all considered in the valorisation of a typical product of a marginal area of Sicily. Data on the actual yield and crop management at farm scale were also obtained involving more than half of the growers actually cultivating Cipolla di Giarratana, and measuring yield, plant density, and bulb weight directly on the farms. The Cipolla di Giarratana landrace is characterised by a large and heavy bulb (535 g, strongly flattened at the poles, with the maximum diameter at the central section, and white in colour. Significant differences in bulb weight and diameter were found among accessions and locations, but there were no interactions between them and one accession reported the highest bulb weight value in all of the locations studied. With regards to bulb weight, farm scale data confirm the results we obtained at the experimental locations. Fifty percent of registered yield at farm scale ranged between 86 and 152 t ha–1 with a median of 119 t ha–1, and measured plant density revealed that 50% of the farmers planted 20-27 plants per square meter. Analysis of the UV-vis and mass spectra showed the presence of 10 different flavonols with Quercetin as the most represented flavonol. The sensory profile of Cipolla di Giarratana onion showed that this landrace is characterised by a high intensity of sweet, typical fresh flavour and texture perception.

  15. Aktivitas Penyembuhan Luka Sediaan Topikal Ekstrak Bawang Merah (Allium cepa terhadap Luka Sayat Kulit Mencit (Mus Musculus (THE ACTIVITY OF TOPICAL EXTRACT OF ONIONS (ALLIUM CEPA ON WOUND HEALING PROCESS IN MICE (MUS MUSCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visa Yunanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a physiological response of the body to restore continuity, structure and function ofthe injured tissue. Onion is one of the plants that are empirically used by the community to heal wounds.The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of topical extract of onions (Allium cepa on woundhealing process in mice (Mus musculus strain BalbC. This study used the posttest-only control groupdesign with completely randomized design (CRD. The samples were 12 male mice with weight ranged of22-32 g divided into four treatments; i.e.: Vaseline, topical extract of onion 5%, topical extract of onion30% and topical extract of onion 55% with 3 replications. Wound healing evaluated macroscopically toobserve hyperemia, wound contraction, granulation, crusting and pus production; and microscopically bycounting the number of fibroblasts on day 10. Hyperemia, granulation, crusting and pus production wereanalyzed descriptively. Wound contraction and the number of fibroblasts were analyzed using ANOVA(p<0.05 and followed with Duncan’s test (p<0,05. Descriptive observations obtained hyperemia lasteduntil day 3, granulation in wounds used topical extract of onion 30% and 55% were faster than the other,crusting lasted until day 6 and the production of pus was not found in any treatment. Statistical testresults showed that topical extract of onion 55% significantly affected wound contraction and topicalextract of onion 30% and 55% significantly affected maturation, which characterized by the decreasednumber of fibroblasts. The results of this study showed that topical extract of onion had significant effect(p<0.05 on wound healing and the effect was in line with the increased concentration of the onion extract.

  16. Storage tests with irradiated and non-irradiated onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, T.; Rumpf, G.; Troemel, I.; Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe

    1978-07-01

    The results of several test series on the storage of irradiated and non-irradiated German grown onion are reported. Investigated was the influence of the irradiation conditions such as time and dose and of the storage conditions on sprouting, spoilage, browning of the vegetation centres, composition of the onions, strength and sensorial properties of seven different onion varieties. If the onions were irradiated during the dormancy period following harvest, a dose of 50 Gy (krad) was sufficient to prevent sprouting. Regarding the irradiated onions, it was not possible by variation of the storage conditions within the limits set by practical requirements to extend the dormancy period or to prevent browning of the vegetation centres, however. (orig.) 891 MG 892 RSW [de

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on the viable cell count and some other quality characteristics of dried onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; El-Nawawy, A.S.

    1973-01-01

    The results of experiments carried out with onion powder and flakes of Egyptian origin show a radiation treatment of 0.1-0.2 Mrad sufficient to reduce the microbial contamination of dried onions by one order of magnitude. To achieve a 99% reduction, satisfactory from the practical point of view, treatment with 0.5-0.6 Mrad seems necessary. With increasing radiation doses the characteristic smell of dried onions diminished and a caramel-like off-odour appeared and the colour of the dried products darkened. These changes become significant only above treatment with 0.8 Mrad. The differences between radiation treated and untreated samples both packed in Cellothene pouches were either eliminated (odour) or diminished (colour) during 6 weeks storage following irradiation. The results obtained by the chemical oxygen demand method (COD) based on bichromate oxidation of water soluble volatile reducing substances, were not in accord with the organoleptically observable changes of odour. (F.J.)

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDE TREATMENT IN ONION CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan OROIAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was performed concerning the action of three herbicides (Pantera 40 CE, Fusilade Super and Agil 100 EC on onion culture. The Amstrong onion hybrid was used on clay - aluviovertic chernosem, with NPK fertilization (N80P80K80 during the preparation of the germinative bed. The unfavorable climatic conditions infl uence the effi cacy of the post-emergent applied herbicides, but signifi cant differences were recorded between variants treated with different products. When Pantera 40 CE was used, phytotoxicity phenomena materialized by temporary discoloration of the plants were not recorded, compared to the results obtained when the other herbicides were used. The use of Pantera 40 CE led to the most important production gain, with 9.8% compared to Fusilade super and 4.8% with Agil 100 EC.

  19. Which bulb is brighter? It depends on connection! Strategies for illuminating electrical concepts using light bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Darren; Lee, Paul; Foong, S. K.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we examined teachers’ understanding of electrical concepts such as power, current and potential difference based on how these concepts were applied to understand the relative brightness seen in bulbs of different wattage under different connections—series or parallel. From the responses of teachers to a concept question, we identified common lines of reasoning and the associated conceptual difficulties. To support the explanation of the concept question, we set up relevant circuits and made measurements of the circuits. We discuss the temperature dependence of the resistance of the light bulb which although critical for in depth understanding of the relative brightness, was often omitted in the teacher responses. Lastly, we share insights and strategies to elicit and confront students' thinking and to help them resolve, extend and apply their thinking with regard to the related electrical concepts using various light bulb activities.

  20. Irradiation processing of potatoes, onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Starr, A.; Wahid, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, studies have been conducted on irradiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic involving different varieties, harvesting season and storage life. As a result of these investigations, optimum conditions were established for each crop. The effect of irradiation and storage on sprouting, rottage and weight loss of potatoes is presented. The sprouting initiated in the unirradiated samples after 2 months reaching 51, 80 and 100% on 4, 5 and 6 months storage respectively. Weight losses were observed in the irradiated and unirradiated samples. (A.B.)

  1. Dumbbells and onions in ternary nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellas, Ricky B; Chen, Bin; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2007-06-14

    Molecular simulations for a ternary nucleation system (water/n-nonane/1-butanol) demonstrate a more complex nucleation mechanism than previously thought, where critical nuclei with different compositions are present even for a given vapour-phase composition; the spatial distribution in these critical nuclei is heterogeneous and dumbbell and onion motifs are found; in the former, water and nonane nano-droplets are connected through a butanol handle, while in the latter a water core is surrounded by a nonane corona with an interfacial butanol shell.

  2. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak; Harlene Hatterman-Valenti

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND), USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa) to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage) as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA...

  3. Enhancing shelf life of minimally processed multiplier onion using silicone membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ravindra; Ambrose, Dawn C P; Raghavan, G S Vijaya; Annamalai, S J K

    2014-12-01

    The aim of storage of minimal processed product is to increase the shelf life and thereby extend the period of availability of minimally processed produce. The silicone membrane makes use of the ability of polymer to permit selective passage of gases at different rates according to their physical and chemical properties. Here, the product stored maintains its own atmosphere by the combined effects of respiration process of the commodity and the diffusion rate through the membrane. A study was undertaken to enhance the shelf life of minimally processed multiplier onion with silicone membrane. The respiration activity was recorded at a temperature of 30 ± 2 °C (RH = 60 %) and 5 ± 1 °C (RH = 90 %). The respiration was found to be 23.4, 15.6, 10 mg CO2kg(-1)h(-1) at 5 ± 1 °C and 140, 110, 60 mg CO2kg(-1) h(-1) at 30 ± 2° for the peeled, sliced and diced multiplier onion, respectively. The respiration rate for the fresh multiplier onion was recorded to be 5, 10 mg CO2kg(-1) h(-1) at 5 ± 1 °C and 30 ± 1 ° C, respectively. Based on the shelf life studies and on the sensory evaluation, it was found that only the peeled multiplier onion could be stored. The sliced and diced multiplier onion did not have the required shelf life. The shelf life of the multiplier onion in the peel form could be increased from 4-5 days to 14 days by using the combined effect of silicone membrane (6 cm(2)/kg) and low temperature (5 ± 1 °C).

  4. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently

  5. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key words:

    organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain;

    plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences;

    variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation;

    onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat;

  6. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  7. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of pink-red pigments in onion (Allium cepa L.) juice and separation by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-10-01

    The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration.

  8. Which Bulb Is Brighter? It Depends on Connection! Strategies for Illuminating Electrical Concepts Using Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Darren; Lee, Paul; Foong, See Kit

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examined teachers' understanding of electrical concepts such as power, current and potential difference based on how these concepts were applied to understand the relative brightness seen in bulbs of different wattage under different connections--series or parallel. From the responses of teachers to a concept question, we…

  9. Identification of imidacloprid metabolites in onion (Allium cepa L.) using high-resolution mass spectrometry and accurate mass tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Zavitsanos, Paul; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A

    2013-09-15

    Imidacloprid is a potent and widely used insecticide on vegetable crops, such as onion (Allium cepa L.). Because of possible toxicity to beneficial insects, imidacloprid and several metabolites have raised safety concerns for pollenating insects, such as honey bees. Thus, imidacloprid metabolites continue to be an important subject for new methods that better understand its dissipation and fate in plants, such as onions. One month after a single addition of imidacloprid to soil containing onion plants, imidacloprid and its metabolites were extracted from pulverized onion with a methanol/water-buffer mixture and analyzed by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOF-MS) using a labeled imidacloprid internal standard and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis. Accurate mass tools were developed and applied to detect seven new metabolites of imidacloprid with the goal to better understand its fate in onion. The accurate mass tools include: database searching, diagnostic ions, chlorine mass filters, Mass Profiler software, and manual use of metabolic analogy. The new metabolites discovered included an amine reduction product (m/z 226.0854), and its methylated analogue (m/z 240.1010), and five other metabolites, all of unknown toxicity to insects. The accurate mass tools were combined with LC/QTOF-MS and were able to detect both known and new metabolites of imidacloprid using fragmentation studies of both parent and labeled standards. New metabolites and their structures were inferred from these MS/MS studies with accurate mass, which makes it possible to better understand imidacloprid metabolism in onion as well as new metabolite targets for toxicity studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. 75 FR 44946 - Spirotetramat; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Dry Bulb Onions in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... accordance with procedures set forth in 40 CFR part 2. 2. Tips for preparing your comments. When submitting.../or data that you used. v. If you estimate potential costs or burdens, explain how you arrived at your... crop and also vector the plant disease Iris Yellow Spot Virus. The use of spirotetramat is necessary to...

  11. The combined effect of gamma radiation and heat on some biological aspects of onion bulb fly Eumerus amoenus Loew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Orabi, M.N.; Gharieb, O.H.; Hamza, A.F.H.; El-Saeadi, A.A.; Hussain, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of sub-sterilizing doses of gamma radiation, in combination with three degrees of temperature (20, 25 and 30 degree C). on some biological parameters of Eumerus Amoenus Loew were studied. The combined effect of radiation and heat were carried out on developmental stages namely; larval, pupal stages. Larval duration decreased significantly by increasing rearing temperature and increased by raising heat regardless larval instar. The same trend was observed in percent pupation, percent emergence. Irradiation of larvae decreases the adult emergence percentage under all temperatures. The results indicate that no adult male emergence when irradiated 4-d-old larvae at all doses when kept at 20 and 25 degree C. life-span of adults emerged from pupae irradiated as 5 and 7 day-old with sterilizing and sub-sterilizing doses was affected depending upon the dose level, temperatures and age of pupae at the time of irradiation. Fecundity of a female decreased by decreasing temperature degree or increasing radiation dose. Also, fertility of males decreased by radiation dose and by mating to irradiated females, this decrease was increased by increasing age of male and by decreasing temperature

  12. How the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Affects Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inefficient light bulbs are being phased out under the New Light Bulb Law. It does not sweepingly ban incandescent bulbs, just those not energy efficient (with some exemptions). It also includes many provisions not pertaining to lighting.

  13. Peeling the onion: understanding others' lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Maureen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Society and some healthcare professionals often marginalise pregnant women who take illicit substances. Midwives who care for these women are often viewed as working on the edge of society. This research aimed to examine the lived experiences of midwives who care for pregnant women who take illicit drugs. A phenomenological study informed by Heidegger, Gadamer and Merleau-Ponty was chosen to frame these lived experiences. Using face-to-face interviews, data were collected from 12 midwives making a difference, establishing partnerships and letting go and refining practice. Lived experiences are unique and can be difficult, intangible and couched in metaphor and difficult to grasp. This paper aims to discuss lived experience and suggests that like an onion, several layers have to be peeled away before meaning can be exposed; each cover reveals another layer beneath that is different from before and different from the next. The study provides exemplars that explain lived experiences.

  14. Onion-peeling inversion of stellarator images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K. C.; Diaz-Pacheco, R. R.; Kornbluth, Y.; Volpe, F. A.; Wei, Y.

    2016-11-01

    An onion-peeling technique is developed for inferring the emissivity profile of a stellarator plasma from a two-dimensional image acquired through a CCD or CMOS camera. Each pixel in the image is treated as an integral of emission along a particular line-of-sight. Additionally, the flux surfaces in the plasma are partitioned into discrete layers, each of which is assumed to have uniform emissivity. If the topology of the flux surfaces is known, this construction permits the development of a system of linear equations that can be solved for the emissivity of each layer. We present initial results of this method applied to wide-angle visible images of the Columbia Neutral Torus (CNT) stellarator plasma.

  15. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol

    2006-01-01

    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  16. Phytochemical analysis of Cyrtanthus obliquus bulbs from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    dihydroxy-lanosta-8-ene was also isolated from the bulbs. The ... Fresh bulbs from C. obliquus were purchased at the Berea market in Durban and identified by a curator from the School of Biological and. Conservation Sciences, UKZN, Westville ...

  17. Defining sale ethylene for long term storage of tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de H.P.J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; Dijkstra, M.H.G.E.; Gude, H.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum ethylene level that can be permitted in storage rooms, without causing damage to tulip bulbs, is not exactly known. Therefore, a zero-tolerance for the presence of ethylene during storage of tulip bulbs is common practice. This results in excessive ventilation and coherent large energy

  18. Conservation of garlic bulbs (allium sativum L.) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting. (author)

  19. The influence of irradiation and packaging on the keeping quality of prepacked cut endive, chicory and onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerak, D.Is.

