WorldWideScience

Sample records for building materials degradation

  1. Building materials Degradation state of the chella historic site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdad, B.; Inigo, A.C.; Bounakhla, M.; Naimi, A.; Taleb, A.

    2008-01-01

    The chella Necropolis merinid is located upstream from the mouth on Wadi Bou Regreg left bank, 2 km northeast of downtown Rabat. The site climate is wet oceanic influence with average annual rainfall 400 to 500 mm / year and 16C average annual temperature. The construction material of this historical monument type stone size up the very large door with its original architecture and forming a coating, however close behind which the wall is made of coarse rubble, and likely mostly calcarenite, sand limestone, crystalline limestone and coquina. The stone, paving, and walls are being degraded. To surface rocks natural aging phenomenal we adds air pollution action suffered by the city in recent decades, particularly due to urban development and a concurrent increase in road Traffic which represents about 95% of the pollution source. This accelerates the coatings decomposation and the stone erosion. Opposite the site, at Chella door the concentration measured of certain gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2 ...) exceeds the standard (190 ug / Nm 3 ). The rainwater analysis collected in this site shows a concentration of 14 mg / l average sulphate. The Chella historic site deterioration is linked to the aging of its concentrations, air pollution, and assault by salt spray and water, algae development, lichens and other vegetation types and the burrowing animals action, insects, birds and other creatures. All these phenomena are added to the natural process of the rock surface weathering and contribute to the monument deterioration. This study aims to inventory the various aspects of these monuments deterioration and the explanation of construction materials evolution. The alteration work is mainly related to the interaction of many external factors: exposure conditions the ambient atmosphere first composition, climate and weather conditions, position in the construction, architectural features. The most important parameters are those that control water flow to the surface blocks

  2. THE EFFECT OF DEGRADATION PROCESSES ON THE SERVICEABILITY OF BUILDING MATERIALS OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Witzany

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of degradation processes and partial results of an experimental research into materials and structures exposed to the effects of external environments with an emphasis on the effects of moisture and chemical degradation processes on major mechanical properties of sandstone.

  3. Gas chromatographic study of degradation phenomena concerning building and cultural heritage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metaxa, E.; Agelakopoulou, T.; Bassiotis, I.; Karagianni, Ch.; Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, F.

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution influences all aspects of social and economical life nowadays. In order to investigate the impact of air pollution on materials of works of art, the method of Reversed Flow-Inverse Gas Chromatography has been selected. The presence of various atmospheric pollutants is studied on marbles, oxides-building materials and samples of authentic statues from the Greek Archaeological Museums of Kavala and of Philippi. The method leads to the determination of several physicochemical quantities and the characterization of the heterogeneous surfaces of these solids. Moreover, the influence of a second pollutant (synergistic effect) is examined. The structure, the properties and the behavior of the materials are examined by X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy. Therefore, the precise measurement of the above mentioned quantities form the scientific basis for elucidation of the mechanism of the whole phenomenon of the degradation, thus providing a scientific platform to conservation procedures.

  4. Degradation of building materials over a lifespan of 30-100 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Following preliminary visits to four Magnox Nuclear Power Stations, a study was made of existing Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) reports on the condition of buildings at eight Power Stations. Sampling of building materials, non-destructive testing and inspections were carried out at Transfynydd, Oldbury and Dungeness ''A'' Magnox Power Stations, and the samples were subsequently laboratory tested. From the results of this work it can be concluded that little major deterioration is likely to occur in the reactor buildings at Transfynydd and Oldbury over the next 50 years and at Dungeness ''A'' for at least 25 years, assuming reasonable maintenance and the continuation of suitable internal temperatures and relative humidities. Because of the limitations on taking samples from, and tests on, the reactor biological shields and prestressed concrete vessel, no sensible forecast can be made of their potential life in the 75-100 year range

  5. Trends in building materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapiravana, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available , steel and composites research. Analysis of the building materials market situation in South Africa identified the major building material cost drivers as cement and concrete and steel. For South Africa, research and development focus has been... in South Africa be cement and concrete, light-weight steel construction, smart tiles and composite materials. Nanotechnology materials should be used for property enhancement. The building materials developed should be modularised and/or panelised...

  6. Building materials. Stichwort Baustoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwer, W

    1981-01-01

    To handle building materials properly, one must know about their characteristics. This pocket book will be of help: structured like a glossary, it gives brief descriptions of the most common building materials. It is small and handy enough to be a constant companion to resident engineers, foremen, gangers, building tradesmen, and construction workers and an aid in their training. The following groups of building materials are discussed: Natural stone; units for brick walls, floors, and roofs; mortar and concrete (definitions, binders, aggregates, additives, admixtures, mixing water); special types of plaster and rendering; light-weight building boards and wood wool basis; multilayer light-weight building boards; gypsum plasterboards; chimney construction; sewers; thermal insulation and sound section; structural steels; plastics.

  7. Development of Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry quantitative methodologies for elemental characterization of building materials and their degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Marguí, Eva; Torrent, Laura; Queralt, Ignasi; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry based quantitative methodology for elemental characterization of liquid extracts and solids belonging to old building materials and their degradation products from a building of the beginning of 20th century with a high historic cultural value in Getxo, (Basque Country, North of Spain) is proposed. This quantification strategy can be considered a faster methodology comparing to traditional Energy or Wavelength Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF and WD-XRF) spectrometry based methodologies or other techniques such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In particular, two kinds of liquid extracts were analysed: (i) water soluble extracts from different mortars and (ii) acid extracts from mortars, black crusts, and calcium carbonate formations. In order to try to avoid the acid extraction step of the materials and their degradation products, it was also studied the TXRF direct measurement of the powdered solid suspensions in water. With this aim, different parameters such as the deposition volume and the measuring time were studied for each kind of samples. Depending on the quantified element, the limits of detection achieved with the TXRF quantitative methodologies for liquid extracts and solids were set around 0.01-1.2 and 2-200 mg/L respectively. The quantification of K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn and Pb in the liquid extracts was proved to be a faster alternative to other more classic quantification techniques (i.e. ICP-MS), accurate enough to obtain information about the composition of the acidic soluble part of the materials and their degradation products. Regarding the solid samples measured as suspensions, it was quite difficult to obtain stable and repetitive suspensions affecting in this way the accuracy of the results. To cope with this problem, correction factors based on the quantitative results obtained using ED-XRF were calculated to improve the accuracy of

  8. Radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpakova, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the gamma-spectrometric determination of natural radioactivity in the different building materials and wares applied in Slovakia was performed. The specific activities for potassium-40, thorium, radium as well as the equivalent specific activities are presented

  9. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs of the Netherlands, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. (Auth.)

  10. Material degradation - a nuclear utility's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Degradation of nuclear plant materials has been responsible for major costs and unit outage time. As such, nuclear utilities are important end users of the information produced by R and D on material degradation. This plenary describes the significance of material degradation for the nuclear utilities, and how utilities use information about material degradation in their short, medium and long term planning activities. Utilities invest in R and D programs to assist them in their business objective of operating safely, reliably and cost competitively. Material degradation impacts all three of these business drivers. Utilities make decisions on life cycle planning, unit refurbishment and 'new build' projects on the basis of their understanding of the behaviour of a variety of materials in a broad range of environments. The R and D being carried out today will determine the future business success of the nuclear utilities. The R and D program needs to be broadly based to include a range of materials, environments and time-frames, particularly any new materials proposed for use in new units. The R and D community needs to help the utility managers make choices that will result in an optimized materials R and D program

  11. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... roles of water and materials, Health, including a state-of-the-art description of the health-related effects of indoor molds, and Strategies, integrating remediation, prevention and policies....

  12. Polymeric Materials - introduction and degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    1999-01-01

    These notes support the polymer part of the courses 91742 and 91762 (Materials and Corrosion/degradation of materials) taught in IFAKthey contain a short introduction on group contribution methods for estimating properties of polymers, polymer thermodynamics, viscoelasticity models as well...

  13. Degradation of materials and passivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, W.

    1997-01-01

    Demanding for a reduction in materials degradation is a serious problem all over the world. Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) is, among others, a very valuable tool to follow many degradation processes. Evidently, Fe is the most important Moessbauer element considering the overall presence of iron in everyday life. MS may contribute to our knowledge about nearly all fields of materials degradation, chemical, mechanical, thermal, irradiative, etc. Following some general lines, corrosion is considered in particular. MS is applicable to investigate the bulk of materials as well as their surface layers with an information depth of ca. 250 nm. In general, it has to be applied as a surface sensitive method in combination with other relevant methods in order to get a detailed insight into ongoing processes. Some examples have been selected to elucidate the application of MS in this field. Another class of examples concerns attempts to prevent corrosion, i.e., the application of coatings and transforming chemicals. A very effective and most natural way to reduce corrosion is the passivation of materials. The effect of passive layers and their destruction by environmental influences are discussed using results of MS and related methods. It is outlined that passivity is not restricted to chemically treated metals but can be considered as a general concept for preventing different kinds of materials from degradation. (orig.)

  14. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  15. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1979-01-01

    The object of this brief report is to make the pollution inspectorate aware of the radiation hazards involved in new building materials, such as gypsum boards and alum slate based concrete blocks whose radium content is high. Experience in Swedish housebuilding has shown that a significant increase in the radiation dose to the occupants can occur. Improved insulation and elimination of draughts in fuel conservation accentuate the problem. Norwegian investigations are referred to and OECD and Scandinavian discussions aiming at recommendations and standards are mentioned. Suggested measures by the Norwegian authorities are given. (JIW)

  16. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  17. Building Materials Reclamation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weggel, David C.; Chen, Shen-En; Hilger, Helene; Besnard, Fabien; Cavalline, Tara; Tempest, Brett; Alvey, Adam; Grimmer, Madeleine; Turner, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C and D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C and D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C and D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C and D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  18. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic...

  19. Biocide Runoff from Building Facades: Degradation Kinetics in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Fernández-Calviño, David; Brandt, Kristian K; Storgaard, Morten S; Sanderson, Hans; Bester, Kai

    2017-04-04

    Biocides are common additives in building materials. In-can and film preservatives in polymer-resin render and paint, as well as wood preservatives are used to protect facade materials from microbial spoilage. Biocides leach from the facade material with driving rain, leading to highly polluted runoff water (up to several mg L -1 biocides) being infiltrated into the soil surrounding houses. In the present study the degradation rates in soil of 11 biocides used for the protection of building materials were determined in laboratory microcosms. The results show that some biocides are degraded rapidly in soil (e.g., isothiazolinones: T 1/2 soils; thus, rainfall events control how often new input to the soil occurs. Time intervals between rainfall events in Northern Europe are shorter than degradation half-lives even for many rapidly degraded biocides. Consequently, residues of some biocides are likely to be continuously present due to repeated input and most biocides can be considered as "pseudo-persistent"-contaminants in this context. This was verified by (sub)urban soil screening, where concentrations of up to 0.1 μg g -1 were detected for parent compounds as well as terbutryn degradation products in soils below biocide treated facades.

  20. Natural radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnustik, J.

    1988-01-01

    Within a study of the natural radioactivity of building materials, coefficients were determined of the emanation from selected materials and raw materials, such as porous concrete, bricks, marlite, quartzite, etc. Measurements were made of ground samples using Lucas scintillation chambers which give an accuracy of determination of the coefficient of about 10%. Specific radium activity was also determined for the samples. Tabulated is a comparison of the average specific activity of radium in concrete, power plant ash and porous concrete in Czechoslovakia and abroad. It is stated that monitoring the content of natural radionuclides in building materials is an indispensable part of the production process in the building industry, this with regard to the radiation protection of the population. This will be enhanced by the new Czechoslovak standard determining methods of measuring the content of natural radionuclides and the coefficient of radon emanation, and the subsequent evaluation of the properties of building materials. (Z.M.) 3 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Mould growth on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Nielsen, K.

    Mould growth in buildings is associated with adverse health effects among the occupants of the building. However actual growth only occurs in damp and water-damaged materials, and is an increasing problem in Denmark, due to less robust constructions, inadequate maintenance, and too little...

  2. Variation of radon exhalation on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liu Senlin; Wang Chunhong; Pan Ziqiang; Zhang Yonggui; Ji Dong

    2009-01-01

    The 19 samples from different building material factories were collected for four kinds of building materials. The activity concentration and radon exhalation of building materials were measured. The radon exhalations of building materials are not obviously different if the component is same and the processes of building materials are similar. However, the radon exhalations of same kind of building material are greatly different if the components are different and the processes of building material are varied even if the activity concentrations of building material are similar. (authors)

  3. Frost resistance of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    materials, has been developed.The importance of the pore structure on the development of stresses in the material during freezing is emphasized. To verify the model, experimental investigations are made on various concretes without air-entrainment and brick tiles with different porosities.Calculations......In this thesis it is shown that the critical degree of saturation is suitable as parameter for the frost resistance of porous building materials. A numerical model for prediction of critical degrees of saturation based on fracture mechanics and phase geometry of two-phase materials, e.g. porous...

  4. Daylight as a building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thule Kristensen, Peter; Madsen, Merete

    2005-01-01

    The article draws on examples to chronologically trace the use of daylight as building material in architecture of the 20th and early 21st century. The essay covers works of Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Erik Bryggman, Rudolf Schwarz, Alvar Aalto, Aldo Rossi, Jørn Utzon, Daniel Libeskind, Peter...

  5. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials

  6. Wood: a construction material for tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Wood has great potential as a building material, because it is strong and lightweight, environmentally friendly and can be used in prefabricated buildings. However, only changes in building codes will make wood competitive with steel and concrete.

  7. Elastomer degradation sensor using a piezoelectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olness, Dolores U.; Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring the degradation of elastomeric materials is provided. Piezoelectric oscillators are placed in contact with the elastomeric material so that a forced harmonic oscillator with damping is formed. The piezoelectric material is connected to an oscillator circuit,. A parameter such as the resonant frequency, amplitude or Q value of the oscillating system is related to the elasticity of the elastomeric material. Degradation of the elastomeric material causes changes in its elasticity which, in turn, causes the resonant frequency, amplitude or Q of the oscillator to change. These changes are monitored with a peak height monitor, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum analyzer, or other measurement circuit. Elasticity of elastomers can be monitored in situ, using miniaturized sensors.

  8. A storey of buildings and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Throughout history, the development of new materials and technologies has enabled more functional and aesthetically pleasing buildings. With the advent of sustainable architecture, the role of materials science in building innovation is becoming more prominent than ever.

  9. Preservation of adobe buildings. Study of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velosa, A.; Rocha, F.; Costa, C.; Varum, H.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe buildings are common in the central region of Portugal due to the lack of natural stone in the surrounding area. This type of construction technique lasted until the 20th Century, at which time cementitious materials, with faster hardening and greater structural capacity substituted traditional materials and techniques. Currently, a significant percentage of these buildings is vacant and many are degraded and in need of conservation actions. Adobes from central Portugal are distinctive as they are lightly coloured and made from air lime and quarry sand. Although some adobes were manufactured locally, most were produced almost 'industrially' and sold to nearby regions. In order to preserve this heritage, conservation actions must be undertaken. So as to ensure the adequacy of these actions and compatibility between original materials and new ones, a thorough study of adobe compostion is mandatory. The current study is an initial step in the characterization of earth based construction materials from central Portugal. Adobe samples were collected from residential buildings in two different locations. The determination of the composition of adobe blocks encompassed the determination of the binder fraction and of their chemical composition and also the particle size analysis of the aggregate. For this purpose FRX analysis, acid dissolution and dry sieving were performed. Methylene blue test was also executed in order to determine the clay fraction. Additionally, the mineral composition of powder samples and oriented samples was performed using XRD analysis in order to determine the clay minerals present in the blocks. As adobe blocks are extremely prone to the action of water the Geelong test was undertaken in order to provide information in terms of durability. It was concluded that air lime was generally used in adobe compositions. However, the clay content varies in adobes from different regions, providing distinct durability characteristics to these materials.

  10. Self-degradable Cementitious Sealing Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.; Butcher, T., Lance Brothers, Bour, D.

    2010-10-01

    A self-degradable alkali-activated cementitious material consisting of a sodium silicate activator, slag, Class C fly ash, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) additive was formulated as one dry mix component, and we evaluated its potential in laboratory for use as a temporary sealing material for Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells. The self-degradation of alkali-activated cementitious material (AACM) occurred, when AACM heated at temperatures of {ge}200 C came in contact with water. We interpreted the mechanism of this water-initiated self-degradation as resulting from the in-situ exothermic reactions between the reactants yielded from the dissolution of the non-reacted or partially reacted sodium silicate activator and the thermal degradation of the CMC. The magnitude of self-degradation depended on the CMC content; its effective content in promoting degradation was {ge}0.7%. In contrast, no self-degradation was observed from CMC-modified Class G well cement. For 200 C-autoclaved AACMs without CMC, followed by heating at temperatures up to 300 C, they had a compressive strength ranging from 5982 to 4945 psi, which is {approx}3.5-fold higher than that of the commercial Class G well cement; the initial- and final-setting times of this AACM slurry at 85 C were {approx}60 and {approx}90 min. Two well-formed crystalline hydration phases, 1.1 nm tobermorite and calcium silicate hydrate (I), were responsible for developing this excellent high compressive strength. Although CMC is an attractive, as a degradation-promoting additive, its addition to both the AACM and the Class G well cement altered some properties of original cementitious materials; among those were an extending their setting times, an increasing their porosity, and lowering their compressive strength. Nevertheless, a 0.7% CMC-modified AACM as self-degradable cementitious material displayed the following properties before its breakdown by water; {approx}120 min initial- and {approx}180 min final

  11. Radioactive substances in the Danish building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbak, K.

    1986-01-01

    Building materials as any other materials of natural occurrence contain small concentrations of natural radioactive elements. This natural radioactivity affects people inside buildings. This publiccation refers measurements of the Danish building materials, and radiation doses originating from this source affecting the Danish population are related to the other components of background radioactivity. (EG)

  12. Degradable polymeric materials for osteosynthesis: Tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Eglin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the state of the art and recent developments and advances in the use of degradable polymers devices for osteosynthesis. The current generation of biodegradable polymeric implants for bone repair utilising designs copied from metal implants, originates from the concept that devices should be supportive and as “inert” substitute to bone tissue. Today degradable polymeric devices for osteosynthesis are successful in low or mild load bearing applications. However, the lack of carefully controlled randomized prospective trials that document their efficacy in treating a particular fracture pattern is still an issue. Then, the choice between degradable and non-degradable devices must be carefully weighed and depends on many factors such as the patient age and condition, the type of fracture, the risk of infection, etc. The improvement of the biodegradable devices mechanical properties and their degradation behaviour will have to be achieved to broaden their use. The next generation of biodegradable implants will probably see the implementation of the recent gained knowledge in cell-material interactions and cells therapy, with a better control of the spatial and temporal interfaces between the material and the surrounding bone tissue.

  13. Wood as a sustainable building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk

    2009-01-01

    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only the most widely used building material in the United States but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. Efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees range from a minimally processed log at a log-home building site to a...

  14. Degradation resistant fuel cladding materials and manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlowe, M.O. [GE Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States); Montes, J. [ENUSA, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    GE has been producing the degradation resistant cladding (zirconium liner and zircaloy-2 surface larger) described here with the cooperation of its primary zirconium vendors since the beginning of 1994. Approximately 24 fuel reloads, or in excess of 250,000 fuel rods, have been produced using this material by GE. GE has also produced tubing for one reload of fuel that is currently being produced by its technology affiliate ENUSA. (orig./HP)

  15. Degradation of automotive materials in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties were examined by measuring TAN (total acid number), density and viscosity. Among the metal investigated, copper is found to be least resistant in biodiesel and formed comparatively more corrosion products than other metals. Upon exposure of metals in biodiesel, TAN number crosses the limit given by standard while density and viscosity remain within the acceptable range of limit. -- Highlights: ► Order of incompatible metals in palm biodiesel: copper > brass > aluminum > cast iron. ► The possible reactions for the degradation of copper and cast iron have been discussed. ► For metal exposed biodiesel, only TAN number crosses the limit while density and viscosity remain within the limit. ► Copper and copper based alloy (brass) increase TAN number comparatively more than other metals.

  16. Environmental Evaluation of Building Materials of 5 Slovak Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porhincak, Milan; Estokova, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    Building activity has recently led to the deterioration of environment and has become unsustainable. Several strategies have been introduced in order to minimize consumption of energy and resulting CO2 emissions having their origin in the operational phase. But also other stages of Life Cycle should are important to identify the overall environmental impact of construction sector. In this paper 5 similar Slovak buildings (family houses) were analyzed in terms of environmental performance of building materials used for their structures. Evaluation included the weight of used materials, embodied energy and embodied CO2 and SO2 emissions. Analysis has proven that the selection of building materials is an important factor which influences the environmental profile. Findings of the case study indicated that materials like concrete, ceramic or thermal insulation materials based on polystyrene and mineral wool are ones with the most negative environmental impact.

  17. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  18. SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF MATERIAL PROVIDING OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rаdkеvich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of scientific-methodical bases to the design of rational management of material streams in the field of building providing taking into account intersystem connections with the enterprises of building industry. Methodology. The analysis of last few years of functioning of building industry in Ukraine allows distinguishing a number of problems that negatively influence the steady development of building, as the component of the state economics system. Therefore the research of existent organization methods of the system of building objects providing with material resources is extremely necessary. In connection with this the article justifies the use of method of hierarchies analysis (Saati method for finding the optimal task solution of fixing the enterprises of building industry after building objects. Findings. Results give an opportunity to guidance of building organization to estimate and choose advantageous suppliers - enterprises of building industry, to conduct their rating, estimation taking into account basic descriptions, such as: quality, price, reliability of deliveries, specialization, financial status etc. Originality. On the basis of Saati method the methodologies of organization are improved, planning and managements of the reliable system of providing of building necessary material resources that meet the technological requirements of implementation of building and installation works. Practical value. Contribution to the decisions of many intricate organizational problems that are accompanied by the problems of development of building, provided due to organization of the reliable system of purchase of material resources.

  19. Electrokinetic desalination of porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, K.

    2012-01-01

    The deterioration of porous building materials and structures by the crystallization of water soluble salts is a well known phenomenon. The threats posed by salts to building materials can be minimized either by controlling the environment or by removing the salts from the deteriorated zone. In

  20. Wood as a sustainable building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk

    2010-01-01

    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only our most widely used building material but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. As described in the many chapters of this handbook, efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees can range from a minimally processed log at...

  1. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Witzany

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents partial results of laboratory research into physical and mechanical characteristics of materials most commonly used as walling units in masonry structures of historic and heritage buildings. Core boreholes and specimens for the laboratory research of selected characteristics were sampled from accessible places of historic buildings, which had not been restored or reconstructed. The results of the research brought new knowledge about the unreliability (variance of the properties of historical, mainly natural building materials, and, at the same time, pointed out the need for further research and extension of knowledge necessary for the assessment of residual physical and mechanical characteristics of historic masonry structures.

  2. Mechanical degradation temperature of waste storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, M.C.; Meyer, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Heat loading analysis of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) waste storage configurations show the containers may exceed 90 degrees C without any radioactive decay heat contribution. Contamination containment is primarily controlled in TRU waste packaging by using multiple bag layers of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene. Since literature values indicate that these thermoplastic materials can begin mechanical degradation at 66 degrees C, there was concern that the containment layers could be breached by heating. To better define the mechanical degradation temperature limits for the materials, a series of heating tests were conducted over a fifteen and thirty minute time interval. Samples of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bag, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) container, PVC bag and sealing tape were heated in a convection oven to temperatures ranging from 90 to 185 degrees C. The following temperature limits are recommended for each of the tested materials: (1) low-density polyethylene -- 110 degrees C; (2) polyvinyl chloride -- 130 degrees C; (3) high-density polyethylene -- 140 degrees C; (4) sealing tape -- 140 degrees C. Testing with LDPE and PVC at temperatures ranging from 110 to 130 degrees C for 60 and 120 minutes also showed no observable differences between the samples exposed at 15 and 30 minute intervals. Although these observed temperature limits differ from the literature values, the trend of HDPE having a higher temperature than LDPE is consistent with the reference literature. Experimental observations indicate that the HDPE softens at elevated temperatures, but will retain its shape upon cooling. In SWDF storage practices, this might indicate some distortion of the waste container, but catastrophic failure of the liner due to elevated temperatures (<185 degrees C) is not anticipated

  3. Materials Degradation in the Jovian Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloshevsky, Gennady; Caffrey, Jarvis A.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    The radiation environment of Jupiter represents a significant hazard for Europa Lander deorbit stage components, and presents a significant potential mission risk. The radiolytic degradation of ammonium perchlorate (AP) oxidizer in solid propellants may affect its properties and performance. The Monte Carlo code MONSOL was used for modeling of laboratory experiments on the electron irradiation of propellant samples. An approach for flattening dose profiles along the depth of irradiated samples is proposed. Depth-dose distributions produced by Jovian electrons in multi-layer slabs of materials are calculated. It is found that the absorbed dose in a particular slab is significantly affected by backscattered electrons and photons from neighboring slabs. The dose and radiolytic decomposition of AP crystals are investigated and radiation-induced chemical yields and weight percent of radical products are reported.

  4. Synthetic building materials for transport buildings and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Vera

    2017-10-01

    The most effective building materials account for the highest growth not only in construction of residential and public buildings, but also other capital projects including roadways, bridges, drainage, communications and other engineering projects. Advancement in the technology of more efficient and ecologically responsible insulation materials have been a priority for safety, minimal maintenance and longevity of finished construction projects. The practical use of modern building materials such as insulation, sound reduction and low energy consumption are a benefit in cost and application compared to the use of outdated heavier and labor-intensive materials. The most efficient way for maximizing insolation and sound proofing should be done during the design stages of the project according to existing codes and regulations that are required by Western Government. All methods and materials that are used need to be optimized in order to reach a high durability and low operational and maintenance cost exceeding more than 50 years of the life of the building, whether it is for public, industrial or residential use. Western construction techniques and technologies need to be applied and adapted by the Russian Federation to insure the most productive successful methods are being implemented. The issues of efficient insulation materials are outlined in this article.

  5. The radioactivity of house-building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sos, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper compares the natural radioactivity and radon emission properties of different building materials like bricks, concretes, cements, sands, limes, marmors of different origin. A description of the radioactive model of apartments is also given. (TRA)

  6. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  7. New build: Materials, techniques, skills and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Jacqueline; Dainty, Andrew R.J.; Gibb, Alistair G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to secure, sustainable, low-energy systems will have a significant effect on the way in which we design and construct new buildings. In turn, the new buildings that are constructed will play a critical role in delivering the better performance that would be expected from such a transition. Buildings account for about half of UK carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production. So it is urgent to ensure that energy is used efficiently in existing buildings and that new building stock is better able to cope with whatever the future holds. Most energy used in buildings goes towards heating, lighting and cooling, but a growing percentage is consumed by domestic appliances, computers and other electrical equipment. Actual energy consumption is the product of a number of factors, including individual behaviours and expectations, the energy efficiency of appliances and the building envelope. This review focuses on the third of these, the building itself, and its design and construction. It discusses the issues faced by the construction industry today, suggesting that major changes are needed relating to materials, techniques, skills and innovation. It moves on to consider future advances to 2050 and beyond, including developments in ICT, novel materials, skills and automation, servitisation (the trend for manufacturers to offer lifetime services rather than simple products), performance measurement and reporting, and resilience. We present a vision of the new build construction industry in 2050 and recommendations for policy makers, industry organisations and construction companies

  8. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective o...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....... of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...

  9. Natural radioactivity of building materials in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorantin, H.; Steger, F.

    1984-03-01

    About 120 samples of natural and manufactured building materials have been analyzed by gamma-spectrometry for their Thorium 232-, Radium 226- and Potassium 40 - content. Granites showed generally the greatest amounts of the above mentioned radionuclides, whereas other natural products like sand, gravels, marbles and gypsum contained only traces of radionuclides. As regards the manufactured building materials only some types of bricks and chemical gypsum showed relatively high concentrations of radionuclides, while the rest of the bricks, tiles, plaster and accessory materials fulfilled the criteria set up in the OECD-NEA report 1979. (Author)

  10. Sustainable materials for low carbon buildings

    OpenAIRE

    B.V. Venkatarama Reddy

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on certain issues pertaining to energy, carbon emissions and sustainability of building construction with particular reference to the Indian construction industry. Use of sustainable natural materials in the past, related durability issues, and the implications of currently used energy-intensive materials on carbon emissions and sustainability are discussed. Some statistics on the Indian construction sector regarding materials produced in bulk quantities and the energy impl...

  11. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  12. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  13. Ageing degradation in the Gentilly-1 concrete containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffer, S.; Pentecost, S.; Angell, P.; Shenton, B.

    2015-01-01

    Concrete containment buildings (CCBs) are designed for a service life up to 40 years, but nuclear power plant (NPP) refurbishment can extend service life beyond 60 years. Only limited testing can be conducted on an in-service CCB. The Gentilly-1 (G-1) NPP is in a safe, sustainable shutdown state and the G-1 CCB was available for testing to determine age-related degradation that may be relevant to operating CCBs. Visual observation of the G-1 CCB helped to identify various signs of degradation. However, field testing, via concrete removal, was performed to: (i) examine reinforcing bars and concrete to determine their condition and in-situ stresses and (ii) examine condition of post-tensioned (P-T) wires. The concrete was also subjected to laboratory tests to evaluate its physical, mechanical and chemical properties such as compressive strength, carbonation depth, chloride content and presence of internal degradation. The degradation mechanisms that were clearly visible include macro- and micro-cracking, efflorescence, and weathering. The reinforcing bars in the perimeter wall and dome exposed during the program showed no evidence of active corrosion. Corrosion products were observed on the surfaces of most exposed P-T wires in the perimeter wall, but none were present on P-T wires exposed in the dome. Laboratory testing on the concrete cores extracted from the CCB revealed compressive strength in excess of the design requirements, low carbonation depths (< 10 mm) and no appreciable chlorides. Micro-cracking was observed in the samples recovered from the wall and dome. To date, the observed micro-cracking has had no apparent visible affect on the performance of the CCB concrete. (authors)

  14. Neutron radiography for the characterization of porous structure in degraded building stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, G; Mazzoleni, P; Raneri, S; Crupi, V; Longo, F; Majolino, D; Venuti, V; Teixeira, J

    2014-01-01

    As it is well known, the porous structure of stones can change due to different degradation processes that modify the characteristics of freshly quarried blocks. Their knowledge is fundamental for predicting the behavior of stones and the efficacy of conservative treatments. In this context, neutron radiography is a useful tool not only to visualize the structure of porous materials, but also to evaluate the degree of degradation and surface modifications resulting from weathering processes. Furthermore, since thermal neutrons suffer a strong attenuation by hydrogen, this technique is effective in order to investigate the amount of absorbed water in building materials. In the present work, we report a neutron radiography investigation of limestones cropping out in the South-Eastern Sicily and widely used as building stones in Baroque monuments of the Noto Valley. The analyzed samples have been submitted to cyclic salt crystallization that simulate degradation processes acting in exposed stones of buildings. The obtained results demonstrate the interest of neutron radiography to better understand deterioration processes in limestones and to acquire information useful for restoration projects

  15. Natural radioactivity for some Egyptian building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, M. F.; Mostafa, R. M.; Shahin, F.; Hassan, K. F.; Saleh, Z. A.; Yahia, A.

    2007-01-01

    Study of the radiation hazards for the building materials is interested in most international countries. Measurements of natural radioactivity was verified for some egyptian building materials to assess any possible radiological hazard to man by the use of such materials. The measurements for the level of natural radioactivity in the materials was determined by γ-ray spectrum using HP Ge detector. A track detector Cr-39 was used to measure the radon exhalation rate from these materials. The radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 2.83±0.86 to 41.57 ± 8.38 mBqm -2 h -1 for egyptian alabaster. The absorbed dose rate in air is lower than the international recommended value (55 n Gy h -1 ) for all test samples

  16. Durability of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, JMPQ

    2013-01-01

    Durability of Building Materials and Components provides a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to the long-term performance and durability of construction and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of durability, service life prediction methodologies, the durability approach for historical and old buildings, asset and maintenance management and on the durability of materials, systems and components. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  17. International conventions for measuring radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    In buildings, whether civil or industrial, natural radioactivity always occurs at different degrees in the materials (main building materials, decorative materials). Concerns on radioactivity from building materials is unavoidable for human living and developing. As a member of WTO, China's measuring method of radioactivity for building materials, including radionuclides limitation for building materials, hazard evaluation system etc, should keep accordance with the international rules and conventions. (author)

  18. Application of BIM technology in green building material management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhineng, Tong

    2018-06-01

    The current green building materials management system in China's construction industry is not perfect, and there are still many shortcomings. Active construction of green building materials management system based on BIM technology, combined with the characteristics of green building materials and its relationship with BIM technology application, is urgently needed to better realize the scientific management of green building materials.

