WorldWideScience

Sample records for built environmental factors

  1. The environment and physical activity: The influence of psychosocial, perceived and built environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullen Chris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study sought to integrate perceived and built environmental and individual factors into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to better understand adolescents' physical activity. Methods Participants (n = 110 aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.6 ± 1.55 were recruited from two large metropolitan high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were included in the analysis. Participants completed measures of the revised TPB and the perceived environment. Individual factors such as ethnicity and level of deprivation were also collected. Geographical Information Systems (GIS software was used to measure the physical environment (walkability, access to physical activity facilities. Physical activity was assessed using the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A. Data from the various sources were combined to develop an integrated model integrated for statistical analysis using structural equation modeling. Results The TPB model variables (intention and perceived behavioral control explained 43% of the variance of PAQ-A. Unique and individual contributions were made by intention and PBC and home ownership of home equipment. The model explained 13% of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (Actigraph. Unique and individual contribution was made by intention. Conclusion Social cognitive variables were better predictors of both subjective and objective physical activity compared to perceived environmental and built environment factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Environmental Quality Assessment of Built Areas with High Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Neale, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Around the world, many urban areas are challenged by vacant and abandoned residential and business property. High vacancy areas have often been associated with increasing public safety problems and declining property values and subsequent tax base. High vacancy can lead to visible signs of city decline and significant barriers to the revitalization of cities. Addressing the problem of vacancy requires knowledge of vacancy patterns and their possible contributing factors. In this study, we evaluated the ten year (2005-2015) urban environmental changes for some high vacancy areas. Social and economic variables derived from U.S. census data such as non-white population, employment rate, housing price, and environmental variables derived from National Land Cover Data such as land cover and impervious area, were used as the basis for analysis. Correlation analysis and principle components analysis were performed at the Census Block Group level. Three components were identified and interpreted as economic status, urbanness, and greenness. A synthetic Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ) index was developed by integrating the three principle components according to their weights. Comparisons of the UEQ indices between the 2005 and 2015 in the increasingly high vacancy area provided useful information for investigating the possible associations between social, economic, and environmental factors, and the vacancy status. This study could provide useful information for understanding the complex issues leading to vacancy and facilitating future rehabilitation of vacant urban area.

  3. The use of environmental impact assessment in protecting the built cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Errol David

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the application of the environmental impact assessment as a means of protecting the built and cultural heritage during and after the construction of the new national opera house in the Holmen area of Copenhagen. It assesses the affect the new building has had on the surround......This article examines the application of the environmental impact assessment as a means of protecting the built and cultural heritage during and after the construction of the new national opera house in the Holmen area of Copenhagen. It assesses the affect the new building has had...

  4. What role for environmental public health practitioners in promoting healthy built environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Karen; Kosatsky, Tom; Lee, Karen K

    2016-01-01

    Spaces that encourage better health are increasingly seen as key to reducing the burden of chronic disease: many larger Canadian public health departments now include built environment (BE) teams, which work with municipalities and land use planners to promote and/or require the development of health-encouraging spaces. In many public health agencies, it is environmental health practitioners who have assumed the new healthy BE role, but at what cost to existing mandates? We argue that reinventing roles to increase BE capacities within environmental health practice would reinforce health protection mandates while building capacity in chronic disease prevention. Significant expansion into the design of healthier built environments may require some reallocation of resources. However, we anticipate that healthier built environments will reduce threats to health and so lessen the need for conventional health protection, while encouraging activities and behaviours that lead to greater population wellness. PMID:27348099

  5. Soil environmental assessments on schools built on or in the vicinity of past industrial facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Leprond, Hubert; Girardeau, Ingrid; Gilbert, Dominique; Blanc, Céline

    2013-01-01

    International audience; As part of French environmental framework (law of August 3, 2009), environmental assessments on establishments accommodating children and adolescents were involved by the French Ministry of Environment. Assessments are carried out on schools built on or in the vicinity of potentially contaminated sites by past industrial activities. They are framed by the circular of May 4, 2010 co-signed by the French Ministry of Sustainable Development, the French Ministry of Educati...

  6. Interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, socio-demographic and built environment) on preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposures are often measured individually, though many occur in tandem. To address aggregate exposures, a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) representing five environmental domains (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) was constructed. Recent st...

  7. Pedestrian injury and the built environment: an environmental scan of hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crooks Valorie A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedestrian injury frequently results in devastating and costly injuries and accounts for 11% of all road user fatalities. In the United States in 2006 there were 4,784 fatalities and 61,000 injuries from pedestrian injury, and in 2007 there were 4,654 fatalities and 70,000 injuries. In Canada, injury is the leading cause of death for those under 45 years of age and the fourth most common cause of death for all ages Traumatic pedestrian injury results in nearly 4000 hospitalizations in Canada annually. These injuries result from the interplay of modifiable environmental factors. The objective of this study was to determine links between the built environment and pedestrian injury hotspots in Vancouver. Methods Data were obtained from the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC for the 6 year period from 2000 to 2005 and combined with pedestrian injury data extracted from the British Columbia Trauma Registry (BCTR for the same period. High incident locations (hotspots for pedestrian injury in the City of Vancouver were identified and mapped using geographic information systems (GIS, and the characteristics of the built environment at each of the hotspot locations were examined by a team of researchers. Results The analysis highlighted 32 pedestrian injury hotspot locations in Vancouver. 31 of 32 hotspots were situated on major roads. Likewise, the majority of hotspots were located on downtown streets. The 'downtown eastside' was identified as an area with multiple high-incident locations, including the 2 highest ranked pedestrian injury hotspots. Bars were present at 21 of the hotspot locations, with 11 of these locations being judged to have high alcohol establishment density. Conclusion This study highlighted the disproportionate burden of pedestrian injury centred on the downtown eastside area of Vancouver. The environmental scan revealed that important passive pedestrian safety countermeasures were only present at a

  8. Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave

  9. Towards the definition of new tools of design and environmental assesments performance in built environment

    OpenAIRE

    Soust Verdaguer, Bernardette

    2015-01-01

    Texto en inglés y español Sustainability applied to the built environment has been basically understood as a strategy to improve the efficiency. The evolution into ecology closer visions is becoming more intense. The paradigm of regeneration is presented as a complementary alternative to sustainability, emphasizing the association with nature, adaptation, recovery and resilience. New design tools and performance evaluation of built environment incorporating this strategy, are necessary. In...

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  12. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING WIND-ENERGY POTENTIAL IN LOW BUILT-UP URBAN ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÁZÁR I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available his study is concerned with the examination of roughness factor affecting wind potential in low built-up urban areas (e.g. subdivision, light industrial area. The test interval is the transition between summer and winter, as a secondary wind maximum period. The ten-minute data-pairs empirical distribution was approached by several theoretical distributions where a fitting test research was also performed. Extrapolation to higher levels is possible by defining the Hellmann exponent. The wind speed in respective height and the specific wind power are derived from it. Knowing the daily progress of the Hellmann exponent value, more accurate estimation can be given of the wind potential calculated to different heights according to the measuring point. The results were compared to the surface cover of the surrounding area as well as to the literary alpha values.

  13. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation.

  14. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  15. Energy and Environmental Performance of Multi-Story Apartment Buildings Built in Timber Construction Using Passive House Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wall

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents energy and environmental performance analyses, a study of summer indoor temperatures and occupant behavior for an eight story apartment building, with the goal to combine high energy efficiency with low environmental impact, at a reasonable cost. Southern Portvakten building is built with prefabricated timber elements using passive house principles in the North European climate. Energy performance was analyzed through parametric studies, as well as monitored energy data, and complemented with analysis of occupant behavior during one year. Results show that airtight, low-energy apartment buildings can be successfully built with prefabricated timber elements in a cold climate. The monitored total energy use was 47.6 kWh/m2, excluding household electricity (revised to a normal year, which is considerably lower than of a standard building built today in Sweden—90 kWh/m2. However, the occupancy level was low during the analyzed year, which affects the energy use compared to if the building had been fully occupied. Environmental analysis shows that the future challenges lie in lowering the household and common electricity use, as well as in improving the choices of materials. More focus should also lie on improving occupant behavior and finding smart solar shading solutions for apartment buildings.

  16. Environmental factors and semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Radwan, Michal;

    2009-01-01

    , trihalomethanes (THMs), mobile phones) on semen quality, by reviewing most recent published literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to environmental factors and semen quality for the last ten years were identified by a search of the Pubmed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola...

  17. Residential Greenness and Birth Outcomes : Evaluating the Influence of Spatially Correlated Built-Environment Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hystad, Perry; Davies, Hugh W.; Frank, Lawrence; Loon, Josh Van; Gehring, Ulrike; Tamburic, Lillian; Brauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Half the world’s population lives in urban areas. It is therefore important to identify characteristics of the built environment that are beneficial to human health. Urban greenness has been associated with improvements in a diverse range of health conditions, including birth outcomes; h

  18. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  19. Environmental risk factors for autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Janice M. Dietert; DeWitt, Jamie C.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

  20. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  1. What are the factors that could influence the future of work with regard to energy systems and the built environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to examine which factors in energy systems and the built environment could influence the future of work. In addition, it looks at trends in relation to corporate demands for space and its specifications, and considers what the scope is for integrating business and industry within the dwelling landscape. It seeks to consider these questions on a 50-year time horizon. The paper begins by discussing the challenge of prediction of future trends, especially in a field apparently so reliant upon technological change and innovation. Because of these problems, the paper concerns itself not with picking technologies but rather with questions about the social adoption of technologies and their applications. It highlights a spectrum of coordinating mechanisms in society that are likely to be critical in shaping the future implications of built environment forms and the consequential use of energy. The scenarios discussed arise from the intersection of two tendencies: concentration versus dispersal, and local versus globally focused growth of city regions. The challenges identified in this report are associated with 'lock-in' to past governance modes of the built environment, exacerbated by rapidly changing demand structures. Demand is not simply changing in volume but also in character. The shifts that will need to be dealt with concern a fundamental issue: how activities are coordinated in society

  2. How are physical activity behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors associated with characteristics of the built and social residential environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eichinger

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to identify perceptions of built and social residential characteristics and their association with behaviors such as physical activity (PA, nutrition and smoking and with cardiovascular risk factors (elevated BMI and fasting blood glucose.Among participants of a preventive medical checkup at an Austrian District Health Insurance Fund (n=904, response rate = 82.2%, 42% women, 18-91 years self-reported and measured data were collected.Total PA was positively associated with the presence of trees along the streets and high levels of pro-physical activity social modeling (SM and it was negatively related to perceived safety from crime. More leisure-time PA was associated with higher levels of cycling/walking infrastructure and high levels of SM. PA for transportation was positively related to high levels of connectivity and high levels of SM. Better behavioral cardiovascular risk factor profiles (smoking and nutrition were associated with high levels of SM and high levels of total PA. Lower BMI values were associated with high levels of infrastructure and high levels of SM.Both built and social residential characteristics are important correlates of PA as well as of major cardiovascular risk factors besides PA.

  3. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  4. Environmental factors in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tanja Stenbaek; Jess, Tine; Vind, Ida;

    2011-01-01

    The role of environmental factors in development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to assess a number of formerly suggested environmental factors in a case-control study of an unselected and recently diagnosed group of patients with IBD...

  5. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  6. Environmental factors affecting autoimmune thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, M.; Paul, T.L.; Roti, E.; Braverman, L.E.

    1987-06-01

    A number of environmental factors affect the incidence and progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. Exposure to excess iodine, certain drugs, infectious agents and pollutants, and stress have all been implicated.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer SusceptibilitySuzanne. E. FentonUS EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzoni, Virginia; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, Luca; Nosari, Guido; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial ...

  9. Cultural And Environmental Factors Impacting Mexican Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    The presentation will be an overview of cultural and organizational factors that influence the way libraries operate and provide services in Mexico. Culture is an underlying factor that influences the way librarians do business, and environmental factors determine, on the other hand, how a library organization operates and communicates with the outside world. These two factors are crucial for those who come from abroad and want to do business with Mexican libraries.

  10. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS: a novel tool that captures the impact of the built environment on lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Novel1 1This study was performed on behalf of the Community Interventions for Health (CIH collaboration. efforts and accompanying tools are needed to tackle the global burden of chronic disease. This paper presents an approach to describe the environments in which people live, work, and play. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS is an empirical assessment tool that measures the availability and accessibility, of healthy lifestyle options lifestyle options. CHESS reveals existing community assets as well as opportunities for change, shaping community intervention planning efforts by focusing on community-relevant opportunities to address the three key risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use. Methods: The CHESS tool was developed following a review of existing auditing tools and in consultation with experts. It is based on the social-ecological model and is adaptable to diverse settings in developed and developing countries throughout the world. Results: For illustrative purposes, baseline results from the Community Interventions for Health (CIH Mexico site are used, where the CHESS tool assessed 583 food stores and 168 restaurants. Comparisons between individual-level survey data from schools and community-level CHESS data are made to demonstrate the utility of the tool in strategically guiding intervention activities. Conclusion: The environments where people live, work, and play are key factors in determining their diet, levels of physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS is the first tool of its kind that systematically and simultaneously examines how built environments encourage/discourage healthy eating, physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS can help to design community interventions to prevent chronic disease and guide healthy urban planning.

  11. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodecky, Natalie A; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2010-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  12. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie A Molodecky; Gilaad G. Kaplan

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune res...

  13. Working with Policy and Regulatory Factors to Implement Universal Design in the Built Environment: The Australian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larkin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Built environments that are usable by all provide opportunities for engagement in meaningful occupations. However, enabling them in day to day design processes and practice is problematic for relevant professions. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain greater understanding of the policy and regulatory influences that promote or hinder the uptake of universal design in built environments, to inform better future design. Focus groups or telephone interviews were undertaken with 28 key building industry and disability stakeholders in Australia. Four themes were identified: the difficulties of definition; the push or pull of regulations and policy; the role of formal standards; and, shifting the focus of design thinking. The findings highlight the complexity of working within policy and regulatory contexts when implementing universal design. Occupational therapists working with colleagues from other professions must be aware of these influences, and develop the skills to work with them for successful practice.

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzoni, V; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, L; Nosari, G; Cereda, C; Ceroni, M

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial role of sports. The literature on the single issues is analyzed in an attempt to clarify, as clearly as possible, whether each risk factor significantly contributes to the disease pathogenesis. After summarizing conflicting observations and data, the authors provide a final synthetic statement. PMID:27027889

  15. Modifiable environmental factors in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Dadalti Fragoso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential environmental modifiable factors involved in multiple sclerosis (MS include low adherence to treatment, smoking, obesity, low levels of liposoluble vitamins A and D, high consumption of salt, and a sedentary lifestyle. Chronic tobacco use, obesity, sedentarism and insufficient levels of these vitamins all contribute to maintenance of a proinflammatory state. It is unlikely that there will be noticeable improvement in the inflammatory condition of MS if stopping smoking, reducing weight, exercising, increasing vitamin levels are done in an isolated and erratic manner. Modification of each and every one of these environmental risk factors is likely to be an important approach in the management of MS. The present review presents the arguments for an association between these hazardous modifiable factors and the chronic inflammatory state observed in MS.

  16. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Environmental Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Dronamraju

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is an autoimmune disease of unclear etiology. It is a chronic, progressive condition that causes intrahepatic ductal destruction ultimately leading to symptoms of cholestasis, cirrhosis and liver failure. The disease predominantly affects middle aged Caucasian women. It has a predilection to certain regions and is found in higher incidences in North America and Northern Europe. It also has a genetic predisposition with a concordance rate of 60% among monozygotic twins. Combinations of genetic and environmental factors are proposed in the pathogenesis of this disease with a compelling body of evidence that suggests a role for both these factors. This review will elucidate data on the proposed environmental agents involved the disease's pathogenesis including xenobiotic and microbial exposure and present some of the supporting epidemiologic data.

  17. The Genetic and Environmental Factors for Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Gordon-Shaag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies.

  18. Built Environment Factors Influencing Walking to School Behaviors: A Comparison between a Small and Large US City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin eKim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence supports the association between the built environment and children walking to school (WTS, but few studies have compared WTS behaviors in cities of different sizes. This case-comparison study utilized WTS data from 4th graders in the small city of Manhattan, KS (N=171, from all 8 schools and data from 4th graders in the large city of Austin, TX (N=671 from 19 stratified-sampled schools. The same survey instrument was used in both locations. After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variables, built environment, neighborhood, and attitudinal differences were demonstrated by the odds ratios for WTS in the small city versus the large city. WTS in the small city was more likely to be associated with walking paths/trails and sidewalk landscape buffers en route to school despite lower perceived neighborhood social cohesion, school bus availability, and parental concerns about crime, compared to WTS in the large city. Also, the small city lacked key pedestrian infrastructure elements that were present in the large city. This study highlights important differences related to WTS behaviors and thus provides key insights for encouraging WTS in cities of different sizes.

  19. TLC-SERS Plates with a Built-In SERS Layer Consisting of Cap-Shaped Noble Metal Nanoparticles Intended for Environmental Monitoring and Food Safety Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Takei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a thin layer chromatograph (TLC with a built-in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS layer for in-situ identification of chemical species separated by TLC. Our goal is to monitor mixture samples or diluted target molecules suspended in a host material, as happens often in environmental monitoring or detection of food additives. We demonstrate that the TLC-SERS can separate mixture samples and provide in-situ SERS spectra. One sample investigated was a mixture consisting of equal portions of Raman-active chemical species, rhodamine 6 G (R6G, crystal violet (CV, and 1,2-di(4-pyridylethylene (BPE. The three components could be separated and their SERS spectra were obtained from different locations. Another sample was skim milk with a trace amount of melamine. Without development, no characteristic peaks were observed, but after development, a peak was observed at 694 cm−1. Unlike previous TLC-SERS whereby noble metal nanoparticles are added after development of a sample, having a built-in SERS layer greatly facilitates analysis as well as maintaining high uniformity of noble metal nanoparticles.

  20. Natural and built environmental exposures on children's active school travel: A Dutch global positioning system-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbich, Marco; Emmichoven, Maarten J Zeylmans van; Dijst, Martin J; Kwan, Mei-Po; Pierik, Frank H; Vries, Sanne I de

    2016-05-01

    Physical inactivity among children is on the rise. Active transport to school (ATS), namely walking and cycling there, adds to children's activity level. Little is known about how exposures along actual routes influence children's transport behavior. This study examined how natural and built environments influence mode choice among Dutch children aged 6-11 years. 623 school trips were tracked with global positioning system. Natural and built environmental exposures were determined by means of a geographic information system and their associations with children's active/passive mode choice were analyzed using mixed models. The actual commuted distance is inversely associated with ATS when only personal, traffic safety, and weather features are considered. When the model is adjusted for urban environments, the results are reversed and distance is no longer significant, whereas well-connected streets and cycling lanes are positively associated with ATS. Neither green space nor weather is significant. As distance is not apparent as a constraining travel determinant when moving through urban landscapes, planning authorities should support children's ATS by providing well-designed cities. PMID:27010106

  1. Natural and built environmental exposures on children's active school travel: A Dutch global positioning system-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbich, Marco; Emmichoven, Maarten J Zeylmans van; Dijst, Martin J; Kwan, Mei-Po; Pierik, Frank H; Vries, Sanne I de

    2016-05-01

    Physical inactivity among children is on the rise. Active transport to school (ATS), namely walking and cycling there, adds to children's activity level. Little is known about how exposures along actual routes influence children's transport behavior. This study examined how natural and built environments influence mode choice among Dutch children aged 6-11 years. 623 school trips were tracked with global positioning system. Natural and built environmental exposures were determined by means of a geographic information system and their associations with children's active/passive mode choice were analyzed using mixed models. The actual commuted distance is inversely associated with ATS when only personal, traffic safety, and weather features are considered. When the model is adjusted for urban environments, the results are reversed and distance is no longer significant, whereas well-connected streets and cycling lanes are positively associated with ATS. Neither green space nor weather is significant. As distance is not apparent as a constraining travel determinant when moving through urban landscapes, planning authorities should support children's ATS by providing well-designed cities.

  2. Environmental risk factors of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Isabelle; Gehanno, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) has a complex pathogenesis. Although, there is a growing evidence that environmental factors have an impact on alterations and modulation of epigenetic determinants, resulting in SSc onset and progression. A marked correlation has thus been found between SSc onset and occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the following organic solvents: white spirit, aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene, and ketones; the risk associated with high cumulative exposure to silica and organic solvents further appears to be strongly increased in SSc. Altogether, occupational exposure should be systematically checked in all SSc patients at diagnosis, as (1) exposed patients seem to develop more severe forms of SSc and (2) the identification of the occupational agents will allow its interruption, which may lead to potential improvement of SSc outcome. By contrast, based on current published data, there is insufficient evidence that exposure to other chemical agents (including notably pesticides as well as personal care such as silicone and hair dye), physical agents (ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, electric and magnetic fields), and biological agents (infections and diet, foods, and dietary contaminants) is a causative factor of SSc. Further investigations are still warranted to identify other environmental factors that may be associated with SSc onset and progression. PMID:26141606

  3. Greening the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Maf; Whitelegg, John; Williams, Nick J.

    1998-07-15

    The built environment incorporates our homes, our workplaces and places of leisure. Under the influence of a complex web of social and economic processes, it is where many issues of human and environmental well-being come to a head - whether of space, mobility, energy consumption, pollution, health or security. All too often, concerns such as cost are put before the things we value for a fulfilling life, including peace and quiet and health and happiness. Getting the built environment right is fundamental to a sustainable society and requires an integrated approach. This important new book, published in association with the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF-UK), provides us with a firm understanding of the interrelationships of many of the issues and problems of the built environment and describes the holistic models of development, management and planning necessary for urban sustainability. It draws attention to the major challenges and policy implications and offers analysis, approaches and vision for moving towards sustainable towns and cities that in turn will facilitate sustainable lifestyles. (Author)

  4. Factores medioambientales, vivienda y salud Environmental factors, housing and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Iglesias García

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los factores medioambientales más importantes que influyen en la salud de las personas es la vivienda, en la que pasamos dos tercios del día.En primer lugar, se realiza una revisión bibliográfica de los condicionantes de la vivienda que influyen sobre la salud. En segundo lugar, se analiza una serie de encuestas realizadas a residentes en bloques de viviendas, de varias ciudades europeas. Por último, se establecen los determinantes de la vivienda que influyen más en la salud y calidad de vida de sus residentes y que deben tenerse en cuenta en la renovación o modernización de las viviendas.A continuación se determinan los “factores ambientales de la vivienda que influyen potencialmente sobre la salud” y que deben ser reflejados en cualquier estudio sobre vivienda y salud. Por último se enumeran una serie de conclusiones y recomendaciones.One of the most important environmental factors affecting people is housing, since we live three quarters of our lives inside them.Firstly, a bibliographical revision about conditioning factors affecting health is made. Secondly, a series of questionnaires are analysed. They are addressed to apartment houses dwellers, in different European cities. Lastly, dwelling determinants which influence the most in health and quality of life, to be taken into account in the renovation or modernization of dwellings, are established.To end up, “environmental factors of dwellings potentially influencing health” and which must be taken into consideration in any study on housing and health, are determined. Finally, a series of conclusions and recommendations are made.

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  6. Factors for formulating strategies for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication focusses on factors which are important for formulating a strategy for environmental restoration. In parallel to this effort, the IAEA has conducted activities in related areas which have been reported in companion reports dealing with (1) the characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes and (2) available technology for cleanup and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. Additionally, follow-up activities will focus on two other areas, viz. planning and management options for cleanup of contaminated groundwater, and post-restoration monitoring of decommissioned sites. In a separate initiative the IAEA has developed preliminary guidance on radiological criteria for determining when cleanup action is needed and for deciding on when areas have been cleaned up to a sufficient extent. It is also concerned with radioactive contamination of soils, groundwaters, structures and biota which may have the potential for harm to people. It is intended that it will serve as an important source of information and data on the key factors to be considered in the formulation of an environmental restoration strategy

  7. Social ties, space, and resilience: Literature review of community resilience to disasters and constituent social and built environment factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Carpenter

    2013-01-01

    Communities have faced a variety of crises in recent decades, including more frequent and severe natural disasters. As applied to disasters, resilience entails the ability of a community to rebound following a hurricane, earthquake, or other disturbance. Given the importance of resilience in promoting an effective recovery, the factors that contribute to community resilience are of great interest to scholars and practitioners in many fields. Recent work has examined, for example, socioeconomi...

  8. Neighborhood Self-Selection: The Role of Pre-Move Health Factors on the Built and Socioeconomic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Residential self-selection bias is a concern in studies of neighborhoods and health. This bias results from health behaviors predicting neighborhood choice. To quantify this bias, we examined associations between pre-move health factors (body mass index, walking, and total physical activity and post-move neighborhood factors (County Sprawl Index, Census tract socioeconomic status (SES in the Nurses’ Health Study (n = 14,159 moves from 1986–2008. Individuals in the highest quartile of pre-move BMI (BMI > 28.4 compared to the lowest quartile (BMI < 22.5 moved to counties that averaged 2.57 points lower on the sprawl index (95% confidence interval −3.55, −1.59 indicating that individuals moved to less dense counties; however, no associations were observed for pre-move walking nor total physical activity. Individuals with higher pre-move BMI tended to move to Census tracts with lower median income and home values and higher levels of poverty. Analyses examining the change in neighborhood environments after a move demonstrated that healthy pre-move behaviors were associated with moves to worse socioeconomic environments. This type of self-selection would bias results downward, underestimating the true relationship between SES and physical activity. Generally, the magnitudes of associations between pre-move health factors and neighborhood measures were small and indicated that residential self-selection was not a major source of bias in analyses in this population.

  9. USEPA Environmental Quality Index (EQI) - Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains Transformed Variables Dataset as Input for the USEPA EQI, by County for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) in the Environmental Public Health Division...

  10. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  11. Analytic derivative couplings between configuration-interaction-singles states with built-in electron-translation factors for translational invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Shervin; Alguire, Ethan; Shao, Yihan; Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2011-12-01

    We present a method for analytically calculating the derivative couplings between a pair of configuration-interaction-singles (CIS) excited states obtained in an atom-centered basis. Our theory is exact and has been derived using two completely independent approaches: one inspired by the Hellmann-Feynman theorem and the other following from direct differentiation. (The former is new, while the latter is in the spirit of existing approaches in the literature.) Our expression for the derivative couplings incorporates all Pulay effects associated with the use of an atom-centered basis, and the computational cost is minimal, roughly comparable to that of a single CIS energy gradient. We have validated our method against CIS finite-difference results and have applied it to the lowest lying excited states of naphthalene; we find that naphthalene derivative couplings include Pulay contributions sufficient to have a qualitative effect. Going beyond standard problems in analytic gradient theory, we have also constructed a correction, based on perturbative electron-translation factors, for including electronic momentum and eliminating spurious components of the derivative couplings that break translational symmetry. This correction is general and can be applied to any level of electronic structure theory.

  12. Environmental Factors that Interfere in the Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the application of experiments with sixth graders of elementary school, aiming motivation, skills development focused on observation, interpersonal relationships in teams, related to the various forms of language skills, as well to identify and resume misconceptions about the external (environmental factors required for seed germination, in order that the contents developed this year refer to the study of the earth, soil, water and air, among others, and that many students do not understand all the concepts and the importance of these factors for the existence of living beings. The experiments were organized in two stages, first to observe the influence of soil and another moment to observe the interference of water, air and light. The temperature impractical activities were conducted, however, during the observation period (three weeks experiments remained in a controlled environment in the science laboratory. For the experiments we used materials easily found in commerce, some recycled; students were organized into six teams, which improved the data collection, the maintenance of the experiments, the calculations of the percentages, and the producing of report. Many of these contents had not yet been studied in other disciplines, but were developed in the discipline of science, respecting prior knowledge and cognitive abilities. The use of experiments was effective for the construction of new knowledge and to develop skills necessary to start the search.

  13. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  14. A cross-sectional study of the individual, social, and built environmental correlates of pedometer-based physical activity among elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Georgina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children who participate in regular physical activity obtain health benefits. Preliminary pedometer-based cut-points representing sufficient levels of physical activity among youth have been established; however limited evidence regarding correlates of achieving these cut-points exists. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of pedometer-based cut-points among elementary school-aged children. Method A cross-section of children in grades 5-7 (10-12 years of age were randomly selected from the most (n = 13 and least (n = 12 'walkable' public elementary schools (Perth, Western Australia, stratified by socioeconomic status. Children (n = 1480; response rate = 56.6% and parents (n = 1332; response rate = 88.8% completed a survey, and steps were collected from children using pedometers. Pedometer data were categorized to reflect the sex-specific pedometer-based cut-points of ≥15000 steps/day for boys and ≥12000 steps/day for girls. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, sedentary and active leisure-time behavior, independent mobility, active transportation and built environmental variables - collected from the child and parent surveys - and meeting pedometer-based cut-points were estimated (odds ratios: OR using generalized estimating equations. Results Overall 927 children participated in all components of the study and provided complete data. On average, children took 11407 ± 3136 steps/day (boys: 12270 ± 3350 vs. girls: 10681 ± 2745 steps/day; p After adjusting for all other variables and school clustering, meeting the pedometer-based cut-points was negatively associated (p Conclusions Comprehensive multi-level interventions that reduce screen-time, encourage active travel to/from school and foster a physically active classroom culture might encourage more physical activity among children.

  15. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  16. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  17. Nuclear reactor built, being built, or planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1990. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE, from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations, from US and foreign embassies, and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly

  18. Chemistry Experiments — For Comparative Analyses for Demonstrating Environmental Differences on Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan, — Built on Educational Space Probes Hunveyor and Husar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérczi, Sz.; Róka, A.; Nyíri, Z.; Varga, T.; Fabriczy, A. Sz.; Peták, Cs.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hegyi, S.; Lang, A.; Gyollai, I.; Gucsik, A.

    2014-11-01

    We compared chemical environments of Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan by experiments planned for selection to realize them on educational space probe landers and rovers (Hunveyor and Husar) built by Hungarian universities and high schools.

  19. Role of environmental factors in the timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, S.Y.; Selevan, S.G.; Pescovitz, O.H.;

    2008-01-01

    Puberty-timing measures have historically been used as indicators of adequate nutrition and growth. More recently, these measures have been examined in relation to exposure to estrogenic or antiandrogenic agents, as well as other environmental factors. The scientific community has debated whether...... puberty timing is occurring earlier today than in the mid-1900s in the United States and, if so, whether environmental factors play a role; however, no one has asked a multidisciplinary panel to resolve this question. Thus, a multidisciplinary expert panel jointly sponsored by the US Environmental...... Protection Agency, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and Serono Symposia International was convened to examine the evidence of a secular trend, identify potential environmental factors of concern, and identify research needs regarding environmental factors and puberty timing at "The...

  20. Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors.

  1. Natural and built environmental exposures on children's active school travel: A Dutch global positioning system-based cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Zeylmans Van Emmichoven, M; Dijst, M; Kwan, M-P; Pierik, F; de Vries, S

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity among children is on the rise. Active transport to school (ATS), namely walking and cycling there, adds to children's activity level. Little is known about how exposures along actual routes influence children's transport behavior. This study examined how natural and built environ

  2. Comparison of multi-drug resistant environmental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] isolated from recreational beaches and high touch surfaces in built environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn C Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] has emerged as a major cause of disease in the general population with no health care exposure or known classical risk factors for MRSA infections. The potential community reservoirs have not been well defined though certain strains such as ST398 and USA300 have been well studied in some settings. MRSA has been isolated from recreational beaches, high-touch surfaces in homes, universities and other community environmental surfaces. However, in most cases the strains were not characterized to determine if they are related to community-acquired or hospital-acquired clinical strains. We compared 55 environmental MRSA from 805 samples including sand, fresh and marine water samples from local marine and fresh water recreational beaches (n=296, high touch surfaces on the University of Washington campus (n=294, surfaces in UW undergraduate housing (n=85, and the local community (n=130. Eleven USA300, representing 20% of the isolates, were found on the UW campus surfaces, student housing surfaces and on the community surfaces but not in the recreational beach samples from the Northwest USA. Similarly, the predominant animal ST133 was found in the recreational beach samples but not in the high touch surface samples. All USA300 isolates were multi-drug resistant carrying 2-6 different antibiotic resistance genes coding for kanamycin, macrolides and/or macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B and tetracycline, with the majority [72%] carrying 4-6 different antibiotic resistance genes. A surprising 98% of the 55 MRSA isolates were resistant to other classes of antibiotics and most likely represent reservoirs for these genes in the environment.

  3. Factors Influencing Environmental Scanning in the Organizational Context

    OpenAIRE

    Zita Correia; Wilson, T. D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper identifies and analyses the factors internal to the organization, which affect the activity of environmental scanning, understood here as the information seeking activity of managers, directed at the company's external environment. These factors include individual factors, such as information consciousness and exposure to information, and organizational factors such as information climate and "outwardness". The main relationships among them are also analysed. These factors were ide...

  4. Psychosocial and Environmental Factors Associated with Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth; McDonough, Megan H; Edwards, Nancy E; Lyle, RM; Troped, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Dog walking is associated with higher levels of physical activity (PA). However, not all dog owners walk their dog(s) at a level sufficient for health benefits. Therefore, identifying correlates of dog walking may help to inform the design of more effective interventions to promote this specific form of PA. The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial and environmental correlates of dog walking and relationships of dog walking with overall PA. In 2010, 391 dog owners (Mage= 43.6±12.3...

  5. Environmental factors along the Northern Sea Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig

  6. A novel method to evaluate the community built environment using photographs--Environmental Profile of a Community Health (EPOCH photo neighbourhood evaluation tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara K Chow

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that environments with features that encourage walking are associated with increased physical activity. Existing methods to assess the built environment using geographical information systems (GIS data, direct audit or large surveys of the residents face constraints, such as data availability and comparability, when used to study communities in countries in diverse parts of the world. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate features of the built environment of communities using a standard set of photos. In this report we describe the method of photo collection, photo analysis instrument development and inter-rater reliability of the instrument.A minimum of 5 photos were taken per community in 86 communities in 5 countries according to a standard set of instructions from a designated central point of each community by researchers at each site. A standard pro forma derived from reviewing existing instruments to assess the built environment was developed and used to score the characteristics of each community. Photo sets from each community were assessed independently by three observers in the central research office according to the pro forma and the inter-rater reliability was compared by intra-class correlation (ICC. Overall 87% (53 of 60 items had an ICC of ≥ 0.70, 7% (4 of 60 had an ICC between 0.60 and 0.70 and 5% (3 of 60 items had an ICC ≤ 0.50.Analysis of photos using a standardized protocol as described in this study offers a means to obtain reliable and reproducible information on the built environment in communities in very diverse locations around the world. The collection of the photographic data required minimal training and the analysis demonstrated high reliability for the majority of items of interest.

  7. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSchmitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders.

  8. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Brook

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina A Brook, Louis A SchmidtDepartment of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions.

  9. Environmental Factors in China's Financial Accounting Development since 1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Zhang (Guohua)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe difference in environmental factors is one of the main reasons for the accounting difference among countries. It is also one of the critical factors to be first considered when studying and understanding one country’s accounting activities, and also when trying to harmonize and inter

  10. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A;

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  11. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2014-01-01

    and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established......Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...

  12. Design and management of sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is believed to be a great challenge to built environment professionals in design and management. An integrated approach in delivering a sustainable built environment is desired by the built environment professional institutions. The aim of this book is to provide an advanced understanding of the key subjects required for the design and management of modern built environments to meet carbon emission reduction targets. In Design and Management of Sustainable Built Environments, an international group of experts provide comprehensive and the most up-to-date knowledge, covering sustainable urban and building design, management and assessment. The best practice case studies of the implementation of sustainable technology and management from the BRE Innovation Park are included. Design and Management of Sustainable Built Environments will be of interest to urban and building designers, environmental engineers, and building performance assessors.  It will be particularly useful as a reference book ...

  13. The Search for Causative Environmental Factors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, Gerhard; Zeitz, Jonas; Biedermann, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a 'prototype disease' for chronic auto-inflammatory disorders with a polygenic background and important multifaceted environmental trigger components. The environmental factors contribute both to pathogenesis and disease flares. Thus, IBD is a disease par excellence to study the interactions between host genetics, environmental factors (such as infections or smoking) and 'in-vironmental' factors - for example, our intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal intercurrent events, including the impact of long-term medication on disease progression or stabilization, can exemplarily be studied in this disease group. Whilst alterations in the human genome coding relevant variant protein products have most likely not emerged significantly over the last 50 years, the incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has dramatically increased in Western countries and more recently in the Asia Pacific area. An interesting concept indicates that 'Western lifestyle factors' trigger chronic intestinal inflammation or disease flares in a genetically susceptible host. To understand the disease pathogenesis as well as triggers for flares or determinants of disease courses, we must further investigate potential en(in)vironmental factors. As environmental conditions, in contrast to genetic risk factors, can be influenced, knowledge on those risk factors becomes crucial to modulate disease incidence, disease course or clinical presentation. It is obvious that prevention of environmentally triggered disease flares would be a goal most relevant for IBD patients. An increased prevalence of IBD in urban environment has been documented in Switzerland by the Swiss IBD cohort study. Several studies have attempted to identify such factors; however, only a few have been validated. The best investigated environmental factor identified in IBD cohort analyses is smoking. Other environmental factors that have been associated with clinical presentation or

  14. Factors Influencing Environmental Scanning in the Organizational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Correia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and analyses the factors internal to the organization, which affect the activity of environmental scanning, understood here as the information seeking activity of managers, directed at the company's external environment. These factors include individual factors, such as information consciousness and exposure to information, and organizational factors such as information climate and "outwardness". The main relationships among them are also analysed. These factors were identified in the course of research aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding of the environmental scanning process (Correia & Wilson, 1996. The methodology used - a case-study approach coupled with the grounded theory method of qualitative analysis - was of major importance in obtaining information that is grounded largely on the personal experience of managers.

  15. Plant Phenotypic Plasticity in Response to Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Gratani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to heterogeneity in the environment where new stress factors (i.e., climate change, land use change, and invasiveness are introduced, and where inter- and intraspecies differences may reflect resource limitation and/or environmental stress factors. Phenotypic plasticity is considered one of the major means by which plants can cope with environmental factor variability. Nevertheless, the extent to which phenotypic plasticity may facilitate survival under environmental condition changes still remains largely unknown because results are sometimes controversial. Thus, it is important to identify plant functional traits in which plasticity may play a determinant role in plant response to global change as well as on the ecological consequences at an ecosystem level for the competition between wild and invasive species, considering that species with a greater adaptive plasticity may be more likely to survive in novel environmental conditions. In the near future, it will be important to increase long-term studies on natural populations in order to understand plant response to environmental factor fluctuations including climate change. There is the necessity to analyze variations at phenotypic and genetic levels for the same species and, in particular, for endemic and rare species because these could have drastic effects at an ecosystem level.

  16. Etiology and pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease--environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andus, T; Gross, V

    2000-01-01

    Environmental factors play an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease. There is a strong and consistent association between smoking and Crohn's disease, and between nonsmoking and ulcerative colitis. Despite extensive research, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms for these associations remain unclear. In spite of this, some clinical trials with nicotine-patches showed beneficial effects for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Associations of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis with other environmental factors are weaker like the association with use of oral contraceptives or those less well investigated such as the association with childhood hygiene. Most studies suggesting a potential pathogenetic role of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis or an effect of tuberculostatic therapy in Crohn's disease could not be reproduced by others. Perinatal or childhood infections by viruses like measles are heavily debated, but not proven to be causal for inflammatory bowel disease. Coagulation disorders have been described as protecting from inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting hypercoagulability to be a pathogenetic factor. Some studies described that appendectomy may prevent the onset of ulcerative colitis in man and mice. Other environmental factors such as hydrogen sulfide, tonsillectomy, diet, blood transfusions, and Listeria also require confirmation. There are, however, convincing data from genetic animal models and twin studies that environmental factors as the intestinal bacterial flora interact with susceptible hosts to cause inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammatory bowel diseases have multifactorial etiologies, which require a differentiated approach for treatment and prevention. PMID:10690583

  17. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Letašiová Silvia; Medveďová Alžbeta; Šovčíková Andrea; Dušinská Mária; Volkovová Katarína; Mosoiu Claudia; Bartonová Alena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment publish...