    1975-01-01

    The experiments with endive and chicory showed that by washing immediatedly after cutting, pink-discolouration decreased. During storage, however, this discolouration increased again. Discolouration was partially prevented by packaging in nonperforated polythene foil of 0.02 mm thereby decreasing the O 2 and increasing the CO 2 content in the bags. A difficulty in using non-perforated bags was that in non-irradiated products, fermentation took place caused by a high microbial count /10 8 g -1 /. In irradiated samples no fermentation occurred probably due to the decreased microbial count. Cut onions had to be packed in perforated polythene bags because strong gas /CO 2 / development took place in non-perforated bags at temperatures above 10 0 C. The initial total viable count of endive, chicory and onions varied from 10 3 to 10 7 g -1 . Irradiation with doses above 50 krad gave a reduction of this count of 3-6 log cycles through which the keeping time was lengthened by about 100% at 10-20 0 C. The Enterobacteriaceae were mainly eliminated by irradiation doses higher than 100 krad. The optimal dose for chicory, onions and endive was found to be 50, 75, and 100 krad, respectively. Higher doses intensified discolouration and influenced unfavourably the flavour. Cooking experiments with cut onions packed in perforated bags showed that the non-irradiated product discoloured quickly into brown after cooking. By irradiation with 75-100 krad this discolouration was prevented. (F.J.)

  20. Silencing Onion Lachrymatory Factor Synthase Causes a Significant Change in the Sulfur Secondary Metabolite Profile1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eady, Colin C.; Kamoi, Takahiro; Kato, Masahiro; Porter, Noel G.; Davis, Sheree; Shaw, Martin; Kamoi, Akiko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Through a single genetic transformation in onion (Allium cepa), a crop recalcitrant to genetic transformation, we suppressed the lachrymatory factor synthase gene using RNA interference silencing in six plants. This reduced lachrymatory synthase activity by up to 1,544-fold, so that when wounded the onions produced significantly reduced levels of tear-inducing lachrymatory factor. We then confirmed, through a novel colorimetric assay, that this silencing had shifted the trans-S-1-propenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide breakdown pathway so that more 1-propenyl sulfenic acid was converted into di-1-propenyl thiosulfinate. A consequence of this raised thiosulfinate level was a marked increase in the downstream production of a nonenzymatically produced zwiebelane isomer and other volatile sulfur compounds, di-1-propenyl disulfide and 2-mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene, which had previously been reported in trace amounts or had not been detected in onion. The consequences of this dramatic simultaneous down- and up-regulation of secondary sulfur products on the health and flavor attributes of the onion are discussed. PMID:18583530

  1. Commercial trials on irradiation preservation of onions under tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Sattar, M.; Wahid, M.; Ahmad, A.; Jan, M.

    1988-01-01

    The present studies for preservation and storage of life of onion on commercial scale using gamma irradiation are being carried out. According to the survey the price of onion varies during the year. The results of the previous two years studies revealed that irradiation with 0.1 KGy and subsequent storage at ambient conditions under the shade enhanced the marketable life of bulks upto about 6 months as compare to 2 months at low temperature storage. It was observed that sprouting was relatively faster and higher in the red variety than other variety. Irradiation treatment significantly decreased weight losses in both the varieties. The higher weight loss in un-irradiated onion was primarily the result of greater rate of evaporation in the sprouted bulks as compared to unsprouted (irradiate) onions. (orig./A.B.)

  2. Dynamic susceptibility of onion in ferromagnetic elliptical nanoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Congpu; Song, Jiefang; Xu, Jianghong; Wen, Fusheng

    2016-06-01

    Micromagnetic simulation was performed to investigate the equilibrium state and dynamic susceptibility spectra of magnetic elliptical nanoring. There are two equilibrium states (onion and vortex) obtained in elliptical nanoring. The onion state can be used to record information in MRAM. And it is important to investigate the dynamic susceptibility spectra of onion state, which is closely related to writing and reading speed of magnetic memory devices. Those results show that two or three resonance peaks are found under different thickness of elliptical nanoring with onion state, respectively. The low resonance frequency of two resonance peaks is increasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring, but is decreasing with the thickness. However, the high frequency of two resonance peaks is decreasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring.

  3. Dynamic susceptibility of onion in ferromagnetic elliptical nanoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congpu Mu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Micromagnetic simulation was performed to investigate the equilibrium state and dynamic susceptibility spectra of magnetic elliptical nanoring. There are two equilibrium states (onion and vortex obtained in elliptical nanoring. The onion state can be used to record information in MRAM. And it is important to investigate the dynamic susceptibility spectra of onion state, which is closely related to writing and reading speed of magnetic memory devices. Those results show that two or three resonance peaks are found under different thickness of elliptical nanoring with onion state, respectively. The low resonance frequency of two resonance peaks is increasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring, but is decreasing with the thickness. However, the high frequency of two resonance peaks is decreasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring.

  4. The Origin of the Name "Onion's Fusible Alloy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In response to a reader query, this article traces the history of fusible alloys, including Newton's metal, D'Arcet's metal, Rose's metal, Onion's fusible alloy, and Wood's metal. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  5. Modeling the wet bulb globe temperature using standard meteorological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljegren, James C; Carhart, Richard A; Lawday, Philip; Tschopp, Stephen; Sharp, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Army has a need for continuous, accurate estimates of the wet bulb globe temperature to protect soldiers and civilian workers from heat-related injuries, including those involved in the storage and destruction of aging chemical munitions at depots across the United States. At these depots, workers must don protective clothing that increases their risk of heat-related injury. Because of the difficulty in making continuous, accurate measurements of wet bulb globe temperature outdoors, the authors have developed a model of the wet bulb globe temperature that relies only on standard meteorological data available at each storage depot for input. The model is composed of separate submodels of the natural wet bulb and globe temperatures that are based on fundamental principles of heat and mass transfer, has no site-dependent parameters, and achieves an accuracy of better than 1 degree C based on comparisons with wet bulb globe temperature measurements at all depots.

  6. Tribological Behavior of Nano-Onions in Krytox 143AB Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Kenneth W.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Marchetti, Mario; Tomasek, Aaron J.

    2005-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been developed over the past 10 years and have found several applications. This work presents the use of carbon nano-onions as a potential oil additive for aerospace applications. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center tested lubricant lifetimes in ambient air and ultrahigh vacuum and characterized the breakdown products of the friction and wear. These carbon nanoparticles can provide adequate lubrication very similar to that of graphitic material when run in air. Soot represents one of the very first nanostructured materials, although it has rarely been considered as such. Changes in the carbon nanostructure, resulting in increased graphitic layer plane length, correlate with reactivity loss. Upon heating spherically shaped nanometer-sized carbon black in the absence of oxidant, graphene sheets form, and the initial soot particle templates the growth of a graphitic particle into what is best described as a sphere with many flat sides having a hollow interior. Because there are no edge sites, these polygonal graphitic particles, or nano-onions, are relatively resistant to oxidation. Graphite is used as a solid lubricant because of its stability at moderately high temperatures. However, the temperature at which graphite oxidizes rapidly is strongly influenced by surface area. With the size of particles typically employed in lubrication, a great amount of thermal stability is lost because of size reduction either during preparation or during lubrication of contacting parts. Therefore, we have undertaken a study of the lubricating ability of graphitic nano-onions (ref. 1).

  7. Seletividade e eficácia da aplicação sequencial de oxyfluorfen e de ioxynil-octanoato, em semeadura direta de cebola Selectivity and efficacy of the sequential application of oxyfluorfen and ioxynyl-octanoate in direct sowing of onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino R. Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    production of bulbs similar to the hand-hold control. None of the herbicides influenced the bulbs post-harvest conservation up to 120 days of storage.

  8. Genetic gain of ‘Valenciana’ onion populations developed in the Brazilian Semi-Arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Esmael Silva de Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to estimate the genetic improvement in the last recurrent selection cycles applied in two ‘Valenciana’ onion populations in Petrolina, PE. The experiments were carried out between October 2014 and January 2015, in Petrolina and Juazeiro, BA. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design, with 12 treatments and three replications. Analyses of variances were carried out separately for each population. The control population CNPH6400 was the comparison basis. Heritability and genetic gain were estimated for total (Prototal and commercial (Procom bulb yields. Significant differences were observed for Prototal and Procom in both populations and in both environments, except for the 25CA10 population, in Juazeiro. The highest Procom genetic gains were observed in Petrolina for 25CA10 and T811CR13 populations (510.5% and 522.1%, respectively, proving the efficiency of recurrent selection cycles. Genetic gains were nonlinear, and fluctuations may have occurred due to genetic drift.

  9. Study the relationship between the multi embryo and the sprout inhibition of onion by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2006-04-01

    To determine the possible effect on sprout inhibition of onions, Indolbutyric acid (IBA) and cytokinins (5000 ppm), low doses of gamma irradiation (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy) in a 60 Co package irradiator, combined treatment of IBA and cytokinin followed by irradiation, were applied on the cultivars Baladi red and Baladi white produced in middle and south area of Syria. Treatments were done immediately and after 4, 7, 10 weeks of harvest. After treated and untreated samples were stored at room temperature. Weight loss, sprouting percentage and length of sprouting were determined after 8 months of storage. Results indicated that, there were no significant differences (P<0.05) in weight loss, sprouting percentage and length of sprouting between the treated and untreated bulbs with IBA and cytokinin. Gamma irradiation reduced the weight loss, and inhibited the sprouting when the irradiation were done after 4 weeks of harvest, and reduced it when the irradiation were done after 7 or 10 weeks of harvest. (author)

  10. Consumer opinions in Argentina on food irradiation: irradiated onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Two surveys were carried out in Buenos Aires of consumer attitudes towards irradiated onions [no data given]. The first investigated the general level of consumer knowledge concerning food irradiation, whilst the second (which covered consumers who had actually bought irradiated onions) examined reasons for purchase and consumer satisfaction. Results reveal that more than 90% of consumers surveyed had a very limited knowledge of food irradiation

  11. Onion, a natural alternative to artificial food preservatives. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Santas, Jonathan; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar; Carbó Moliner, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand of minimally processed foods without synthetic preservatives has led to a growing interest in their replacement for more natural alternatives. Onion is widely used as a food ingredient and it is known as a good source of bioactive compounds, such as sulphur-containing compounds and flavonoids with well known health beneficial effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities. Consequently, onion has been proposed as a promising and safer source of food preservatives. The overa...

  12. Genuine Onion: Simple, Fast, Flexible, and Cheap Website Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    many intended users of the site may not have Tor installed. Though installation is a simple point-and-click download , many may be disinclined against...Griffin Boyce Open Internet Tools Project griffin@cryptolab.net Abstract— Tor is a communications infrastructure widely used for unfettered and anonymous...access to Internet websites. Tor is also used to access sites on the .onion virtual domain. The focus of .onion use and discussion has traditionally

  13. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  14. Persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyfluorfen residues in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2010-03-01

    A field study was conducted to determine persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyflorfen residues in onion crop at two growth stages. Oxyfluorfen (23.5% EC) was sprayed at 250 and 500 g ai/ha on the crop (variety, N53). Mature onion and soil samples were collected at harvest. Green onion were collected at 55 days from each treated and control plot and analyzed for oxyfluorfen residues by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with an accepted recovery of 78-92% at the minimum detectable concentration of 0.003 microg g(-1). Analysis showed 0.015 and 0.005 microg g(-1) residues of oxyfluorfen at 250 g a.i. ha(-1) rate in green and mature onion samples, respectively; however, at 500 g a.i.ha(-1) rates, 0.025 and 0.011 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues were detected in green and mature onion samples, respectively. Soil samples collected at harvest showed 0.003 and 0.003 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues at the doses 250 and 500 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. From the study, a pre-harvest interval of 118 days for onion crop after the herbicide application is suggested.

  15. Commercial storage and marketing trials of irradiated Onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Prachasitthisak, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Pilot scale storage tests were carried out in co-operation with commercial onions traders in the years 1986 and 1987 to evaluate the efficacy of irradiation for sprout inhibition of onions under actual commercial stored in commercial cold storage at 1-10 degrees C and 70-90% relative humidity. The results show that irradiation reduce sprouting in onions by 11 and 40 per cent and weight loss by 3 and 5 per cent after 5 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Storage losses are minimum when radiation is applied within two weeks of harvest. A maximum storage life of six months as against five months for controls is attained. Post cold storage life at ambient temperature for irradiated onions after withdrawal from cold storage is one week longer than that of non-irradiated controls. The radio inhibition process is technically feasible and economically justified as a profit can be made during the extended storage period. Marketing trials of irradiated onions conducted during and after termination of storage revealed no adverse comments from consumers and retailers/wholesalers. Wholesalers.retailers and consumers preferred irradiated onions because of their better physical quality and longer marketable life

  16. The role of sulphur on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur is one of the most important elements in plants. Sulphur also positive influences on growth functions (nitrogen metabolism, enzyme activity and protein and oil synthesis, yield and quality bulbs of onion. In this experiment was watched the progress of making the total polyphenols content in different levels of fertilizer sulphur in onion during vegetation. In the work we watched also the influence of sulphur fertilization on the antioxidant activity. Sulphur was added in amounts 7.3 mg.kg-1 S, 11 mg.kg-1 S and 14,6 mg.kg-1 S. Samples of fresh onion we collected at the beginning, in the middle and in the end of vegetation period and we prepared an extract: 50 g cut onion extracted by 100 ml 80% ethanol according sixteen hours. These extracts were used for experiment. The content of total polyphenols was estimated by using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wave length against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. Our values of total polyphenolic content during vegetation period were in range from 508.16 ±27.59 mg.kg-1 to 638.2 ±12.84 mg.kg-1. The highest content of total polyphenolics was recorded at the end of the vegetation period (638.32 ±12.84 mg.kg-1 in III. sampling (incorporation of sulphur in quantity of 14.6 mg S.kg-1soil. This increase was statistically significant (P-value = 2.10-3. The lowest content of total polyphenols was measured in the middle of vegetation period (415.41 ±13.32 mg.kg-1 in II. sampling (incorporation of sulphur in quantity of 11 mg S.kg-1soil. Another indicator that has been evaluated and compared was the influence of sulphur fertilization on the antioxidant activity. The highest values of antioxidant activity were recorded at the end of vegetation period in all variants. The lowest value of antioxidant activity (25.41 ±7.67% was measured in three sampling in II.variant.

  17. Viabilidade agronômica de consórcios entre cebola e alface no sistema orgânico de produção Agronomic viability of onion and lettuce intercropped in the organic cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia D de Paula

    2009-06-01

    did not decrease onion yield in marketable bulbs. In addition, lettuce growth was comparable to that of its monocrop. The land equivalent ratio values confirmed the viability of intercropping onion and lettuce. Besides the adequate agronomic performance, the system leads to more efficiency of inputs and hand labor utilization under the organic management adopted.

  18. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhan Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration.

  19. Comparison of Two LED Light Bulbs to a Dimmable CFL and their Effects on Broiler Chicken Growth, Stress, and Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-09-01

    The poultry industry is currently undergoing a shift to alternative lighting sources as incandescent lights become less available. While LED and CFL bulbs both have associated increased energy savings, they may affect the bird's growth and well-being differently as they output different light spectrums. To determine how different LED bulbs and a CFL bulb affected broiler performance, behavior, stress, and overall well-being, we conducted an experiment using Cobb broiler chickens (N=360). A NextGen LED bulb (NextGen), a Once Innovations LED bulb (Once), and a dimmable CFL (CFL) were used, all of which had different spectral outputs. Growth and feed conversion, several stress measures, fear tests, organ characteristics, and animal welfare assessment parameters were collected to determine how each light type affected animal well-being. LED treatments had shorter (P0.05) were seen in the other fear tests. The Once treatment resulted in lower composite physical asymmetry, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and basal plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to the other treatments (PLED treatments had increased feed conversion (PLEDs can result in better well-being and feed conversion when compared to CFLs. It is also notable that the LEDs did not have the same effects and this is likely due to the spectrum of light each creates. LEDs were shown to improve production and well-being of broiler chickens compared to CFLs. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Effect of Atmospheric Press on Wet Bulb Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stasiak, Michael A.; Lawson, Jamie; Wehkamp, Cara Ann P.; Dixon, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Our measurements of wet bulb depression at different pressures matched the modeled adiabatic saturation temps reasonably well. At a dry bulb temp of 25 C, the normal wet bulb temp for 30% RH and 100 kPa is approx.15 C, but this dropped to approx.8 C at 10 kPa. The results suggest that psychrometers need direct calibration at the target pressures or that pressure corrected charts are required. For a given vapour pressure deficit, any moist surfaces, including transpiring plant leaves, will be cooler at lower pressures due to the increased evaporation rates.