  19. Radioisotopes present in building materials of workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Claro, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Corrêa, J. N.; Denyak, V.; Kappke, J.; Perna, A. F. N.; Martins, M. R.; Santos, T. O.; Rocha, Z.; Schelin, H. R.

    2017-11-01

    The isotope 222Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective annual dose received by the world population. The decay products of 222Rn interacting with the cells of biological tissue of lungs have very high probability to induce cancer. The present survey was focused in the evaluation of activity concentration of 222Rn and other radioisotopes related to the building materials at workplaces at Curitiba - Paraná State. For this purpose, the instant radon detector AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) was used to measure the average concentrations of 222Rn in building materials, which were also submitted to gamma spectrometry analysis for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the radionuclides present in samples of sand, mortar, blue crushed stone (Gneissic rock), red crushed stone (Granite), concrete and red bricks. The main radionuclides evaluated by gamma spectrometry in building material samples were 238U/226Ra, 232Th and 40K. These measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN - CNEN). The results of the survey present the concentration values of 222Rn related to construction materials in a range from 427±40.52 Bq/m³ to 2053±90.06 Bq/m³. The results of gamma spectroscopy analysis show that specific activity values for the mentioned isotopes are similar to the results indicated by the literature. Nevertheless, the present survey is showing the need of further studies and indicates that building materials can contribute significantly to indoor concentration of 222Rn.

  20. Assessing sustainability of building materials in developing countries: the sustainable building materials index (SBMI)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available performance. This paper reviews a selection of sustainability assessment and reporting methodologies in order understand the applicability of existing systems as a means of measuring sustainability of building materials in developing countries. The review...

  1. Concentrated Light for Accelerated Photo Degradation of Polymer Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Tromholt, Thomas; Norrman, Kion

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated light is used to perform photochemical degradation of polymer solar cell materials with acceleration factors up to 1200. At constant temperature the photon efficiency in regards to photo degradation is constant for 1–150 suns and oxygen diffusion rates are not a limiting factor...

  2. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived......The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However......, in many cases such a coefficient would be highly appreciated, e.g. in interaction of industry and research or for the distinction and selection of suitable building materials throughout design and practise. This article first highlights the importance of drying experiments for hygrothermal...

  3. Neutron activation analysis of some building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.; Muntean, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade, indoor air quality has become a growing environmental problem. A careful selection of building materials concerning the acceptance of chemical and radioactive emissions is one of the ways to ensure high indoor air quality. Nowadays, it is a tendency to obtain new building materials having good isolation properties and low density by using the cheap and practically inexhaustible solid waste products like furnace slag, fly coal ash and phosphogypsum, without combustion. The Romanian furnace slag containing generally, above 45 % CaO can be used alone or mixed with fly ash to obtain some binder materials with mechanical resistance comparable to the Portland cement. Different additives such as CaO+Na 2 SO 4 or CaCl 2 +Na 2 SO 4 are used as activating admixtures. Concentrations of As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, W and Zn in seven Romanian building materials were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method at WWR-S Reactor of IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Raw material used in the cement production (∼75 % limestone, ∼25 % clay), cement samples from three different factories, furnace slag, phosphogypsum, and a type of brick compacted from furnace slag, fly coal ash, phosphogypsum, lime and cement have been analyzed. The fly coal ashes from five Romanian coal-fired power plants, resulting by the combustion of the xyloide brown coals, lignite and bituminous-subbituminous coals were previously analyzed. It was found that the content of the toxic microelements like As, Co, Cr, Th, U, Zn in the ceramic blocks is especially due to the slag and fly ash, the main components. This content depends on the particular sources of mineral raw materials. The presence of U, Th and K in slag is mainly correlated with the limestone and dolomite as used in the metallurgical process. (authors)

  4. Photon activation analysis on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Heller, W.; Kupsch, H.

    1988-01-01

    With regard to the planned construction of a new microtron, first investigations on raw materials for the aerated concrete production have been done to clear up the possibilities of photon activation analysis (PAA). Irradiations have been partly carried out on linear accelerators with a self-developed moveable activation equipment. PAA results of qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis are described. The detection of chlorine is important for studying the oversalting processes in buildings. (author)

  5. Natural radioactivity in building materials in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, S.; Faghihi, R.; Sina, S.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive study of natural radioactivity in building materials used in Iran. For this purpose, 177 samples of five types of building material, i.e. cement, gypsum, cement blocks, gravel and brick, were gathered from different regions of the country and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy to quantify radioactivity concentrations using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a spectroscopy system. According to the results of this investigation, cement samples had maximum values of the mean Ra-226 and Th-232 concentrations, 39.6 and 28.9 Bq/kg, respectively, while the lowest value for mean concentration of these two radionuclides were found in gypsum samples 8.1 and 2.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The highest (851.4 Bq/kg) and lowest (116.2 Bq/kg) value of K-40 mean concentration were found in brick and gypsum samples, respectively. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose were also calculated from the radioactivity content of the radionuclides. The results show that the maximum values of dose rate and annual effective dose equivalent were 53.72 nGy/h and 0.37 mSv/y in brick samples. The radium equivalent activities R eq calculated were below the permissible level of 370 Bq/kg for all building materials. The values of hazard indexes were below the recommended levels, therefore, it is concluded that the buildings constructed from such materials are safe for the inhabitants. The results of this study are consistent with the results of other investigations in different parts of the world. (authors)

  6. Development of degradation D/B system for the containment building of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M. S.; Song, Y. C.; Yim, J. H.; Kim, D. K.; Lee, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Degradation D/B System is developed for digitalizing the history of the Containment building of nuclear power plant. It have 6 D/B which are consist of General, Design drawing, Material, Construction, ISI·SIT·ILRT D/B. For efficient operation of the system, utilities are also developed such as the aging and repair data management program for concrete and steel structures, the data search engine with various options helping users find what they want, and the data exchange program restoring and updating input data

  7. ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.

  8. Recipes for porous building materials, More with less

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.; Fischer, H.-B.; Bode, K.-A.; Beuthan, C.

    2012-01-01

    The building sector, comprising both buildings and infrastructure, is the largest consumer of energy and materials. As well as the huge amount of raw materials involved, enormous amounts of energy are also used for the production and transport of raw materials, building materials and products. Among

  9. Human exposure to emissions from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, S.; Hauschildt, P.; Pejtersen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    found on peak flow, eye foam formation, tear fluid cells, or conjunctival epithelial damage. Among subjective evaluations only sound intensity rating was significant. A correlation was found between acute nose irritation rating and change in nasal volume.Conclusions. The findings indicate physiological......Objectives. Reactions to emissions from building matrials were studied in a climate chamber as part of an intervention study in an office building. New and existing flooring materials were compared with regard to comfort and health.Methods. Twenty subjects were exposed four times for six hours...... respectively to clean air, to emissions from linoleum, from carpet, and from an alternative new vinyl. Measurements of objective and subjective effects were made.Results. Tear film stability decreased after exposure to linoleum. The nasal volume decreased near-significantly for all exposures. No effects were...

  10. Overview of environmental materials degradation in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, H.I.; Wu, P.

    1986-08-01

    This report provides a brief overview of analyses and conclusions reported in published literature regarding environmentally induced degradation of materials in operating light-water reactors. It is intended to provide a synopsis of subjects of concern rather than to address a licensing basis for any newly discovered problems related to reactor materials

  11. Marine fungi: Degraders of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate based plastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new biosynthetic and biodegradable materials to save nonrenewable resources and reduce global pollution problems is an urgent task. Recently, materials like thermoplastic poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA, have been found synthesized by bacteria as storage materials. The major PHAs synthesized are poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, poly-b-hydroxyvalerate (PHV and their copolymers. They are already commercially produced and used as BIOPOLTM (ICI, England. Their complete degradability by bacteria has already been shown. Today, oceans and estuaries serve as major landfills, and since fungi are an important part of the degrading microbiota, in order to prove their participation in the degradation process, a simple degradation test suitable for fungi and marine conditions had to be developed. Several solid media based on artificial sea water, differing in the content of non-alkanoate organics and supplemented with 0.1% PHA (or BIOPOLTM as a main source of carbon have been tested. The testing principle consists of clearing the turbid medium in test tube or plates caused by suspended granules of PHA. All media tested supported the growth of fungi. For the discrete and transparent clearing of zones, a mineral medium with 0.01% peptone, 0.01% yeast extract, and 0.1% PHB or BIOPOLTM was finally chosen where the fine and evenly distributed turbidity is accomplished by a specific procedure. This method allows the investigation of degradability of PHA-based plastic materials as well as screening for fungal ability to depolymerise pure PHA homopolymers. Using this medium, 32 strains of marine yeasts and 102 strains of marine mycelial fungi belonging to different systematic and ecological groups were tested for their ability to degrade PHAs. Only about 4% of the strains were able to degrade BIOPOLTM and about 6% depolymerised pure PHB homopolymer. This is in sharp contrast to the results of our previous experiments with 143 strains of terrestrial fungi

  12. Interfacial degradation of organic composite material by irradiation in reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, Shigehiro; Nishiura, Tetsuya; Okada, Toichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research

    1996-04-01

    Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) with many kinds of matrix resins were made of E glass treated with silane as the reinforced material. Degradation of shearing strength of GFRP irradiated at low temperature was determined. It was clear from the results of comparing the degradation process with the fractured surface that the degradation was very affected by the radiation resistance of the bonded part between resin and coupling agents. It means that we had to be careful in the choice of interfacial treatments and epoxy matrices corresponded to it. (S.Y.)

  13. Using Bamboo as an Alternative Material for Environmental Friendly Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardjono, F.; Erkelens, P.A.; Jonge, S. de; Vliet, A.A.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Bamboo is one of natural resources that can be applied for building materials. In such bamboo growing countries, bamboo has main role as a building material for more than hundreds years ago. Sometimes bamboo can be used to replace wood based building material. Based on the detecting of problems on

  14. Water chemistry and materials degradation in LWR'S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, H.; Toerroenen, K.; Aaltonen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Water chemistry plays a major role in corrosion, in erosion corrosion and in activity transport in NPPs; it impacts upon the operational safety of LWRs in two main ways: integrity of pressure boundary materials and activity transport and out-of-core radiation fields. A good control of water chemistry can significantly reduce these problems and improve plant safety, but economic pressures are leading to more rigorous operating conditions: fuel burnups are to be increased, higher efficiencies are to be achieved by running at higher temperatures and plant lifetimes are to be extended. Typical water chemistry specifications used in PWR and BWR plants are presented and the chemistry optimization is discussed. The complex interplay of metallurgical, mechanical and environmental factors in environmental sensitive cracking is shown, with details on studies for carbon steels, stainless steels and nickel base alloys. 20 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, Jeremy T; Nanstad, Randy K; Stoller, Roger E; Feng, Zhili; Naus, Dan J

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field. Degradation of materials in this environment can lead to reduced performance, and in some cases, sudden failure. A recent EPRI-led study interviewed 47 US nuclear utility executives to gauge perspectives on long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Nearly 90% indicated that extensions of reactor lifetimes to beyond 60 years were likely. When polled on the most challenging issues facing further life extension, two-thirds cited plant reliability as the key issue with materials aging and cable/piping as the top concerns for plant reliability. Materials degradation within a nuclear power plant is very complex. There are many different types of materials within the reactor itself: over 25 different metal alloys can be found with can be found within the primary and secondary systems, not to mention the concrete containment vessel, instrumentation and control, and other support facilities. When this diverse set of materials is placed in the complex and harsh environment coupled with load, degradation over an extended life is indeed quite complicated. To address this issue, the USNRC has developed a Progressive Materials Degradation Approach (NUREG/CR-6923). This approach is intended to develop a foundation for appropriate actions to keep materials degradation from adversely impacting component integrity and safety and identify materials and locations where degradation can reasonably be expected in the future. Clearly, materials degradation will impact reactor reliability, availability, and potentially, safe operation. Routine surveillance and component replacement can mitigate these factors, although failures still occur. With reactor life extensions to 60 years or beyond or power uprates, many components must tolerate the reactor environment for even longer times. This may increase

  16. Environmental impacts of adobe as a building material: The north cyprus traditional building case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Olukoya Obafemi

    2016-06-01

    Summarily, this paper posits that the successful fusion of traditional building materials such as Adobe and modern design construct will not only give birth to earth conscious building, but will also be energy efficient. Moreover, it will be a substitute building material the building industry can adopt at as a contributing solution to the omniscient global warming malady.

  17. Development of proactive technology against nuclear materials degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lee, Bong Sang

    2012-04-01

    As the nuclear power plants are getting older, the extent of materials degradation increases and unexpected degradation mechanisms may occur under complex environments, including high-temperature and pressure, radiation and coolant. The components in the primary system are maintained at the temperature of 320 .deg. C, pressure of 2500 psi, and reactor internals are exposed to fast neutrons. The pipes and nozzles are affected by the mechanical, thermal and corrosive cyclic fatigue stresses. Since the steam generator tubes are affected by both primary and secondary coolants, the materials degradation mechanisms are dependent upon the multiple or complex factors. In this report, we make contribution to the enhancement of reactor safety by developing techniques for predicting and evaluating materials behaviors in nuclear environments. The research product in the following five areas, described in this report, plays a vital role in improving the safe operation of nuclear reactors, upgrading the level of skills and extending the use of nuclear power. Development of corrosion control and protection technology Development of fracture mechanical evaluation model of reactor pressure Development of prediction and analysis technology for radiation damage Development of advanced diagnostic techniques for micro-materials degradation Development of core technology for control of steam generator degradation

  18. Materials Degradation and Detection (MD2): Deep Dive Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloy, John S.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Henager, Charles H.; Johnson, Bradley R.

    2013-02-01

    An effort is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a fundamental and general framework to foster the science and technology needed to support real-time monitoring of early degradation in materials used in the production of nuclear power. The development of such a capability would represent a timely solution to the mounting issues operators face with materials degradation in nuclear power plants. The envisioned framework consists of three primary and interconnected “thrust” areas including 1) microstructural science, 2) behavior assessment, and 3) monitoring and predictive capabilities. A brief state-of-the-art assessment for each of these core technology areas is discussed in the paper.

  19. Non-destructive decontamination of building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, Josef; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    For nondestructive radiation decontamination of surfaces it is necessary to use varnishes, such as ARGONNE, DG1101, DG1108, etc. This text evaluates the use of manufactured strippable coatings for radiation decontamination. To evaluate decontamination capability of such coatings the following varnishes were selected and subsequently used: AZ 1-700 and AXAL 1807S. The varnishes were tested on different building materials surfaces contaminated by short-term radioisotopes of Na-24 or La-140, in water soluble or water insoluble forms. Decontamination quality was assessed by the decontamination efficiency value, defined as the proportion of removed activity to the applied activity. It was found that decontamination efficiency of both used varnishes depends not only on the form of contaminant, but in the case of application of AXAL 1807S varnish it also depends on the method of its application on the contaminated surface. The values of the decontamination efficiency for AZ1-700 varnish range from 46% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 98% for the decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. The decontamination efficiency values determined for AXAL 1807S varnish range from 48% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 96% for decontamination of an insoluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. Comparing these values to the values given for the decontaminating varnishes we can conclude that AXAL 1807S varnish is possible to use on all materials, except highly porous materials, such as plasterboard or breeze blocks, or plastic materials. AZ 1-700 varnish can be used for all dry materials except plasterboard.

  20. Flammability tests for regulation of building and construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Sumathipala

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of building materials and products for flammability is critical to ensure the safety of occupants in buildings and other structures. The involvement of exposed building materials and products in fires resulting in the loss of human life often spurs an increase in regulation and new test methods to address the problem. Flammability tests range from those...

  1. Straw insulated buildings. Nature building materials; Strohgedaemmte Gebaeude. Naturbaustoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Straw is one of the major agricultural by-products and is mainly used as litter in animal husbandry and to compensate the balance of humus. A relatively recent development is the use of straw bales for the construction of buildings. The brochure under consideration documents the technical development of straw construction in Germany. Possibilities of the use of straw in single family homes up to commercial buildings are described.

  2. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  3. Degradation Of Cementitious Materials Associated With Saltstone Disposal Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G. P; Smith, F. G. III

    2013-01-01

    The Saltstone facilities at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilize and dispose of low-level radioactive salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the site. The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives treated salt solution and mixes the aqueous waste with dry cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash to form a grout slurry which is mechanically pumped into concrete disposal cells that compose the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The solidified grout is termed ''saltstone''. Cementitious materials play a prominent role in the design and long-term performance of the SDF. The saltstone grout exhibits low permeability and diffusivity, and thus represents a physical barrier to waste release. The waste form is also reducing, which creates a chemical barrier to waste release for certain key radionuclides, notably Tc-99. Similarly, the concrete shell of an SDF disposal unit (SDU) represents an additional physical and chemical barrier to radionuclide release to the environment. Together the waste form and the SDU compose a robust containment structure at the time of facility closure. However, the physical and chemical state of cementitious materials will evolve over time through a variety of phenomena, leading to degraded barrier performance over Performance Assessment (PA) timescales of thousands to tens of thousands of years. Previous studies of cementitious material degradation in the context of low-level waste disposal have identified sulfate attack, carbonation influenced steel corrosion, and decalcification (primary constituent leaching) as the primary chemical degradation phenomena of most relevance to SRS exposure conditions. In this study, degradation time scales for each of these three degradation phenomena are estimated for saltstone and concrete associated with each SDU type under conservative, nominal, and best estimate assumptions. The nominal value (NV) is an intermediate result that is more probable than the conservative estimate

  4. Degradation Of Cementitious Materials Associated With Saltstone Disposal Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P; Smith, F. G. III

    2013-03-19

    The Saltstone facilities at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilize and dispose of low-level radioactive salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the site. The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives treated salt solution and mixes the aqueous waste with dry cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash to form a grout slurry which is mechanically pumped into concrete disposal cells that compose the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The solidified grout is termed “saltstone”. Cementitious materials play a prominent role in the design and long-term performance of the SDF. The saltstone grout exhibits low permeability and diffusivity, and thus represents a physical barrier to waste release. The waste form is also reducing, which creates a chemical barrier to waste release for certain key radionuclides, notably Tc-99. Similarly, the concrete shell of an SDF disposal unit (SDU) represents an additional physical and chemical barrier to radionuclide release to the environment. Together the waste form and the SDU compose a robust containment structure at the time of facility closure. However, the physical and chemical state of cementitious materials will evolve over time through a variety of phenomena, leading to degraded barrier performance over Performance Assessment (PA) timescales of thousands to tens of thousands of years. Previous studies of cementitious material degradation in the context of low-level waste disposal have identified sulfate attack, carbonation influenced steel corrosion, and decalcification (primary constituent leaching) as the primary chemical degradation phenomena of most relevance to SRS exposure conditions. In this study, degradation time scales for each of these three degradation phenomena are estimated for saltstone and concrete associated with each SDU type under conservative, nominal, and best estimate assumptions. The nominal value (NV) is an intermediate result that is more probable than the conservative

  5. Corrosion degradation of materials in nuclear reactors and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kain, Vivekanand

    2016-01-01

    As in every industry, nuclear industry also faces the challenge of corrosion degradation due to the exposure of the materials to the working environment. The aggressiveness of the environment is enhanced by the presence of radiation and high temperature and high-pressure environment. Radiation has influence on both the materials (changes in microstructure and microchemistry) and the aqueous environment (radiolysis producing oxidizing conditions). A survey of all the light water reactors in the world showed that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) account for more than two third of all the corrosion degradation cases. This paper visits these two forms of corrosion in nuclear power plants and illustrates cases from Indian nuclear power plants. Remedial measures against these two forms of corrosion that are possible to be employed and the actual measures employed in Indian nuclear power plants are discussed. Key features of SCC in different types of nuclear power plants are discussed. Main reasons for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) are presented and discussed. The signature patterns of single and dual phase FAC captured from components replaced from Indian nuclear power plants are presented. The development of a correlation between the scallop size and rate of single phase FAC - based on the database developed in Indian nuclear power plants is presented. Based on these two forms of degradation in nuclear reactors, design of materials that would resist these forms of degradation is presented. (author)

  6. Minimize corrosion degradation of steam generator tube materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a coordinated program, AECL is developing a set of tools to aid with the prediction and management of steam generator performance. Although stress corrosion cracking (of Alloy 800) has not been detected in any operating steam generator, for life management it is necessary to develop mechanistic models to predict the conditions under which stress corrosion cracking is plausible. Experimental data suggest that all steam generator tube materials are susceptible to corrosion degradation under some specific off-specification conditions. The tolerance to the chemistry upset for each steam generator tube alloy is different. Electrochemical corrosion behaviors of major steam generator tube alloys were studied under the plausible aggressive crevice chemistry conditions. The potential hazardous conditions leading to steam generator tube degradation and the conditions, which can minimize steam generator tube degradation have been determined. Recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zones were defined for all major steam generator tube materials, including Alloys 600, 800, 690 and 400, under CANDU steam generator operating and startup conditions. Stress corrosion cracking tests and accelerated corrosion tests were carried out to verify and revise the recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zones. Based on this information, utilities can prevent steam generator material degradation surprises by appropriate steam generator water chemistry management and increase the reliability of nuclear power generating stations. (author)

  7. XRD Investigation of Some Thermal Degraded Starch Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Todica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal degradation of some starch based materials was investigated using XRD method. The samples were obtained by thermal extrusion of mixtures of different proportions of starch, glycerol, and water. Such materials are suitable for the manufacturing of low pollutant packaging. Thermal degradation is one of the simplest ways to destroy such materials and this process is followed by structural modification of the local ordering of samples, water evaporation, crystallization, oxidation, or destruction of the chemical bonds. These modifications need to be studied in order to reduce to the minimum production of pollutant residues by burning process. XRD measurements show modification of the local ordering of the starch molecules depending on the temperature and initial composition of the samples. The molecular ordering perturbation is more pronounced in samples with low content of starch.

  8. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials for residential or farm building construction. Section 3(n) of the Act, as amended, excludes from... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND...

  9. Buildings and Health. Educational campaign for healthy buildings. Educational material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    In recent years health and comfort problems associated with the indoor climate have come to constitute a problem in Sweden. To come to grips with this a nationwide educational campaign on Buildings and Health is being run. It is directed to those involved in planning, project design, construction and management of buildings. The objective is to convey a body of knowledge to the many occupational and professional groups in the construction sector on how to avoid indoor climate problems in homes, schools, offices and other workplaces. The campaign is being run by the Swedish National Board of Housing and Planning and the Swedish Council for Building Research, in co-operation with various organizations and companies in the construction industry, and with municipalities and authorities. The knowledge which is being disseminated through the campaign is summarized in this compendium. figs., tabs.

  10. Nuclear-waste-package materials degradation modes and accelerated testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report reviews the materials degradation modes that may affect the long-term behavior of waste packages for the containment of nuclear waste. It recommends an approach to accelerated testing that can lead to the qualification of waste package materials in specific repository environments in times that are short relative to the time period over which the waste package is expected to provide containment. This report is not a testing plan but rather discusses the direction for research that might be considered in developing plans for accelerated testing of waste package materials and waste forms

  11. Analysis of Embodied Environmental Impacts of Korean Apartment Buildings Considering Major Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungjun Roh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the reduction in environmental impacts (EIs of buildings using life-cycle assessment (LCA has been emphasized as a practical strategy for the sustainable development of the construction industry, studies are required to analyze not only the operational environmental impacts (OEIs of buildings, but also the embodied environmental impacts (EEIs of building materials. This study aims to analyze the EEIs of Korean apartment buildings on the basis of major building materials as part of research with the goal of reducing the EIs of buildings. For this purpose, six types of building materials (ready-mixed concrete, reinforcement steel, concrete bricks, glass, insulation, and gypsum for apartment buildings were selected as major building materials, and their inputs per unit area according to the structure types and plans of apartment buildings were derived by analyzing the design and bills of materials of 443 apartment buildings constructed in South Korea. In addition, a life-cycle scenario including the production, construction, maintenance, and end-of-life stage was constructed for each major building material. The EEIs of the apartment buildings were quantitatively assessed by applying the life-cycle inventory database (LCI DB and the Korean life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA method based on damage-oriented modeling (KOLID, and the results were analyzed.

  12. Physical and mechanical properties of degraded waste surrogate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.D.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    This paper discusses rock mechanics testing of surrogate materials to provide failure criteria for compacted, degraded nuclear waste. This daunting proposition was approached by first assembling all known parameters such as the initial waste inventory and rock mechanics response of the underground setting after the waste is stored. Conservative assumptions allowing for extensive degradation processes helped quantify the lowest possible strength conditions of the future state of the waste. In the larger conceptual setting, computations involve degraded waste behavior in transient pressure gradients as gas exits the waste horizon into a wellbore. Therefore, a defensible evaluation of tensile strength is paramount for successful analyses and intentionally provided maximal failed volumes. The very conservative approach assumes rampant degradation to define waste surrogate composition. Specimens prepared from derivative degradation product were consolidated into simple geometries for rock mechanics testing. Tensile strength thus derived helped convince a skeptical peer review panel that drilling into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would not likely expel appreciable solids via the drill string

  13. The façades along the Cassaro in Palermo: historical-building characterization, degradation, restoration norms for interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fatta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The good-will to operate in the old town privileging the history and the maintenance of historic buildings, is manifest in this study on the Vittorio Emanuele monumental street, the foundation axis of Palermo, and it’s architectural degraded and disfigured fronts. The search concerning sixty civil buildings is based initially on a cognitive process that includes historical analysis, geometric and dimensional survey, investigation on constituent materials and decay systems, in relation to environmental or anthropic causes. The study includes a design proposal that, according to the individuality of cases, it would represent an intervention code about some recurrent critical aspects on which it’s possible to intervene only applying codified procedures. The proposed designs show so an application to concrete cases, not abdicating to involve physical and economic urban environment: the re-qualification of building materials and architectural language would respect the historical image without depressing the market demands.

  14. Degradation of cementitious materials associated with salstone disposal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-01

    The Saltstone facilities at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilize and dispose of low-level radioactive salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the site. The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives treated salt solution and mixes the aqueous waste with dry cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash to form a grout slurry which is mechanically pumped into concrete disposal cells that compose the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The solidified grout is termed “saltstone”. Cementitious materials play a prominent role in the design and long-term performance of the SDF. The saltstone grout exhibits low permeability and diffusivity, and thus represents a physical barrier to waste release. The waste form is also reducing, which creates a chemical barrier to waste release for certain key radionuclides, notably Tc-99. Similarly, the concrete shell of a saltstone disposal unit (SDU) represents an additional physical and chemical barrier to radionuclide release to the environment. Together the waste form and the SDU compose a robust containment structure at the time of facility closure. However, the physical and chemical state of cementitious materials will evolve over time through a variety of phenomena, leading to degraded barrier performance over Performance Assessment (PA) timescales of thousands to tens of thousands of years. Previous studies of cementitious material degradation in the context of low-level waste disposal have identified sulfate attack, carbonation influenced steel corrosion, and decalcification (primary constituent leaching) as the primary chemical degradation phenomena of most relevance to SRS exposure conditions. In this study, degradation time scales for each of these three degradation phenomena are estimated for saltstone and concrete associated with each SDU type under conservative, nominal, and best estimate assumptions.

  15. Energy impacts of recycling disassembly material in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Weijun; Ariyama, Takahiro; Ojima, Toshio; Meier, Alan

    2000-01-01

    In order to stop the global warmth due to the CO2 concentration, the energy use should be decreased. The investment of building construction industry in Japan is about 20 percent of GDP. This fraction is much higher than in most developed countries. That results the Japanese building construction industry including residential use consumes about one third of all energy and resources of the entire industrial sectors. In order to save energy as well as resource, the recycle of the building materials should be urgent to be carried out. In this paper, we focus on the potential energy savings with a simple calculated method when the building materials or products are manufactured from recycled materials. We examined three kinds of residential buildings with different construction techniques and estimated the decreased amount of energy consumption and resources resulting from use of recycled materials. The results have shown for most building materials, the energy consumption needed to remake housing materials from recycled materials is lower than that to make new housing materials. The energy consumption of building materials in all case-study housing can be saved by at least 10 percent. At the same time, the resource, measured by mass of building materials (kg) can be decreased by over 50 percent

  16. Buildings materials and raw materials as a source of exposition of population of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanekova, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presents specific activities of potassium-40, radium-226, thorium-232 and equivalent of specific activity in some building materials and raw materials used at building-up of flats in the Slovak Republic

  17. Durability of Building Materials Vol 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1999-01-01

    Facility management has become another business management discipline and the transfer of building data from design and construction into management has been neglected. The needs of building managers need to be specified and standardised to aallow designers to provide data in the form required....

  18. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: Material Degradation and Release Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Stockman

    2001-09-28

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the Material Degradation and Release (MDR) model that predicts degradation and release of radionuclides from a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This AMR is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 17). The intended use of the MDR model is to estimate the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages (WPs) containing U. S . Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The model is intended to predict (1) the extent to which criticality control material, such as gadolinium (Gd), will remain in the WP after corrosion of the initial WP, (2) the extent to which fissile Pu and uranium (U) will be carried out of the degraded WP by infiltrating water, and (3) the chemical composition and amounts of minerals and other solids left in the WP. The results of the model are intended for use in criticality calculations. The scope of the model validation report is to (1) describe the MDR model, and (2) compare the modeling results with experimental studies. A test case based on a degrading Pu-ceramic WP is provided to help explain the model. This model does not directly feed the assessment of system performance. The output from this model is used by several other models, such as the configuration generator, criticality, and criticality consequence models, prior to the evaluation of system performance. This document has been prepared according to AP-3.10Q, ''Analyses and Models'' (Ref. 2), and prepared in accordance with the technical work plan (Ref. 17).

  19. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: Material Degradation and Release Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockman, H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the Material Degradation and Release (MDR) model that predicts degradation and release of radionuclides from a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This AMR is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 17). The intended use of the MDR model is to estimate the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages (WPs) containing U. S . Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The model is intended to predict (1) the extent to which criticality control material, such as gadolinium (Gd), will remain in the WP after corrosion of the initial WP, (2) the extent to which fissile Pu and uranium (U) will be carried out of the degraded WP by infiltrating water, and (3) the chemical composition and amounts of minerals and other solids left in the WP. The results of the model are intended for use in criticality calculations. The scope of the model validation report is to (1) describe the MDR model, and (2) compare the modeling results with experimental studies. A test case based on a degrading Pu-ceramic WP is provided to help explain the model. This model does not directly feed the assessment of system performance. The output from this model is used by several other models, such as the configuration generator, criticality, and criticality consequence models, prior to the evaluation of system performance. This document has been prepared according to AP-3.10Q, ''Analyses and Models'' (Ref. 2), and prepared in accordance with the technical work plan (Ref. 17)

  20. Influence of building materials process technology on radon exhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Wang Chunhong; Liu Senlin; Ji Dong; Zhang Yonggui; Pan Ziqiang

    2009-01-01

    The building materials were produced through changing raw material ingredient, baking temperature, pressure difference between surface and interior of building material, grain diameter etc. Experiment indicates that change of raw material ingredient ratio can obviously influence the radon exhalation from building material, followed by baking temperature; and pressure difference does not have significant influence on radon exhalation. For the factory to produce shale-brick, the radon exhalation is relatively low under the condition that coal gangue accounts for 40%-50%, the grain diameter is less than 2 mm, the baking temperature is about 960 degree C or 1 020 degree C and the pressure difference is 85 kPa. (authors)

  1. Dependence of indoor 222Rn level on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, M.W.; Ng, C.; Leung, J.K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The radionuclide contents of typical building materials used in Hong Kong were studied by γ spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of these building materials affecting the production and transportation of 222 Rn to the surrounding air were examined; these include the emanation coefficient of 2 '2 2 Rn of the material, the diffusion coefficient of 222 Rn in the material and the effect of surface coating and temperature on the rate of 222 Rn exhalation. Results obtained in this study explain the indoor 222 Rn concentration observed in our previous surveys and also suggest that the main source of indoor 222 Rn in Hong Kong is building material. (3 figs., 4 tabs.)