  18. Environmental Factors in China's Financial Accounting Development since 1949

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guohua

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe difference in environmental factors is one of the main reasons for the accounting difference among countries. It is also one of the critical factors to be first considered when studying and understanding one country’s accounting activities, and also when trying to harmonize and internationalize one country’s accounting system. In international accounting research, accounting environment is the precondition to research and understand one country’s accounting pattern, at the sam...

  19. Environmental Pollutants as Risk Factors for Neurodegenerative Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel eChin-Chan; Juliana eNavarro-Yepes; Betzabet eQuintanilla-Vega

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment, from diet to the new nanomaterials as putative risk factors has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metal...

  20. Environmental factors in the summer Olympics in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiser, Benny; Reilly, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    A descriptive approach is adopted in reviewing the probable impact of environmental factors during the summer Olympic Games since their inception in 1896. A historical analytical perspective is impractical due to the lack of reliable climatic data for the earlier Games and the evolution of a myriad of factors that impinge on competitive performance at elite level. Nevertheless, the endurance running events, particularly the marathon, are considered in detail with respect to exposure to environmental forces. Heat, humidity, air pollution, altitude and the geographical features of the race course are considered selectively and dealt with in order of chronology and global climatic zones. We focus on diverse climate zones and particular environmental conditions in order to scrutinize their likely influences on competitive performance, especially in the Olympic marathon races. Notwithstanding the limitations of a narrative approach, performances are related to particular weather data and mitigating influences. Travel difficulties are addressed where these affected a majority of competitors. Environmental stress was associated with the ill-timing and poor organization of the earlier Games. While many of these detrimental and injurious features have been alleviated since then, other environmental stress factors are less prone to mitigation and thus remain a sometimes severe challenge to endurance races. The unique environment conditions for outdoor endurance races in temperate climate zones tend to be highly variable and therefore difficult to predict. PMID:15768729

  1. Environmental & lifestyle factors in deterioration of male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Male reproductive function in the general population has been receiving attention in recent years due to reports of various reproductive and developmental defects, which might be associated with various lifestyle and environmental factors. This study was carried out to determine the role of various lifestyle and environmental factors in male reproduction and their possible association with declining semen quality, increased oxidative stress as well as sperm DNA damage. Methods: Semen samples were obtained from 240 male partners of the couples consulting for infertility problem. Semen analysis was carried out using WHO criteria and subjects were categorized on the basis of self reported history of lifestyle as well as environmental exposure. The oxidative and antioxidant markers; lipid peroxidation (LPO, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT as well as DNA damage by acridine orange test (AO were determined. Results: The presence of abnormal semen parameters was significantly higher among the lifestyle and/or environmental exposed subjects as compared to the non-exposed population. Further, the levels of antioxidants were reduced and sperm DNA damage was more among the lifestyle and/or environmental exposed subjects, though the changes were not significant. Interpretation & conclusions: These findings indicated that various lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol use as well as exposure to toxic agents might be attributed to the risk of declining semen quality and increase in oxidative stress and sperm DNA damage.

  2. Proteomic insights into seed germination in response to environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Longyan; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Tai; Dai, Shaojun

    2013-06-01

    Seed germination is a critical process in the life cycle of higher plants. During germination, the imbibed mature seed is highly sensitive to different environmental factors.However, knowledge about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the environmental effects on germination has been lacking. Recent proteomic work has provided invaluable insight into the molecular processes in germinating seeds of Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zeamays), tea (Camellia sinensis), European beech (Fagus sylvatica), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) under different treatments including metal ions (e.g. copper and cadmium), drought, low temperature, hormones, and chemicals (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and α-amanitin), as well as Fusarium graminearum infection. A total of 561 environmental factor-responsive proteins have been identified with various expression patterns in germinating seeds. The data highlight diverse regulatory and metabolic mechanisms upon seed germination, including induction of environmental factor-responsive signaling pathways, seed storage reserve mobilization and utilization, enhancement of DNA repair and modification, regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis, modulation of cell structure, and cell defense. In this review, we summarize the interesting findings and discuss the relevance and significance for our understanding of environmental regulation of seed germination. PMID:23986916

  3. Environmental and genetic factors in pediatric inflammatory demyelinating diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waubant, Emmanuelle; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Pugliatti, Maura; Hanwell, Heather; Mowry, Ellen M; Hintzen, Rogier Q

    2016-08-30

    The onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) occurs in childhood in about 5% of all patients with MS. The disease in adults has a complex genetic and environmental inheritability. One of the main risk factors, also confirmed in pediatric MS, is HLA DRB1*1501 In addition to genetic factors, a large part of disease susceptibility in adults is conferred by environmental risk factors such as low vitamin D status, exposure to cigarette smoking, and remote Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In children, both exposure to cigarette smoking and prior EBV infection have been reported consistently as risk factors for MS. The role of vitamin D remains to be confirmed in this age category. Finally, although very likely critical in disease processes, few gene-environment interactions and epigenetic changes have been reported for adult and pediatric MS susceptibility. Of interest, some of the risk factors for MS have also been associated with disease course modification, such as low 25(OH) vitamin D serum levels in pediatric and adult MS. Age is also a clear disease modifier of clinical, CSF, and MRI phenotype in children with the disease. Finally, although much has yet to be unraveled regarding molecular processes at play in MS, there is a larger gap in our knowledge of genetic and environmental risk factors for pediatric neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and only collaborative studies will answer those questions. PMID:27572857

  4. Impact of environmental factors on maintaining water quality of Bakreswar reservoir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moitreyee Banerjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs and dams are engineered systems designed to serve purposes like supply of drinking water as well as other commercial and industrial use. A thorough assessment of water quality for these systems is thus necessary. The present study is carried out at Bakreswar reservoir, in Birbhum district, which was created by the dam, built on Bakreswar River. The major purpose of the reservoir is the supply of drinking water to the surrounding villages and Bakreswar Thermal Power Station. Water samples were collected fortnightly from three different stations of the reservoir. Physical and chemical factors like dissolved oxygen, atmospheric temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, solar radiation, water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, productivity etc. were analysed using standard procedure. Abundance data is calculated for four major groups of zooplanktons (Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, and Rotifera with the software PAST 2.1. Multivariate statistical analysis like PCA, hierarchical cluster and CCA are performed in order to predict the temporal variation in the water quality factors using SPSS 20. Distinct seasonal variation was found for environmental factors and zooplankton groups. Bakreswar reservoir has good assemblage of zooplankton and distinct temporal variation of environmental factors and its association with zooplankton predicts water quality condition. These results could help in formulating proper strategies for advanced water quality management and conservation of reservoir ecosystem. Key elements for growth and sustenance of the system can then be evaluated and this knowledge can be further applied for management purposes.

  5. Interrelation and interaction level of dental health and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova N.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and intensity of dental disease among the examinees of the same sex and adolescence. The relationship of the influence of some environmental, nutritional and endogenous factors on the manifestation of dental caries and anomalies of occlusion

  6. Responses of Lens esculenta Moench to controlled environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saint-Clair, P.M.

    1972-01-01

    Many experiments were undertaken to study the responses of the lentil cultivars 'Large blonde' and 'Anicia' to controlled environmental factors. They covered different aspects of the physiology and the ecology of the crop.The orientation experiments (2) involved germination and depth of sowing. The

  7. Human embryonic growth : Periconception parental and environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Uitert (Evelyne Mariët)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__abstract__ Prenatal growth in the second half of pregnancy and subsequent birth weight have been studied for decades and have been shown to be associated not only with pregnancy outcome but also with health and disease in adult life. Many parental and environmental factors during

  8. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia : the importance of genetic and environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. van Dooren (Marieke)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFor the studies described in this thesis we used a study protocol 'Environmental and Genetic factors in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Esophageal Atresia', approved by the Institutional Review Board, in collaboration with the parent support groups, 'Stichting Hernia Diafragrnatica'

  9. Determining Factors of Environmental Education in Spanish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrán, Manuel; Andrades, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the main factors that might determine the extent to which Spanish organizational management educators use environmental stand-alone subjects to equip students with alternative views of business. To give a more qualitative study, this paper also provides a more detailed curriculum analysis from a double point of…

  10. Effects of Abiotic Environmental Factors on Soybean Cyst Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yu-xi; ZHENG Ya-nan; CHEN Li-jie; ZHOU Xiao-min; WANG Yuan-yuan; SUN Jing-shuang

    2009-01-01

    As a pest, in order to complete its life history and reproduces effectively, soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinche 1952) must adapt to various environments and conditions for long periods of evolution. The nematode is widely dispersed year after year. Controlling this pest requires understanding characters and adaptability of SCN.Effects of abiotic factors, such as temperature, soil humidity, agrotype, pH value, ions, plant exudates, agricultural chemical and cultivation systems on SCN, are reviewed in this paper. The results show that SCN is able to endure various environmental stresses, especially low temperature. Because of its special life history, cyst stage help SCN over winter,resistance of SCN to environmental stress is strong. A few studies have reported the mechanism of SCN environmental adaptability. We emphasized the importance of studying environmental adaptability of SCN, which would benefit the control of SCN by ecological means.

  11. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  12. Domestic Environmental Risk Factors Associated with Falling in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This is a cross-sectional study aiming at analyzing the relation between falling and domestic environmental –risk factors in community-dwelling elderly.Methods: The study consisted of 243 randomly chosen community-dwelling elderly over 65 years of age living around a health care center in Central Selcuklu, Konya. Data were collected with a questionnaire form including socio-demographic and other characteristics, with the Rivermead Mobility Index for evaluating mobility condition and an Evaluation Form of Domestic Environmental Risk Factors of Falling (EFDERF, which is developed by the researcher to assess domestic environmental risk factors of falling.Results: Based on (EFDERF high number of problems lived in bathroom/restroom, kitchen, bedroom, sitting room/saloon and in all other areas was a risk factor in terms of domestic falling characteristics while the number of problems lived in hall and stairs was not a significant risk factor.Conclusion: EFDERF may be used by the nurses and health professionals to evaluate risk of falling and collecting data after visits in primary-care of elderly.

  13. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. PMID:21734390

  14. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD.

  15. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD. PMID:26826339

  16. Environmental vascular risk factors: new perspectives for stroke prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Pacheco, Oscar; Román, Gustavo C

    2007-11-15

    Despite intensive evaluation of acute stroke patients, perhaps only half of the attributable stroke risk is usually identified. In addition to traditional and non-traditional vascular risk factors-including most recently homocysteine, inflammation, and alterations of coagulation-a number of environmental risk factors for stroke have been identified in the last decade. In this update we review the following: lower education and poor socioeconomic status (probable surrogates for exposure to traditional high-risk behaviors such as smoking, poor nutrition, lack of prenatal control, absence of preventive medical and dental care, and non-compliance of treatment of conditions such as hypertension); depression, stress and affective disorders; obstructive sleep apnea; passive smoking and environmental pollution; infections, in particular periodontal diseases that increase C-reactive protein (CRP); raised body mass index (obesity); exercise, and diet. The possible role of high-fructose corn syrup in the epidemic of obesity in the USA is reviewed. Protective diets include higher consumption of fish, olive oil, grains, fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet), as well as probiotic bacteria in yogurt and dairy products. Careful attention should be given to the patient's environment looking for modifiable factors. The effects of clean environmental air and water, adequate diet and appropriate nutrition, healthy teeth, exercise, and refreshing sleep in the prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease appear to be quite compelling. Although some of these modifiable risk factors lack evidence-based information, judicious clinical sense should be used to counteract the potentially damaging effects of adverse environmental vascular risk factors. PMID:17655871

  17. The built environment and obesity among low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salois, Matthew J

    2012-05-01

    In spite of the evidence that adult obesity is influenced by environmental factors, the influence of the environment on childhood obesity remains under-investigated. This paper examines the association of the built environment with the prevalence of obesity in low-income preschool children. Built environment indicators include measures relating to food choice and physical activity. The relationship of the environment with childhood obesity is further stratified by urban-rural location. Overall, the built environment is associated with the prevalence of obesity in low-income preschool children, although the impact of the environment is affected by urban-rural status. Results imply broad-scope for community-level interventions.

  18. Built to disappear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Siegfried; Kaltenbrunner, Martin

    2014-06-24

    Microelectronics dominates the technological and commercial landscape of today's electronics industry; ultrahigh density integrated circuits on rigid silicon provide the computing power for smart appliances that help us organize our daily lives. Integrated circuits function flawlessly for decades, yet we like to replace smart phones and tablet computers every year. Disposable electronics, built to disappear in a controlled fashion after the intended lifespan, may be one of the potential applications of transient single-crystalline silicon nanomembranes, reported by Hwang et al. in this issue of ACS Nano. We briefly outline the development of this latest branch of electronics research, and we present some prospects for future developments. Electronics is steadily evolving, and 20 years from now we may find it perfectly normal for smart appliances to be embedded everywhere, on textiles, on our skin, and even in our body. PMID:24892500

  19. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  20. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Eldin Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners.

  1. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M K; El-Sersy, Hesham A A; Mahmoud, Mohammed S M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  2. [COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND POSTVACCINAL IMMUNE STATE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryazhev, D A; Boev, M V; Tulina, L M; Neplokhov, A A; Boev, V M

    2016-01-01

    This article was written on the base of the analysis of data of protocols of annual serological sturdies of the post-vaccination immunity status in indicator groups of populations, the analysis of samples of drinking water air and soil with the assessment of the socio-economic development of mono-towns and rural settlements. In the article there is reflected the comprehensive assessment of environmental factors and specific features of the formation of socio-economic conditions of rural communities and mono towns. There was performed a comparative assessment of the status of post-vaccination immunity to infections controlled by specific means of prevention, in different age groups in mono towns and rural settlements. There was established a dependence of the formation of post-vaccination immunity on the state of environmental factors. PMID:27266020

  3. Evaluation and classification of seawater corrosiveness by environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiangrong; HUANG Guiqiao

    2005-01-01

    According to the data of main environmental factors and the depth of localized corrosion of carbon steel and low alloy steels in China seas, combined with the result of grey interrelation analysis, double-factor method was proposed to evaluate and classify seawater corrosiveness. According to the temperature of seawater and the biologically adhesive area on steels, the corrosiveness of seawater from low to high level is classified into five levels (C 1-C5), which was identified by the data of corrosion depth of carbon steel immersed in water for one year.

  4. Genetic and environmental factors in experimental and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, S.; Takebe, H.; Gelboin, H.V.; MaChahon, B.; Matsushima, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Recently technological advances in assaying mutagenic principles have revealed that there are many mutagens in the environment, some of which might be carcinogenic to human beings. Other advances in genetics have shown that genetic factors might play an important role in the induction of cancer in human beings, e.g., the high incidence of skin cancers in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. These proceedings deal with the relationships between genetic and environmental factors in carcinogenesis. The contributors cover mixed-function oxidases, pharmacogenetics, twin studies, DNA repair, immunology, and epidemiology.

  5. Influence of environmental factors on corrosion damage of aircraft structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the important structural integrity concerns of aging aircraft, and it is estimated that a significant portion of airframe maintenance budgets is directed towards corrosion-related problems for both military and commercial aircraft. In order to better understand how environmental factors influence the corrosion damage initiation and propagation on aircraft structure and to predict pre-corrosion test pieces of fatigue life and structural integrity of an effective approach, this paper uses ...

  6. Human embryonic growth : Periconception parental and environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Uitert, Evelyne Mariët

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__abstract__ Prenatal growth in the second half of pregnancy and subsequent birth weight have been studied for decades and have been shown to be associated not only with pregnancy outcome but also with health and disease in adult life. Many parental and environmental factors during pregnancy have been shown to influence birth weight. Yet although the embryonic period is perhaps the most important period of prenatal development as this is the period in which organogenesis is co...

  7. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Magan, Naresh; Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the ...

  8. Concentration and flux of bioaerosol and environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and flux transportation of bioaerosol are analyzed using the data observed in Nanjing in July 1998. Some results are obtained: (i) the concentration and flux transportation of bioaerosol vary periodically with the cycle of the solar radiation and atmospheric turbulent intensity, (ii) The bioaerosol concentration is affected by both the bioaerosol flux transportation and the environmental factors. The bacterial concentration is obviously affected by the solar radiation while the fungi concentration is significantly affected by temperature.

  9. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea eSchmitt; Berend eMalchow; Alkomiet eHasan; Peter eFallkai

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudina...

  10. Bone Cell Autophagy Is Regulated by Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zahm, Adam M.; Bohensky, Jolene; Adams, Christopher S.; Shapiro, Irving M.; Srinivas, Vickram

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to ascertain whether bone cells undergo autophagy and to determine if this process is regulated by environmental factors. We showed that osteocytes in both murine and human cortical bone display a punctuate distribution of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, indicative of autophagy. In addition, we noted a basal level of autophagy in preosteocyte-like murine long bone-derived osteocytic (MLO)-A5 cells. Autophagy was upregulated following nutrient d...

  11. Built to Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    It wasn't that long ago that when education architects and administrators raised the notion of green construction or sustainable-design strategies, they were met with head scratches and raised eyebrows. But in 2009, the energy-saving, water-conserving, environmentally friendly philosophies championed by those in the vanguard of the green schools…

  12. Somatic alterations in lung cancer: Do environmental factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelin, Cécilia; Couraud, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and smoking tobacco is now definitively established as the dominant risk factor for the malignancy. However, lung cancer can and does occur in never smokers, thus illustrating the existence of other risk factors. Many of these latter are environmental, such as workplace and home carcinogens, air pollution, radon and certain infectious agents. One of the most remarkable advances in thoracic oncology is the recent identification of somatic oncogenic molecular abnormalities, some of which are candidates for targeted therapies. Active smoking is now known to cause a particular somatic profile distinct from that found in never-smokers. This has logically led researchers to consider the possibility that exposure to other lung cancer risk factors may also engender a unique somatic profile. Thus, with the present work, we sought to review current knowledge on somatic profiles in the setting of bronchial cancer (for targetable mutations such as EGFR, ALK, BRAF and HER2, as well as some non-targetable mutations such as TP53, and KRAS) and their associations with environmental risk factors for the malignancy. PMID:27597280

  13. Environmental Pollutants as Risk Factors for Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eChin-Chan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD and Parkinson (PD have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment, from diet to the new nanomaterials as putative risk factors has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau, causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of AD. The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn, which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies, a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzymes such as neprilysin or insulin degrading enzyme. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms by maternal nutrient supplementation and exposure to heavy metals and pesticides have been proposed to lead phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses data from epidemiological and experimental studies about the role of environmental factors in the development of idiopathic AD and PD, and their mechanisms of action.

  14. Effective Factors in Environmental Health Status of Grocery Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.

  15. Potential for use of environmental factors in urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo; van der Ploeg, Martine; van Delden, Hedwig; Fleskens, Luuk

    2016-04-01

    Projections for population growth estimate, on top of the current 7.4 billion world population, an increase of 2 billion people for the next 40 years. It is also projected that 66 per cent of the world population in 2050 will live in urban areas. To accommodate the urban population growth cities are changing continuously land cover to urban areas. Such changes are a threat for natural resources and food production systems stability and capability to provide food and other functions. However, little has been done concerning a rational soil management for food production in urban and peri-urban areas. This study focuses on the assessment of soil lost due to urban expansion and discusses the potential loss regarding the quality of the soil for food production and environmental functions. It is relevant to increase the knowledge on the role of soils in peri-urban areas and in the interaction of physical, environmental and social factors. The methodology consists of assessing the soil quality in and around urban and peri-urban areas. It focuses particularly on the physical properties and the environmental factors, for two periods of time and account the potential losses due to urban expansion. This project is on-going, therefore current advances will be presented and will look for a discussion on the contribution of soil quality for decision-making and land management in urban and peri-urban areas.

  16. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  17. Explanation of Environmental Aesthetic Factors of Urban Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Sadeghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this manuscript is to investigate the effects of environmental aesthetics elements of urban designing on formation of the main part of the city (as the fundamental characteristics of the urban form. For this purpose, this comparative article explains the environmental aesthetic elements that are affecting the formation of main structure of the cities during the history of urbanism history (Teotihuacan, Beijing, Athena, Rome, Paris, Washington, Brasilia, and Isfahan to pave the way for analysis of environmental aesthetics and improvement of contemporary cities’ quality. For this purpose, the present study employs analytical-descriptive research methods, and literature, references, and visual documents reviews. The results from this study indicate that environmental aesthetic elements of urban designing are affecting the formation of an urban form in two ways, namely visual-form and cognitive-semantic. Visual-form elements include the quality of landscape and its factors, the quality of urban buildings and their elements, the quality of public spaces and their elements, continuity, enclosure, diversity of forms, the quality of views and vistas, and coordination with the context. Cognitive-conceptual elements include identity, legibility, concept, perceptibility, coherent mental image, customizability, social and cultural environment, and richness of activities

  18. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa;

    2012-01-01

    Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent....... However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability....

  19. Sarcoidosis and Autoimmunity: From Genetic Background to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindoli, Sara; Dagan, Amir; Torres-Ruiz, José J; Perricone, Carlo; Bizjak, Mojca; Doria, Andrea; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem disease with variable course resulting from the interaction between environmental factors and the immune system of individuals genetically predisposed. The evidence linking sarcoidosis with environmental triggers such as metals is increasing. We describe the case of a 44 year old female with a history. of smoking since age 30 and previous mercury dental filling who presented at physical examination with numerous subcutaneous nodules. Laboratory data showed accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and high titer of anti-U1 ribonucleoprotein antibodies (U1 RNP). Skin biopsy and chest X-ray suggested the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In this report we illustrate the different causes involved in the onset of sarcoidosis. PMID:27228643

  20. The Role of Environmental Factors in Digestive Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Lambert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of digestive cancer in each country is analyzed in cancer registries for Incidence and Mortality. Survival is estimated from registries with a correct follow-up. Estimated values of Incidence and Mortality, expressed as an age standardized rate (ASR for 100 000 persons, for all the population of a country are also found in the WHO-IARC database Globocan, recently edited for the year 2008. At each site of digestive tumors, the variations between countries, in cancer incidence, mortality and survival, depend on the resources and the global health status of the country. Indeed environmental causal factors linked to lifestyle may have an increasing or decreasing impact on the risk of cancer. Such factors are classified on 3 categories: 1- nutrition plays a determinant role in colorectal cancer with a higher risk in countries with more resources and more calories in the diet. 2- Toxic agents like alcohol and tobacco increase the risk at all sites of digestive cancer; their role is preponderant in esophageal cancer. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant in tropical, less developed countries, increases the risk of liver cancer. 3 – Infectious agents play a major role with the Bacteria H.pylori for stomach cancer over the world, and the Hepatitis virus B and C for liver cancer in less developed countries of Africa and Asia. The control of carcinogenic causal environmental factors is included in the primary prevention of digestive cancer.

  1. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors involved in CAKUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Nayia; Renkema, Kirsten Y; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Giles, Rachel H; Knoers, Nine V A M

    2015-12-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) refer to a spectrum of structural renal malformations and are the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in children. The genetic diagnosis of CAKUT has proven to be challenging due to genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity and incomplete genetic penetrance. Monogenic causes of CAKUT have been identified using different approaches, including single gene screening, and gene panel and whole exome sequencing. The majority of the identified mutations, however, lack substantial evidence to support a pathogenic role in CAKUT. Copy number variants or single nucleotide variants that are associated with CAKUT have also been identified. Numerous studies support the influence of epigenetic and environmental factors on kidney development and the natural history of CAKUT, suggesting that the pathogenesis of this syndrome is multifactorial. In this Review we describe the current knowledge regarding the genetic susceptibility underlying CAKUT and the approaches used to investigate the genetic basis of CAKUT. We outline the associated environmental risk factors and epigenetic influences on CAKUT and discuss the challenges and strategies used to fully address the involvement and interplay of these factors in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:26281895

  2. Genetic and environmental factors in breakfast eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Viken, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Rose, Richard J

    2004-09-01

    Despite many studies on the prevalence of breakfast eating, we know little about factors that determine breakfast eating patterns. Our aim was to find out to which extent breakfast eating frequency is influenced by genetic and environmental factors using twin and twin-family models in a population sample of 16-year-old twins (n = 5250) and their parents (n = 4663). In common effects sex-limitation models, additive genetic effects explained 41% (95% CI: 21-63%) of the variance in breakfast eating in girls and 66% (95% CI: 47-79%) in boys, and common environmental effects 45% (95% CI: 23-62%) in girls and 14% (95% CI: 5-29%) in boys. Of twin-family models, phenotypic assortment models fitted the data best. Heritability estimates increased somewhat (72%, 95% CI: 46-98% in girls and 63%, 95% CI: 38-89%) in boys. Common family environment remained substantial in both sexes. Cultural transmission was nonsignificant. The relative influence of genetic and family factors on adolescent breakfast eating frequency differs by sex and is generation-specific.

  3. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served a

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  5. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Competitive Structure in Newly-Built Undergraduate Colleges in Jiangxi Province%江西新建本科院校竞争结构影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛西

    2014-01-01

    新建本科院校是伴随我国高等教育大众化而产生。这些新建本科院校从诞生之初,就面临着转型带来的各种压力,如何在激烈的高校市场竞争中谋求发展已成为新建本科院校必须解决的问题。本文从竞争战略角度出发,以迈克尔·波特的行业竞争结构理论为分析依据,构建江西新建本科院校的竞争结构模型。并在此基础上,对竞争结构中各竞争力量进行影响因素分析,为辨明江西新建本科院校竞争形势提供参考。%Newly-built undergraduate colleges are generated with the popularization of higher education in China. These newly-built colleges are facing restructuring pressures from inception. How to seek development in the fierce competition in the market has become a problem that must be solved. From the perspective of competi-tive strategy, the paper uses Michael Porter's industry structure theory to construct the competition structure model of newly-built undergraduate colleges in Jiangxi Province. On the basis, the paper analyzes factors that influence the forces in the competition structure in order to provide a reference for identifying competition situation in new-ly-built undergraduate colleges in Jiangxi Province.

  6. Clinical, Molecular, and Environmental Risk Factors for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Maggioncalda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest unique occurrence patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL worldwide. In most Western countries there is a clear bimodal age distribution with an early peak in young adults followed by a second peak in older adults, particularly among males. In the Middle East and Asia, HL is more common in early childhood. There also are marked racial differences in the presentations of HL and HL subtypes, and particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified as etiological factors suggesting that gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are involved. Personal health choices such as exercise and smoking may modify an individual's chances of developing HL. Numerous studies highlight the impact that exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and other environmental factors have on HL risk. Understanding the relative importance of each of these findings and their links to HL development and survival will help clinical researchers expand curative therapies and create preventative strategies for HL.

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Silvio; Sans, Miquel; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2004-07-01

    Environmental factors are essential components of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and primarily responsible for its growing incidence around the globe. Epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence support an association between IBD and a large number of seemingly unrelated environmental factors, which include smoking, diet, drugs, geographical and social status, stress, microbial agents, intestinal permeability and appendectomy. Data supporting the involvement of each of these factors in predisposing to, triggering, or modulating the course or outcome of IBD vary from strong to tenuous. Smoking and the enteric bacterial flora are the ones for which the most solid evidence is currently available. Smoking increases the risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and worsens its clinical course, but has a protective effect in ulcerative colitis (UC). Presence of enteric bacteria is indispensable to develop gut inflammation in most animal models of IBD, and modulation of the quantity or quality of the flora can be beneficial in patients with IBD. Surprisingly, evidence for a major role of the diet in inducing or modifying IBD is limited, while that for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is more convincing than for oral contraceptives. Northern geographic location, and a high social, economical, educational or occupational status increase the risk of IBD, an observation fitting the hygiene hypothesis for allergic and autoimmune diseases. Stress is also associated with IBD, but more as a modifier than an inducing factor, and its contribution is more obvious in IBD animal models than human IBD. Finally, an increased intestinal permeability may increase the risk for developing CD, whereas an appendectomy lowers the risk of developing UC. PMID:15288007

  8. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of...

  9. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water. PMID:25996405

  10. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  11. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Otto Schwake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water.

  12. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64 %), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  13. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic immunologically mediated diseases. The key mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases is a dysregulated immune response to commensal flora in a genetically susceptible host. Thus intestinal microbial dysbiosis, host genetics, and the external environment all play an important role in the development of incident disease and in determining subsequent disease behavior and outcomes. There are several well-defined or putative environmental risk factors including cigarette smoking, appendectomy, diet, stress and depression, vitamin D as well as hormonal influence. The effect of some of the risk factors appears to differ between CD and UC suggesting that despite shared genetic and immunologic mechanisms, distinct pathways of pathogenesis exist. There is a growing body of literature identifying risk factors for incident disease. There is less rigorous literature defining triggers of relapse, and few controlled clinical trials examining if modification of such risk factors results in an improvement in patient outcomes. This is an area of considerable patient, physician, and scientific interest, and there is an important unmet need for rigorous studies of the external environment in disease pathogenesis and subsequent course.

  14. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang, Yize Sun, Yang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8 m/s, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000 W/m2. Root mean square error (RMSE between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  15. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  16. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1989. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE, from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations, from US and foreign embassies, and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or purpose: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly facilities

  17. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine) and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline), which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking), and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) are well known risk

  18. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  19. Unscrambling cyanobacteria community dynamics related to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia eBertos-Fortis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a two-year monthly time-series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An epidemic population structure (dominance of a single cluster was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs e.g. Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and

  20. USEPA Environmental Quality Index (EQI) - Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains Non-Transformed Variables Dataset as Input for the USEPA EQI, by County for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) in the Environmental Public Health Division...

  1. Adapting to sea-level rise in the US Southeast: The influence of built infrastructure and biophysical factors on the inundation of coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, R. C. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gornitz, V. M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Mehta, A. J.; Lee, Saychong [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering

    1992-11-01

    The earth' s global mean surface air temperature has increased by 0.5°C over the past 100 years. This warming trend has occurred concurrently with increases in the concentration and number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases may cause this trend to accelerate in the future and result in a net increase in the earth's global mean surface air temperature of 1.5 to 4.5°C by the year 2100. An increase of this magnitude could cause sea surface temperatures to increase would cause sea levels to rise -from thermal expansion of the sea, and the addition of melt waters from alpine glaciers and continental ice sheets. To allow for the cost-effective analysis of the impacts that sea-level rise may have on the US Southeast, a method is needed that will allow sites that are potentially at risk to be identified for study. Previously, no objective method was available to identify such sites. This project addresses this problem by using a geographic data base with information on both physical and climatological factors to identify coastal areas of the US Southeast that are at risk to inundation or accelerated erosion due to sea-level rise. The following six areas were selected for further study from the many identified as being at high risk: Galveston, Texas; Caminada Pass, Louisiana; Bradenton Beach, Florida; Daytona Beach, Florida; McClellanville, South Carolina; and Nags Head, North Carolina. For each study area the amount of land, by land use type, in danger from inundation from three sea-level-rise scenarios was calculated. The calculated values were based on elevation alone.

  2. Adapting to sea-level rise in the US Southeast: The influence of built infrastructure and biophysical factors on the inundation of coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, R.C. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gornitz, V.M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Mehta, A.J.; Lee, Saychong [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering; Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The earth` s global mean surface air temperature has increased by 0.5{degrees}C over the past 100 years. This warming trend has occurred concurrently with increases in the concentration and number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases may cause this trend to accelerate in the future and result in a net increase in the earth`s global mean surface air temperature of 1.5 to 4.5{degrees}C by the year 2100. An increase of this magnitude could cause sea surface temperatures to increase would cause sea levels to rise -from thermal expansion of the sea, and the addition of melt waters from alpine glaciers and continental ice sheets. To allow for the cost-effective analysis of the impacts that sea-level rise may have on the US Southeast, a method is needed that will allow sites that are potentially at risk to be identified for study. Previously, no objective method was available to identify such sites. This project addresses this problem by using a geographic data base with information on both physical and climatological factors to identify coastal areas of the US Southeast that are at risk to inundation or accelerated erosion due to sea-level rise. The following six areas were selected for further study from the many identified as being at high risk: Galveston, Texas; Caminada Pass, Louisiana; Bradenton Beach, Florida; Daytona Beach, Florida; McClellanville, South Carolina; and Nags Head, North Carolina. For each study area the amount of land, by land use type, in danger from inundation from three sea-level-rise scenarios was calculated. The calculated values were based on elevation alone.

  3. Environmental factors associated with overweight among adults in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adewale L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding environmental factors related to obesity can inform interventions for the world wide obesity epidemic, yet no study has been conducted in this context in Africa. This study examined associations between neighbourhood environment variables and overweight in Nigerian adults. Methods A total of 1818 randomly selected residents (age: 20-65 years, 40% female, 31% overweight and 61.2% response living in high and low socioeconomic (SES neighbourhoods in Metropolitan Maiduguri, Nigeria, participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight and an interview-assisted self-reported measure of 16 items of perceived neighborhood environments were conducted. The primary outcome was overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or = 25 kg/m2 vs. normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic variables, overweight was associated with distant access to commercial facilities (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02- 2.18, poor neighbourhood aesthetics (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.16-2.09, perceiving garbage and offensive odours in the neighbourhood (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.89 and feeling unsafe from crime at night (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13- 1.91 and unsafe from traffic (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.17-2.07 in the total sample. Significant interactions regarding overweight were found between gender and four environmental variables, with low residential density (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.93 and poorly maintained pedestrian pathways (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.13-3.17 associated with overweight in men only, and absence of beautiful things (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.42-3.50 and high traffic making it unsafe to walk (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.49-3.83 associated with overweight in women only. There were few significant interactions between environmental factors and neighborhood SES regarding overweight. Conclusion Neighbourhood environment factors were associated with being overweight among

  4. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1993. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly

  5. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1993. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly.

  6. Are environmental pollutants risk factors for low birth weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to air pollutants and low birth weight in a medium-sized city. An ecological study was performed, using live birth data from São José dos Campos, São Paulo State, Brazil. The environmental data were obtained from the São Paul State Environmental Agency. The study included full-term newborns whose mothers were 20 to 34 years of age and had at least a complete high school education, seven or more prenatal visits, singleton pregnancy, and vaginal delivery, in order to minimize potential confounding from these variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of each pollutant. Low birth weight was defined as less than 2,500g. The sample included a total of 2,529 data from 2001 that met the inclusion criteria (25.6% of the total. We identified 99 newborns (3.95% of the sample with low birth weight, and the pollutants sulfur dioxide and ozone were associated with low birth weight. The final model was À(x = -1.79 + 1.30 (SO2 + 1.26 (O3. Thus, sulfur dioxide and ozone were identified as risk factors for low birth weight in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil.

  7. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchison D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Mitchison,1 Phillipa J Hay2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia Background: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs in adults. Method: A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion: More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. Keywords: demographic, environment, abuse, prevalence, socioeconomic status, heritability

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIC FACTOR IN THE ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎRNU Doru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to conceive an environmental strategy intended to integrate harmoniously Gorj energy industry with principles of sustainable development. The sustainable development complies trinomial: ecological-economic-social. In our view, sustainable development, requires clean water and unpolluted air, land consolidated rejuvenated forests, biodiversity and protected nature reserves, churches and monasteries secular admired by visitors, welcoming places entered in the natural and cultural harmony. It is also necessary to reduce the pressure generated by socio-economic factors on the environment and the principles of sustainable development. The quality of life in urban and rural areas show extreme differences compared to European standards. For efficiency, we addressed the modeling method by designing a model valid for all thermoelectric power plants based on fossil fuels, allowing simultaneously, so adding value and environmental protection. The general objective that we propose for the environment, natural resources and patrimony, is related to the prevention of climate change by limiting the emission of toxic gases and their adverse effects on the environment The achievement of strategic objectives and implementation of proposals submitted, we consider that would have a double impact, on the one side, to protect the environment and the quality of life and, on the other side a positive influence on economic and social level.

  9. The concordance of directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes and physical activity adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Daniel P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical activity (PA adoption is essential for obesity prevention and control, yet ethnic minority women report lower levels of PA and are at higher risk for obesity and its comorbidities compared to Caucasians. Epidemiological studies and ecologic models of health behavior suggest that built environmental factors are associated with health behaviors like PA, but few studies have examined the association between built environment attribute concordance and PA, and no known studies have examined attribute concordance and PA adoption. Purpose The purpose of this study was to associate the degree of concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes with changes in PA over time among African American and Hispanic Latina women participating in a PA intervention. Method Women (N = 410 completed measures of PA at Time 1 (T1 and Time 2 (T2; environmental data collected at T1 were used to compute concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes. The association between changes in PA and the degree of concordance between each directly and indirectly measured environmental attribute was assessed using repeated measures analyses. Results There were no significant associations between built environment attribute concordance values and change in self-reported or objectively measured PA. Self-reported PA significantly increased over time (F(1,184 = 7.82, p = .006, but this increase did not vary by ethnicity or any built environment attribute concordance variable. Conclusions Built environment attribute concordance may not be associated with PA changes over time among minority women. In an effort to promote PA, investigators should clarify specific built environment attributes that are important for PA adoption and whether accurate perceptions of these attributes are necessary, particularly among the vulnerable population of minority women.

  10. Environmental Factors and Multiple Sclerosis Severity: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mandia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that environmental factors play a key role in the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS. This study was conducted to examine whether environmental factors may also be associated with the evolution of the disease. We collected data on smoking habits, sunlight exposure and diet (particularly consumption of vitamin D-rich foods from a sample of 131 MS patients. We also measured their serum vitamin D concentration. The clinical impact of MS was quantified using the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS; MS was considered “severe” in patients with MSSS ≥ 6, and “mild” in patients with MSSS ≤ 1. The results showed a strong association between serum vitamin D concentration and both sunlight exposure (26.4 ± 11.9 ng/mL vs. 16.5 ± 12.1 ng/mL, p = 0.0004 and a fish-rich diet (23.5 ± 12.1 ng/mL vs. 16.1 ± 12.4 ng/mL, p = 0.005. Patients reporting frequent sunlight exposure had a lower MSSS (2.6 ± 2.4 h vs. 4.6 ± 2.6 h, p < 0.001. The mild MS patients reported much more frequent sunlight exposure (75% mild MS vs. 25% severe MS p = 0.004, Chi square test. A higher serum vitamin D concentration determined a lower risk of developing severe MS, adjusted for sunlight exposure (OR = 0.92 for one unit increase in vitamin D, 95% CI: 0.86–0.97, p = 0.005. A stronger inverse association emerged between frequent sunlight exposure and the risk of severe MS (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.09–0.71, p = 0.009. Our data show that an appropriate diet and adequate expose to sunlight are associated with less aggressive MS.

  11. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Koufaris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals.

  12. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi S. Gadad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.

  13. Source to sink transport and regulation by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi eLemoine

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Source-to-sink transport of sugar is one of the major determinants of plant growth and relies on the efficient and controlled distribution of sucrose (and some other sugars such as raffinose and polyols across plant organs through the phloem. However, sugar transport through the phloem can be affected by many environmental factors that alter source/sink relationships. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the phloem transport mechanisms and review the effects of several abiotic (water and salt stress, mineral deficiency, CO2, light, temperature, air and soil pollutants and biotic (mutualistic and pathogenic microbes, viruses, aphids and parasitic plants factors. Concerning abiotic constraints, alteration of the distribution of sugar among sinks is often reported, with some sinks as roots favoured in case of mineral deficiency. Many of these constraints impair the transport function of the phloem but the exact mechanisms are far from being completely known. Phloem integrity can be disrupted (e.g. by callose deposition and under certain conditions, phloem transport is affected, earlier than photosynthesis. Photosynthesis inhibition could result from the increase in sugar concentration due to phloem transport decrease. Biotic interactions (aphids, fungi, viruses… also affect crop plant productivity. Recent breakthroughs have identified some of the sugar transporters involved in these interactions on the host and pathogen sides. The different data are discussed in relation to the phloem transport pathways. When possible, the link with current knowledge on the pathways at the molecular level will be highlighted.