  1. Mathematical modeling of oxadixyl transport in onion crop soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Martínez Cordón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides used in crop production are the most important source of diffuse pollution to groundwater, and their discharge into surface water may be a contributing factor towards the decline of living resources and the deterioration of ecosystems. In this work, we studied the movement of oxadixyl through soil columns (30 cm length and 14 cm diameter in laboratory conditions using onion soil from Lake Tota (Boyacá, Colombia. A solution of 0.01 M CaCl2, containing a tracer (bromide and oxadixyl was sprayed onto the surface of the soil column, and then simulated rainfall was applied at an intensity of 0.034 cm h-1. After 30 days, and 2.13 relative pore volumes, oxadixyl percentages recovered at the bottom of the column were 92.1%. The oxadixyl experimental elution curve was analyzed using the Stanmod program (inverse problem to obtain transport parameters. The non-equilibrium chemical model described the experimental elution curve well. The tail of the elution curve was particularly well captured. The retardation factor calculated for the fungicide was 3.94 and the partition coefficient, kd, was close to 1 kg L-1, indicating low adsorption in this soil. Under the experimental conditions, it could be concluded that oxadixyl is mobile in this soil, and therefore presents a risk of potential groundwater contamination.

  2. Identification of cadmium-excluding Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) cultivars and their mechanisms of low cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuhui; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Ren, Wenjie

    2012-06-01

    Screening out cadmium (Cd) excluding cultivars of a crop in agricultural production is an effective way to prohibit Cd entering into food chain. A judging criterion for Cd-excluding cultivars based on food safety was suggested and used in the identification of Cd-excluding welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) cultivars. A pot culture experiment was carried out to screen out Cd-excluding cultivars, of which the results were confirmed by plot experiments. The relevant factors of Cd accumulation in the pseudostem were analyzed and used in the correlation analysis aiming to study the low Cd accumulation mechanisms. The concentration of Cd in the pseudostem of welsh onions was 0.08-0.20, 0.18-0.41, and 0.26-0.61 mg/kg fresh weight (FW) under three treatments (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg), respectively. The significant (p onion cultivars, but Cd contamination in soil had little influence on biomass and the contents of soluble sugar, NO(3)(-)-N, and eight other elements in the tested welsh onion cultivars. Two cultivars were identified as Cd-excluding cultivars, mainly because the accumulation of Cd in their pseudostem was only 0.041 ± 0.003 and 0.046 ± 0.002 mg/kg FW, and 0.054 ± 0.001 and 0.066 ± 0.011 mg/kg FW, when growing in plots with Cd concentration of 0.49 and 0.99 mg/kg, respectively. Ribentiegancongwang and Wuyeqi could be identified as Cd-excluding cultivars. Low bioaccumulation factor of the roots was the main mechanism of Cd-excluding welsh onion cultivars.

  3. Within-plant distribution of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianhua; Munro, Scott; Boulton, Alan; Stevens, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Two aspects of the within-plant distribution of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion, Allium cepa L., plants were investigated: 1) diurnal variations in the distribution of adults and larvae between basal and upper sections of onion leaves, and 2) between-leaf and within-leaf distribution of the eggs. The diurnal investigations showed that higher proportions of larvae than of adults congregated at the basal sections of plants, particularly when plants were young and thrips density was low. As plants matured and thrips density increased, the larvae became more dispersed. Regardless of plant size, there were always more adults in the upper than basal plant sections. There were no clear time-windows during the 24-h diurnal cycle when more thrips were in the upper plant parts. T. tabaci eggs were laid everywhere in the plant. Leaves of intermediate ages had more eggs than older or younger leaves. Within leaves, the white leaf sheath received the least eggs and leaf tips received slightly more eggs than leaf sheaths. The highest egg density was found between the green leaf base and the leaf tips. Regardless of plant size, more than half of all eggs were laid above the basal sections. The percentage increased to >95% in mature plants. Except when plants were small the outer leaves were preferred over inner leaves and upper leaf sections preferred over lower leaf sections as egg-laying sites by adults. Implications of the results in the management of T. tabaci are discussed.

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Bulbs Version 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 and V2.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Lamps (Light Bulbs) that are effective...

  5. New Penicillium species associated with bulbs and root vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2003-01-01

    Taxa of the Penicillium series Corymbifera are known for their strongly fasciculate growth and association with the rhizosphere of vegetables and flower bulbs. Using micromorphology, colony characteristics on various media and chemotaxonomic profiling, P. albocoremium sensu stricto and two new...

  6. Study on exploitation of Jerusalem artichoke bulbs in relation to chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. known in USA also as sunchoke, is a perennial plant, well-adapted to humid and cold climats, nonpretencious to soil and with good yield increase. The bulbs are the eatable part that grows in the ground that have certain similitudes with the potato. The value of Jerusalem artichoke as a technical and medical vegetable is based on the chemical composition of the plant. The bulbs of the Jerusalem artichoke harvested in autumn have been sensorially and chemically analyzed along the deposition during the cold season. Measurements were made on the light brown variety with a slightly elongated shape. The low mass loss during depostion, the high content of reducing sugar (4.7- 6.12% and total carbohydrates (94.27-96.18% enable their successful use in the functional food and for the production of alcohol.

  7. Effects of color temperatures (kelvin) of led bulbs on blood physiological variables of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lighting is being used in the poultry industry to reduce energy usage in broiler production facilities. However, limited data are available comparing efficacy of different spectral distribution of LED bulbs on blood physiological variables of broilers grown to heavy weight...

  8. Investigation of Volatiles Emitted from Freshly Cut Onions (Allium cepa L. by Real Time Proton-Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Marie Løkke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in cut onions (Allium cepa L. were continuously measured by PTR-MS during the first 120 min after cutting. The headspace composition changed rapidly due to the very reactive volatile sulfurous compounds emitted from onion tissue after cell disruption. Mass spectral signals corresponding to propanethial S-oxide (the lachrymatory factor and breakdown products of this compound dominated 0–10 min after cutting. Subsequently, propanethiol and dipropyl disulfide predominantly appeared, together with traces of thiosulfinates. The concentrations of these compounds reached a maximum at 60 min after cutting. Propanethiol was present in highest concentrations and had an odor activity value 20 times higher than dipropyl disulfide. Thus, propanethiol is suggested to be the main source of the characteristic onion odor. Monitoring the rapid changes of VOCs in the headspace of cut onion necessitates a high time resolution, and PTR-MS is demonstrated to be a very suitable method for monitoring the headspace of freshly cut onions directly after cutting without extraction or pre-concentration.

  9. 78 FR 52131 - United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions AGENCY: Agricultural... Grades of Creole Onions, which were issued under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. The Agricultural... colors of onions when designated as a mixed or specialty pack. In addition, AMS would correct language...

  10. Biochemical analysis of leaf waxes and thrips resistance in onion selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips (Thrips tabaci) is a serious insect pest of onion and is a vector for Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV). Lower amounts of epicuticular waxes on onion leaves have been associated with fewer thrips, less feeding damage, and lower incidence of IYSV. In this study, 10 onion selections that showed les...

  11. Evaluation of Onion Genotypes for Resistance to Stunting Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 35 onion genotypes was evaluated for resistance to onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 8 (AG-8) under temperature-controlled greenhouse conditions (15 ± 1oC) in 2013. Each onion genotype was planted in a cone-tainer with and without inoculation with R. solani AG ...

  12. A safe potential juice clarifying pectinase from Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing Egyptian onion skins

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Mohsen S. Ismail; Heba I. Abo-Elmagd; Manal M. Housseiny

    2016-01-01

    The production of a notable, safe and highly active pectinase by the local fungal strain Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing the abundant pigmented Egyptian onion (Allium cepa L.) skins (6.5%, w/v) was achieved in 4 days submerged fermentation (SMF) cultures, at temperature and pH of 30 °C and 4.0, respectively. The indigenously produced pectinase was partially purified by 50% batch ethanol precipitation and its general properties were studied following the standard procedures. The lyophilized ...

  13. The effect of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on bolting of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bolting reduces the quality and commercial yield of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in production. However, seed production is directly dependent on flower induction and bolting. The Welsh onion belongs to the green plant vernalisation type, specific seedling characteristics and sufficient accumulated time at low temperature are indispensible for the completion of its vernalisation process. Only if these conditions for vernalisation are fulfilled, the plants will bolt in the following year. The present investigation evaluated the effects of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on the bolting of Welsh onion at the Horticultural Farm of the College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi Province, China in two succeeding production years: 2010–2011 and 2011–2012. A strip split plot layout within a randomised complete block design with three replications was used. Results The results revealed that all three factors (cultivar, sowing date and transplant location) and their interaction had significant effects on the initiation and final rate of bolting observed by 30 April. The earliest bolting date (14 February, 2011 and 15 February, 2012) and the highest bolting rate (100% in 2011 and 62% in 2012) occurred when the JinGuan cultivar was sown on 20 August and transplanted in a plastic tunnel, whereas the latest date and lowest rate (no bolting observed until 30 April) of bolting occurred when the XiaHei cultivar was sown on 29 September and transplanted in an open field. Conclusions These results suggest that we can control bolting in Welsh onion production by choosing an appropriate cultivar, sowing date and transplant location. Choosing a late bolting cultivar, such as cultivar XiaHei, sowing around October, and transplanting in the open field can significantly delay bolting, while a sowing date in late August should be selected for seed production, and the seedlings should be transplanted in a plastic tunnel to

  14. An Onion Byproduct Affects Plasma Lipids in Healthy Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Marin, E.; Jensen, R. I.; Krath, Britta

    2010-01-01

    lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing...... that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals...... and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels....

  15. What to Do if a Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL) Bulb or Fluorescent Tube Light Bulb Breaks: Printable Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The broken bulb can continue to release mercury vapor until it is cleaned up and removed. This cleanup guidance represents minimum recommended actions to reduce mercury exposure, and will be updated as more efficient practices are identified.

  16. Development and evaluation of a drum seeder for onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hoque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve optimum yield of onion by placing the seeds at a certain depth in lines, a manually operated drum seeder for onion has been designed, fabricated and tested in Farm Machinery and Postharvest Process (FMP Engineering Division of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI. The seeder is suitable for the small farmers who have practice of direct seeding of onion under dry land cultivation. The seeder consists of a frame, a PVC drum, furrow openers, furrow closer, wheels and handle. In 2009-2010, the seeder was fabricated in FMP Engineering divisional workshop and tested in experimental plot, BARI, Gazipur. Seed rate of the seeder was 4 kg ha-1 and field capacity was 0.08 ha hr-1. Weight and price of the seeder were 5.5 kg and Tk 2500 per unit, respectively. In 2010-2011, a drug chain was added in the seeder and field performance evaluation of the seeder was repeated comparing with manual line sowing and traditional broadcasting methods in experimental plot of BARI, Gazipur. There was no significant variation between average yield of onion by using the seeder (13.26 ton ha-1 and in that of manual line sowing (12.90 ton ha-1 but there was significantly higher yield of onion by using the seeder than that in traditional (10.25 ton ha-1. But sowing time (6 h ha-1 was significantly lower for seeder use than manual line sowing (48 h ha-1 which contribute to reduce the cost of sowing for direct seeded onion.

  17. Determination of quercetins in onion (Allium cepa) using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Ross, Carolyn F; Powers, Joseph R; Rasco, Barbara A

    2011-06-22

    The rapid quantification of flavonoid compounds in onions by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated as a possible alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Quercetin content in onion varieties (yellow, red, and sweet) was quantified using ATR FT-IR (4000 to 400 cm⁻¹) spectroscopy and HPLC methods. Quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside (3,4'-Qdg) and quercetin-4'-O-glucoside (4'-Qmg) comprised >80% of the total flavonol content detected in the studied varieties. The quercetin compounds (3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg) and total flavonol conjugates were quantified by HPLC, and results correlated closely with ATR-IR values (R > 0.95). Cross-validated (leave-one-out) partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models successfully predicted concentrations of these quercetins. The standard errors of cross-validation (SECV) of 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, total quercetin, and total flavonol contents of onions were 20.43, 21.18, and 21.02 mg/kg fresh weight, respectively. In addition, supervised and unsupervised segregation analyses (principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis, and soft independent modeling of class analogue) were performed to classify onion varieties on the basis of unique infrared spectral features. There was a high degree of segregation (interclass distances > 3.0) for the different types of onion. This study indicated that the IR technique could predict 3,4'-Qdg, 4'-Qmg, total quercetin, and total flavonol contents and has advantages over the traditional HPLC method in providing a valid, efficient, and cost-effective method requiring less sample preparation for the quantification of quercetins in onion.

  18. Onion cell imaging by using Talbot/self-imaging effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shilpi; Kumar, Varun; Shakher, Chandra

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the amplitude and phase imaging of onion epidermis cell using the self-imaging capabilities of a grating (Talbot effect) in visible light region. In proposed method, the Fresnel diffraction pattern from the first grating and object is recorded at self-image plane. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used for extracting the 3D amplitude and phase image of onion epidermis cell. The stability of the proposed system, from environmental perturbation as well as its compactness and portability give the proposed system a high potential for several clinical applications.

  19. Inflation bulb-driven microfluidic reactor for infrared-assisted proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Bao, Huimin; Chen, Gang

    2010-09-01

    In this report, an inflation bulb-driven microfluidic reactor was developed for IR-accelerated proteolysis. This novel proteolysis system mainly consisted of an inflation bulb-driving system, a simple cross-PMMA microchip, and a temperature-controllable IR radiation system. The gas pressure generated from an inflation bulb was employed to drive protein and trypsin solutions to flow into the main channel of the microchip via two capillaries and the injection channel. When the two solutions were mixed in the channel, the protein was rapidly digested by trypsin under IR radiations. The peptides in the digests accumulated in the product reservoir of the microchip were subsequently identified by MS. The feasibility and performance of this unique system were demonstrated by digesting hemoglobin and lysozyme. The results indicated that IR radiation could significantly enhance the on-chip proteolysis and the digestion time was substantially reduced to 5 min. The present proteolysis setup is simple and efficient and will find wide applications in high-throughput protein digestion.

  20. Utilization of busted CFL in developing cheap and efficient segmented compact LED bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, N. S.; Ponce, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    Today’s generation will not survive a day without the help of lighting. In fact, someone’s productivity, particularly at night, depends on the presence of a good lighting and it seems that it is a daily necessity. Lighting takes a large part on the consumption of household electrical energy particularly in the Philippines. There are different type of lighting bulbs used at home can affect the overall lighting consumption. Nowadays, most commonly and widely used bulb in the household is the Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL). However, the main problem of CFL is the mercury they contain. In addition to this is the harmful effect of mercury such as Emission of UV Radiation. In response to the said problem, this project study gives solution to the problem of the society concerning environment, health and safety as well energy conservation, by developing a segmented compact light-emitting diode (SCLED) bulb from busted CFL that are efficient, economical, and does not contain toxic chemicals.