  2. Gneisses of Brazil's cultural heritage buildings and its most frequent degradations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Costa, Antônio

    2017-04-01

    Macroscopic descriptions of cultural heritage buildings constructed using gneisses in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Ouro Preto, Brazil, allowed to identify alterations and degradations, in part conditioned by the mineralogical composition and the structures present in these stone materials. It is important to emphasize that: - some changes still begin in the environments where these materials were formed, experiencing an intensification from the processes of extraction, processing and application; - modifications occurring after the applications are understood herein as degradations. The studied gneisses present banding consisting of parts with different thicknesses and mineralogical contents. Due to these differentiated contents, clear bands were identified and constituted essentially by felsic minerals, such as feldspars and quartz, as well as dark bands formed by mafic minerals represented by: biotite, garnets, amphiboles, such as hornblende or pyroxene (hyperstene). In addition to these minerals, low contents of oxides and sulphides were found. Also under the influence of this distribution of minerals, planar structures or foliations, more or less developed, that can be very penetrative have been identified, mainly when these rocks were submitted to the performance of milonitization processes. From the set of changes and degradations observed stand out those related to the decomposition of minerals that make up these materials. In these cases, feldspars and other silicates, such as micas, amphiboles and pyroxenes, were decomposed due to the hydrolysis and products were generated which compromised the resistance of these stone materials, leading to their consequent disintegration. On the other hand, the presence of expansive clays in these products, caused volume increases which also contributed to the expansion of the weathered surface layer (blistering). This process may result detachments in the form of scales to cavities in cases of

  3. Disorder-induced stiffness degradation of highly disordered porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubie, Hadrien; Monfared, Siavash; Radjaï, Farhang; Pellenq, Roland; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2017-09-01

    The effective mechanical behavior of multiphase solid materials is generally modeled by means of homogenization techniques that account for phase volume fractions and elastic moduli without considering the spatial distribution of the different phases. By means of extensive numerical simulations of randomly generated porous materials using the lattice element method, the role of local textural properties on the effective elastic properties of disordered porous materials is investigated and compared with different continuum micromechanics-based models. It is found that the pronounced disorder-induced stiffness degradation originates from stress concentrations around pore clusters in highly disordered porous materials. We identify a single disorder parameter, φsa, which combines a measure of the spatial disorder of pores (the clustering index, sa) with the pore volume fraction (the porosity, φ) to scale the disorder-induced stiffness degradation. Thus, we conclude that the classical continuum micromechanics models with one spherical pore phase, due to their underlying homogeneity assumption fall short of addressing the clustering effect, unless additional texture information is introduced, e.g. in form of the shift of the percolation threshold with disorder, or other functional relations between volume fractions and spatial disorder; as illustrated herein for a differential scheme model representative of a two-phase (solid-pore) composite model material.

  4. The measurement theory of radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jinhui; Wang Renbo; Zhang Xiongjie; Tan Hai; Zhu Zhipu; Man Zaigang

    2010-01-01

    Radioactivity in Building Materials is the main source of natural radiation dose that the individual is received, which has caused serious concern of all Social Sector. The paper completely introduce the measurement theory of the Radioactivity in Building Materials along with the measurement principle of natural radioactivity, design of shielding facility, choosing measurement time, sample prepared and spectrum analyzed. (authors)

  5. Gamma spectrometric method for measuring natural radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.; Feher, I.

    1976-11-01

    The natural 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K concentrations of building materials were determined by gamma spectrometry. Altogether 121 samples from all over Hungary, one from each factory producing building materials, were examined. The presented data had preliminary character. The results were compared to the relating ones from abroad. (Sz.N.Z.)

  6. Natural radioactivity measurements of building materials in Baotou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Caifeng; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Natural radioactivity due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the common building materials collected from Baotou city of Inner Mongolia, China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiation hazard of the studied building materials was estimated by the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), internal hazard index (H(in)) and annual effective dose (AED). The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and Ra(eq) in the studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of other countries. The Ra(eq) values of the building materials are below the internationally accepted values (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of H(in) in all studied building materials are less than unity. The AEDs of all measured building materials are at an acceptable level.

  7. Stress and Damage in Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Due to Material Degradation at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Hugh L.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods for calculating stresses and damage caused by degradation of the matrix constituent in polymer matrix composite materials. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. The model is incorporated into an existing composite mechanics computer code. Stresses, strains, and deformations at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are calculated, and from these calculations it is determined if there is failure of any kind. The rationale for the model (based on published experimental work) is presented, its integration into the laminate analysis code is outlined, and example results are given, with comparisons to existing material and structural data. The mechanisms behind the changes in properties and in surface cracking during long-term aging of polyimide matrix composites are clarified. High-temperature-material test methods are also evaluated.

  8. Investigating the presence of hazardous materials in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustitus, D.A.; Blaisdell, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental hazards in buildings can be found in the air, on exposed surfaces, or hidden in roofs, walls, and systems. They can exist in buildings in solid, liquid, and gaseous states. A sound methodology for investigating the presence of environmental hazards in buildings should include several components. The first step in planning an investigation of environmental hazards in buildings is to ascertain why the investigation is to be performed. Research should be performed to review available documentation on the building. Next, a visual inspection of the building should be performed to identify and document existing conditions, and all suspect materials containing environmental hazards. Lastly, samples of suspect materials should be collected for testing. It is important to sample appropriate materials, based on the information obtained during the previous steps of the investigation. It is also important to collect the samples using standard procedures. Pollutants of concern include asbestos, lead, PCBs, and radon

  9. GREEN OAK AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical documentation necessary for a project demonstrating the viability of green oak as a contemporary structural material. These will include material grading guidelines, mechanical testing, architectural construction documents and details, specifications, engineering cal...

  10. Prediction of degradation and fracture of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1992-01-01

    Prediction of materials performance in an engineering integrity context requires the underpinning of predictive modelling tuned by inputs from design, fabrication, operating experience, and laboratory testing. In this regard, in addition to fracture resistance four important areas of time dependent degradation are considered - mechanical, environmental, irradiation and thermal. The status of prediction of materials performance is discussed in relation to a number of important components such as LWR reactor pressure vessels and steam generators, and Fast Reactor high temperature structures. In each case the role of materials modelling is examined and the balance of factors which contribute to the overall prediction of component integrity/reliability noted. Structural integrity arguments must follow a clear strategy if the required level of confidence is to be established. Various strategies and their evolution are discussed. (author)

  11. Building materials as sources of indoor exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    1992-11-01

    The thesis deals with the radioactivity of Finnish building materials and of industrial wastes or residues which can be used as building materials or as mixing substances of such materials. The external and internal exposure to radiation from building materials is described. The study also discusses with the methods used for measuring concentrations of natural and artificial gamma emitters in different kinds of materials and the amount of radon exhaling from building materials. A computational method for assessing the gamma ray exposure inside dwellings is desribed, and the results are compared with those of other corresponding methods. The results of the simple method described here are in good agreement with those obtained with the more refined Monte Carlo technique

  12. Research Progress of Building Materials Used in Construction Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Construction land preparation is an important aspect of land remediation project. The research of materials in the process of land improvement is the foundation and the core. Therefore, it is necessary to study the materials that may be involved in the process of building land preparation. In this paper, the research on the construction materials such as recycled concrete, geosynthetics, soil stabilizers, soil improvers, building insulation materials and inorganic fibrous insulation materials, which are commonly used in construction sites, is reviewed and discussed in this paper. Land remediation project involved in the construction of land materials to provide reference.

  13. The Impact of Insulation and HVAC Degradation on Overall Building Energy Performance: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Eleftheriadis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Through monitoring of buildings, it can be proven that the performance of envelope elements and energy supply systems deteriorates with time. The results of this degradation are higher energy consumption and life cycle costs than projected in the building design phase. This paper considers the impacts of this deterioration on the whole building energy performance with the goal of improving the accuracy of long term performance calculations. To achieve that, simplified degradation equations found in literature are applied on selected envelope elements and heating system components of a single-family house in Germany. The energy performance of the building over 20 years is determined through simulations by EnergyPlus and MATLAB. The simulation results show that, depending on maintenance and primary heating system, the building can consume between 18.4% and 47.1% more primary energy over 20 years compared to a scenario in which no degradation were to occur. Thus, it can be concluded that considering performance drop with time is key in order to improve the decision-making process when designing future-proof buildings.

  14. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Juan, A; Montembault, A; Royaud, I; David, L; Gillet, D; Say, J P; Rouif, S; Bouet, T

    2012-01-01

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  15. Radioactivity assessment of some building materials from Little Poland Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, J.; Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Mazur, J.; Loskiewicz, J.; Swakon, J.; Tracz, G.

    1994-01-01

    In the paper are presented the results of building materials analysis connected with radiation protection. The concentration of natural radioactive elements (K, U, Th), and the values of f 1 and f 2 coefficients are measured for these materials. The values for ceramic building materials and for cellular concretes are composed. The utility of f 2 parameter is unformally discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Measurement of naturally occurring radioactive materials in commonly used building materials in Hyderabad, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbudhe, A.Y.; Vishwa Prasad, K.; Vidya Sagar, D.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Building materials can cause significant gamma dose indoors, due to their natural radioactivity content. The knowledge of the natural radioactivity level of building materials is important for determination of population exposure, as most people spend 80-90% of their time indoors furthermore, it is useful in setting the standards and national guidelines for the use and management of these materials. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in building materials vary depending on the local geological and geographical conditions as well as geochemical characteristics of those materials. The aim of the study is to determine levels of natural radionuclide in the commonly used building materials in Hyderabad, India

  17. Material characterization models and test methods for historic building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Møller, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    Predictions of long term hygrothermal performance can be assessed by dynamic hygrothermal simulations, in which material parameters are crucial input. Material parameters for especially historic materials are often unknown; therefore, there is a need to determine important parameters, and simple...

  18. Natural radioactivity level of main building materials in Baotou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Caifeng; Lu Xinwei; Li Nan; Yang Guang

    2012-01-01

    A survey was done on natural radioactivity level and annual effective dose rate of main building materials in Baotou, China. The natural radionuclides of 40 K, 232 Th and 226 Ra in main building materials collected from Baotou were measured using NaI γ-ray spectrometry and the measured data were analyzed according to the national standards and radiological protection principles of the European Commission. The specific activities of 40 K, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the building materials samples were 218.82-1145.92, 19.75-1.32.50 and 11.46-82.66 Bq/kg, respectively. The internal and external exposure indexes of building materials were 0.06-0.41 and 0.28-0.70, respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent was 0.41-0.97 mSv/y. This justifies the production and sale of the main building materials, as both the internal and external exposure indexes of building materials are less than 1. The effective dose rate of ash brick is 0.97 mSv/y, while the maximum acceptable value is 1 mSv/y. Therefore, it is necessary to control the amount of industrial waste residue in building materials to avoid unnecessary radioactive exposure to residents. (authors)

  19. Analysis of the Constituent Materials of Historical Building in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Fahed; El-Turke, Adel; Scott, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Increasing levels of atmospheric pollution is observed to accentuate and accelerate the degradation of historical sites. This paper investigates the chemical and mineralogical characteristic of the building materials used to construct the declared UNESCO world heritage site located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia., and provide an initial assessment of the primary mechanisms for their environmental degradation. Stone and plaster samples were collected from six historic houses as well as the quarry from which the stone was originally produced. The main objective of this work was to identify the composition and alteration of the stone, plaster and quarry materials and to provide information about the decay mechanisms, thereby better enabling conservators to identify the correct methods and materials for onwards conservation and restoration works. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with energy-dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (FEGSEM-EDS) were utilized as analytical techniques to conjointly to determine the chemical composition of the corresponding materials. The results revealed that the stone used throughout the historic buildings comprises a mixture of calcareous limestone and corallite stones. The associated binding plaster is lime based, made with non-hydraulic lime and local sand, whilst the decorative plaster is made of gypsum (CaSO4). On degraded surfaces it was possible to detect the deposition of sea salt, sulphur and phosphorus as the main atmospheric pollutants and significant contributors to the observed environmental degradation.

  20. Investigations of radioactivity of building raw and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, A.; Biernacka, M.; Jagielak, J.; Lipinski, P.

    1993-01-01

    In 1980, Ministry of Building and Building Materials Industry, the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (abbreviated as CLRP), Ministry of Health and Social Welfare have agreed to issue the compulsory regulation of performing the validation of investigations of building raw and materials. Methods of measurement, apparatus and method of evaluation of results of the investigations have been recommended for the whole country. The following two criteria of usefulness of a building material for housing and public building have been accepted, f 1 = 0.00027 S K + 0.0027 S Ra0 .0043 S Th ≤ 1 (this one limit exposition of the whole body to gamma radiation); f 2 = S Ra ≤ 185 Bq/kg (this one limits exposition of lung epithelium to progeny of radon 222 Rn exhaled from the building walls). The CLRP and Institute of Building Technology supervise over correctness (agreement with the regulations) of operation of laboratories in Departments of Building Industry and Energy, organize training of the personnel and collect results of the measurements. From 1980 till 1991, results of measurements of 6550 samples from 550 localities were collected in computer data base organized in CLRP. In this paper, results of examination of selected groups of building raw and materials have been presented. Annual average values of the qualification coefficients f 1 and f 2 have been also analyzed. (author). 7 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  2. Sustainable materials in building and architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available of heavy and bulky materials and opened up the era of prefabricated elements and product catalogues. At the same time, new materials were invented. Notwithstanding this, timber and timber-derived products, masonry units of clay and cement, concrete, steel...

  3. Acid-degradable and bioerodible modified polyhydroxylated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frechet, Jean M. J.; Bachelder, Eric M.; Beaudette, Tristan T.; Broaders, Kyle E.

    2017-05-09

    Compositions and methods of making a modified polyhydroxylated polymer comprising a polyhydroxylated polymer having reversibly modified hydroxyl groups, whereby the hydroxyl groups are modified by an acid-catalyzed reaction between a polydroxylated polymer and a reagent such as acetals, aldehydes, vinyl ethers and ketones such that the modified polyhydroxylated polymers become insoluble in water but freely soluble in common organic solvents allowing for the facile preparation of acid-sensitive materials. Materials made from these polymers can be made to degrade in a pH-dependent manner. Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cargoes were successfully loaded into particles made from the present polymers using single and double emulsion techniques, respectively. Due to its ease of preparation, processability, pH-sensitivity, and biocompatibility, of the present modified polyhydroxylated polymers should find use in numerous drug delivery applications.

  4. Sustainability of earth building materials - Environmental product declarations as an instrument of competition in building material industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Horst; Lemke, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The evaluation of the building process in terms of their environmental impact in all life cycle phases of a building leads to the key principle of sustainable building: the analysis of the life cycle of the materials used in a building. The goal of this analysis is to reduce waste and keep the environmental impact as low as possible by “closing” the cycle. During an inventory, the entire life cycle is assessed. This includes the sourcing and extracting of the raw material, the use of the...

  5. Assessment of the material properties of a fire damaged building

    OpenAIRE

    Oladipupo OLOMO; Olufikayo ADERINLEWO; Moses TANIMOLA; Silvana CROOPE

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies a process for assessing the material properties of a fire damaged building so as to determine whether the remains can be utilized in construction or be demolished. Physical and chemical analysis were carried out on concrete and steel samples taken from various elements of the building after thorough visual inspection of the entire building had been conducted. The physical (non-destructive) tests included the Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests on the concr...

  6. Sensory ratings of emissions from nontraditional building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kolarik, Jakub; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five subjects assessed the emissions from building materials: linoleum, cement mortar with and without fly ash, gypsum board and tiles with air cleaning properties and natural organic sheep wool. The ratings were made at different material loadings and in combinations with linoleum....... The results showed that except for natural organic product, increasing loading and combining materials with linoleum increased intensity of odor....

  7. Material degradation analysis and maintenance decisions based on material condition monitoring during in-service inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacout, A.M.; Orechwa, Y.

    1996-03-01

    The degradation of the material in critical components is shown to be an effective measure which can be used to compute the risk adjusted economic penalty associated with different maintenance decisions. The approach of estimating the probability, with confidence interval, of the time that a prescribed degradation level is exceeded is shown to be practical, as demonstrated in the analysis of irradiated fuel cladding. The methodology for the estimation of the probability is predicated on the existence of a parsimonious and robust mixed-effects model of the evolution of the degradation. This model, in general, relates measured surrogates of the degradation level to computed or measured variables, which characterize the environment during the operating history of the component. We propose and demonstrate the efficacy of using an artificial neural network, constructed via a genetic supervisor, as an aid in developing the requisite mixed-effects model and testing its continued validity as new data are obtained

  8. Building Investigation: Material or Structural Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof M.Z.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structures such as roof trusses will not suddenly collapse without ample warning such as significant deflection, tilting etc. if the designer manages to avoid the cause of structural failure at the material level and the structural level. This paper outlines some principles and procedures of PDCA circle and QC tools which can show some clues of structural problems in terms of material or structural performance

  9. Radiological evaluation of building materials used in Malumfashi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in building materials (sand, cement, blocks, granite, and paints) used in the construction of buildings in Malumfashi local Government area of Katsina state, Nigeria were determined by means of a gamma-ray spectrometry system using Sodium Iodide thallium activated (NaI(Tl)) detector in a low background configuration.

  10. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.; Lu, X.; Zhao, C.; Li, N.

    2013-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings. (authors)

  11. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Li, Nan

    2013-08-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings.

  12. Computational simulation of coupled material degradation processes for probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.

    1992-01-01

    The research included ongoing development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects or primative variables. These primative variable may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation has been randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with linear regression of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constraints for each effect or primative variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from the open literature for materials typically of interest to those studying aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 was analyzed using the developed methodology.

  13. Radiological consequences of radioactive substances in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1982-01-01

    A review of radiological consequences of radioactive substances in building materials is given. Where the other contributing papers are dealing with technical problems and measuring techniques, this paper is going beyond the term dose and is considering the risk by radioactive substances in building materials in relation to conventional risks. The present state of international standards is also discussed. If a limit of 1 mSv is adopted, it is shown that this limit is just met at present conditions. (Author) [de

  14. People, planet and profit: Unintended consequences of legacy building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Anthony T; Ha, HakSoo

    2017-12-15

    Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several examples where building materials were broadly deployed into society only to find that health and environmental problems resulted in unintended sustainability consequences. In the following paper, we use lead and asbestos as legacy building materials to show their similar historical trends and sustainability consequences. Our research findings show unintended consequences such as: increased remediation and litigation costs; adverse health effects; offshoring of related industries; and impediments to urban revitalization. As numerous new building materials enter today's market, another building material may have already been deployed, representing the next "asbestos." This paper also proposes an alternative methodology that can be applied in a cost-effective way into existing and upcoming building materials, to minimize and prevent potential unintended consequences and create a pathway for sustainable communities. For instance, our findings show that this proposed methodology could have prevented the unintended incurred sustainability costs of approximately $272-$359 billion by investing roughly $24 million in constant 2014 U.S. dollars on up-front research into lead and asbestos. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  16. Parameters for Building Materials Specifications in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Oluwole Folorunso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility of specifying materials for building construction purposes within Nigeria rests on the architects. Understanding the appropriate parameters for specifying building materials that could lead to immense financial proportion is required from the architects. The level of understanding and knowledge of architects is germane to the optimum performance of buildings throughout their life cycle. The methodology applied for this research involved the administration of a structured questionnaire on professional architects within the study area to determine the basis of their decision on the materials they specify or chose for building finishes. The parameters used to measure the specification of materials for finishes are client’s choice, cost, climatic compliance, and maintenance demand of materials. Findings show that the maintenance demand of materials is the most important factor that determines the specification of materials irrespective of the choice of client and climate. However, cost occupies a prominent role in the decision process. It also shows that most architects are not fully aware about the role of climate in determining the life cycle of materials in tropical environments. The compliance of materials to ever-changing climate does not constitute a major factor in the specification of materials in the area.

  17. The analysis of radon diffusion through the buildings materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grujic, S.; Radukin-Kosanovic, A.; Bikit, I.; Mrdja, D.; Forkapic, S.

    2009-01-01

    Since people most of the time spent indoors it is of great importance to analyse the radon diffusion through different types of materials, in order to prevent the increase of its concentration in the interior of buildings. The paper examined six different types of materials used in construction, mainly in the insulating purposes, in order to determine the material, or a combination of appropriate type and thickness of material which have a smaller value of diffusion coefficient of radon. (author) [sr

  18. Corrosion Detection of Reinforcement of Building Materials with Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Peng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of reinforced materials in the construction industry has raised increased concerns about their safety and durability, while corrosion detection of steel materials is becoming increasingly important. For the scientific management, timely repair and health monitoring of construction materials, as well as to ensure construction safety and prevent accidents, this paper investigates corrosion detection on construction materials based on piezoelectric sensors. At present, the commonly used corrosion detection methods include physical and electrochemical methods, but there are shortcomings such as large equipment area, low detection frequency, and complex operation. In this study an improved piezoelectric ultrasonic sensor was designed, which could not only detect the internal defects of buildings while not causing structural damage, but also realize continuous detection and enable qualitative and quantitative assessment. Corrosion detection of reinforced building materials with piezoelectric sensors is quick and accurate, which can find hidden dangers and provide a reliable basis for the safety of the buildings.

  19. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gravesen, S.; Nielsen, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    , especially Asp. ustus and Asp. niger produced many unknown secondary metabolites on the building materials. Analyses of wallpaper and glass-fibre wallpaper naturally infested with Asp. versicolor revealed sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin. Analyses of naturally infested wallpaper showed that C......In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all...... isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species were inoculated on gypsum board with and without wallpaper and on chipboard with and without wallpaper. Fungal material was scraped off the materials, extracted, and analyzed using high...

  20. Building construction materials effect in tropical wet and cold climates: A case study of office buildings in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modeste Kameni Nematchoua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study that was conducted in 15 office buildings in the humid and cold tropics during the working hours of the dry and rainy seasons in Cameroon. This was with the aim to study the effects that local and imported materials had on indoor air quality. To achieve this objective, the adaptive model approach has been selected. In accordance with the conditions of this model, all workers were kept in natural ventilation and, in accordance with the general procedure, a questionnaire was distributed to them, while variables, like air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity were sampled. The results showed a clear agreement between expected behaviour, in accordance with the characteristics of building construction, and its real indoor ambience once they were statistically analysed. On the other hand, old buildings showed a higher percentage of relative humidity and a lower degree of indoor air temperature. Despite this, local thermal comfort indices and questionnaires showed adequate indoor ambience in each group of buildings, except when marble was used for external tiling. The effect of marble as an external coating helps to improve indoor ambience during the dry season. This is due to more indoor air and relative humidity being accumulated. At the same time, these ambiences are degraded when relative humidity is higher. Finally, these results should be taken cognisance of by architects and building designers in order to improve indoor environment, and overcome thermal discomfort in the Saharan area.

  1. Effects of energy and carbon taxes on building material competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund, (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The relations between building material competitiveness and economic instruments for mitigating climate change are explored in this bottom-up study. The effects of carbon and energy taxes on building material manufacturing cost and total building construction cost are modelled, analysing individual materials as well as comparing a wood-framed building to a reinforced concrete-framed building. The energy balances of producing construction materials made of wood, concrete, steel, and gypsum are described and quantified. For wood lumber, more usable energy is available as biomass residues than is consumed in the processing steps. The quantities of biofuels made available during the production of wood materials are calculated, and the cost differences between using these biofuels and using fossil fuels are shown under various tax regimes. The results indicate that higher energy and carbon taxation rates increase the economic competitiveness of wood construction materials. This is due to both the lower energy cost for material manufacture, and the increased economic value of biomass by-products used to replace fossil fuel. (Author)

  2. Environmental effect of structural solutions and building materials to a building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapio, Appu; Viitaniemi, Pertti

    2008-01-01

    The field of building environmental assessment tools has become a popular research area over the past decade. However, how the service life of a building affects the results of the environmental assessment of a building has not been emphasised previously. The aim of this study is to analyse how different structural solutions and building materials affect the results of the environmental assessment of a whole building over the building's life cycle. Furthermore, how the length of the building's service life affects the results is analysed. The environmental assessments of 78 single-family houses were calculated for this study. The buildings have different wall insulations, claddings, window frames, and roof materials, and the length of the service life varies from 60 years up to 160 years. The current situation and the future of the environmental assessment of buildings are discussed. In addition, topics for further research are suggested; for example, how workmanship affects the service life and the environmental impact of a building should be studied

  3. Improved water chemistry controls for minimizing degradation of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawochka, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute and the Steam Generator Owners Group have sponsored several efforts to develop secondary water chemistry guidelines to minimize pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing degradation. To develop these guidelines, chemical species known to accelerate corrosion of Alloy 600 were identified, and values for normal and abnormal chemistry situations were established. For example, sodium hydroxide was known to accelerate Alloy 600 intergranular attack stress corrosion cracking; thus, guidelines were developed for blowdown sodium concentrations in recirculating steam generator systems. Similarly, formation of acidic solutions, particularly as a result of chloride ingress at seawater sites, was known to accelerate denting; thus, chloride guidelines were established. A blowdown cation conductivity limit was established to minimize concentrations of other anionic species. Guidelines also were developed for condensate and feedwater chemistry to minimize general corrosion of system materials, thereby minimizing sludge and deposit buildup in the steam generators

  4. Susceptibility of green and conventional building materials to microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah-Attipoe, J; Reponen, T; Salmela, A; Veijalainen, A-M; Pasanen, P

    2015-06-01

    Green building materials are becoming more popular. However, little is known about their ability to support or limit microbial growth. The growth of fungi was evaluated on five building materials. Two green, two conventional building materials and wood as a positive control were selected. The materials were inoculated with Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum, in the absence and presence of house dust. Microbial growth was assessed at four different time points by cultivation and determining fungal biomass using the N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) enzyme assay. No clear differences were seen between green and conventional building materials in their susceptibility to support microbial growth. The presence of dust, an external source of nutrients, promoted growth of all the fungal species similarly on green and conventional materials. The results also showed a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.81 to 0.88 between NAHA activity and culturable counts. The results suggest that the growth of microbes on a material surface depends on the availability of organic matter rather than the classification of the material as green or conventional. NAHA activity and culturability correlated well indicating that the two methods used in the experiments gave similar trends for the growth of fungi on material surfaces. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Degradation of metallic materials studied by correlative tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, T. L.; Holroyd, N. J. H.; Lewandowski, J. J.; Ogurreck, M.; Rau, C.; Kelley, R.; Pickering, E. J.; Daly, M.; Sherry, A. H.; Pawar, S.; Slater, T. J. A.; Withers, P. J.

    2017-07-01

    There are a huge array of characterization techniques available today and increasingly powerful computing resources allowing for the effective analysis and modelling of large datasets. However, each experimental and modelling tool only spans limited time and length scales. Correlative tomography can be thought of as the extension of correlative microscopy into three dimensions connecting different techniques, each providing different types of information, or covering different time or length scales. Here the focus is on the linking of time lapse X-ray computed tomography (CT) and serial section electron tomography using the focussed ion beam (FIB)-scanning electron microscope to study the degradation of metals. Correlative tomography can provide new levels of detail by delivering a multiscale 3D picture of key regions of interest. Specifically, the Xe+ Plasma FIB is used as an enabling tool for large-volume high-resolution serial sectioning of materials, and also as a tool for preparation of microscale test samples and samples for nanoscale X-ray CT imaging. The exemplars presented illustrate general aspects relating to correlative workflows, as well as to the time-lapse characterisation of metal microstructures during various failure mechanisms, including ductile fracture of steel and the corrosion of aluminium and magnesium alloys. Correlative tomography is already providing significant insights into materials behaviour, linking together information from different instruments across different scales. Multiscale and multifaceted work flows will become increasingly routine, providing a feed into multiscale materials models as well as illuminating other areas, particularly where hierarchical structures are of interest.

  6. Effect of phase change material on the heat transfer rate of different building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mushfiq; Alam, Shahnur; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is widely known as latent heat storage. A comprehensive study is carried out to investigate the effect of PCM on heat transfer rate of building materials. Paraffin is used as PCM along with different conventional building materials to investigate the heat transfer rate from the heated region to the cold region. PCM is placed along with the three different types of building materials like plaster which is well know building material in urban areas and wood and straw which are commonly used in rural areas for roofing as well as wall panel material and investigated the heat transfer rate. An experimental setup was constructed with number of rectangular shape aluminum detachable casing (as cavity) and placed side by side. Series of rectangular cavity filled with convent ional building materials and PCM and these were placed in between two chambers filled with water at different temperature. Building materials and PCM were placed in different cavities with different combinations and investigated the heat transfer rate. The results show that using the PCM along with other building materials can be used to maintain lower temperature at the inner wall and chamber of the cold region. Moreover, the placement or orientation of the building materials and PCM make significant contribution to heat transfer rate from the heated zone to the cold zone.

  7. Material aging and degradation detection and remaining life assessment for plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramuhalli, P.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.; Meyer, R.M.; Coble, J.B.; Pitman, S.G.; Bond, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major factors that may impact long-term operations is structural material degradation. Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long-term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided. (author)

  8. Glass-ceramics as building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. María

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics are materials composed as any ceramic material by several crystalline phases embedded in an amorphous or vitreous matrix, but their manufacture process implies the controlled devitrification or nucleation and growth of phases from an original glass. The original shape of the original glass molded by conventional methods is carried out by using pressing and sintering followed by crystallization steps. By both processing routes are obtained transparent and/or opaque materials, with or without colours, which after adequate control and design of composition and microstructure have numerous domestic and architectonic applications. They can be used as pavements or wall coatings and in various decorative elements. In fact, their use is very extensive in east-European, American and Asian (Japan countries in constructions for covering large surfaces. The greater advantage of the glass-ceramic process is that due to the own process of vitrification allows the incorporation in their structure of a wide range of compositions from mining and industrial residues, such as red muds, ashes, fangos, scraps... which they can in this way not only be inertizated, but furthermore it be converted without risk for the environment into products useful in construction applications, offering to the architect and to the decorator a new range of "eco-materials" with multiple complementary possibilities of the already existing architectural materials in the market.

    Los productos o materiales vitrocerámicos se componen, como cualquier material de tipo cerámico, de una o varias fases cristalinas embebidas en una matriz amorfa o vítrea, pero cuyo proceso de fabricación implica la desvitrificación o nucleación y cristalización controlada de un vidrio original o de partida. En el proceso de obtención de estos materiales se puede conservar la forma original conferida al vidrio de partida por los métodos convencionales de moldeado de vidrios

  9. Effective 226Ra-content of some Hungarian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.; Feher, I.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyse the effective 226 Ra content of building- and back filling materials used in Hungary. The quantity of radon was determined by ionization chambers connected to vibrating-reed electrometers, as well as by a scintillation radon counter. The radon measuring instruments were calibrated by known 222 Rn quantities given off from standard RaCl 2 solutions. The overall uncertainty of the data obtained is estimated as being 25%. The minimum measurable effective 226 Ra concentration due to a 10 4 g building material source is calculated as 16 fCi/g for the ionization chambers and 8 fCi/g for the scintillation counter. 68 building material samples and 11 backfill (concrete made by fly-ashes) samples have been studied and it has been found, that the effective 226 Ra contents of the tested building materials are 2 to 9 times greater than those found in the Soviet Union though none exceeds the recommended 600 fCi/g level. Among the back filling materials made with fly-ash the maximum 226 Ra content was 3300 fCi/g. The effective 226 Ra content measurements are well suited for a priori radon escape qualification of building materials. (K.A.)

  10. Multiscale modelling for better hygrothermal prediction of porous building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belarbi Rafik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to understand the influence of the microstructuralgeometric parameters of porous building materials on the mechanisms of coupled heat, air and moisture transfers, in order to predict behavior of the building to control and improve it in its durability. For this a multi-scale approach is implemented. It consists of mastering the dominant physical phenomena and their interactions on the microscopic scale. Followed by a dual-scale modelling, microscopic-macroscopic, of coupled heat, air and moisture transfers that takes into account the intrinsic properties and microstructural topology of the material using X-ray tomography combined with the correlation of 3D images were undertaken. In fact, the hygromorphicbehavior under hydric solicitations was considered. In this context, a model of coupled heat, air and moisture transfer in porous building materials was developed using the periodic homogenization technique. These informations were subsequently implemented in a dynamic computation simulation that model the hygrothermalbehaviourof material at the scale of the envelopes and indoor air quality of building. Results reveals that is essential to consider the local behaviors of materials, but also to be able to measure and quantify the evolution of its properties on a macroscopic scale from the youngest age of the material. In addition, comparisons between experimental and numerical temperature and relative humidity profilesin multilayers wall and in building envelopes were undertaken. Good agreements were observed.