  14. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1987. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually for Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear regulatory Commission; from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The major change in this revision involves the data related to shutdown and dismantled facilities. Because this information serves substantially different purposes, it has been accumulated in a separate section, ''Reactors and Facilities Shutdown or Dismantled.'' Cancelled reactors or reactors whose progress has been terminated at some stage before operation are included in this section

  15. 7 CFR 799.9 - Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.9 Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking. (a) The NEPA regulations at 40 CFR 1501.1 contain... implementation. (3) Major changes in ongoing programs. (4) Major environmental concerns with ongoing programs....

  16. Built-up structure criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Vasata, Daniel; Seba, Petr

    2010-01-01

    The built-up land represents an important type of overall landscape. In this paper the built-up land structure in the largest cities in the Czech Republic and selected cities in the U.S.A. is analysed using the framework of statistical physics. We calculate the variance of the built-up area and the number variance of built-up landed plots in discs. In both cases the variance as a function of a disc radius follows a power law. The obtained values of power law exponents are comparable through different cities. The study is based on cadastral data from the Czech Republic and building footprints from GIS data in the U.S.A.

  17. 78. Environmental air pollution: A new emerging factor for coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Meo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Environmental pollution exert detrimental effects on the heart. The researchers and physicians must consider the environmental pollution as an emerging factor in the development of coronary artery disease.

  18. Safety analysis factors for environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1993-04-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) and facility decontamination/decommissioning (D&D) operations can be grouped into two general categories. ``Nonstationary cleanup`` or simply ``cleanup`` activities are where the operation must relocate to the site of new contaminated material at the completion of each task (i.e., the operation moves to the contaminated material). ``Stationary production`` or simply ``production`` activities are where the contaminated material is moved to a centralized location (i.e., the contaminated material is moved to the operation) for analysis, sorting, treatment, storage, and disposal. This paper addresses the issue of nonstationary cleanup design. The following are the specific assigned action items: Collect and compile a list of special safety-related ER/D&D design factors, especially ones that don`t follow DOE Order 6430.1A requirements. Develop proposal of what makes sense to recommend to designers; especially consider recommendations for short-term projects. Present proposal at the January meeting. To achieve the action items, applicable US Department of Energy (DOE) design requirements, and cleanup operations and differences from production activities are reviewed and summarized; basic safety requirements influencing design are summarized; and finally, approaches, considerations, and methods for safe, cost-effective design of cleanup activities are discussed.

  19. Environmental factors in the etiology of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C M; Chen, B; Wang, W Z; Peng, M L; Liu, Z L; Liang, X L; Kao, L C; Gilley, D W; Schoenberg, B S

    1987-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has been proposed to result from the interaction of aging and environment in susceptible individuals. Defective metabolism of debrisoquine, inherited as an autosomal recessive, has been associated with this susceptibility. In 35 PD patients and 19 age-matched controls, no significant differences in debrisoquine metabolism were found, although a trend to impaired metabolism was noted in patients with disease onset less than or equal to 40. Foci of PD patients were associated with rural living and well water drinking, or rural living coupled with market gardening or wood pulp mills. In a questionnaire survey, patients with PD onset less than or equal to age 47 were significantly more likely to have lived in rural areas and to have drunk well water than those with onset greater than or equal to age 54 (p less than or equal to 0.01). Because of population mobility in North America, a case-control study designed to test environmental, occupational, dietary and other proposed risk factors for PD was conducted in China, where the population is more stationary and the environment more stable. No significant differences in incidences of head trauma, smoking or childhood measles were found between patients and controls. PMID:3315147

  20. Investigations to environmental factors on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althoff, H.; Wehr, K.; Michels, S.; Prajsnar, D.; Einbrodt, H.J.

    1987-05-01

    The discussions on noxious environmental factors concerning SIDS was a motive for systematically postmortal chemical-toxicological investigations on 54 SIDS-cases and 2 controlcases of the same age. Tissue levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and pentachlorphenol as well as other organic noxes were measured in several organs. Furthermore COHb-concentrations were determined. Inspite of the wide scattering values the measured extreme levels as well as the arithmetic mean- and the median averages of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, PCP and COHb ranged in concentration sizes which - according to present knowledge - can't be supposed of toxic effects. It was observed that infants from an urban environment didn't show a higher degree of the examined noxes than infants from rural regions. Also there were neither differences between SIDS-cases and controls, nor correlations between often morphologically detected infections of the respiratory system, including laryngitis - and superior concentrations of these noxes in the organs of SIDS-cases.

  1. Combining environmental factors and agriculturalists' observations of environmental changes in the traditional terrace system of the Amalfi coast (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savo, Valentina; Caneva, Giulia; McClatchey, Will; Reedy, David; Salvati, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Terraces are traditional engineered ecosystems that affect the hydro-geological equilibrium, slope stability, and local communities. The aims of this paper are (i) identifying environmental factors that affect terrace stability in the Amalfi Coast, (ii) defining agriculturalists' observations on environmental changes within that system and (iii) exploring potentiality of these observations to better define conservation strategies. All available data on physical and ecological factors recognized to affect the terrace system were collected and analyzed. Interviews were conducted with agriculturalists to obtain long-term observations on environmental factors that interact with this system. Landslides are more frequent where rainfall is high and during winter. Fires have an uneven annual distribution, with higher frequency during summers. Agriculturalists detailed complex interactions among environmental factors, economic elements, and terraces. These observations represent a valuable resource for defining causes and effects of abandonment and for better addressing conservation strategies.

  2. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Jing; Deng, Liang-ji

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production, poultry farming, rural life and township enterprises, the difference, features, and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province, China. Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding, flowed by crop planting, rural life, and township ent...

  3. The effects of space relevant environmental factors on halophilic Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuko, Stefan; Moeller, Ralf; Rettberg, Petra

    exposure was investigated by several different methods e.g. RAPD - PCR, a technique that elucidates damages within the genome by different amplification patterns. Overall experimental results indicate that halophilic Archaea are able to withstand the exposure to space related environmental factors for a considerable time. This work in combined with others will lead to a detailed understanding of the response of extraterrestrial conditions to halophilic Archaea for astrobiological considerations.

  4. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1988. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington Headquarters and field offices of DOE, from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations, from US and foreign embassies, and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables. Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned. Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled

  5. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1991. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is an American company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4, in each section). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5)

  6. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This publication contains unclassified information about facilities, built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1996. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters, and field offices of DOE; from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the U. S. reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from U.S. and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled.

  7. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.

    1992-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1991. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is an American company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4, in each section). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  8. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains unclassified information about facilities, built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1996. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters, and field offices of DOE; from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the U. S. reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from U.S. and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled

  9. The Research for the Greenhouse Water Evaporation Based on the Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Ma; Chaoxing He; Zhixin Wang

    2013-01-01

    To guide the greenhouse precision irrigation, influenced by the environmental factors, based on the definite plant, the greenhouse water evaporation characteristics are studied. The qualitative and the quantitative relationships between the environmental factors and the greenhouse water evaporation are probed into which will provide the theoretical basis for the water management of the facilities horticulture. Establishing the quantitative relations between the environmental factors and the w...

  10. Environmental factors related to the production of a complex set of spicules in a tropical freshwater sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteuzzo, Marcela C; Volkmer-Ribeiro, Cecília; Varajão, Angélica F D C; Varajão, César A C; Alexandre, Anne; Guadagnin, Demetrio L; Almeida, Ariana C S

    2015-01-01

    Adverse natural conditions will, generally, induce gemmulation in freshwater sponges. Because of this environmental dependence, gemmoscleres are given exceptional value in taxonomic, ecological and paleoenvironmental studies. Other spicules categories such as microscleres and beta megascleres have received little attention with regard to their occurrence and function during the sponge biological cycle. Metania spinata, a South American species common to bog waters in the Cerrado biome, produces alpha and beta megascleres, microscleres and gemmoscleres. To detect the environmental factors triggering the production of all these kinds of spicules, the species annual seasonal cycle was studied. Artificial substrates were devised, supplied with gemmules and placed in Lagoa Verde pond which contained a natural population of M. spinata. Field monitoring was conducted for eight months in order to observe the growth of sponges and spicules formation. Samples of water were taken monthly for physical and chemical parameters determination. The appearance of the alpha megascleres was sequentially followed by that of microscleres, gemmoscleres and beta megascleres. The first ones built the new sponge skeleton, the last three were involved in keeping inner moisture in the sponge body or its gemmules. The water level, temperature and the silicon (Si) concentration in the pond were the most important factors related to this sequential production of spicules, confirming environmental reconstructions based on the presence or absence of alpha megascleres and gemmoscleres in past sediments.

  11. The role of environmental factors in autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybenova, Monika; Hrda, Pavlina; Procházková, Jarmila; Stejskal, Vera; Sterzl, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Environmental factors can play an important role in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) and other autoimmune diseases. This article reviews the role of heavy metals and infectious agents in AT. Currently, the genes responsible for a metal-induced pathology are known in experimental animals but similar knowledge is lacking in man. Metals such as nickel or mercury induce delayed type T cell hypersensitivity (allergy) which is relatively common, especially in women. T-cell allergy can be studied with the lymphocyte transformation test, LTT-MELISA. It has been found that patients with AT and other autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus and atopic eczema, show increased lymphocyte reactivity in vitro to inorganic mercury, nickel and other metals compared to healthy controls. The important source of mercury is dental amalgam. Replacement of amalgam in mercury-allergic subjects resulted in improvement of health in about 70% of patients. Several laboratory parameters such as mercury-specific lymphocyte responses in vitro and anti-thyroid autoantibodies were normalized as well. In contrast, no changes in health and laboratory results were observed in mercury-allergic patients who did not have their amalgams replaced. The same was true for non-allergic patients who underwent amalgam replacement. Infectious agents such as Helicobacter pylori (Hp) may cause chronic inflammation and autoimmune reactivity in susceptible subjects. The results of in vitro experiments performed with lymphocytes from Hp infected patients indicate that Hp can cause immunosuppression which might be eliminated by successful eradication therapy. In conclusion, heavy metals and Hp infection may play an important role in AT. Laboratory tests, such as LTT-MELISA, can help to determine the specific etiological agents causing inflammation in individual patients. The treatment of AT and other autoimmune diseases might be improved if such agents are

  12. Environmental factors associated with Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Maureen C; Benbow, M Eric

    2013-03-01

    The period of insect activity (PIA) contributes information to estimates of the minimum postmortem interval in forensic investigations and begins with blow fly attraction and oviposition on a resource such as carrion or a human corpse. Incorrectly estimating nocturnal oviposition could alter PIA estimates by up to at least 12 h; however, the extent of this difference in PIA would depend on environmental and geographic factors. To date, the literature on the extent and frequency of blow fly nocturnal oviposition is conflicting. Our objectives were as follows: 1) to measure the effects of artificial lighting and beef liver bait height above ground on nocturnal and diurnal oviposition, and 2) to monitor oviposition through the night on swine carcasses exposed to the environment at dusk in different habitats over 3 yr. We documented no consistent nocturnal oviposition in any trial using beef liver or on carcasses in different habitats and seasons. There were statistically significant effects of light and height of bait above the ground on diurnal oviposition of Phormia regina (Meigen) in August of 2009, the only month with mean night temperatures > 20 degrees C. In August there also was significantly greater diurnal oviposition on liver bait placed on the ground compared with bait elevated 1 m. Our results suggest that nocturnal oviposition is rare in the natural environment. However, we found enhanced diurnal oviposition of P. regina under conditions of ambient temperatures > 20 degrees C the night before oviposition. Additional studies are needed to better understand the ecological mechanisms governing blow fly oviposition important to forensic entomology. PMID:23540135

  13. Wegener’s granulomatosis and environmental factors in Western Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Samuel Zeft

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine whether exposure to silica or other environmental factors is associated with developing Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG, in a geographically isolated region of Western Montana. We sought to identify and interview all cases of WG diagnosed during 1993-2006 among residents of a ten-county region of Western Montana, as well as a group of demographically similar controls (n=39 without autoimmune disease. In the interview, we ascertained occupational silica and other exposures (metals, solvents, pesticides, tobacco. We enumerated 32 cases of WG, of whom 27 were included in the case-control study. Overall, a history of silica exposure was not associated with WG (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.13-3.27, although there was a suggestion of increase in risk among persons with relatively recent (OR=2.67, 95% CI: 0.54-17.2, heavy (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 0.09-112.9, and prolonged (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 0.16-20.0 exposures. A history of having worked in the mining industry was associated with WG (six cases including three with no silica exposure, zero controls, lower 95% CI: 1.53. Risk was not associated with occupational or aerial pesticide exposure, but with residential rodenticide use (OR=12.15, 95% CI: 1.54-552. Occupational exposure to metals or solvents was not associated with WG, nor was a history of cigarette smoking. Results of earlier studies of WG support the hypothesis that silica exposure adversely influences the risk of developing WG. Our small study of WG failed to identify an association with silica overall, but the results are compat­ible with an increased risk in persons with relatively heavy, prolonged, and/or recent exposure.

  14. 新建本科院校学生网上评教活动影响因素研究%A Study on the Affecting Factors of Online Student Evaluation of Teaching in Newly-built Undergraduate College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克忠; 罗侠

    2012-01-01

    Through the method of questionnaire survey,the paper analyzes the affecting factors such as students' attitude and students' psychology about the online student evaluation of teaching in newly-built undergraduate college.The results show that the students' attitude of different grades to teaching evaluation has a large influence on the results,but the students' psychological factors of various grades have not remarkable influence on the data of teaching evaluation.%运用问卷调查法,对影响新建本科院校学生网上评教活动的评教态度、评教心理等因素进行了调查。结果表明:学生评教态度对网上评教活动的影响各年级之间差异较大,而学生评教心理对网上评教活动的影响各年级之间没有明显差异。

  15. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  16. Fatores ambientais e endometriose Environmental factors and endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bellelis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A endometriose representa uma afecção ginecológica comum, atingindo de 5%-15% das mulheres no período reprodutivo e até 3%-5% na fase pós-menopausa. Essa doença é definida pelo implante de estroma e/ou epitélio glandular endometrial em localização extrauterina, podendo comprometer diversos locais. Humanos e animais são expostos diariamente a poluentes químicos que têm a capacidade de influenciar negativamente processos fisiológicos e, potencialmente, causar doenças, dentre elas a endometriose. Com esta revisão tivemos por objetivo relacionar a influência dos fatores ambientais e dietéticos na gênese da endometriose. O mecanismo pelo qual a dioxina e seus símiles (TCDD/PCBs atuam na alteração da fisiologia endometrial permanence incerta e é especulativa devido à dificuldade em se avaliar a exposição na vida intraútero, infância e vida adulta e suas reais consequências, além das limitações de sua reprodução in vitro. Devemos entender melhor o mecanismo de ação desses poluentes amibentais não só na saúde reprodutiva, mas na saúde em geral do indivíduo, para se promover estratégias de prevenção que devem incluir não só a educação populacional, mas o estabelecimento de limites de exposição, técnicas menos poluentes e melhor aproveitamento dos nossos recursos naturais.Endometriosis represents a common gynecological condition affecting 5%-15% of childbearing age women and up to 3% 5% of post-menopausal women. This disease is defined by the presence of stromal and/or endometrial glandular epithelium implants in extra-uterine locations possibly compromising several sites. Humans and animals are daily exposed to chemical pollutants that could adversely influence physiological processes and potentially cause diseases, including endometriosis. In this review, the authors aimed at settling the influence of environmental and dietary factors on endometriosis pathogenesis. The mechanism by which dioxin and its

  17. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.

  18. Promoting Participation Through the Universal Design of Built Environments: Making it Happen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Watchorn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental design is a determinant of social inclusion and people’s participation in life roles. Design that does not cater for a diverse range of ages, abilities and cultures restricts people’s access to, and use of, domestic or public premises. Universal design is an approach that acknowledges diversity of populations and encourages designers to create objects and places that are usable by the greatest majority of users. Although there are potential benefits to the widest application of universal design within society, such application is not mandatory within Australia. This paper presents findings from an Australian qualitative study that explored universal design as a means of facilitating greater environmental access for all. The views of experts working within the field of architecture and environmental access were explored regarding factors that restrict or facilitate application of universal design to the design of built environments. Study findings revealed a number of themes relating to factors that may restrain, ‘what’s holding us back?’ and factors that may facilitate application of universal design, ‘making it happen’. These findings have direct relevance to those involved in the planning and design of built environments, policy developers and educators. Keywords: Universal design, architecture, occupational therapy, built environments, barriers, facilitators, inter-professional education

  19. Environmental Factors Associated with the Growth of Chinese Literary Genius: A Test of Rogerian Assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, You-Yuk

    1987-01-01

    This study explored relationships between environmental factors (era, standard of living, freedom, and value) and the growth of Chinese literary genius. Using a new measure, the Chinese Creator Rating Scale, the study found that historical top scorers had above average values on the four environmental factors, supporting the humanistic theory of…

  20. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1994. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5)

  1. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1994. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  2. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the US for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1995. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company--working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  3. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the US for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1995. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company--working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5)

  4. Contributions of built environment to childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tamanna; Cushing, Rachel A; Jackson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    As childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, it is critical to devise interventions that target the root causes of obesity and its risk factors. The two main components of childhood obesity are physical inactivity and improper nutrition, and it is becoming increasingly evident that the built environment can determine the level of exposure to these risk factors. Through a multidisciplinary literature review, we investigated the association between various built environment attributes and childhood obesity. We found that neighborhood features such as walkability/bikeability, mixed land use, accessible destinations, and transit increase resident physical activity; also that access to high-caloric foods and convenience stores increases risk of overweight and obesity, whereas the presence of neighborhood supermarkets and farmers' markets is associated with lower childhood body mass index and overweight status. It is evident that a child's built environment impacts his access to nutritious foods and physical activity. In order for children, as well as adults, to prevent onset of overweight or obesity, they need safe places to be active and local markets that offer affordable, healthy food options. Interventions that are designed to provide safe, walkable neighborhoods with access to necessary destinations will be effective in combating the epidemic of obesity. PMID:21259262

  5. [Environmental risk factors in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (excluding tobacco and appendicectomy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantchou, Prévost; Monnet, Elisabeth; Carbonnel, Franck

    2006-01-01

    A rapid increase in the incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in developed countries, the occurrence of Crohn's disease in spouses, and a lack of complete concordance in monozygotic twins are strong arguments for the role of environmental factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Research in the field of environmental factors in IBD is based upon epidemiological (geographical and case-control), clinical and experimental studies. The role of two environmental factors has clearly been established in IBD. Smoking is a risk factor for Crohn's disease and a protective factor for ulcerative colitis; appendectomy is a protective factor for ulcerative colitis. Many other environmental factors for IBD have been investigated, including infectious agents, diet, drugs, stress and social status. They are detailed in the present review. Among them, atypical Mycobacteria, oral contraceptives and antibiotics could play a role in Crohn's disease. To date, three hypotheses associate environmental factors with the pathophysiology of IBD (loss of tolerance of intestinal immune system towards commensal bacterial flora): the hygiene, infection and cold chain hypotheses. Much work remains to be done to identify risk factors for IBD. Research identifying environmental factors that might cause a predisposition to IBD is useful. It may lead to disease prevention in subjects who are genetically predisposed and disease improvement in patients. PMID:16885870

  6. Analysis on the Environmental Factors of Sustainable Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Haoyang

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.China's environmental problems 1) Serious water pollution.Water is most indispensable to people's life.Contaminated water will seriously affect people's normal life and cause environmental degradation, putting people in the danger of catching various diseases.Therefore, everyone should save water and make full use of it.However, in China, water pollution is getting worse.China has abundant water resources but there are still some regions frequently suffering from draught and lack of water.Especially in recent years, following the rapid economic growth, the increasingly serious problem of water pollution is presenting hazards for people's life, which needs the attention of the central government.

  7. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    CERN Document Server

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  8. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  9. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinclair, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  10. The House That Morgan Built

    OpenAIRE

    Trautmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    L.H. Morgan’s kinship work began and ended with the Iroquois longhouse, and the Iroquois kinship system that it shaped and by which it was shaped.  Kinship became a house for anthropology, shaping and being shaped by the emerging discipline.  Much of the house that Morgan built for anthropology still stands, including the last book, on houses and house-life, which seems to anticipate the current literature on houses and house-societies.

  11. The Sustainable Office. An exploration of the potential for factor 20 environmental improvement of office accommodation

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development is the goal of a balance between economy and the environment, whilst establishing a better spread prosperity across the world. In order to make this possible, the environmental load of our commodities needs to be reduced by a factor of 20. This factor 20 can also be translated to the office market. The PhD research presented in this thesis focussed on finding solutions effectively contributing to factor 20 environmental improvement of office accommodation. In order to ...

  12. In search of a temporal niche: Environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Roelof A.; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; van der Vinne, Vincent; De la Iglesia, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Time as an ecological niche variable or "temporal niche" can be defined in the context of the most prominent environmental cycles, including the tidal cycle, the lunar day and month, the solar day, and the earth year. For the current review, we focus on the 24-h domain generated through the earth's

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENT DISABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractA number of environmental agents have been shown to demonstrate neurotoxic effects either in human or laboratory animal studies. Critical windows of vulnerability to the effects of these agents occur both pre- and postnatally. The nervous system is relatively un...

  14. Genetic and environmental factors affecting the coumarin anticoagulant level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Visser (Loes)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis introductory chapter has illustrated that various factors, such as genetic factors, drugs, diet and intercurrent diseases may affect anticoagulation levels. Most of the clinical and pharmacological data related to coumarin anticoagulants have so far been obtained from studying warfa

  15. Modeling Indicator Systems for Evaluating Environmental Sustainable Development Based on Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; CHEN Xiaoling; HE Ying; HE Xiaorong; CAI Xiaobin; XU Keyan

    2006-01-01

    Indicator systems of environmental sustainable development in the Poyang Lake Basin are established from 51 elementary indexes by factor analysis, which is composed of four steps such as the factor model, the parameter estimation, the factor rotation and the factor score. Under the condition that the cumulative proportion is greater than 85%, 5 explicit factors of environmental sustainable development as well as its factor score by region are carried out. The result indicates some impact factors to the basin environmental in descending sort order are volume of water, volume of waste gas discharge, volume of solid wastes, the degree to comprehensive utilization of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes, the emission volume of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes. It is helpful and important to provide decision support for constituting sustainable development strategies and evaluate the sustainable development status of each city.

  16. Environmental Information—Explanatory Factors for Information Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Andersson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As sustainable waste management has become an important environmental concern, growing emphasis is being given to policy tools aimed at increasing recycling behavior by households. Information is a common policy tool, but may not always reach the individuals whose behavior is being targeted, i.e., those reluctant to recycle. This study examined individual differences in attention to recycling information and demand for such information. A nationwide survey in Sweden showed that having personal norms for recycling is important when it comes to obeying and seeking environmentally relevant information. In contrast to earlier research, this study found that lack of information alone is not a significant antecedent to the intention to seek information. Personal norms were found to moderate the effect of perceived lack of information on the intention to seek information.

  17. Research about the Influence of Environmental Factors on Breeders Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Popescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Along the growth period of the breeders, the monitoring of environmental parameters is a fundamental condition toensure the quality of the breeders used for reproduction. The results from the research presented in this paper wereobtained following experimental type investigations developed in vegetation and cold season within Carja 1-Vasluifish farm, on chemical and biological samples which were analyzed within the research laboratory of the Departmentof Aquaculture, Environmental Science and Cadastre. Were analyzed parameters which influence bio-productivity:temperature, oxygen, pH, the concentration of nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, the density and abundance ofphytoplankton and zooplankton, the individual weight and health condition of breeders. Analyzed parametersincluded mean values recorded in the optimal range for fish waters, as reflected in the numerical density andabundance of plankton and the average weight of Asian cyprinids breeders with a plankton nutritional spectrum.

  18. [Systematization and hygienic standardization of environmental factors on the basis of common graphic models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, A A

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of graphic models of the human response to environmental factors, two main types of complex quantitative influence as well as interrelation between determined effects at the level of an individual, and stochastic effects on population were revealed. Two main kinds of factors have been suggested to be distinguished. They are essential factors and accidental factors. The essential factors are common for environment. The accidental factors are foreign for environment. The above two kinds are different in approaches of hygienic standardization Accidental factors need a dot-like approach, whereas a two-level range approach is suitable for the essential factors.

  19. Environmental factors step towards achieving sustainable architecture and environment

    OpenAIRE

    NASERI, Gholam Hossein; Amiri, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The Term of development of sustainable architecture was used in the early 1970s and after the Rio conference in 1992, inclusive that the situation of sustainable architecture became clear at the conference. In this context, the architects category in preserve the environment is very important because they directly or indirectly about seventy percent are involved in climate change. Now someone with designed inappropriate spaces regardless to environmental conditions, the controller a...

  20. Ecological and environmental factors constrain sprouting ability in tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Carl F; McMahon, Sean M

    2011-06-01

    Most theories of forest biodiversity focus on the role of seed dispersal and seedling establishment in forest regeneration. In many ecosystems, however, sprouting by damaged stems determines which species occupies a site. Damaged trees can quickly recover from disturbance and out-compete seedlings. Links among species' traits, environmental conditions and sprouting could offer insight into species' resilience to changes in climate, land use, and disturbance. Using data for 25 Neotropical tree species at two sites with contrasting rainfall and soil, we tested hypotheses on how four functional traits (seed mass, leaf mass per area, wood density and nitrogen fixation) influence species' sprouting responses to disturbance and how these relationships are mediated by a tree's environmental context. Most species sprouted in response to cutting, and many species' sprouting rates differed significantly between sites. Individual traits showed no direct correlation with sprouting. However, interactions among traits and site variables did affect sprouting rates. Many species showed increased sprouting in the higher-quality site. Most nitrogen-fixing species showed the opposite trend, sprouting more frequently where resources are scarce. This study highlights the use of functional traits as a proxy for life histories, and demonstrates the importance of environmental effects on demography. PMID:21116651

  1. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  2. Associations between multiple indoor environmental factors and clinically confirmed allergic disease in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies, mainly questionnaires have reported associations between some indoor environmental factors and allergic diseases. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between objectively assessed indoor environmental factors and clinically confirmed asthma.......05) in sensitized children with asthma. Concentrations of nicotine and house dust mite allergens were higher (P environmental factors...... rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic dermatitis). The same physician conducted a clinical examination of all the 500 children including structured interview on allergic heredity, clinical and medical history. Specific s-IgE against inhalant and food allergens was determined. The homes were investigated by inspectors...

  3. Effect of environmental factors on film badge dosimetry readings of dental office personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, W.K.; Kaugars, G.E.; Broga, D.W. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Inadvertent exposure of film badges to environmental factors may produce fogging of the film and yield higher radiation exposure readings. Common environmental factors in everyday living were studied to assess their effect on film badge readings. Only heat appeared to have any significant effect, because moisture, chemicals, pressure, cold temperature, and non-work-related electromagnetic radiation did not substantially alter film badge readings. Therefore not all unexplained high readings on personnel film badge reports may be due to heat or other common environmental factors evaluated in this study.

  4. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Tribby, Calvin P; Miller, Harvey J.; Brown, Barbara B; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a...

  5. Environmental Factors and Distribution of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Adie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of many parasitic diseases are influenced by environmental factors. Schistosomiasis prevalence is governed by the suitability of environmental factors for snail vector survival. The availability of resources on environmental indices in the World Wide Web facilitated this study which determined the effect of environmental factors on schistosomiasis distribution in Cross River State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered in 778 primary schools to determine the schistosomiasis status of the pupils. Mean values of environmental factors (Vegetation, temperature, altitude, land use, soil type and rainfall corresponding to the coordinates of study schools were extracted from archived, satellite sources and public domain digital databases for a period April 2009 to March 2010. The values for each of the environmental factors were displayed spatially on the Cross River State Map using Microsoft, paint brush software. The effect of the environmental variables was measured by superimposing the schistosomiasis infection map on the map of each of the factors. The number of positive schools was thereafter calculated corresponding to variations in environmental factors across the entire study area. The results showed a negative correlation between infection, vegetation and altitude. Prevalence was highest in areas with less photosynthetic activity (less vegetation. Prevalence was zero in altitudes >500 m above sea level. Land use and temperature showed a positive correlation with infection. Infection increased with corresponding increases in temperature. Infection was more in areas where intensive agricultural practices were ongoing. Infection was more in areas with deep lateritic soil type. The present study will facilitate a rapid mapping of schistosomiasis using environmental factors as guide in Nigeria.

  6. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  7. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF TAX ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Tsakas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the performance of tax organizations in Greece, based on data obtained from a sample of 35 tax offices. Performance evaluation was conducted using DEA with bootstrap methods. In addition, Tobit regression analysis was employed to examine the environmental variables that impact on the efficiency performance of these tax offices. From the analysis, weaknesses, and management issues are derived from the tax offices inefficiency. The general conclusion is that a robust governance structure within the tax office operational framework is needed in order to improve organisational efficiency.

  8. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production,poultry farming,rural life and township enterprises,the difference,features,and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province,China.Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding,flowed by crop planting,rural life,and township enterprises.Hence future pollution prevention and control should set about from livestock and poultry breeding.Meanwhile,attention should be paid to the prevention and control of rural environmental pollution caused by rural life and township enterprise production.

  9. Environmental Risk Factors for Pneumocystis Pneumonia Hospitalizations in HIV Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Djawe, Kpandja; Levin, Linda; Swartzman, Alexandra; Fong, Serena; Roth, Brenna; Subramanian, Anuradha; Grieco, Katherine; Jarlsberg, Leah; Miller, Robert F.; Huang, Laurence; Walzer, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    This report identifies both climatological and air pollution constituents as independent risk factors for hospitalization of HIV-positive patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). These findings may lead to new insights about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of PcP.

  10. Environmental factors influencing bird species diversity in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oindo, B.O.; By, de R.A.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable resource management requires understanding the factors that increase or decrease species richness. Regional species richness patterns may be predicted by analysing patterns of variation in the environment. A number of studies have shown that bird species richness at a regional scale is i

  11. Investigating Factors Affecting Environmental Behavior of Urban Residents: A Case Study in Tehran City- Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Kalantari; Hossein S.   Fami; Ali Asadi; H. M. Mohammadi

    2007-01-01

    Environmental problems such as air and water pollution, urban garbage and climate changes in urban areas are the results of human behavior. Only change in human behavior can reduce these environmental problems. Thus studying attitude and behavior of people is a precondition to change this situation. So the main objective of this study was to find out individual and social factors affecting environmental behavior of urban citizens. To achieve this objective a conceptual framework derived out f...

  12. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  13. A REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS DETERMINING TO PROACTIVITY: THE CASE OF THE FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Lazaro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews literature in order to identify the determinant factors of companies’ environmental proactivity. According to Gonzalez-Benito and Gonzalez-Benito (2006, environmental proactivity demands three practices: planning and organization, operation, and communication. Environmental strategies go on to comment upon several variables that depict internal company features, external factors, and stakeholders pressures. This work discusses these issues using data collected in 2007 from shoe companies selected for in-depth personal interviews and site visits in two different Brazilian states. The empirical results demonstrate that proactive approaches seem clear in companies influenced by stakeholders’ pressure. This is the central determinant factor and it is argued that all the other variables affect either the intensity of this pressure or the company’s capacity to perceive it. All the factors identified herein should be taken into account, at least as control variables, in those studies aiming at explaining and contextualizing environmental strategies.

  14. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Haerens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  15. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  16. Environmental factors and risk of developing paediatric inflammatory bowel disease - A population based study 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Munkholm, Pia;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To identify environmental risk factors for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To identify environmental risk factors for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children...

  17. Standard protocol for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The studies on transfer factors are being carried out at various NPP sites under DAE-BRNS projects for evaluation of site specific transfer factors for radionuclides released from power plants. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  18. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases: Evidence based literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Bhatti, Owais; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Advances in genetics and immunology have contributed to the current understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS: The current opinion on the pathogenesis of IBD suggests that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental insults. Environmental exposures are innumerable with varying effects during the life course of individuals with IBD. Studying the relationship between environmental factors and IBD may provide the missing link to increasing our understanding of the etiology and increased incidence of IBD in recent years with implications for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Environmental factors are heterogeneous and genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, or dysbiosis do not lead to the development of IBD in isolation. RESULTS: Current challenges in the study of environmental factors and IBD are how to effectively translate promising results from experimental studies to humans in order to develop models that incorporate the complex interactions between the environment, genetics, immunology, and gut microbiota, and limited high quality interventional studies assessing the effect of modifying environmental factors on the natural history and patient outcomes in IBD. CONCLUSION: This article critically reviews the current evidence on environmental risk factors for IBD and proposes directions for future research. PMID:27468219

  19. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.;

    2008-01-01

    , body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research...... initiatives include (1) etiologic research that focus on environmentally relevant levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to normal puberty as well as its variants, (2) exposure assessment of relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical windows of human development......, and (3) basic research to identify the primary signal(s) for the onset of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent/central puberty and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-independent/peripheral puberty. Prospective studies of couples who are planning pregnancies or pregnant women are needed to capture...

  20. Environmental factors affecting challenge success in vaccination studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    and temperature on the protection recorded. Thus, challenge studies were conducted at two temperatures (12 and 19°C) and at two salinities (0 and 15 ppt). Mortalities following challenge were recorded and RPS calculated for each group. Side effects of the vaccines were evaluated by using the Speilberg scale......We have tested the efficacies of two different vaccines (a commercial versus an experimental vaccine – both being oil adjuvanted) for rainbow trout against furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida infections. However, when challenging fish with live bacteria in order to assess protection...... following vaccination, the administration of the pathogen is important for the outcome of the experiments. We have therefore also compared injection challenge with cohabitation challenge. In addition, when doing so we also investigated the influence of environmental conditions such as salinity...

  1. Environmental factors affecting challenge success in vaccination studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, J. K.; Skov, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    2013-01-01

    and temperature on the protection recorded. Thus, challenge studies were conducted at two temperatures (12 and 19°C) and at two salinities (0 and 15 ppt). Mortalities following challenge were recorded and RPS calculated for each group. Side effects of the vaccines were evaluated by using the Speilberg scale......We have tested the efficacies of two different vaccines (a commercial versus an experimental vaccine – both being oil adjuvanted) for rainbow trout against furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida infections. However, when challenging fish with live bacteria in order to assess protection...... following vaccination, the administration of the pathogen is important for the outcome of the experiments. We have therefore also compared injection challenge with cohabitation challenge. In addition, when doing so we also investigated the influence of environmental conditions such as salinity...

  2. Foods, Drugs and Environmental Factors: Novel Kounis Syndrome Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Giannopoulos, Sotiris; Soufras, George D; Kounis, George N; Goudevenos, John

    2015-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is hypersensitivity coronary disorder induced by various types of environmental exposures, drugs, conditions and stents. Allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are associated with this syndrome. The disorder manifests as coronary spasms, acute myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis and affects the cerebral and mesenteric as well as coronary arteries. Importantly, its manifestations are broad and its etiology is continuously increasing. Recently, a variety of unusual etiologies have been reported including Anisakis simplex, scombroid syndrome, the use of Gelofusin or ultrasound contrast agents, kiwifruit, fly bites, and bee stings. Furthermore, losartan and the paradox of corticosteroid allergy have been implicated as possible causes. Although not rare, Kounis syndrome is infrequently diagnosed. Therefore, awareness of its etiology, manifestations and pathophysiology is important for providing the proper diagnosis and treatment and determining prognosis. PMID:26134186

  3. Is Environmental Dematerialization An Active Factor Of The Sustainable Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Razvan BĂLĂȘESCU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As it is known, sustainable development reveals economic, social and ecologic aspects circumscribed to the sustainability of the stock of natural capital and to the energy matter entropic flows which affects the relation environment-economy-society in terms of externalities and of the socio-industrial metabolism. Thus, taking into account the principles of the technical-economic rationality and integrative socio-ecologic complexity, dematerialization is a concept, an instrument and a vector carrying socio-economic values based on the natural and social sciences. In this framework environmental dematerialization reveals the issue of socio- economic energetic centres - a result of relationship between nature and human rational sensible free will determinism.

  4. Germination ecophysiology of coastal plants: seed dormancy and the effect of environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ņečajeva, Jevgenija

    2012-01-01

    Germination ecophysiology of coastal plants: seed dormancy and the effect of environmental factors The aim of this study was to characterize seed dormancy and the effect of various environmental factors on seed germination in several coastal plant species. Dormancy types were characterized in dune and coastal marsh species: Juncus balticus, Triglochin maritimum, T. palustre, Eryngium maritimum, Anthyllis maritima, Linaria loeselii. The effect of NaCl on germination was dete...

  5. Research on Measurable Nonlinear Relationship Between Phytoplankton Biomass and Environmental Factors in Bohai Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongli; LI Shengpeng; FENG Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the data of phytoplankton and environmental factors in the Bohai Bay, the dependence between the concentration of phytoplankton and environmental factors is analysed by linear correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and Hoeffding test of independence .The result shows that wind-speed, air-pressure, surface temperature, field pH, salinity, DO, silicate and NO 3 have a great impact on the concentration of phytoplankton.

  6. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Leke, R. J.; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-01-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomple...

  7. Stress and other environmental factors affecting fertility in men and women: overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Negro-Vilar, A

    1993-01-01

    To understand how environmental factors contribute to fertility or infertility in humans, it is first necessary to define environment. A view that will guide this review is that environment represents the "external milieu," analogous to the well-defined concept of "internal milieu" first introduced by Claude Bernard. Within this context, the environment provides both positive and adverse influences on reproductive health and development. Environmental factors can then be classified into categ...

  8. Sustainability: Linking Built and Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryati Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable is allowing something to continue for a period of time, and sustainability denotes the noun for the effort, to continue. Relating this term to the natural environment, would means the ability of earths various systems including human cultural systems and economies to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions. Built and natural environment exist in the same space and time. The earth has existed about 3.7 billion years ago; and through several major global changes has managed to retain harmony between living and the non-living components. With the arrival of human being estimated some 350,000 years ago, global changes become more intense and unpredictable. Human activities have impacted on the ecosystem equilibrium and negative effects are being felt by people: global warming, increase in pollution level and rate of biodiversity erosion are some issues frequently quoted. As people race to achieve socio-economic development ranking, they lose sight of their role as stewards of the environment. Being created divine, equipped with brain and aqal human could still turn back, learn some lessons and move forward to better the earth, not only for themselves but the future generations. This paper will discuss how to simulate some sustainability principles from nature to guide and assist people in handling built environment, to achieve sustainable living, in the Malaysian context. Examples given are often at micro-level: activities that could be carried out by a single human being, which when accumulate may produce substantial changes. Before too late, it is time to learn and copy how nature sustains itself to help guide in managing our built environment, to achieve sustainable living.

  9. Environmental factors predicting nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    McAlindon, T; Giannotta, L; Taub, N.; D'Cruz, D; Hughes, G.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate social class, ethnic origin, and various endocrine variables as potential risk factors in the development of nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS--A cross-sectional survey was carried out of all outpatients with SLE attending the lupus Clinic of St Thomas's Hospital from March to October 1992 using retrospective survival data. The main outcome measure was the duration of SLE before the onset of nephritis. RESULTS--Two hundred and ninet...