  1. Effects of feeding Beta vulgaris saccharifera bulb for fattening desert lambs under tropical conditions of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of introducing Sugar Beet bulb as a cheap substitute for grains in rations formulated for sheep fattening. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Experimental unit of Rural Development and extension center, Faculty of animal production, University of Gezira. Twenty four Sudanese desert lambs (Ashgur ecotype were purchased from local markets to assess the effects of replacing grain with Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris saccharifera Bulb on feed lot performance, carcass traits under tropical conditions of Sudan. Sugar Beet bulb was incorporated in three rations with a control ration (A: control, B, C, D at percentages of 0, 11, 22, and 33. Results: The results showed that total weight gain and daily feed intake in group D were significantly different at (P<0.05 where values of 5.59±1.73 and 0.94± 0.13 kg were recorded. Total weight gain, daily dry matter intake, daily energy intake and feed conversion ratio were in the range of 10.67- 5.59, 1.03-0.83, 0.33-0.27and 11.77- 7.70 kg respectively. Treatments showed no significant differences at (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, empty body weight, dressing % on slaughter weight basis and dressing % on empty weight basis, the obtained results for these traits were 27.78-25.37, 24.76- 22.22, 45.80- 43.45% and 51.41- 49.65%. Carcass cuts (Leg, Loin, Rack, Plate and Neck & shoulder weight and percentages showed no significant differences among treatments. Conclusion: It is concluded that replacing expensive grains with Beta vulgaris bulb can be practiced in sheep fattening project up to 22% with excellent results. [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 330-334

  2. Expansion of effective wet bulb globe temperature for vapor impermeable protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Mochida, Tohru; Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Horiba, Yosuke; Kuwabara, Kohei

    2018-01-01

    The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is an effective measure for risk screening to prevent heat dISOrders. However, a heat risk evaluation by WBGT requires adjustments depending on the clothing. In this study, we proposed a new effective WBGT (WBGT eff * ) for general vapor permeable clothing ensembles and vapor impermeable protective clothing that is applicable to occupants engaged in moderate intensity work with a metabolic heat production value of around 174W/m 2 . WBGT eff * enables the conversion of heat stress into the scale experienced by the occupant dressed in the basic clothing ensemble (work clothes) based on the heat balances for a human body. We confirmed that WBGT eff * was effective for expressing the critical thermal environments for the prescriptive zones for occupants wearing vapor impermeable protective clothing. Based on WBGT eff * , we succeeded in clarifying how the weights for natural wet bulb, globe, and air temperatures and the intercept changed depending on clothing properties and the surrounding environmental factors when heat stress is expressed by the weighted sum of natural wet bulb, globe, and air temperatures and the intercept. The weight of environmental temperatures (globe and air temperatures) for WBGT eff * for vapor impermeable protective clothing increased compared with that for general vapor permeable clothing, whereas that of the natural wet bulb temperature decreased. For WBGT eff * in outdoor conditions with a solar load, the weighting ratio of globe temperature increased and that of air temperature decreased with air velocity. Approximation equations of WBGT eff * were proposed for both general vapor permeable clothing ensembles and for vapor impermeable protective clothing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 67317 - Onions Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, OR; Modification of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 958 Onions Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur...: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule revises the handling regulation for onions handled under the Idaho-Eastern Oregon onion marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of onions grown in...

  4. Bismuth onion thin film in situ grown on silicon wafer synthesized through a hydrothermal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yue; Liu Hong; Liu Jin; Hu Chenguo; Wang Jiyang

    2010-01-01

    Bismuth onion structured nanospheres with the same structure as carbon onions have been synthesized and observed. The nanospheres were synthesized through a hydrothermal method using bismuth hydroxide and silicon wafer as reactants. By controlling the heating temperature, heating time, and the pressure, nanoscale bismuth spheres can be in situ synthesized on silicon wafer, and forms a bismuth onion film on the substrate. The electronic property of the films was investigated. A formation mechanism of the formation of bismuth onions and the onion film has been proposed on the basis of experimental observations.

  5. MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, Robin; Grabar, Sophie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [Paris V, Faculte de Medecine, Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Fallet-Bianco, Catherine [Hopital Sainte-Anne, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)

    2006-02-01

    There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T. The results were compared both with the commonly used neuropathological data in the literature and with personal neuropathological data. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were performed. One case of olfactory agenesis associated with CHARGE syndrome was identified. T2-weighted coronal sequences were the most sensitive for detecting olfactory bulbs and sulci. Olfactory sulci were significantly better detected from 30 weeks onwards (90.9-100%; P<0.001). MRI showed a posteroanterior development of these sulci. Olfactory bulbs were better detected from 30 to 34 weeks (80-90.9%; P<0.002). Comparison with neuropathological data confirmed the posteroanterior development of the sulci and showed an important delay in detection of the olfactory structures (bulbs and sulci). No difference was observed between the two centres involved. To date, fetal MRI can depict olfactory sulci from 30 weeks gestational age onwards and olfactory bulbs from 30 to 34 weeks gestational age. This preliminary reference standard is useful to assess the normality of the olfactory system and to diagnose olfactory agenesis. (orig.)

  6. Adsorption and manipulation of carbon onions on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite studied with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianfeng; Shen Ziyong; Hou Shimin; Zhao Xingyu; Xue Zengquan; Shi Zujin; Gu Zhennan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon onions produced by DC arc discharge method were deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface and their adsorption and manipulation was studied using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). Well-dispersed adsorption of carbon onions on HOPG surface was obtained and aggregations of onions were not observed. The van der Waals interaction between the onion and HOPG surface and that between two onions, were calculated and discussed using Hamaker's theory. The manipulation of adsorbed onions on HOPG surface was realized using the AFM in both the raster mode and the vector mode. The controllability and precision of two manipulation modes were compared and the vector mode manipulation was found superior, and is a useful technique for the construction of nano-scale devices based on carbon onions

  7. Changes in trans-S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine Sulfoxide and Related Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids during Onion Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Yasuhiro; Aoyagi, Morihiro; Sawada, Yuji; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Saito, Kazuki; Imai, Shinsuke

    2016-11-30

    trans-S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) is the most abundant flavor precursor in onions. The changes in PRENCSO, its biosynthetic precursors, and cycloalliin contents in bulbs stored at 0 °C [i.e., recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)] are investigated. Ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed larger amounts of PRENCSO and cycloalliin, which were stoichiometrically balanced by the decrease in the combined amounts of the three biosynthetic precursors. The molar balance of the PRENCSO biosynthesis process during onion storage was explained well by the changes of these five compounds. High-throughput integrated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was employed to analyze multiple samples at 5 and 20 °C. The molar concentration data, converted using linear regression equations, showed a similar molar balance for the PRENCSO biosynthesis process comprising these five compounds during storage at all temperatures tested. Furthermore, the content of cycloalliin significantly increased at the expense of that of PRENCSO during storage at 20 °C.

  8. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing order or other standards that may be contained in the Special Provisions. Direct Marketing. Sale... wholesaler, retailer, packer, processor, shipper or buyer. Examples of direct marketing include selling... generally milder in flavor than storage onions. Due to a higher moisture and sugar content, they are subject...

  9. Evaluation of botanicals for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Mexican marigold (Tagetus minuta L.), tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca Graham) and Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.) were tested for their controlling effect on onion thrips. The population dynamics of the thrips was monitored and population counts were made before and after the application of each of the treatments.

  10. Genotoxicity of hormoban and seven other pesticides to onion root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants are direct recipients of agro-toxics and therefore important materials for assessing environmental chemicals for genotoxicity. Three doses, representing ¼, ½ and EC50 of hormoban, storm killer, villa, fungi-nil, bexadust, aphicide, karbadust and basagran were assessed for cytotoxic and genotoxic effects to onion root ...

  11. Controlled Trapping of Onion-Like Carbon (OLC) via Dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olariu, Marius; Arcire, Alexandru; Plonska-Brzezinska, Marta E.

    2017-01-01

    Manipulation of onion-like carbon (OLC), also known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs), at the level of various arrays of microelectrodes is vital in practical applications such as biological and chemical sensing, ultracapacitors (supercapacitors), electromagnetic shielding, catalysis, tribology, optical limiting and molecular junctions in scanning tunneling microscopy, and field-effect transistors. In spite of technological developments in this area, rigorous handling of carbon nano-onions towards desired locations within a device remains a challenge, and the quantity of OLC required significantly influences the price of the final electrical or electronic device. We present herein an experimental study on electromanipulation and trapping of onion-like carbon (OLC) at the level of gold-patterned interdigitated microelectrodes through dielectrophoresis. The influence of the magnitude as well as frequency of the alternating-current (AC) voltage employed for OLC trapping is discussed in detail. The effects of tuning the AC field strength and frequency on the OLC trapping behavior are also considered.

  12. Dielectric properties for prediction of moisture content in Vidalia onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave Sensing provides a means for nondestructively determining the amount of moisture in materials by sensing the dielectric properties of the material. In this study, dielectric properties of Vidalia onions were analyzed for moisture dependence at 13.36 GHz and 23°C for moisture content betwee...

  13. Onion Plant as an Educational Tool for Phylogenetic Studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Onion Plant as an Educational Tool for Phylogenetic Studies: Molecular Analysis and a New Phylogeny? Shilpa Pathak Amita Akolkar Bakhtaver S Mahajan. Classroom Volume 7 Issue 3 March 2002 pp 66-79 ...

  14. Determination of some trace metal levels in onion leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Determination of some trace metal levels in onion leaves from irrigated farmlands on the bank of River ... All glassware and plastic containers used were washed with liquid soap, rinsed with water, soaked in. 10% nitric acid for 24 h, cleaned thoroughly with distilled water and.

  15. Protective role of onion and garlic on physicochemical alterations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh and soybean oil heated with or without onion or garlic were analyzed for their physicochemical and toxicological properties. Darkened appearance, off flavors, rancid taste and significant reduction of iodine value was obtained for the heated oil. Acid value, peroxide value, viscosity and concentration of ...

  16. Allium genetic resources with particular reference to onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, C.

    2008-01-01

    As in many other crop species, also in Allium crops genetic erosion is taking place. In this mini review the current global state of the art is presented on Allium ex situ genetic resources and more in particular on onion genetic resources. Furthermore future possible actions are indicated to

  17. Garlic and onion sensitization among Saudi patients screened for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... screened for garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies along with other food allergens were analyzed retrospectively at King. Khalid University Hosptial between January 2008 and April 2009. This group of patients included 73 males and 35 females with mean age 27+13.2 years. Estimation of garlic and ...

  18. A safe potential juice clarifying pectinase from Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing Egyptian onion skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Mohsen S. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of a notable, safe and highly active pectinase by the local fungal strain Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing the abundant pigmented Egyptian onion (Allium cepa L. skins (6.5%, w/v was achieved in 4 days submerged fermentation (SMF cultures, at temperature and pH of 30 °C and 4.0, respectively. The indigenously produced pectinase was partially purified by 50% batch ethanol precipitation and its general properties were studied following the standard procedures. The lyophilized enzyme preparation was free of any ochra or aflatoxins. The optimum conditions for the partially purified enzyme form were 2 mg/mL and 1% (w/v enzyme protein and substrate (citrus pectin concentrations, reaction pH and temperature of 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The results presented the low cost onion skins waste as the major substrate for the fungal pectinase production and its subsequent use in perfect fruit (apple, lemon and orange juices clarification with remarkable stability during and after this process, which certainly enhance fruit juices processing in the tropics.

  19. Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus associated with onion transplants, onion volunteers, and weeds in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips tabaci infestation was determined on onion transplants received in Colorado during March and April from out of state sources (Imperial Valley, near Phoenix Arizona, and southern Texas) during 2004 to 2008. In the five years of the study, 50% to 100% of the transplant lots sampled were found ...

  20. Are specific testing protocols required for organic onion varieties? Analysis of onion variety testing under conventional and organic growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Osman, A.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Struik, P.C.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic growers need information on variety performance under their growing conditions. A 4-year onion variety research project was carried out to investigate whether setting up a variety testing system combining conventional and organic variety trials is feasible and efficient rather than

  1. Controversial bulb disks still marketed as energy savers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.

    1982-05-24

    Despite a 1980 DOE study showing that incandescent bulb disks decrease lamp efficiency by reducing light output as well as energy consumption, at least two manufacturers are still marketing the disks. The companies claim that the Power Disc and Lite-Saver will extend bulb life up to 100 times and reduce wattage 42%, although they both acknowledge that light output is reduced as much as 74% for a 53% efficiency drop. Some users claim the life-extension feature is important when bulb replacement is difficult. The DOE study concludes that the disks are not cost-effective if the user wants equivalent lighting, and questions some of the manufacturers' advertising claims. Satisfied users counter with reports of good performance and no problems with shock or other safety hazards. (DCK)

  2. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Emilie A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Results Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. Conclusions The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration.

  3. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Emilie A; Folts, John D; Goldman, Irwin L

    2012-09-20

    Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration.

  4. Morphological, nutritional and chemical description of "Vatikiotiko", an onion local landrace from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon A; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ntatsi, Georgia

    2015-09-01

    "Vatikiotiko" is an onion local landrace from Greece with special quality features, such as strong and pungent taste and storability. In this study, we tried for the first time to describe this landrace and record its morphological traits and nutritional value in comparison with commercially cultivated genotypes ("Creamgold", "Red Cross F1" and "Sivan F1"). Nutritional value of "Vatikiotiko" was higher than commercial genotypes, whereas total sugars, fructose and glucose content were lower in "Vatikiotiko" and "Creamgold" onions. Fatty acids composed mostly from polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic acid), whereas for "Vatikiotiko" saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were detected in equal amounts (29.79% and 30.60%, respectively). "Vatikiotiko" and "Creamgold" had low antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity), especially when comparing with "Sivan F1" and "Red Cross F1", whereas no flavonoids were detected in "Vatikiotiko". The overview of "Vatikiotiko" landrace supported its special character regarding its nutritional value (sugar content, mineral composition and fatty acids profile) and the necessity to revalorize and protect its traditional culture. The potential of introducing it as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) product has also been discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two new chlorophenyl glycosides from the bulbs of Lilium brownii var. viridulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiao-Xiao; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Two rare new chlorophenyl glycosides, 2,4,6-trichlorol-3-methyl-5-methoxy-phenol 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 4-chlorol-5-hydroxyl-3-methyl-phenol 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with three known compounds (3-5) were isolated from the bulbs of Lilium brownii var. viridulum. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. All the compounds exhibited weak inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

  6. Numerical investigation of wet-bulb effectiveness and water consumption in one-and two-stage indirect evaporative coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshari, Shahab; Heidarinejad, Ghassem; Fathipour, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Wet bulb effectiveness of indirect/indirect evaporative cooling systems are 76–81%. • Dimensionless water evaporation rate decreases as the primary air flow rate increases. • Water evaporation rate increases with increase of inlet dry bulb temperature. - Abstract: In this study, three configuration for two-stage indirect/indirect evaporative cooling systems (IEC/IEC) were proposed (Type A, Type B and Type C) to determine what configuration produces a better wet-bulb effectiveness (or better energy-saving). For this purpose, six cities with a variety of hot weather conditions with the dry-bulb in range of 31.9–46.66 °C were selected. Results show that under these three configuration, the wet-bulb effectiveness of Type A, Type B and Type C varies over ranges of 62–68%, 76–81% and 85–91% respectively, whereas the effectiveness of a one stage IEC varies over a range of 54–60%. There is a common misconceive belief in the concept of water evaporation rate of an evaporative cooling system, which were fueled by many articles; this belief is, if a cooler consumes less water it is an environmentally friendly cooler for dry areas. A more accurate and practical definition is proposed in this article named Dimensionless Water Evaporation Rate (DWER). The numerical results showed that Type B is the optimum configuration, because of a range of 4–24% DWER saving could be obtained by Type B in comparison with Type C whereas Type B increases the product air up to 32%. As well as IEC, in a counter-flow regenerative evaporative cooler the DWER decreases as the primary airflow rate increases whereas water consumption increases. Moreover, using Type B the index of thermal comfort was investigated which showed that Type B could meet thermal comfort condition in two climatic zones of temperate-dry and hot-dry.