  11. State of the art review of degradation processes in LMFBR materials. Volume II. Corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Degradation of materials exposed to Na in LMFBR service is reviewed. The degradation processes are discussed in sections on corrosion and mass transfer, erosion, wear and self welding, sodium--water reactions, and external corrosion. (JRD)

  12. Ozone reactions with indoor materials during building disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppendieck, D.; Hubbard, H.; Ward, M.

    2007-01-01

    , and particularly after several hours of disinfection, surface reaction resistance dominated the overall resistance to ozone deposition for nearly all materials. Total building disinfection by-products (all carbonyls) were quantified per unit area of each material for the experimental period. Paper, office...... partition, and medium density fiberboard each released greater than 38 mg m(-2) of by-products....

  13. Associations between Fungal Species and Water-Damaged Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Søndergaard, Ib

    2011-01-01

    melleus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Chaetomium spp., Mucor racemosus, Mucor spinosus, and concrete and other floor-related materials. These results can be used to develop new and resistant building materials and relevant allergen extracts and to help focus research on relevant mycotoxins...

  14. Risk to Krakow population of gamma radiation from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.; Jasinska, M.

    1980-01-01

    A statistics was made of 7128 dwelling-houses considering their age, types of building materials and density of population. Gamma dose rates were measured by means of the TL and pressurized ionization chamber techniques inside 300 buildings and in 44 points outdoors over different kinds of beddings. Personal doses of 49 inhabitants of the buildings monitored were also recorded. By means of the spectrometric analysis of gamma radiation, and basing on a specially developed computational programme ''DOZA'' mean concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in 61 samples of building materials were evaluated. It was found that the mean personal dose rate as well as the mean indoor dose rate equals 5.7 urad/h /15.8 pGy/s/ and is about 19% higher than the dose outdoors which equals 4.8 urad/h /13.3 pGy/s/. Gamma dose rates inside the buildings made of gravel-sand concrete elements are about 10% lower than those in the buildings made of red bricks. Mean annual dose equivalent per capita from gamma radiation of building materials equals 40.6 mrem/y /406 uSv/y/, which constitutes about 57% of total annual dose equivalent per capita from all environmental sources of gamma radiation in the residential districts in Krakow. (author)

  15. Measurement of thoron exhalation rates from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de With, G; de Jong, P; Röttger, A

    2014-09-01

    Thoron (220Rn) exhalation from building materials has become increasingly recognized as a potential source for radiation exposure in dwellings. However, contrary to radon (220Rn), limited information on thoron exposure is available. The purpose of this study is to develop a test method for the determination of the thoron exhalation rate from building materials. The method is validated, and subsequently the thoron exhalation rates from 10 widely-applied concretes, gypsums, brick, limestone, and mortar are determined. The measured thoron exhalation rates of these materials range from 0.01 Bq m-2 s-1 to 0.43 Bq m-2 s-1, with relative standard uncertainties between 6% to 14%.

  16. Moisture performance of building materials: From material characterization to building simulation using the Moisture Buffer Value concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc Olivier [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil); LEPTAB, University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, 17042 Cedex 1 (France); Mendonca, Katia Cordeiro [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Predicting the indoor air relative humidity evolution is of great importance to evaluate people thermal comfort, perceived air quality and energy consumption. In building environments, porous materials of the envelope and furniture act on the indoor air humidity by reducing its variations. Solving the physical processes involved inside the porous materials requires the knowledge of the material hygrothermal properties that needs multiple and, for some of them, time-consuming experimental procedures. Recently, both the NORDTEST Project and Japanese Industrial Standard described a new Moisture Buffer Capacity index that accounts for surrounding air vapor concentration variation. The Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) indicates the amount of water vapor that is transported in or out of a material, during a certain period of time, when the vapor concentration of the surrounding air varies. The MBV evaluation requires only one experimental procedure and its value permits a direct comparison of the building materials moisture performance. However, two limitations can be distinguished: first, no relation between the MBV and the usual material hygrothermal properties has been clearly identified and second, no model has been proposed to actually use the MBV in building simulation. The present study aims to solve these two problems. First, the MBV fundamentals are introduced and discussed; followed by its relation with the usual material properties. Then, a lumped model for building simulation, whose parameters can be determined from the MBV experimental procedure, is described. To finish, examples of the use of this MBV-based lumped model for moisture prediction in buildings are presented. (author)

  17. Survey and specimen taking of building materials which are destined for house building in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.F. den

    1985-11-01

    This investigation deals with the following items: (a) Some building materials cause an increase of the natural radioactive radiation level indoors, especially building materials containing a certain kind of phosphogypsum. The radiation level depends among other things on the applied quantity of building materials and on the location in the building (walls, floors or roofs, etc.). The soil underneath dwellings can also be an important radiation source. The report gives a listing of the kind of building materials used for dwellings in The Netherlands, both present ones as well as possible future ones. A survey of the quantities applied and the location of application in dwellings is also given. The different types of soil underneath the dwellings are discussed. (b) Samples were collected from various factories, dealers and other sources (both present and future samples) of the most important building materials and components thereof. The samples were handed over to Division of Technology for Society TNO, Radiological Service TNO and Netherland Energy Research Foundation, in order to measure the activity concentrations and the radon exhalations. A listing of the samples is given. (Auth.)

  18. BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS BASED ON SILICON MANGANESE SLAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Currently of particular relevance was given to the matter of introduction in manufacture of building materials and products, resource-saving techniques and technologies; integrated use of raw materials and materials that prevent or significantly reduce their harmful impact on the environment. This allows you to recycle hundreds of thousands of tons of the fiery liquid slags of silicon manganese and to develop effective structural materials that can replace metals, non-metallic building materials of natural origin, concretes, cast stone, plastics and refractories. Purpose. The study of the structure and properties of building materials and products from electric furnace slag of silicon manganese. Conclusion. Slags from the smelting of silicon manganese are classified as acidic. Their lime factor is in the range of 0.47–0.52. The composition of the slag located in the heterogeneous region SiO2 near the line of separation of cristobalite spread to the crystallization of wollastonite, according to the ternary system MnO-CaO-SiO2, which in consideration of their stability, allows the development of technology of building materials (gravel, sand, granulated slag, etc. and products (foundation blocks, road slabs, containers for transportation and storage of hazardous waste, and others.

  19. Environmental degradation of materials and corrosion control in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, J.; Elboujdaini, M.; Shoesmith, D.; Patnaik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials and Corrosion Control In Metals (EDMCCM), held in Quebec City in 1999, was very successful. Encouraged by this success. the Metallurgical Society of CIM organized the Second International Conference in what is hoped will be an on-going series. This meeting was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in August 2003. The objective of this conference was to provide a wide-ranging forum for the discussion of recent developments in the study and understanding of corrosion degradation of metals and alloys and the variety of processes by which corrosion damage accumulates. The scope of the meeting ranged from the fundamental to the very applied with a primary emphasis on the inter-relationships between chemical, electrochemical, mechanical and metallurgical features of corrosion. This symposium was an excellent forum for the exchange of ideas and approaches between generally disparate fields of endeavour. The success of the symposium can be gauged from the large number of papers presented and the outstanding level of international participation, with authors from China, Iran, Japan, North America, Russia, United Kingdom and Venezuela. In addition authors from six Canadian provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan) participated. Six keynote presentations covered a wide range of topics and industries in corrosion and corrosion control, and a total 45 papers were presented, spread over three days in six individual sessions; Electrochemistry and Corrosion of Metals, Corrosion and Cracking Behaviour. Hydrogen in Steel and Pipeline Corrosion, Corrosion Case Studies and Applications, Characterization of Corrosion Behaviour, and Corrosion Protection Coatings. (author)

  20. Radon exhalation study in cements and other building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Sharma, N.

    2012-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive inert gas, which is produced during the decay of radium, an element present in the naturally occurring uranium series. In the recent past, environmental scientists all over the world have been expressing great concern about the radiation hazard from radon and its short lived daughter products inside buildings. The radon concentration inside a building depends upon the radon exhalation from the building materials used for the construction and the soil underneath the building. In the present investigations, a comparative study for radon exhalation rate has been carried out in some Indian and Pakistani cements and other building materials being used locally such as sand, soil, bricks, marbles, CaCO 3 , POPs by using Track Etch Technique. The Pakistani cement with the trade name 'Elephant' shows the minimum mass exhalation rate while the Indian 'Birla White' cement has shown the maximum. Among the other building materials studied, CaCO 3 has shown the minimum, while local soil the maximum mass exhalation rate. Out of the fired clay bricks, roof tiles, floor tiles and different marbles, floor tiles have the minimum areal exhalation rate while roof tiles the maximum. (author)

  1. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226 Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the

  2. Studies on natural radioactivity of some egyptian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E. A.; El-Khayat, A.; Ashmawy, L.; Hassan, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Using high-resolution y-rays spectrometry, the natural radioactivity of 14 samples of natural and o manufactured Egyptian building materials have been investigated. The samples were collected from local market and construction sites. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The radium equivalent activity in each sample was estimated. Radiological evaluations of these materials indicate that all materials meet the external gamma-ray dose limitation. Calculation of concentration indices by assuming a Markkanen room model is constructed from these materials, to find the excess gamma-ray dose taken over that received from the outdoors. The Austrian Standard ONORM S 5200 is used in testing the building materials

  3. Updated database on natural radioactivity in building materials in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, R; Leonardi, F; Risica, S; Nuccetelli, C

    2018-07-01

    The paper presents the latest collection of activity concentration data of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 4  K) in building materials. This database contains about 24200 samples of both bulk materials and their constituents (bricks, concrete, cement, aggregates) and superficial materials used in most European Union Member States and some European countries. This collection also includes radiological information about some NORM residues and by-products (by-product gypsum, metallurgical slags, fly and bottom ashes and red mud) which can be of radiological concern if recycled in building materials as secondary raw materials. Moreover, radon emanation and radon exhalation rate data are reported for bricks and concrete. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of roofing material on building energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Ali

    The last decade has seen an increase in the efficient use of energy sources such as water, electricity, and natural gas as well as a variety of roofing materials, in the heating and cooling of both residential and commercial infrastructure. Oil costs, coal and natural gas prices remain high and unstable. All of these instabilities and increased costs have resulted in higher heating and cooling costs, and engineers are making an effort to keep them under control by using energy efficient building materials. The building envelope (that which separates the indoor and outdoor environments of a building) plays a significant role in the rate of building energy consumption. An appropriate architectural design of a building envelope can considerably lower the energy consumption during hot summers and cold winters, resulting in reduced HVAC loads. Several building components (walls, roofs, fenestration, foundations, thermal insulation, external shading devices, thermal mass, etc.) make up this essential part of a building. However, thermal insulation of a building's rooftop is the most essential part of a building envelope in that it reduces the incoming "heat flux" (defined as the amount of heat transferred per unit area per unit time from or to a surface) (Sadineni et al., 2011). Moreover, more than 60% of heat transfer occurs through the roof regardless of weather, since a roof is often the building surface that receives the largest amount of solar radiation per square annually (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). Hence, an argument can be made that the emphasis on building energy efficiency has influenced roofing manufacturing more than any other building envelope component. This research project will address roofing energy performance as the source of nearly 60% of the building heat transfer (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). We will also rank different roofing materials in terms of their energy performance. Other parts of the building envelope such as walls, foundation

  5. Contributions to indoor gamma dose rate from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xionghua; Li Guangming; Yang Xiangdong

    1990-01-01

    In the coures of construction of a building structured with bricks and concrets, the indoor gamma air absorbed dose rates were seperately measured from the floors, brick walls and prefabricated plates of concrets, etc.. It suggested that the indoor gamma dose rates from building materials are mainly attributed to the brick walls and the floors. A little contribution comes from other brilding materials. The dose rates can be calculated through a 4π-infinite thick model with a correction factor of 0.52

  6. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Radiation exposure of members of the public can be increased appreciably by the use of building materials containing above-normal levels of natural radioactivity. This phenomenon has attracted attention in recent years, and in this review, an attempt is made to the quantify exposures incurred under various circumstances. The second section of the review is a general survey of those building materials, mostly industrial wastes, that have aroused interest in Member countries. The probability that environmental pressures may cause such wastes to be used more and more by building industries may lead to similar situations in the future. Other review material of a relevant nature is described in the third section. Primordial radionuclides only are considered here. They are: potassium-40 (K-40); radium-226 (Ra-226) and its decay products; the series headed by thorium-232 (Th-232). The important radiological consequences of the natural radioactivity in building materials are two-fold, irradiation of the body by gamma rays and irradiation of the lung tissues by radon-222 (Rn-222) decay products or daughters. These consequences cannot be explored quantitatively except in relation to the specific activities of the nuclides of interest, and the approach adopted in this review is to assess the consequences in terms of the incremental radiation exposures that would be incurred by occupants of substantial dwellings entirely constructed of materials with various specific activities or combinations thereof. Gamma rays are dealt with in the fourth section and radon daughters in the fifth

  7. Flotation tailings as a raw material for ceramic building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmistrov, V N; Karpunina, T I; Smolin, V N

    1986-02-01

    The VNIIstrom research institute developed a method for utilizing flotation tailings for production of bricks. Tailings are dewatered using filter presses. After dewatering, moisture content in the tailings ranges from 25 to 26%. Tailings are mixed with chamotte with a grain size to 2 mm. Using 30% chamotte improves mechanical and physical properties of the bricks and reduces energy consumption of brick firing. Tailings mixed with chamotte are granulated and dried on a conveyor. Granules with moisture content reduced to the optimum level are mixed a second time and formed in a press. The bricks are fired in a tunnel kiln with modified design. The bricks made of flotation tailings mixed with 30% chamotte are characterized by mechanical properties comparable to those of high quality bricks made of conventional materials.

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on cool building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Fishman, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Frohnsdorff, G. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NEL), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building Materials Div.] [eds.

    1994-04-01

    The Option 9, Cool Communities, of the Clinton-Gore Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) calls for mobilizing community and corporate resources to strategically plant trees and lighten the surfaces of buildings and roads in order to reduce cooling energy use of the buildings. It is estimated that Cool Communities Project will potentially save over 100 billion kilowatt-hour of energy per year corresponding to 27 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2015. To pursue the CCAP`s objectives, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on behalf of the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the Building and Fire Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), organized a one-day meeting to (1) explore the need for developing a national plan to assess the technical feasibility and commercial potential of high-albedo (``cool``) building materials, and if appropriate, to (2) outline a course of action for developing the plan. The meeting took place on February 28, 1994, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The proceedings of the conference, Cool Building Materials, includes the minutes of the conference and copies of presentation materials distributed by the conference participants.

  9. Using thermal power plants waste for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduik, R. S.; Smoliakov, A. K.; Timokhin, R. A.; Batarshin, V. O.; Yevdokimova, Yu G.

    2017-10-01

    The recycled use of thermal power plants (TPPs) wastes in the building materials production is formulated. The possibility of using of TPPs fly ash as part of the cement composite binder for concrete is assessed. The results of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis as well as and materials photomicrographs are presented. It was revealed that the fly ash of TPPs of Russian Primorsky Krai is suitable for use as a filler in cement binding based on its chemical composition.

  10. The release of lindane from contaminated building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Volchek, Konstantin; Thouin, Geneviève; Kuang, Wenxing; Li, Ken; Tezel, F. Handan; Brown, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    The release of the organochlorine pesticide lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) from several types of contaminated building materials was studied to assess inhalation hazard and decontamination requirements in response to accidental and/or intentional spills. The materials included glass, polypropylene carpet, latex-painted drywall, ceramic tiles, vinyl floor tiles, and gypsum ceiling tiles. For each surface concentration, an equilibrium concentration was determined in the vapour phase of the s...

  11. Review on phase change materials for building applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia SOCACIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays, the Phase Change Material (PCM is a viable alternative for reducing the energy consumption and for increase the thermal comfort in buildings. The use of PCM in building applications provides the potential to increase the indoor thermal comfort for occupants due to the reduced indoor temperature fluctuations and lower global energy consumption. The possibility to incorporate the PCM into the material of construction for cooling and heating the buildings gained the interest of researchers from all the world because the PCM have a high heat of fusion, meaning it is capable to storing and release large amounts of energy in the form of heat during its melting and solidifying process at a specific temperature.

  12. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials with Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turki, Faten

    2010-01-01

    In the setting of this work, the natural radioactivity of building materials used in Tunisia has been measured by gamma spectrometry. These products have been ground and dried at 100 degree for 12 h. Then, they have been homogenized, weighed and finally conditioned during 23 days in order to reach the radioactive equilibrium. The measures' results proved that all building materials studied except bauxite and the ESC clay, possess doses lower than the acceptable limit (1 mSv.an-1). However, the possibility of reinforcement of the natural radioactivity in some industry of building can exist. To insure that the cement, the most used in the world, don't present any radiological risk on the workers' health, a survey has been made in the factory - les Ciments de Bizerte - about its manufacture's process. The results of this survey showed that this product can be considered like a healthy product.

  13. Salinization effects on the water sorption of porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Rook, W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of salt transport and moisture transport plays a crucial role in some deterioration mechanisms of porous building materials. For this reason it has been an important research subject for mant' years. Yet most research was still complicated by the lack of experimental techniques

  14. People, Planet and Profit: Unintended Consequences of Legacy Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several exam...

  15. VOCs and odors: key factors in selecting `green` building materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, C. [Steven Winter Associates Inc., Norwalk, CT and Washington DC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The current state of knowledge available for selecting building materials on the basis of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors is reviewed. The significance of VOCs and odors in building materials is related to their role in influencing indoor air quality. As far as toxicity is concerned, many of the VOCs detected in indoor air are relatively inert when considered singly. They are not however, unimportant because in actual fact they are invariably found in mixtures some of which can be toxic. Although knowledge of VOCs is incomplete, it is important to specify ozone-resistant polymeric building products, i.e. those that are chemically stable and inert to oxidation. In addition to VOCs, attention should also be focused on semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) since they are even more persistent than VOCs and tend to offgas for prolonged periods of time. Similarly, it is reasonable to specify low-odor materials. Inclusion of issues related to complex indoor chemistry, less volatile emissions, in addition to VOCs and odor, should in time result in expanded choices of building materials that promote indoor air quality. 16 refs.,2 tabs.

  16. New concrete materials technology for competitive house building

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The research project aims at investigating the potential of new concrete materials technology (high performance concrete, HPC and self-compacting concete, SCC) for competitive design, production and function of structural frames of cast in-situ concrete in house building.

  17. Alkaline degradation of organic materials contained in TRU wastes under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Yoshiki; Banba, Tsunetaka

    2007-09-01

    Alkaline degradation tests for 9 organic materials were conducted under the conditions of TRU waste disposal: anaerobic alkaline conditions. The tests were carried out at 90degC for 91 days. The sample materials for the tests were selected from the standpoint of constituent organic materials of TRU wastes. It has been found that cellulose and plastic solidified products are degraded relatively easily and that rubbers are difficult to degrade. It could be presumed that the alkaline degradation of organic materials occurs starting from the functional group in the material. Therefore, the degree of degradation difficulty is expected to be dependent on the kinds of functional group contained in the organic material. (author)

  18. Method for modeling the gradual physical degradation of a porous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Greg [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-20

    Cementitious and other engineered porous materials encountered in waste disposals may degrade over time due to one or more mechanisms. Physical degradation may take the form of cracking (fracturing) and/or altered (e.g. increased) porosity, depending on the material and underlying degradation mechanism. In most cases, the hydraulic properties of degrading materials are expected to evolve due to physical changes occurring over roughly the pore to decimeter scale, which is conducive to calculating equivalent or effective material properties. The exact morphology of a degrading material in its end-state may or may not be known. In the latter case, the fully-degraded condition can be assumed to be similar to a more-permeable material in the surrounding environment, such as backfill soil. Then the fully-degraded waste form or barrier material is hydraulically neutral with respect to its surroundings, constituting neither a barrier to nor conduit for moisture flow and solute transport. Unless the degradation mechanism is abrupt, a gradual transition between the intact initial and fully-degraded final states is desired. Linear interpolation through time is one method for smoothly blending hydraulic properties between those of an intact matrix and those of a soil or other surrogate for the end-state.

  19. Method for modeling the gradual physical degradation of a porous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Cementitious and other engineered porous materials encountered in waste disposals may degrade over time due to one or more mechanisms. Physical degradation may take the form of cracking (fracturing) and/or altered (e.g. increased) porosity, depending on the material and underlying degradation mechanism. In most cases, the hydraulic properties of degrading materials are expected to evolve due to physical changes occurring over roughly the pore to decimeter scale, which is conducive to calculating equivalent or effective material properties. The exact morphology of a degrading material in its end-state may or may not be known. In the latter case, the fully-degraded condition can be assumed to be similar to a more-permeable material in the surrounding environment, such as backfill soil. Then the fully-degraded waste form or barrier material is hydraulically neutral with respect to its surroundings, constituting neither a barrier to nor conduit for moisture flow and solute transport. Unless the degradation mechanism is abrupt, a gradual transition between the intact initial and fully-degraded final states is desired. Linear interpolation through time is one method for smoothly blending hydraulic properties between those of an intact matrix and those of a soil or other surrogate for the end-state.

  20. Seismic response of base isolated auxiliary building with age related degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Hee; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil

    2012-01-01

    The aging of an isolator affects not only the mechanical properties of the isolator but also the dynamic properties of the upper structure, such as the change in stiffness, deformation capacity, load bearing capacity, creep, and damping. Therefore, the seismic response of base isolated structures will change with time. The floor response in the base isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) can be particularly changed because of the change in stiffness and damping for the isolator. The increased seismic response due to the aging of isolator can cause mechanical problems for many equipment located in the NPPs. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the seismic response of base isolated NPPs with age related degradation. In this study, the seismic responses for a base isolated auxiliary building of SHIN KORI 3 and 4 with age related degradation were investigated using a nonlinear time history analysis. Floor response spectrums (FRS) were presented with time for identifying the change in seismic demand under the aging of isolator

  1. Growing and testing mycelium bricks as building insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yangang; Brewer, Matthew; El-Gharabawy, Hoda; Griffith, Gareth; Jones, Phil

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve energy performance of buildings, insulation materials (such as mineral glass and rock wools, or fossil fuel-based plastic foams) are being used in increasing quantities, which may lead to potential problem with materials depletions and landfill disposal. One sustainable solution suggested is the use of bio-based, biodegradable materials. A number of attempts have been made to develop biomaterials, such as sheep wood, hemcrete or recycled papers. In this paper, a novel type of bio insulation materials - mycelium is examined. The aim is to produce mycelium materials that could be used as insulations. The bio-based material was required to have properties that matched existing alternatives, such as expanded polystyrene, in terms of physical and mechanical characteristics but with an enhanced level of biodegradability. The testing data showed mycelium bricks exhibited good thermal performance. Future work is planned to improve growing process and thermal performance of the mycelium bricks.

  2. Materials, used in historical buildings, analysis methods and solutions puroposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döndüren, M. Sami; Sişik, Ozlem

    2017-10-01

    Most of historical buildings are built with pressure principle and have the characteristics of masonry structures. Therefore, the structure components of buildings are constituted bearing walls, columns, buttresses, vaults and domes. Natural stone, cut stone, rubble stone brick or alternate materials were used in the bearing elements. Brick-dust and mortar with more binding feature were used as combination elements. In time, some problems were occurred in used materials and in structure as a result of various effects. Therefore, it is necessary to apply various applications in framework of repair and strengthening of buildings. In this study, restoration of historic buildings and the control of the adequacy of the bearing systems as one most important part of structure were examined. For this purpose, static analysis of Edirne-Merkez Demirtaş (Timurtaş) mosque located in Edirne was tested. Testes could give suggestions and be applied if buildings needed be revealed. The structure was modelled with finite element model of sap2000 package program and the forces generated under various loads and stresses, the occurred deformation due to that, overflow of allowable stress of this deformation and stresses were investigated. As the results of this study can be note that the maximum compressive stress at the construction is calculated as 1.1 MPa.

  3. Materials, used in historical buildings, analysis methods and solutions puroposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Döndüren M.Sami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of historical buildings are built with pressure principle and have the characteristics of masonry structures. Therefore, the structure components of buildings are constituted bearing walls, columns, buttresses, vaults and domes. Natural stone, cut stone, rubble stone brick or alternate materials were used in the bearing elements. Brick-dust and mortar with more binding feature were used as combination elements. In time, some problems were occurred in used materials and in structure as a result of various effects. Therefore, it is necessary to apply various applications in framework of repair and strengthening of buildings. In this study, restoration of historic buildings and the control of the adequacy of the bearing systems as one most important part of structure were examined. For this purpose, static analysis of Edirne-Merkez Demirtaş (Timurtaş mosque located in Edirne was tested. Testes could give suggestions and be applied if buildings needed be revealed. The structure was modelled with finite element model of sap2000 package program and the forces generated under various loads and stresses, the occurred deformation due to that, overflow of allowable stress of this deformation and stresses were investigated. As the results of this study can be note that the maximum compressive stress at the construction is calculated as 1.1 MPa.

  4. The release of lindane from contaminated building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchek, Konstantin; Thouin, Geneviève; Kuang, Wenxing; Li, Ken; Tezel, F Handan; Brown, Carl E

    2014-10-01

    The release of the organochlorine pesticide lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) from several types of contaminated building materials was studied to assess inhalation hazard and decontamination requirements in response to accidental and/or intentional spills. The materials included glass, polypropylene carpet, latex-painted drywall, ceramic tiles, vinyl floor tiles, and gypsum ceiling tiles. For each surface concentration, an equilibrium concentration was determined in the vapour phase of the surrounding air. Vapor concentrations depended upon initial surface concentration, temperature, and type of building material. A time-weighted average (TWA) concentration in the air was used to quantify the health risk associated with the inhalation of lindane vapors. Transformation products of lindane, namely α-hexachlorocyclohexane and pentachlorocyclohexene, were detected in the vapour phase at both temperatures and for all of the test materials. Their formation was greater on glass and ceramic tiles, compared to other building materials. An empiric Sips isotherm model was employed to approximate experimental results and to estimate the release of lindane and its transformation products. This helped determine the extent of decontamination required to reduce the surface concentrations of lindane to the levels corresponding to vapor concentrations below TWA.

  5. Effect of UV on building materials in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    Building materials can be divided into two main classes; organic or polymeric based and inorganic materials. Inorganic materials are in most cases largely unaffected by UV radiation. Many common polymers have bonds sensitive to radiation in the UV region. Absorption of radiation of these wavelengths will lead to excitation of electrons which can lead to isomerisation, chain scissors, cross linking and free radical formation. It is worth noting that the effects of UV radiation are always acting synergistically with other environmental effects. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Use of moisture probes in building materials industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, L.

    A neutron probe to be built in the production line was developed for monitoring moisture content of bulk materials and suspensions of all types in the building material industry. The probe is dust- and external moisture-protected. The probe measuring capacity is about 100 l, the mean measurement error is +- 0.008 g water per 1 cm 3 , which for fine sand represents an error of +- 0.3%. The probe is connected via a cable to a measuring instrument showing an electrical value proportional to the measured material moisture content. (Z.M.)

  7. Mould growth on building materials under low water activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Holm, G.; Uttrup, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of relative humidity (RH) and temperature on growth and metabolism of eight microfungi on 21 different types of building material was investigated. The fungi were applied as a dry mixture to the materials, which were incubated at 5degreesC, 10degreesC, 20degreesC and 25degrees...... growth at RH > 90%, although 95% RH was needed to yield chemically detectable quantities of biomass. Almost exclusively only Penicillium, Aspergillus and Eurotium (contaminant) species grew on the materials. Production of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins decreased with humidity and the quantities...

  8. Assessment of the radiological impact of selected building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwiazdowski, B.

    1983-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are a source of external and internal radiation exposure to essentially the entire Polish population. The programme of our studies met two main aspects on radioactivity of building materials: Gamma dose rate and radon or alpha potential energy concentration measurements in dwellings of various kinds of structure and materials in both industrial and rural districts of Poland. Gamma dose rate measurements were made in about 2200 dwellings and radon or alpha potential energy concentration measurements - in 750 dwellings. On the basis of these studies the annual effective dose equivalent to the Polish population due to gamma and alpha radiation indoors was estimated to be 0.39 mSv/a and 0.99 mSv/a, respectively. The contribution of external (from gamma) and internal (from alpha) radiation exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials to the total radiation exposure of Polish population was assessed to be 3.6 per cent and 34.2 per cent, respectively. Measurements of about 1500 samples of various kinds of building materials and raw materials were made to determine radionuclide concentrations in them. The highest values were obtained in samples of phosphogypsum, fly ash and slag: potassium concentration ranges up to 36 pCi g -1 (a slag sample), radium - up to 17 pCi g -1 (a phosphogypsum sample) and thorium - up to 4 pCi g -1 (a phosphogypsum). On the basis of the results of our studies we came to the conclusion that it was necessary to work out a control system which could protect habitants against enhancement of indoor exposure to ionizing radiation

  9. Radiological dose assessment of naturally occurring radioactive materials in concrete building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amran AB Majid; Aznan Fazli Ismail; Muhamad Samudi Yasir; Redzuwan Yahaya; Ismail Bahari

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the natural radioactivity contained in building materials have significantly influenced the dose rates in dwelling. Exposure to natural radiation in building has been of concerned since almost 80 % of our daily live are spend indoor. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the radiological risk associated by natural radioactivity in soil based building materials to dwellers. A total of 13 Portland cement, 46 sand and 43 gravel samples obtained from manufacturers or bought directly from local hardware stores in Peninsular of Malaysia were analysed for their radioactivity concentrations. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied building materials samples were found to be in the range of 3.7-359.3, 2.0-370.8 and 10.3-1,949.5 Bq kg -1 respectively. The annual radiation dose rates (μSv year -1 ) received by dwellers were evaluated for 1 to 50 years of exposure using Resrad-Build Computer Code based on the activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K found in the studied building material samples. The rooms modelling were based on the changing parameters of concrete wall thickness and the room dimensions. The annual radiation dose rates to dwellers were found to increase annually over a period of 50 years. The concrete thicknesses were found to have significantly influenced the dose rates in building. The self-absorption occurred when the concrete thickness was thicker than 0.4 m. Results of this study shows that the dose rates received by the dwellers of the building are proportional to the size of the room. In general the study concludes that concrete building materials; Portland cements, sands, and gravels in Peninsular of Malaysia does not pose radiological hazard to the building dwellers. (author)

  10. Assessment of radioactivity in building material(granite) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z. A; Salih, I; Albadwai, K. A; Salih, A. M; Salih, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work radioactivity in building materials (granite) central Sudan was evaluated. In general the building materials used in Sudan are derived either from rocks or soil. These contain trace amounts of naturally occurring radioactive materials(NORMs), so it contains radionuclides from uranium and thorium series and natural potassium. The levels of these radionuclides vary according to the geology of their site of origin. High levels increase the risk of radiation exposure in homes(especially exposure due to radon). Investigation of radioactivity in granite used of the building materials in Sudan is carried out, a total of 18 major samples of granite have been collected and measured using X- ray fluorescence system (30 mci). The activity concentrations have been determined for uranium ("2"3"8U), thorium ('2"3"2Th) and potassium("4"0K) in each sample. The concentrations of uranium have been found to range from 14.81 Bq/kg to 24.572 Bq/kg, thorium between 10.02 Bq/kg and 10.020-84.79 Bq/kg and the potassium concentration varies between 13.33 Bq/kg to 82.13 Bq/kg. Limits of radioactivity in the granite are based on dose criteria for controls. This study can be used as a reference for more extensive studies of the same subject in future. (Author)

  11. Prevention of radioactive gas seeping into buildings through constructive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of possible method of realization of the terrorist acts is using gases and liquids, which easily permeate through the constructive materials of walls, floor, ceiling, roof, etc. into buildings by the capillary action of the pores. Toxic volatile organic compounds, organic and inorganic gases, radioactive elements, especially, which emits alpha particles can be used as the dangerous substances. Increased ventilation may help in removing the gases, but can actually increase the gases level by increasing the suction through the pores of concrete. If the gases and liquids are soluble in water and are easily volatilized from it, they can also get by groundwater up to underground structures and penetrate inside through opening and pores in concrete or pushed by hydrostatic pressure. The purpose of this work is creating a method to reduce concentration of toxic and radioactive gases in homes, buildings, underground buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, bomb shelters, etc. The most effective method to prevent penetration of radionuclides into premises of buildings and underground structures through walls, roofs, floors is using special chemicals, which seal micropores inside the construction materials against gases. Worked out chemicals which consist of blend of polymeric compounds are described in the paper. Radioactive gases permeability in constructive materials after treatment by chemicals was studied. Influence of types of cement, sand and gypsum, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric compounds, time between treatments, moisture of materials, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of materials (aging of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (aging of treated concrete) were examined. Experiments have shown that our method allows reducing the coefficient of gas permeability 200 - 400 times

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of sunscreen active ingredients mediated by nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Vazquez, Loraine

    Water scarcity and pollution are environmental issues with terrible consequences. In recent years several pharmaceutical and personal care products, such as sunscreen active ingredients, have been detected in different water matrices. Its recalcitrant behavior in the environment has caused controversies and generated countless questions about its safety. During this research, we employed an advanced oxidation process (photocatalysis) to degrade sunscreen active ingredients. For this study, we used a 3x3 system, evaluating three photocatalysts and three different contaminants. From the three catalysts employed, two of them were synthesized. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using zinc acetate dihydrated as the precursor, and TiO2 nanowires were synthesized from titanium tetrachloride precursor. The third catalyst employed (namely, P25) was obtained commercially. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the morphology, elemental composition, crystalline structure, elemental oxidation states, vibrational modes and surface area, using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements, respectively. The photocatalysts were employed during the study of the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and benzophenone-4. In all the cases, at least 50% degradation was achieved. P25 showed degradation efficiencies above 90%, and from the nine systems, 7 of them degraded at least 86%.