  10. Determination of low-frequency energy effect in built-up areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafkina Marina Vladimirovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topical direction - study of electromagnetic fields and infrasound built-up areas. These negative factors are not perceived by basic human receptors, and often people underestimate the danger posed by the sources of electromagnetic fields and infrasound. Currently, environmental monitoring system of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields in built up areas includes a study of the amplitude spectrum. The negative impact of these factors is evaluated separately without taking into account their mutual influence on the biological object. However, in the literature there is the data showing the effect of noise on the electrical characteristics of the human body. In this regard, the authors consider appropriate definition of the integral energy of low-frequency effects on built-up areas that will objectively evaluate the overall level of various kinds of fields at the point in space at a given time and their negative impact on biological objects. The authors propose a new approach to ecological monitoring of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the basis of determining the energy parameters. The paper theoretically proved it possible to determine the total energy impact of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields, taking into account the mutual influence of these factors on biological object. The article presents an algorithm of the synergistic index of the low-frequency energy of negative impact on the basis of measurements of integrated intensities of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Definition of the synergistic energy of low-frequency effects allows objectively assessing the negative effects of electromagnetic fields and infrasound on biological objects, as well as fundamentally new challenges to improve environmental safety of built-up areas and the protection of the population from the effects of these factors.

  11. Built-Environment Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Ian; Fields, Jason; Preus, Robert; Oteri, Frank

    2016-06-14

    Built-environment wind turbine (BEWT) projects are wind energy projects that are constructed on, in, or near buildings. These projects present an opportunity for distributed, low-carbon generation combined with highly visible statements on sustainability, but the BEWT niche of the wind industry is still developing and is relatively less mature than the utility-scale wind or conventional ground-based distributed wind sectors. The findings presented in this presentation cannot be extended to wind energy deployments in general because of the large difference in application and technology maturity. This presentation summarizes the results of a report investigating the current state of the BEWT industry by reviewing available literature on BEWT projects as well as interviewing project owners on their experiences deploying and operating the technology. The authors generated a series of case studies that outlines the pertinent project details, project outcomes, and lessons learned.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Comparing Personal and Environmental Factors Effective in Addiction Relapse (Iran, 2004 -2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s Safari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This As a meta-analysis, this study aimed to integrate different studies and investigate the impact of individual and environmental factors on the reappearance of addiction in quitted people. Method: This study is a meta-analysis which uses Hunter and Schmidt approach. For this purpose, 28 out of 42 studies enjoying acceptable methodologies were selected, upon which the meta-analysis was conducted. A meta-analysis checklist was the research instrument. Using summary of the study results, the researcher manually calculated effect size and interpreted it based on the meta-analysis approach and Cohen’s table. Findings: Results revealed that the effect size of environmental factors on addiction relapse was 0.64 while it was obtained 0.41 for individual factors on addiction relapse. Conclusion: According to Cohen’s table, the effect sizes are evaluated as moderate and high for individual factors and environmental factors on addiction relapse, respectively.

  13. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of previously diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.

  14. [Social and environmental factors and mental health in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, S I; Kalyn, Ia B

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives data on trends in the prevalence of mental disease and disorders incidence in old age groups for 10 years (1984-1994) and analyzes whether macro- and microsocial factors can affect mental health in the elderly. Clinical and epidemiological surveys of 1109 examinees aged 60 years and older residing in a limited Moscow area have yielded morbidity rates for mental disease and disorders (including those by sex and age) in the population. Diagnoses was rated according to the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). Varying mental disorders and nosological entities (without taking into account abnormalities) were found in 36.6% of examinees, including 6.1% with psychotic states, i.e. proper psychoses and clinical mental deficiency. Comparison of the results of two studies. One study was carried out in the 1980s and the present one performed 10 years later, that is, within the period of socioeconomic changes in the country, is indicative of a considerable growth of the morbidity rates in nonpsychotic forms of psychopathology of cerebrovascular genesis and psychogenic affective disorders among the Moscow elderly population. A correlation between the incidence of psychic pathology at an elderly age and different socioenvironmental factors has been studied. There are significant differences in accumulation of stress-induced life events in elderly patients with different psychopathology types. The obtained results confirm the author's assumption that the growth of psychic disorder morbidity rates, specifically, in non-psychotic forms of mental diseases of cerebrovascular genesis and psychogenic affective disorders in the past decade may be caused by increased stress-induced load on elderly people both in connection with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions of the reform epoch and a frustration of their outlook stereotypes. In the authors' opinion, their hypothesis on the correlation between the increase in the incidence of some psychogeriatric

  15. Influence of phosphorus on Microcystis growth and the changes of other environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiang-can; CHU Zhao-sheng; YI Wen-li; HU Xiao-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The growth processes of Microcystis aeruginosa (FACHB-41) in simulated Taihu Lake water with different phosphorus concentrations were investigated using laboratory microcosms. The algal biomass increased with the increase of phosphorus concentration when it was lower than 0.445 mg/L, while the dissolved oxygen(DO) and pH increased, dissolved inorganic nitrogen(DIN) and light intensity underwater(I) decreased. Responding to the changes of the "environmental factors", the cellular carbohydrate and its ratio to cellular protein decreased generally as phosphorus increased. However, when phosphorus concentration was higher than 1.645 mg/L, the biomass, the "environmental factors", the cellular carbohydrate and its ratio to cellular protein did not change likewise.Since the environmental factors and the physiological and biochemical responses are important factors, the change of environmental factors and cell physiology and biochemistry induced by phosphorus may become the key factors that steer the growth and dominance of Microcystis under certain conditions. To sum up, phosphorus not only stimulate the growth of Microcystis directly by supplying nutrient element, but also has complex interactions with other "environmental factors" and play important roles in the growth processes of Microcystis .

  16. Testosterone in tropical birds: effects of environmental and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Moore, Ignacio T; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Grafen, Alan; Wingfield, John C

    2004-09-01

    Previous investigations suggest that male tropical birds have lower plasma testosterone concentrations than northern latitude species. To test whether this generalization is valid, we analyzed all currently available plasma testosterone data of tropical birds. We focused on peak breeding testosterone levels using phylogenetic and conventional statistics. Explanatory variables considered were social mating system, type of territoriality, breeding season length, and altitude. On average, tropical birds had lower mean peak testosterone levels than northern temperate birds. However, in several tropical species, testosterone levels were well within the range of northern latitude birds. Without controlling for phylogeny, breeding season length, type of territoriality, and altitude explained a significant proportion of the variance in testosterone levels. The shorter the breeding season, the higher the testosterone levels. Tropical birds that defend a breeding season territory had higher testosterone levels than birds that were year-round territorial or colonial, and testosterone levels were positively correlated with altitude. When controlling for phylogeny, only breeding season length predicted testosterone levels. In conclusion, we propose to refine previous notions of low plasma testosterone levels in tropical birds: short breeding seasons and perhaps environmental conditions at high altitudes precipitate conditions under which high testosterone levels are beneficial in the tropics. PMID:15478088

  17. Impact of environmental factor variation on desertification: an example from the Shule River Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yushu; Li, Xiangyun; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Hongqi

    2003-07-01

    Variation of environmental factors plays an important roll in the process of desertification. In this paper, taking Shule River as an example, the variation and correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the main environmental factors" changes and its relation to the state of desertification. The results obtained indicate that the variations of factors including meteorological factors and human active factors are obvious. Since 80"s the annual precipitation and annual number of sandstorm days have been declining in a fluctuating state. The population and the area of cultivated land have been increasing. The correlation analysis shows that there exist positive correlations between desertification and population and area of cultivated land. The correlation between area of desertification and annual wind speed, annual number of sandstorm days is significant. In Shule River area, desertification state has more obvious relation with human active factor, comparing with meteorological factors.

  18. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer

  19. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Monfrecola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer.

  20. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella, E-mail: gafabbro@unina.it [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Triassi, Maria [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, Division of Hygiene, University of Naples Federico II Naples (Italy); Mauriello, Maria Chiara [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Torre, Guglielma [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, Division of Hygiene, University of Naples Federico II Naples (Italy); Annunziata, Maria Carmela; Vita, Valerio De; Pastore, Francesco; D’Arco, Vincenza; Monfrecola, Giuseppe [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2010-11-24

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer.

  1. Environmental load factors and system strength evaluation of offshore jacket platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Nizamani, Zafarullah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a study for the determination of environmental load factors for Jacket Platforms in Malaysia and a methodology to determine the life extension of aging platforms. The simplified methods described here could be used for determining not only structural reliability but also safety factors. Its content is particularly interesting to design and maintenance engineers who are working in offshore or onshore industry.

  2. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  3. The Sustainable Office. An exploration of the potential for factor 20 environmental improvement of office accommodation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development is the goal of a balance between economy and the environment, whilst establishing a better spread prosperity across the world. In order to make this possible, the environmental load of our commodities needs to be reduced by a factor of 20. This factor 20 can also be translate

  4. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  5. Frequent respiratory tract infections in children. The role of environmental and genetic factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskamp, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTI), presenting as common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute otitis media, bronchitis or pneumonia are a major health problem in children. In this thesis common environmental and host factors, as well as plausible genetic factors were evaluated in a large birth coho

  6. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W;

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  7. The Research for the Greenhouse Water Evaporation Based on the Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To guide the greenhouse precision irrigation, influenced by the environmental factors, based on the definite plant, the greenhouse water evaporation characteristics are studied. The qualitative and the quantitative relationships between the environmental factors and the greenhouse water evaporation are probed into which will provide the theoretical basis for the water management of the facilities horticulture. Establishing the quantitative relations between the environmental factors and the water evaporation, between the environmental factors and the evaporation of soil water, between the environmental factors and the crop transpiration not only can reveal the environment factors to have the impact on the water evaporation changes, the soil water evaporation changes and physiological changes of the plant water, but also can use meteorological parameter to predict in the greenhouse crop transpiration for the water consumption. Then based on the predicted value timely the plant is supplied with the moderate water. Using genetic algorithm to optimize the models in different season in the different ranges value, the minimum of the evaporation of water is predicted, in order to achieve the purpose of right amount water needed for the plant, saving water, high yield and good quality.

  8. Learning approaches and studies of effect of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a presentation of 3P model of learning (Presage-Process-Product, which comprises learning approaches placed in a wider context of the set of variables related to personality, environment, process and outcomes of learning. Three approaches to learning - surface, deep and achievement-oriented - consist of motives and the corresponding learning strategies. There is a discussion of the findings and implications of a great deal of research using the instruments based on this model. We analyzed research findings about the effect of instruction on learning approaches acquired by pupils, and especially students. It is shown how based on learning approach employed by pupils it is possible to draw conclusions about the quality of instruction. Testing the instruments on various samples indicates that the model is applicable in different cultures. Cross-cultural research opened up the problem of relation between memorising and understanding. Further research is necessary, both empirical and theoretical, that is, development of conceptualization of these constructs, and especially their role in education. Perspectives for further research also open up in the direction of studying various factors connected with personality and their relations with learning approaches. The role of learning approaches of teachers in developing the learning approaches of pupils is yet to be examined.

  9. Factors in the Development of a Global Substantive Environmental Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen James Turner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fact that there is currently no international treaty that provides a globally accepted substantive human right for the protection of the environment (Anton and Shelton, 2011; Turner, 2009 there is a case for considering how such a right could or should be developed. This paper considers certain aspects of the potential development of such a right by focussing on key non-state actors that make decisions, which can affect the environment. Consideration is given to three different types of non-state actors: companies (corporations, the World Trade Organisation (WTO and multilateral development banks (MDBs. It specifically examines their ‘constitutional’ purposes and the overall legal constraints that their decision-makers are bound to comply with, and where applicable, the legal obligations that they impose upon their members.Therefore, this approach to the issue focuses on the legal foundations that determine how such actors make decisions and how that can affect the environment. This paper provides a broad perspective to illustrate the commonalities between the actors that are discussed in relation to their decision-making processes. Ultimately it provides an argument in support of the formal development of an international treaty that would create a global substantive environmental right. However it posits that such a treaty should inter alia be designed and framed in a manner, that would develop reformed legal obligations for the types of non-state actors discussed. Debido al hecho de que actualmente no existe ningún tratado internacional que proporcione un derecho humano globalmente aceptado para la protección del medio ambiente (Anton y Shelton 2011, Turner 2009 hay un argumento para considerar cómo podría o debería desarrollarse tal derecho. Este documento considera algunos aspectos del desarrollo potencial de tal derecho, centrándose en los principales actores no estatales que toman decisiones que pueden afectar el

  10. The endocrine disruptors among the environmental risk factors for stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncati, Luca; Piscioli, Francesco; Pusiol, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been lately taken into consideration for their adverse effects, as possible stillbirth contributors; stillbirth can be in fact considered the most dramatic pregnancy complication. Congenital abnormalities account for few stillbirths and many related disorders are potentially modifiable or often coexist, such as maternal infections, non-communicable diseases, lifestyle factors and maternal age. Causal pathways for stillbirth frequently involve impaired placental function, either with fetal growth restriction or preterm labour. For this reason, many current efforts are focusing on the study of endocrine disruptor (ED) placental transfer, to better understand the in utero exposure dynamics. In this regard, our research group has investigated, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the EDs presence in brain samples of 24 stillbirths, collected over a 3-year period (2012-2014), coming from the Northeast Italy, a notorious area devoted to apple cultivation. Surprisingly, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), well-known EDs, have been detected in 11 samples. Apart from the noteworthy evidence of pesticides' bio-persistence, this finding implies a redefinition of the placental barrier concept: not a real safety system, but a time-deferral mechanism of absorption. The term 'placental barrier' in fact refers to a 4-membrane structure, made up by two epithelial layers, which exactly lining the chorionic villi, and by two endothelial layers, belonging to the feeding vessels for the fetus. It is an effective barrier only for a low administration of water-soluble substances, which encounter obstacle to cross four instead of two membranes. High doses of water-soluble compounds can reach appreciable concentration in the fetal blood, and the lipid-soluble chemicals, such as EDs, are able to pass the placental barrier, through a simple mechanism of passive diffusion, even in minimal concentrations. After crossing the placental barrier, it is emerged

  11. Environmental and nutritional factors affecting geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, I M; Schrader, K K; Blevins, W T

    2001-04-01

    A cyanobacterium isolated from a source-water reservoir during a spring odor and taste episode and identified as Anabaena sp. consistently produced geosmin during laboratory culture on modified BG-11 liquid medium. Maximal geosmin/biomass occurred at 20 degrees C and a light intensity of 17 microE/m2/s; geosmin/chla values directly correlated with increasing light intensity (r2 = 0.95, P geosmin synthesis; at 17 microE/m2/s, increasing temperature stimulates chla production (to 25 degrees C) while repressing geosmin synthesis (above 20 degrees C). Nutritional factors promoting biomass, chla, and geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp. were also investigated. For cultures grown at 17 microE/m2/s and 20 degrees C for 20 days, both ammonium-N and nitrate-N generally enhanced the growth of Anabaena sp. Nitrate-N promoted more chla production (r2 = 0.99) than ammonium-N. Geosmin synthesis was directly correlated with ammonium-N concentrations (r2 = 0.89), with low nitrate-N (123.5 micrograms/l) favoring maximal geosmin production (2.8 micrograms/l). Increasing nitrate-N concentrations promoted a three-fold increase in chla content with geosmin synthesis decreased by two-fold. Geosmin/mg biomass was directly related to ammonium-N concentration; high nitrate-N levels suppressed geosmin production. No geosmin was detected at or below 118 micrograms phosphate-phosphorus/l. Geosmin, dry weight biomass, and chla production were correlated with increasing phosphorus (P) concentration (r2 = 0.76, 0.96 and 0.98, respectively). No geosmin was detected when copper was present in growth media at or above 6.92 micrograms Cu2+/l (CuSO4.5H2O). Dry weight biomass and chla production were negatively correlated with Cu2+ ion concentrations.

  12. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour.

  13. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  14. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  15. Factors Promoting Environmental Responsibility in European SMEs: The Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing social and political awareness of the importance of developing environmental responsibility at a corporate level. When focusing on issues of responsibility, large companies are frequently perceived to be more responsible for driving climate change and resource depletion. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute significantly to the use of resources such as material and energy and produce approximately 64% of the pollution in Europe. Drawing on evidence from “The Eurobarometer 381 Survey on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets”, we analyze the environmental responsibility of European SMEs, studying their compliance with environmental legislation and how several factors drive environmental orientation among SMEs. Our sample consists of 3647 SMEs operating in 38 countries. Only around a fifth of the firms go beyond environmental regulations, showing the highest levels of environmental responsibility. We conduct OLS regressions to analyze the factors that affect a positive environmental attitude among European SMEs (internal drivers being more significant than external ones and then, to observe the positive effect of environmental responsibility and firm’s experience in offering green services/products on performance, although a conjoint effect was not found. Implications for practitioners, academics, and policy-makers are outlined.

  16. Life on the boundary: Environmental factors as drivers of habitat distribution in the littoral zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalì, Maria Elena; Cebrian, Emma; Chappuis, Eglantine; Pinedo, Susana; Terradas, Marc; Mariani, Simone; Ballesteros, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The boundary between land and sea, i.e. the littoral zone, is home to a large number of habitats whose distribution is primarily driven by the distance to the sea level but also by other environmental factors such as littoral's geomorphological features, wave exposure, water temperature or orientation. Here we explore the relative importance of those major environmental factors that drive the presence of littoral rocky habitats along 1100 Km of Catalonia's shoreline (Spain, NW Mediterranean) by using Geographic Information Systems and Generalized Linear Models. The distribution of mediolittoral and upper infralittoral habitats responded to different environmental factors. Mediolittoral habitats showed regional differences drawn by sea-water temperature and substrate type. Wave exposure (hydrodynamism), slope and geological features were only relevant to those mediolittoral habitats with specific environmental needs. We did not find any regional pattern of distribution in upper infralittoral habitats, and selected factors only played a moderate role in habitat distribution at the local scale. This study shows for the first time that environmental factors determining habitat distribution differ within the mediolittoral and the upper infralittoral zones and provides the basis for further development of models oriented at predicting the distribution of littoral marine habitats.

  17. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support, and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake were assessed using structural equation modeling.The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits. For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness. Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support and individual factors (perceived benefits.Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate

  18. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L.; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10–16 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. Results The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents’ dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and

  19. Open source engineering and sustainability tools for the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents two novel open source software developments for design and engineering in the built environment. The first development, called “sustainability-open” [1], aims on providing open source design, analysis and assessment software source code for (environmental) performance of building

  20. Trigger factors mainly from the environmental type are reported by adolescents with migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Dalla Bernardina Fraga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Migraine can be triggered by many factors such as stress, sleep, fasting and environmental causes. There are few studies that evaluated migraine trigger factors in the adolescent population. Methods: A total of 100 participants from 10 to 19 years were subjected to a detailed headache questionnaire, with demographic and clinical data, and a headache diary including trigger factors during a two-month period was asked. Results: Fifty of the participants exhibited chronic migraine and the other 50 participants demonstrated episodic migraine. The most common group of trigger factors reported was the environmental one, mainly sun/clarity, followed by hot weather and the smell of perfume. Conclusions: Ninety-one percent of children and adolescents with migraine reported a trigger factor precipitating the migraine attack.

  1. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Tao; Ling Li; X. H. Xia

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and ...

  2. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Carbon Dynamics at Hooghly Estuarine Region

    OpenAIRE

    Joyita Mukherjee; Moitreyee Banerjee; Arnab Banerjee; Madhumita Roy; Phani Bhusan Ghosh; Santanu Ray

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of litter from mangrove forests adjacent to the creeks at Sagar Island of the Hooghly-Matla estuarine ecosystem is one of the principal sources of nutrient to the estuary. This system receives a major load of carbon from adjacent mangrove forest in the form of litterfall throughout the year. Keeping in view, the effect of environmental factor on the dynamics of carbon is studied through multivariate statistics. Essential environmental variables like soil carbon,...

  3. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J.; Regina R. Witt; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of p...

  4. Built environment and social environment: associations with overweight and obesity in a sample of Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Velásquez-Meléndez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess associations between the built environment and social environment and excess weight in an urban population. Participants were selected from the Surveillance System for Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL. The study used data from the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 3,425 interviews from the years 2008 and 2009 were used. Georeferenced data on parks, squares, and locations for physical exercise, population density, and food stores were used to assess the built environment. Description of the social environment used income and homicide rate for the neighborhood. Environmental variables associated independently with excess weight were population density, presence of parks, squares, and locations for physical exercise, and self-reported presence of locations for physical exercise. The findings show that residential neighborhood characteristics are associated with excess weight in urban adults.

  5. Human factors in environmental management: New directions from the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Savage, S.F.

    1992-10-01

    Environmental management is the general term given to modern attempts to seek technological solutions to certain constrained environmental problems. it involves developing and applying new technologies that respond to changes in environmental policy. It does not eliminate the need for environmental ethics'' in society. Nor does it substitute for the fundamental changes in political and social structures that are needed for dealing with large-scale environmental issues. The scope of these issues can be illustrated by looking at the Hanford Site. Since 1943, the 560-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state has been the production source of much of the nuclear weapons-grade radioactive materials for the United States. The legacy of 50 years of producing fissile materials has been an environmental cleanup problem of impressive proportions. In 1989, with the Cold War winding down, Secretary of Energy James Watkins established a new vision for Hanford as the flagship for waste management research.'' As plans and preparations for cleanup work proceed at the Hanford Site and around the world, the need for well-orchestrated environmental management methodologies has become increasingly apparent. In 1990, a Human Factors Engineering Group was established in the Technology Planning and Analysis Center at PNL to provide appropriate support for the Laboratory's research efforts. At an ever-increasing rate, these research efforts require integrating human performance into complex environmental technology systems. The endeavor of responding to the Laboratory's research needs has provided innovative opportunities for the application of the concept of Human Factors. Discussed are some of the major applications of Human Factors to environmental management.

  6. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Ghekiere

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10-12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. METHODS: Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi- urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (indirectly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. CONCLUSION: Road safety is of major concern in this 10-12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport.

  7. Environmental factors in a population-based inception cohort of inflammatory bowel disease patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, J; Pedersen, Natalia; Cukovic-Cavka, S;

    2014-01-01

    -item questionnaire concerning environmental factors. RESULTS: A total of 1182 patients (76%) answered the questionnaire, 444 (38%) had Crohn's disease (CD), 627 (53%) ulcerative colitis (UC), and 111 (9%) IBD unclassified. No geographic differences regarding smoking status, caffeine intake, use of oral......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in Eastern Europe possibly due to changes in environmental factors towards a more "westernised" standard of living. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in exposure to environmental factors prior...... to diagnosis in Eastern and Western European IBD patients. METHODS: The EpiCom cohort is a population-based, prospective inception cohort of 1560 unselected IBD patients from 31 European countries covering a background population of 10.1 million. At the time of diagnosis patients were asked to complete an 87...

  8. Analysis of environmental stress factors using an artificial growth system and plant fitness optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production.

  9. Analysis of Environmental Stress Factors Using an Artificial Growth System and Plant Fitness Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meonghun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production.

  10. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (α=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (α=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

  11. Power Curve Estimation With Multivariate Environmental Factors for Inland and Offshore Wind Farms

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2015-04-22

    In the wind industry, a power curve refers to the functional relationship between the power output generated by a wind turbine and the wind speed at the time of power generation. Power curves are used in practice for a number of important tasks including predicting wind power production and assessing a turbine’s energy production efficiency. Nevertheless, actual wind power data indicate that the power output is affected by more than just wind speed. Several other environmental factors, such as wind direction, air density, humidity, turbulence intensity, and wind shears, have potential impact. Yet, in industry practice, as well as in the literature, current power curve models primarily consider wind speed and, sometimes, wind speed and direction. We propose an additive multivariate kernel method that can include the aforementioned environmental factors as a new power curve model. Our model provides, conditional on a given environmental condition, both the point estimation and density estimation of power output. It is able to capture the nonlinear relationships between environmental factors and the wind power output, as well as the high-order interaction effects among some of the environmental factors. Using operational data associated with four turbines in an inland wind farm and two turbines in an offshore wind farm, we demonstrate the improvement achieved by our kernel method.

  12. Survival of the hermit crab, Clibanarius vittatus, exposed to selenium and other environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Recent investigations of water quality criteria have frequently examined the effects of a pollutant; however, a more realistic investigation would consider effects of multiple environmental factors and their interactions with the pollutant. Awareness of selenium as a pollutant is increasing. The growing sulfur and petroleum industries are only two of the potential sources of the element on the Texas coast. This study examined the toxicity of selenium to hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc) under twelve different combinations of temperature and salinity. Additionally, the impact of the organisms' original environment was considered as an environmental factor.

  13. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Volume Change of Blended Cement Containing Steel Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the condition of 20 ℃, 5% sulfate liquor curing, standard tap water curing and 50% RH curing-three different curing environments, the volume change of steel slag blended cement influenced by environmental factors was studied. With steel slag addition 10%, 30%, 50%, from 90 days to 356 days, the relationship of shrinkage and three different curing environments is: dry curing environment>tap water curing environment>sulfate curing environment. But, the sample shrinkage in 28 days has much difference with the curing environment, which has no obvious orderliness. The different effects on blended cement containing steel slag in different environmental factors were analyzed using SEM.

  14. Are there common genetic and environmental factors behind the endophenotypes associated with the metabolic syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benyamin, B.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Schousboe, K.;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The cluster of obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension, called the metabolic syndrome, has been suggested as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether there are common genetic and...... environmental factors influencing this cluster in a general population of twin pairs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multivariate genetic analysis was performed on nine endophenotypes associated with the metabolic syndrome from 625 adult twin pairs of the GEMINAKAR study of the Danish Twin Registry. RESULTS: All...... endophenotypes associated with the metabolic syndrome apparently do not share a substantial common genetic or familial environmental background....

  15. Efficiency effects of quality of service and environmental factors. Experience from Norwegian electricity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian [WIK Wissenschaftliches Institut fuer Infrastruktur und Kommunikationsdienste GmbH, Bad Honnef (Germany). Dept. of Energy Markets and Energy Regulation; Jamasb, Tooraj [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Economics; Wetzel, Heike [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2010-08-15

    Since the 1990s, efficiency and benchmarking analysis has increasingly been used in network utilities research and regulation. A recurrent concern is the effect of environmental factors that are beyond the influence of firms (observable heterogeneity) and factors that are not identifiable (unobserved heterogeneity) on measured cost and quality performance of firms. This paper analyses the effect of geographic and weather factors and unobserved heterogeneity on a set of 128 Norwegian electricity distribution utilities for the 2001-2004 period. We utilize data on almost 100 geographic and weather variables to identify real economic inefficiency while controlling for observable and unobserved heterogeneity. We use the factor analysis technique to reduce the number of environmental factors into few composite variables and to avoid the problem of multicollinearity. We then estimate the established stochastic frontier models of Battese and Coelli (1992; 1995) and the recent true fixed effects models of Greene (2004; 2005) without and with environmental variables. In the former models some composite environmental variables have a significant effect on the performance of utilities. These effects vanish in the true fixed effects models. However, the latter models capture the entire unobserved heterogeneity and therefore show significantly higher average efficiency scores. (orig.)

  16. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed

  17. An Analysis of Social Factors Influencing Students’ Environmental Attitudes and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Salehi

    2014-05-01

    The results of this research showed that 53 percent of the surveyed students used public media as the main source of environmental information. Urban student’ attitudes were more favorable to the environment. Environmental attitudes and behaviors of the sample students were not different in terms of gender. There was a weak relationship between environmental attitudes and behavior. Also, environmental attitudes and behaviors were different by the family ‘environmental performance, and informational resources related with environmental attitude and behavior. In conclusion, it can be said that based on the descriptive and inferential findings while students attitudes toward the environment seem to be positive, their environmental performance is not and should be changed, if we want to achieve to a sustainable development. Therefore, in any major decision and national policy aiming at sustainable development, we should consider the factors that reinforce environmental responsible behavior. By helping students to recognize the importance of environment, we can boost the spirit of protection of the environment and increase a sense of responsibility among them.

  18. On the Genetic and Environmental Correlations between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Vocational Interest Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Julie Aitken; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Vernon, Philip A

    2015-04-01

    The phenotypic (observed), genetic, and environmental correlations were examined in a sample of adult twins between the four factors and global score of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire (TEIQue) and the seven vocational interest factors of the Jackson Career Explorer (JCE). Multiple significant correlations were found involving the work style vocational interest factor (consisting of job security, stamina, accountability, planfulness, and interpersonal confidence) and the social vocational interest factor (which included interests in the social sciences, personal services, teaching, social services, and elementary education), both of which correlated significantly with all of the TEIQue variables (well-being, self-control, emotionality, sociability, and global trait EI). Following bivariate genetic analyses, most of the significant phenotypic correlations were found to also have significant genetic correlations as well as significant non-shared (unique) environmental correlations. PMID:25743745

  19. Environmental dosimetry of radon-222 and daughters: measurement of absolute calibration factors of CR-39 considering the plate-out effects and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this work concerns with the measurement of absolute calibration factors for the use of CR-39 as an absolute detector in indoor and daughters monitoring. Up to now the usefulness of calibration factors was restricted to environmental conditions equal (or very close) to those worthing during their determinations. This fact is consequence of the difficulties related to the understanding of the plate-out properties of radon daughters activity in the air. The plate-out effects on radon daughters monitoring performed by SSNTDs are studied. Our experimental results are in agreement with those of other authors about the great sensitivity of CR-39 to the plate-out effects, fact that recommended its use in this work. Being succeeded in the employment of CR-39 as an alpha-spectrometer we concluded that some important information (like the radon daughters deposition rates on the walls of an environment) can be achieved. The knowledge about the behavior of plate-out made possible the determination of the ranges in zenithal angle and energy where CR-39 can detect alpha-particles with efficiency of 100%, at our conditions of track observation. In this way, we obtained calibration factors for CR-39 that are weakly dependent on environmental conditions. We think that these results can contribute to the improvement of RD (Radiation Detector) detection techniques. (author). 159 refs, 106 figs, 05 tabs

  20. Solar Radiation and Vitamin D: Mitigating Environmental Factors in Autoimmune Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the environmental role of vitamin D and solar radiation as risk reduction factors in autoimmune disease. Five diseases are considered: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disease of the thyroid, and inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical relevant studies and factors that may indicate evidence that autoimmune disease is a vitamin D-sensitive disease are presented. Studies that have resulted in prevention or amelioration of some autoimmune dis...

  1. DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS OF INDIVIDUAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON MOTIVATION FOR SELF-EMPLOYMENT

    OpenAIRE

    LEI WANG; LEONEL PRIETO; KIM T. HINRICHS

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the direct and mediating effects on the motivation to become self-employed of a set of two individual factors (entrepreneurial self-efficacy and risk-taking) and five environmental factors (family self-employment background, social networks, social norms, legal system support and governmental support). Based on 535 cases from the United States, results show that legal system support, social networks, social norms, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and risk-...

  2. The role of environmental factors in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: an unresolved issue.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraine, M R; Tisch, R M

    1999-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of the insulin-secreting beta cells found in the islets of Langerhans. Reduced beta-cell mass results in overt diabetes, requiring lifelong exogenous insulin administration and the possibility of numerous sequelae. Incidence and development of IDDM depend upon a variety of genetic and nongenetic factors. Environmental factors such as chemicals, diet, and infection are suspected to influence th...

  3. The investigation of antinutritional factors in Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental and varietal differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbano C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study enables us to indicate that the oligosaccharide raffinose family, phytate, saponin and lectin contents of P. vulgaris are clearly influenced by both environmental and genetics factors. The results also indicate no relationship between antinutritional factors analysed. From a nutritional point of view, these results would help investigators to select dry bean varieties with a high nutritive value (with a low content of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, saponins and lectins human consumption and large-scale cultivation.

  4. The investigation of antinutritional factors in Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental and varietal differences

    OpenAIRE

    Burbano C.; Muzquiz M.; Ayet G.; Pedrosa M.M.; Cuadrado C.

    1999-01-01

    This study enables us to indicate that the oligosaccharide raffinose family, phytate, saponin and lectin contents of P. vulgaris are clearly influenced by both environmental and genetics factors. The results also indicate no relationship between antinutritional factors analysed. From a nutritional point of view, these results would help investigators to select dry bean varieties with a high nutritive value (with a low content of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, saponins and lectins) h...

  5. Concentration of Elements in Food: How Can It Reflect Impact of Environmental and Other Influencing Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Vincevica-Gaile, Z; M. Klavins

    2013-01-01

    Element content of food is variable and can be influenced by different factors. The aim of the present study was to discover the linkage between macro- and microelement concentrations in food produced in Latvia, and possible impacts of environmental factors. More than 300 fresh food samples such as eggs, cottage cheese, honey, root vegetables, apple juice, apple wine were collected in the time period from 2009 to 2011. Samples were mineralised or analysed directly by appr...

  6. The influence of demographic, environmental and physical factors on functional independence post stroke

    OpenAIRE

    M.V. Mamabolo; W. Mudzi; A.S. Stewart; N. P. Mbambo; S. Olorunju

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The magnitude of disability observed in strokesurvivors is believed to be dependent in part, on the severity of neurological deficits incurred. A s important but less well understood, is thecontribution of demographic, physical and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to establish what demographic, environmentaland physical factors influence functional independence post stroke. Method: Convenience sampling was used in the selection of subjects from four stroke outpa...

  7. Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors of Adult Primary Brain Cancers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guzman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and highvoltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary.

  8. Factors Behind the Environmental Kuznets Curve. A Decomposition of the Changes in Air Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete [Research Department, Statistics Norway, Oslo (Norway); Medin, Hege [Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, Oslo (Norway)

    2003-01-01

    The environmental Kuznets curve theory suggests that economic growth in the long run may reduce environmental problems. In this article, we use a decomposition analysis to isolate eight different factors, in order to investigate the origins of changes in emissions to air over the period from 1980 to 1996. Among these factors are economic growth, changes in the relative size of production sectors and changes in the use of energy. Given constant emissions per produced unit, economic growth alone would have contributed to a significant increase in the emissions. This potential degradation of the environment has been counteracted by first of all more efficient use of energy and abatement technologies. In addition, the substitution of cleaner for polluting energy types and other technological progressions and political actions have reduced the growth in emissions. Consequently, the growth in all emissions has been significantly lower than economic growth, and negative for some pollutants. The results indicate that policymakers may reduce emissions considerably through creating incentives for lower energy use and substitutions of environmental friendly for environmental damaging energy types, in addition to support environmental friendly research or to conduct direct emission reducing actions, such as abatement requirements or banning of environmental damaging products. This is particularly relevant to countries and sectors with relatively high energy intensities and low pollution abatement.

  9. [Spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture and its relationships with environmental factors at small catchment level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-Hua; Zhu, Hua-De; Chen, Jia; Fang, Nu-Fang; Ai, Lei

    2012-04-01

    Taking the Wulongchi catchment of Danjiangkou in central China as a case, the soil moisture regime in the observation period from April to October, 2008 was divided into different dry-wet time periods by two way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN), and the environmental factors that had significant effects on the spatial pattern of soil moisture in different dry-wet time periods were selected by forward selection and Monte Carlo tests. The redundancy analysis (RDA) was adopted to identify the relationships between the distribution pattern of soil moisture and the environmental factors in different time periods, and the partial RDA was applied to quantitatively analyze the effects of environmental factors, spatial variables, and their interactions on the variation pattern of the soil moisture. The soil moisture regime in the observation period was divided into 7 types, and grouped into 4 time periods, i. e. , dry, semi-arid, semi-humid, and humid. In dry period, land use type was the dominant factor affecting the spatial pattern of soil moisture, and the soil thickness, relative elevation, profile curvature, soil bulk density, and soil organic matter content also had significant effects. In semi-arid period, soil thickness played dominant role, and land use type, topographic wetness index, soil bulk density, and profile curvature had significant effects. In semi-humid period, topographic wetness index was the most important affecting factor, and the land use type and the sine value of aspect played significant roles. In humid period, the topographic compound index and the sine value of aspect were the dominant factors, whereas the relative elevation and catchment area were the important factors. In the four time periods, there was a better consistency between the spatial distribution pattern of soil moisture and the environmental ecological gradient. From dry period to humid period, the independent effects of environmental factors on soil moisture pattern

  10. Environmental factors influencing neonatal immunity and development of diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Marie

    predisposition) and the exposed environment, beginning as early as in perinatal life, are recognized causes of chronic inflammatory diseases. This PhD thesis focuses on two potential environmental risk exposures for development of childhood asthma, namely maternal parity, and postpartum bacterial colonisation...... of the upper respiratory tract. The aim with this thesis was to investigate how maternal parity history affected neonatal immunity; and whether hereditary and environmental risk factors affected bacterial diversity in the upper respiratory tract of asymptomatic neonates. The study is based on clinical material...... for the well-known epidemiological observations of enhanced risk for development of immune-mediated diseases in first-born children. The second study assessed the associations between bacterial diversity and genetic predisposition for atopy and environmental risk factors relevant to establishment...

  11. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Loidl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  12. How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…

  13. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Environmental Factors on Nurturing Intellectual Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Abbas, Merza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that environmental factors promote giftedness and invest in many programs to adopt gifted students providing them with challenging activities. Intellectual giftedness is founded on fluid intelligence and extends to more specific abilities through the growth and inputs from the environment. Acknowledging the roles played by the…

  14. Correlations between environmental factors and wild bee behavior on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Hongping; Li, Xiaoxia; Song, Yu; Chen, Li; Jin, Liang

    2009-10-01

    To discover the effect of environmental factors on pollinator visitation to flowering Medicago sativa, several field experiments were designed to examine the diurnal movement patterns of wild bee species in the Hexi Corridor of northwestern China. Our study results showed that Megachile abluta, M. spissula, and Xylocopa valga showed unimodal diurnal foraging behavior, whereas Andrena parvula and Anthophora melanognatha showed bimodal diurnal foraging behavior. Correlation analysis indicated that diurnal foraging activities of pollinators were significantly correlated with environmental factors. Correlations of foraging activities versus environmental factors for M. abluta, M. spissula, and X. valga best fit a linear model, whereas those of A. parvula and A. melanognatha best fit a parallel quadratic model. Results of this study indicated that solitary wild bees such as M. abluta, M. spissula, X. valga, A. parvula, and A. melanognatha are potential alfalfa pollinators in the Hexi Corridor. An understanding of the environmental factors that affect the behaviors of different wild bees foraging in alfalfa are basic to the utilization of solitary wild bees in a practical way for increased, or more consistent, pollination of alfalfa for seed production. PMID:19825303

  15. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  16. Gene-Environment Interplay in Internalizing Disorders: Consistent Findings across Six Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Dirago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavior genetic methods can help to elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). To date, however, no study has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risk factors with the purpose of delineating general…

  17. Nutritional and environmental factors in human spina bifida : an emphasis on myo-inositol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, Pascal Martinus Wilhelmus

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a nation wide case-control triad study carried out in collaboration with nine spina bifida centers and a patient organization (VSOP/BOSK) focused on the role of myo-inositol and zinc, environmental factors and related genes in the pathogenesis of spina bifida. Mo

  18. Environmental risk factors for type 1 diabetes in Rome and province

    OpenAIRE

    Visalli, N; L. Sebastiani; Adorisio, E; Conte, A.; De Cicco, A L; D'Elia, R.; Manfrini, S; Pozzilli, P; the, I

    2003-01-01

    Background: In subjects genetically susceptible to type 1 diabetes, exposure to environmental factors during the gestational period, the neonatal period, and the first years of life is thought to play an important role in triggering the immune process leading to ß cell destruction.