  7. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  8. On the Intensity Profile of Electric Lamps and Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalla, Xavier; Salumbides, Edcel John

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the time profile of the light intensity from domestic lighting sources exhibits simple yet interesting properties that foster lively student discussions. We monitor the light intensity of an industrial fluorescent lamp (also known as TL) and an incandescent bulb using a photodetector connected to an oscilloscope. The light…

  9. The "Green Lab": Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations…

  10. Energy Saving Bulbs: An Emerging Threat to Public Health, from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    SUMMARY. Energy saving bulbs are promoted for their efficiency and capacity to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, the acknowledged cause of global warming and climate change. They however contain varying quantity of mercury that can easily contaminate the environment. Mercury is a neuro-toxin, but ...

  11. Development of cumulative distribution functions for dry bulb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) for eighteen locations in Nigeria were computed from long term hourly dry bulb temperature obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Services Agency, Oshodi, Nigeria for 1994-2008 or 1995-2009. Mathematical models were developed from the ...

  12. Integral storage-bulb and microwave cavity for masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, V. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mechanically-stable integral storage-bulb/microwave cavity made out of single piece of fused quartz improves frequency stability. Single-piece construction eliminates joints, making cavity dimensionally and hence frequency-stable. Fused quartz is used because of its low thermal expansion coefficient.

  13. Evaluation and analysis of decked bulb T beam bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A new corrosion-free decked bulb T beam bridge system has been developed to overcome some of the problems : associated with the construction of side-by-side box beam bridges such as the lack of inspection space between : beams and the longitudinal de...

  14. Energy Saving Bulbs: An Emerging Threat to Public Health, from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy saving bulbs are promoted for their efficiency and capacity to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, the acknowledged cause of global warming and climate change. They however contain varying quantity of mercury that can easily contaminate the environment. Mercury is a neuro-toxin, but damage has also ...

  15. Using CFD to optimize the design of one layer storage system for tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapounas, A.; Wildschut, J.

    2013-01-01

    Tulip bulbs to plant the next season are stored in boxes which are ventilated to a level of 500 or 300 m3 per m3 bulbs per hour to avoid high ethylene concentration between the bulbs. The boxes are positioned in an arrangement of 5-6 rows with 8-10 boxes per row, each one on a pallet (one layer

  16. A Fan-tastic Alternative to Bulbs: Learning Circuits with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekey, Robert; Edwards, Andrea; McCullough, Roy; Reitz, William; Mitchell, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The incandescent bulb has been a useful tool for teaching basic electrical circuits, as brightness is related to the current or power flowing through a bulb. This has led to the development of qualitative pedagogical treatments for examining resistive combinations in simple circuits using bulbs and batteries, which were first introduced by James…

  17. 30 CFR 27.37 - Tests to determine adequacy of safety devices for bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests to determine adequacy of safety devices for bulbs. 27.37 Section 27.37 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 27.37 Tests to determine adequacy of safety devices for bulbs. The glass envelope of bulbs with the...

  18. Produção de cebola sobre palhada a partir de mudas obtidas em bandejas com diferentes números de células Onion yield in no-tillage system using seedlings produced in trays with different cell numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Y Reghin

    2006-12-01

    qualidade de bulbos, tendo destaque a muda M1 que apresentou rendimento acima de 77,0 % de bulbos das classes 3C (60The experiment was carried out in Ponta Grossa-PR, aiming to evaluate onion seedlings produced in trays with different cell numbers and their further field production under a no tillage system. Onion seedlings were produced under protected cultivation. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with three replications. Treatments followed a factorial scheme 4 x 3, with four cultivars (Mercedes, Bola Precoce, Crioula and Montana and three types of polystyrene trays, with 128, 200 and 288 cells. The substrate used was Plantmax® and seeds were sowed in May, 15. Seedlings were evaluated 53 days after sowing for length, fresh, and dry weight of upground and root material. The field trial was carried out on dry oat straw. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with three replications, with the following treatments: four cultivars (Mercedes, Bola Precoce, Crioula, and Montana and three tray types; 128 (M1, 200 (M2, and 288 cells (M3. 84 days after transplanting, plant height, leaf number and neck diameter were evaluated. Plants were harvested on different days, according to maturation. Yield was evaluated and bulbs were graded by diameter into classes. In seedling production, it was observed that the highest values for onion upground length and fresh weight were obtained on seedlings produced in 128 cells to all cultivars. The largest size of the M1 seedlings was an important attribute to define quality on seedlings production. This characteristic reflected on early bulbification and higher bulb yield and quality, when compared with M2 and M3 seedlings. Independent of the cultivar, seedlings produced in trays resulted in high yield (average of 90,7 t ha-1 and high bulb quality and M1 seedlings shower strong concentration of bulbs graded into classes 3 C (60 < Ø <70 mm and 4 (70 < Ø <90mm.

  19. Hypocholesterolemic Efficacy of Quercetin Rich Onion Juice in Healthy Mild Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Shen, You-Cheng; Chung, Chia-Chun; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-12-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely employed as a food ingredient as well as traditional remedy to treat fever, burns, and scurvy. The present study focused on the modulator efficacy of the quercetin rich onion juice on lipid profile and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Twenty-four healthy subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia (≧ 200 mg/dL) were recruited and divided into two groups, and they consumed 100 mL of onion juice or placebo every day for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at initial, 2nd, 6th, 8th, 10th week for estimating various biochemical assays, as well as anthropometric indices. After 8 weeks of intervention, onion juice greatly decreased (p onion juice could markedly suppress cholesterol level and elevate total antioxidation capacity. Hence, onion juice was probably recommended for combating various cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Volatile composition and sensory characteristics of onion powders prepared by convective drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, So Mang; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2017-09-15

    Volatile composition and sensory characteristics of onion powders prepared by convective drying at different temperatures (50, 70, and 90°C) were investigated. Dipropyl disulfide was the major volatile compound in fresh onion (77.70% of total volatile compounds). However it was considerably lost during drying, reaching 6.93-32.25µg/g solids. Dipropyl disulfide showed a positive correlation with green sensory attribute perceived by descriptive sensory analysis. Thiophenes, which were responsible for caramel and sweet attributes, were produced by drying especially when the drying temperature was high. Aldehydes, another type of volatile compound found in fresh onion, showed a positive correlation with humidity. The aldehyde content in dried onion was the highest at the lowest drying temperature, possibly because the aldehydes were produced by the residual enzymes in fresh onion. Using a low temperature for drying was ideal to retain the aroma of fresh onion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medium dependant production of corymbiferone a novel product from Penicillium hordei cultured on plant tissue agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Zidorn, C.; Petersen, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    Medium dependant production and the structure elucidation of corymbiferone (1) from the fungus Penicillitan hordei grown on oatmeal and macerated tulip, yellow onion and red onion agars are reported. Compound 1 possesses an unusual oxygenated aromatic structure with a lactone bridge preventing fu...

  2. Medium dependant production of corymbiferone a novel product from Penicillium hordei cultured on plant tissue agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Zidorn, C.; Petersen, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    Medium dependant production and the structure elucidation of corymbiferone (1) from the fungus Penicillitan hordei grown on oatmeal and macerated tulip, yellow onion and red onion agars are reported. Compound 1 possesses an unusual oxygenated aromatic structure with a lactone bridge preventing full...

  3. The light bulb, cystoscopy, and Thomas Alva Edison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2010-09-01

    Thomas Alva Edison was an icon of American achievement who literally invented the 20th century. Although best known as the inventor of the electric light bulb, the phonograph, and motion pictures, he also left a lasting legacy via peripheral developmental applications, such as endoscopes. A review of published urologic writings about incandescent cystoscopes was cross-referenced to writings about or from Edison. Important events that allowed transference of technology from the Edison laboratory to clinical practice were emphasized. Edison was born in 1847 while Lincoln was serving in Congress; he died in 1931 when Hoover struggled with the Great Depression. Edison's life spanned the formative period of America that Henry Adams called the "coming of age." Edison received a Sprengel vacuum device in late 1879, and as usual, he was able to tweak the machine to better performance. For 5 days in October, 16 to 21, he improved the vacuum from 1/100,000 to 1/1,000,000 atm, and his first incandescent bulb burned softly. On December 21, 1879, he leaked the story to N.Y. Herald journalist Marshall Fox, and the world was notified of the light bulb. Special Christmas light visits started in Menlo Park just 4 days later. Edison patented the screw cap for easy changes, and the first bulbs sold for 40 cents (cost $1.40). 100,000 bulbs sold in 1882, 4 million by 1892, and 45 million in 1903. Immediately, competitors and specialty manufacturers entered the market. Dr. Henry Koch and Charles Preston in Rochester, N.Y., developed a smaller, low amperage bulb that could be fitted to medical devices. No discussion of electricity and modern applications would be complete without some discussion of Thomas Alva Edison and his sentinel contributions. The first church, post office, and ship were illuminated in 1892. The first hotel, theater, and electric sign were in 1893. The rapidity of dispersal and secondary applications of Edison's inventions is typified by the rise of cystoscopes

  4. Physical-chemical quality of onion analyzed under drying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Arifin, U. F.; Sasongko, S. B.

    2017-03-01

    Drying is one of conventional processes to enhance shelf life of onion. However, the active compounds such as vitamin and anthocyanin (represented in red color), degraded due to the introduction of heat during the process. The objective of this research was to evaluate thiamine content as well as color in onion drying under different temperature. As an indicator, the thiamine and color was observed every 30 minutes for 2 hours. Results showed that thiamine content and color were sensitvely influenced by the temperature change. For example, at 50°C for 2 hours drying process, the thiamine degradation was 55.37 %, whereas, at 60°C with same drying time, the degradation was 74.01%. The quality degradation also increased by prolonging drying time.

  5. Evaluation of botanicals for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    the highest effect in reducing thrips pest population in year one, though was on par with that of dimethoate, did well in the second year contributing to significant yield improvement against the control. There was no statistically significant difference among treatments in plant height, leaf number and bulb weight. From among ...

  6. Response of Onion ( Allium cepa L.) to spacing and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were carried out during the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 dry cropping seasons of October–March to investigate the effects of 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha NPK 15:15:15 and crop spacings on the growth and yield of onion plant (Allium cepa L.). The experiment was a factorial combination of three spacings 15 ...

  7. TREE ONION A LITTLE PART IN GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Kokoreva

    2017-01-01

    Only administrative measures are not able to ensure the priority of existence for great number of biological species. There should be contribution of each population, regions in many countries and each person. Responsibility for nature and concern for future generation are our common duty. The forgotten culture of tree onion has revived as it has been shown in Italy and the work for preservation of its biodiversity is in progress, already showing fruitful results. The interesting cuisine reci...

  8. Recovery effect of onion peel extract against H2 O2 -induced inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication is mediated through quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jun; Seo, Sang Gwon; Choi, Keunhwa; Kim, Jong Eun; Kang, Heerim; Chung, Min-Yu; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2014-05-01

    Cellular oxidative damage mediated by reactive oxygen species has been reported to inhibit gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). In turn, the inhibition of GJIC can be attenuated by functional food compounds with antioxidant properties. In this study, we compared the protective effects of onion peel extract (OPE) and onion flesh extract (OFE) on oxidative stress-mediated GJIC inhibition, and investigated the mechanisms of action responsible. OPE restored H2 O2 -induced GJIC inhibition to a higher degree than OFE in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. OPE was found to inhibit H2 O2 -induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cx43. A radical scavenging assay demonstrated superiority of OPE over OFE, suggesting that the observed effects might be mediated via an antioxidant mechanism. Quercetin is the major compound that is likely to be responsible for the protective effect against H2 O2 -mediated GJIC inhibition. This study suggests that OPE, a material often discarded, may be of value for the future development of functional food products. This study demonstrates that onion peel extract (OPE) exhibits a protective effect against the inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) mediated by H2 O2 , which is likely to occur via its antioxidant activity. OPE contains significant concentrations of bioactive phenolic compounds. Reductions in oxidative stress can lead to recovery of GJIC, which has been reported to be implicated in the prevention and treatment of cancers. These findings suggest that onion peel, a common waste product, could be used as potential resources for functional food development. Onion peel could be processed into a quercetin-rich powder or a pill for the prevention of cancer and other oxidative stress-related diseases. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. [Effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Shou-wei; Pan, Kai; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06). The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars also increased the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Anaerolineaceae, and Anaerolineaceae only occurred in the rhizosphere soil in the treatment of high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06). It was suggested that high concentration (10 mL per plant) of root exudates from high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06) could benefit the increase of bacterial community diversity in cucumber seedlings rhizosphere soil.

  10. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus in bulb and stem vegetables, and carrots)

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2014-01-01

    Bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots may be minimally processed to obtain ready-to-eat products, and these steps include selection, washing, cleaning, cutting, packaging and storage. Risk factors for the contamination of bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots with Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of their occurrence in these vegetables were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to...

  11. [Inhibitory effect on Microcystis aeruginosa as well as separation and identification of the allelochemicals of welsh onion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Yuan; Li, Cheng; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-11-01

    To study the inhibition of welsh onion on Microcystis aeruginosa, and separat and identify of the allelochemicals from welsh onion. METHEDS: The inhibitory effect of different concentrations of fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf water extracts on M. aeruginosa were studied; besides, separation and identification of the allelochemicals of welsh onion were also studied. Both fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf water extracts had, to different degree, inhibitory effect on the growth of M. aeruginosat. Compared with the control group, the fluorescence intensity of fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf were lower than the control group in the same period, and the inhibitory effect were more obvious with the increase of the water extract concentrations, to the fifth day, M. aeruginosa almost completely dead of the highest concentration(50 ml/L) of fistular onion stalk water extract treated group, the EC50 of water extract from fistular onion stalk to M. aeruginosa was 12.7 ml/L, equivalent to fresh weight 1.27 g/L. Main allelochemicals in fistular onion stalk includes allyl mercaptan, cyclopentyl mercaptan, and so on. The inhibiting assay on M. aeruginosa showed that the EC50 of allyl mercaptan and cyclopentyl mercaptan respectively were 0.03 and 0.02 g/L. The fistular onion stalk water extracts has very good algicidal effect, allelopathic algal inhibiting substances primarily are sulfocompound, which have the potential to develop into biological algicide.