  13. Moisture measurements in building materials with microwaves; Rakennusmateriaalien kosteusmittauksia mikroaalloilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, H.; Rudolph, M.; Schaurich, D.; Wiggenhauser, H. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Construction and Facility Management

    1998-12-01

    In order to assess the condition and evaluate the reliability of buildings and structures, it is essential to establish the moisture condition of the floor and other structural elements of the building. NDT-methods are increasingly being used for such moisture measurements because they do not cause any damage to the building under investigation. Microwave transmission is one of the NDT-methods and has been in use for several years. In this report, the applicability of the microwave method for measuring moisture in different building materials was investigated. This method has been successfully used at BAM for repeated moisture measurements in brick and sandstone material. This project also included other materials, such as concrete, sand, gravel, insulation and wood. At the same time, information was gathered about in situ moisture determination of building materials with a microwave moisture measuring system. The equipment used in this research has been developed at BAM over the last few years. The method requires two parallel boreholes in the specimen in which two microwave antennae can be moved. The moisture content in the material can be calculated from the microwave intensity transmitted between the two boreholes. Moisture profiles along the boreholes can be obtained by moving the antennae in steps along the length of the boreholes and taking measurements at each step. Special care must be taken while drilling the holes for the antennae, as this process must not affect the moisture condition in the specimen, and the boreholes must be made as parallel to each other as possible. The microwave frequencies used in the laboratory measurements ranged from 8 to 16,5 GHz in steps of 0,5 GHz. The diameters of the antennae were between 7 and 9 mm, and of the boreholes between 8 and 12 mm. Except for the concrete specimen, all the specimens were measured using plastic tubes in the boreholes. The moisture content measured by the microwave technique was verified by the

  14. Assessment of the material properties of a fire damaged building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo OLOMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies a process for assessing the material properties of a fire damaged building so as to determine whether the remains can be utilized in construction or be demolished. Physical and chemical analysis were carried out on concrete and steel samples taken from various elements of the building after thorough visual inspection of the entire building had been conducted. The physical (non-destructive tests included the Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests on the concrete samples, tensile strength test on the steel samples and chemical tests involving the assessment of the quantities of cement, sulphates and chloride concentrations in the samples. A redesign of the building elements was also carried out and the results were compared with the existing design. The non-destructive test results indicated compressive strengths as low as 9.9 N/mm2, the tensile strength test indicated a maximum strength of 397.48 N/mm2 and the chemical test indicated chloride contents as high as 0.534 g per gramme of concrete. These properties deviated significantly from standard requirements. Based on these results, it was concluded that the remains of the building should be demolished.

  15. Drying and wetting of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book, Drying and Wetting of Building Materials and Components, provides a collection of recent contributions in the field of drying and wetting in porous building materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  16. Regularities of radiation defects build up on oxide materials surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitenbaev, M.I.; Polyakov, A.I.; Tuseev, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of experimental data by radiation defects study on different oxide elements (silicon, beryllium, aluminium, rare earth elements) irradiated by the photo-, gamma-, neutron-, alpha- radiation, protons and helium ions show, that gas adsorption process on the surface centers and radiation defects build up in metal oxide correlated between themselves. These processes were described by the equivalent kinetic equations for analysis of radiation defects build up in the different metal oxides. It was revealed in the result of the analysis: number of radiation defects are droningly increasing up to limit value with the treatment temperature growth. Constant of radicals death at ionizing radiation increases as well. Amount of surface defects in different oxides defining absorbing activity of these materials looks as: silicon oxide→beryllium oxide→aluminium oxide. So it was found, that most optimal material for absorbing system preparation is silicon oxide by it power intensity and berylium oxide by it adsorption efficiency

  17. Simulation of energy- efficient building prototype using different insulating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaibi, Salma; Belouaggadia, Naoual; Lbibb, Rachid; Ezzine, Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the energetic efficiency of an individual building including an area of 130 m2 multi-zone, located in the region of FEZ which is characterized by a very hot and dry climate in summer and a quite cold one in winter, by incorporating insulating materials. This study was performed using TRNSYS V16 simulation software during a typical year of the FEZ region. Our simulation consists in developing a comparative study of two types of polystyrene and silica-aerogel insulation materials, in order to determine the best thermal performance. The results show that the thermal insulation of the building envelope is among the most effective solutions that give a significant reduction in energy requirements. Similarly, the use of silica-aerogels gives a good thermal performance, and therefore a good energy gain.

  18. Study on reactor building structure using ultrahigh strength materials, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimura, Kikuo; Odajima, Masahiro; Irino, Kazuo; Hashiba, Toshio.

    1991-01-01

    This study was promoted to be aimed at realization of the optimal nuclear reactor building structure of the future. As the first step, the study regarding ultrahigh strength reinforced concrete (abbr. RC) shear wall was selected. As the result of various tests, the application of ultrahigh strength RC shear walls was verified. The tests conducted were relevant to; ultrahigh strength concrete material tests; pure shear tests of RC flat panels; and bending shear tests and its simulation analysis of RC shear walls. (author)

  19. Oriented strand board: new material for building construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridah Md Tahir; Ong, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper will attempt to show the suitability and competitiveness of oriented strand board (OSB) in building construction. One important factor underlining the success of this product is the availability of the wood raw material. Plantation timbers such as rubberwood, paraserianthes falcataria, acacia crassicarpa, A. auriculiformis and A. mangium have been identified as the major source of this industry. We will focus on the domestic market as well as export market especially on the Asia Pacific region

  20. Valorisation of phosphogypsum as building material: Radiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayibi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, alternative uses of phosphogypsum (PG in the building industry are being considered in several countries; however, the natural radioactivity level in the PG could be a restriction for those uses. United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA classified PG as Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM. This drawback could be avoided controlling its percentage in the cement preparation and the radionuclides content in the other raw materials used in its production, and calculating the activity concentration index (I in the final by-products. The valorization of PG as a building material has been studied, from a radiological point of view, by developing a new stabilisation/solidification process. PG is incorporated within a polymeric sulphur matrix, obtaining a concrete-like material, which presents lower natural radioactive content than the initial PG. The 226Ra content of this material ranged between 26-27 Bq·kg-1 and it is quite similar to that of common Spanish building materials.

    Actualmente, en muchos países se está contemplando el uso alternativo del fosfoyeso (PG en la industria de la construcción, aunque su contenido en radionucleidos naturales puede presentar ciertas restricciones para dicha aplicación (material clasificado por la US-EPA como TENORM: “Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Materials. No obstante, estos inconvenientes podrían paliarse controlando el porcentaje del PG y los niveles de radioactividad en las materias primas a incorporar al cemento y calculando el índice de concentración de actividad (I en los productos finales. La valorización del PG como material de construcción se ha estudiado en este trabajo desde el punto de vista radiológico, desarrollando un nuevo proceso de estabilización/solidificación, obteniéndose un material de características similares al cemento y que presenta menor contenido de radionucleidos naturales que el

  1. ANALYSIS OF BIODEGRABILITY OF DEGRADABLE/BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC MATERIAL IN CONTROLLED COMPOSTING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Adamcová

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have obtained eight degradable/biodegradable materials based on starch (certified compostable, sample 4–7, HDPE mixed with totally degradable plastic additive (TDPA, sample 2 and polyethylene with the addition of pro-oxidant additive (d2w, sample 1. Composition of sample 3 has not been reported. The materials have been tested as to the rate and character of their degradability/biodegradability in controlled composting conditions. Experiment explored also the effect of degradation/biodegradation of plastic bags on compost quality. The material of the original samples was subjected to assessment using the Nicolet 6700 FT-IR spectrometer, the outcome thereof was obtaining infrared spectra of the samples. For further specification the original samples were tested using the thermogravimetrical analysis. The texture of the foils at different stages of degradation is presented in the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM photographs. Plastic bags certified as compostable have degraded in laboratory conditions and their degradation had no impact on the quality and features of compost. Selected samples (4, 6 showed significant erosion on surface when subjected to the SEM analysis. Samples labeled (by their producers as 100% degradable (samples 1, 2, 3 did not show any visual signs of degradation and the process of degradation had no impact on the quality and features of compost. Only one of the samples (sample 1 showed certain erosion of surface when submitted for the SEM analysis.

  2. Methods of measurement and evaluation of natural radionuclide contents in buildings, at building sites, and in building materials and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The recommendations should serve as guidelines for specifying the scope of measurement and ways of evaluating the measuring results when satisfying the relevant requirements laid down by the Czech Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) and Decree No. 184/1997 in the field of natural radiation sources occurring in the environment without deliberate use. The document consists of the following sections: Methodology for the measurement and assessment of natural exposure of persons in dwelling rooms of buildings; Methodology of determination of the radon risk of building sites; Principles of systematic measurement and evaluation of natural radionuclide contents of building materials; and Principles of systematic measurement and evaluation of natural radionuclide contents of supplied water. (P.A.)

  3. Cold storage with phase change material for building ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Butala, Vincenc; Stritih, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical analysis of building coolingusing night-time cold accumulation in phase change material (PCM), otherwise known as the "free-cooling" or "passive-cooling" principle. The phase change materials were used in ceilings and floors. The free-cooling principle is explained and some of the types of PCMs suitable for summer cooling are listed. An experiment was conducted using paraffin with a melting point of 22 °C as the PCM to store cold during the ni...

  4. Stone material investigations of the Riga Stock Exchange building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaune-Blumberga, S.; Vitina, I.; Lindina, L.; Timma, I.; Barbane, I.

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the stone material investigation of former Riga Stock Exchange building and presents the following aspects: characterization of materials, analyses of mortars for sealing and cladding of artificial marble, decors, bricks, render of sealing, analyses of soluble salts, analyses of deteriorated granite surface of foundation. The last damage by fire was in 1979 which caused the collapse of the roof and consequently an infiltration of rain water. The conditions of the objects were found in very bad condition-deterioration represented by salt efflorescence's, cracking and in very large areas there was a complete loss of the artificial marble (stucco marble).

  5. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  6. Neutron activation of building materials used in the reactor shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A.T.; Perez, G.; D'Alessandro, K.

    1993-01-01

    Cuban concretes and their main components (mineral aggregates and cement) were investigated through long-lived activation products induced by neutrons from a reactor. The multielemental content in the materials studied was obtained by neutron activation analysis in an IBR-2 reactor and gamma activation analysis in an MT-25 microtron from Join Institute of Nuclear Research of Dubna. After irradiation of building materials for 30 years by a neutron flow of unitary density, induced radioactivity was calculated according to experimental data. The comparative evaluation of different concretes aggregates and two types of cement related to the activation properties is discussed

  7. Stone material investigations of the Riga Stock Exchange building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igaune-Blumberga, S; Vitina, I; Lindina, L; Timma, I; Barbane, I

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the stone material investigation of former Riga Stock Exchange building and presents the following aspects: characterization of materials, analyses of mortars for sealing and cladding of artificial marble, decors, bricks, render of sealing, analyses of soluble salts, analyses of deteriorated granite surface of foundation. The last damage by fire was in 1979 which caused the collapse of the roof and consequently an infiltration of rain water. The conditions of the objects were found in very bad condition-deterioration represented by salt efflorescence's, cracking and in very large areas there was a complete loss of the artificial marble (stucco marble).

  8. Radiological impact assessment of building materials on ordinary houses dwellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.P. de.

    1994-01-01

    The radiological impact due to building materials on habitants living in the Santo Andre district of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was assessed through the total effective dose equivalent rate determination, for external and internal irradiation. The effective dose equivalent rate for external irradiation was calculated by the gamma spectrometry determination of natural radionuclides specific activity in the dwelling materials. The effective dose equivalent rate due to 222 Rn inhalation was calculated through the radon indoor activity determination by using solid state nuclear track detectors. (author). 46 refs, 6 figs, 14 tabs

  9. Spectral Signatures of Surface Materials in Pig Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, GuoQiang; Strøm, Jan; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    . In this study, the optical properties of different types of surfaces to be cleaned and the dirt found in finishing pig units were investigated in the visual and the near infrared (VIS-NIR) optical range. Four types of commonly used materials in pig buildings, i.e. concrete, plastic, wood and steel were applied...... and after high-pressure water cleaning. The spectral signatures of the surface materials and dirt attached to the surfaces showed that it is possible to make discrimination and hence to classify areas that are visually clean. When spectral bands 450, 600, 700 and 800 nm are chosen, there are at least two...

  10. Bioinspired Design of Building Materials for Blast and Ballistic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacre in abalone shell exhibits high toughness despite the brittle nature of its major constituent (i.e., aragonite. Its specific structure is a major contributor to the energy absorption capacity of nacre. This paper reviews the mechanisms behind the performance of nacre under shear, uniaxial tension, compression, and bending conditions. The remarkable combination of stiffness and toughness on nacre can motivate the development of bioinspired building materials for impact resistance applications, and the possible toughness designs of cement-based and clay-based composite materials with a layered and staggered structure were discussed.

  11. Influence of temperature on strain monitoring of degradation in concrete containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.; Jaffer, S.; Angell, P.

    2015-01-01

    Concrete containment buildings (CCBs) are important safety structures in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The CCBs can be made of reinforced and post-tensioned (P-T) concrete. Post-tensioning concrete induces compressive stresses, which have to be overcome for the concrete to crack under tensile loads. However, post-tensioned CCBs may undergo pre-stressing losses as they age, which could affect their performance under accident conditions. CANDU 6 reactor buildings contain grouted post-tensioned tendons as the primary reinforcement. The grouting of the tendons makes direct monitoring of pre-stressing losses via lift-off testing impossible. Therefore, instruments have been installed on an existing reactor building to measure and monitor strains and stresses in the concrete and the deformation of the concrete structure to detect aging degradation and indirectly evaluate the pre-stressing losses. However, the instrumentation readings are affected by temporary volume changes in the concrete caused by the influence of environmental factors, particularly temperature, on concrete. In this work, the focus is on developing an understanding of the effect of temperature on the interpretation of instrumentation data from a reactor building. Vibrating Wire Strain Gauge (VWSG) data has been analysed. The influence of concrete coefficient of thermal expansion and temperature distribution within the reactor building walls, on VWSG data, is discussed based on the analysis of the available instrumentation data and available numerical simulation results. The present study demonstrates that temperature distribution within the containment concrete has a significant impact on the VWSG measurements and the coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is an important factor in the correction of VWSG data for thermal strain. It is recommended that VWSG data obtained over small temperature variations be considered for interpretation to assess pre-stressing losses. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of internal/external exposure from interior building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Morita-Murase, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Internal exposure to alpha particles emitted from 222 Rn (radon) and its daughters is the second leading cause of lung cancer. As a source of indoor radon in home, there are interior building materials that contain radioactive minerals. These radioactive consumer products have been claimed by distributors to have effect of 'minus-ion' or 'radon spring' for healthy promotion. We analyzed radioactive nuclides contained in the interior building materials, and measured radon levels released from them. The results of gamma-ray spectrometry revealed that these interior building materials contain U- and Th-series nuclides. The densities of some radioactive nuclides in the tile used for a bathroom exceeded the exempt limits of International Basic Safety Standards. However, the radon densities released from the tile was lower than detectable limit. In contrast, one of the wallpaper released 34 Bq·m -3 of radon gas in a 50-liter container. This value is two times higher than the average radon level in Japanese homes. The minus-ion effect' wallpapers are thought to be a cause of residential exposure to radon. (author)

  13. Natural radioactivity of building materials coming from a volcanic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, V.; Pugliese, M.; Sabbarese, C.; D'Onofrio, A.; Lubritto, C.; Terrasi, F.; Ermice, A.; Inglima, I.; Migliore, G.

    2004-01-01

    Radioactivity was found to be very high in tuff and other materials originating from volcanic lava. Emanation of radon from such materials is appreciably higher than from materials of other origin. This work allowed us to obtain a first complete database of natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials from this region. Measurements were carried out by means of a gamma spectrometry system. Gamma emitting daughter products of 222 Rn were measured to determine 226 Ra. The samples, after a routine treatment, were accommodated in sealed metallic containers for a time sufficient for the equilibrium to establish. The determination of the radon emanation power was carried out by using an electrostatic monitor. Alpha spectroscopy of radon daughters was used to evaluate the content of radon coming from the sample

  14. Upgrading of highly elapsed degradation damage evaluation of structural materials for the light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, Yasuyuki; Matsushima, Shinobu; Sato, Shunji

    1998-01-01

    In this study, for degradation of structural materials in accompanying with highly yearly lapse of the nuclear power plants, it was an aim to elucidate interaction between material degradation and degradation under high hot water environment. And, another aims consisted in intention of expansion protection and recovery evaluation of damage due to laser processing method and so on for welded portion showing extreme material degradation and in preparation of damage region diagram based on the obtained data. In this fiscal year, on interaction between materials and environmental degradation, it was found that as stress corrosion cracking of materials hardened by shot peening shows a resemble shapes of stress-strain curve in CERT and CLRT, shapes of load-time curve were much different. On comparison of the SP material and non-processing material, as peak current showing activity of newly created surface shows no difference, re-passivation of the SP material was found to be too late. And, on recovery evaluation of material degradation damage, as it was found that constant melt depth was essential to evaluate corrosion, a condition preparation aimed for melt depth of more than 1 mm. As only small amount of bubbles were observed at molten metal part on YAG laser processing, it was found that many small bubbles scatter at thermal effect part. (G.K.)

  15. Natural radioactivity of building materials used in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, M. [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

    2002-03-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactive content of building materials used in Malaysia. The materials analysed include both old and new clay bricks, cement bricks, mortar, cement, sands, ceramic tiles and gypsum. Samples of the first three materials were collected from the 12 states of the Malay Peninsula. Radium-226 (from the U-238 series) and Ra-228 (from the Th-232 series), these both representing naturally occurring radionuclides, were analysed using high-resolution HpGe gamma spectrometers. The results of our investigations showed that some old clay bricks contain high levels (at more than 5 times the normal soil concentration) of natural radionuclides, with maximum concentrations of 590 Bq/kg and 480 Bq/kg for respectively Ra-226 and Ra-228. The reasons behind this finding were not clearly understood. As there are people living in old buildings, i.e. built using old clay bricks, there is a possibility that they are being exposed to significant radiation doses. However, there proved to be no significant overall difference between old and new clay bricks in terms of the natural radioactivity levels determined, at a 95% confidence level. The overall mean concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 observed in Malaysian clay bricks were respectively 118 {+-} 58 Bq/kg and 120 {+-} 42 Bq/kg. The radioactive content of other materials was found to be not much different from that to be determined in normal soil from Malaysia. The data obtained can be used as a basis for reaching decisions on the regulatory limits for radioactivity levels in building materials in Malaysia. (orig.)

  16. Molecular Clusters: Nanoscale Building Blocks for Solid-State Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkard, Andrew; Champsaur, Anouck M; Roy, Xavier

    2018-04-17

    The programmed assembly of nanoscale building blocks into multicomponent hierarchical structures is a powerful strategy for the bottom-up construction of functional materials. To develop this concept, our team has explored the use of molecular clusters as superatomic building blocks to fabricate new classes of materials. The library of molecular clusters is rich with exciting properties, including diverse functionalization, redox activity, and magnetic ordering, so the resulting cluster-assembled solids, which we term superatomic crystals (SACs), hold the promise of high tunability, atomic precision, and robust architectures among a diverse range of other material properties. Molecular clusters have only seldom been used as precursors for functional materials. Our team has been at the forefront of new developments in this exciting research area, and this Account focuses on our progress toward designing materials from cluster-based precursors. In particular, this Account discusses (1) the design and synthesis of molecular cluster superatomic building blocks, (2) their self-assembly into SACs, and (3) their resulting collective properties. The set of molecular clusters discussed herein is diverse, with different cluster cores and ligand arrangements to create an impressive array of solids. The cluster cores include octahedral M 6 E 8 and cubane M 4 E 4 (M = metal; E = chalcogen), which are typically passivated by a shell of supporting ligands, a feature upon which we have expanded upon by designing and synthesizing more exotic ligands that can be used to direct solid-state assembly. Building from this library, we have designed whole families of binary SACs where the building blocks are held together through electrostatic, covalent, or van der Waals interactions. Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) to determine the atomic structure, a remarkable range of compositional variability is accessible. We can also use this technique, in tandem with vibrational

  17. Estimation of material degradation of VVER-1000 baffle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Davit; Koš'ál, Michal; Vandlík, Stanislav; Hojná, Anna; Schulc, Martin; Flibor, Stanislav

    2017-09-01

    The planned lifetime of the first commercial VVER-1000 units were designed for 30 to 35 years. Most of the early VVER plants are now reaching and/or passing the 35-year mark. Service life extension for another 10 to 30 years is now under investigation. Life extension requires the evaluation of pressure vessel internals degradation under long-term irradiation. One of the possible limiting factors for the service life of VVERs is a void swelling of the Russian type titanium stabilized stainless 08Ch18N10T steel used to construct the baffle surrounding the core. This article aims to show first steps towards deeper analysis of the baffle degradation process and to demonstrate the possibilities of precise calculation and measurements on the VVER-1000 mock-up in LR-0 reactor.

  18. Luminescence dosimetry using building materials and personal objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeksu, H. Y.; Bailiff, I. K.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing public awareness of the risk of accidental radiation exposure due to ageing nuclear power installations, illegal dumping of nuclear waste and terrorist activities, and of the consequential health risks to populations in addition to social and economic disturbance extending beyond national boundaries. In the event of catastrophic incidents where no direct radiation monitoring data are available, the application of retrospective dosimetry techniques such as luminescence may be employed with materials from the immediate environment to confirm values of cumulative gamma dose to compare with or augment computational modeling calculations. Application of the method to post-Chernobyl studies has resulted in the development of new procedures using fired building materials with the capability to measure cumulative doses owing to artificial sources of gamma radiation as low as 20 mGy. Combined with Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport, values of cumulative dose in brick can be presented in a form suitable for use in dose-reconstruction efforts. Recent investigations have also shown that certain types of cementitious building material, including concrete, mortar and plaster, and personal objects in the form of telephone cards containing microchips and dental ceramics have the potential to be used for retrospective dosimetry. Examples of the most recent research concerning new materials and examples of application to sites in the Former Soviet Union are discussed. (authors)

  19. Radon exhalation from building materials for decorative use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jing, E-mail: jing.chen@hc-sc.gc.c [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada); Rahman, Naureen M.; Atiya, Ibrahim Abu [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    Long-term exposure to radon increases the risk of developing lung cancer. There is considerable public concern about radon exhalation from building materials and the contribution to indoor radon levels. To address this concern, radon exhalation rates were determined for 53 different samples of drywall, tile and granite available on the Canadian market for interior home decoration. The radon exhalation rates ranged from non-detectable to 312 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Slate tiles and granite slabs had relatively higher radon exhalation rates than other decorative materials, such as ceramic or porcelain tiles. The average radon exhalation rates were 30 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for slate tiles and 42 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for granite slabs of various types and origins. Analysis showed that even if an entire floor was covered with a material having a radon exhalation rate of 300 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, it would contribute only 18 Bq m{sup -3} to a tightly sealed house with an air exchange rate of 0.3 per hour. Generally speaking, building materials used in home decoration make no significant contribution to indoor radon for a house with adequate air exchange.

  20. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing

  1. Identification Damage Model for Thermomechanical Degradation of Ductile Heterogeneous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, A. El; Yakhloufi, M. H. El; Khamlichi, A.

    2017-05-01

    The failure of ductile materials subject to high thermal and mechanical loading rates is notably affected by material inertia. The mechanisms of fatigue-crack propagation are examined with particular emphasis on the similarities and differences between cyclic crack growth in ductile materials, such as metals, and corresponding behavior in brittle materials, such as intermetallic and ceramics. Numerical simulations of crack propagation in a cylindrical specimen demonstrate that the proposed method provides an effective means to simulate ductile fracture in large scale cylindrical structures with engineering accuracy. The influence of damage on the intensity of the destruction of materials is studied as well.

  2. Stone Dust Agglomeration for Utilizing as Building Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we discuss the possibility of using stone dust for utilizing as building material. The tested material was amphibolite, found in the Sudeten Mountains and the Tatra Mountains in Poland. The chemical composition of dust was determined by means of spectrometry methods. Moreover, the basic physical properties of the material were designated. Stone dust was mixed with starch or cement binder. The binder addition was from 5% to 20% by weight. The water content was adjusted to about 25% humidity. The mixture was then compressed in a hydraulic press at 50 MPa. The results of the mechanical toughness of agglomerates were shown. On the basis of the results, acceptable toughness of agglomerates was found, with the addition of cement in mass share 20% and seasoning for 48 hours. However, starch was not suitable as a binder for agglomeration of amphibolite.

  3. Waste Foundry Sand Usage for Building Material Production: A First Geopolymer Record in Material Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Doğan-Sağlamtimur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to bring a solution to the problem of waste foundry sand (WFS in the foundry sector and achieve its reuse, geopolymer building material (as a cementless technology was produced from the WFS for the first time in the literature in this study. The physical and mechanical characteristics of this material were determined. In the first part of the experimental step, the sieve analysis, loose/tight unit weight, and loss of ignition of the WFS were obtained as well as the ultimate analysis. In the second step, the water absorption percentage, porosity, unit weight, and compressive strength tests were conducted on the WFS-based geopolymer specimens activated by chemical binders (sodium hydroxide: NaOH and sodium silicate: Na2SiO3. As the unit weights of all the produced samples were lower than 1.6 g/cm3, they may be considered as lightweight building materials. The minimum compressive strength value for building wall materials was accepted as 2.5 MPa by national standards. In this study, the maximum compressive strength value was measured as 12.3 MPa for the mixture incorporation of 30% Na2SiO3 at the curing temperature of 200°C in 28 days. It was concluded that this geopolymer material is suitable for using as a building wall material.

  4. Experimental Study on the Comparison of the Material Properties of Glass Wool Used as Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Woo KIM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial mineral fibers such as glass wool or stone wool are commonly used in building walls, ceilings and floors as a major insulation material for buildings. Among the material properties of building materials, thermal conductivity, the sound absorption coefficient, compressibility, and dynamic stiffness are regarded as important performance requirements since they directly affect the thermal and acoustic properties of the building. This study measured the changes of the thermal and acoustical performances of glass wool that was actually installed for a long time to the outer wall of a building as an insulation material through a comparison with recently produced glass wool. The results showed that the measured thermal conductivities of the old and the new specimens both rise with an increase of temperature, showing quite similar results in both specimens over temperature ranges of (0 – 20 ºC. The noise reduction coefficient decreased by 0.1 in the old specimen and the difference of the compressibilities in both specimens was shown to be 7.32 mm. The dynamic stiffness of the old specimen was found to be 1.28 MN/m3 higher than that of the new specimen.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3714

  5. Natural radioactivity in Slovak construction materials and the indoor dose rate from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanekova, H.; Vladar, M.

    1998-01-01

    For keeping the population exposure al low as reasonably achievable (recommended by the Slovak regulations), the radioactive content of primordial radionuclides in building materials and products have not to exceed 370 Bq kg -1 of radium equivalent activity and 120 Bq kg -1 of 226 Ra. Samples of building materials (cement, stone, fly-ash, light concrete, slag, dross, sand dolomite. etc.) user for construction of the residential buildings were collected, milled and screened with 2-3 cm sieve. After drying, the samples were stored in 450 cm 3 sealed polyethylene containers for a 30 day period. All samples were measured in a 4 π geometry usually for 60,000 seconds. Measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K concentrations were carried out by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The primordial radionuclides 226 and 232 Th were assessed through their progeny photo-peaks 214 Bi (609 keV), 214 Pb (295 keV, 351 keV) 228 Ac (338 keV, 911 keV) and 212 Pb (238 keV). The specific activity of both nuclides has been determined as weighted average of their photo-peaks. 40 K was measured directly via its 1460 keV peak. Until now, about 600 samples of building materials have been measured. The obtained radium equivalent activity in various types of building materials and mean annual effective doses of gamma radiation are presented. (J.K.)

  6. On the Influence of the Sample Absorptivity when Studying the Thermal Degradation of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Boulet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The change in absorptivity during the degradation process of materials is discussed, and its influence as one of the involved parameters in the degradation models is studied. Three materials with very different behaviors are used for the demonstration of its role: a carbon composite material, which is opaque, almost grey, a plywood slab, which is opaque and spectral-dependent and a clear PMMA slab, which is semitransparent. Data are analyzed for virgin and degraded materials at different steps of thermal degradation. It is seen that absorptivity and emissivity often reach high values in the range of 0.90–0.95 with a near-grey behavior after significant thermal aggression, but depending on the materials of interest, some significant evolution may be first observed, especially during the early stages of the degradation. Supplementary inaccuracy can come from the heterogeneity of the incident flux on the slab. As a whole, discrepancies up to 20% can be observed on the absorbed flux depending on the degradation time, mainly because of the spectral variations of the absorption and up to 10% more, depending on the position on the slab. Simple models with a constant and unique value of absorptivity may then lead to inaccuracies in the evaluation of the radiative flux absorption, with possible consequences on the pyrolysis analysis, especially for properties related to the early step of the degradation process, like the time to ignition, for example.

  7. On the Influence of the Sample Absorptivity when Studying the Thermal Degradation of Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Pascal; Brissinger, Damien; Collin, Anthony; Acem, Zoubir; Parent, Gilles

    2015-08-21

    The change in absorptivity during the degradation process of materials is discussed, and its influence as one of the involved parameters in the degradation models is studied. Three materials with very different behaviors are used for the demonstration of its role: a carbon composite material, which is opaque, almost grey, a plywood slab, which is opaque and spectral-dependent and a clear PMMA slab, which is semitransparent. Data are analyzed for virgin and degraded materials at different steps of thermal degradation. It is seen that absorptivity and emissivity often reach high values in the range of 0.90-0.95 with a near-grey behavior after significant thermal aggression, but depending on the materials of interest, some significant evolution may be first observed, especially during the early stages of the degradation. Supplementary inaccuracy can come from the heterogeneity of the incident flux on the slab. As a whole, discrepancies up to 20% can be observed on the absorbed flux depending on the degradation time, mainly because of the spectral variations of the absorption and up to 10% more, depending on the position on the slab. Simple models with a constant and unique value of absorptivity may then lead to inaccuracies in the evaluation of the radiative flux absorption, with possible consequences on the pyrolysis analysis, especially for properties related to the early step of the degradation process, like the time to ignition, for example.