  19. Understanding the contribution of environmental factors in the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    The overuse and abuse of antibiotics have contributed to the global epidemic of antibiotic resistance. Current evidence suggests that widespread dependency on antibiotics and complex interactions between human health, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine, have contributed to the propagation and spread of resistant organisms. The lack of information on pathogens of major public health importance, limited surveillance, and paucity of standards for a harmonised and coordinated approach, further complicates the issue. Despite the widespread nature of antimicrobial resistance, limited focus has been placed on the role of environmental factors in propagating resistance. There are limited studies that examine the role of the environment, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene factors that contribute to the development of resistant pathogens. Understanding these elements is necessary to identify any modifiable interactions to reduce or interrupt the spread of resistance from the environment into clinical settings. This paper discusses some environmental issues that contribute to antimicrobial resistance, including soil related factors, animal husbandry and waste management, potable and wastewater, and food safety, with examples drawn mainly from the Asian region. The discussion concludes that some of the common issues are often overlooked and whilst there are numerous opportunities for environmental factors to contribute to the growing burden of antimicrobial resistance, a renewed focus on innovative and traditional environmental approaches is needed to tackle the problem. PMID:25921603

  20. Environmental Factors Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota in Children with Eczema: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carmen W. H.; Wong, Rosa S.; Law, Patrick T. W.; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K. W.; Tang, Winnie P. Y.; Sit, Janet W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children’s daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema. PMID:27438825

  1. Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

  2. Environmental Factors Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota in Children with Eczema: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carmen W H; Wong, Rosa S; Law, Patrick T W; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K W; Tang, Winnie P Y; Sit, Janet W H

    2016-01-01

    Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children's daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema. PMID:27438825

  3. Description of Environmental Factors in Schools: Lessons from a Study in North-West Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesana, Julia Crespo; Juste, Margarita Pino

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to offer a view on the different environmental factors that affect health (sound, light, colour, temperature) in the design, planning and organization of school premises. To achieve this, the authors first outline the problems leading to unhealthy situations. They subsequently analyse all the building and planning…

  4. Recurrence risk of congenital anomalies - the impact of paternal, social, and environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the recurrence risk of congenital anomalies as a function of changes in genetic and environmental factors in single births following the birth of a child with an anomaly. The study is a population-based historical follow-up using the Danish Medical Birth registry, hospital...

  5. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  6. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  7. Juvenile criminal recidivism : relations with personality and post release environmental risk and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, C. van

    2005-01-01

    The general aim of the present dissertation is to get more insight in the contribution of personality traits and post release environmental risk and protective factors on juvenile criminal recidivism. One year after their release from a juvenile detention centre, a sample of 60 adolescent male offen

  8. Perceived Environmental and Personal Factors Associated with Walking and Cycling for Transportation in Taiwanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined perceived environmental and personal factors associated with walking and cycling as means of transportation for Taiwanese adults. A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with Taiwanese adults aged 20 to 64 years. Data on time spent walking and cycling for transportation and perceptions of neighborhood environment and personal characteristics were obtained from 1065 adults by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long version and its environmental module. Adjusted binary logistic regression was performed. The results showed that, after adjusting potential confounders, common and different personal and perceived environmental factors were associated with walking and cycling for transportation. For common personal factors, adults who had employment were less likely to engage in 150 min of walking per week (odds ratio [OR] = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.27–0.62 and to use cycling as a means of transportation (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32–0.79. For common perceived environmental factors, adults who perceived good connectivity of streets were more likely to walk (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.20–3.16 and cycle (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.16–3.54 for transportation. Targeting employed adults and improving the connectivity of streets should be a priority for developing transport policies and intervention strategies to promote active transportation.

  9. Determinants of palm species distributions across Africa: the relative roles of climate, non-climatic environmental factors, and spatial constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Blach; Svenning, J.-C.; Dransfield, John;

    2010-01-01

    ' ranges may be controlled by soil or other environmental factors, or by non-environmental factors such as biotic interactions, dispersal barriers, intrinsic population dynamics, or time-limited expansion from place of origin or past refugia. How species ranges are controlled is of key importance......-climatic environmental factors, or non-environmental spatial constraints. A comprehensive data set on African palm species occurrences was assembled and analysed using the SDM algorithm Maxent in combination with climatic and non-climatic environmental predictors (habitat, human impact), as well as spatial eigenvector...

  10. Environmental regulation of households. An empirical review of economic and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on sustainable consumption and environmental regulation of household behavior is dominated by conceptual and normative approaches. As a result, many suggestions lack a firm empirical basis. To overcome this deficiency, econometric studies in three areas of environmentally relevant activities of households are reviewed: residential use of energy, generation of solid waste and recycling, and residential use of water. Next to price and income elasticities, attention is devoted to individual socio-economic features and psychological factors, such as attitudes, knowledge, perceptions and values. Potential psychological determinants and related insights are further examined by discussing a range of representative and illustrative statistical-psychological studies of environmental behavior. One important general finding is that there are very few empirical studies that systematically combine socio-economic and psychological determinants. A range of insights for environmental policy is derived, and research recommendations are offered. (author)

  11. Thermal Comfort Assessment and Optimization of Environmental Factors by Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this study was to determine the dominance effects of environmental factors such as Illuminance (lux, relative humidity (% and WBGT (°C on the operators’ productivity at Malaysian automotive industry. Approach: One automotive parts assembly factory had been chosen as a subject for the study. The subjects were workers at the assembly section of the factory. The environment examined was the Illuminance (lux, relative humidity (% and WBGT (°C of the surrounding workstation area. Two sets of representative data including the Illuminance, relative humidity (% and WBGT (°C level and production rate were collected during the study. All the data was measured using Babuc apparatus which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of environmental were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then Taguchi Method was being utilized to find the sequence of dominance factors that contributed to the productivity of operator at the specified production workstation. From there, optimum level for the three factors will be determine for optimum productivity. Further multiple linear regressions were employed to obtain the equation model in order to represent the relationship of these environmental factors towards productivity. Results: The thermal comfort assessments of this station which was the scale PMV was 2 and PPD is 79% ware likely to be satisfied by the worker. Conclusion: The study revealed that the dominant factor contribute to the productivity at the body assembly production line is WBGT and Illuminance whereas the empirical finding was closely related to the perception study by survey questionnaire distribution.

  12. Infrastructure challenges for the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twin challenges of a lower-carbon future and national energy security are focusing attention on the most effective means of energy generation in the built environment. Efficiency gains are offered by the distribution of heat from community heating and combined heat and power (CHP) plant, which is presently underdeveloped in the UK by comparison with continental Europe. Natural gas is the preferred fuel for most of today's district energy systems which are technically developed, but proposed schemes must be tested against CHP 'quality' criteria to ensure there is not an increase in primary energy use compared to larger-scale central generation. Future district energy systems must aim to exploit local energy resources, such as biomass, wind and micro-hydro, and local thermal resources, such as solar collectors and ground source heat pumping. They may also incorporate novel forms of heat and power storage and load management. District energy schemes must be planned within a context of increasingly efficient buildings requiring less heat while the demand for electricity increases. In addition, local power schemes will have to meet future environmental requirements, for example for air quality where waste or biomass is combusted

  13. The impact of supply chain-related factors on the environmental performance of manufacturing firms in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akin, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Wynstra, F.; Raaij, van, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of supply chain-related factors on the adoption of proactive environmental strategies, and the impact of such strategies on environmental investments and environmental performance. Data were collected from 96 Turkish manufacturers using an online questionnaire. The model was tested with PLS, a structural equation modelling method. The results show that a proactive environmental strategy leads to higher environmental investments which in turn lead to higher e...

  14. Conventional, Partially Converted and Environmentally Friendly Farming in South Korea: Profitability and Factors Affecting Farmers’ Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saem Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While organic farming is well established in Europe a nd USA, it is still catching up in Asian countries. The government of South Korea has implemented environmentally friendly farming that encompasses organic farming. Despite the promotion of environmentally friendly farming, it still has a low share in South Korea and partially converted farming has emerged in some districts of South Korea. However, the partially converted farming has not yet been investigated by the government. Thus, our study implemented a financial analysis to compare the annual costs and net returns of conventional, partially converted and environmentally friendly farming in Gangwon Province. The result showed that environmentally friendly farming was more profitable with respect to farm net returns. To find out the factors affecting the adoption of environmentally friendly farming, multinomial logistic regression was implemented. The findings revealed that education and subsidy positively and significantly influenced the probability of farmers’ choice on partially converted and environmentally friendly farming. Farm size had a negative and significant relationship with only environmentally friendly farming. This study will contribute to future policy establishment for sustainable agriculture as recommended by improving the quality of fertilizers, suggesting the additional investigation associated with partially converted farmers.

  15. Plant community assembly at small scales: Spatial vs. environmental factors in a European grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Sebastian; Hempel, Stefan; Ristow, Michael; Rillig, Matthias C.; Kowarik, Ingo; Caruso, Tancredi

    2015-02-01

    Dispersal limitation and environmental conditions are crucial drivers of plant species distribution and establishment. As these factors operate at different spatial scales, we asked: Do the environmental factors known to determine community assembly at broad scales operate at fine scales (few meters)? How much do these factors account for community variation at fine scales? In which way do biotic and abiotic interactions drive changes in species composition? We surveyed the plant community within a dry grassland along a very steep gradient of soil characteristics like pH and nutrients. We used a spatially explicit sampling design, based on three replicated macroplots of 15 × 15, 12 × 12 and 12 × 12 m in extent. Soil samples were taken to quantify several soil properties (carbon, nitrogen, plant available phosphorus, pH, water content and dehydrogenase activity as a proxy for overall microbial activity). We performed variance partitioning to assess the effect of these variables on plant composition and statistically controlled for spatial autocorrelation via eigenvector mapping. We also applied null model analysis to test for non-random patterns in species co-occurrence using randomization schemes that account for patterns expected under species interactions. At a fine spatial scale, environmental factors explained 18% of variation when controlling for spatial autocorrelation in the distribution of plant species, whereas purely spatial processes accounted for 14% variation. Null model analysis showed that species spatially segregated in a non-random way and these spatial patterns could be due to a combination of environmental filtering and biotic interactions. Our grassland study suggests that environmental factors found to be directly relevant in broad scale studies are present also at small scales, but are supplemented by spatial processes and more direct interactions like competition.

  16. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  17. Studying the Relative Strengths of Environmental Factors that Influence Echinoderm Body Size Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, A.; Randhawa, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size is often a useful metric in observing how a clade responds to environmental changes. Previous research has uncovered how environmental factors such as carbon dioxide and oxygen levels influence body size evolution. However, we wanted to look into how these natural factors interact and which factors seem to have a stronger relative influence on echinoderm body size. We analyzed carbon dioxide levels, a proxy for paleotemperature, oxygen levels, and sea level. Our research process involved measuring and calculating the volume of Phanerozoic echinoderm fossils recorded in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, plotting their mean volumes over various natural factors, and using statistical tools such as correlation tests and the PaleoTS statistical analysis software to compare the relative strengths of these factors. Furthermore, we divided our data into the following three subsets to uncover more specific relationships: 1) A set that included all data of the phylum Echinodermata 2) A set that focused on the two classes with the most recorded data, Echinoidea and Crinoidea 3) A set that focused on the crinoid specimens that originated in the Paleozoic and in the post-Paleozoic. In the first subset, echinoderms had the strongest correlation with carbon dioxide, a proxy for temperature, and possessed a weaker correlation with oxygen. In the second subset, we discovered that the echinoid data also possessed a strong correlation with carbon dioxide and a weaker correlation with oxygen. For crinoids, we found that the class as a whole showed no strong correlation with any measured environmental factors. However, when we divided the crinoids based on age, we found that both Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids individually correlated strongly with sea level. However, some uncertainty with this correlation arose as the comparison of the environmental correlate models suggested that an unbiased random walk was the best fit for the data. This stands as a sharp

  18. Pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma and the role of environmental and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neragi-Miandoab Siyamek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a rare, aggressive tumor for which no effective therapy exists despite the discovery of many possible molecular and genetic targets. Many risk factors for MPM development have been recognized including environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, viral contamination, and radiation. However, the late stage of MPM diagnosis and the long latency that exists between some exposures and diagnosis have made it difficult to comprehensively evaluate the role of risk factors and their downstream molecular effects. In this review, we discuss the current molecular and genetic contributors in MPM pathogenesis and the risk factors associated with these carcinogenic processes.

  19. Environmental and stressful factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones and the kidney colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzidis, Rigas G; Damigos, Dimitrios; Siamopoulos, Kostas C

    2014-09-01

    The first renal disease described from Hippocrates is nephrolithiasis with renal colic, which is the pain of stone passage and is also a common renal problem with easily recognizable characteristics. There has been much written about dietary factors, which have unequivocally been proved to play an important role in the formation of kidney stones. In this regard, it is of interest that the contribution of factors such as stressful events, life style, or occupation in the formation of kidney stones has not been well studied. This review examines the clinical evidence of the stressful events and other environmental factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones. PMID:24927933

  20. Environmental Risk Factors in Psoriasis: The Point of View of the Nutritionist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Nappi, Francesca; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Falco, Andrea; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated skin disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation, where both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors for psoriasis, evidence is accumulating that nutrition plays a major role, per se, in psoriasis pathogenesis. In particular, body weight, nutrition, and diet may exacerbate the clinical manifestations, or even trigger the disease. Understanding the epidemiological relationship between obesity and psoriasis is also important for delineating the risk profile for the obesity-related comorbidities commonly found among psoriatic patients. Moreover, obesity can affect both drug's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Additionally, the overall beneficial effects on the obesity-associated comorbidities, clinical recommendations to reduce weight and to adopt a healthy lifestyle could improve the psoriasis severity, particularly in those patients with moderate to severe disease, thus exerting additional therapeutic effects in the conventional treatment in obese patients with psoriasis. Education regarding modifiable environmental factors is essential in the treatment of this disease and represents one of the primary interventions that can affect the prognosis of patients with psoriasis. The goal is to make psoriatic patients and health care providers aware of beneficial dietary interventions. The aim of this review is to assess the relevance of the environmental factors as modifiable risk factors in psoriasis pathogenesis, with particular regard to the involvement of obesity and nutrition in the management of psoriasis, providing also specific nutrition recommendations. PMID:27455297

  1. Genetic, metabolic and environmental factors involved in the development of liver cirrhosis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Roman, Sonia; Fierro, Nora A; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) is a chronic illness caused by inflammatory responses and progressive fibrosis. Globally, the most common causes of chronic liver disease include persistent alcohol abuse, followed by viral hepatitis infections and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, regardless of the etiological factors, the susceptibility and degree of liver damage may be influenced by genetic polymorphisms that are associated with distinct ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Consequently, metabolic genes are influenced by variable environmental lifestyle factors, such as diet, physical inactivity, and emotional stress, which are associated with regional differences among populations. This Topic Highlight will focus on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence the metabolism of alcohol and nutrients in the setting of distinct etiologies of liver disease. The interaction between genes and environment in the current-day admixed population, Mestizo and Native Mexican, will be described. Additionally, genes involved in immune regulation, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix deposition may modulate the degree of severity. In conclusion, LC is a complex disease. The onset, progression, and clinical outcome of LC among the Mexican population are influenced by specific genetic and environmental factors. Among these are an admixed genome with a heterogenic distribution of European, Amerindian and African ancestry; a high score of alcohol consumption; viral infections; a hepatopathogenic diet; and a high prevalence of obesity. The variance in risk factors among populations suggests that intervention strategies directed towards the prevention and management of LC should be tailored according to such population-based features. PMID:26556986

  2. Environmental Risk Factors in Psoriasis: The Point of View of the Nutritionist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Nappi, Francesca; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Falco, Andrea; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated skin disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation, where both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors for psoriasis, evidence is accumulating that nutrition plays a major role, per se, in psoriasis pathogenesis. In particular, body weight, nutrition, and diet may exacerbate the clinical manifestations, or even trigger the disease. Understanding the epidemiological relationship between obesity and psoriasis is also important for delineating the risk profile for the obesity-related comorbidities commonly found among psoriatic patients. Moreover, obesity can affect both drug’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Additionally, the overall beneficial effects on the obesity-associated comorbidities, clinical recommendations to reduce weight and to adopt a healthy lifestyle could improve the psoriasis severity, particularly in those patients with moderate to severe disease, thus exerting additional therapeutic effects in the conventional treatment in obese patients with psoriasis. Education regarding modifiable environmental factors is essential in the treatment of this disease and represents one of the primary interventions that can affect the prognosis of patients with psoriasis. The goal is to make psoriatic patients and health care providers aware of beneficial dietary interventions. The aim of this review is to assess the relevance of the environmental factors as modifiable risk factors in psoriasis pathogenesis, with particular regard to the involvement of obesity and nutrition in the management of psoriasis, providing also specific nutrition recommendations. PMID:27455297

  3. Environmental Risk Factors in Psoriasis: The Point of View of the Nutritionist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Barrea

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated skin disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation, where both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors for psoriasis, evidence is accumulating that nutrition plays a major role, per se, in psoriasis pathogenesis. In particular, body weight, nutrition, and diet may exacerbate the clinical manifestations, or even trigger the disease. Understanding the epidemiological relationship between obesity and psoriasis is also important for delineating the risk profile for the obesity-related comorbidities commonly found among psoriatic patients. Moreover, obesity can affect both drug’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Additionally, the overall beneficial effects on the obesity-associated comorbidities, clinical recommendations to reduce weight and to adopt a healthy lifestyle could improve the psoriasis severity, particularly in those patients with moderate to severe disease, thus exerting additional therapeutic effects in the conventional treatment in obese patients with psoriasis. Education regarding modifiable environmental factors is essential in the treatment of this disease and represents one of the primary interventions that can affect the prognosis of patients with psoriasis. The goal is to make psoriatic patients and health care providers aware of beneficial dietary interventions. The aim of this review is to assess the relevance of the environmental factors as modifiable risk factors in psoriasis pathogenesis, with particular regard to the involvement of obesity and nutrition in the management of psoriasis, providing also specific nutrition recommendations.

  4. Environmental Risk Factors in Psoriasis: The Point of View of the Nutritionist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Nappi, Francesca; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Falco, Andrea; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated skin disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation, where both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors for psoriasis, evidence is accumulating that nutrition plays a major role, per se, in psoriasis pathogenesis. In particular, body weight, nutrition, and diet may exacerbate the clinical manifestations, or even trigger the disease. Understanding the epidemiological relationship between obesity and psoriasis is also important for delineating the risk profile for the obesity-related comorbidities commonly found among psoriatic patients. Moreover, obesity can affect both drug's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Additionally, the overall beneficial effects on the obesity-associated comorbidities, clinical recommendations to reduce weight and to adopt a healthy lifestyle could improve the psoriasis severity, particularly in those patients with moderate to severe disease, thus exerting additional therapeutic effects in the conventional treatment in obese patients with psoriasis. Education regarding modifiable environmental factors is essential in the treatment of this disease and represents one of the primary interventions that can affect the prognosis of patients with psoriasis. The goal is to make psoriatic patients and health care providers aware of beneficial dietary interventions. The aim of this review is to assess the relevance of the environmental factors as modifiable risk factors in psoriasis pathogenesis, with particular regard to the involvement of obesity and nutrition in the management of psoriasis, providing also specific nutrition recommendations.

  5. A Qualitative Study of Environmental Factors Important for Physical Activity in Rural Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Cleland

    Full Text Available Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults.In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges, road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software.While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern, or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics.The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies.

  6. DEGRADATION WORKS OF MONUMENTAL ART CAST BRONZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia NICA-BADEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive pollution, combined with the lack of conservation of monuments exposed to these environments make the main cause of deterioration of cultural objects to atmospheric corrosion metal. This paper proposes a study of the main factors leading to degradation Bronze alloy, cast bronze monuments exposed to open atmosphere: corrosive environmental factors, stability and products of corrosion of bronze. In general, all corrosion products present on a metal surface are indicated as 'skate', can be composed of single-layer or multilayer products. The paper also includes a case study on the influence of environmental factors on degradation Matthias monument statue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Visual inspection of the monument informs us that have white spots, gray, reddish not consistent with the base color green patina, surfaces showing depigmentation, the rain washed areas, crystallization, deposition of air-borne particles.

  7. Disentangling genetic and environmental risk factors for individual diseases from multiplex comorbidity networks

    CERN Document Server

    Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Most disorders are caused by a combination of multiple genetic and/or environmental factors. If two diseases are caused by the same molecular mechanism, they tend to co-occur in patients. Here we provide a quantitative method to disentangle how much genetic or environmental risk factors contribute to the pathogenesis of 358 individual diseases, respectively. We pool data on genetic, pathway-based, and toxicogenomic disease-causing mechanisms with disease co-occurrence data obtained from almost two million patients. From this data we construct a multilayer network where nodes represent disorders that are connected by links that either represent phenotypic comorbidity of the patients or the involvement of a certain molecular mechanism. From the similarity of phenotypic and mechanism-based networks for each disorder we derive measure that allows us to quantify the relative importance of various molecular mechanisms for a given disease. We find that most diseases are dominated by genetic risk factors, while envir...

  8. Family and social environmental factors associated with aggression among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chunxia; Wei, Zhen; Jin, Ke; Wang, He; Wang, Xiulan; Peng, Ziwen

    2015-09-01

    Family and school environments are assumed to be associated with and influence aggressive behaviors. However, which specific risk factors within these environments that are associated with aggressive behavior are unclear. The goal of this study is to identify family and social environmental qualities that are related to aggression among Chinese adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 3,213 randomly selected urban high school students ages 10 through 18 in southern China. Lower parental attachment, higher family income, mother's higher education levels, father's parenting goals, rough or changeable parenting styles, unsuitable peer relationships, and inadequate social atmospheres at school serve as risk factors for aggression among Chinese adolescents. Our findings provide some implications for understanding aggression among adolescents and suggests possible interventions to help overcome potential environmental risk factors and thus to prevent aggressive behavior in school. PMID:25496506

  9. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  10. Environmental parameters series. 3. Concentration factors of radionuclides in freshwater organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines recent research activities of Radioactive Waste Management Center. Aiming to estimate the radiation dose of man exposed to radioactive materials in an environment, construction of a calculation model on the transfer of radionuclide in the environment was attempted. This issue, Environmental parameter series No.3 includes six reports on the factors related to environmental concentration for radionuclides. The title of the reports are as follows; Factors modifying the concentration factor (CF), Evaluation of accumulation of radionuclides in brackish water organisms, Dose assessment, CF derived from Japanese limnological data, Data table of CF and Metabolic parameters in relation to bioaccumulation of elements by organisms. In addition to collect and arrange the existing data, CF was calculated based on the concentration of stable elements in various lakes and rivers in Japan. (M.N.)

  11. Assessing temporal associations between environmental factors and malaria morbidity at varying transmission settings in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kigozi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors play a major role in transmission of malaria given their relationship to both the development and survival of the mosquito and parasite. The associations between environmental factors and malaria can be used to inform the development of early warning systems for increases in malaria burden. The objective of this study was to assess temporal relationships between rainfall, temperature and vegetation with malaria morbidity across three different transmission settings in Uganda. Methods Temporal relationships between environmental factors (weekly total rainfall, mean day time temperature and enhanced vegetation index series and malaria morbidity (weekly malaria case count data and test positivity rate series over the period January 2010–May 2013 in three sites located in varying malaria transmission settings in Uganda was explored using cross-correlation with pre-whitening. Sites included Kamwezi (low transmission, Kasambya (moderate transmission and Nagongera (high transmission. Results Nagongera received the most rain (30.6 mm and experienced, on average, the highest daytime temperatures (29.8 °C per week. In the study period, weekly TPR and number of malaria cases were highest at Kasambya and lowest at Kamwezi. The largest cross-correlation coefficients between environmental factors and malaria morbidity for each site was 0.27 for Kamwezi (rainfall and cases, 0.21 for Kasambya (vegetation and TPR, and −0.27 for Nagongera (daytime temperature and TPR. Temporal associations between environmental factors (rainfall, temperature and vegetation with malaria morbidity (number of malaria cases and TPR varied by transmission setting. Longer time lags were observed at Kamwezi and Kasambya compared to Nagongera in the relationship between rainfall and number of malaria cases. Comparable time lags were observed at Kasambya and Nagongera in the relationship between temperature and malaria morbidity. Temporal

  12. Convergence of genetic and environmental factors on parvalbumin-positive interneurons in schizophrenia

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    Zhihong eJiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia etiology is thought to involve an interaction between genetic and environmental factors during postnatal brain development. However, there is a fundamental gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which environmental factors interact with genetic susceptibility to trigger symptom onset and disease progression. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings implicating oxidative stress as one mechanism by which environmental insults, especially early life social stress, impact the development of schizophrenia. Based on a review of the literature and the results of our own animal model, we suggest that environmental stressors such as social isolation render parvalbumin-positive interneurons vulnerable to oxidative stress. We previously reported that social isolation stress exacerbates many of the schizophrenia-like phenotypes seen in a conditional genetic mouse model of schizophrenia in which NMDARs are selectively ablated in half of cortical and hippocampal interneurons during early postnatal development (Belforte et al., 2010. We have since revealed that this social isolation-induced effect is caused by impairments in the antioxidant defense capacity in the parvalbumin-positive interneurons in which NMDARs are ablated. We propose that this effect is mediated by the down-regulation of PGC-1α, a master regulator of mitochondrial energy metabolism and anti-oxidant defense, following the deletion of NMDARs (Jiang et al, 2013. Other potential molecular mechanisms underlying redox dysfunction upon gene and environmental interaction will be discussed, with a focus on the unique properties of parvalbumin-positive interneurons.

  13. Virulence factors in environmental and clinical Vibrio cholerae from endemic areas in Kenya

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    Racheal W. Kimani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1971, Kenya has had repeated cholera outbreaks. However, the cause of seasonal epidemics of cholera is not fully understood and neither are the factors that drive epidemics, both in Kenya and globally.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the environmental reservoirs of V. cholerae during an interepidemic period in Kenya and to characterise their virulence factors.Methods: One hundred (50 clinical, 50 environmental samples were tested for V. cholerae isolates using both simplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.Results: Both sediments and algae from fishing and landing bays yielded isolates of V. cholerae. Clinical strains were characterised along with the environmental strains for comparison. All clinical strains harboured ctxA, tcpA (El Tor, ompU, zot, ace, toxR, hylA (El Tor and tcpI genes. Prevalence for virulence genes in environmental strains was hylA (El Tor (10%, toxR (24%, zot (22%, ctxA (12%,tcpI (8%, hylA (26% and tcpA (12%.Conclusion: The study sites, including landing bays and beaches, contained environmental V. cholerae, suggesting that these may be reservoirs for frequent epidemics. Improved hygiene and fish-handling techniques will be important in reducing the persistence of reservoirs.

  14. The Prevalence of Specific Ecologies in Marine Organisms with Relation to Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, S.; Gao, Y.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    The environment is constantly changing; in recent times, the issue of global warming in particular has raised concerns about ecosystems. Marine organisms are just one type of organism affected by environmental changes; by studying how changes in the environment in the past have affected evolution, we can make predictions for the future. Drastic environmental changes have occurred since the beginning of the Cambrian (541 Ma), as have changes in the ecologies of different phyla and marine organisms as a whole. Organisms must adapt to changing environments, and by analyzing the correlations between the two variables, we can find out which environmental factors play roles in the prevalences of characteristics in populations. Distinctive patterns in the originations and extinctions of ecologies in large fractions of a population and the changes in environmental conditions are visible through careful analysis. We have found, through correlation tests between factors, that statistically significant correlations (p-values global warming that is currently occurring. Research into these factors is important for our understanding of the changing world of today.

  15. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  16. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  17. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle. PMID:26680578

  18. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  19. Social and environmental malaria risk factors in urban areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouedraogo Herman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite low endemicity, malaria remains a major health problem in urban areas where a high proportion of fevers are presumptively treated using anti-malarial drugs. Low acquired malaria immunity, behaviour of city-dwellers, access to health care and preventive interventions, and heterogenic suitability of urban ecosystems for malaria transmission contribute to the complexity of the malaria epidemiology in urban areas. Methods The study was designed to identify the determinants of malaria transmission estimated by the prevalence of anti-circumsporozoite (CSP antibodies, the prevalence and density of Plasmodium falciparum infection, and the prevalence of malarial disease in areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina-Faso. Thick blood smears, dried blood spots and clinical status have been collected from 3,354 randomly chosen children aged 6 months to 12 years using two cross-sectional surveys (during the dry and rainy seasons in eight areas from four ecological strata defined according to building density and land tenure (regular versus irregular. Demographic characteristics, socio-economic information, and sanitary and environmental data concerning the children or their households were simultaneously collected. Dependent variables were analysed using mixed multivariable models with random effects, taking into account the clustering of participants within compounds and areas. Results Overall prevalences of CSP-antibodies and P. falciparum infections were 7.7% and 16.6% during the dry season, and 12.4% and 26.1% during the rainy season, respectively, with significant differences according to ecological strata. Malaria risk was significantly higher among children who i lived in households with lower economic or education levels, iii near the hydrographic network, iv in sparsely built-up areas, v in irregularly built areas, vi who did not use a bed net, vii were sampled during the rainy season or ii had traveled outside of Ouagadougou

  20. Environmental factors determining growth of salamander larvae:A field study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura LIMONGI; Gentile Francesco FICETOLA; Giuseppe ROMEO; Raoul MANENTI

    2015-01-01

    Larval growth and survival of organisms are strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic factors, as demonstrated by ex-perimental studies performed under controlled laboratory or semi-natural conditions. Even if they have many advantages, ex-periments cannot cover the full complexity of natural conditions and field studies are needed for a better understanding of how environmental variation determines growth and development rate. Fire salamanderSalamandra salamandrafemales give birth to larvae in a variety of habitats, both epigean and subterranean. In caves, salamander larvae successfully grow and metamorphose, but their growth is more than three times longer than in epigean streams and factors determining these differences require inves-tigation. We performed a field study to understand the factors related to the growth of fire salamander larvae in different envi-ronmental conditions, evaluating the relationship between environmental features and larval growth and differences between caves and epigean spring habitats. Both caves and epigean larvae successfully grew. Capture-mark-recapture allowed to individu-ally track individuals along their whole development, and measure their performance. Growth rate was significantly affected by environmental variables: larvae grew faster in environments with abundant invertebrates and few conspecifics. Taking into ac-count the effect of environmental variables, larval growth was significantly lower in caves. Food availability plays a different ef-fect in the two environments. Larval growth was positively related to the availability of invertebrates in epigean sites only. The development rate of hypogeous populations of salamanders is slower because of multiple parameters, but biotic factors play a much stronger role than the abiotic ones [Current Zoology 61 (3): 421–427, 2015].

  1. Environmental factors contributing to the spread of H5N1 avian influenza in mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qun Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since late 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI outbreaks caused by infection with H5N1 virus has led to the deaths of millions of poultry and more than 10 thousands of wild birds, and as of 18-March 2008, at least 373 laboratory-confirmed human infections with 236 fatalities, have occurred. The unrestrained worldwide spread of this disease has caused great anxiety about the potential of another global pandemic. However, the effect of environmental factors influencing the spread of HPAI H5N1 virus is unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A database including incident dates and locations was developed for 128 confirmed HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, as well as 21 human cases in mainland China during 2004-2006. These data, together with information on wild bird migration, poultry densities, and environmental variables (water bodies, wetlands, transportation routes, main cities, precipitation and elevation, were integrated into a Geographical Information System (GIS. A case-control design was used to identify the environmental factors associated with the incidence of the disease. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that minimal distance to the nearest national highway, annual precipitation and the interaction between minimal distance to the nearest lake and wetland, were important predictive environmental variables for the risk of HPAI. A risk map was constructed based on these factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study indicates that environmental factors contribute to the spread of the disease. The risk map can be used to target countermeasures to stop further spread of the HPAI H5N1 at its source.

  2. Sleep as a Mediator in the Pathway Linking Environmental Factors to Hypertension: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun A. Akinseye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors, such as noise exposure and air pollution, are associated with hypertension. These environmental factors also affect sleep quality. Given the growing evidence linking sleep quality with hypertension, the purpose of this review is to investigate the role of sleep as a key mediator in the association between hypertension and environmental factors. Through this narrative review of the extant literature, we highlight that poor sleep quality mediates the relationship between environmental factors and hypertension. The conceptual model proposed in this review offers opportunities to address healthcare disparities in hypertension among African Americans by highlighting the disparate impact that the predictors (environmental factors and mediator (sleep have on the African-American community. Understanding the impact of these factors is crucial since the main outcome variable (hypertension severely burdens the African-American community.

  3. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhao

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3-6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia.Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9% and Uyghur (7.0% children (P < 0.05, and the boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother's occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.68 and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67-12.11.The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics.

  4. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3–6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia. Results Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9%) and Uyghur (7.0%) children (P dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother’s occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01–0.68) and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67–12.11). Conclusions The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics. PMID:27416106

  5. The Commuting Profiles of the Principals: Their Views on the Surrounding Built Environment and Infrastructure of their Schools and the Factors that Affect the Active Commuting of Students to and From School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Karakatsanis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the commuting profiles of the principals of the schools, their views on the built environment and infrastructure around schools and active commuting (non motorized transport of students to and from school. 369 principals voluntarily participated in this survey. All principals held a position from either elementary, junior high schools or senior high schools, in the most populous prefectures of Greece (Attica and Thessaloniki during the school year 2012-2013. The results confirm that there is inadequate safety of infrastructure such as dangerous intersections-roads, lack of pedestrian roads with limited car access in front of the school entrance etc. for the active commuting of students around schools. The majority of principals consider that it is important for students to walk or cycle for commuting to and from school but on the other hand, they do not apply it to themselves. Although half of them reside in a walkable or cycle-able distance within 2000m from their work, they commute to school by motorized means and do not set a good example for the students. Principals believe that is necessary to conduct courses or programs on road safety education in schools and suggest methods to enhance the active means of commuting. In this context they reacted positively in organizing an annual event day of active commuting to and from school. Future research will be able to use geographical information systems to assist in the implementation of targeted and safety networks around the school.

  6. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-07-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomplete without consideration of the sociocultural and environmental factors. The most cost-effective approach to solving the infertility problems in Africa is prevention and education. In Mexico, problems of reproductive health are associated with pregnancy in adolescents, sexually transmitted diseases and genitourinary neoplasms. Infertility affects 10% of couples, usually as a result of asymptomatic infection. Education, poverty, nutrition, and pollution are problems that must be tackled. The government has taken positive action in the State of São Paulo in Brazil, where gender discrimination is a major factor affecting women's health and reproductive outcomes. The implementation of new policies with adequate funding has resulted in marked improvements. PMID:8243409

  7. Effect of environmental factors on the abundance of decapod crustaceans from soft bottoms off southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELE FURLAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the importance of variations in environmental factors affecting the abundance patterns of decapods on the southeastern Brazilian coast. Sampling was carried out monthly from January 1998 through December 1999 in Ubatumirim and Mar Virado, Ubatuba region, using a commercial shrimp fishing boat equipped with double-rig nets. Six areas adjacent to rocky shores were chosen. Bottom-water samples were collected using a Nansen bottle, to measure the temperature and salinity. Sediment samples were also obtained by means of a Van Veen grab, for determination of texture and organic-matter content. The association of environmental factors with species abundance was evaluated by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (α = 0.05. Forty-one species of Decapoda were used in the multivariate analysis. The analysis indicated that sediment texture (phi and bottom temperature were the main factors correlated (p < 0.05 with the spatial and temporal abundance of the species. Considering the study region as faunal transition zone, including a mixture of species of both tropical and subantarctic origin, the species responded differently to environmental factors, mainly temperature. It is conceivable that the decapods adjust their distribution according to their intrinsic physiological limitations, possibly as a result of the available resources.

  8. Influences of environmental and operational factors on dark fermentative hydrogen production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Parviz [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ibrahim, Shaliza; Ghafari, Shahin [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Water and Wastewater Research Center (WWRC), Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is one of renewable energy sources known for its non-polluting and environmentally friendly nature, as its end combustion product is water (H{sub 2}O). The biological production of H{sub 2} is a less energy intensive alternative where processes can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Dark fermentation by bacterial biomass is one of multitude of approaches to produce hydrogen which is known as the cleanest renewable energy and is thus receiving increasing attention worldwide. The present study briefly reviews the biohydrogen production process with special attention on the effects of several environmental and operational factors towards the process. Factors such as organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, temperature, and pH studied in published reports were compared and their influences are discussed in this work. This review highlights the variations in examined operating ranges for the factors as well as their reported optimum values. Divergent values observed for the environmental/operational factors merit further exploration in this field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. The psychosocial context of bipolar disorder: environmental, cognitive, and developmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Urosevic, Snezana; Walshaw, Patricia D; Nusslock, Robin; Neeren, Amy M

    2005-12-01

    In this article, we review empirical research on the role of individuals' current environmental contexts, cognitive styles, and developmental histories as risk factors for the onset, course, and expression of bipolar spectrum disorders. Our review is focused on the following over arching question: Do psychosocial factors truly contribute risk to the onset, course, or expression of bipolar disorders? As a secondary issue, we also address whether the psychosocial risks for bipolar disorders are similar to those for unipolar depression. We begin by discussing the methodological requirements for demonstrating a psychosocial risk factor and the challenges posed by bipolar spectrum disorders for psychosocial risk research. Next, we review the extant studies on the role of recent life events and supportive and non-supportive social interactions (current environment) in bipolar disorders, as well as psychosocial treatments designed to remediate these current environmental factors. We then review the role of cognitive styles featured as vulnerabilities in theories of unipolar depression as risk factors for bipolar disorder alone and in combination with life events, including studies of cognitive-behavioral therapies for bipolar disorder. Finally, we review studies of parenting and maltreatment histories in bipolar disorders. We conclude with an assessment of the state of the psychosocial risk factors literature in bipolar disorder with regard to our guiding questions.

  10. Parental exposure at periconception to environmental adverse factors and early embryo loss in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Hai-yan; Wang Dan; Yang Zhen-hua; Zou Xiao-ping; Chen Ya-qiong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of environmental adverse factors with early embryo loss, and explore the possible risk factors in daily life. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 93 new cases of embryo loss (case group) collected in four general hospitals in Tianjin from April 2007 to April 2008 and 93 matched cases of induced abortion (control group) in normal pregnant women who sought the abortion by other reasons. The questionnaire covered information on parental exposure to various environmental factors during and before pregnancy, and the information on daily life. Data were analyzed by single-factor analysis, multiple linear regression and logistic regression analysis. Possible risk factors were identified and odds ratio calculated.Results: Cooking frequently during pregnancy, more daily traffic hours, and decoration history in early pregnancy and paternal exposure to toxic matters three months before pregnancy were associated with early embryo loss, while maternal education was a protective factor. Conclusion: Women exposed to the harmful substances from traffic emissions, cooking and decoration could be at an increased risk of early embryo loss.

  11. [Dynamic change of Yulania sap flow before dormancy in response to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhong-Long; Jia, Zhong-Kui; Ma, Lu-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Duan, Jie

    2012-09-01

    From September 26 to November 5, 2011, the sap flow of Yulania wufengensis trees including cold-resistance type (HK) and non cold-resistance type (HF), Y. 'Sunspire' (HY), and Yulania x soulangeana (EQ) which were introduced into Beijing four years before was monitored by Flow-32 stem heat balance sensor, and, in combining with the environmental factors monitored synchronically, the changes of the sap flow before dormancy and the environmental factors were analyzed, with the responses of the sap flow to the environmental factors investigated at the scales of 0.5 h and 1 day. The sap flow of the Yulanias trees before dormancy displayed an obvious trend of declining day by day. The environmental factors affecting the sap flow could be divided into two categories, i. e., meteorological index (MI) and soil index (SI). The sap flow of the Yulanias trees had a synchronous variation rhythm with MI, and declined in parallel to SI. The combined effect of MI and SI on the diurnal changes of the sap flow was 69% - 73%. At both 0.5 h and 1 day scales, the sap flow showed significantly correlations with total radiation (Rs), air vapor pressure deficit (D), air relative humidity (RH), air temperature (Ta), and wind speed (w). The sap flow showed no significant correlations with soil temperature (Ts) and soil water content (SWC) at 0. 5 h scale, but had significant correlations with Ts, SWC, and day length (Z) at 1 day scale (the correlation efficient was about 0.8). Only Rs, Z, and D were included into the model at 1 day scale, but almost all environmental factors (except SWC and Ts) were included in the model at 0.5 h scale. Except for HF type, the regression coefficients of the model for the Yulanias trees at 1 day scale (0.92-0.96) were larger than those at 0.5 h scale (0.77-0.87), and the correlations between the dynamic changes of sap flow and the environmental factor were consistent, which was in accord with the fact that the HF could not overwinter in Beijing but the

  12. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  13. The impact of supply chain-related factors on the environmental performance of manufacturing firms in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akin, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Wynstra, F.; Raaij, van E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of supply chain-related factors on the adoption of proactive environmental strategies, and the impact of such strategies on environmental investments and environmental performance. Data were collected from 96 Turkish manufacturers using an online questionnaire. The

  14. Urban environmental health: Respiratory illness and urban factors in Kuala Lumpur City, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanisation, more people are now staying in urban built environments, even though the conditions of the urban environments may not be conducive to urban residents' health. However, with the lack of health data of urban residents, very few studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between urban factors and city residents' health especially in developing countries. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to examine the rate of respiratory illness (acute respiratory infection and asthma among residents of Kuala Lumpur City and also to investigate the relationship between the respiratory health rate and urban factors. A questionnaire was distributed to 563 households in the study area. Human health (as measured by acute respiratory infection and asthma was found to be related to the land acreage of urban land use components, trip generated rate and other urban factors. An increase in shopping and office floor space, and trip frequencies, or decrease of green spaces were found to be related positively with the increasing rate of respiratory illness cases among people living in the Kuala Lumpur City.