  12. Desafios e oportunidades para o agronegócio da cebola no Brasil The challenges and the oportunities for the onion agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlene J. Vilela

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever alguns aspectos socioeconômicos relacionados à cebola no Brasil e detectar os principais desafios e oportunidades que o produto apresenta para o agronegócio. A cultura, de caráter tipicamente "familiar" (88%, gera cerca de 250 mil empregos somente no setor de produção. O consumo é estável em 85 mil t por mês. A consolidação do Mercosul e a conseqüente importação de cebola da Argentina somada à produção nacional tem causado excesso de oferta em alguns meses, gerando perdas e conseqüentes prejuízos para os produtores. O setor produtivo brasileiro necessita elevar o nível tecnológico para alcançar maior eficiência técnica e econômica. No entanto, é necessário que as regiões produtoras do Brasil e da Argentina tenham estabilidade de produção e que a quantidade ofertada seja suficiente para atender às necessidades de abastecimento em determinados períodos do ano, sem causar desequilíbio no mercado.The main objective of this work was to describe some socieconomic aspects of the onion production in Brazil and to detect the principal challenges and opportunities for the onion agribusiness. The onion cultivation in Brazil is a family activity (88%, generating about 250 thousand jobs directly involved in the production. The onion consumption in Brazil is nearly 85 thousand t per month. With the consolidation of the MERCOSUL, the onion import from Argentina and the national production has caused excess of supply in some months, generating losses and consequent damages for the producers. The Brazilian productive sector needs to improve the technological level of the onion production to reach greater technical and economic efficiency. However, it is necessary that Brazilian and Argentinian producers look for a better production forecast to avoid excess of supply during some periods of the year.

  13. Steroidal glycosides from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) promote dermal fibroblast migration in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Debora; Munafo, John P; Lucibello, Teresa; Baldeon, Manuel; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2013-07-09

    Preparations derived from bulbs of various Lilium species have been used to promote the healing of skin abrasions, sores and burns and to aid in healing wounds in Traditional Chinese and Greco-Roman Medicine. To evaluate fractionated Easter lily bulb extracts and their steroidal glycosides (1-5) for the promotion of dermal fibroblast migration in vitro, a model for the early events in wound healing. An activity-guided screening approach was used by coupling sequential solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and semi-preparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an in vitro dermal fibroblast migration assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT). To gain insight into the mode of action of the steroidal glycosides, nitric oxide (NO) production, and expression of genes for transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β) and its receptors were evaluated. Fractionated bulb extracts and the two isolated steroidal glycoalkaloids (1) and (2) induced NO production and TGF-β receptor I mRNA expression in fibroblast cell culture. In a cytotoxicity assay, steroidal glycosides (1) and (3) had IC50 values of 8.2 and 8.7 µM, but the natural acetylation of the C-6″' hydroxy of the terminal glucose unit in (2) resulted in a 3-fold decrease in cell cytotoxicity when compared with (1). Results from the dermal fibroblast migration assay revealed that the steroidal glycoalkaloids (1) and (2), and the furostanol saponin (3) promoted fibroblast migration from the range of 23.7±5.7 to 37.7±5.1%, as compared with the control. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the steroidal glycosides present in Easter lily bulbs induce, at least in part, the observed dermal fibroblast migration activity of the bulb extracts. This is the first evidence that steroidal glycosides from Lilium longiflorum may potentially play a role in the wound healing process and may provide a scientific basis for the historical use of lily

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Student Active Participation in the Study of the Light Bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Ogrutan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an initiative approach to the study of light bulbs, involving active participation of the students engaged in interactive problem-/project-based learning of electromagnetic compatibility and energetic efficiency belonging to the environmental issues. The paper includes preliminary and complementary simulations of the hardware firmware-software-net ware development of a laboratory test bench for the study of conducted perturbations generated during the bulb firing sequence. This laboratory sub-system is useful both in association with traditional methods of learning as well as with e-Learning platforms. Finally, the paper presents the results of a concise survey of opinions on the outcomes of this research.

  16. The effects of γ-irradiation on the garlic oil contents in garlic bulbs and the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Genshuan, Wang Guanghui; Yang Ruipu; Wu Jilan

    1995-01-01

    The study of the effects of γ-irradiation on the garlic oil contents in the garlic bulbs and the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide and disulfide were carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant as stored for 10 months long. The main components of the garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3 C HOH radical into acetaldehyde, which causes that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited. (author)

  17. The effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Genshuan; Wang Guanghui; Yang Ruipu; Wu Jilan

    1996-01-01

    A study of the effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisufide and disulfide was carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant when stored for 10 months. The main components of garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3 C . HOH radical into acetaldehyde, which means that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited. (author)

  18. Stimulus-response functions of single avian olfactory bulb neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, Dorothy E F; Demmers, Theodorus G M; Wathes, Christopher M; Jones, R Bryan; Gentle, Michael J

    2002-10-25

    This study investigated olfactory processing in a functional context by examining the responses of single avian olfactory bulb neurones to two biologically important gases over relevant concentration ranges. Recordings of extracellular spike activity were made from 80 single units in the left olfactory bulb of 11 anaesthetised, freely breathing adult hens (Gallus domesticus). The units were spontaneously active, exhibiting widely variable firing rates (0.07-47.28 spikes/s) and variable temporal firing patterns. Single units were tested for their response to an ascending concentration series of either ammonia (2.5-100 ppm) or hydrogen sulphide (1-50 ppm), delivered directly to the olfactory epithelium. Stimulation with a calibrated gas delivery system resulted in modification of spontaneous activity causing either inhibition (47% of units) or excitation (53%) of firing. For ammonia, 20 of the 35 units tested exhibited a response, while for hydrogen sulphide, 25 of the 45 units tested were responsive. Approximate response thresholds for ammonia (median threshold 3.75 ppm (range 2.5-60 ppm, n=20)) and hydrogen sulphide (median threshold 1 ppm (range 1-10 ppm, n=25)) were determined with most units exhibiting thresholds near the lower end of these ranges. Stimulus response curves were constructed for 23 units; 16 (the most complete) were subjected to a linear regression analysis to determine whether they were best fitted by a linear, log or power function. No single function provided the best fit for all the curves (seven were linear, eight were log, one was power). These findings show that avian units respond to changes in stimulus concentration in a manner generally consistent with reported responses in mammalian olfactory bulb neurones. However, this study illustrates a level of fine-tuning to small step changes in concentration (<5 ppm) not previously demonstrated in vertebrate single olfactory bulb neurones.

  19. Calibration of school spectrometer for measuring light bulb efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Valenčič, Matej

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis presents the efficiency of various light sources which are used for lighting on a daily basis (incandescent light bulb, halogen lamp, compact fluorescent lamp, light-emiting diode). The theoretical part of the thesis presents the instruments used for measurements, the physical laws used in order to calculate the efficiency of each light source and the physical background needed for the understanding of further calculations. The experimental part of the thesis presents the ...

  20. Estimating Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Using Standard Meteorological Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    The heat stress management program at the Department of Energy''s Savannah River Site (SRS) requires implementation of protective controls on outdoor work based on observed values of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). To ensure continued compliance with heat stress program requirements, a computer algorithm was developed which calculates an estimate of WBGT using standard meteorological measurements. In addition, scripts were developed to generate a calculation every 15 minutes and post the results to an Intranet web site

  1. Antioxidant Activity of the Bulb and Aerial Parts of Ornithogalum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extracts did not show any activity in the peroxidation test but displayed good H2O2 radical scavenging activity compared with quercetin (IC50= 52.0± 3.1 μg ml-1) which was used as positive control. Conclusion: The bulb and aerial parts of O. sintenisii aerial parts (at flowering stage) exhibited good but varying levels of ...

  2. A new dipeptide isolated from the bulb of garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-Yun; Wu, Zhao-Jun; Li, Wen-Qing; Hu, Xing-Peng; Yan, Rian; Ou, Shi-Yi; Zhou, Hua

    2014-01-01

    (R)-3-(allylthio)-2-((R)-3-(allylthio)-2-aminopropanamido)propanoic acid was isolated from the bulb of garlic, together with four known amino acids. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR and MS techniques. To the best of our knowledge, (R)-3-(allylthio)-2-((R)-3-(allylthio)-2-aminopropanamido)propanoic acid, which showed antibacterial activity against the Staphylococcus aureus antibiotic resistant strain, was the first example of dipeptide from garlic.

  3. Morphology and Physicochemical Properties of 3 Lilium Bulb Starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xurun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Aimin; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Lilium (Liliaceae) is an important wild plant and is used as food and traditional medicine worldwide. One Lilium cultivar (Lilium lancifolium) and 2 wild types (Lilium leucanthum and Lilium rosthornii) that are commonly distributed in Western China were investigated to completely utilize Lilium resources. The morphology of the flowers, bulbs, and scales and soluble sugar, total starch and amylose contents was remarkably different among the 3 Lilium species. Starches from the 3 Lilium species presented different granule size and shape. The starch of L. lancifolium exhibited higher swelling power and solubility than that of L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. The starches from the 3 Lilium bulbs presented similar X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Among the 3 Lilium species, L. lancifolium showed the lowest crystallinity and the largest proportion of ordered structures in granule external region. Gelatinization temperatures and retrogradation percentage were significantly lower, but gelatinization enthalpy was significantly higher in L. lancifolium than those in L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. Pasting properties of starch were different among the 3 Lilium species. Starch from L. lancifolium showed the highest degree of amylopectin branching, followed by L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. Starches from L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii showed higher resistance to porcine pancreatic α-amylase hydrolysis compared to that of L. lancifolium. These results indicated that 3 Lilium bulbs exhibited remarkable differences in morphological, crystal, thermal, pasting, and hydrolysis properties of starches. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Optical and thermal design of light emitting diodes omnidirectional bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi Ting; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chen, Cheng-Huan

    2015-10-01

    The penetration of LED light bulbs into the lighting market is growing quickly in recent years due to significant increase of LED efficiency and reduction of cost. One major issue to be improved is the overall light bulb efficiency, which can fulfill "Energy Star for Lamps" while keeping sufficiently high efficiency. The efficiency issue results mainly from the high directionality of the LED sources and the corresponding solutions to make the emission more diverse. In this paper, a diffusion white reflection sheet (DWRS) with an array of holes is proposed as a high efficiency solution for modulating a light emission profile with SMD type LED source. The hole size is adjusted with fixed hole pitch to both maximize the efficiency and meet the omnidirectional specification. In addition, the concept of thermal plastic insertion molding metal is proposed for thermal management without fins for cooling. The prototype demonstrates the efficiency (Ef.) of 87.6% and LED pad temperature of 85°C, which shows the feasibility as a total solution for high efficiency LED omnidirectional bulbs.

  5. Inoculation method, temperature and relative humidity affects leaf and neck anthracnose, a new onion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf and neck anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum coccodes is a new disease of onion in Michigan. To test the effect of inoculation method, ‘Prince’ onion seedlings were grown in the greenhouse and inoculated with either a conidial suspension of C. coccodes (alone or with an abrasive agent) or infe...

  6. One sided UV-C treatments maintain quality of fresh-cut green onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasım, R.; Kasım, U.M.

    2010-01-01

    Storage quality of fresh-cut green onions as affected by UV-C treatments, so in this research the effect of UV-C treatments on quality was investigated in fresh-cut green onions. Four different UV-C treatments were used for ultraviole radiation to onions, and non-treated samples as evaluated control group. After UV-C treatments onions were stored at 5°C and 85-90% RH for 15 days. Quality attributes of samples were evaluated periodically in terms of antioxidant activity, electroliyte leakage, color, weight loss, decay percentage and inner leaf extension. Electrolyte leakage of fresh-cut green onions was getting high with the higher doses of UV-C so, the lower doses can be used for controlled pathogen growth because of both lower electrolyte leakage and lower decay percentage at the day 10 th . L* value of white stem tissues maintain best in UV-C 5 treatment whereas green color of hollow green tissues was retained best in UV-C 3 treatment. Onions in UV-C 15 treatment were shown noticeable yellowing however inner leaf extension of onions was effectively controlled by the UV-C 15 treatment. Antioxidant activity of fresh-cut green onion was enhanced higher doses of UV-C treatments, especially UV-C 15 . (author)

  7. Molecular-aided selection of male sterility for hybrid development in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintainer lines are used to seed propagate male-sterile lines for the development of hybrid-onion cultivars. Selection of maintainer lines is more efficient using molecular markers that distinguish cytoplasms and genotypes at the nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus. Onion cytoplasms can b...

  8. SNP-markers in Allium species to facilitate introgression breeding in onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olga E.; Kaauwen, van Martijn P.W.; Shahin, Arwa; Hendrickx, Patrick M.; Keizer, Paul; Burger-Meijer, Karin; Heusden, van Sjaak; Linden, van der Gerard; Vosman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Within onion, Allium cepa L., the availability of disease resistance is limited. The identification of sources of resistance in related species, such as Allium roylei and Allium fistulosum, was a first step towards the improvement of onion cultivars by breeding. SNP markers linked to

  9. Effect of onion flavonoids on colorectal cancer with hyperlipidemia: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yongshan He,1,* Heiying Jin,1,* Wei Gong,2,* Chunxia Zhang,1 Acheng Zhou1 1National Center of Colorectal Surgery, Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Surgery, Jiangyin Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jiangyin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: This study aims to find the effect of onion's extraction on the colorectal cancer with hyperlipidemia. Method: We established a hyperlipidemia-subcutaneously heterotopic colorectal cancer orthotopic transplant model and fed mice a high fat diet and performing transplantation. Animal models were treated with capecitabine and/or simvastatin and low-, middle-, high- dose of onion's extraction and both tumor growth rate and blood lipid levels were monitored. Results: We found that colorectal cancer in onion's extraction groups was significantly inhibited, and the effect of high dose of onion's extraction was equivalent to capecitabine. Onion's extraction effectively decreased levels of apoB and TC. Conclusion: Our study established a hyperlipidemia colon tumor model involving subcutaneous colon translocation and orthotopic transplantation, this model was an ideal research model for mutual influence of hyperlipidemia and colorectal cancer. Onion's extraction could inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer; the function of the high-dose of onion's extraction was fairly to capecitabine, which provided a new direction in protecting and treating colorectal cancer. Keywords: colorectal cancer, hyperlipidemia, onion flavonoids, capecitabine, simvastatin

  10. Incidence and control of onion fly, Delia antiqua , at some irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted between 1994 and 1997 on the incidence, distribution, and control of the onion fly Delia antiqua in northern Ghana. Results showed that the insect is prevalent in most of the onion-growing areas and is capable of causing up to 33 per cent crop damage. It was also established that early transplanting ...

  11. Towards a framework PCR-based map of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCallum, J.; Pither-Joyce, M.; Clarke, A.; Kik, C.; Heusden, van A.W.; Jakse, J.; Havey, M.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic analysis of onion has been hampered by a lack of portable co-dominant markers based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The public release of a relatively large set of non-redundant onion expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in 2003 has provided the opportunity to develop such markers for use

  12. Why are there so many molecular markers tagging the Ms locus of onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary source of male sterility used to produce hybrid-onion cultivars is conditioned by the interaction of the cytoplasm (N versus S) and alleles at one nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus Due to the biennial life cycle of onion and the necessity to score testcross progenies, the de...

  13. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  14. Anti-bacterial action of onion (Allium cepa L.) extracts against oral pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H

    1997-09-01

    In this study, the focus was on the antibacterial activity of onions. This study researched the activities of onion extracts on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, the main causal bacteria for dental caries, and Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, considered to be the main causal bacteria of adult periodontitis. The results showed that the onion extracts possess an effect on all test bacterial strains (S.mutans JC-2, S. sobrinus OMZ176, P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and P. intermedia ATCC 25611), and the effects were bactericidal against cultured and resting bacterial cells. The activity of the onion extracts was stable even after 48 hours in the culture medium. This result suggests that no decomposition or volatility of onion extracts occurred in the culture medium. The antibacterial activity of onion extracts was not markedly influenced by cysteine (10 mM) treatment. However, activity significantly decreased with alkali treatment. Grated onion left to stand at 37 degrees C for 48 hours did not show antibacterial activity. Also, activity of steam treated (100 degrees C, 10 min.) onion was not observed. Using avicel plate by thin layer chromatography with the solvent of n-butanol:acetic acid:water (3:3:1), the main component of the substance (the substance which develops color with ninhydrin) was observed at an Rf value of about 0.9.