  8. Advanced Materials for RSOFC Dual Operation with Low Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric, Tang; Tony, Wood; Sofiane, Benhaddad; Casey, Brown; Hongpeng, He; Jeff, Nelson; Oliver, Grande; Ben, Nuttall; Mark, Richards; Randy, Petri

    2012-12-27

    Reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs) are energy conversion devices. They are capable of operating in both power generation mode (SOFC) and electrolysis modes (SOEC). RSOFC can integrate renewable production of electricity and hydrogen when power generation and steam electrolysis are coupled in a system, which can turn intermittent solar and wind energy into "firm power." In this DOE EERE project, VPS continuously advanced RSOFC cell stack technology in the areas of endurance and performance. Over 20 types of RSOFC cells were developed in the project. Many of those exceeded performance (area specific resistance less than 300 mohmcm2) and endurance (degradation rate less than 4% per 1000 hours) targets in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes at 750C. One of those cells, RSOFC-7, further demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Ultra high current electrolysis over 3 A/cm2 at 75% water electrolysis efficiency voltage of 1.67 V. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of over 600 days with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Over 6000 SOFC/SOEC cycles in an accelerated 20-minute cycling with degradation less than 3% per 1000 cycles. In RSOFC stack development, a number of kW-class RSOFC stacks were developed and demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis operation of over 5000 hours. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of 100 cycles. Scale up capability of using large area cells with 550 cm2 active area showing the potential for large-scale RSOFC stack development in the future. Although this project is an open-ended development project, this effort, leveraging Versa Power Systems' years of development experience, has the potential to bring renewable energy RSOFC storage systems significantly closer to commercial viability through improvements in RSOFC durability, performance, and cost. When unitized and deployed in renewable solar and wind installations, an RSOFC system can enable higher

  9. Main chain acid-degradable polymers for the delivery of bioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechet, Jean M. J. [Oakland, CA; Standley, Stephany M [Evanston, IL; Jain, Rachna [Milpitas, CA; Lee, Cameron C [Cambridge, MA

    2012-03-20

    Novel main chain acid degradable polymer backbones and drug delivery systems comprised of materials capable of delivering bioactive materials to cells for use as vaccines or other therapeutic agents are described. The polymers are synthesized using monomers that contain acid-degradable linkages cleavable under mild acidic conditions. The main chain of the resulting polymers readily degrade into many small molecules at low pH, but remain relatively stable and intact at physiological pH. The new materials have the common characteristic of being able to degrade by acid hydrolysis under conditions commonly found within the endosomal or lysosomal compartments of cells thereby releasing their payload within the cell. The materials can also be used for the delivery of therapeutics to the acidic regions of tumors and other sites of inflammation.

  10. Reprocessing of metallurgical slag into materials for the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioro, L.S.; Pioro, I.L.

    2004-01-01

    Several methods of reprocessing metallurgical (blast furnace) slag into materials for the building industry, based on melting aggregates with submerged combustion, were developed and tested. The first method involves melting hot slag with some additives directly in a slag ladle with a submerged gas-air burner, with the objective of producing stabilized slag or glass-ceramic. The second method involves direct draining of melted slag from a ladle into the slag receiver, with subsequent control of the slag draining into the converter where special charging materials are added to the melt, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic. A third method involves melting cold slag with some additives inside a melting converter with submerged gas-air burners, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic fillers for use in road construction. Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside the melt. This feature provides melt bubbling to help achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, improve mixing (and therefore homogeneity of the melt), and increases the rate of chemical reactions. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed methods are presented. The reprocessed blast-furnace slag in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concretes, asphalts, and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials. As well, reprocessed blast-furnace slag can be poured into forms for the production of glass-ceramic tiles

  11. Modeling gamma radiation dose in dwellings due to building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter; van Dijk, Willem

    2008-01-01

    A model is presented that calculates the absorbed dose rate in air of gamma radiation emitted by building materials in a rectangular body construction. The basis for these calculations is formed by a fixed set of specific absorbed dose rates (the dose rate per Bq kg(-1) 238U, 232Th, and 40K), as determined for a standard geometry with the dimensions 4 x 5 x 2.8 m3. Using the computer codes Marmer and MicroShield, correction factors are assessed that quantify the influence of several room and material related parameters on the specific absorbed dose rates. The investigated parameters are the position in the construction; the thickness, density, and dimensions of the construction parts; the contribution from the outer leave; the presence of doors and windows; the attenuation by internal partition walls; the contribution from building materials present in adjacent rooms; and the effect of non-equilibrium due to 222Rn exhalation. To verify the precision, the proposed method is applied to three Dutch reference dwellings, i.e., a row house, a coupled house, and a gallery apartment. The averaged difference with MCNP calculations is found to be 4%.

  12. Natural Radioactivity in some building materials from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro, C. [Universidad de Extremadura (UEX), 10071-Caceres (Spain); Madruga, M.J.; Reis, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Studies of natural radiation are of great importance because it is the main source of exposure of human kind. Building materials is one of the sources which cause direct radiation exposure because of their radium, thorium and potassium content. The aim of this work is to measure gamma activity due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in samples of commonly used as a building materials in Spain. Cement, gypsum, plaster, marble, slates, granite and wood had been analysed. These materials are used for private and public building. Radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}) and various hazard indices were also calculated to assess the radiation hazard. Results were also compared with the data available in the literature for other countries of the world. Cement, gypsum and plaster samples were collected from hardware stores. Marble, slates and granite samples were taken from different quarries. And the wood samples were taken from eucalyptus trees from forest. Activity concentrations {sup 40}K-, {sup 226}Ra- and {sup 232}Th-activity was determined by gamma spectrometry using a HPGe coaxial detector. The results show that the range of average values of the activity concentrations due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found between 37 and 1340 Bq/kg, 0.007 and 104 Bq/kg, and <0.005 and 75 Bq/kg, respectively. Maxima values were obtained in granite. Radium equivalent activities range from 3.7 Bq/kg to 283 Bq/kg, calculated in wood and granite, respectively. Therefore all the samples showed Raeq activities within the limit, 370 Bq/kg, set by UNSCEAR. Values of external hazard index for all samples under investigation are below the unity, while the internal hazard index for granite exhibits a value around the unity. Acknowledgements to the financial support of the Junta de Extremadura (project PRI09A092 and FEDER-group GRU09053). (authors)

  13. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  14. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  15. Degradation of dyestuff materials by fenton oxidation, Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrour, Kh.; Hachem, Ch.; Karabet, F.

    2008-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of various kinds of dyes (Azo carmine B, Tartrazine, Calcon, Methyle Orange, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue G 250, Methylene Blue, Bismark Brown Y(G) and Black 5) have been studied using Fenton's reagent (Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 ). Many experiments were carried out on Azo carmine B as a model with initial concentration of 10 -4 to investigate the process's optimal conditions, pH, H 2 O 2 dosage, Fe 2+ dosage , temperature. The optimal conditions found were: pH=3, [H 2 O 2 ]=3 x 10 -3 M, [Fe 2+ ]=10 -4 M, t=60 Centigrade. under these contritions it was observed that Azo carmine B can be degraded at high extent (96.46%) after 50 min, however, the mineralization reached only (31.2%) in term of TOC and (41.1%) in term of COD. Results show that dyes are decomposed in two-stage reaction. In the first stage (Fe 2= /H 2 O 2 ) dyes decomposes rapidly within 0.5-5 min and the reaction obeys the pseudo-first-order. In the second stage (Fe 3+ /H 2 O 2 ) the dye decomposition is somewhat less rapidly, and the reaction follows the first order rate kinetic with respect to the dye concentration. (author)

  16. Assessment on urban soil pollution by biocides from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . Based on a monitoring study of stormwater runoff from a residential catchment as well as direct façade runoff analysis, the present study was assessing the pollution of urban soil to biocides from building material. The stormwater runoff of a residential catchment in Silkeborg (Denmark) was monitored...... from a freshly painted or rendered house, it is obvious that a huge part is actually draining directly to the soil and not to the sewer system. Consequently, the soil in urban areas is exposed to stormwater highly polluted by biocides which might affect the microbial community there....

  17. Determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildesø, J.; Wurtz, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2003-01-01

    The release and transport of fungal spores from water-damaged building materials is a key factor for understanding the exposure to particles of fungal origin as a possible cause of adverse health effects associated to growth of fungi indoors. In this study, the release of spores from nine species...... of typical indoor fungi has been measured under controlled conditions. The fungi were cultivated for a period of 4-6 weeks on sterilized wet wallpapered gypsum boards at a relative humidity (RH) of approximately 97%. A specially designed small chamber (P-FLEC) was placed on the gypsum board. The release...

  18. Radiological risk of building materials using homemade airtight radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norafatin Khalid; Amran Abdul Majid; Redzuwan Yahaya; Muhammad Samudi Yasir

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Soil based building materials known to contain various amounts of natural radionuclide mainly 238 U and 232 Th series and 40 K. In general most individuals spend 80 % of their time indoors and the natural radioactivity in building materials is a main source of indoor radiation exposure. The internal exposure due to building materials in dwellings and workplaces is mainly caused by the activity concentrations of short lived 222 Radon and its progenies which arise from the decay of 226 Ra. In this study, the indoor radon concentration emanating from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were measured in a homemade airtight radon chamber using continuous radon monitor 1029 model of Sun Nuclear. Radon monitor were left in the chamber for 96 hours with an hour counting time interval. From the result, the indoor radon concentrations for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples determined were 396 Bq m -3 , 192 Bq m -3 , 176 Bq m -3 and 28 Bq m -3 , respectively. The result indicates that the radon concentration in the studied building materials have more than 100 Bq m -3 for example higher than the WHO action level except for Portland cement sample. The calculated annual effective dose for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were determined to be 10 mSv y -1 , 4.85 mSv y -1 , 4.44 mSv y -1 and 0.72 mSv y -1 , respectively. This study showed that all the calculated effective doses generated from indoor radon to dwellers or workers were in the range of limit recommended ICRP action levels for example 3 - 10 mSv y -1 . As consequences, the radiological risk for the dwellers in terms of fatal lifetime cancer risk per million for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement were calculated to be 550, 267, 244 and 40 persons respectively. (author)

  19. Radiological risk of building materials using homemade airtight radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab.; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2014-01-01

    Soil based building materials known to contain various amounts of natural radionuclide mainly 238 U and 232 Th series and 40 K. In general most individuals spend 80% of their time indoors and the natural radioactivity in building materials is a main source of indoor radiation exposure. The internal exposure due to building materials in dwellings and workplaces is mainly caused by the activity concentrations of short lived 222 Radon and its progenies which arise from the decay of 226 Ra. In this study, the indoor radon concentration emanating from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were measured in a homemade airtight radon chamber using continuous radon monitor 1029 model of Sun Nuclear. Radon monitor were left in the chamber for 96 hours with an hour counting time interval. From the result, the indoor radon concentrations for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples determined were 396 Bq m −3 , 192 Bq m −3 , 176 Bq m −3 and 28 Bq m −3 , respectively. The result indicates that the radon concentration in the studied building materials have more than 100 Bq m −3 i.e. higher than the WHO action level except for Portland cement sample. The calculated annual effective dose for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were determined to be 10 mSv y −1 , 4.85 mSv y −1 , 4.44 mSv y −1 and 0.72 mSv y −1 , respectively. This study showed that all the calculated effective doses generated from indoor radon to dwellers or workers were in the range of limit recommended ICRP action levels i.e. 3 - 10 mSv y −1 . As consequences, the radiological risk for the dwellers in terms of fatal lifetime cancer risk per million for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement were calculated to be 550, 267, 244 and 40 persons respectively

  20. Processing of Building Binder Materials to Increase their Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Garmashov, I. S.; Kuzmin, D. E.; Stoyushko, N. Yu; Gladkova, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals modern physical methods of activation of building powder materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of Portland cement. Activated concrete has a number of features that are used as design characteristics of structures and are due to the structure of the activated binder and its contacts with concrete aggregates. These features also have a significant impact on the nature of the destruction of concrete under load, changing the boundaries of its microcracks and durability.

  1. Hyperpolarized Xenon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR of Building Stone Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mauri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated several building stone materials, including minerals and rocks, using continuous flow hyperpolarized xenon (CF-HP NMR spectroscopy to probe the surface composition and porosity. Chemical shift and line width values are consistent with petrographic information. Rare upfield shifts were measured and attributed to the presence of transition metal cations on the surface. The evolution of freshly cleaved rocks exposed to the atmosphere was also characterized. The CF-HP 129Xe NMR technique is non-destructive and it could complement currently used techniques, like porosimetry and microscopy, providing additional information on the chemical nature of the rock surface and its evolution.

  2. Coupling between cracking and chemical degradation in cement based materials: characterisation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognazzi, C.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the durability of concretes used for radioactive waste storage. It has already been shown that the concrete degradation during a storage phenomenon is due to the attack of the cement barrier by the water of the host rock, at ambient temperature. The modelling of this chemical degradation is now validated for un-cracked materials. However, a concrete preexisting crack can exist. In this work, has then been particularly studied the influence of a crack on the long term chemical degradation. The studies have been carried out on a mortar cracked mechanically (in compression or traction) and chemically degraded by leaching (reference degradation) and by accelerated degradations (with ammonium nitrate or under electric field). The diffusion properties have been measured at each step of the experiment. They have been confronted with transfer models. Results have revealed the existence of a coupling between the preexisting crack and the chemical degradation. At last, a modelling of the chemical degradation for cement materials has been proposed and validated both for pure cement and for mortars, in the cases of simple leaching and of leaching with ammonium nitrate. Its application to cracked materials by a microscopic approach (crack described in the lattice) has allowed to specify the interpretation of the experimental results. (O.M.)

  3. Degradation evaluation of high temperature pipeline material for power plant using ultrasonic noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Chung, Min Hwa; Cho, Yong Sang; Lee, In Cheol

    2001-01-01

    Boiler high-temperature pipelines such as main steam pipe, header and steam drum in fossil power plants are degraded by creep and thermal fatigue damage due to severe operating conditions such as high temperature and high pressure for an extended period time. Conventional measurement techniques for measuring creep damage have such disadvantages as complex preparation and measurement procedures, too many control parameters. And also these techniques have low practicality and applied only to component surfaces with good accessibility. In this paper, artificial degradation test and ultrasonic measurement for their degraded specimens were carried out for the purpose of evaluation for creep and thermal fatigue damage. Absolute measuring method of quantitative ultrasonic measurement for material degradation was established, and long term creep/thermal fatigue degradation tests using life prediction formula were carried out. As a result of ultrasonic tests for crept and thermal fatigued specimens, we conformed that the ultrasonic noise linearly increased in proportion to the increase of degradation.

  4. Development of Composite PCMs by Incorporation of Paraffin into Various Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we focused on the development of composite phase-change materials (CPCMs by incorporation of a paraffin through vacuum impregnation in widely used building materials (Kaolin and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. The composite PCMs were characterized using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA techniques. Moreover, thermal performance of cement paste composite PCM panels was evaluated using a self-designed heating system. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of paraffin retained by Kaolin and GGBS was found to be 18% and 9%, respectively. FT-IR results show that CPCMs are chemically compatible. The phase-change temperatures of CPCMs were in the human comfort zone, and they possessed considerable latent-heat storage capacity. TGA results showed that CPCMs are thermally stable, and they did not show any sign of degradation below 150 °C. From thermal cycling tests, it was revealed that the CPCMs are thermally reliable. Thermal performance tests showed that in comparison to the control room model, the room models prepared with CPCMs reduced both the temperature fluctuations and maximum indoor center temperature. Therefore, the prepared CPCMs have some potential in reducing peak loads in buildings when applied to building facade.

  5. The physics of degradation in engineered materials and devices fundamentals and principles

    CERN Document Server

    Swingler, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Degradation is apparent in all things and is fundamental to both manufactured and natural objects. It is often described by the second law of thermodynamics, where entropy, a measure of disorder, tends to increase with time in a closed system. Things age! This concise reference work brings together experts and key players engaged in the physics of degradation to present the background science, current thinking and developments in understanding, and gives a detailed account of emerging issues across a selection of engineering applications. The work has been put together to equip the upper level undergraduate student, postgraduate student, as well as the professional engineer and scientist, in the importance of physics of degradation. The aim of The Physics of Degradation in Engineered Materials and Devices is to bridge the gap between published textbooks on the fundamental science of degradation phenomena and published research on the engineering science of actual fabricated materials and devices. A history o...

  6. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of ancient cement based building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements in plasters, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of an examination of selected ancient building materials and provides insights into the durability of certain ancient structures. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehold environment. Analyses were conducted by petrographic, SEM, chemical, and x-ray diffraction techniques. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  7. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF A NEW BUILDING MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumba Huta Msuratovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Methodical approaches and procedures of implementation of official provisions of Methodical Recommendations are considered in article. Upon completion of analysis of a number of factors, the authors suggest using the option of assessment of efficiency of application of a new construction material through the application of Methodical Recommendations for Assessment of Efficiency of Investment Projects. As for the assimilation of new materials by building companies engaged in construction operations, the recommendation is to assess the business project efficiency upon introduction of each new construction material, and capital investments are the main indicators of efficiency of construction materials, let alone net discounted profit and the payback period. Upon consideration of a number of conditions that underlie the mathematical and economic model that substantiates decision-making in terms of implementation of innovative projects, the project efficiency can be assessed on the basis of an integrated indicator - maximal return on capital investments. The proposed model also takes account of the payback period, although the efficiency of new construction materials does not take account of any positive social effect of their introduction.

  8. Microencapsulated Phase Change Composite Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alexander

    This study aims to elucidate how phase change material (PCM)-composite materials can be leveraged to reduce the energy consumption of buildings and to provide cost savings to ratepayers. Phase change materials (PCMs) can store thermal energy in the form of latent heat when subjected to temperatures exceeding their melting point by undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid state. Reversibly, PCMs can release this thermal energy when the system temperature falls below their solidification point. The goal in implementing composite PCM walls is to significantly reduce and time-shift the maximum thermal load on the building in order to reduce and smooth out the electricity demand for heating and cooling. This Ph.D. thesis aims to develop a set of thermal design methods and tools for exploring the use of PCM-composite building envelopes and for providing design rules for their practical implementation. First, detailed numerical simulations were used to show that the effective thermal conductivity of core-shell-matrix composites depended only on the volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the constituent materials. The effective medium approximation reported by Felske (2004) was in very good agreement with numerical predictions of the effective thermal conductivity. Second, a carefully validated transient thermal model was used to simulate microencapsulated PCM-composite walls subjected to diurnal or annual outdoor temperature and solar radiation flux. It was established that adding microencapsulated PCM to concrete walls both substantially reduced and delayed the thermal load on the building. Several design rules were established, most notably, (i) increasing the volume fraction of microencapsulated PCM within the wall increases the energy savings but at the potential expense of mechanical properties [1], (ii) the phase change temperature leading to the maximum energy and cost savings should equal the desired indoor temperature regardless of the climate

  9. Self-Organized Construction with Continuous Building Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Wahby, Mostafa; Divband Soorati, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Self-organized construction with continuous, structured building material, as opposed to modular units, offers new challenges to the robot-based construction process and lends the opportunity for increased flexibility in constructed artifact properties, such as shape and deformation. As an example...... investigation, we look at continuous filaments organized into braided structures, within the context of bio-hybrids constructing architectural artifacts. We report the result of an early swarm robot experiment. The robots successfully constructed a braid in a self-organized process. The construction process can...... be extended by using different materials and by embedding sensors during the self-organized construction directly into the braided structure. In future work, we plan to apply dedicated braiding robot hardware and to construct sophisticated 3-d structures with local variability in patterns of filament...

  10. REQUIREMENTS FOR DRILLING CUTTINGS AND EARTH-BASED BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chertes Konstantin L'vovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the problem of utilization of drilling cuttings by means of scavenging, is researched. The product received could be used for the restoration of lands disturbed during construction and economic activities. When assessing technogenic formations, the binary approach was used, as a system of two components. The purpose of the study is to assess the state and possibility of utilizing drilling cuttings as raw materials in order to produce technogenic building materials; to study the effect of the degree of homogeneity of initial mixtures based on drilling cuttings, on kinetics of their hardening which leads to obtaining final products for various applications . As a result of research, relations of hardening and subsequent strengthening of slurry-cement mixtures were obtained; the plan of the process area for treatment of drilling cuttings is presented on the spot of demolished drilling pit.

  11. Long-Term Lunar Radiation Degradation Effects on Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; ORourke, Mary Jane; Koontz, Steve; Alred, John; Hill, Charles; Devivar, Rodrigo; Morera-Felix, Shakira; Atwell, William; Nutt, Steve; Sabbann, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is focused on developing technologies for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit. These technologies are to advance the state-of-the-art and provide for longer duration missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere. One technology of great interest for large structures is advanced composite materials, due to their weight and cost savings, enhanced radiation protection for the crew, and potential for performance improvements when compared with existing metals. However, these materials have not been characterized for the interplanetary space environment, and particularly the effects of high energy radiation, which is known to cause damage to polymeric materials. Therefore, a study focusing on a lunar habitation element was undertaken to investigate the integrity of potential structural composite materials after exposure to a long-term lunar radiation environment. An overview of the study results are presented, along with a discussion of recommended future work.

  12. Building stock dynamics and its impacts on materials and energy demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lixuan; Zhou, Nan; Feng, Wei; Khanna, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhao, Yongqiang; Sandholt, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    China hosts a large amount of building stocks, which is nearly 50 billion square meters. Moreover, annual new construction is growing fast, representing half of the world's total. The trend is expected to continue through the year 2050. Impressive demand for new residential and commercial construction, relative shorter average building lifetime, and higher material intensities have driven massive domestic production of energy intensive building materials such as cement and steel. This paper developed a bottom-up building stock turnover model to project the growths, retrofits and retirements of China's residential and commercial building floor space from 2010 to 2050. It also applied typical material intensities and energy intensities to estimate building materials demand and energy consumed to produce these building materials. By conducting scenario analyses of building lifetime, it identified significant potentials of building materials and energy demand conservation. This study underscored the importance of addressing building material efficiency, improving building lifetime and quality, and promoting compact urban development to reduce energy and environment consequences in China. - Highlights: •Growths of China's building floorspace were projected from 2010 to 2050. •A building stock turnover model was built to reflect annual building stock dynamics. •Building related materials and energy demand were projected.

  13. Decreased bio-inhibition of building materials due to transport of biocides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, S.J.F.; Mendoza, S.M.; Floor, W.; Hermanns, S.P.M.; Homan, W.J.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-inhibition of buildings and structures is an important issue. In many cases building materials have biocides added to prevent growth of micro-organisms. Growth of microorganisms on building materials has several negative effects; (1) Aesthetic damage, e.g. fungi, algae grow on the material,

  14. COMPUTER MODELING OF STRUCTURAL - CONCENTRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zaripova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the computer modeling of structural and concentration characteristics of the building composite material on the basis of the theory of the package. The main provisions of the algorithmon the basis of which it was possible to get the package with a significant number of packaged elements, making it more representative in comparison with existing analogues modeling. We describe the modeled area related areas, the presence of which determines the possibility of a percolation process, which in turn makes it possible to study and management of individual properties of the composite material of construction. As an example of the construction of a composite material is considered concrete that does not exclude the possibility of using algorithms and modeling results of similar studies for composite matrix type (matrix of the same material and distributed in a certain way by volume particles of another substance. Based on modeling results can be manufactured parts and construction elementsfor various purposes with improved technical characteristics (by controlling the concentration composition substance.

  15. Accelerated thermal and radiation-oxidation combined degradation of electric cable insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Toshiaki; Seguchi, Tadao; Yoshida, Kenzo

    1986-03-01

    For the development of accelerated testing methodology to estimate the life time of electric cable, which is installed in radiation field such as a nuclear reactor containment vessel, radiation and thermal combined degradation of cable insulation and jacketing materials was studied. The materials were two types of formulated polyethylene, ethylene-propylene rubber, Hypalon, and Neoprene. With Co-60 γ-rays the materials were irradiated up to 0.5 MGy under vacuum and in oxygen under pressure, then exposed to thermal aging at elevated temperature in oxygen. The degradation was investigated by the tensile test, gelfraction, and swelling measurements. The thermal degradation rate for each sample increases with increase of oxygen concentration, i.e. oxygen pressure, during the aging, and tends to saturate above 0.2 MPa of oxygen pressure. Then, the effects of irradiation and the temperature on the thermal degradation rate were investigated at the oxygen pressure of 0.2 MPa in the temperature range from 110 deg C to 150 deg C. For all of samples irradiated in oxygen, the following thermal degradation rate was accelerated by several times comparing with unirradiated samples, while the rate of thermal degradation for the sample except Neoprene irradiated under vacuum was nearly equal to that of unirradiated one. By the analysis of thermal degradation rate against temperature using Arrhenius equation, it was found that the activation energy tends to decrease for the samples irradiated in oxidation condition. (author)

  16. Weld repair of helium degraded reactor vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Lohmeier, D.A.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Rankin, D.T.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Bruck, G.J.; Madeyski, A.; Shogan, R.P.; Lessmann, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    Welding methods for modification or repair of irradiated nuclear reactor vessels are being evaluated at the Savannah River Site. A low-penetration weld overlay technique has been developed to minimize the adverse effects of irradiation induced helium on the weldability of metals and alloys. This technique was successfully applied to Type 304 stainless steel test plates that contained 3 to 220 appm helium from tritium decay. Conventional welding practices caused significant cracking and degradation in the test plates. Optical microscopy of weld surfaces and cross sections showed that large surface toe cracks formed around conventional welds in the test plates but did not form around overlay welds. Scattered incipient underbead cracks (grain boundary separations) were associated with both conventional and overlay test welds. Tensile and bend tests were used to assess the effect of base metal helium content on the mechanical integrity of the low-penetration overlay welds. The axis of tensile specimens was perpendicular to the weld-base metal interface. Tensile specimens were machined after studs were resistance welded to overlay surfaces

  17. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of cement-based ancient building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate and contain nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of a preliminary examination of selected ancient, old, and modern building materials (14 specimens) and was intended to document and explain the remarkable durability of these portland cement-related materials. This study has provided insights into reasons for the durability of certain structures and also into the long-term stability of calcium silicate binders (cements) used in archaeologic materials. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehole environment. A multimethod analysis was used and included: macroscopic and microscopic (petrographic and SEM) analyses, chemical analyses, and x-ray diffraction analyses. 61 figures, 11 tables

  18. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  19. Proto pectin degradation of raw material by the acid hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalikov, D.Kh.; Gorshkova, R.M.; Khalikova, S.; Avloev, Kh.Kh.; Mukhiddinov, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    The article presents results of hydrolysis proto pectin apples, an orange and a basket of sunflower depending on ph a solution. The reaction products are divided into three fractions conditionally named as micro gel, pectin substances and oligosaccharide. It was shown that the high-quality pectin extracted from orange, but high percentage of carboxylic group in the sunflower pectin allow it to by used as a drug delivery materials

  20. COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR DEGRADATION OF KERATINACEOUS MATERIALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    materials (such as e.g. feather and pig bristles). (FR)L'invention concerne une composition dégradant la kératine qui comprend au moins deux différentes kératinases actives isolées issues d'au moins deux familles de protéases MEROPS différentes, au moins une sérine endo-kératinase active appartenant à la...

  1. Gamma and proton induced degradation in ceramics materials - A proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.

    2001-01-01

    Ceramic materials will play very important roles in developing fusion reactors, where they will be used under heavy irradiation environments (neutrons, gamma-rays, protons, helium and other ions) for substantial periods for the first time. The programme at the Institute of Atomic Physics in Bucharest forms a part of the on going ceramics programmes to assess the suitability of SiO2 based materials for both diagnostic and remote handling application. The authors' proposal focuses on comparison of the ionization and displacement induced damage (influence on the UV and visible optical transmission properties) and on radiation enhanced hydrogen isotope diffusion in these materials; the work is performed in cooperation with CIEMAT Madrid and SCK/CEN Mol. The irradiation facilities are: IRASM - 200 kCi Co-60 source, minimum 2kGy/h, ethanol chlorine benzene and ESR dosimetry; HVEC 8 MV TANDEM - protons up to 16 MeV and 200 nA; and 600 kV DISKTRON - H isotopes up to 600 keV, tens of microamperes. (author)

  2. Attitudinal effects of degrading themes and sexual explicitness in video materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golde, J A; Strassberg, D S; Turner, C M; Lowe, K

    2000-07-01

    This study examined the independent and interactive effects of sexual explicitness and degrading themes toward women on mens' attitudes following exposure to video presentations of male-female interactions. Subjects were 83 male college students who viewed video vignettes under one of four stimulus conditions: (a) sexually explicit/degrading, (b) sexually explicit/nondegrading, (c) nonexplicit/degrading, and (d) nonexplicit/nondegrading. Results revealed that men exposed to degrading material, regardless of explicitness, were significantly more likely to express attitudes supportive of rape, while explicitness had no significant main or interactive effect on these attitudes. Further, the interaction of explicitness with degradation was found to impact scores on a measure of sexual callousness. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Radioactivity of building materials in our country and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkova, L.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of radiation load of the population in recent years in the world, but also in Slovakia, is a topic of increasing interest. The reason is significant radiation exposure which is caused by natural or artificial sources of ionizing radiation. The most serious of natural resources is radon. Studies point to the fact that, together with its transformation products it poses a plumbless risk for developing of lung cancer. As part of measures to reduce the radiation load of the population the content of radionuclides in materials and raw materials used in construction is being monitored. The aim is to regulate the size of the exposure in the accommodation space and thus eliminate the health risks that result in exposure of radon. The author tried to make an overview of measured concentrations of natural radionuclides in building materials used in Slovakia and other countries. The author also provides a picture of radiation load on the population of the Czech Republic and Slovakia and gives an overview of legal and legislative standards based on international standards and requirements. (author)

  4. pH and redox effects of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Van Zomeren, A.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; De Nie, D.S.

    2007-11-01

    The application of relatively fine grained industrial slags as fill material in industrial terrains and parking lots has led to unacceptably elevated pH values and imposed reducing conditions in ground- and surface water. Based on the Dutch Building Materials Decree the materials applied were classified as category 1 materials (free use). There are no limits set to pH and redox in this regulation. In itself a lower or higher pH and a low redox potential are not necessarily critical. Only when the buffer capacity of the surroundings is exceeded, undesirable situations may develop. In this work, the release of alkaline and reducing substances has been studied to assess if regulatory controls are needed and how such controls could be implemented practically. Both pH and redox potential are unsuitable properties for this purpose as it is the buffer capacity of the releasing material and the buffer capacity of the receiving soil and water bodies that determine whether unacceptable conditions develop. As pH and redox are also affected by gas reactions (O2 and CO2), the evaluation becomes relatively complex. Using the chemical speciation-transport model ORCHESTRA, a scenario description has been developed to assess the release of alkaline and reducing species from slag by infiltration under unsaturated conditions. Proper acid neutralization and redox buffering data for the materials were determined. Based on the sophisticated model results, a simplified model description was applied to link observations to impact. Decision schemes for applications above groundwater and in surface water have been developed based on the buffer capacity and particle size distribution of the material to be used, the infiltration rate, the degree of exposure to O2 and CO2 from the atmosphere or from soil air and the dimensions of the application. This has led to a preliminary guidance on implementing rules for acceptance of materials in specific applications. The modeled release predictions

  5. Acquisition System Verification for Energy Efficiency Analysis of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and fossil fuel depletion foster interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings. There are different methods to achieve improved efficiency; one of them is the use of additives, such as phase change materials (PCMs. To prove this method’s effectiveness, a building’s behaviour should be monitored and analysed. This paper describes an acquisition system developed for monitoring buildings based on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA and with a 1-wire bus network as the communication system. The system is empirically tested to prove that it works properly. With this purpose, two experimental cubicles are made of self-compacting concrete panels, one of which has a PCM as an additive to improve its energy storage properties. Both cubicles have the same dimensions and orientation, and they are separated by six feet to avoid shadows. The behaviour of the PCM was observed with the acquisition system, achieving results that illustrate the differences between the cubicles directly related to the PCM’s characteristics. Data collection devices included in the system were temperature sensors, some of which were embedded in the walls, as well as humidity sensors, heat flux density sensors, a weather station and energy counters. The analysis of the results shows agreement with previous studies of PCM addition; therefore, the acquisition system is suitable for this application.