  15. Assessing the roles of environmental factors in coastal fish production in the northern Baltic Sea: a Bayesian network application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Laura; Kuikka, Sakari; Kauppila, Pirkko; Söderkultalahti, Pirkko; Bäck, Saara

    2012-07-01

    Environmental conditions play a crucial role in the distribution and abundance of fish species in any area. Much research has been attributed to the requirements and tolerance limits of commercially exploited fish species. It is rare, however, that studies have been able to address the relative importance of potentially restrictive environmental factors; extensive enough to allow for estimation of the effect of several environmental factors through the fishes' life span. The coastline of Finland in the northern Baltic Sea offers a unique natural experimental setting that can be used to assess the relative importance of various environmental factors for the species occupying it. The area includes major variations in several crucial environmental factors: salinity, temperature regime, represented by winter ice duration, coastline characteristics, and eutrophic status. Furthermore, Finland has collected extensive and spatially representative data of water quality and environmental factors, as well as a long and extraordinarily spatially detailed data set of commercial catches of several fish species. In this article, we make an attempt to correlate the environmental data to the commercial catches of fish species, assuming that the commercial catches reflect, to some reasonable degree, the productivity of that species in that area (compared to other areas and combinations of environmental factors, not to other species). We use a Bayesian network approach to examine the sensitivity of the species to the environmental factors. PMID:21309077

  16. Factors that Influence Student’s Satisfaction in an Environmental Field Day Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hui WANG

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A field trip is a common strategy used by educators to bring out-of-school learning experience into schools. Many research studies suggest a field trip will not only bring an individual close tothe real-world, but may also increase an individual’s environmental knowledge and responsible behaviors. Program evaluations usually focus on the predetermined outcomes, such as increasing environmental knowledge and responsible behaviors, which were decided by environmental educators and programmer planners. It is known that positive emotions help promote creativity and attention for learners. This paper suggests that increased satisfactionon student field trip experiences, leads to the achievement of programs predetermined goals and outcomes. This study focuses on investigating the factors that influence students’ satisfaction in a field day experience. In this study, we found that presenters, social content, and learning related condition are critical criteria to improve students’ satisfaction in a field day experiences.

  17. Examining the relationship between environmental factors and conflict in pastoralist areas of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayana, Essayas K; Ceccato, Pietro; Fisher, Jonathan R B; DeFries, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    The eastern Africa region has long been known for recurring drought, prolonged civil war and frequent pastoral conflicts. Several researchers have suggested that environmental factors can trigger conflicts among pastoralist communities, but quantitative support for this hypothesis is lacking. Here we use 29years of georeferenced precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to evaluate long term trends in scarcity of water and forage for livestock, and then ask whether these environmental stressors have any predictive power with respect to the location and timing of 11years of conflict data based on Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) and Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). Results indicate that environmental stressors were only partly predictive of conflict events. To better understand the drivers behind conflict, the contribution of other potential stressors to conflict need to be systematically quantified and be taken into consideration. PMID:27037881

  18. What High-Achieving Latino Students Need to Apply to College: Environmental Factors, Individual Resiliency, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Gwendelyn J.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated how well environmental and individual factors predicted college-going behavior for college eligible Latino/as. Three questions were addressed: (a) Is there a relationship between individual agency and college-going behavior after controlling for environmental factors? (b) What is the relationship between the…

  19. Environmental factors influencing the development of black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) on bananas in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of environmental factors on the development of black leaf streak (BLS) were studied in Puerto Rico under field conditions. Environmental factors evaluated included temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and solar radiation. Their effect on BLS was determined by recording the youngest...

  20. Optimal Concession Period in the Built-Operate-Transfer Project Under Multiple Uncertain Factors%多种不确定因素下BOT模式中最优特许期限研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞郑; 万厉; 汪小京

    2012-01-01

    Built-operate-transfer (BOT) is becoming an increasingly popular option of project delivery, and the concession period is a key decision faced by both the government and private investor. Therefore, this paper aims to optimize the concession period in the BOT project by using net present value (NPV). Due to the difficulties in estimating the long-term uncertainties, this paper develops a Monte Carlo simulation model to reveal the relationship between the uncertainties and concession period. At the end, a numerical example is given to provide the optimal concession period.%BOT模式已经成为公私合作的基础设施融资的主要方式之一,其中特许期限是BOT项目成功的关键因素,关系到政府部门公共资源,以及项目投资者的投资利润.考虑到BOT项目时间跨度大,存在多种不确定因素,设计了蒙特卡罗模拟模型,用特定的概率分布函数拟合建设工期、建设成本、收费价格、市场需求、运营和维护成本等关键风险因素,进而模拟出项目公司的NPV曲线,在期望的内含报酬率下及给定的置信水平下求解最优特许期限,从而揭示了不确定性因素和特许期限之间的关系.最后,给出一个高速公路BOT项目的算例,证实了算法的有效性.

  1. Genetic susceptibility and environmental factors of esophageal cancer in Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Hui Wang; Chang-Sheng Sun; Liang-Shou Li; Jiu-Yi Huang; Qing-Shu Chen; De-Zhong Xu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To analyse the role of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors in the process of esophageal cancer (EC) formation in Xi'an, China.METHODS: A hospital based case-control study, combined with molecular epidemiological method, was carried out. A total of 127 EC cases and 101 controls were interviewed with questionnaires containing demographic items, habit of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and family history of EC.Polymorphism of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 of 127 EC cases and 101 controls were detected by PCR method. The interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors were also discussed.RESULTS: Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and a family history of EC were risk factors for EC with an OR of 2.04(95% CI 1.15-3.60), 3.45(95% CI 1.74-6.91), 3.14 (95%CI 1.28-7.94), respectively. Individuals carrying CYP1A1 Val/Valgenotype compared to those with CYP1A1 Ile/Ile genotype had an increased risk for EC (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.49-7.61). GSTM1 deletion genotype was a risk factor for EC (OR1.81, 95% CI 1.03-3.18). Gene-environment interaction analysis showed that CYP1A1 Val/Valgenotype, GSTM1 deletion genotype had synergetic interactions with tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and family history of EC.CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and a family history of EC are risk factors for EC. CYP1A1 Val/'Va/and GSTM1 deletion genotypes are genetic susceptibility biomarkers for EC. There are synergic interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors.

  2. A review of environmental risk factors for myopia during early life, childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Dharani; Lin Chua, Sharon Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Myopia is a significant public health problem worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. The increasing prevalence of myopia poses a huge socio-economic burden and progressive high myopia can lead to sight-threatening ocular complications. Hence, the prevention of early-onset myopia progressing to pathological high myopia is important. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that increased outdoor time is an important modifiable environmental factor that protects young children from myopia. This protective effect may be due to high light intensity outdoors, the chromaticity of daylight or increased vitamin D levels. This review summarises the possible underlying biological mechanisms for the protective association between time outdoors and myopia, including the potential role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in refractive error development. Recent evidence for the role of other environmental risk factors such as near work, birth seasons, parental smoking and birth order are also summarised. PMID:26497977

  3. Asthma in Urban Children: Epidemiology, Environmental Risk Factors, and the Public Health Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Ki Lee; Matsui, Elizabeth; Sharma, Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with 6.5 million children affected in the USA. A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host factors that predispose a child to asthma include atopy, male gender, parental history of asthma, and also race, ethnicity, and genetic and epigenetic susceptibilities. Environmental factors, such as improved hygiene, ambient air pollution, and early life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, also influence the development of asthma. With greater than 90% of time spent indoors, home exposures (such as cockroach, rodent, and indoor air pollution) are highly relevant for urban asthma. Morbidity reduction may require focused public health initiatives for environmental intervention in high priority risk groups and the addition of immune modulatory agents in children with poorly controlled disease.

  4. The effect of environmental factors on breast lumps of Egyptian women in different socioeconomic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental risk factors related to the breast tumors (lumps) are essential in order to build strategies to decrease cancer incidence and mortality among different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. A case control study of 70 cases and 52 controls were classified into high, middle and low socioeconomic classes. The results revealed significant increased risk of breast tumors among working females, having positive family history, married with lower mean parity, with higher consumption of fatty meals, lesser meat intake. Non significant risk factors were the social class, exposure to ionizing radiation, non lactating. wearing tight bra, consumption of vegetables and fruits, oral contraceptive pill users and exposure to outdoor air pollution or indoor pollution as floors and wall paintings. In conclusion, this study highlights the positive life style for egyptian women so they can prevent some of the environmental risks of breast tumors. Increasing the awareness of breast diseases and regular examination remains the corner stone for early detection management of breast lumps.

  5. A Study on Total Factor Energy Efficiency of Coal-fired Power Plants Considering Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-ping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we measure the total-factor energy efficiency under the constraint of environment of 13 coal-fired power plants in Hebei province over the period of 2009 to 2011 using the DEA model which based on the environmental production technology and the directional distance function. The results indicate that the total factor energy efficiency of sample power plants is still at sub-optimal level of around 0.84 and the efficiency is over estimated when without looking at environmental impacts. This indicates that undesirable outputs have a significant influence on energy efficiency of power plants. Poor performance of few power plants is due to their ability to manage the undesirable outputs need to be improved. In order to improve energy efficiency and achieve sustainable development, plants should concentrate on both energy saving and emission reduction at the same time.

  6. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors predict handgun ownership in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B; Beaver, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Handgun ownership has been the focus of much criminological research due to the over involvement of handguns in violent crime. This literature has, however, overlooked the potential role genetic factors play in the decision to purchase a handgun. The current study analyzed the genetic and environmental influences on handgun ownership among a large sample of young adult twins from the United States. Analyses revealed a stronger concordance for gun ownership among identical twins as compared to fraternal twins and univariate ACE model results indicated genetic (57%) and nonshared environmental (43%) factors explained the variance in handgun ownership. A mediation analysis was performed and the results indicated a portion of the genetic influence on handgun ownership may be mediated by victimization experiences. PMID:24524543

  7. Grey relational analysis on the relation between marine environmental factors and oxidation-reduction potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xueqing; WANG Jia; ZHANG Dun; LI Yantao

    2009-01-01

    The effects of marine environmental factors-temperature (T), dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity (S) and pH-on the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of natural seawater were studied in laboratory. The results show an indistinct relationship between these four factors and the ORP, but they did impact the ORP. Common mathematical methods were not applicable for describing the relationship. Therefore, a grey relational analysis (GRA) method was developed. The degrees of correlation were calculated according to GRA and the values of T, pH, DO and S were 0.744, 0.710, 0.692 and 0.690, respectively. From these values, the relations of these factors to the ORP could be described and evaluated, and those of T and pH were relatively major. In general, ORP is influenced by the synergic effect of T, DO, pH and S, with no single factor having an outstanding role.

  8. Coexistence of specialist and generalist species is shaped by dispersal and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchi, Lucie; Vuilleumier, Séverine

    2014-05-01

    Disentangling the mechanisms mediating the coexistence of habitat specialists and generalists has been a long-standing subject of investigation. However, the roles of species traits and environmental and spatial factors have not been assessed in a unifying theoretical framework. Theory suggests that specialist species are more competitive in natural communities. However, empirical work has shown that specialist species are declining worldwide due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We addressed the question of the coexistence of specialist and generalist species with a spatially explicit metacommunity model in continuous and heterogeneous environments. We characterized how species' dispersal abilities, the number of interacting species, environmental spatial autocorrelation, and disturbance impact community composition. Our results demonstrated that species' dispersal ability and the number of interacting species had a drastic influence on the composition of metacommunities. More specialized species coexisted when species had large dispersal abilities and when the number of interacting species was high. Disturbance selected against highly specialized species, whereas environmental spatial autocorrelation had a marginal impact. Interestingly, species richness and niche breadth were mainly positively correlated at the community scale but were negatively correlated at the metacommunity scale. Numerous diversely specialized species can thus coexist, but both species' intrinsic traits and environmental factors interact to shape the specialization signatures of communities at both the local and global scales.

  9. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire to assess physical environmental factors pertaining to physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinn Aileen P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8, with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men.

  10. Are there common genetic and environmental factors behind the endophenotypes associated with the metabolic syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benyamin, B; Sørensen, T I A; Schousboe, K;

    2007-01-01

    and environmental factors influencing this cluster in a general population of twin pairs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multivariate genetic analysis was performed on nine endophenotypes associated with the metabolic syndrome from 625 adult twin pairs of the GEMINAKAR study of the Danish Twin Registry. RESULTS: All......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The cluster of obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension, called the metabolic syndrome, has been suggested as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether there are common genetic...

  11. Environmental factors responsible for fluctuation phenomena. Difficulties in accepting these facts by scientific community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our physico-chemical approach started already in early sixties by Piccardi is based on the sensitivity of water to low level of energy of physical factors excising and fluctuating in the environment. This approach could be at the origin of many unexplained solar-terrestrial relationships or fluctuating phenomena in biology, medicine, psychology and social sciences. Methodology and causality are still the major problems raised in the scientific community by the Piccardi effect. These problems can be solved only by the organization of interdisciplinary cooperation in the research and scientific investigation of environmental factors responsible for fluctuating phenomena in exact, natural and human sciences on an international scale. 9 refs

  12. Environmental risk factors for sporadic acoustic neuroma (Interphone Study Group, Germany)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlehofer, B; Schlaefer, K; Blettner, M;

    2007-01-01

    The only known risk factor for sporadic acoustic neuroma is high-dose ionising radiation. Environmental exposures, such as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and noise are under discussion, as well as an association with allergic diseases. We performed a population-based case-control study...... in Germany investigating these risk factors in 97 cases with acoustic neuroma, aged 30 to 69 years, and in 194 matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multiple logistic regression models. Increased risks were found for exposure to persistent noise (OR=2...

  13. Solar Radiation and Vitamin D: Mitigating Environmental Factors in Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the environmental role of vitamin D and solar radiation as risk reduction factors in autoimmune disease. Five diseases are considered: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disease of the thyroid, and inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical relevant studies and factors that may indicate evidence that autoimmune disease is a vitamin D-sensitive disease are presented. Studies that have resulted in prevention or amelioration of some autoimmune disease are discussed. An example of the utility of supplementing vitamin D in an unusual autoimmune disease, idiopathic thrombocytic purpura, is presented.

  14. THE EFFECT OF GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO FACIAL SHAPE IN DOWN’S SYNDROME PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Suharsini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Down’s syndrome is caused by chromosomal aberration, namely 21 trisomy. Skeletal and neurological disorders are found in Down’s syndrome patients. Skeletal disorder may cause craniofacial growth abnormalities whereas neurological disorder may cause brain growth defects, which result in mental retardation, as well as neuromuscular disorder, which results in muscular hypotonia. The aim of this study was to prove that facial shape in Down’s syndrome patient was not only influenced by genetic factors, but also by environmental factors such as cognitive capability, oral muscular exercises and oral muscular tone. The population consisted of Down’s syndrome children aged 14 to 18 years from Sekolah Luar Biasa (Special School in Jakarta. Samples used in the study consisted of 25 Down’s syndrome patients. Clinical and cytogenic test were conducted to ensure a diagnosis. Lateral cephalograms were made to analyze facial shape by Fourier analysis on gonion angle. Intelligence Quotient (IQ and Social Quotient (SQ tests, electromyography examination of the masseter and temporal muscles, oral function examination and speech therapy questionnaires to the respondents were performed. The data were analyzed using path analysis. Based on the results of the study, it could be concluded that the genetic factor is the main factor causing Down’s syndrome facial shape abnormalities. The environmental factors such as oral muscular tone, cognitive capability, and oral muscular exercises may also play a role in Down’s syndrome facial shape.

  15. Evaluation of unit risk factors in support of the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the generation of unit risk factors for use with the Graphical Information System (GIS) being developed by Advanced Sciences, Inc. for the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. The GIS couples information on source inventory and environmental transport with unit risk factors to estimate the potential risk from contamination at all locations on the Hanford Site. The major components of the effort to generate the unit risk factors were: determination of pollutants to include in the study, definition of media of concern, and definition of exposure assessment scenarios, methods, and parameters. The selection of pollutants was based on inventory lists which indicated the pollutants likely to be encountered at the known waste sites. The final pollutants selected included 47 chemical pollutants and 101 radionuclides. Unit risk factors have been generated for all 148 pollutants per unit initial concentration in five media: soil (per unit mass), soil (per unit area), air, groundwater, and surface water. The exposure scenarios were selected as the basis for the unit risk factor generation. The endpoint in the exposure assessment analysis is expressed as risk of developing cancer for radionuclides and carcinogenic chemicals. For noncarcinogenic chemicals, the risk endpoint is the hazard quotient. The cancer incidence and hazard quotient values are evaluated for all exposure pathways, pollutants, and scenarios. The hazard index values and unit risk values are used by the GIS to produce maps of risk for the Hanford Site

  16. Influence of environmental factors on intellectual efficiency of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Veljko; Smederevac Snežana; Tovilović Snežana

    2009-01-01

    The basic goal of this research was to study the influence of environmental factors on intellectual efficiency of pre-school children. Research participants were 149 children (52 Roma, 48 non-Roma children of average socioeconomic status and 49 children of low socioeconomic status), of the average age of 81 months. Data were collected during maturity evaluation for school in primary schools in Sabac and Sremska Mitrovica. Children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the School Maturity ...

  17. Predicting School Bullying Victimization: Focusing on Individual and School Environmental/Security Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Seokjin Jeong; Dae-Hoon Kwak; Byongook Moon; Claudia San Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Bullying behavior continues to be a salient social and health-related issue of importance to educators, criminal justice practitioners, and academicians across the country. While discourse on school bullying is abundant, previous studies are limited in explaining the predictive effect of factors such as individual/demographic variables, school environmental variables, and school antibullying preventive measures. Using a nationally representative sample of 12,987 private and public school stud...

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Peckys, Diana B.; Jean-Pierre Baudoin; Magdalena Eder; Ulf Werner; Niels de Jonge

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the l...

  19. Impact of environmental factors on marijuana use in 11 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pejnović Franelić, Iva; Kuzman, Marina; Pavić Šimetin, Ivana; KERN, JOSIPA

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between environmental factors (perceived availability of marijuana, perceived use among friends and siblings, use of alcohol and tobacco, family structure, parental control, school performance) and lifetime prevalence and frequent and early marijuana use in high school students. Methods We used self-reported data from 15-16 years old participants of the 2003 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) conducted i...

  20. Interplay between environmental factors, articular involvement, and HLA-B27 in patients with psoriatic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpa, R.; DEL PUENTE A; di Girolamo, C; Della Valle, G.; E. Lubrano; Oriente, P

    1992-01-01

    Medical records of 138 patients with psoriatic arthritis and 138 with rheumatoid arthritis were reviewed for the occurrence of an environmental factor triggering arthritis. Twelve (9%) of the patients with psoriatic arthritis had had an acute disorder immediately preceding onset of arthritis (an operation in four cases, articular trauma in three, abortion in two, myocardial infarction, thrombophlebitis, and phosphoric ester intoxication in one case each). Peripheral arthritis occurred in all ...

  1. Relations of Genetic and Environmental Factors in the Etiology of Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ottman, Ruth; John F. Annegers; Risch, Neil; Hauser, W. Allen; Susser, Mervyn

    1996-01-01

    We assessed the relations of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of epilepsy. The study population comprised 9,705 first-degree relatives of 1,951 adults with epilepsy ascertained from voluntary organizations. We calculated standardized morbidity ratios for specific etiologies of epilepsy in the relatives of probands with the same etiologies, using population incidence rates from Rochester, MN, as the reference. Relatives of probands with idiopathic/cryptogenic epilepsy had incr...

  2. Environmental Factors and Students’ Learning Approaches: A Survey on Malaysian Polytechnics Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlee Mustapha; Seri Bunian Mokhtar; Saemah Rahman; Mohd Yusof Husain; Rahayu Ahamad Bahtiar

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown the impact of environmental factors on student learning approaches. Despite the importance of such studies, studies on technical learners are few. Thus, this study aimed to determine the influence of learning environment on Polytechnics students’ learning approaches in Malaysia. Learning environment plays an important role in the cognitive, effective and social domains of students because it could improve students’ learning outcomes.  Learning approaches refer to th...

  3. Some environmental and biological factors influencing the activity of entomopathogenic Bacillus on mosquito larvae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. G. B Consoli

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental and biological factors on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and B. sphaericus as mosquito larvicides are reviewed. The importance of strain dependence, cultivating media/methods, mosquito species/specificity, formulations and their relation to mosquito feeding habits, as well as temperature, solar exposure, larval density and concomitant presence of other aquatic organisms are addressed with reference to the present status of knowledge in Brazil.

  4. Environmental and Life Style Factors in Relation to Male Reproductive Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad

    on studies of environmental chemicals and their possible impact on reproductive health. In the third part, I discuss network biology as a powerful tool for the study of gene-gene and chemical-gene interactions. In the fourth part, I discuss association mining of clinical data as a means to find interesting...... and unexpected associations between life style factors and disease. The thesis ends with concluding remarks....

  5. Consideration for solar system exploration - A system to Mars. [biomedical, environmental, and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical issues related to a manned mission to Mars are reviewed. Consideration is given to cardiovascular deconditioning, hematological and immunological changes, bone and muscle changes, nutritional issues, and the development of physiological countermeasures. Environmental issues are discussed, including radiation hazards, toxic chemical exposure, and the cabin environment. Also, human factors, performance and behavior, medical screening of the crew, disease prediction, and health maintenance are examined.

  6. Physical environmental factors related to walking and cycling in older adults: the Belgian aging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauwenberg Jelle; Clarys Peter; de Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; Van Holle Veerle; Verté Dominique; De Witte Nico; De Donder Liesbeth; Buffel Tine; Dury Sarah; Deforche Benedicte

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Socio-ecological models emphasize the relationship between the physical environment and physical activity (PA). However, knowledge about this relationship in older adults is limited. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between area of residence (urban, semi-urban or rural) and older adults' walking and cycling for transportation and recreation. Additionally, relationships between several physical environmental factors and walking and cycling a...

  7. Psychological, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated With Utilization of Senior Centers Among Older Adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Shik; Miyashita, Masashi; Harada, Kazuhiro; PARK, JONG-HWAN; So, Jae-Moo; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among the psychological, social, and environmental factors influencing the utilization of senior centers among older adults in Korea. Methods A questionnaire survey was administered to two types of older adults who lived in Seoul, Korea: 262 older adults who used senior centers (3 places) and 156 older adults who did not use senior centers. Results Our results showed clearly that the utilization of the senior centers in Kore...

  8. Congenital and Environmental Factors Associated with Adipocyte Dysregulation as Defects of Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chao-Ping; Chung, Fu-Mei; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Lee, Yau-Jiunn

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome refers to insulin resistance and its associated cluster of related cardiovascular metabolic risk factors including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity. Although many hypotheses and facts have been proposed to explain the interaction between genetic and environmental causes of this syndrome, the primary etiology of the metabolic syndrome is adipose tissue dysregulation. Firstly, the thrifty genotype and phenotype hypothesis may explain the end...

  9. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and betweenperson variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for o...

  10. Social, Environmental and Psychological Factors Associated with Objective Physical Activity Levels in the Over 65s

    OpenAIRE

    McMurdo, Marion E. T.; Ishbel Argo; Iain K Crombie; Zhiqiang Feng; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Thenmalar Vadiveloo; Witham, Miles D.; Donnan, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. Participants: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65–80 years), old-old (over 80 years), more affluent and less affluent groups. Main Outcome Measures: Acce...

  11. Point process models in asthma attacks for assessing environmental risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Kamakura, T; Yanagimoto, T

    1985-01-01

    Point process models are reviewed and discussed for assessing the effects of environmental risk factors on asthma attacks. It is pointed out that the logit model and proportional intensity model are useful for analyzing the data based on the diaries recorded consecutively during several months or during a few years. Some covariates that seems to influence upon asthmatics are explored using these models. Further work on estimating the smoothed base-line intensity function is briefly discussed ...

  12. Implementation of environmental management systems standards: important factors in corporate decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George

    2001-01-01

    While Environmental Management Systems Standards (EMSS) have been advocated by policy makers and consultants on the basis of a number of benefits associated with their implementation some companies are reluctant to implement them. This paper tests four hypotheses with regard to the significance of a number of factors in a company's decision to implement EMSS. Specifically, it assesses whether a company would be more likely to implement EMSS if its management has a positive perception of envir...

  13. Hospitality environmental factors: a study of the consumption experience of homosexuals in the Northeast of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Yákara Vasconcelos Pereira Leite; Juliana Pinheiro da Silva; Manuela Souza Constantino Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this research is identifying environmental factors in hospitality that lead the interviewed homosexuals to memorable consumer experiences at hotels and inns. This research was conducted under descriptive qualitative approach. According to this perspective, gays from two states of the northeast of Brazil were interviewed. The narratives were presented in order to enhance the formation of categories. Regarding results, it was observed that the experience of consumption is me...

  14. A Survey on Environmental Factors and Job Satisfaction Among Operators in Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Ismail; M. H.M. Haniff; Kim, C B; B.M. Deros; N. K. Makhtar

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: A survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between environmental factors, job satisfaction that influence the workers’ discomfort in four automotive manufacturing in Malaysia. Discomfort level of operator in workstation often were associated with workstation design, posture comfort operator at work, activity which involved work and place influence environment such as heat, noise and lighting. The aim of this study was to assess discomfort level based on er...

  15. Distribution of deep-water corals along the North American continental margins: Relationships with environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Tanya L.; Metaxas, Anna

    2006-12-01

    Despite the increasing attention to assemblages of deep-water corals in the past decade, much of this research has been focused on documenting and enumerating associated fauna. However, an understanding of the distribution of most species of coral and the ecological processes associated with these assemblages is still lacking. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively described the habitats of two families of deep-water corals in relation to six oceanographic factors (depth, slope, temperature, current, chlorophyll a concentration and substrate) on the Pacific and Atlantic Continental Margins of North America (PCM and ACM study areas, respectively). This study focused primarily on the distributions of Primnoidae and Paragorgiidae because of the large number of documented occurrences. For each environmental factor, deep-water coral locations were compared to the surrounding environment using χ2 tests. On both continental margins, coral locations were found to be not randomly distributed within the study areas, but were within specific ranges for most environmental factors. In the PCM study area, Paragorgiidae and Primnoidae locations were found in areas with slopes ranging from 0° to 10.0°, temperature from -2.0 to 11.0 °C and currents from 0 to 143 cm s -1. In the ACM study area, Paragorgiidae and Primnoidae locations were found in areas with slopes ranging from 0° to 1.4°, temperature ranging from 0 to 11.0 °C and currents ranging from 0 to 207 cm s -1. Although the patterns in habitat characteristics were similar, differences existed between families with respect to particular environmental factors. In both study areas, most environmental parameters in locations where corals occurred were significantly different from the average values of these parameters as determined with χ2 tests ( p<0.05) except for substrate in Paragorgiidae locations and depth in Primnoidae locations on the PCM. This is the first study to show coral distributional patterns

  16. Influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and diversity of forest soil in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Raimonds Kasparinskis; Olgerts Nikodemus

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the spatial relationships between environmental factors (Quaternary deposits, topographical situation, land cover, forest site types, tree species, soil texture) and soil groups, and their prefix qualifiers (according to the international Food and Agricultural Organization soil classification system World Reference Base for Soil Resources [FAO WRB]). The results show that it is possible to establish relationships between the distribution of environmenta...

  17. Local social environmental factors are associated with household food insecurity in a longitudinal study of children

    OpenAIRE

    Carter Megan Ann; Dubois Lise; Tremblay Mark S; Taljaard Monica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in North America and elsewhere. The prevalence of food insecurity varies by country of residence; within countries, it is strongly associated with household socioeconomic status, but the local environment may also play an important role. In this study, we analyzed secondary data from a population-based survey conducted in Québec, Canada, to determine if five local environmental factors: material and social deprivation,...

  18. Effect of environmental and nutritional factors on growth and azaspiracid production of the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum

    OpenAIRE

    Jauffrais, Thierry; Sechet, Veronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Savar, Veronique; Tillmann, Urban; Hess, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Azadinium spinosum, a small dinoflagellate isolated from the North Sea, is a producer of azaspiracids (AZAs), a group of biotoxins associated with human illness following ingestion of contaminated shellfish. Using batch and continuous cultures of A. spinosum, the present study investigated the effects of different environmental and nutritional factors (salinity, temperature, photon flux density, aeration, culture media, nitrogen sources, phosphate source, and N/P ratios) on growth, maximum ce...

  19. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  20. Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Adoption of Fisheries Conservation Measures in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of artisanal fisheries resources conservation measures based on the perspectives of Artisanal fishers in Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa states, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 to Decmber 2008. With the aid of well-structured questionnaires the desired information were collected and analyzed. A total sample size of 1,200 respondents within the study area, were selected using random sampling technique. Logistic regression technique was used to determine the impact of the independent variables on willingness to adopt fisheries conservation measures. The regression analysis result show that eleven (11 independent variables (Public Enlightenment, Regulatory pressure, Environmental stewardship, Severity of pollutants, Economic circumstances, Institutional Support, Information access, Highest Education, Fishing Experience, Legal Structure and Age were factors that influence willingness to adopt conservation measures by the fishers. However, the level of influence was found to vary differently in the three states studied depending on the socioeconomic and educational status and other peculiarities of each of the state. Generally, based on the result of the logit analysis of the perspectives of the artisanal fisher respondents, it is therefore inferred that the willingness to adopt fisheries resources conservation measures in the Niger Delta by the Artisanal Fishers, is significantly a function of the studied demographic, socioeconomic, psychological, institutional and environmental factors as specified by the eleven variables.

  1. Is exposure to cyanobacteria an environmental risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Walter G.; Borenstein, Amy R.; Nelson, Lorene M.; Codd, Geoffrey A.; Rosen, Barry H.; Stommel, Elijah W.; Cox, Paul Alan

    2013-01-01

    There is a broad scientific consensus that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by gene-environment interactions. Mutations in genes underlying familial ALS (fALS) have been discovered in only 5–10% of the total population of ALS patients. Relatively little attention has been paid to environmental and lifestyle factors that may trigger the cascade of motor neuron death leading to the syndrome of ALS, although exposure to chemicals including lead and pesticides, and to agricultural environments, smoking, certain sports, and trauma have all been identified with an increased risk of ALS. There is a need for research to quantify the relative roles of each of the identified risk factors for ALS. Recent evidence has strengthened the theory that chronic environmental exposure to the neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced by cyanobacteria may be an environmental risk factor for ALS. Here we describe methods that may be used to assess exposure to cyanobacteria, and hence potentially to BMAA, namely an epidemiologic questionnaire and direct and indirect methods for estimating the cyanobacterial load in ecosystems. Rigorous epidemiologic studies could determine the risks associated with exposure to cyanobacteria, and if combined with genetic analysis of ALS cases and controls could reveal etiologically important gene-environment interactions in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  2. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  3. Spatial analysis of eco-environmental risk factors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ali-Akbarpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis, it is still considered as a severe public health problem particularly in developing countries and a great economic burden on the health resources. The present study was designed and conducted to determine the eco-environmental characteristics of the leishmaniasis disease by spatial analysis. Materials and Methods: In an ecological study, data were collected on eco-environmental factors of Fars province in Iran and on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL cases from 2002 to 2009. geographic weighted regression (GWR was used to analyse the data and compare them with ordinary least square (OLS regression model results. Moran′s Index was applied for analysis of spatial autocorrelation in residual of OLS. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant and adjusted R2 was used for model preferences. Results: There was a significant spatial autocorrelation in the residuals of OLS model (Z=2.45, P=0.014. GWR showed that rainy days, minimum temperature, wind velocity, maximum relative humidity and population density were the most important eco-environmental risk factors and explained 0.388 of the associated factors of CL. Conclusion: Spatial analysis can be a good tool for detection and prediction of CL disease. In autocorrelated and non-stationary data, GWR model yields a better fitness than OLS regression model. Also, population density can be used as a surrogate variable of acquired immunity and increase the adjusted R2.

  4. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population. PMID:26466436

  5. Environmental and Pathogenic Factors Inducing Brown Apical Necrosis on Fruit of English (Persian) Walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotton, Michele; Bortolin, Enrico; Fiorin, Antonio; Belisario, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Brown apical necrosis (BAN) is a most recently described disease affecting English (Persian) walnut fruit. BAN was only recorded in intensively managed walnut orchards and was found to be a disease complex mainly caused by Fusarium species. All fungi associated with this disease are polyphagous and ubiquitous, not specific to walnut. Consequently, BAN occurrence is more strictly dependent, than generally, on the interaction between pathological features and environmental conditions. Environmental variables identified with regression analysis showed that maximum temperature, angle of main wind direction versus tree row orientation, and orchard distance to the closest river/canal, all representative of climatic conditions occurring in the orchard, were related to fruit drop. The factor displaying the highest influence on severity of BAN fruit drop was maximum temperature and only subordinately factors are associated with relative humidity. BAN symptoms were reproduced with in planta artificial inoculation, and fruit drop of symptomatic fruit was significantly higher than that of the noninoculated trees for each type of inoculum (Fusarium semitectum, F. graminearum, and Alternaria spp.). F. semitectum and F. graminearum were more aggressive than Alternaria species, and the earliest artificial inoculations in mid-May resulted in the highest fruit drop. The extension of walnut fruit susceptibility and the conducive environmental factors to BAN are discussed.

  6. Estrogen receptor positive breast cancers and their association with environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannel Sylvio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies to assess risk factors for breast cancer often do not differentiate between different types of breast cancers. We applied a general linear model to determine whether data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program on annual county level age-adjusted incidence rates of breast cancer with and without estrogen receptors (ER+ and ER- were associated with environmental pollutants. Results Our final model explained approximately 38% of the variation in the rate of ER+ breast cancer. In contrast, we were only able to explain 14% of the variation in the rate of ER- breast cancer with the same set of environmental variables. Only ER+ breast cancers were positively associated with the EPA's estimated risk of cancer based on toxic air emissions and the proportion of agricultural land in a county. Meteorological variables, including short wave radiation, temperature, precipitation, and water vapor pressure, were also significantly associated with the rate of ER+ breast cancer, after controlling for age, race, premature mortality from heart disease, and unemployment rate. Conclusions Our findings were consistent with what we expected, given the fact that many of the commonly used pesticides and air pollutants included in the EPA cancer risk score are classified as endocrine disruptors and ER+ breast cancers respond more strongly to estrogen than ER- breast cancers. The findings of this study suggest that ER+ and ER- breast cancers have different risk factors, which should be taken into consideration in future studies that seek to understand environmental risk factors for breast cancer.

  7. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.

  8. Influence of environmental factors on intellectual efficiency of pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Veljko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic goal of this research was to study the influence of environmental factors on intellectual efficiency of pre-school children. Research participants were 149 children (52 Roma, 48 non-Roma children of average socioeconomic status and 49 children of low socioeconomic status, of the average age of 81 months. Data were collected during maturity evaluation for school in primary schools in Sabac and Sremska Mitrovica. Children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the School Maturity Test, and the data on socioeconomic status and educational climate were obtained from parents, by administering the Questionnaire for collecting data about the child and the family and Interview with the parent. Results of covariance analysis indicated that the quality of stimulation, parental ambitions and financial status of the family have the biggest effect on intellectual achievement of children. Poorer cognitive efficiency is demonstrated by children who grow up in poverty and non-stimulative environment, and whose parents have low ambitions regarding their child's education. When these variables are controlled, there are no differences between groups in either of cognitive functions. The abilities of visual and motor coordination and attention proved out to be the most sensitive to the influences of environmental factors. The results indicate that environmental factors have a pervasive effect, since, besides the influence on manipulative abilities, they also determine achievement on tests used to estimate verbal abilities.

  9. Environmental factor analysis of cholera in China using remote sensing and geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Cao, C X; Wang, D C; Kan, B; Xu, Y F; Ni, X L; Zhu, Z C

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is one of a number of infectious diseases that appears to be influenced by climate, geography and other natural environments. This study analysed the environmental factors of the spatial distribution of cholera in China. It shows that temperature, precipitation, elevation, and distance to the coastline have significant impact on the distribution of cholera. It also reveals the oceanic environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, which is a coastal province of China, using both remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The analysis has validated the correlation between indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local number of cholera cases based on 8-year monthly data from 2001 to 2008. The results show the number of cholera cases has been strongly affected by the variables of SST, SSH and OCC. Utilizing this information, a cholera prediction model has been established based on the oceanic and climatic environmental factors. The model indicates that RS and GIS have great potential for designing an early warning system for cholera.

  10. Environmental factor analysis of cholera in China using remote sensing and geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Cao, C X; Wang, D C; Kan, B; Xu, Y F; Ni, X L; Zhu, Z C

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is one of a number of infectious diseases that appears to be influenced by climate, geography and other natural environments. This study analysed the environmental factors of the spatial distribution of cholera in China. It shows that temperature, precipitation, elevation, and distance to the coastline have significant impact on the distribution of cholera. It also reveals the oceanic environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, which is a coastal province of China, using both remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The analysis has validated the correlation between indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local number of cholera cases based on 8-year monthly data from 2001 to 2008. The results show the number of cholera cases has been strongly affected by the variables of SST, SSH and OCC. Utilizing this information, a cholera prediction model has been established based on the oceanic and climatic environmental factors. The model indicates that RS and GIS have great potential for designing an early warning system for cholera. PMID:26464184

  11. Interaction of environmental factors and genetic polymorphism in the etiology of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Zaridze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Еnvironmental and lifestyle factors play a dominant role in etiology of cancer. In addition, genetic factors significantly influence interindividual variation in cancer incidence. The epidemiological studies in which effects of genetic polymorphism on the risk of cancer have been elucidated are somewhat disappointing. An important problem of these studies is their size. Moreover some of them do not have information on life-style and environmental exposures. The epidemiological method used to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphism on cancer risk is a retrospective case-control study. The chance of discovery of the specific «frequent» allelic variant which is associated with small increase in the risk is higher in studies including large numbers of cases and controls. This paper reviews the epidemiologic studies conducted in Department of epidemiology (Institute of carcinogenesis, Russian N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Centre in cooperation with countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC. We will cover the studies, in which an attempt has been made to investigate the interaction between polymorphisms of phase 2 xenobiotic metabolism genes (GST, alcohol and aldehyde-metabolizing genes (ADH, ALDH, folate metabolism genes (MTHFR, TYMS and CHECK2 with environmental and life-style factors in etiology of cancers of the lung, kidney and upper aerodigestive tract. The analyses of these studies suggest that genetic polymorphism modifies the effect of environmental exposures (including occupational carcinogens and life-style factors (including tobacco, alcohol and diet on the risk of cancer. The risk of cancer associated with known carcinogenic exposure may increase or decrease depending on the genotype. Interaction between exposure to carcinogenic factor and genotype is a major and significant determinant of cancer risk

  12. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  13. Built Environment Analysis Tool: April 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C.