  15. 75 FR 34345 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...; FV10-956-1 FR] Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast... under the marketing order regulating the handling of sweet onions grown in the Walla Walla Valley of... Sweet Onion Marketing Committee (hereinafter referred to as the ``Committee''). This rule revises the...

  16. 75 FR 18428 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 956 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0020; FV10-956-1 PR] Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla... the handling of sweet onions grown in the Walla Walla Valley of southeast Washington and northeast Oregon. The marketing order is administered locally by the Walla Walla Sweet Onion Marketing Committee...

  17. Investigation of Proline, Chlorophyll and Carotenoids Changes Under Drought Stress in Some Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    HANCI, Fatih; CEBECİ, Esra

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the major limitations for vegetable growth and productivity all over the World. In this study the effects of drought stress on proline, chlorophyll a/b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids were investigated in some onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars (Kantartopu-3, Akgun-12 and Texas Early Grano) under the early plant growth phase. Seeds were germinated in peat material and transferred to plastic pots after 21 days of sowing. The plants have been grown in vermiculite by “substrat...

  18. Heat balance model for a human body in the form of wet bulb globe temperature indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Mochida, Tohru; Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kuwabara, Kohei; Horiba, Yosuke; Sawada, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the empirically derived wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index to a rational thermal index based on the heat balance for a human body. We derive the heat balance model in the same form as the WBGT for a human engaged in moderate intensity work with a metabolic heat production of 174W/m 2 while wearing typical vapor-permeable clothing under shady and sunny conditions. Two important relationships are revealed based on this derivation: (1) the natural wet bulb and black globe temperature coefficients in the WBGT coincide with the heat balance equation for a human body with a fixed skin wettedness of approximately 0.45 at a fixed skin temperature; and (2) the WBGT can be interpreted as the environmental potential to increase skin temperature rather than the heat storage rate of a human body. We propose an adjustment factor calculation method that supports the application of WBGT for humans dressed in various clothing types and working under various air velocity conditions. Concurrently, we note difficulties in adjusting the WBGT by using a single factor for humans wearing vapor-impermeable protective clothing. The WBGT for shady conditions does not need adjustment depending on the positive radiant field (i.e., when a radiant heat source exists), whereas that for the sunny condition requires adjustments because it underestimates heat stress, which may result in insufficient human protection measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SNP-markers in Allium species to facilitate introgression breeding in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Olga E; van Kaauwen, Martijn P W; Shahin, Arwa; Hendrickx, Patrick M; Keizer, L C Paul; Burger, Karin; van Heusden, Adriaan W; van der Linden, C Gerard; Vosman, Ben

    2016-08-31

    Within onion, Allium cepa L., the availability of disease resistance is limited. The identification of sources of resistance in related species, such as Allium roylei and Allium fistulosum, was a first step towards the improvement of onion cultivars by breeding. SNP markers linked to resistance and polymorphic between these related species and onion cultivars are a valuable tool to efficiently introgress disease resistance genes. In this paper we describe the identification and validation of SNP markers valuable for onion breeding. Transcriptome sequencing resulted in 192 million RNA seq reads from the interspecific F1 hybrid between A. roylei and A. fistulosum (RF) and nine onion cultivars. After assembly, reliable SNPs were discovered in about 36 % of the contigs. For genotyping of the interspecific three-way cross population, derived from a cross between an onion cultivar and the RF (CCxRF), 1100 SNPs that are polymorphic in RF and monomorphic in the onion cultivars (RF SNPs) were selected for the development of KASP assays. A molecular linkage map based on 667 RF-SNP markers was constructed for CCxRF. In addition, KASP assays were developed for 1600 onion-SNPs (SNPs polymorphic among onion cultivars). A second linkage map was constructed for an F2 of onion x A. roylei (F2(CxR)) that consisted of 182 onion-SNPs and 119 RF-SNPs, and 76 previously mapped markers. Markers co-segregating in both the F2(CxR) and the CCxRF population were used to assign the linkage groups of RF to onion chromosomes. To validate usefulness of these SNP markers, QTL mapping was applied in the CCxRF population that segregates for resistance to Botrytis squamosa and resulted in a QTL for resistance on chromosome 6 of A. roylei. Our research has more than doubled the publicly available marker sequences of expressed onion genes and two onion-related species. It resulted in a detailed genetic map for the interspecific CCxRF population. This is the first paper that reports the detection of

  20. Strain distributions in nano-onions with uniform and non-uniform compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, H L; Karihaloo, B L; Wang, J; Yi, X

    2006-01-01

    Nano-onions are ellipsoidal or spherical particles consisting of a core surrounded by concentric shells of nanometre size. Nano-onions produced by self-assembly and colloidal techniques have different structures and compositions, and thus differ in the state of strains. The mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients and lattice constants between neighbouring shells induces stress/strain fields in the core and shells, which in turn affect their physical/mechanical properties and/or the properties of the composites containing them. In this paper, the strains in embedded and free-standing nano-onions with uniform and non-uniform compositions are studied in detail. It is found that the strains in the nano-onions can be modified by adjusting their compositions and structures. The results are useful for the band structure engineering of semiconductor nano-onions

  1. Variability in spectrophotometric pyruvate analyses for predicting onion pungency and nutraceutical value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Vanesa H; Bannoud, Florencia; Insani, Marina; Galmarini, Claudio R; Cavagnaro, Pablo F

    2017-06-01

    Onion pyruvate concentration is used as a predictor of flavor intensity and nutraceutical value. The protocol of Schwimmer and Weston (SW) (1961) is the most widespread methodology for estimating onion pyruvate. Anthon and Barret (AB) (2003) proposed modifications to this procedure. Here, we compared these spectrophotometry-based procedures for pyruvate analysis using a diverse collection of onion cultivars. The SW method always led to over-estimation of pyruvate levels in colored, but not in white onions, by up to 65%. Identification of light-absorbance interfering compounds was performed by spectrophotometry and HPLC analysis. Interference by quercetin and anthocyanins, jointly, accounted for more than 90% of the over-estimation of pyruvate. Pyruvate determinations according to AB significantly reduced absorbance interference from compounds other than pyruvate. This study provides evidence about the mechanistic basis underlying differences between the SW and AB methods for indirect assessment of onion flavor and nutraceutical value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-Distance Dispersal Potential for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus) in an Onion Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A; Fuchs, M; Shields, E J; Nault, B A

    2015-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a worldwide pest of onion whose feeding damage and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) may reduce onion yields. Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of T. tabaci dispersal, the distance of dispersal, or the movement of thrips infected with IYSV during the onion-growing season. To address these questions, T. tabaci adults were collected using transparent sticky card traps in commercial onion fields three times during the onion-growing season (June, July, and late August) at varying heights above the canopy (0.5-6 m above soil surface) and with trap-equipped unmanned aircraft (UAVs) flying 50-60 m above onion fields during August sampling periods in 2012 and 2013. Randomly selected subsamples of captured T. tabaci were tested for IYSV using RT-PCR. Most T. tabaci adults were captured in late August and near the onion canopy (UAV-mounted traps. These data strongly suggest that long-distance dispersal occurs. More T. tabaci captured on sticky cards tested positive for IYSV in August (53.6%) than earlier in the season (2.3 to 21.5% in June and July, respectively), and 20 and 15% of T. tabaci captured on UAV-mounted traps tested positive for IYSV in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our results indicate that T. tabaci adults, including viruliferous individuals, engage in long-distance dispersal late in the season and likely contribute to the spread of IYSV. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Companion cropping with potato onion enhances the disease resistance of tomato against Verticillium dahliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuepeng eFu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping could alleviate soil-borne diseases, however, few studies focused on the immunity of the host plant induced by the interspecific interactions. To test whether or not intercropping could enhance the disease resistance of host plant, we investigated the effect of companion cropping with potato onion on tomato Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae. To investigate the mechanisms, the root exudates were collected from tomato and potato onion which were grown together or separately, and were used to examine the antifungal activities against V. dahliae in vitro, respectively. Furthermore, RNA-seq was used to examine the expression pattern of genes related to disease resistance in tomato companied with potato onion compared to that in tomato grown alone, under the condition of infection with V. dahliae. The results showed that companion cropping with potato onion could alleviate the incidence and severity of tomato Verticillium wilt. The further studies revealed that the root exudates from tomato companied with potato onion significantly inhibited the mycelia growth and spore germination of V. dahliae. However, there were no significant effects on these two measurements for the root exudates from potato onion grown alone or from potato onion grown with tomato. RNA-seq data analysis showed the disease defense genes associated with pathogenesis-related proteins, biosynthesis of lignin, hormone metabolism and signal transduction were expressed much higher in the tomato companied with potato onion than those in the tomato grown alone, which indicated that these defense genes play important roles in tomato against V. dahliae infection, and meant that the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae was enhanced in the companion copping with potato onion. We proposed that companion cropping with potato onion could enhance the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae by regulating the expression of genes related

  4. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis and P. agglomerans, causal agents of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) through feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, B; Barman, A K; Srinivasan, R; Avci, U; Ullman, D E; Langston, D B; Gitaitis, R D

    2014-08-01

    Frankliniella fusca, the tobacco thrips, has been shown to acquire and transmit Pantoea ananatis, one of the causal agents of the center rot of onion. Although Thrips tabaci, the onion thrips, is a common pest of onions, its role as a vector of P. ananatis has been unknown. The bacterium, P. agglomerans, is also associated with the center rot of onion, but its transmission by thrips has not been previously investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship of T. tabaci with P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. Surface-sterilized T. tabaci were provided with various acquisition access periods (AAP) on onion leaves inoculated with either P. ananatis or P. agglomerans. A positive exponential relationship was observed between thrips AAP duration and P. ananatis (R² = 0.967; P = 0.023) or P. agglomerans acquisition (R² = 0.958; P = 0.017). Transmission experiments conducted with T. tabaci adults indicated that 70% of the seedlings developed center rot symptoms 15 days after inoculation. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to P. ananatis revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut of T. tabaci adults. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates alone produced center rot but not with salivary secretions. Together these results suggested that T. tabaci could efficiently transmit P. ananatis and P. agglomerans.

  5. Desempenho de cultivares de cebola nos sistemas orgânico e convencional em Minas Gerais Performance of onion cultivars grown in the organic and conventional systems in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Belfort Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de 16 cultivares de cebola nos sistemas orgânico e convencional em Viçosa-MG, de abril a dezembro de 2003. As cultivares avaliadas foram Texas Early Grano, Baia Periforme, Alfa Tropical, Texas Yellow Grano, Jubileu, Crioula do Alto Vale, Encino, Régia, Tropical Valley, Serrana, Bella Crioula, Ipa-6, Bola Precoce e os híbridos Granex, Mercedes e Baia Dura. Foram realizados dois experimentos, um em área de cultivo convencional e outro em área de cultivo orgânico, em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: produtividade, bulbificação, peso de bulbos, perda de peso e o teor de sólidos solúveis. As cvs. Texas Early Grano, Régia, Mercedes e Encino foram as que apresentaram maior perda de peso. O sistema convencional proporcionou maior instabilidade para as outras características e somente para o teor de sólidos solúveis esteve associado à média alta. No entanto, para todas as características a média das melhores cultivares do sistema convencional foi maior do que as melhores cultivares no sistema orgânico. As cvs. Baia Dura, Bola Precoce e Tropical Valley apresentaram maior produtividade e maior potencial à industrialização devido à maior bulbificação, maior peso de bulbo e maior teor de sólidos solúveis apresentado no sistema convencional.The performance of sixteen onion cultivars grown in the organic and conventional systems was evaluated in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April to December 2003. The following onion cultivars were evaluated: 'Texas Early Grano', 'Baia Periforme', 'Alfa Tropical', 'Texas Yellow Grano', 'Jubileu', 'Crioula do Alto Vale', 'Encino', 'Régia', 'Tropical Valley', 'Serrana', 'Bella Crioula', 'Ipa-6', 'Bola Precoce' and the hybrids 'Granex', 'Mercedes' and 'Baia Dura'. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area of conventional cultivation and another

  6. Effect of Osmo-air drying on quality of dried onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mozaffary

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration is a process of partial removing of water from food by immersion of the product in a hypertonic aqueous solution. This study aimed to investigate  the effect of osmotic dehydration on quality of hot- air- dried onion. Azarshahr red onion variety was used for the experiments. In order to define an optimum condition for osmo-drying process, some parameters including temperature, time and concentration of dehydration solution was evaluated. Based on water loss(WL and solid gained (SG, the best treatment of temperature, time and concentration of dehydration solution were determined as 40˚C, 1 h and %5 respectively. One series of samples were prepared and dried in oven at 65˚C for 12 h. These samples were packed in two different ways including aluminium foil under the pressure of inert gas and in polyethylene packs. The samples were kept in ambient temperature. Every 2 months during storage period, parameters  such as rehydration and organoleptic properties were performed on the samples.The results organoleptic test revealed that, the quality of samples decreases after 4 months of storage.Moreover, the samples that were packed by polyethylene showed the most desirable properties. Among osmotic samples, the degree of rehydration of the sample prepared with concentration of % 5 in 40˚C in 1 hour and packed in foil under inert gas, was greater than the other osmotic samples. Rehydration parameters had direct relation with temperature and the time of rehydration. Therefore, the amount of rehydration improves with increasing time and temperature.

  7. Alleviation of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in Wistar rats by onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vaddi P; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2016-06-20

    In various traditional medicines, onion has been classified as an immune-boosting food. Recent studies have claimed this property due to the presence of bioactive organosulfur compounds, prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides and an immunomodulatory protein, lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin; ACA) (Prasanna and Venkatesh, 2015. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro. Int. Immunopharmacol. vol. 26, pp. 304-313). The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoprotective properties of ACA in normal and cyclophosphamide (CP; 100μg/kg)-induced immunosuppressed Wistar rats. Wistar rats were administrated different doses of ACA (1, 10, and 100μg) to respective groups in normal as well as immunosuppressed animals. The effect of ACA on the status of immune organs was assessed by examining the splenic and thymic indices, and histopathological changes. The biomarkers for humoral immunity (serum IgG and IgA levels) and serum pro-inflammatory markers (COX-2, TNF-α and IL-10) were measured by ELISA. ACA showed immunoprotective properties by significantly promoting the restoration of lymphoid cell count by ~6 fold vs. model control (immunosuppressed animals) and promotes the immune response significantly (~1.5-fold) in CP-induced immunosuppressed animals compared to model control; production of pro-inflammatory molecules (COX-2 and nitric oxide) and expression levels of immune regulatory molecule (TNF-α) were elevated in a dose-dependent manner. The observed in vivo results suggest that ACA has the potential to be used as a nutritional therapeutic to boost the immune status of immunosuppressed subjects brought about by CP administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting the current potential and future world wide distribution of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua using maximum entropy ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shuoying; Wei, Jiufeng; Feng, Jinian

    2017-01-01

    Climate change will markedly impact biology, population ecology, and spatial distribution patterns of insect pests because of the influence of future greenhouse effects on insect development and population dynamics. Onion maggot, Delia antiqua, larvae are subterranean pests with limited mobility, that directly feed on bulbs of Allium sp. and render them completely unmarketable. Modeling the spatial distribution of such a widespread and damaging pest is crucial not only to identify current potentially suitable climactic areas but also to predict where the pest is likely to spread in the future so that appropriate monitoring and management programs can be developed. In this study, Maximum Entropy Niche Modeling was used to estimate the current potential distribution of D. antiqua and to predict the future distribution of this species in 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2080 by using emission scenario (A2) with 7 climate variables. The results of this study show that currently highly suitable habitats for D.antiqua occur throughout most of East Asia, some regions of North America, Western Europe, and Western Asian countries near the Caspian sea and Black Sea. In the future, we predict an even broader distribution of this pest spread more extensively throughout Asia, North America and Europe, particularly in most of European countries, Central regions of United States and much of East Asia. Our present day and future predictions can enhance strategic planning of agricultural organizations by identifying regions that will need to develop Integrated Pest Management programs to manage the onion maggot. The distribution forecasts will also help governments to optimize economic investments in management programs for this pest by identifying regions that are or will become less suitable for current and future infestations.