  6. Increase in buildings sustainability by using renewable materials and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milutiene, Edita [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania); Lithuanian Solar Energy Association, Kaunas (Lithuania); Straw Houses Builders' Association, Kaunas (Lithuania); Staniskis, Jurgis K. [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania); Krucius, Audrys [Straw Houses Builders' Association, Kaunas (Lithuania); JSK ' ' Ecococon' ' , Kaunas (Lithuania); Auguliene, Vida [Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service under the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania, Kaunas (Lithuania); Ardickas, Daumilas [University of Cambridge, Girton College, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Sustainable development could be seen as indispensable condition for survival of civilization. Construction sector is a field with immediate need for reducing environmental impacts. Sustainability measures applied for buildings could produce very efficient results to the people. The paper provides the methods of construction sustainability increase by researching, developing, and applying the technologies which use renewable materials and energy. The paper analyzes the cases of both a solar eco house which was built of original prefabricated straw-bale panels and was designed to use direct solar energy; and an educational project promoting straw-bale construction and seeking to mitigate climate change. The project results have shown the need of spreading information on sustainable building methods to be accepted by wider society and to be applied to the construction industry. Monitoring of solar ecohouse has proved that direct solar energy gains are significant in reducing heating degree-days in 55 N latitude and in allowing to save half the energy needed for heating. (orig.)

  7. Determination of radioactivity levels from some Egyptian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EL Sattar, M.; Morsy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Our world is radioactive and has been, since it was created. Over 60 radionuclides (radioactive elements) can be found in nature. Radon is naturally occurring radioactive gas, that is produced by the radioactive decay of radium. Breathing high concentration of radon can cause lung cancer. A set of experiments were carried out using Cr-39 as solid state nuclear track detectors with the optimum etching conditions, 6.25 N Na OH at 70 o C for 8 hours. The radon-222 activity in this survey was found to be in the range of 0.303 kBq/m 3 to 5.04 KBq/m 3 for different building materials in Egypt

  8. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Baumgartner, A.; Rechberger, F.; Seidel, C.; Stietka, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. - Highlights: • Dose models for indoor radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials. • Strategies and methods in radionuclide metrology, activity measurement and dose modelling. • Selection of appropriate parameters in radiation protection standards for building materials. • Scientific-based limitations of indoor exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials

  9. An overview of materials degradation by stress corrosion in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P. M. [Framatome ANP, Tour Areva, 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    The aging of water cooled and moderated nuclear steam supply systems has given rise to many material corrosion problems of which stress corrosion cracking has proved to be one of the most serious. The aim of this paper is to review some examples of corrosion and particularly stress corrosion problems from the author's experience of interpreting and modelling these phenomena in PWR systems. Examples of stress corrosion cracking in PWR systems described include the major issue of Alloy 600 intergranular cracking in primary PWR coolants, for which it is generally perceived that both adequate life prediction models and remedial measures now exist. Intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes that occur in occluded superheated crevices on the secondary side of steam generators due to hide-out and concentration of water borne impurities are also addressed. Rather less extensive or well known examples are discussed such as the stress corrosion cracking of carbon and low alloy steels and of stainless steels in occluded dead-leg situations where it is sometimes difficult to guarantee adequate control of water chemistry, particularly at plant start-up. Reference is also be made to the use of high strength fastener materials in PWR systems as well as to the emerging issue of the effect of high neutron doses on the stress corrosion resistance of core structural components fabricated from austenitic stainless steels. (authors)

  10. An overview of materials degradation by stress corrosion in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P. M.

    2004-01-01

    The aging of water cooled and moderated nuclear steam supply systems has given rise to many material corrosion problems of which stress corrosion cracking has proved to be one of the most serious. The aim of this paper is to review some examples of corrosion and particularly stress corrosion problems from the author's experience of interpreting and modelling these phenomena in PWR systems. Examples of stress corrosion cracking in PWR systems described include the major issue of Alloy 600 intergranular cracking in primary PWR coolants, for which it is generally perceived that both adequate life prediction models and remedial measures now exist. Intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes that occur in occluded superheated crevices on the secondary side of steam generators due to hide-out and concentration of water borne impurities are also addressed. Rather less extensive or well known examples are discussed such as the stress corrosion cracking of carbon and low alloy steels and of stainless steels in occluded dead-leg situations where it is sometimes difficult to guarantee adequate control of water chemistry, particularly at plant start-up. Reference is also be made to the use of high strength fastener materials in PWR systems as well as to the emerging issue of the effect of high neutron doses on the stress corrosion resistance of core structural components fabricated from austenitic stainless steels. (authors)

  11. Accelerated degradation by UV radiation of adhesive materials used in solar equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilca, F.; Acosta, D; Barcena, H.; Suarez, H.; Cadena, C.; Bolzi, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Several materials which are used as common adhesives in photovoltaic cells, were tested in order to study their stability. Accelerated degradation effects were produced using high radiation doses of UV-C and UV-b in a previously described camera at different times. The exposed and unexposed films were studied by transmittance, X-ray diffraction and infrared. The results are in agreement with complex degradation process at long exposition times, while transmittance doesn't change significantly. (author)

  12. Material degradation of liquid organic semiconductors analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Junichi; Fukuchi, Masashi; Kaji, Hironori, E-mail: kaji@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hirata, Shuzo; Jung, Heo Hyo; Adachi, Chihaya [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyusyu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hirata, Osamu; Shibano, Yuki [Nissan Chemical Industries, LTD, 722-1 Tsuboi, Funabashi 274-8507 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Liquid organic light-emitting diodes (liquid OLEDs) are unique devices consisting only of liquid organic semiconductors in the active layer, and the device performances have been investigated recently. However, the device degradation, especially, the origin has been unknown. In this study, we show that material degradation occurs in liquid OLEDs, whose active layer is composed of carbazole with an ethylene glycol chain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments clearly exhibit that the dimerization reaction of carbazole moiety occurs in the liquid OLEDs during driving the devices. In contrast, cleavages of the ethylene glycol chain are not detected within experimental error. The dimerization reaction is considered to be related to the device degradation.

  13. Correlation of electrical reactor cable failure with materials degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuetzer, O.M.

    1986-03-01

    Complete circuit failure (shortout) of electrical cables typically used in nuclear power plant containments is investigated. Failure modes are correlated with the mechanical deterioration of the elastomeric cable materials. It is found that for normal reactor operation, electrical cables are reliable and safe over very long periods. During high temperature excursions, however, cables pulled across corners under high stress may short out due to conductor creep. Severe cracking will occur in short times during high temperatures (>150/sup 0/C) and in times of the order of years at elevated temperatures (100/sup 0/C to 140/sup 0/C). A theoretical treatment of stress distribution responsible for creep and for cracking by J.E. Reaugh of Science Applications, Inc. is contained in the Appendix. 29 refs., 32 figs.

  14. Correlation of electrical reactor cable failure with materials degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuetzer, O.M.

    1986-03-01

    Complete circuit failure (shortout) of electrical cables typically used in nuclear power plant containments is investigated. Failure modes are correlated with the mechanical deterioration of the elastomeric cable materials. It is found that for normal reactor operation, electrical cables are reliable and safe over very long periods. During high temperature excursions, however, cables pulled across corners under high stress may short out due to conductor creep. Severe cracking will occur in short times during high temperatures (>150 0 C) and in times of the order of years at elevated temperatures (100 0 C to 140 0 C). A theoretical treatment of stress distribution responsible for creep and for cracking by J.E. Reaugh of Science Applications, Inc. is contained in the Appendix. 29 refs., 32 figs

  15. Untargeted Metabolomics Approach in Halophiles: Understanding the Biodeterioration Process of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Adamiak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the halophile metabolome in building materials using untargeted metabolomics which allows for broad metabolome coverage. For this reason, we used high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/HRMS. As an alternative to standard microscopy techniques, we introduced pioneering Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy (CARS to non-invasively visualize microbial cells. Brick samples saturated with salt solution (KCl, NaCl (two salinity levels, MgSO4, Mg(NO32, were inoculated with the mixture of preselected halophilic microorganisms, i.e., bacteria: Halobacillus styriensis, Halobacillus naozhouensis, Halobacillus hunanensis, Staphylococcus succinus, Marinococcus halophilus, Virgibacillus halodenitryficans, and yeast: Sterigmatomyces halophilus and stored at 28°C and 80% relative humidity for a year. Metabolites were extracted directly from the brick samples and measured via HPLC/HRMS in both positive and negative ion modes. Overall, untargeted metabolomics allowed for discovering the interactions of halophilic microorganisms with buildings materials which together with CARS microscopy enabled us to elucidate the biodeterioration process caused by halophiles. We observed that halophile metabolome was differently affected by different salt solutions. Furthermore, we found indications for haloadaptive strategies and degradation of brick samples due to microbial pigment production as a salt stress response. Finally, we detected changes in lipid content related to changes in the structure of phospholipid bilayers and membrane fluidity.

  16. Development of materials resistant to metal dusting degradation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.

    2006-04-24

    Metal dusting corrosion has been a serious problem in the petroleum and petrochemical industries, such as reforming and syngas production systems. This form of deterioration has led to worldwide material loss for 50 years. For the past three years, we have studied the mechanism of metal dusting for Fe- and Ni-base alloys. In this report, we present a correlation between the weight loss and depth of pits that form in Ni-base alloys. Nickel-base alloys were also tested at 1 and 14.8 atm (210 psi), in a high carbon activity environment. Higher system pressure was found to accelerate corrosion in most Ni-base alloys. To reduce testing time, a pre-pitting method was developed. Mechanical scratches on the alloy surface led to fast metal dusting corrosion. We have also developed preliminary data on the performance of weldments of several Ni-base alloys in a metal dusting environment. Finally, Alloy 800 tubes and plates used in a reformer plant were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopy. The oxide scale on the surface of the Alloy 800 primarily consists of Fe{sub 1+x}Cr{sub 2-X}O{sub 4} spinel phase with high Fe content. Carbon can diffuse through this oxide scale. It was discovered that the growth of metal dusting pits could be stopped by means of a slightly oxidized alloy surface. This leads to a new way to solve metal dusting problem.

  17. Material degradation due to moisture and temperature. Part 1: mathematical model, analysis, and analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanical response, serviceability, and load-bearing capacity of materials and structural components can be adversely affected due to external stimuli, which include exposure to a corrosive chemical species, high temperatures, temperature fluctuations (i.e., freezing-thawing), cyclic mechanical loading, just to name a few. It is, therefore, of paramount importance in several branches of engineering—ranging from aerospace engineering, civil engineering to biomedical engineering—to have a fundamental understanding of degradation of materials, as the materials in these applications are often subjected to adverse environments. As a result of recent advancements in material science, new materials such as fiber-reinforced polymers and multi-functional materials that exhibit high ductility have been developed and widely used, for example, as infrastructural materials or in medical devices (e.g., stents). The traditional small-strain approaches of modeling these materials will not be adequate. In this paper, we study degradation of materials due to an exposure to chemical species and temperature under large strain and large deformations. In the first part of our research work, we present a consistent mathematical model with firm thermodynamic underpinning. We then obtain semi-analytical solutions of several canonical problems to illustrate the nature of the quasi-static and unsteady behaviors of degrading hyperelastic solids.

  18. Moisture measurement in wood, wood-based materials and building materials - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, A.; Mehlhorn, L.; Plinke, B.

    1989-10-01

    Methods of moisture measurement in solid substances, especially on wood, wood-based materials and building materials were examined and evaluated according to the literature available. The question was which methods of examining the moisture distribution in building elements at climate loading offer the best accuracy and spatial resolution as well as which methods are the most appropriate at present and in future for the solution of measurement problems in the wood and wood-based industry. The most common methods are electric measurement methods which are utilizing either the moisture-depending conductivity or the dielectric constant or the reflectivity of the material for infrared radiation but they offer only a limited accuracy. The same is valid for the rarely used microwave methods or X-ray and NMR tomography. Simple electric methods will further on play an important role in the industrial process measuring technique. For the examination of building elements, methods using nuclear radiation still offer possibilities for a further development. (orig.) With 207 refs., 13 figs [de

  19. Natural radioactivity of Turkish natural stones as building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaprak, Guenseli; Yasar, Oezden

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Turkey has very important natural stones potential with over 5 billion m 3 marble reserves. According to 2002 giving data the number of Turkish stones export is 303 million US Dollars. In this regards, the present study deals with 90 Turkish natural stones. The studied samples were analyzed and the concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of radioisotopes were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. The radon exhalation rates of natural stones were also measured by using solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 ). The radium equivalent activity varied from 183 Bq/kg to 522 Bq/kg for granite samples and from 1 Bq/kg to 37 Bq/kg for marble samples. The value of radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.003 Bq/m 2 h -1 to 0.768 Bq/m 2 h -1 for granite samples and from 0.001 Bq/m 2 h -1 to 0.02 Bq/m 2 h -1 for marble samples. The total absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 22 to 61 n Gy h -1 for one quarter utilization of granite samples. The annual effective dose rates per person indoors were determined to be between 108 and 298 μSv y -1 for of for one quarter utilization of the materials. Applying the dose criteria recently recommended by UNSCEAR for building materials, the natural stones meet the upper dose limit of 1mSvy -1 . So, there are not restrictions for use of any Turkish commercial marble as covering materials, including Turkish granites. (author)

  20. Project GRETE: evaluation of non destructive testing techniques for monitoring of material degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    The material aging of major critical components of nuclear installations due to in-service conditions may lead to a degradation of their mechanical characteristics. The early detection of material changes and their monitoring using innovative non destructive testing techniques would allow to plan actions in order to prevent the apparition of macroscopic damage (e.g. cracks). One major difficulty in using these particular techniques is to correlate the changes in the measured NDT signals to the microstructural changes in the material due to aging. This problem may be solved through careful microstructural examinations of the material damage. The objective of the project GRETE is to illustrate the potential use of NDT techniques for the monitoring of material degradation through two examples: neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steel and thermal fatigue of piping. The purpose of this paper is to present the project and its programme of work. (author)

  1. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings - Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2014-01-01

    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market in Canada for lumber, engineered wood products, structural wood panels, and nonstructural wood panels. This report examines wood products consumption in 2012 for construction of selected low-rise nonresidential buildings types that have six or fewer stories. Buildings with more than six stories are...

  2. HOW DO DEGRADABLE/BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC MATERIALS DECOMPOSE IN HOME COMPOSTING ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Vaverková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about biodegradability of polymeric (biodegradable/degradable materials advertised as 100%-degradable or certified as compostable, which may be a part of biodegradable waste, in home composting conditions. It describes an experiment that took place in home wooden compost bins and contained 9 samples that are commonly available in retail chains in the Czech Republic and Poland. The experiment lasted for the period of 12 weeks. Based on the results thereof it can be concluded that polyethylene samples with additive (samples 2, 4, 7 have not decomposed, their color has not changed and that no degradation or physical changes have occurred. Samples 1, 3 and 5 certified as compostable have not decomposed. Sample 6 exhibited the highest decomposition rate. Samples 8, 9 (tableware exhibited high degree of decomposition. The main conclusion from this study is that degradable/biodegradable plastics or plastics certified as compostable are not suitable for home composting.

  3. Analysis of the eukaryotic community and metabolites found in clay wall material used in the construction of traditional Japanese buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Sakihito; Kamei, Kaeko; Nishitani, Maiko; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Clay wall (tsuchikabe in Japanese) material for Japanese traditional buildings is manufactured by fermenting a mixture of clay, sand, and rice straw. The aim of this study was to understand the fermentation process in order to gain insight into the ways waste biomass can be used to produce useful materials. In this study, in addition to Clostridium, we suggested that the family Nectriaceae and the Scutellinia sp. of fungi were important in degrading cell wall materials of rice straw, such as cellulose and/or lignin. The microorganisms in the clay wall material produced sulfur-containing inorganic compounds that may sulfurate minerals in clay particles, and polysaccharides that give viscosity to clay wall material, thus increasing workability for plastering, and possibly giving water-resistance to the dried clay wall.

  4. Advanced FRP for flooring in buildings: a low carbon material application in the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yijian

    2013-01-01

    Fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) are building materials that permit both the improvement of long-term building performance and the simplification of the construction process, thanks to their high specific strength, low thermal conductivity, good environmental resistance, and ability to be formed into complex shapes. FRP materials are well-suited to fulfilling many building functions. By integrating traditionally separate building systems and layers into single function-integrated components, a...

  5. Research of the biodegradability of degradable/biodegradable plastic material in various types of environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Adamcová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out in order to assess biodegradability of degradable/biodegradable materials made of HDPE and mixed with totally degradable plastic additive (TDPA additive or made of polyethylene (PE with the addition of pro-oxidant additive (d2w additive, advertised as 100% degradable or certifi ed as compostable within various types of environments. Research conditions were: (i controlled composting environment – laboratory-scale, (ii real composting conditions – domestic compost bin, (iii real composting conditions – industrial composting plant and (iv landfill conditions. The results demonstrate that the materials made of HDPE and mixed with totally degradable plastic additive (TDPA additive or made of polyethylene (PE with the addition of pro-oxidant additive (d2w additive or advertised as 100% degradable did not biodegrade in any of the above-described conditions and remained completely intact at the end of the tests. Biodegradation of the certified compostable plastic bags proceeded very well in laboratory-scale conditions and in real composting conditions – industrial composting plant, however, these materials did not biodegrade in real composting conditions – domestic compost bin and landfill conditions.

  6. Heat transfer characteristics of building walls using phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Pasek, A. D.; Indartono, Y. S.; Pratomo, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    Minimizing energy consumption in air conditioning system can be done with reducing the cooling load in a room. Heat from solar radiation which passes through the wall increases the cooling load. Utilization of phase change material on walls is expected to decrease the heat rate by storing energy when the phase change process takes place. The stored energy is released when the ambient temperature is low. Temperature differences at noon and evening can be utilized as discharging and charging cycles. This study examines the characteristics of heat transfer in walls using phase change material (PCM) in the form of encapsulation and using the sleeve as well. Heat transfer of bricks containing encapsulated PCM, tested the storage and released the heat on the walls of the building models were evaluated in this study. Experiments of heat transfer on brick consist of time that is needed for heat transfer and thermal conductivity test as well. Experiments were conducted on a wall coated by PCM which was exposed on a day and night cycle to analyze the heat storage and heat release. PCM used in these experiments was coconut oil. The measured parameter is the temperature at some points in the brick, walls and ambient temperature as well. The results showed that the use of encapsulation on an empty brick can increase the time for thermal heat transfer. Thermal conductivity values of a brick containing encapsulated PCM was lower than hollow bricks, where each value was 1.3 W/m.K and 1.6 W/m.K. While the process of heat absorption takes place from 7:00 am to 06:00 pm, and the release of heat runs from 10:00 pm to 7:00 am. The use of this PCM layer can reduce the surface temperature of the walls of an average of 2°C and slows the heat into the room.

  7. Degradation of sustainable mulch materials in two types of soil under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen; Aceituno, Patricia; Campos, Juan; Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Mulching is a technique used in cultivation worldwide, especially for vegetable crops, for reducing weed growth, minimising or eliminating soil erosion, and often for enhancing total yields. Manufactured plastic films, mainly polyethylene (PE), have been widely used for this purpose due to their excellent mechanical properties, light weight and relatively low prices in recent years. However, the use of PE is associated with serious environmental problems related to its petrochemical origin and its long shelf-life, which causes a waste problem in our crop fields. For this reason, the use of biodegradable mulch materials (biopolymers and papers) as alternative to PE is increasing nowadays, especially in organic farming. However, these materials can suffer an undesirable early degradation (and therefore not fulfilling their function successfully), greatly resulting from the type of soil. For this reason, this study aimed to analyse the degradation pattern of different mulch materials buried in two types of soils, clay and sand, under laboratory conditions (25°C, dark surroundings, constant humidity). The mulch materials used were: 1) black polyethylene (15 µm); black biopolymers (15 µm): 2) maize starch-based, 3) potato starch-based, 4) polylactic acid-based, 5) black paper, 85 g/m2. Periodically (every 15-20 days), the weight and surface loss of the different materials were recorded. The results indicate that mulch degradation was earlier and higher in the clay soil, especially in the paper and in the potato starch-based materials, followed by the maize starch-based mulch, while polylactic acid-based suffered the least and the latest degradation. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, degradation. Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  8. Materials and degradation modes in an alternative LLW [low-level waste] disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, M.G.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in the construction of alternative low-level waste disposal facilities will be subject to interaction with both the internal and the external environments associated with the facilities and unless precautions are taken, may degrade, leading to structural failure. This paper reviews the characteristics of both environments with respect to three alternative disposal concepts, then assesses how reaction with them might affect the properties of the materials, which include concrete, steel-reinforced concrete, structural steel, and various protective coatings and membranes. It identifies and evaluates the probability of reactions occurring which might lead to degradation of the materials and so compromise the structure. The probability of failure (interpreted relative to the ability of the structure to restrict ingress and egress of water) is assessed for each material and precautionary measures, intended to maximize the durability of the facility, are reviewed. 19 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Degradation modes of nickel-base alternate waste package overpack materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitman, S.G.

    1988-07-01

    The suitability of Ti Grade 12 for waste package overpacks has been questioned because of its observed susceptibility to crevice corrosion and hydrogen-assisted crack growth. For this reason, materials have been selected for evaluation as alternatives to Ti Grade 12 for use as waste package overpacks. These alternative materials, which are based on the nickel-chromium-molybdenum (Ni-Cr-Mo) alloy system, are Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, and Hastelloy C-22. The degradation modes of the Ni-base alternate materials have been examined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine the suitability of these materials for waste package overpack applications in a salt repository. Degradation modes investigated included general corrosion, crevice corrosion, pitting, stress-corrosion cracking, and hydrogen embrittlement

  10. The effect of using low-polluting building materials on ventilation requirements and energy use in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Frontczak, M. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of the ongoing research project described in this paper was to study the potential for reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials, without compromising the indoor air quality. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e. the relationships between ventilation rate and perceived indoor air quality, were established for rooms furnished with different categories of polluting materials and the simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out. The exposure-response relationships were based on a summary of data reported in the literature on exposure-response relationships for materials tested in laboratory settings in small-scale glass chambers, and in full-scale in climate chambers, test rooms or normal offices. New experiments were also considered in which the effect of using low-polluting materials on perceived air quality was examined in test rooms ventilated with different outdoor air supply rates, low-polluting materials being selected in small glass chambers. The results suggest that the exposure-response relationships vary between different building materials and that the perceived air quality can be improved considerably when polluting building materials are substituted with materials that pollute less. The preliminary energy simulations indicate that selecting low-polluting materials will result in considerable energy savings as a result of reducing the ventilation rates required to achieve acceptable indoor air quality. (au)

  11. Natural radioactivity in granite stones and their radiological aspects as building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaravel, S.; Sunil, C.N.; Narashimha Nath, V.; Raghunath, T.; Prashanth Kumar, M.; Ramakrishna, V.; Nair, B.S.K.; Purohit, R.G.; Tripati, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity in building and building decorating materials comes mainly from natural radioactive series like 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K. India is one of the leading users of granite stones as it is preferred by decorators and architects. The knowledge of presence of natural radioactivity in these materials is required for the assessment of radiation exposure due to them. The objective of this study is to determine the natural radioactivity and radiological aspects of granite stones as building material

  12. Competitive landscape of the EU’s insulation materials industry for energy-efficient buildings

    OpenAIRE

    PAVEL CLAUDIU; BLAGOEVA DARINA

    2017-01-01

    Insulation materials could contribute significantly to improving the overall energy efficiency and sustainability of the buildings, especially by reducing the energy losses through the building envelope (walls, roofs, floors, etc.). The global demand for thermal insulation materials in building applications is projected to increase at a CAGR of 4.5 % between 2016 and 2027. In the EU the demand for thermal insulation materials is estimated at 3.48 % (2015-2027). Wool minerals (glass and stone ...

  13. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 7. Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Custodial Buildings 136 4.5.5 Retail Stores, Malls, etc. 138 l’ 4.5.6 Restaurants and Nightclubs 4.5.7 Public Assembly Occupancies - Auditoria , Theaters... auditoria , theaters, exhibition halls, arenas, transportation terminals; educational buildings and indus- trial buildings. Many of the fire safety...usage are developed. 4.5.7 Public Assembly Occupancies - Auditoria , Theaters, Exhibition Halls, Arenas, Transportation Terminals, Etc. The factors

  14. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringer, F J; Baumgartner, A; Rechberger, F; Seidel, C; Stietka, M

    2013-11-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon; F. Hua

    2005-04-12

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the first 10,000-years after repository closure. This paper provides an overview of the degradation of the waste packages and drip shields in the repository after permanent closure of the facility. The degradation modes discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen induced cracking of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys. The effects of microbial activity and radiation on the degradation of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys are also discussed. Further, for titanium alloys, the effects of fluorides, bromides, and galvanic coupling to less noble metals are considered. It is concluded that the materials and design adopted will provide sufficient safety margins for at least 10,000-years after repository closure.

  16. Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon, K.G.; Hua, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the first 10,000-years after repository closure. This paper provides an overview of the degradation of the waste packages and drip shields in the repository after permanent closure of the facility. The degradation modes discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen induced cracking of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys. The effects of microbial activity and radiation on the degradation of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys are also discussed. Further, for titanium alloys, the effects of fluorides, bromides, and galvanic coupling to less noble metals are considered. It is concluded that the materials and design adopted will provide sufficient safety margins for at least 10,000-years after repository closure

  17. A novel method to control hydrolytic degradation of nanocomposite biocompatible materials via imparting superhydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakbaz, Mobina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, P.O. Box 36155-163, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Iman [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyfi, Javad, E-mail: Jseyfi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, P.O. Box 36155-163, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Seyed-Hassan [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, Hossein Ali [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davachi, Seyed Mohammad [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was obtained from a terpolymer for biomedical applications. • Hydrolytic degradation was delayed notably through inducing superhydrophobicity. • A novel method including combined use of non-solvent and nanoparticles was used. • Extreme wettabilities are attained by varying non-solvent and nanoparticles content. • Use of nanoparticle increased pore size via accelerating the evaporation process. - Abstract: Acceleration of hydrolytic degradation of biomedical materials is not always desirable. For instance, terpolymers based on L-lactide, glycolide and trimethylene carbonate exhibit very fast hydrolytic degradation due to their amorphous structure, hydrophilicity, and high water absorption capability. Therefore, an attempt was made in the current study to impede the hydrolytic degradation for these materials through imparting superhydrophobicity to their surfaces. The used terpolymer has been shown to have promising potential applications as bio-absorbable surgical sutures and other biomedical materials, and thus, its applicability could be further extended upon impeding its hydrolytic degradation. Moreover, a novel method including combined use of non-solvent and nanoparticles was utilized to achieve superhydrophobicity. Very diverse wettability results were obtained which were attributed to the obtained various morphologies according to scanning electron microscopy results. More importantly, a unique hierarchical morphology was found to be responsible for the observed water repellent behavior. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed co-existence of nanosilica particles and terpolymer chains on the surface's top layer. Finally, it was found that the superhydrophobic sample exhibited a significantly impeded hydrolytic degradation as compared with the hydrophilic pure terpolymer which was attributed to the formation of air pockets on the surface's top layer.

  18. Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic cross-flow filter materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M.A.; Lane, J.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1989-11-01

    This report summarizes the 14-month, Phase 1 effort conducted by Westinghouse on the Thermal/Chemical Degradation of Ceramic Cross-Flow Filter Materials program. In Phase 1 expected filter process conditions were identified for a fixed-bed, fluid-bed, and entrained-bed gasification, direct coal fired turbine, and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. Ceramic cross-flow filter materials were also selected, procured, and subjected to chemical and physical characterization. The stability of each of the ceramic cross-flow materials was assessed in terms of potential reactions or phase change as a result of process temperature, and effluent gas compositions containing alkali and fines. In addition chemical and physical characterization was conducted on cross-flow filters that were exposed to the METC fluid-bed gasifier and the New York University pressurized fluidized-bed combustor. Long-term high temperature degradation mechanisms were proposed for each ceramic cross-flow material at process operating conditions. An experimental bench-scale test program is recommended to be conducted in Phase 2, generating data that support the proposed cross-flow filter material thermal/chemical degradation mechanisms. Papers on the individual subtasks have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Easterling, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  20. Radon diffusion studies in some building materials using solid state nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Singh, B; Singh, J

    1999-01-01

    LR-115 plastic track detector has been used to study radon diffusion through some building materials, viz. cement, soil, marble chips, sand and lime as well as air. Diffusion constant and diffusion length is calculated for all these materials.

  1. Material degradation of liquid organic semiconductors analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Fukushima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid organic light-emitting diodes (liquid OLEDs are unique devices consisting only of liquid organic semiconductors in the active layer, and the device performances have been investigated recently. However, the device degradation, especially, the origin has been unknown. In this study, we show that material degradation occurs in liquid OLEDs, whose active layer is composed of carbazole with an ethylene glycol chain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR experiments clearly exhibit that the dimerization reaction of carbazole moiety occurs in the liquid OLEDs during driving the devices. In contrast, cleavages of the ethylene glycol chain are not detected within experimental error. The dimerization reaction is considered to be related to the device degradation.

  2. Thorium and Uranium in the Rock Raw Materials Used For the Production of Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękala, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    Thorium and uranium are constant components of all soils and most minerals thereby rock raw materials. They belong to the particularly dangerous elements because of their natural radioactivity. Evaluation of the content of the radioactive elements in the rock raw materials seems to be necessary in the early stage of the raw material evaluation. The rock formations operated from deposits often are accumulated in landfills and slag heaps where the concentration of the radioactive elements can be many times higher than under natural conditions. In addition, this phenomenon may refer to buildings where rock raw materials are often the main components of the construction materials. The global control system of construction products draws particular attention to the elimination of used construction products containing excessive quantities of the natural radioactive elements. In the presented study were determined the content of thorium and uranium in rock raw materials coming from the Bełachatów lignite deposit. The Bełchatów lignite deposit extracts mainly lignite and secondary numerous accompanying minerals with the raw material importance. In the course of the field works within the framework of the carried out work has been tested 92 samples of rocks of varied petrographic composition. There were carried out analyses of the content of the radioactive elements for 50 samples of limestone of the Jurassic age, 18 samples of kaolinite clays, and 24 samples of siliceous raw materials, represented by opoka-rocks, diatomites, gaizes and clastic rocks. The measurement of content of the natural radioactive elements thorium and uranium based on measuring the frequency counts of gamma quantum, recorded separately in measuring channels. At the same time performed measurements on volume patterns radioactive: thorium and uranium. The studies were carried out in Mazar spectrometer on the powdered material. Standardly performed ten measuring cycles, after which were calculated

  3. Development of Multiscale Materials Modeling Techniques and Coarse- Graining Strategies for Predicting Materials Degradation in Extreme Irradiation Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Exposure of metallic structural materials to irradiation environments results in significant microstructural evolution, property changes and performance degradation, which limits the extended operation of current generation light water reactors and restricts the design of advanced fission and fusion reactors [1-8]. This effect of irradiation on materials microstructure and properties is a classic example of an inherently multiscale phenomenon, as schematically illustrated in Figure 1a. Pertinent processes range from the atomic nucleus to structural component length scales, spanning more than 15 orders of magnitude. Time scales bridge more than 22 orders of magnitude, with the shortest being less than a femtosecond [1,8]. Further, the mix of radiation-induced features formed and the corresponding property degradation depend on a wide range of material and irradiation variables. This emphasizes the importance of closely integrating models with high-resolution experimental characterization of the evolving radiation- damaged microstructure, including measurements performed in-situ during irradiation. In this article, we review some recent successes through the use of closely coordinated modeling and experimental studies of the defect cluster evolution in irradiated body-centered cubic materials, followed by a discussion of outstanding challenges still to be addressed, which are necessary for the development of comprehensive models of radiation effects in structural materials.

  4. Modeling material-degradation-induced elastic property of tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawolin, N K; Li, M G; Chen, X B; Zhang, W J

    2010-11-01

    The mechanical properties of tissue engineering scaffolds play a critical role in the success of repairing damaged tissues/organs. Determining the mechanical properties has proven to be a challenging task as these properties are not constant but depend upon time as the scaffold degrades. In this study, the modeling of the time-dependent mechanical properties of a scaffold is performed based on the concept of finite element model updating. This modeling approach contains three steps: (1) development of a finite element model for the effective mechanical properties of the scaffold, (2) parametrizing the finite element model by selecting parameters associated with the scaffold microstructure and/or material properties, which vary with scaffold degradation, and (3) identifying selected parameters as functions of time based on measurements from the tests on the scaffold mechanical properties as they degrade. To validate the developed model, scaffolds were made from the biocompatible polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) mixed with hydroxylapatite (HA) nanoparticles and their mechanical properties were examined in terms of the Young modulus. Based on the bulk degradation exhibited by the PCL/HA scaffold, the molecular weight was selected for model updating. With the identified molecular weight, the finite element model developed was effective for predicting the time-dependent mechanical properties of PCL/HA scaffolds during degradation.