    2013-05-01

    This documentation describes the tool development. It was created to evaluate the effects of built environment scenarios on transportation energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This documentation also provides guidance on how to apply the tool.

  14. Arapahoe NWR diversion reconstruction : As-Builts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a as-built plan for diversion reconstruction for Hubbard #2, Oklahoma #1, Dryer, Hill and Crowder sites on the Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge.

  15. Logistic Retrogression Model for Evaluating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Legislative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Somali Angeyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of artificial intelligence techniques, in evaluating the influence of the environmental factors in legislative data was found amenable in an earlier study - SVM performed to satisfying results with a 21.5 percent error rate for passage of legislation as compared to the performance of ANN at 28 percent error rate and K-NN at 29 percent error rate. These techniques reported both collective influence (ANN, K-NN and SVM and respective influence (SVM one-against-all classifier. Determining the environmental influences - individually or in combination with other factors, could only be measurably achieved using other modeling techniques, despite SVM with probabilistic output of 76 percent outperforming PNN with 71 percent out. A triangulation of both statistical and artificial intelligence modeling techniques in classification is thus proposed for decision making support in legislative drafting, given that computations involving statistical approach correctly predicted up to 98.20 percent and placed economic considerations as the most important factor for the passing of a bill with economic connotations. Other predictions involving political, social, cultural factors did not however, perform as well as the PNN and SVM with probabilistic output.

  16. Joint effects of pregnancy, sociocultural, and environmental factors on early life gut microbiome structure and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Albert M; Sitarik, Alexandra R; Havstad, Suzanne L; Fujimura, Kei E; Wegienka, Ganesa; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Kim, Haejin; Zoratti, Edward M; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Boushey, Homer A; Ownby, Dennis R; Lynch, Susan V; Johnson, Christine C

    2016-01-01

    The joint impact of pregnancy, environmental, and sociocultural exposures on early life gut microbiome is not yet well-characterized, especially in racially and socioeconomically diverse populations. Gut microbiota of 298 children from a Detroit-based birth cohort were profiled using 16S rRNA sequencing: 130 neonates (median age = 1.2 months) and 168 infants (median age = 6.6 months). Multiple factors were associated with neonatal gut microbiome composition in both single- and multi-factor models, with independent contributions of maternal race-ethnicity, breastfeeding, mode of delivery, marital status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and indoor pets. These findings were consistent in the infants, and networks demonstrating the shared impact of factors on gut microbial composition also showed notable topological similarity between neonates and infants. Further, latent groups defined by these factors explained additional variation, highlighting the importance of combinatorial effects. Our findings also have implications for studies investigating the impact of the early life gut microbiota on disease. PMID:27558272

  17. Joint effects of pregnancy, sociocultural, and environmental factors on early life gut microbiome structure and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Albert M.; Sitarik, Alexandra R.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Fujimura, Kei E.; Wegienka, Ganesa; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Kim, Haejin; Zoratti, Edward M.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Boushey, Homer A.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Lynch, Susan V.; Johnson, Christine C.

    2016-01-01

    The joint impact of pregnancy, environmental, and sociocultural exposures on early life gut microbiome is not yet well-characterized, especially in racially and socioeconomically diverse populations. Gut microbiota of 298 children from a Detroit-based birth cohort were profiled using 16S rRNA sequencing: 130 neonates (median age = 1.2 months) and 168 infants (median age = 6.6 months). Multiple factors were associated with neonatal gut microbiome composition in both single- and multi-factor models, with independent contributions of maternal race-ethnicity, breastfeeding, mode of delivery, marital status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and indoor pets. These findings were consistent in the infants, and networks demonstrating the shared impact of factors on gut microbial composition also showed notable topological similarity between neonates and infants. Further, latent groups defined by these factors explained additional variation, highlighting the importance of combinatorial effects. Our findings also have implications for studies investigating the impact of the early life gut microbiota on disease. PMID:27558272

  18. Active trachoma among children in Mali: Clustering and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Hägi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active trachoma is not uniformly distributed in endemic areas, and local environmental factors influencing its prevalence are not yet adequately understood. Determining whether clustering is a consistent phenomenon may help predict likely modes of transmission and help to determine the appropriate level at which to target control interventions. The aims of this study were, therefore, to disentangle the relative importance of clustering at different levels and to assess the respective role of individual, socio-demographic, and environmental factors on active trachoma prevalence among children in Mali. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used anonymous data collected during the Mali national trachoma survey (1996-1997 at different levels of the traditional social structure (14,627 children under 10 years of age, 6,251 caretakers, 2,269 households, 203 villages. Besides field-collected data, environmental variables were retrieved later from various databases at the village level. Bayesian hierarchical logistic models were fit to these prevalence and exposure data. Clustering revealed significant results at four hierarchical levels. The higher proportion of the variation in the occurrence of active trachoma was attributable to the village level (36.7%, followed by household (25.3%, and child (24.7% levels. Beyond some well-established individual risk factors (age between 3 and 5, dirty face, and flies on the face, we showed that caretaker-level (wiping after body washing, household-level (common ownership of radio, and motorbike, and village-level (presence of a women's association, average monthly maximal temperature and sunshine fraction, average annual mean temperature, presence of rainy days features were associated with reduced active trachoma prevalence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study clearly indicates the importance of directing control efforts both at children with active trachoma as well as those with close contact, and at

  19. Environmental and geomagnetic factors in relation to self-destructive ideation and behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergiannaki, J. D.; Psarros, C.; Nastos, P. Th.; Paparigopoulos, T.; Paliatsos, A. G.; Tritakis, V. P.; Stefanis, C. N.

    2001-09-01

    Besides the individual factors such as the reaction to conflicts, several exogenous factors environmental and social may exert a pathogenic influence on suicidal behavior, suicide attempts and complete suicide on predisposed individuals. In the turn of the century many reports accord for the seasonality of suicides, which seems to have a bimodal distribution with a major peak around the spring-summer (April-May) and a second minor in autumn. On the other hand, the seasonal variation of environmental factors (daylight, sunlight duration, weather, temperature, air pressure, humidity, geomagnetism, solar activity, etc), of biological factors (melatonin, serotonin, serotonin precursors, etc) as also of sociological factors (ethnic events, major holidays, weekends etc) possibly influences the seasonal pattern of self-destructive behavior. Bimodal seasonal variation is also reported for biochemical parameters (L-tryptophan, serotonin, endorphin I fraction) that matches seasonal pattern in the prevalence of violent suicide in the total population and also in the incidence of the affective disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation of environmental factors expressed by the Discomfort Index (DI) and geomagnetic factors expressed by the geomagnetic field Index DST in relation to suicidal behavior. The total number (4803) of patients recorded in the Ambulance of a Phychiatric Hospital (Eginition) throughout 1994 was used along with the records of 2750 patients of the year 1989. The Index DI is a function of dry and wet-bulb temperature. DST is probably one of the geomagnetic indices that expresses and monitors with the greatest accuracy the equatorial ring current variations. Our results show that there is a seasonal variation of suicidal behavior (Fourier analysis) with a major peak during summer (July) and a minor one during spring. A difference in the occurrence of the peaks was observed among genders. A relation of self-destructive behavior and the

  20. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Economou, S.; Estes, M., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Hemmings, S. N.; Kent, S.; Loop, M.; Puckett, M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Wade, G.; McClure, L.

    2012-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users' need and downloaded in tabular, graphical

  1. Sequestering CO2 in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    Calera’s Carbonate Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation (CMAP) technology with beneficial reuse has been called, “game-changing” by Carl Pope, Director of the Sierra Club. Calera offers a solution to the scale of the carbon problem. By capturing carbon into the built environment through carbonate mineralization, Calera provides a sound and cost-effective alternative to Geologic Sequestration and Terrestrial Sequestration. The CMAP technology permanently converts carbon dioxide into a mineral form that can be stored above ground, or used as a building material. The process produces a suite of carbonate-containing minerals of various polymorphic forms. Calera product can be substituted into blends with ordinary Portland cements and used as aggregate to produce concrete with reduced carbon, carbon neutral, or carbon negative footprints. For each ton of product produced, approximately half a ton of carbon dioxide can be sequestered using the Calera process. Coal and natural gas are composed of predominately istopically light carbon, as the carbon in the fuel is plant-derived. Thus, power plant CO2 emissions have relatively low δ13C values.The carbon species throughout the CMAP process are identified through measuring the inorganic carbon content, δ13C values of the dissolved carbonate species, and the product carbonate minerals. Measuring δ13C allows for tracking the flue gas CO2 throughout the capture process. Initial analysis of the capture of propane flue gas (δ13C ˜ -25 ‰) with seawater (δ13C ˜ -10 ‰) and industrial brucite tailings from a retired magnesium oxide plant in Moss Landing, CA (δ13C ˜ -7 ‰ from residual calcite) produced carbonate mineral products with a δ13C value of ˜ -20 ‰. This isotopically light carbon, transformed from flue gas to stable carbonate minerals, can be transferred and tracked through the capture process, and finally to the built environment. CMAP provides an economical solution to global warming by producing

  2. Entrepreneurial Growth and the Perceived Quality of Environmental Factors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinZhu; HongxinZhao

    2005-01-01

    The growth of entrepreneurship in China has been phenomenal since the open-door policy in 1978. Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have increasingly played an important role in the Chinese economy, accounting for about 50percent of the total GDP in 2001. Nonetheless, a few studies have examined what counts for such rapid growth of entrepreneurship in China. This study focuses on identifying environmental factors related to the success and failure of entrepreneurship in China. Based on a survey of l17 SME executives in Sichuan province, the survey results show that positive social acceptance, risk-taking attitudes and infrastructure adequacy were perceived as most facilitating factors, while market development and exploitation, and adopting low cost strategy were success factors. The results also reveal that lack of capital and over-competition within the industry was the key reasons for SME failures.

  3. The Effects of Environmental Factors on the Growth and Competition of Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; WANG; Jiazhang; CHEN; Shunlong; MENG

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of environmental factors on the algae growth and competition,the author summarized overseas and domestic related researches in recent years.Most of the researches are about the influence of single factor on growth of algae.However,there is insufficient investment on the interaction of different factors and the competition between algae growth.This paper briefly introduced the classification of algae and the role they played in ecological system and focused on the influence which included temperature,illumination,nitrogen,phosphorus and pH on the growth and competition of algal.In the end,the author proposed key questions which were still needed to be studied in order to know more about the relationship between environment effects and growth and competition of algae.Therefore,people could better improve the community structure of algae and water ecological environment,and improve water primary productivity.

  4. Factors Determining Preferences of Particular Environmentally Friendly Non-food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dagiliūtė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumption-related social and ecological aspects are widely discussed and addressed as sustainable consumption is one of the main perquisites for sustainable development. Choosing and paying for environmentally friendly goods is one of the options to contribute to positive consumption patterns. Nevertheless, different drivers might shape willingness to choose and to pay for eco-labelled products. The paper aims to assess the main factors for choosing eco-labelled non-food products in Lithuania. Statistical analysis of the survey data indicates that different products attract different willingness to choose particular eco-labelled products. In addition, products reveal different factors behind, though they are dominated by income factor. Influence of advertising and friends is not so significant. Growing economy and income could lead to the increase in eco-labelled products’ demand, but different consumer groups should be already addressed to contribute to more sustainable consumption.

  5. The correlation between bioactive components of Fallopia multiflora root and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han-Jing; Fang, Zhi-Jian; Fu, Jun; Yu, Shi-Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Harald, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is used in treating dizziness. In this study, the samples of F. multiflora from ten different locations were collected, and five bioactive components (2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside, emodin, emodin-8-O-beta-D-glucoside, physcion and physcion-8-O-beta-D-glucoside) were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The correlations between 17 environmental factors and 5 bioactive components were analyzed. The results showed that the highest contents of bioactive components were in samples from Deqing, and the lowest in samples from Tianyang, which indicated that the quality of F. multiflora grown in Deqing was superior, while that grown in Tianyang was inferior. Emodin content was negatively correlated with the average temperature in January (p < 0.01) and the accumulated temperature (p < 0.01). Physician content was also negatively correlated with the average temperature in January (P < 0.01), the accumulated temperature (p < 0.05) and the organic matter (p < 0.05). However, emodin was positively correlated with the soil available K (p < 0.05) and Zn (p < 0.01). The results of stepwise regression showed that the accumulated temperature was the main factor influencing the contents of emodin and physcion. However, none of the environmental factors had significant correlation with 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside, emodin-8- O-beta-D-glucoside and physcion-8-O-beta-D-glucoside. In conclusion, some environmental factors have significant influence on the content of dissociated anthraquinones, while some have no influence on that of combined anthraquinones. PMID:20503466

  6. Built leadership: women administrators in architectural education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Dale Woosnam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the 114 accredited architecture programs within colleges and universities across America, only 18 (or 16% employed females at the highest administrative positions as deans, directors, chairs, or heads at the time this study was conducted. Despite this statistic, nearly 50% of all graduates from architecture programs are female. Little is known about women administrators in architectural education, perhaps because of the fact that there are so few. The central question that guided this research study is as follows: What personal and professional factors characterize 10 women employed as administrators in nationally accredited architecture programs, departments, schools, and colleges in American institutions of higher education? Additionally, this study identified the women’s career paths, and obstacles they overcame andsacrifices they made in order to advance in their careers. The qualitative case study tradition was employed for this study. Ten women administrators of accredited architecture programs, departments, schools, and colleges within American institutions of higher education participated in the study. Interviews, documents, and observations were collected and included in the data analysis. While feminist leadership theories were used as a lens and guided the current research, themes emerged from the study that point toward a potentially new, emerging theoretical construct. This emerging construct requires that pioneering female leaders in male-dominated fields be characterized differently than female leaders in other contexts. Specifically, the conclusions drawn from this study require characterizing pioneering female leaders in male-dominated fields as built leaders or leaders who have systematically developed professionally as a result of unwavering ambition but who employa post-heroic style of leadership. In other words, these women fought their way to the top, but once there, use an up, down, and across hierarchical leadership

  7. Environmental factors influence language development in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Grandgeorge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While it is clearly admitted that normal behavioural development is determined by the interplay of genetic and environmental influences, this is much less the case for psychiatric disorders for which more emphasis has been given in the past decades on biological determinism. Thus, previous studies have shown that Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD were not affected by parental style. However, animal research suggests that different behavioural traits can be differentially affected by genetic/environmental factors. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we hypothesized that amongst the ASD, language disorders may be more sensitive to social factors as language is a social act that develops under social influences. Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, we compared the early characteristics of sensori-motor and language development in a large sample of children with ASD (n = 162 with parents belonging to different levels of education. The results showed that children raised by parents with a high level of education displayed earlier language development. Moreover, they showed earlier first words and phrases if their mother was at a high level of education, which reveals an additional gender effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this study may trigger important new lines of thought and research, help equilibrate social and purely biological perspectives regarding ASD and bring new hopes for environmentally based therapies.

  8. Developmental Effects of Exposures to Environmental Factors: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polanska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure—cord blood lead level, for mercury—maternal hair mercury level, for ETS—cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH—1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects and 24 months (198 subjects children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development (β = −2.6; P=0.02 and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive (β = −0.2; P=0.05 and motor functions (β = −0.5; P=0.01 were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance (β = −6.2; P=0.06. The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  9. Interactions of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism with Environmental Factors on Hypertension Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shujun; Yang, Boyi; Zhi, Xueyuan; Wang, Yanxun; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is considered to be the result of genes, environment, and their interactions. Among them age, sex, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and being overweight/obesity are well documented environmental determinants, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is nominated as a potential genetic candidate. However, the synergistic effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with these environmental factors on the risk of hypertension has received little attention. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, environmental factors, and their interactions with hypertension predisposition in a Northern Chinese Han population. A total of 708 participants were enrolled in the study. The genotypes of the MTHFR C677T were determined by a TaqMan assay. We found that participants of an older age, being overweight/obesity, with a smoking habit, drinking habit, or carrying the 677T allele were at an increased risk of hypertension. Additionally, there existed marginally significant interactions of the polymorphism with age and overweight/obesity. However, future large, well-designed studies in Chinese and other populations, as well as mechanistic studies, are still needed to validate our findings, especially considering that the interactions observed in our study were only marginally significant. PMID:27322299

  10. Plant diversity drives soil microbial biomass carbon in grasslands irrespective of global environmental change factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Madhav Prakash; Milcu, Alexandru; Manning, Pete; Niklaus, Pascal A; Roscher, Christiane; Power, Sally; Reich, Peter B; Scheu, Stefan; Tilman, David; Ai, Fuxun; Guo, Hongyan; Ji, Rong; Pierce, Sarah; Ramirez, Nathaly Guerrero; Richter, Annabell Nicola; Steinauer, Katja; Strecker, Tanja; Vogel, Anja; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-11-01

    Soil microbial biomass is a key determinant of carbon dynamics in the soil. Several studies have shown that soil microbial biomass significantly increases with plant species diversity, but it remains unclear whether plant species diversity can also stabilize soil microbial biomass in a changing environment. This question is particularly relevant as many global environmental change (GEC) factors, such as drought and nutrient enrichment, have been shown to reduce soil microbial biomass. Experiments with orthogonal manipulations of plant diversity and GEC factors can provide insights whether plant diversity can attenuate such detrimental effects on soil microbial biomass. Here, we present the analysis of 12 different studies with 14 unique orthogonal plant diversity × GEC manipulations in grasslands, where plant diversity and at least one GEC factor (elevated CO2 , nutrient enrichment, drought, earthworm presence, or warming) were manipulated. Our results show that higher plant diversity significantly enhances soil microbial biomass with the strongest effects in long-term field experiments. In contrast, GEC factors had inconsistent effects with only drought having a significant negative effect. Importantly, we report consistent non-significant effects for all 14 interactions between plant diversity and GEC factors, which indicates a limited potential of plant diversity to attenuate the effects of GEC factors on soil microbial biomass. We highlight that plant diversity is a major determinant of soil microbial biomass in experimental grasslands that can influence soil carbon dynamics irrespective of GEC. PMID:26118993

  11. Effect of environmental factors on allelopathic inhibition of Microcystis aeruginosa by berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulin; Dai, Wei; Bi, Xiangdong; Zhang, Dajuan; Xing, Kezhi

    2013-01-01

    To understand how environmental conditions affect the allelopathic inhibition of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa by berberine, the independent effects of some environmental factors, including temperature, light, and aeration, on the growth and extracellular microcystin (MC) content of M. aeruginosa (FACHB 905) treated with 0.000 and 0.001% (w/v) berberine were investigated. The results showed that higher temperature and light density, and aeration in daytime were beneficial for the growth of M. aeruginosa under the measured environmental conditions. The allelopathic effects of berberine on M. aeruginosa were closely associated with the environmental conditions. Berberine had the best inhibitory effects when temperature, light and aeration were more optimal for growth. In darkness, no changes in the density of M. aeruginosa were observed with the prolongation of culture time and berberine could hardly exhibit algicidal effects. Disturbance in the photosynthesis process might be one of the main reasons responsible for algicidal function. Berberine could increase extracellular MC contents significantly via killing and lyzing algal cells. Other treatments coupled with berberine needed to be carried out to degrade or remove MC released from berberine-killed algal cells.

  12. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors in the development of personality disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depue, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    A dimensional model of personality disturbance is presented that is defined by extreme values on interacting subsets of seven major personality traits. Being at the extreme has marked effects on the threshold for eliciting those traits under stimulus conditions: that is, the extent to which the environment affects the neurobiological functioning underlying the traits. To explore the nature of development of extreme values on these traits, each trait is discussed in terms of three major issues: (a) the neurobiological variables associated with the trait, (b) individual variation in this neurobiology as a function of genetic polymorphisms, and (c) the effects of environmental adversity on these neurobiological variables through the action of epigenetic processes. It is noted that gene-environment interaction appears to be dependent on two main factors: (a) both genetic and environmental variables appear to have the most profound and enduring effects when they exert their effects during early postnatal periods, times when the forebrain is undergoing exuberant experience-expectant dendritic and axonal growth; and (b) environmental effects on neurobiology are strongly modified by individual differences in "traitlike" functioning of neurobiological variables. A model of the nature of the interaction between environmental and neurobiological variables in the development of personality disturbance is presented.

  13. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Carbon Dynamics at Hooghly Estuarine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyita Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of litter from mangrove forests adjacent to the creeks at Sagar Island of the Hooghly-Matla estuarine ecosystem is one of the principal sources of nutrient to the estuary. This system receives a major load of carbon from adjacent mangrove forest in the form of litterfall throughout the year. Keeping in view, the effect of environmental factor on the dynamics of carbon is studied through multivariate statistics. Essential environmental variables like soil carbon, dissolved carbon, temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen are analyzed following standard protocol. Multivariate statistical analyses like correlation, regression, and centered PCA ordination are done in order to know the impact of environmental variables on carbon dynamics. The results reflect a close intercorrelation among the studied environmental variables and carbon. It also emphasizes the fact that soil and water temperature, and dissolved oxygen affect soil carbon dynamics, whereas salinity and pH of soil and water greatly regulate dissolved carbon dynamics. The variance pattern of these studied variables through seasons is also enumerated by PCA ordination studies.

  14. Gender and environmental effects on regional brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Li, Y; Kline, A E; Dixon, C E; Zafonte, R D; Wagner, A K

    2005-01-01

    Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression have been reported in multiple brain regions acutely after traumatic brain injury, however neither injury nor post-injury environmental enrichment has been shown to affect hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in male rats chronically post-injury. Studies have demonstrated hormone-related neuroprotection for female rats after traumatic brain injury, and estrogen and exercise both influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Despite recent studies suggesting that exposure post-traumatic brain injury to environmental enrichment improves cognitive recovery in male rats, we have shown that environmental enrichment mediated improvements with spatial learning are gender specific and only positively affect males. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender and environmental enrichment on chronic post-injury cortical and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression. Sprague-Dawley male and cycling female rats were placed into environmental enrichment or standard housing after controlled cortical impact or sham surgery. Four weeks post-surgery, hippocampal and frontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression were examined using Western blot. Results revealed significant increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the frontal cortex ipsilateral to injury for males (P=0.03). Environmental enrichment did not augment this effect. Neither environmental enrichment nor injury significantly affected cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for females. In the hippocampus ipsilateral to injury brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for both males and females was half (49% and 51% respectively) of that observed in shams housed in the standard environment. For injured males, there was a trend in this region for environmental enrichment to restore brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels to sham values

  15. Growth of untreated and radiation damaged Listeria as affected by environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of untreated Listeria monocytogenes 4 ab No. 10 and that of the surviving fraction of its population treated with 0.8 kGy gamma rays was investigated in a microtitreplate system at incubation temperatures between 3 deg C and 35 deg C in Tryptic Phosphate Broth (TPB) or Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB) media. Time periods to visible growth were recorded. Radiation survivors showed increased salt- and pH-sensitivities and increased minimum temperature for growth in TPB-based media. Adverse effects of sub-optimal environmental factors (reduced water activity, pH and temperature) and radiation injury were much less pronounced in BHIB-based media. The results demonstrate that combining environmental stresses with low-dose irradiation can control growth of L. monocytogenes. (author). 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Questionnaire survey on factors influencing comfort with indoor environmental quality in Danish housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Andersen, Rune Vinther; Wargocki, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    . A total of 2499 questionnaires were sent to inhabitants of the most common types of housing in Denmark; 645 persons replied (response rate of 26%). The results show that the main indoor environmental parameters (visual, acoustic and thermal conditions, and air quality) are considered by occupants...... for controlling indoor environmental quality in their homes should be used. 54% of them reported to have had at least one problem related to the indoor environment at home. A majority of those respondents did not try to search for information on how to solve the problem. This may suggest that there is a need......A questionnaire survey in Danish homes investigated the factors that influence occupants’ comfort. The questionnaire contained questions on inhabitants’ behaviour, their knowledge as regards building systems designed for controlling the indoor environment and the ways in which they achieve comfort...

  17. Correlations for perceived family environmental factors with substance use among adolescents in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S N; Matla, M P

    2003-04-01

    Perceived family environmental factors were used to predict self-reported use of substances (drugs or alcohol) among adolescents in South Africa. 435 high school students (ages 15 to 19 years, M=17.2 yr., SD=1.34) answered a questionnaire which included questions on demographic variables, the Family Environmental Scale, and questions on substances used (drugs or alcohol). Logistic regression analysis indicated that scores on family conflict and low family moral-religious emphasis were significantly associated with drug use (57.9% of the variance was accounted for) and use of alcohol (62.3% of the variance was accounted for). Programmes for the reduction of substance use among adolescents should include activities designed to reduce family conflict and strengthen family moral-religious emphasis.

  18. Risk factors for malnutrition in Brazilian children: the role of social and environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, C G; Vaughan, J P; Kirkwood, B R; Martines, J C; Barcelos, L B

    1986-01-01

    The article reports the effects of several socioeconomic and environmental indicators on the nutritional status (stunting, underweight, and wasting) of a sample of 802 children aged 12-35.9 months in urban and rural areas of southern Brazil. Of the social variables studied, family income and father's education level were the two risk factors that showed the strongest associations with nutritional status. The mother's education level, employment status of the head of the family, number of siblings, and family's ethnic background also showed some degree of association, but these were less significant when family income was included in the analysis. Environmental variables, particularly the type of housing, degree of crowding, and type of sewage disposal, were also strongly associated with malnutrition. The effects of having access to piped or treated water were only apparent on stunting and wasting.

  19. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L.

  20. Assessing the effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors on land-cover diversity in a Mediterranean mountain environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués-Bravo, David

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the factors that influence land-cover diversity, including the specific contributions of environmental and anthropogenic forces in determining landscape diversity (spatial variability in climate, lithological variations and human management). The proposed model was tested......, and generalized additive models within a GIS framework were used to evaluate the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors. We also assessed the influence on the results of the number of land-cover classes by employing contrasting thematic resolutions of 220 and 24 classes. The model that includes only...... environmental factors, using 24 classes, accounted for 65 per cent of the total variance (P

  1. Correlation of hs-CRP with environmental risk factors of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Sah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of hs-CRP levels with environmental risk factors of diabetic nephropathy like smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, age of diabetic patient, duration of diabetes, medication of diabetes, and blood pressure medication. A hospital-based quantitative study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH Pokhara, Nepal, with 89 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Blood samples (n=89 from the patients were collected and the serums were separated. On the other hand, data on environmental risk factors of nephropathy were collected by using standard questionnaire. In this study, serum hs-CRP level was not found to be correlated with smoking (p=0.111, alcohol consumption (p=0.722, diet (p=0.496, duration of diabetes (p=0.519, age of diabetic patient (p=0.369, medication of diabetes (p=0.734, and blood pressure medication (p=0.625. Hence, our study concludes that serum hs-CRP value in type 2 diabetic patients is insignificantly correlated with the risk factors especially smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, duration of diabetes, age of diabetic patient, medication of diabetes, and medication of blood pressure.

  2. Transcription factor levels enable metabolic diversification of single cells of environmental bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guantes, Raúl; Benedetti, Ilaria; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2016-05-01

    Transcriptional noise is a necessary consequence of the molecular events that drive gene expression in prokaryotes. However, some environmental microorganisms that inhabit polluted sites, for example, the m-xylene degrading soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida mt-2 seem to have co-opted evolutionarily such a noise for deploying a metabolic diversification strategy that allows a cautious exploration of new chemical landscapes. We have examined this phenomenon under the light of deterministic and stochastic models for activation of the main promoter of the master m-xylene responsive promoter of the system (Pu) by its cognate transcriptional factor (XylR). These analyses consider the role of co-factors for Pu activation and determinants of xylR mRNA translation. The model traces the onset and eventual disappearance of the bimodal distribution of Pu activity along time to the growth-phase dependent abundance of XylR itself, that is, very low in exponentially growing cells and high in stationary. This tenet was validated by examining the behaviour of a Pu-GFP fusion in a P. putida strain in which xylR expression was engineered under the control of an IPTG-inducible system. This work shows how a relatively simple regulatory scenario (for example, growth-phase dependent expression of a limiting transcription factor) originates a regime of phenotypic diversity likely to be advantageous in competitive environmental settings.

  3. Transcription factor levels enable metabolic diversification of single cells of environmental bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guantes, Raúl; Benedetti, Ilaria; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2016-05-01

    Transcriptional noise is a necessary consequence of the molecular events that drive gene expression in prokaryotes. However, some environmental microorganisms that inhabit polluted sites, for example, the m-xylene degrading soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida mt-2 seem to have co-opted evolutionarily such a noise for deploying a metabolic diversification strategy that allows a cautious exploration of new chemical landscapes. We have examined this phenomenon under the light of deterministic and stochastic models for activation of the main promoter of the master m-xylene responsive promoter of the system (Pu) by its cognate transcriptional factor (XylR). These analyses consider the role of co-factors for Pu activation and determinants of xylR mRNA translation. The model traces the onset and eventual disappearance of the bimodal distribution of Pu activity along time to the growth-phase dependent abundance of XylR itself, that is, very low in exponentially growing cells and high in stationary. This tenet was validated by examining the behaviour of a Pu-GFP fusion in a P. putida strain in which xylR expression was engineered under the control of an IPTG-inducible system. This work shows how a relatively simple regulatory scenario (for example, growth-phase dependent expression of a limiting transcription factor) originates a regime of phenotypic diversity likely to be advantageous in competitive environmental settings. PMID:26636554

  4. Impact of Climate and Environmental Factors on West Nile Virus Circulation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ahmadnejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic distribution of West Nile virus (WNV is heterogeneous in Iran by a high circulation in the southern-western areas. The objective of our study was to determine environmental and climatic factors associ­ated with the risk of WNV equine seropositivity in Iran.Methods: Serological data were obtained from a serosurvey conducted in equine population in 260 districts in Iran. The climate and environmental parameters included in the models were distance to the nearest wetland area, type of stable, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, annual mean temperature, humidity and precipitation.Results: The important risk factors included annual mean temperature, distance to wetlands, local and seasonal NDVI differences. The effect of local NDVI differences in spring was particularly notable. This was a normalized difference of average NDVI between two areas: a 5 km radius area centered on the stable and the 5–10 km sur­rounding area.Conclusion: The model indicated that local NDVI’s contrast during spring is a major risk factor of the transmission of West-Nile virus in Iran. This so-called oasis effect consistent with the seasonal production of vegetation in spring, and is associated to the attractiveness of the local NDVI environment for WNV vectors and hosts.  

  5. Breast cancer and personal environmental risk factors in Marin County - Pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Farren, G.; Baltzell, K.; Chew, T.; Clarkson, C.; Fleshman, R.; Leary, C.; Mizroch, M.; Orenstein, F.; Russell, M.L.; Souders-Mason, V.; Wrensch, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, they used a community-based research approach. In the collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process.

  6. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sarpong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental awareness has received a great deal of public attention. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of environmental factors (weather, personal attitudes, policies, physical structures, transportation, etc. on the quality of life of persons infected with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of selected environmental factors on the quality of life of persons affected by HIV/AIDS. To achieve this goal, the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF subscales including Policies, Physical Structure, Work/School, Attitudes/Support, and Service/ Assistance were evaluated in patients selected from a STD/HIV clinic in Jackson, MS. They were chosen based on previously diagnosed HIV/AIDS status and age (16-95. Written consents, demographics sheets and self-administered questionnaires were obtained. Data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS software. Interviews started in July 2007 and ended in August, 2007. One hundred and thirteen patients responded. Participants were 72.6% (82 male, 26.5% (30 female and 0.9% (1 transgender. The median age of participants was 38.8 (18-63. Over 50% (65 had some college or higher education, and 35.4% reported annual incomes less than $10,000. Multivariate analysis showed marginal significance between disease diagnosis and gender (p < 0.10, and statistical significance between disease diagnosis and income (p = 0.03. Also, age (p = 0.01 and education (p = 0.03 were significant predictors in one of the subscales. The CHIEF subscales that showed the greatest significance among AIDS respondents were Attitudes and Support, and Government Policies with mean sensitivity scores of 1.39 and 1.42, respectively. The element with the least effect on AIDS patients was the Work/School subscale, with a mean score of 0.74. In general AIDS patients were disproportionately affected in all but one of the five subscales observed. Conversely those with HIV were more

  7. The Sap Flow Dynamics and Response of Hedysarum scoparium to Environmental Factors in Semiarid Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Deng

    Full Text Available Hedysarum scoparium is an important, fast-growing and drought-resistant shrub that has been extensively used for grassland restoration and preventing desertification in semiarid regions of northwestern China. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the diurnal and seasonal variations in stem sap flow (Js and its relation to environmental factors. The stem heat balance method was applied to plants that were approximately 17 years old (with diameters of 25, 16, 13, and 9 mm at ground level and heights of 3.1, 1.8, 1.7 and 1.4 m and growing under natural conditions. The vertical soil temperature profile (ST, soil surface heat flux (SoilG, volumetric soil moisture content (SWC and meteorological variables such as solar radiation (Rn, air temperature (Ta, vapour pressure deficit (VPD, wind speed (Ws relative humidity (RH and precipitation (P were simultaneously measured at a meteorological station on site. Results indicated that Js varied regularly during the diurnal and seasonal term. The nocturnal Js was substantial, with a seasonal variation similar to the patterns of daytime Js. The magnitude of Js changed considerably between sunny and rainy days. Redundancy (RDA and Kendall's tau analysis suggested that daily Js in large plants was more sensitive to environmental factors, and the variation in daily Js during the growing season could be described by a multiple linear regression against environmental variables including Ta, VPD, Ws, RH, ST, and SoilG. While the nocturnal Js in smaller plants was more sensitive to meteorological factors. Ta, VPD, and Ws were significantly correlated with nighttime Js. The hourly nighttime sap flow rate of H. scoparium corresponded closely to Ta and VPD following a non-linear pattern. The results of this study can be used to estimate the transpiration of H. scoparium.

  8. Individual and environmental factors determining sedentary lifestyle of the polish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the sedentary lifestyle of the Polish population and its link with prolonged sitting in light of individual and environmental factors.The sample consisted of 1505 Polish people between 18 and 64 years old. The Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI survey was conducted with the Polish version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-LF and the survey of the determinants of a sport activity among the Polish population. The relationships between the time spent sitting and the individual and environmental factors among Polish citizens were investigated through log-linear analysis.The total time Polish people spent sitting was 2812.4±1593.9 min/week. During the weekend, men (Chi(2=45.0; P=0.04 spent significantly more time sitting than women (251.1±170.1min/week, 230.9±155.0 min/week, respectively. Despite the relatively high proportion of people declaring participation in the Sport for All initiative (67.8%, only 9.6% of Polish people undertake a physical activity on a daily basis. The odds ratios above the median (>2545 min/week are higher (OR=1.33; 95% CI=1.03-1.72 for those who are not physically active (54.5% vs. 45.5%. There was no relationship between prolonged sitting time and the environmental factors.It is necessary to increase consistent efforts to create an environment that would successfully promote anactive lifestyle among Polish citizens in their place of residence and prevent sedentary behaviours within this population. The recommendations for physical activity should include the guidelines intervening in the time people spend sitting.

  9. Influence of External Environmental Factors on the Success of Public Housing Projects in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mukhtar Musa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available External environmental factors, which include political environment, economic environment and social environment, affect the success of public housing projects in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to establish the effect of these factors on public housing project success using structural equation modelling (SEM techniques.  The study was conducted in Nigeria by means of interviews, a pilot study and a main survey. Five hundred and fifty (550 questionnaires were administered to construction professionals who work as developers, consultants or contractors and those working in public housing agencies. Two hundred and seventy-six (276 questionnaires were returned completed.  The data collected were analysed by means of SEM. The results reveal that (i the economics factor significantly affects public housing project success, (ii the social factor significantly affects public housing project success, and (iii the political factor significantly affects public housing project success. The study developed a comprehensive model that can assist housing policy makers, consultants, developers, contractors and other stakeholders in the planning and development of public housing programmes.

  10. Connecting RNA Processing to Abiotic Environmental Response in Arabidopsis: the role of a polyadenylation factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q. Q.; Xu, R.; Hunt, A. G.; Falcone, D. L.

    Plants are constantly challenged by numerous environmental stresses both biotic and abiotic It is clear that plants have evolved to counter these stresses using all but limited means We recently discovered the potential role of a messenger RNA processing factor namely the Arabidopsis cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 kDa subunit AtCPSF30 when a mutant deficient in this factor displayed altered responses to an array of abiotic stresses This AtCPSF30 mutant named oxt6 exhibited an elevated tolerance to oxidative stress Microarray experiments of oxt6 and its complemented lines revealed an altered gene expression profile among which were antioxidative defense genes Interestingly the same gene encoding AtCPSF30 can also be transcribed into a large transcript that codes for a potential splicing factor Both protein products have a domain for RNA binding and a calmodulin binding domain activities of which have been confirmed by biochemical assays Surprisingly binding of AtCPSF30 to calmodulin inhibits the RNA-binding activity of the protein Mutational analysis shows that a small part of the protein is responsible for calmodulin binding and point mutations in this region abolished both RNA binding activity and the inhibition of this activity by calmodulin Analyses of the potential splicing factor are on going and the results will be presented The interesting possibilities for both the interplay between splicing and polyadenylation and the regulation of these processes by stimuli that act through

  11. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  12. Personal, social and environmental factors regarding fruit and vegetable intake among schoolchildren in nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Camilla; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Due, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    Children in Europe are consuming less fruit and vegetables than recommended. Knowledge about the potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake is vital to understand discrepancies in intake and to guide interventions. The aim of the present study was to assess personal, social and environm...... and environmental factors regarding fruit and vegetable intake among 11- to 12-year-old children in Europe.......Children in Europe are consuming less fruit and vegetables than recommended. Knowledge about the potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake is vital to understand discrepancies in intake and to guide interventions. The aim of the present study was to assess personal, social...

  13. Chaetognath community and their responses to varying environmental factors in the northern Indian ocean.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kusum, K.K.; Vineetha, G.; Raveendran, T.V.; Nair, V.R.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Joseph, T.

    SHORTCOMMUNICATION Chaetognath community and their responses to varying environmental factors in the northern Indian Ocean K. K. KUSUM1*, G. VINEETHA1, T. V. RAVEENDRAN1, V. R. NAIR1, K. R. MURALEEDHARAN1, C. T. ACHUTHANKUTTY1,2 AND T. JOSEPH1 1 CSIR... pivotal role in structuring and regulating the food web and in the functioning of the biological pump, long-term monitoring of their inter- actions with physico-chemical variables is crucial in understanding responses to changes in the environment. Though...

  14. Effect of environmental factor on some litter traits of sows in the tropics Mexican

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Ek M.; José Segura C.; Alejandro Alzina L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. To determine the effect of environmental factors on litter traits at birth and weaning, and their repeatabilities in four farms in the sub-humid tropics of Mexico. Materials and methods. Data from 46.249 to 50.316 litters for litter size at birth (LSB), number of piglets born alive (NBA), litter weight at birth (LWB), number of piglets weaned (NPW) and litter weight at weaning (LWW) were used. The statistical model for LSB, NBA and LWB included the effects of farm, farrow...

  15. Climate change adaptation of the built environment – an examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2014-01-01

    phenomena. This is why the term 'environmental changes' might be more accurate than climate change. ‘Environmental changes’ suggests that climate changes ought to be understood as extensive environmental changes, with an impact on the built environment. Following this, it is no longer sufficient only...... to assess for example a building, and anthropogenic impacts on the environment, also the impact of the environment on installations, and on the human activities must be included in the analysis and assessments. Based on observations and investigations into climate change adaptation in DK and abroad...... the research project, Waterscape (Vandskab), focus on some of the challenges that the architectural disciplines are facing in relation to climate changes adaptation....