  9. Evaluation Effects of Different Planting Systems on Water Use Efficiency, Relative Water Content and some Plant Growth Parameters in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa IZADKHAH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different sowing methods on water use efficiency, relative water content and some vegetative growth parameters of onion a study was carried out in the Agriculturalr research Center of East Azarbayjan in 2007-2008 cropping season. The experiment was a factorial by using the randomized complete block design with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The first factor was consistting of two sowing methods, dirct sowing (DS and the transplanting method (TM, the second factor was including two onion cultivars �Azarshahr� (red hull and later maturing and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan� (bright-red, early maturing. Analysis of variance for the measured traits indicated that except for the relative water content (RWC, other traits were significant influenced by the sowing methods. TM had higher values of water use efficiency (WUE, bulbing ratio (BR, aerial leaves length (ALL, leaf area (LA, leaf area index (LAI, leaves dry weight (LDW, leaves fresh weight (LFW and leaves saturation weight (LSW than the DS methods. Maximum WUE (6.07 kg m3 and minimum WU (9381 m3 ha-1 were obtained in TM. However, the lowest WUE (4.19 kg m3 and the highest WU (115921 m3 ha-1 was obtained with DS. In other words, in TM water economizing was 1.5 tim, amount of yield was increased up 15% (in comparison with DS. Also among the cultivars except for the RWC, WUE and BR other traits were significantly. The sowing method x cultivar interaction were not significant. For the studied traits, TM and red �Azarshahr� cv. were better than the DS and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan�, thus thy were identified the best treatments for experiment therefore it is recommended for the places with the same environmental conditions of this experiment.

  10. Public acceptance and trade development of irradiated food in Sri Lanka with special reference to spices and onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson Wijeratnam, R.S.; Sivakumar, D.

    2001-01-01

    Sri Lankan spices, onion, shallots and dried chillies suffer considerable storage losses due to inadequate preservation method. Irradiation to a dose 7 kGy was found to be effective technique to reduce storage losses and improve quality of different spices. Preliminary results showed prospect of using irradiation for large scale preservation of dried chillis. But due to lack of irradiation, facility scaled- up irradiation and storage trials could not be undertaken. Based on study conducted by the Ceylon Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, a report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka on the current demand for a multi-purpose irradiation facility. The food items identified for irradiation processing include spices, desiccated coconut, shrimps for export; and onions, chillies and dried fish products, foliage plants and medical products for local trade. The volume of products for commercial processing has also been indicated in the survey report. Steps for approval of the Harmonised Regulations on Food Irradiation as adopted in the RCA Workshop in Seoul, 1998 are at the processing level for submission as a parliamentary bill. A consumer acceptance survey was carried out in 1997; the outcome showed a low acceptance for irradiated spices. About 200 participants comprising private exporters, govt. officials and students were made aware of the irradiation process and benefits of irradiation treatment through the training programmes on post-harvest management at the CISIR. (author)

  11. Desempenho de cultivares de cebola em função do manejo da irrigação por gotejamento Performance of onion cultivars as a function of drip irrigation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C Vilas Boas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar o efeito de diferentes tensões da água no solo sobre a produção de duas cultivares de cebola irrigadas por gotejamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lavras, Minas Gerais (21° 14' S, 45° 00' W e 918,8 m, no período de junho a outubro de 2008. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos se constituíram de duas cultivares de cebola, cultivar híbrida Optima F1 e cultivar não híbrida Alfa Tropical, e seis níveis críticos de tensões da água no solo, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60 e 75 kPa. Com os resultados, concluiu-se que o híbrido Optima F1 apresentou melhores respostas com relação às seguintes características analisadas: produtividade total de bulbos, produtividade de bulbos comerciais, massa média de bulbos comerciais e eficiência no uso da água. Visando à obtenção de maiores produtividades de bulbos (total e comercial e maior massa média de bulbos comerciais, em ambas as cultivares, deve-se irrigar no momento em que a tensão da água no solo estiver em torno de 15 kPa na profundidade de 0,15 m. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais apresentou resposta quadrática com relação às tensões da água no solo. A eficiência no uso da água aumentou linearmente em virtude do acréscimo da tensão da água no solo.Different soil water tension values were tested to evaluate the effects on onion yield of two drip irrigated onion cultivars. The experiment was carried out at Lavras, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil (21° 14' S, 45° 00' W and 918.8 m, from June to October 2008. The statistical design used was randomized blocks with a factorial scheme 2 x 6, with four replications. The treatment levels were two onion cultivars (hybrid Optima F1 and the non hybrid Alfa tropical and six critical soil water tension levels (15, 25, 35, 45, 60 and 75 kPa. It can be concluded that the hybrid Optima F1 presented the

  12. Desempenho agronômico e heterose de genótipos de cebola Agronomic performance and heterosis of onion genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos V Faria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de híbridos de cebola no Brasil ainda é recente e são escassas as informações referentes aos ganhos por heterose. Contudo, a primeira etapa para a exploração da heterose é a avaliação do germoplasma disponível. Devido à necessidade de genótipos adaptados às condições climáticas paranaenses, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho agronômico de 19 híbridos e 50 linhagens de cebola, bem como o ganho heterótico de seis desses híbridos avaliados na região Centro-Sul do Paraná. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Foi avaliada a produção e a massa média de bulbos, a classificação comercial, a cerosidade das folhas e o ciclo. De modo geral os híbridos foram superiores às linhagens na produtividade e massa média de bulbos e apresentaram menor ciclo. O ganho heterótico nos híbridos ficou evidenciado nos cruzamentos avaliados, indicando que híbridos podem ser viáveis para cultivo na região. Os híbridos 2572, 2573 e 2578 são promissores, pois aliam alta produtividade, ciclo mais precoce e melhor classificação dos bulbos. As linhagens 2507-1 e 2983 proporcionam elevado ganho heterótico para a produtividade do híbrido 2857, o qual foi classificado no grupo de genótipos mais precoces, demonstrando a existência de correlação inversa entre esses dois caracteres.The use of onion hybrids in Brazil is still recent, with little information regarding the gains from heterosis. However, the first step to exploit the heterosis is the evaluation of available germplasm. Due to the need for genotypes adapted to the climatic conditions of South-Central region of Paraná state, Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of 19 hybrids and 50 inbred lines of onion, as well as the heterotic gain of six of these hybrids. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications. The evaluated traits were yield, average

  13. Multi-scale structure and topological anomaly detection via a new network statistic: The onion decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Grochow, Joshua A.; Allard, Antoine

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a network statistic that measures structural properties at the micro-, meso-, and macroscopic scales, while still being easy to compute and interpretable at a glance. Our statistic, the onion spectrum, is based on the onion decomposition, which refines the k-core decomposition, a standard network fingerprinting method. The onion spectrum is exactly as easy to compute as the k-cores: It is based on the stages at which each vertex gets removed from a graph in the standard algorithm for computing the k-cores. Yet, the onion spectrum reveals much more information about a network, and at multiple scales; for example, it can be used to quantify node heterogeneity, degree correlations, centrality, and tree- or lattice-likeness. Furthermore, unlike the k-core decomposition, the combined degree-onion spectrum immediately gives a clear local picture of the network around each node which allows the detection of interesting subgraphs whose topological structure differs from the global network organization. This local description can also be leveraged to easily generate samples from the ensemble of networks with a given joint degree-onion distribution. We demonstrate the utility of the onion spectrum for understanding both static and dynamic properties on several standard graph models and on many real-world networks.

  14. Anti-Obesity Effects of Onion Extract in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Kiharu

    2012-01-01

    Anti-obesity effects of onion extract were determined in obesity and diabetes-prone Zucker diabetic fatty rats by measuring the efficacy of markers concerned with diabetes and obesity. Body and adipose tissue weights in 5% of onion extract-fed group were found to be significantly lower than the control group without onion extract. Fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR levels were also improved, although the serum insulin and leptin levels did not show any remarkable difference. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in both the 3% and 5%-fed group were found to be reduced compared to the control group. Additionally the feeding of the onion extract increased the glucose tolerance. These results suggest that dietary onion extract is beneficial for improving diabetes by decreasing lipid levels. We also examined differentiation ability of rat white preadipocyte cells using the onion extract and its sulfur-containing components. Cycloalliin, S-methyl-L-cysteine, S-propyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, dimethyl trisulfide, especially S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide were reported to be effective in inhibiting formation of oil drop in the cells, suggesting that these compounds may be involved in the anti-obesity effect of the onion extract. PMID:23201769

  15. A coupled-oscillator model of olfactory bulb gamma oscillations.

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    Guoshi Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system. To understand this transformation and its integration with interareal coordination mechanisms requires that we understand its fundamental dynamical principles. Using a biophysically explicit, multiscale model of olfactory bulb circuitry, we here demonstrate that an inhibition-coupled intrinsic oscillator framework, pyramidal resonance interneuron network gamma (PRING, best captures the diversity of physiological properties exhibited by the olfactory bulb. Most importantly, these properties include global zero-phase synchronization in the gamma band, the phase-restriction of informative spikes in principal neurons with respect to this common clock, and the robustness of this synchronous oscillatory regime to multiple challenging conditions observed in the biological system. These conditions include substantial heterogeneities in afferent activation levels and excitatory synaptic weights, high levels of uncorrelated background activity among principal neurons, and spike frequencies in both principal neurons and interneurons that are irregular in time and much lower than the gamma frequency. This coupled cellular oscillator architecture permits stable and replicable ensemble responses to diverse sensory stimuli under various external conditions as well as to changes in network parameters arising from learning-dependent synaptic plasticity.

  16. Efeito de diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cultura da cebola Effect of different weed control periods on onion crop yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento em Monte Alto-SP, visando estudar os efeitos de diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre a produção de bulbos da cultura da cebola (Allium cepa, cultivar 'Mercedes', no sistema de transplantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Parte dos tratamentos experimentais foi disposta num esquema fatorial 4 x 6, em que constituíram variáveis quatro períodos em que se fez o controle (0-0, 0-7, 0-14 e 0-21 DAT e seis períodos em que se reiniciou o controle das plantas daninhas prolongando até a colheita: 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 DAT. Duas testemunhas foram adotadas: uma com controle e outra sem controle das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Lycopersicon esculentum, Portulaca oleracea, Eragrostis pilosa e Galinsoga parviflora foram as plantas daninhas mais importantes na área. Não houve interação entre os diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas. O controle inicial destas plantas deve se prolongar até 14 DAT e ser reiniciado aos 28 DAT, a fim de prevenir reduções significativas na produtividade em relação à testemunha no limpo A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cebola reduziu a produtividade em 94,5%.An experiment was carried out in Monte Alto, SP to study the effects of different of weed control periods on the yield of onion (Allium cepa bulb, 'Mercedes' cultivar, under the transplanting system. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments were arranged in 4 x 6 factorial design with four initial weed removal periods (after transplanting until 0, 7, 14 and 21 days and six final weed removal periods (from 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 or 98 days after transplanting until harvest. Two controls were adapted with and without weed control throughout the onion cycle. Lycopersicon esculentum, Portulaca oleracea, Eragrostis pilosa and

  17. Effects of Organic and Conventional Growth Systems on the Content of Flavonoids in Onions and Phenolic Acids in Carrots and Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltoft, M.; Nielsen, J.; Lauren, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    The demand for organic food products is steadily increasing partly due to the expected health benefits of organic food consumption. Polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, are a group of secondary plant metabolites with presumably beneficial health effects, and contents in plants...... are affected by, for example, plant nutrient availability, climate, pathogen infection, and pest attack. In the current study, onions, carrots, and potatoes were cultivated in two-year field trials in three different geographical locations, comprising one conventional and two organic agricultural systems....... The contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids in plants were analyzed by pressurized liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet quantification. In onions and carrots, no statistically significant differences between growth systems were found for any of the analyzed polyphenols...

  18. Use of Onion Extract as a Dairy Cattle Feed Supplement: Monitoring Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate as a Marker of Its Effect on Milk Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Paloma; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Gil, Lidia; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    Onion extract is used as a feed supplement for the diet of dairy cows, acting as inhibitor of methane production; however, its properties could alter sensory attributes of milk. In this work, we propose a method to evaluate the influence of this extract on milk properties, using propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as a marker. PTSO is extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure and monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The method was applied to milk samples obtained from 100 dairy cows fed during 2 months with enriched feed. In addition, a milk tasting panel was established to evaluate the PTSO residue that should not be exceeded to guarantee milk sensory attributes. It was established that a value of PTSO lower than 2 mg kg -1 does not alter milk organoleptic properties. This fact makes onion extract an interesting alternative as a feed supplement to control the methane emissions without any influence on milk attributes.

  19. Completion of the mitochondrial genome sequence of onion (Allium cepa L.) containing the CMS-S male-sterile cytoplasm and identification of an independent event of the ccmFNgene split.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongju; Kim, Kyunghee; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sunggil

    2016-11-01

    Cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) conferred by the CMS-S cytoplasm has been most commonly used for onion (Allium cepa L.) F 1 hybrid seed production. We first report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence containing CMS-S cytoplasm in this study. Initially, seven contigs were de novo assembled from 150-bp paired-end raw reads produced from the total genomic DNA using the Illumina NextSeq500 platform. These contigs were connected into a single circular genome consisting of 316,363 bp (GenBank accession: KU318712) by PCR amplification. Although all 24 core protein-coding genes were present, no ribosomal protein-coding genes, except rps12, were identified in the onion mitochondrial genome. Unusual trans-splicing of the cox2 gene was verified, and the cox1 gene was identified as part of the chimeric orf725 gene, which is a candidate gene responsible for inducing CMS. In addition to orf725, two small chimeric genes were identified, but no transcripts were detected for these two open reading frames. Thirteen chloroplast-derived sequences, with sizes of 126-13,986 bp, were identified in the intergenic regions. Almost 10 % of the onion mitochondrial genome was composed of repeat sequences. The vast majority of repeats were short repeats of onion ccmF N gene was different from that of other Brassicaceae species. This split of the ccmF N gene was also present in 30 other Allium species. The complete onion mitochondrial genome sequence reported in this study would be fundamental information for elucidation of onion CMS evolution.

  20. Status of nuclear light bulb engine design and performance analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    The dynamic response is discussed of a nuclear light bulb engine to perturbations at full-power operating conditions, both with and without control systems. Start-up and shutdown procedures are described, along with the provisions for residual afterheat removal. Problems associated with uprated engine designs are examined. The results of some analytical studies indicate that satisfactory control can be obtained by varying the fuel injection rate by means of a control valve which responds to the rate of change of neutron flux, or to the difference between the instantaneous and steady-state neutron fluxes.