  16. Measuring Technological, Organizational and Environmental Factors Influencing the Adoption Intentions of Public Cloud Computing Using a Proposed Integrated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minimol Anil Job

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to identify the factors influencing the intentions to adopt the public computing by the private sector firms. In this research the researcher examined the ten factors influencing the cloud computing adoption using a proposed integrated model which incorporates aspects of the Technology, Organization and Environment factors such as Complexity, Compatibility, Security Concerns, Trialability, Cost Saving, Top Management Support, Prior IT Experience, Organizational Readiness, Competitive Pressure and External Support. In order to test influencing factors a survey was conducted and one hundred and twenty two valid responses were received from IT decision makers from forty firms in different industries. The results revealed that the Compatibility, Cost Saving, Trialability and External Support are the main influential factors in the adoption intentions of public cloud computing. Future research could be built on this study by developing different model for each industry because each industry has unique characteristics that can influence the adoption of the technological innovations.

  17. Summer eczema in exported Icelandic horses: influence of environmental and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broström Hans

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of summer eczema (a chronic, recurrent seasonal dermatitis in exported Icelandic horses and the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the development of the disease. Among 330 horses, which had been exported to Germany, Denmark and Sweden, 114 (34.5% were found to have clinical signs of summer eczema. The prevalence was highest 2 years after export and the exposure to the biting midges Culicoides spp., was found to be the main risk factor for developing the disease. Genetic influence on the sensitivity for the disease was not established. It was concluded that exported Icelandic horses are predisposed for summer dermatitis and the fact that they are not introduced to the antigens of the biting midges early in live, due to it's absence in Iceland, is likely to explain the high prevalence of the disease after export.

  18. Perception of Environmental Risk Factors Scale for the primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Özabacı

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to determine the effect of perception of environmental risk factors on primary school students. The participants of this study were 409 students of both low and high socio-economic level from 2 primary schools in Gaziantep. Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were used for scale development study. As a result of the analysis, it has been determined that the scale has a structure composed of six subscales and 55 items. Subscales of the scale are; perceptions of in school experience, perceptions of oneself, perceptions of family attitudes, perceptions of family interactions, perceptions of problems within the family, perceptions of the nearest living area. Cronbach Alpha for the scale was found to be .85.

  19. Hospitality environmental factors: a study of the consumption experience of homosexuals in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yákara Vasconcelos Pereira Leite

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this research is identifying environmental factors in hospitality that lead the interviewed homosexuals to memorable consumer experiences at hotels and inns. This research was conducted under descriptive qualitative approach. According to this perspective, gays from two states of the northeast of Brazil were interviewed. The narratives were presented in order to enhance the formation of categories. Regarding results, it was observed that the experience of consumption is memorized as positive or negative due to the performance of factors related to service provision and infrastructure. Therefore, it was noticed that the hospitality servicescape influences the consumption experience of the interviewed homosexuals to a point that it becomes memorable.

  20. Lifetime growth in wild meerkats: incorporating life history and environmental factors into a standard growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Sinéad; Bateman, Andrew W; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2012-05-01

    Lifetime records of changes in individual size or mass in wild animals are scarce and, as such, few studies have attempted to model variation in these traits across the lifespan or to assess the factors that affect them. However, quantifying lifetime growth is essential for understanding trade-offs between growth and other life history parameters, such as reproductive performance or survival. Here, we used model selection based on information theory to measure changes in body mass over the lifespan of wild meerkats, and compared the relative fits of several standard growth models (monomolecular, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and Richards). We found that meerkats exhibit monomolecular growth, with the best model incorporating separate growth rates before and after nutritional independence, as well as effects of season and total rainfall in the previous nine months. Our study demonstrates how simple growth curves may be improved by considering life history and environmental factors, which may be particularly relevant when quantifying growth patterns in wild populations.

  1. Intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with meeting recommended physical activity among rural Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brian E; Thompson, Beti

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to identify intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with engaging in recommended levels of physical activity among rural Latino middle school youth. Data were from an anonymous survey of 773 Latino youth (51% female) about level of and barriers and motivators to physical activity, risk behaviors, and park use. Logistic regression models identified factors correlated with meeting recommended levels of physical activity (5 days or more 3 60 min/day). Thirty-four percent of girls and 41% of boys reported meeting this physical activity recommendation. Participation in an organized after school activity (p physical education (PE) classes 5 days a week (p physical activity level. Making PE available 5 days a week and creating opportunities for organized after school physical activity programs may increase the number of rural Latino middle school youth who meet recommended physical activity level.

  2. Environmental Factors Having an Impact on the Noise Induced by Motor Vahicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Akelaitytė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector is rapidly developing industry in Lithuania. Over the past few years, a significant increase in motor vehicles on our roads can be noticed. Both light and heavy vehicles create economic benefits, and, at the same time, cause ecological and social problems such as noise, a growing number of accidents and environmental pollution. In order to reduce the rate of accidents, many places have been equipped with speed-limiting humps. However, the vehicles approaching them will increase noise levels. The article describes a calculation method of how to determine the influence of various factors caused by car noise. Reflections on the surface, the atmosphere and sound waves on road obstacles can increase or decrease sounds in the environment. The above introduced factors must be taken into account conducting noise measurement tests.Article in Lithuanian

  3. The effects of indoor environmental factors on respiratory illness in primary school children in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, B H; Henry, R L

    1991-03-01

    The effects of indoor environmental factors on respiratory illness were studied in 15017-12 year old school children in Kuala Lumpur. Exposure to mosquito coil smoke for at least three nights a week was independently associated with asthma and persistent wheeze. Passive smoking, defined as sharing a bedroom with an adult smoker, was independently associated with a chest illness in the past year. No relationships were found between exposure to kerosene stoves, wood stoves, fumigation mat mosquito repellents or aerosol insecticides and respiratory illness. Host factors predictive of at least one respiratory outcome included family history of chest illness, history of allergy, male sex, hospitalization in the neonatal period and low paternal education. With 95% confidence, avoidance of regular exposure to mosquito coil smoke and passive smoking could reduce the prevalences of persistent wheeze, asthma and chest illness by up to 29%. Measurements of lung function confirmed the validity of questions pertaining to wheezing and asthma in the study questionnaire.

  4. Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool, which is designed to assess impacts of future land use/built environment patterns on transportation-related energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The tool can be used to evaluate a range of population distribution and urban design scenarios for 2030 and 2050. This tool was produced as part of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  5. Platform for a better built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    IHEEM's recently established Architecture and Design of the Built Environment Technical Platform (ADBETP) is now firmly up and running, and, as one of its members, Gary Mortimer, general manager, Facilities & Estates, at NHS Grampian, puts it, is 'determined to bring tangible, positive, and sustainable benefits to the NHS built environment to support the effective delivery of changing clinical needs'. Equally, the Platform hopes its activities will 'add value to IHEEM members, technical professionals in health construction and operational management, and other healthcare professionals working in NHS buildings'.

  6. Resilience engineering and the built environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The possible relations between resilience engineering and built environments are explored. Resilience engineering has been concerned with the safe and efficient functioning of large and small industrial systems. These may be described as built systems or artefacts. The resilience engineering...... approach argues that if the performance of systems is to be resilient, then they must be able to respond, monitor, learn and anticipate. The last ability in particular means that they must be able to consider themselves vis-a-vis their environment, i.e. be sentient and reflective systems. In practice...

  7. Environmental factors prevail over dispersal constraints in determining the distribution and assembly of Trichoptera species in mountain lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendoza, Guillermo; Ventura, Marc; Catalan, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    Aiming to elucidate whether large-scale dispersal factors or environmental species sorting prevail in determining patterns of Trichoptera species composition in mountain lakes, we analyzed the distribution and assembly of the most common Trichoptera (Plectrocnemia laetabilis, Polycentropus flavomaculatus, Drusus rectus, Annitella pyrenaea, and Mystacides azurea) in the mountain lakes of the Pyrenees (Spain, France, Andorra) based on a survey of 82 lakes covering the geographical and environmental extremes of the lake district. Spatial autocorrelation in species composition was determined using Moran's eigenvector maps (MEM). Redundancy analysis (RDA) was applied to explore the influence of MEM variables and in-lake, and catchment environmental variables on Trichoptera assemblages. Variance partitioning analysis (partial RDA) revealed the fraction of species composition variation that could be attributed uniquely to either environmental variability or MEM variables. Finally, the distribution of individual species was analyzed in relation to specific environmental factors using binomial generalized linear models (GLM). Trichoptera assemblages showed spatial structure. However, the most relevant environmental variables in the RDA (i.e., temperature and woody vegetation in-lake catchments) were also related with spatial variables (i.e., altitude and longitude). Partial RDA revealed that the fraction of variation in species composition that was uniquely explained by environmental variability was larger than that uniquely explained by MEM variables. GLM results showed that the distribution of species with longitudinal bias is related to specific environmental factors with geographical trend. The environmental dependence found agrees with the particular traits of each species. We conclude that Trichoptera species distribution and composition in the lakes of the Pyrenees are governed predominantly by local environmental factors, rather than by dispersal constraints. For

  8. ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PERSONAL FACTORS IN THE INITIATION OF ASTHMA IN SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN: MICA STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of environmental and personal factors have already been associated with the development and exacerbation of childhood asthma, but many aspects of this association require further research. The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) is an epidemiologic study t...

  9. Mercury Contamination in Fish in Midcontinent Great Rivers of the United States: Importance of Species Traits and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of ...

  10. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (< 20% versus ≥ 20%). The selected model was geographically and temporally validated. Model-predicted probabilities of low community sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. PMID:27430547

  11. Gene–environment interaction between adiponectin gene polymorphisms and environmental factors on the risk of diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuan; Wu, Qun Hong; Jiao, Ming Li; Fan, Xiao Hong; Hu, Quan; Hao, Yan Hua; Liu, Ruo Hong; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Yu; Han, Li Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To evaluate whether the adiponectin gene is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk and interaction with environmental factors modifies the DR risk, and to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and DR. Materials and Methods Four adiponectin polymorphisms were evaluated in 372 DR cases and 145 controls. Differences in environmental factors between cases and controls were evaluated by unconditional logistic regression analysis. The model-free mul...

  12. Environmental factors as determinants of malaria risk. A descriptive study on the northern coast of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthmann, J P; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Palacios, A; Hall, A J

    2002-06-01

    We conducted a series of studies on the northern Pacific coast of Peru to determine environmental risk factors for malaria. We report in this paper the results of both a descriptive study of incidence and a prevalence survey of malaria. Both studies showed that the area was at low risk for malaria. The malaria incidence rate was 40/1000 p.a. during the study period, and the prevalence of infection was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4-1.7) before and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.8-2.2) after the high incidence period. However, the risk of malaria varied according to season, village and even house within a single village. Incidence rates increased from February (2.6/1000 p.a.) to May (12.9/1000 p.a.) and decreased during the second part of the year. Most of the cases were clustered in four villages that constituted only 21% of the total population of the area. Houses where multiple cases were recorded were often located near a source of water. Our observations suggested that environmental factors, and particularly the presence of water for irrigation around villages and houses, played a major role in determining the risk of malaria. These observations were extended through an entomological study and a case-control study, to be published elsewhere.

  13. Identifying environmental risk factors for human neural tube defects before and after folic acid supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinhu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects are a major cause of infant mortality and disability in many parts of the world. Neural tube defects (NTDs are one of the most common types of birth defects. In 2001, the Chinese population and family planning commission initiated a national intervention program for the prevention of birth defects. A key step in the program was the introduction of folic acid supplementation. Of interest in the present study was to determine whether folic acid supplementation has the same protective effect on NTDs under various geographical and socioeconomic conditions within the Chinese population and the nature in which the influence of environmental factors varied after folic acid supplementation. Methods In this study, Heshun was selected as the region of interest as a surrogate for helping to answer some of the questions raised in this study on the impact of the intervention program. Spatial filtering in combination with GIS software was used to detect annual potential clusters from 1998 to 2005 in Heshun, and Kruskal-wallis test and multivariate regression were applied to identify the environmental risk factors for NTDs among various regions. Results In 1998, a significant (p Conclusion This suggests that the government needs to adapt the intervention measures according to local conditions. More attention needs to be paid to the poor and to people living in areas near coal mines.

  14. Influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and diversity of forest soil in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonds Kasparinskis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the spatial relationships between environmental factors (Quaternary deposits, topographical situation, land cover, forest site types, tree species, soil texture and soil groups, and their prefix qualifiers (according to the international Food and Agricultural Organization soil classification system World Reference Base for Soil Resources [FAO WRB]. The results show that it is possible to establish relationships between the distribution of environmental factors and soil groups by applying the generalized linear models in data statistical analysis, using the R 2.11.1 software for processing data from 113 sampling plots throughout the forest territory of Latvia.A very high diversity of soil groups in a relatively similar geological structure was revealed. For various reasons there is not always close relationship between the soil group, their prefix qualifiers and Quaternary deposits, as well as between forest site types, the dominant tree species and specific soil group and its prefix qualifiers. Close correlation was established between Quaternary deposits, forest site types, dominant tree species and soil groups within nutrient-poor sediments and very rich deposits containing free carbonates. No significant relationship was detected between the CORINE Land Cover 2005 classes, topographical situation and soil group.

  15. Sap flow of Castanopsis jianfengensis and its relationship with environmental factors in a tropical montane rainforest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using thermal dissipation and the ICT-2000TE equipment made in Australia,the sap flow of Castanopsis jianfengensis and various environmental factors were measured simultaneously in a mixed tropical montane rainforest at Jianfengling Nature Forest Reserve (18°36'N,108°52'E,860 m elevation) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2002.The results show that sap flow velocity of C jianfengensis exhibited a monopeak pattern on clear days and a multi-peak pattern on cloudy or rainy days.Sap flow velocity had significant positive correlations with solar radiation,air temperature,vapor pressure deficit and wind speed and a negative correlation with air relative humidity.In the dry season,sap flow velocity had a significant positive correlation with soil temperature and poor correlation with soil moisture;it was the opposite in the rainy season,indicating that precipitation clearly affected sap flow.Linear regression models between sap flow and environmental factors were established and were significant at the 0.005 level of probability.The mean transpiration rates of C.jianfengensis were 103.5 and 41.3 kg/d in our single tree and 1.94 and 0.77 mm/d in stand level in the dry and rainy season,respectively.

  16. Environmental Factors Structuring Fish Communities in Floodplain Lakes of the Undisturbed System of the Biebrza River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Glińska-Lewczuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the influence of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance of functional fish groups in 10 floodplain lakes in the Biebrza River, northeastern Poland. Fish were sampled by electrofishing, and 15 physico-chemical parameters were recorded at three sampling sites at each lake in the period of 2011–2013. A total of 18,399 specimens, belonging to 23 species and six families, were captured. The relationships between environmental factors and fish communities were explored with the use of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Sampling sites were grouped based on fish communities using a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Along a lateral connectivity gradient from lotic to lentic habitats (parapotamic–plesiopotamic–paleopotamic, the proportions of rheophilic species were determined as 10:5:1, whereas the proportion of limnophilic species was determined as 1:2:5. The predominant species were the roach (Rutilus rutilus, and pike (Esox lucius in parapotamic lakes, rudd (Scardinius erythropthalmus and pike in plesiopotamic lakes, and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineates and Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio in paleopotamic lakes. The findings indicated that the composition and abundance of fish communities are determined by lake isolation gradient, physico-chemical parameters and water stage. Although intact riverine ecosystems may promote fish biodiversity, our findings suggest that lateral connectivity between the main channel and floodplain lakes is of utmost importance. Thus, the conservation of fish biodiversity requires the preservation of this connectivity.

  17. Environmental factors controlling fluxes of dimethyl sulfide in a New Hampshire fen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    The major environmental factors controlling fluxes of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland were investigated in a poor fen in New Hampshire. DMS emissions from the surface of the peatland varied greatly over 24 hours and seasonally. Maximum DMS emissions occurred in summer with minima in the late fall. Temperature was the major environmental factor controlling these variabilities. There was also some evidence that the changes in water table height might have contributed to the seasonable variability in DMS emission. The influence of the water table was greater during periods of elevated temperature. DMS and MSH were the most abundant dissolved volatile sulfur compound (VSC) in the surface of the water table. Concentrations of dissolved VSC's varied with time and space throughout the fen. Dissolved MDS, MSH, and OCS in the surface of the water table were supersaturated with respect to their concentrations in the atmosphere suggesting that the peat surface was a source of VSC's in the peatland. VCS in peatlands seemed to be produced primarily by microbial processes in the anoxic surface layers of the peat rich in organic matter and inorganic sulfide. Sphagnum mosses were not a direct source of VSC's. However, they increased transport of DMS from the peat surface to the atmosphere.

  18. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult stages of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamczuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors have a varied impact on the development of juvenile and adult Cladocera, depending on their different physiological conditions and body size. The values of these factors alter spatially and temporarily, thus implying that they play a role in the spatial distribution of the pre-reproductive and potentially reproductive stages of cladocerans. The aim of the study was to determine seasonal and spatial variations in the distribution of juvenile and adult individuals of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected physicochemical factors (temperature, conductivity, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids and fish predation pressure (measured by Chesson’s coefficient λ in deep Lake Piaseczno (eastern Poland. Adult Cladocera displayed spatial distribution related to fish predation pressure. The species selectively eaten, B. coregoni and D. longispina, and non-selectively eaten, D. cucullata, selected the pelagic zone to exist, whereas those avoided by fish, D. brachyurum and B. longirostris, were evenly distributed in the littoral and pelagic zone. Juvenile cladocerans were strongly impacted by physico-chemical factors. Juvenile Daphnia, Diaphanosoma and B. longirostris showed preferences to biotic zones similar to the adults but differed in their habitat choices. Juvenile and adult stages of B. coregoni differed in their distribution, indicating that adult individuals impacted by high predation pressure alternatively modified their habitat selection. Principal component analysis (PCA ordination showed a seasonal tendency for the spatial segregation of the cladocerans, suggesting that possible competitive interactions between the studied cladocerans may also influence their distribution patterns.

  19. Review of the social and environmental factors affecting the behavior and welfare of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, J; Watanabe, T T N; Ferrante, V; Estevez, I

    2013-06-01

    In modern rearing systems, turkey producers often face economic losses due to increased aggression, feather pecking, cannibalism, leg disorders, or injuries among birds, which are also significant welfare issues. The main underlying causes appear to relate to rapid growth, flock size, density, poor environmental complexity, or lighting, which may be deficient in providing the birds with an adequate physical or social environment. To date, there is little information regarding the effect of these factors on turkey welfare. This knowledge is, however, essential to ensure the welfare of turkeys and to improve their quality of life, but may also be beneficial to industry, allowing better bird performance, improved carcass quality, and reduced mortality and condemnations. This paper reviews the available scientific literature related to the behavior of turkeys as influenced by the physical and social environment that may be relevant to advances toward turkey production systems that take welfare into consideration. We addressed the effects that factors such as density, group size, space availability, maturation, lightning, feeding, and transport may have over parameters that may be relevant to ensure welfare of turkeys. Available scientific studies were based in experimental environments and identified individual factors corresponding to particular welfare problems. Most of the studies aimed at finding optimal levels of rearing conditions that allow avoiding or decreasing most severe welfare issues. This paper discusses the importance of these factors for development of production environments that would be better suited from a welfare and economic point of view.

  20. Environmental Factors and Students’ Learning Approaches: A Survey on Malaysian Polytechnics Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlee Mustapha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown the impact of environmental factors on student learning approaches. Despite the importance of such studies, studies on technical learners are few. Thus, this study aimed to determine the influence of learning environment on Polytechnics students’ learning approaches in Malaysia. Learning environment plays an important role in the cognitive, effective and social domains of students because it could improve students’ learning outcomes.  Learning approaches refer to the ways students deal with academic tasks that are related to learning outcomes.  This study used Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ and Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ-2F to collect the research data.  Data were analyzed using AMOS Version 18.  Multiple regressions were conducted to predict learning environment factors that influenced the level of students’ learning approaches.  The result shows that effective teaching is a major factor that influences students' deep approach followed by the assessment, learning resources and clear objectives.

  1. Environmental factors influencing older adults’ walking for transportation: a study using walk-along interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cauwenberg Jelle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current knowledge on the relationship between the physical environment and walking for transportation among older adults (≥ 65 years is limited. Qualitative research can provide valuable information and inform further research. However, qualitative studies are scarce and fail to include neighborhood outings necessary to study participants’ experiences and perceptions while interacting with and interpreting the local social and physical environment. The current study sought to uncover the perceived environmental influences on Flemish older adults’ walking for transportation. To get detailed and context-sensitive environmental information, it used walk-along interviews. Methods Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 57 older adults residing in urban or semi-urban areas. Walk-along interviews to and from a destination (e.g. a shop located within a 15 minutes’ walk from the participants’ home were conducted. Content analysis was performed using NVivo 9 software (QSR International. An inductive approach was used to derive categories and subcategories from the data. Results Data were categorized in the following categories and subcategories: access to facilities (shops & services, public transit, connectivity, walking facilities (sidewalk quality, crossings, legibility, benches, traffic safety (busy traffic, behavior of other road users, familiarity, safety from crime (physical factors, other persons, social contacts, aesthetics (buildings, natural elements, noise & smell, openness, decay and weather. Conclusions The findings indicate that to promote walking for transportation a neighborhood should provide good access to shops and services, well-maintained walking facilities, aesthetically appealing places, streets with little traffic and places for social interaction. In addition, the neighborhood environment should evoke feelings of familiarity and safety from crime. Future quantitative studies should

  2. Dissection of genetic and environmental factors involved in tomato organoleptic quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frusciante Luigi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main tomato breeding objectives is to improve fruit organoleptic quality. However, this task is made somewhat challenging by the complex nature of sensory traits and the lack of efficient selection criteria. Sensory quality depends on numerous factors, including fruit colour, texture, aroma, and composition in primary and secondary metabolites. It is also influenced by genotypic differences, the nutritional regime of plants, stage of ripening at harvest and environmental conditions. In this study, agronomic, biochemical and sensory characterization was performed on six Italian heirlooms grown in different environmental conditions. Result We identified a number of links among traits contributing to fruit organoleptic quality and to the perception of sensory attributes. PCA analysis was used to highlight some biochemical, sensory and agronomic discriminating traits: this statistical test allowed us to identify which sensory attributes are more closely linked to environmental conditions and those, instead, linked to the genetic constitution of tomato. Sweetness, sourness, saltiness and tomato flavour are not only grouped in the same PCA factor, but also result in a clear discrimination of tomato ecotypes in the three different fields. The three different traditional varieties cluster on the basis of attributes like juiciness, granulosity, hardness and equatorial diameter, and are therefore more closely related to the genetic background of the cultivar. Conclusion This finding suggests that a different method should be undertaken to improve sensory traits related to taste perception and texture. Our results might be used to ascertain in what direction to steer breeding in order to improve the flavour characteristics of tomato ecotypes.

  3. Environmental factors influencing participation of stroke survivors in a Western Cape setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Cawood

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental factors compound or diminish the effects of impairments; therefore they have a direct influence on participation of stroke survivors.Objectives: To determine environmental barriers and facilitators to participation experienced by a group of stroke survivors in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Methods: A descriptive, mixed methods study was conducted in 2011. Quantitative data was collected with the International Classification for Functioning, Disability and Health core set for stroke (environmental factors, from 53 stroke survivors, sampled through proportional, stratified, random sampling. Data is presented through graphs and tables. Qualitative data was collected from five purposively sampled participants and thematically analysed.Results: Under products and technology, participants regarded assets, food, products and technology for daily living, transportation, mobility and communication, and access to buildings as barriers. The physical geography and attitudes of friends and society created further barriers. With regard to services, systems and policies - housing, communication, transport and social services created barriers. Health services, as well as support from health care service providers and family were considered facilitators. Conclusion: A lack of assets compounded barriers with regard to food, products for daily use, communication and transport. Barriers to participation were exacerbated by a lack of services, systems and implementation of policies focused on the inclusion of people with disabilities, as well as minimal access to assistive devices. Recommendations include provision of assistive devices, structural changes to houses, yards, roads and buildings, lobbying for accessible, affordable public transport, access audits of public buildings, and inclusion of non-governmental organisations and home-based care services in a seamless network of care.

  4. A systematic approach to detecting transcription factors in response to environmental stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wen-Hsiung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells have developed mechanisms to respond to external environmental or physiological changes (stresses. In order to increase the activities of stress-protection functions in response to an environmental change, the internal cell mechanisms need to induce certain specific gene expression patterns and pathways by changing the expression levels of specific transcription factors (TFs. The conventional methods to find these specific TFs and their interactivities are slow and laborious. In this study, a novel efficient method is proposed to detect the TFs and their interactivities that regulate yeast genes that respond to any specific environment change. Results For each gene expressed in a specific environmental condition, a dynamic regulatory model is constructed in which the coefficients of the model represent the transcriptional activities and interactivities of the corresponding TFs. The proposed method requires only microarray data and information of all TFs that bind to the gene but it has superior resolution than the current methods. Our method not only can find stress-specific TFs but also can predict their regulatory strengths and interactivities. Moreover, TFs can be ranked, so that we can identify the major TFs to a stress. Similarly, it can rank the interactions between TFs and identify the major cooperative TF pairs. In addition, the cross-talks and interactivities among different stress-induced pathways are specified by the proposed scheme to gain much insight into protective mechanisms of yeast under different environmental stresses. Conclusion In this study, we find significant stress-specific and cell cycle-controlled TFs via constructing a transcriptional dynamic model to regulate the expression profiles of genes under different environmental conditions through microarray data. We have applied this TF activity and interactivity detection method to many stress conditions, including hyper- and hypo

  5. Schooling Built on the Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    This article features a school built on multiple intelligences. As the first multiple intelligences school in the world, the Key Learning Community shapes its students' days to include significant time in the musical, spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences, as well as the more traditional areas of logical-mathematical and linguistics. In…

  6. Lighting outside built-up areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1965-01-01

    Lezing gehouden op 21/26 september in London 1964 handelend over verlichting buiten de bebouwde kom. (Engelse versie). Shortened version of the paper on Lighting of roads outside built-up areas prepared for theme III, Ways of reducing the Frequency of accidents, discussed at the International Study

  7. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art – part one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Arkadiusz A.; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of previously diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors. PMID:27504022

  8. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  9. Evaluation of soybean lines and environmental stratification using the AMMI, GGE biplot, and factor analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, L B; Hamawaki, O T; Nogueira, A P O; Batista, R O; Oliveira, V M; Hamawaki, R L

    2015-10-19

    In the final phases of new soybean cultivar development, lines are cultivated in several locations across multiple seasons with the intention of identifying and selecting superior genotypes for quantitative traits. In this context, this study aimed to study the genotype-by-environment interaction for the trait grain yield (kg/ha), and to evaluate the adaptability and stability of early-cycle soybean genotypes using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis, genotype main effects and genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot, and factor analysis methods. Additionally, the efficiency of these methods was compared. The experiments were carried out in five cities in the State of Mato Grosso: Alto Taquari, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sinop, Querência, and Rondonópolis, in the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons. Twenty-seven early-cycle soybean genotypes were evaluated, consisting of 22 lines developed by Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU) soybean breeding program, and five controls: UFUS Carajás, MSOY 6101, MSOY 7211, UFUS Guarani, and Riqueza. Significant and complex genotype-by-environment interactions were observed. The AMMI model presented greater efficiency by retaining most of the variation in the first two main components (61.46%), followed by the GGE biplot model (57.90%), and factor analysis (54.12%). Environmental clustering among the methodologies was similar, and was composed of one environmental group from one location but from different seasons. Genotype G5 presented an elevated grain yield, and high adaptability and stability as determined by the AMMI, factor analysis, and GGE biplot methodologies.

  10. Associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Mahony, T J; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S

    2016-03-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Animal characteristics were recorded at induction, when animals were individually identified and enrolled into study cohorts (comprising animals in a feedlot pen). Environmental risk factors included the year and season of induction, source region and feedlot region and summary variables describing weather during the first week of follow-up. In total, 35,131 animals inducted into 170 cohorts within 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building and multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Breed, induction weight and season of induction were significantly and strongly associated with risk of BRD. Compared to Angus cattle, Herefords were at markedly increased risk (OR: 2.0, 95% credible interval: 1.5-2.6) and tropically adapted breeds and their crosses were at markedly reduced risk (OR: 0.5, 95% credible interval: 0.3-0.7) of developing BRD. Risk of BRD declined with increased induction weight, with cattle in the heaviest weight category (≥480kg) at moderately reduced risk compared to cattle weighing risk compared to animals inducted during spring. Knowledge of these risk factors may be useful in predicting BRD risk for incoming groups of cattle in Australian feedlots. This would then provide the opportunity for feedlot managers to tailor management strategies for specific subsets of animals according to predicted BRD risk.

  11. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: a case study for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity is among the main problems faced by many societies. Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demands and supply. This study aims to analyze the changes in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint is estimated using Aquacrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010 at daily basis and a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minutes. Virtual water trade is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate changes in virtual water trade in relation to various environmental and socio-economic factors. The explaining variables are selected in order to help understanding the trend and the inter-annual variability of the net virtual water import; GDP, population and irrigated land are hypothesized to explain the trend, and precipitation and water scarcity to explain variability. The selected crops are divided into three baskets. The first basket includes the two most imported crops, which are mainly rain-fed (wheat and barley). The second basket contains the two most exported crops, which are both irrigated and rain-fed (olives and dates). In the last basket we find the two highest economic blue water productive crops, which are mainly irrigated (tomatoes and potatoes). The results show the impact of each factor on net virtual water import of the selected crops during the period 1981-2010. Keywords: Virtual water, trade patterns, Aquacrop, Tunisia, water scarcity, water footprint.

  12. Integration of developmental and environmental signals via a polyadenylation factor in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Liu

    Full Text Available The ability to integrate environmental and developmental signals with physiological responses is critical for plant survival. How this integration is done, particularly through posttranscriptional control of gene expression, is poorly understood. Previously, it was found that the 30 kD subunit of Arabidopsis cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (AtCPSF30 is a calmodulin-regulated RNA-binding protein. Here we demonstrated that mutant plants (oxt6 deficient in AtCPSF30 possess a novel range of phenotypes--reduced fertility, reduced lateral root formation, and altered sensitivities to oxidative stress and a number of plant hormones (auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acid, and ACC. While the wild-type AtCPSF30 (C30G was able to restore normal growth and responses, a mutant AtCPSF30 protein incapable of interacting with calmodulin (C30GM could only restore wild-type fertility and responses to oxidative stress and ACC. Thus, the interaction with calmodulin is important for part of AtCPSF30 functions in the plant. Global poly(A site analysis showed that the C30G and C30GM proteins can restore wild-type poly(A site choice to the oxt6 mutant. Genes associated with hormone metabolism and auxin responses are also affected by the oxt6 mutation. Moreover, 19 genes that are linked with calmodulin-dependent CPSF30 functions, were identified through genome-wide expression analysis. These data, in conjunction with previous results from the analysis of the oxt6 mutant, indicate that the polyadenylation factor AtCPSF30 is a regulatory hub where different signaling cues are transduced, presumably via differential mRNA 3' end formation or alternative polyadenylation, into specified phenotypic outcomes. Our results suggest a novel function of a polyadenylation factor in environmental and developmental signal integration.

  13. The influence of demographic, environmental and physical factors on functional independence post stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Mamabolo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The magnitude of disability observed in strokesurvivors is believed to be dependent in part, on the severity of neurological deficits incurred. A s important but less well understood, is thecontribution of demographic, physical and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to establish what demographic, environmentaland physical factors influence functional independence post stroke. Method: Convenience sampling was used in the selection of subjects from four stroke outpatient public health facilities in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools used included descriptive statistics to measure percentages and cross tabulations to measure the level of associations between functional independence and some of the demographic factors. The Barthel Index was computed to establish the degree of functional independence. Finally the influence of factors on functional independence was investigated using bivariate logistic regressions.Results: The results showed that younger patients (18 - 34 yrs may have a higher likelihood of functional independence compared to older patients at the time of discharge from hospital (18 - 34 years: Odds Ratio = 1. Patients without helpers were more likely to be functionally independent than those with a helper (p = 0.03. Involvement in household activities (p = 0.01, participation in community activities (p = 0.02 and bowel and bladder continence (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04 improved the likelihood of functional independence.Conclusion and im plications: Factors that influence functional independence post stroke are: age, bowel and bladder continence, the presence of a caregiver, participation in household and community activities. It is also of value to encourage patients to participate in household and community activities post stroke as well as being less dependent on helpers in an effort to attain functional independence post

  14. Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive patients in Spain: epidemiology and environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Alvaro-Meca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Specific environmental factors may play a role in the development of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP in HIV-positive patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the PCP incidence and mortality in hospitalized HIV-positive patients in Spain during the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART era (1997 to 2011, as well as to analyze the climatological factors and air pollution levels in relation to hospital admissions and deaths. Methods: We carried out a retrospective study. Data were collected from the National Hospital Discharge Database and the State Meteorological Agency of Spain. A case-crossover analysis was applied to identify environmental risk factors related to hospitalizations and deaths. For each patient, climatic factors and pollution levels were assigned based on readings from the nearest meteorological station to his or her postal code. Results: There were 13,139 new PCP diagnoses and 1754 deaths in hospitalized HIV-positive patients from 1997 to 2011. The PCP incidence (events per 1000 person-years dropped from 11.6 in 1997 to 2000, to 5.4 in 2004 to 2011 (p<0.001. The mortality (events per 10,000 person-years also decreased from 14.3 in 1997 to 2000, to 7.5 in 2004 to 2011 (p<0.001. Most hospital admissions and deaths occurred in the winter season and the fewest occurred in the summer, overlapping respectively with the lowest and highest temperatures of the year in Spain. Moreover, lower temperatures prior to PCP admission, as well as higher concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter up to 10 m in size (PM10 at the time of admission were associated with higher likelihoods of hospital admission due to PCP when two weeks, one month, 1.5 months or two months were used as controls (p<0.01. Furthermore, higher concentrations of ozone at one month (p=0.007, 1.5 months (p<0.001 and two months (p=0.006 prior to admission were associated with higher likelihoods of hospital admission with PCP. For PCP-related deaths, lower

  15. Short-term spatial variation in the demography of a common Neotropical liana is influenced by environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franci, Luciana De Campos; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Svenning, Jens-Christian;

    2016-01-01

    We used matrix models to investigate the relation between population dynamics of the liana Mansoa difficilis and environmental factors in frag- mented Atlantic forest in Brazil. The fate (growth and mortality) of individuals and the number of new individuals were recorded for 3 years in 100 plots...... of 10 m 9 10 m each. We used multinomial logistic regressions to assess the influence of environmental factors on the fate of individuals in different life stages. Adopting AIC for model selection, we tested a range of models including different groups of environmental variables: soil nutrients, water...... equilibrium (k = 1). In both periods, elasticity was higher for survival of large climbers than for other fates. The best models varied between life stages and periods, indicating that the impact of environmental factors on demographic rates changed through time. Model selection suggested that the influence...

  16. Familial, Environmental, and Occupational Risk Factors in Development of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Definite etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is still a matter of debate. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate the role of environmental, occupational, and familial risk factors in development of ALS. Materials and Methods: This was a case control study of 110 cases of definite ALS with 240 age and sex matched controls. Investigations were done on the following aspects- family history, occupation, living place, source of drinking water, exposure to industrial, chemical, agricultural toxins and heavy metals, physical and electrical injury, working under magnetic field for more than 10 years in both the groups. Clinical examinations, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies were done in every patient. Chi square test, logistic regression analysis, and calculation of odds ratio were used to analyze the data. Results: Rural livings (odds ratio = 1.99, smoking (odds ratio = 1.88, insecticides, and pesticides exposures (odds ratio = 1.61, electrical injury (odds ratio = 6.2 were detected as the associated factors in development amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Conclusions: The study expressed the need of extensive research globally in molecular and genetic levels to detect the associated factors in etiopathogenesis of ALS for better understanding the etiology and for remedial aspects.

  17. STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

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    S. V. KOPLIK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the state educational policy is to optimize the development process of the reproduction of the educational cycle taking into account the influence of environmental factors. These factors include: the cyclical nature of economic development (global economic crisis, the globalization of educational activities (in particular, in the form of the Bologna process, the accelerated development of the world's scientific and technological progress (massive use of telecommunications information and educational systems, changes in climatic conditions management (due to the limited human biological ability to effectively adapt to their changes, international military and political situation (global confrontation, the isolationist policy of the Western countries. A rational consideration of strategic factors of the environment of the national educational system is the basis of the synchronization strategies for the development of all market participants of educational services, including nongovernmental educational organization with a longterm state policy in the sphere of education. The perspective is becoming oligopolistic educational policy based on a multipolar international system of education, including higher education. This requires the return of the Russian Federation, the higher education sector to national technology training of specialists, the return of leadership among countries with similar economic development model, leadership in developed markets of educational services.

  18. Genetic and environmental risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宝剑; 梁旭辉; 汪宁; 林顺潮; 刘瑶; 谭霭仙; 彭智培

    2004-01-01

    Background Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is characterized by optic nerve damage and consists of a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders. This study was to investigate the associations of genetic and environmental factors with POAG in a hospital-based Chinese population.Methods Thirty-two adult onset POAG patients and 96 age-sex matched control subjects were studied by multivariable logistic regression analysis for the relationships between POAG and its risk factors including family history, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and polymorphisms of the myocilin and the optineurin genes.Results Univariate analysis showed that POAG was related to family history, cardiovascular disease, alcohol consumption and a myocilin sequence alteration (T353I) (P<0.04). Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed that POAG was significantly associated with family history (OR=20.2), hypertension (OR=3.58), cigarette smoking (OR=10.8), alcohol consumption (OR=0.028) and T353I (OR=6.03, all P<0.05).Conclusions Family history, hypertension, cigarette smoking and T353I in the myocilin gene are risk factors for POAG. Alcohol consumption, however, has a protective effect.

  19. A Survey on Environmental Factors and Job Satisfaction Among Operators in Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between environmental factors, job satisfaction that influence the workers’ discomfort in four automotive manufacturing in Malaysia. Discomfort level of operator in workstation often were associated with workstation design, posture comfort operator at work, activity which involved work and place influence environment such as heat, noise and lighting. The aim of this study was to assess discomfort level based on ergonomic factors and to determine the distribution of body discomfort in relation to the task performed. Approach: Identification of discomfort level among the operators was carried out in four automotive companies in Malaysia. The study was carried out based on questionnaire responses from the participating factories and the collected data was analyzed through the SPSS software. Results: In the analysis data, research showed left arm was part of the body most involved a lot of activity like activity lifting, pulling, twisting, carrying and holding. Conclusion: The study revealed that the dominant factors contribute to the productivity at the body assembly production line is WBGT and I luminance whereas the empirical finding was closely related to the perception study by survey questionnaire distribution.

  20. Interaction of genetic predisposition and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Jacob, G.; Pohar, B.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (IOI) have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not understood. If genetic predisposition were important in the pathogenesis of IOI, monozygotic twins of patients with IOI should have similar hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities. METHODS: We studied two patients with IOI and their identical twins. Both siblings in the first twin pair had orthostatic symptoms, significant orthostatic tachycardia, increased plasma norepinephrine levels with standing, and a greater than normal decrease in systolic blood pressure with trimethaphan infusion. RESULTS: Both siblings had a normal response of plasma renin activity to upright posture. In the second twin pair, only one sibling had symptoms of orthostatic intolerance, an orthostatic tachycardia, and raised plasma catecholamines with standing. The affected sibling had inappropriately low plasma renin activity with standing and was 8-fold more sensitive to the pressor effect of phenylephrine than the unaffected sibling. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in some patients, IOI seems to be strongly influenced by genetic factors. In others, however, IOI may be mainly caused by nongenetic factors. These findings suggest that IOI is heterogenous, and that both genetic and environmental factors contribute individually or collectively to create the IOI phenotype.