  5. Thermal conductivity degradation analyses of LWR MOX fuel by the quasi-two phase material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, Yuji; Kurematsu, Shigeru; Kitagawa, Takaaki; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    The temperature measurements of mixed oxide (MOX) and UO 2 fuels during irradiation suggested that the thermal conductivity degradation rate of the MOX fuel with burnup should be slower than that of the UO 2 fuel. In order to explain the difference of the degradation rates, the quasi-two phase material model is proposed to assess the thermal conductivity degradation of the MIMAS MOX fuel, which takes into account the Pu agglomerate distributions in the MOX fuel matrix as fabricated. As a result, the quasi-two phase model calculation shows the gradual increase of the difference with burnup and may expect more than 10% higher thermal conductivity values around 75 GWd/t. While these results are not fully suitable for thermal conductivity degradation models implemented by some industrial fuel manufacturers, they are consistent with the results from the irradiation tests and indicate that the inhomogeneity of Pu content in the MOX fuel can be one of the major reasons for the moderation of the thermal conductivity degradation of the MOX fuel. (author)

  6. Investigation of Material Performance Degradation for High-Strength Aluminum Alloy Using Acoustic Emission Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Ai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural materials damages are always in the form of micro-defects or cracks. Traditional or conventional methods such as micro and macro examination, tensile, bend, impact and hardness tests can be used to detect the micro damage or defects. However, these tests are destructive in nature and not in real-time, thus a non-destructive and real-time monitoring and characterization of the material damage is needed. This study is focused on the application of a non-destructive and real-time acoustic emission (AE method to study material performance degradation of a high-strength aluminum alloy of high-speed train gearbox shell. By applying data relative analysis and interpretation of AE signals, the characteristic parameters of materials performance were achieved and the failure criteria of the characteristic parameters for the material tensile damage process were established. The results show that the AE method and signal analysis can be used to accomplish the non-destructive and real-time detection of the material performance degradation process of the high-strength aluminum alloy. This technique can be extended to other engineering materials.

  7. Probabilistic analysis of degradation incubation time of steam generator tubing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, M.D.; Jyrkama, M.I.; Lu, Y.; Chi, L.

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of degradation free lifetime of steam generator (SG) tubing material is an important step in the life cycle management and decision for replacement of steam generators during the refurbishment of a nuclear station. Therefore, an extensive experimental research program has been undertaken by the Canadian Nuclear Industry to investigate the degradation of widely-used SG tubing alloys, namely, Alloy 600 TT, Alloy 690 TT, and Alloy 800. The corrosion related degradations of passive metals, such as pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) etc. are assumed to start with the break down of the passive film at the tube-environment interface, which is characterized by the incubation time for passivity breakdown and then the degradation growth rate, and both are influenced by the chemical environment and coolant temperature. Since the incubation time and growth rate exhibit significant variability in the laboratory tests used to simulate these degradation processes, the use of probabilistic modeling is warranted. A pit is initiated with the breakdown of the passive film on the SG tubing surface. Upon exposure to aggressive environments, pitting corrosion may not initiate immediately, or may initiate and then re-passivate. The time required to initiate pitting corrosion is called the pitting incubation time, and that can be used to characterize the corrosion resistance of a material under specific test conditions. Pitting may be the precursor to other corrosion degradation mechanisms, such as environmentally-assisted cracking. This paper will provide an overview of the results of the first stage of experimental program in which samples of Alloy 600 TT, Alloy 690 TT, and Alloy 800 were tested under various temperatures and potentials and simulated crevice environments. The testing environment was chosen to represent layup, startup, and full operating conditions of the steam generators. Degradation incubation times for over 80 samples were

  8. Building materials. VOC emissions, diffusion behaviour and implications from their use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Five cement- and five lime-based building materials were examined in an environmental chamber for their emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Typical VOCs were below detection limits, whereas not routinely analysed VOCs, like neopentyl glycol (NPG), dominated the cement-based products emissions, where, after 72 h, it was found to occur, in levels as high as 1400 μg m −3 , accounting for up to 93% of total VOCs. The concentrations of NPG were not considerably changed between the 24 and 72 h of sampling. The permeability of building materials was assessed through experiments with a dual environmental chamber; it was shown that building materials facilitate the diffusion of chemicals through their pores, reaching equilibrium relatively fast (6 h). - Highlights: ► Neopentyl glycol is reported in emissions from building materials for the first time. ► Neopentyl glycol dominates the VOC emissions from cement-based building materials. ► A dual chamber was developed to control diffusion through building materials. ► Building materials facilitate diffusion of indoor air pollutants through their pores. - Neopentyl glycol was detected in high concentrations in emissions from building materials.

  9. The global warming potential of building materials : An application of life cycle analysis in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhochhibhoya, Silu; Zanetti, Michela; Pierobon, Francesca; Gatto, Paola; Maskey, Ramesh Kumar; Cavalli, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the global-warming potential of materials used to construct the walls of 3 building types - traditional, semimodern, and modern - in Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal, using the life-cycle assessment approach. Traditional buildings use local materials, mainly wood

  10. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  11. Calculation of radiation dose rate arisen from radionuclide contained in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Tien Thinh; Nguyen Hao Quang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some results that we used MCNP5 program to calculate radiation dose rate arisen from radionuclide in building materials. Since then, the limits of radionuclide content in building materials are discussed. The calculation results by MCNP are compared with those calculated by analytical method. (author)

  12. 29 CFR 779.336 - Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property construction. Sales of building materials to a contractor or speculative builder for the... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for commercial property construction. 779.336 Section 779.336 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION...

  13. Embodied energy of building materials and green building rating systems : a case study for industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Green building rating (GBR) systems are developed to provide independent assessment standards that evaluate in a few categories about the performance and sustainability of buildings. However, same category might weight differently in each of the GBR systems. A particular system might favor certain

  14. Embodied energy of building materials and green building rating systems : a case study for industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Green Building Rating (GBR) systems are developed to provide independent assessment standards that evaluate in a few categories about the performance and sustainability of buildings. However, same category might weight differently in each of the GBR systems, which are different in objectives. A

  15. The use of portable equipment for the activity concentration index determination of building materials: method validation and survey of building materials on the Belgian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stals, M.; Verhoeven, S.; Bruggeman, M.; Pellens, V.; Schroeyers, W.; Schreurs, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Euratom BSS requires that in the near future (2015) the building materials for application in dwellings or buildings such as offices or workshops are screened for NORM nuclides. The screening tool is the activity concentration index (ACI). Therefore it is expected that a large number of building materials will be screened for NORM and thus require ACI determination. Nowadays, the proposed standard for determination of building material ACI is a laboratory analyses technique with high purity germanium spectrometry and 21 days equilibrium delay. In this paper, the B-NORM method for determination of building material ACI is assessed as a faster method that can be performed on-site, alternative to the aforementioned standard method. The B-NORM method utilizes a LaBr 3 (Ce) scintillation probe to obtain the spectral data. Commercially available software was applied to comprehensively take into account the factors determining the counting efficiency. The ACI was determined by interpreting the gamma spectrum from 226 Ra and its progeny; 232 Th progeny and 40 K. In order to assess the accuracy of the B-NORM method, a large selection of samples was analyzed by a certified laboratory and the results were compared with the B-NORM results. The results obtained with the B-NORM method were in good correlation with the results obtained by the certified laboratory, indicating that the B-NORM method is an appropriate screening method to assess building material ACI. The B-NORM method was applied to analyze more than 120 building materials on the Belgian market. No building materials that exceed the proposed reference level of 1 mSv/year were encountered. -- Highlights: • Many building materials will have to be tested for NORM activity concentrations. • An on-site NORM analysis method has been developed and validated. • Over 120 building materials on the Belgian market have been analyzed with this method. • The Euratom BSS reference level of 1 mSv/year excess dose will

  16. Towards The Adaptation of Green Building Material Systems to the Egyptian Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sherif Mohamed Sabry Elattar; Eman Badawy Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This research briefly reviews the definition and the principles of green architecture, making a comparison between the global green building rating systems in respect to materials only. These systems are the [1, 2]Green Pyramid, BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environment Assessment Method), [3] LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) and the [4] Green Star in the form of Credits %, importance and its Requirements.The research Aims to evaluate the green building material ...

  17. The natural radioactivity of building materials used in the Christchurch urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The natural gamma radioactivity of a variety of common building materials in Christchurch, has been measured by gamma spectroscopy. Using conversion factors from the literature, relative dose rate indices for the various building materials were calculated and compared. An increasing order of radioactivity concentration was found from timber to compressed limestone to brick products. These levels are however less than the acceptable limits of radioactivity based on some overseas criteria suggested as building standards

  18. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonggang; Kang, Lingzhi; Meng, Qing-Yuan; Liu, Huanye; Wang, Zhaoliang; Guo, Zhongwu; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-01-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials

  19. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Lingzhi [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Meng, Qing-Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Zhaoliang [Jinan Military General Hospital of PLA, Jinan 250031 (China); Guo, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwguo@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials.

  20. Build green and conventional materials off-gassing tests: A final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piersol, P.

    1995-12-31

    Build Green is a certification program that will identify and label building products with a known recycled content. The introduction of these recycled materials has raised the concern that they may emit more indoor pollutants than conventional materials. This study addresses that concern by analyzing Build Green and conventional materials to assess their potential for off-gassing. The study involved emission tests of 37 materials including carpets, carpet undercushions, structural lumber, foundation material, insulation, drywall, fiberboard, counter tops, and cabinetry. The results presented in this report include comparisons of Build Green and conventional materials in terms of emissions of volatile organic compounds and formaldehyde, the material loading ratio, and discussion of the specific sources of the emissions.

  1. Suggestions for inclulsion of radon exhalation control target in building materials radioactivity standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liu Senlin; Pan Ziqiang; Zhang Yonggui

    2010-01-01

    The specific-activity and radon exhalation rate from 26 building material samples from different areas were measured with high pure germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer and activated carbon cartridge. It is shown that the radium content is not completely relevant to radon exhalation rate from some building material. The existing national standards on 'The Limit of Radionuclides in Building Materials' (GB 6566-2001) only present internal exposure index as control target but not for radon exhalation rate; in fact, the radon exhalation rate from building materials is closely nearly related to indoor radon concentration. So we suggest that the radon exhalation control target should be included in the national standards on 'The Limit of Radionuclides in Building Materials'. (authors)

  2. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in building materials used in Peloponnese, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaefthymiou, H.; Gouseti, O.

    2008-01-01

    Five different kinds of building materials (Pozzolanic and Portland cements, limestone, white cement, marble powder and sand) commonly used in building construction in Peloponnese, Greece, and Portland cement's raw materials were analyzed for their natural radioactivity content, using γ-ray spectrometry. Pozzolanic and Portland cement (Cem II) samples were found to contain the highest average 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentrations compared with the other examined building material samples. This could be attributed to their containing fly ash, which was found to contain high natural radionuclide concentrations, especially that of 226 Ra (1041Bqkg -1 ). Results obtained were compared with the results reported by other Greek researchers and the worldwide values for building materials and soil. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all the examined building material samples were lower than the recommended exception limits for exposure to external γ-radiation

  3. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in building materials used in Peloponnese, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, H. [Division of Physics, Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece)], E-mail: epap@chemistry.upatras.gr; Gouseti, O. [Division of Physics, Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece)

    2008-09-15

    Five different kinds of building materials (Pozzolanic and Portland cements, limestone, white cement, marble powder and sand) commonly used in building construction in Peloponnese, Greece, and Portland cement's raw materials were analyzed for their natural radioactivity content, using {gamma}-ray spectrometry. Pozzolanic and Portland cement (Cem II) samples were found to contain the highest average {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activity concentrations compared with the other examined building material samples. This could be attributed to their containing fly ash, which was found to contain high natural radionuclide concentrations, especially that of {sup 226}Ra (1041Bqkg{sup -1}). Results obtained were compared with the results reported by other Greek researchers and the worldwide values for building materials and soil. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all the examined building material samples were lower than the recommended exception limits for exposure to external {gamma}-radiation.

  4. Potentially harmful secondary metabolites produced by indoor Chaetomium species on artificially and naturally contaminated building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosen, Ina; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Clausen, Geo

    2017-01-01

    , have been screened for, and thus detected in buildings. In this study, we used a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach to screen both artificially and naturally infected building materials for all the Chaetomium metabolites described in the literature. Pure agar cultures were...... also investigated in order to establish differences between metabolite production in vitro and on building materials as well as comparison to non-indoor reference strains. On building materials six different chaetoglobosins were detected in total concentrations of up to 950 mg/m2 from C. globosum along...... with three different chaetoviridins/chaetomugilins in concentrations up to 200 mg/m2. Indoor Chaetomium spp. preferred wood-based materials over gypsum, both in terms of growth rate and metabolite production. Cochliodones were detected for the first time on all building materials infected by both C. globosum...

  5. Terrain and building effects on the transport of radioactive material at a nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyojoon; Park, Misun; Jeong, Haesun; Hwang, Wontae; Kim, Eunhan; Han, Moonhee

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study is to quantify the building and terrain effects on the atmospheric dispersion. • Statistical methods with AERMOD-PRIME and CFD were used. • To assess the risk in nuclear power plants, terrain and building effects have to be considered. - Abstract: This study identified the terrain and building effects on the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials at the Wolsong Nuclear Site. To analyze the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials, the AERMOD-PRIME model, CFD model and meteorological data from 2010 were used. The terrain and building effects on the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials within a 1 km radius of the site were statistically significant. The maximum concentration of the radioactive material increased by 7 times compared to the concentration when the terrain and building effects were not considered. It was found that the terrain and building influenced the decrease in the concentration of radioactive material in a concentric circle with a 914 m radius from the center of the site. The concentration of radioactive material in a concentric circle with a 350 m radius was two-times higher than the concentration estimated at the backside of the building, which is the downwind side, without any consideration of the terrain and building effects. In consideration of the Korean situation, in which multiple nuclear reactors are built on the same nuclear site, it is necessary to evaluate the risk that may affect workers and nearby residents by reflecting the terrain and building effects

  6. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion crack

  7. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  8. Study of radiation dose reduction of buildings of different sizes and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Takuya; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    The dependence of radiation dose reduction on the sizes and materials of buildings was studied by numerical analyses using the Monte Carlo simulation code, PHITS. The dose rates inside the buildings were calculated by simulating gamma-ray transport from radioactive cesium deposited at the ground surface. Three building models were developed: the wooden house, the open-space concrete building, and the thin-wall building, to study the effect of building size and construction material on dose reduction inside these structures. Here the floor-area sizes of the building models were varied to clarify the influence of building configuration on dose reduction. The results demonstrated that the dose rates inside the buildings linearly decreased with increasing floor area on a logarithmic scale for all types of buildings considered. The calculated dose distribution inside a building indicated that the distance from the outer walls was a determining factor for the dose rate at each position in the building. The obtained tendency was verified by comparison with data reflecting the dose reduction of typical buildings in Japan. (author)

  9. Study of the degradation of mulch materials in vegetable crops for organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Moreno, Marta; Mancebo, Ignacio; Moreno, Carmen; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón

    2014-05-01

    Mulching is the most common technique used worldwide by vegetable growers in protected cultivation. For this purpose, several plastic materials have been used, with polyethylene (PE) being the most widespread. However, PE is produced from petroleum derivatives, it is not degradable, and thus pollutes the environment for periods much longer than the crop duration (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011), which are very important negative aspects especially for organic farmers. A large portion of plastic films is left on the field or burnt uncontrollably by the farmers, with the associated negative consequences to the environment (Moreno and Moreno, 2008). Therefore, the best solution is to find a material with a lifetime similar to the crop duration time that can be later incorporated by the agricultural system through a biodegradation process (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011). In this context, various biodegradable materials have been considered as alternatives in the last few years, including oxo-biodegradable films, biopolymer mulches, different types of papers, and crop residues (Kasirajan and Ngouajio, 2012). In this work we evaluate the evolution of different properties related to mulch degradation in both the buried and the superficial (exposed) part of mulch materials of different composition (standard black PE, papers and black biodegradable plastics) in summer vegetable crops under organic management in Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain). As results, it is remarkable the early deterioration suffered by the buried part of the papers, disappearing completely in the soil at the end of the crop cycles and therefore indicating the total incorporation of these materials to the soil once the crop has finished. In the case of the degradation of the exposed mulch, small differences between crops were observed. In general, all the materials were less degraded under the plants than when receiving directly the solar radiation. As conclusion, biodegradable mulches degrade

  10. Degradation of carbon-based materials under ablative conditions produced by a high enthalpy plasma jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Petraconi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A stationary experiment was performed to study the degradation of carbon-based materials by immersion in a plasma jet. In the experiment, graphite and C/C composite were chosen as the target materials, and the reactive plasma jet was generated by an air plasma torch. For macroscopic study of the material degradation, the sample’s mass losses were measured as function of the exposure time under various temperatures on the sample surface. A microscopic analysis was then carried out for the study of microscopic aspects of the erosion of material surface. These experiments showed that the mass loss per unit area is approximately proportional to the exposure time and strongly depends on the temperature of the material surface. The mass erosion rate of graphite was appreciably higher than the C/C composite. The ablation rate in the carbon matrix region in C/C composite was also noticeably higher than that in the fiber region. In addition, the latter varied according to the orientation of fibers relatively to the flow direction. These tests indicated an excellent ablation resistance of the C/C composite, thus being a reliable material for rocket nozzles and heat shielding elements of the protection systems of hypersonic apparatuses from aerodynamic heating.

  11. Algae and their biodegradation effects on building materials in the Ostrava industrial agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtková, H.

    2017-10-01

    Microorganisms cause changes in the building stone, which reduce its usable life and reliability. Microalgae make important parts of the biodegradation consortia of microorganisms on the surface of building materials. Via their metabolites, microalgae affect the stability of mineral components and thus lead to the material destruction. The aim of the paper was to identify aerophytic microalgae on the surface of engineering structures in the Ostrava agglomeration, and to describe the basic interactions between such microorganisms and the building materials, which may lead to the destruction of the materials.

  12. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.; Suresh, S.

    2018-01-01

    Significant portion of the background radiation is coming from the primordial nuclides such as 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K which are present in the soil, rock and building material. These radionuclides are sources of the external and the internal radiation exposures in dwellings. The specific activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the building raw materials and products mainly depend on geological and geographical conditions as well as geochemical characteristics of those materials. Knowledge of radioactivity present in building materials enables one to assess any possible radiological risk to human health

  13. Proactive Management of Materials Degradation - A Review of Principles and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Taylor, Theodore T.

    2008-08-28

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has undertaken a program to lay the technical foundation for defining proactive actions so that future degradation of materials in light water reactors (LWRs) is limited and, thereby, does not diminish either the integrity of important LWR components or the safety of operating plants. This technical letter report was prepared by staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the NRC Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) program and relies heavily on work that was completed by Dr. Joseph Muscara and documented in NUREG/CR-6923. This report concisely explains the basic principles of PMMD and its relationship to prognostics, provides a review of programs related to PMMD being conducted worldwide, and provides an assessment of the technical gaps in PMMD and prognostics that need to be addressed. This technical letter report is timely because the majority of the U.S. reactor fleet is applying for license renewal, and many plants are also applying for increases in power rating. Both of these changes could increase the likelihood of materials degradation and underline, therefore, the interest in proactive management in the future.

  14. Scenarios and methods that induce protruding or released CNTs after degradation of nanocomposite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Sabine; Cena, Lorenzo; Cox, Gerhard; Tomović, Zeljko; Peters, Thomas; Wohlleben, Wendel

    2013-04-01

    Nanocomposite materials may be considered as a low-risk application of nanotechnology, if the nanofillers remain embedded throughout the life-cycle of the products in which they are embedded. We hypothesize that release of free CNTs occurs by a combination of mechanical stress and chemical degradation of the polymer matrix. We experimentally address limiting cases: Mechanically released fragments may show tubular protrusions on their surface. Here we identify these protrusions unambiguously as naked CNTs by chemically resolved microscopy and a suitable preparation protocol. By size-selective quantification of fragments we establish as a lower limit that at least 95 % of the CNTs remain embedded. Contrary to classical fiber composite approaches, we link this phenomenon to matrix materials with only a few percent elongation at break, predicting which materials should still cover their CNT nanofillers after machining. Protruding networks of CNTs remain after photochemical degradation of the matrix, and we show that it takes the worst case combinations of weathering plus high-shear wear to release free CNTs in the order of mg/m 2 /year. Synergy of chemical degradation and mechanical energy input is identified as the priority scenario of CNT release, but its lab simulation by combined methods is still far from real-world validation.

  15. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazardous of main building materials in Yan'an, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nan; Lu Xinwei; Yang Guang; Zhao Caifeng

    2012-01-01

    Background: With the rapidly economic development and urbanization in Yan'an city, more building materials were consumed in building construction. While the natural radioactivity level of building materials from Yan'an is limited in the literatures. Purpose: The main objective of this study is to determine the natural radioactivity level and to analyze the associated radiation hazards of building materials in Yan'an. Methods: The specific activities of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in various building materials from Yan'an city were determined using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry, and their radiation hazards were evaluated according to the standard methods. Results: The results show that the specific activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the building materials are 9.4-73.1, 11.5-86.9 and 258.9-1055.1 Bq/kg, respectively. The activities of 226 Ra and 232 Th, except for sand and gravel aggregate, in all other building materials are higher than the corresponding means of local soil, and the activities of 40 K in hollow brick, red-clay brick, sand and gravel aggregate exceed the means of 40 K in soil. However, the values of internal exposure index, external exposure index and gamma radiation index in all investigated building materials are less than 1. Conclusions: The radiation levels of all analyzed building materials are within the national safety standard, which indicates that all analyzed building materials can be used anywhere and they can't cause radiation hazard to the local residents. (authors)

  16. Naturally radioactivity in common building materials used in Thiruvannamalai city, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravisankar, R.; Vanasundari, K.; Suganya, M.; Sivakumar, S.; Senthilkumar, G.; Chandramohan, J.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-01-01

    The radioactivity of some building materials used in Thiruvannamalai city has been measured using a NaI(Tl) detector based gamma ray spectrometer. The distribution of natural occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) in the building materials was studied. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ) internal radiation hazard index (H in ) and the activity utilization index (I) associated with the natural radionuclide are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the building materials. The present work shows that the natural radioactivity levels in the building construction materials used in Thiruvannamalai city is well below the acceptable limits. From the analysis, it was found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards. (author)

  17. Degradation of materials under conditions of thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production - part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, S.J.; Searle, H.; Guerout, F.

    2011-01-01

    A capsule method was employed to screen a number of materials for degradation under selected conditions of the sulphur-iodine (SI) and the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycles. A summary of the results of an experimental investigation is given. The recommendations for the selection of the materials required for the construction of the electrolyser subsystem of the copper chlorine hybrid cycle are presented and discussed with the associated rationale. Some remaining uncertainties are illustrated on the basis of the experimental evidence gathered. (author)

  18. Development of quantitative evaluation procedure of in-service materials degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideaki

    1992-01-01

    The quantitative nondestructive evaluation procedure for detecting in-service materials degradation of low alloy structural steels by both small punch test and the electrochemical method has been developed. The static and dynamic small punch test method have been developed in order to apply this technique to R and D study for fusion reactor material development, such as 14 MeV irradiation damage evaluation. The characteristic changes in polarization curves attributed to IGC have an excellent correlation with shifts in FATT caused by temper embrittlement for Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steels. (author)

  19. LWR aging management using a proactive approach to control materials degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, L.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Cumblidge, S.E.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Taylor, W.B.; Hull, A.B.; Malik, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Material issues can be the limiting factor for the operation of nuclear power plants. There is growing interest in new and improved philosophies and methodologies for plant life management (PLiM), which include the migration from reliance on periodic inservice inspection to include condition-based maintenance. A further step in the development of plant management is the move from proactive responses based on ISI to become proactive, through the investigation of the potential for implementation of a proactive management of materials degradation (PMMD) program and its potential impact on the management of LWRs. (author)

  20. Chemical and thermal analysis for characterisation of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.C.; Sudersanan, M.; Ravindran, P.V.; Kalekar, B.B.; Mathur, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Cement and other construction materials are extensively used for the construction of shielding materials for nuclear and high energy radiations. The design and optimum utilisation of such materials need an accurate analysis of their chemical composition. The moisture content and presence of bound water and other volatile materials are also important. The use of thermal analysis supplements the data obtained by chemical analysis and enables a distinction of moisture and chemically bound water. It also enables an identification of the process leading to the loss on ignition. The work carried out on the analysis of sand, cement and other aggregate materials used for the preparation of concrete is described in the paper. (author)

  1. Building control for nuclear materials R and D facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, O.

    1979-01-01

    The new plutonium research and development facility at LASL was the first facility to be completed in the United States under the new environmental requirements. To insure that these new requirements are met, a redundant computer system is used to monitor and control the building. This paper describes the supervisory control and data acquisition system that was implemented to perform that function

  2. Preliminary research on time degradation of mechanical characteristics of concretes used in nuclear power plant buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciornei, R.

    1991-01-01

    To provide severe safety rules governing the operation of nuclear power plants, reinforced and concrete elements and structures should preserve the quality and time-constant parameters throughout the life-time of the buildings. Some important design parameters are concrete strength and elasticity modulus. Preliminary research on concrete specimens made in laboratory whose strength and static and dynamic elasticity modulus have been determined after an ageing test, has aimed at nuclear power design and building. (author)

  3. Amoebae and other protozoa in material samples from moisture-damaged buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yli-Pirilae, T.; Kusnetsov, Jaana; Haatainen, Susanna; Haenninen, Marja; Jalava, Pasi; Reiman, Marjut; Seuri, Markku; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Nevalainen, Aino

    2004-01-01

    Mold growth in buildings has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects. The fungal and bacterial growth on moistened building materials has been studied, but little attention has been paid to the other organisms spawning in the damaged materials. We examined moist building materials for protozoa, concentrating on amoebae. Material samples (n=124) from moisture-damaged buildings were analyzed for amoebae, fungi, and bacteria. Amoebae were detected in 22% of the samples, and they were found to favor cooccurrence with bacteria and the fungi Acremonium spp., Aspergillus versicolor, Chaetomium spp., and Trichoderma spp. In addition, 11 seriously damaged samples were screened for other protozoa. Ciliates and flagellates were found in almost every sample analyzed. Amoebae are known to host pathogenic bacteria, such as chlamydiae, legionellae, and mycobacteria and they may have a role in the complex of exposure that contributes to the health effects associated with moisture damage in buildings

  4. Degradation of materials under conditions of thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, S.J.; Searle, H.; Stolberg, L.

    2010-01-01

    A capsule method has been developed and employed to measure the degradation rates of selected materials under some of the most challenging conditions relevant to the sulphur-iodine (SI) and the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production. The materials tested so far include metals and engineering alloys, structural and functional polymers, elastomers, carbon-based materials, ceramics and glasses, and composites. A number of characterization methods have been used to detect and quantify the degradation of the diverse materials and, when feasible, establish the mode of attack. The paper details the results of this ongoing experimental investigation. The investigation currently focuses on the copper-chlorine hybrid cycle. The environment representative of the conditions in the electrolyser subsystem was approximated with an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid (13.6 mol/kg), copper(II) chloride (1.36 mol/kg) and copper(I) chloride (1.36 mol/kg) at 160°C and 2.5 MPa (absolute). The current (tentative) recommendations for the selection of the materials required for the construction of the electrolyser subsystem of the copper-chlorine hybrid cycle, and the associated rationale, are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials used in Urumqi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Yang, Guang; Li, Nan

    2013-07-01

    Building materials contain natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, which cause direct radiation exposure of the public. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in commonly used building materials of Urumqi, China have been analysed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (40)K and (232)Th in the studied building materials range from 19.8 to 87.4, from 273.3 to 981.2 and from 11.6 to 47.7 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), gamma index (Iγ) and alpha index (Iα) were calculated to assess the radiation hazards to people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The calculated Raeq values of all the building materials are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) for building materials. The values of Iγ and Iα of all the building materials are less than unity. The study shows that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  6. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  7. Study of radon diffusion coefficient for technologically enhanced building construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, A.K.; Goyal, S.K.; Chauhan, R.P.; Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Most building materials of natural origin contain small amounts of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs), mainly radionuclides from the 226 Ra and 232 Th decay chains and 40 K. The origin of these materials is the earths crust, but they find their way into building materials, air, water, food and the human body itself. The worldwide average indoor effective dose due to gamma rays from building materials is estimated to be about 0.4 mSv per year. In many parts of the world, building materials containing radioactive materials have been used for generations. As individuals spend more than 80% of their time indoors, the internal and external radiation exposure from building materials creates prolonged exposure situations. The internal (inhalation) radiation exposure is due to 222 Rn and their short lived decay products exhaled from building materials into the room air. The average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the earths crust are 35, 30 and 400 Bq/kg respectively. However, elevated levels of natural radionuclides causing annual doses of several mSv were identified in some regions around the world. Recycled industrial by-products containing Technologically Phosphogypsum, a by-product in the production of phosphate fertilizers is used as building material, and red mud, a waste from primary aluminum production, is used in bricks, ceramics and tiles. The increased tendency of the building material industry to use industrial wastes as substitutes for natural products having relatively high activity concentration of NORMs and the increased exposure caused by them were the driving forces for undertaking the present investigation. (author)

  8. Building materials as intrinsic sources of sulphate: A hidden face of salt weathering of historical monuments investigated through multi-isotope tracing (B, O, S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloppmann, W.; Bromblet, P.; Vallet, J.M.; Verges-Belmin, V.; Rolland, O.; Guerrot, C.; Gosselin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Sulphate neoformation is a major factor of degradation of stone monuments. Boron, sulphur and oxygen isotope signatures were investigated for five French historical monuments (Bourges, Chartres and Marseille cathedrals, Chenonceau castle, and Versailles garden statues) to investigate the role of intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plasters and mortars) in stone degradation, compared to the influence of extrinsic sources such as atmospheric pollution. Gypsum plasters and gypsum-containing mortars fall systematically in the δ 34 S and δ 18 O range of Paris Basin Eocene evaporites indicating the origin of the raw materials (so-called 'Paris plaster'). Black crusts show the typical S and O isotope signatures observed elsewhere in Europe that can be attributed to atmospheric pollution, together with a marine component for Marseille. Boron isotopes for black crusts indicate coal combustion as principal boron source. Mortar isotope compositions discriminate three types, one similar to gypsum plasters, one strongly depleted in 34 S, attributed to pyrite oxidation, and a third one close to atmospheric sulphates. The isotopic composition of sulphates and boron of most degraded building stones of the different monuments is well explained by the identified sulphate sources. In several cases (in particular for Chenonceau and Bourges, to some extent for Chartres), the impact of gypsum plaster as building and restoration material on the degradation of the stones in its vicinity was clearly demonstrated. The study illustrates the usefulness of multi-isotope studies to investigate stone degradation factors, as the combination of several isotope systematics increases the discriminatory power of isotope studies with respect to contaminant sources. - Research Highlights: → Insight in stone weathering mechanisms by multi-isotope fingerprinting (B, S, O). → Intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plaster, mortar) contribute to stone degradation. → Origin of building materials

  9. Building materials as intrinsic sources of sulphate: A hidden face of salt weathering of historical monuments investigated through multi-isotope tracing (B, O, S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloppmann, W., E-mail: w.kloppmann@brgm.fr [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Bromblet, P.; Vallet, J.M. [CICRP, 21, rue Guibal, F-13003 Marseille (France); Verges-Belmin, V. [LRMH, 29, rue de Paris, F-77420 Champs sur Marne (France); Rolland, O. [Independent restorer, 3, rue du Gue, 37270 Montlouis s/Loire (France); Guerrot, C. [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Gosselin, C. [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); LRMH, 29, rue de Paris, F-77420 Champs sur Marne (France)

    2011-04-01

    Sulphate neoformation is a major factor of degradation of stone monuments. Boron, sulphur and oxygen isotope signatures were investigated for five French historical monuments (Bourges, Chartres and Marseille cathedrals, Chenonceau castle, and Versailles garden statues) to investigate the role of intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plasters and mortars) in stone degradation, compared to the influence of extrinsic sources such as atmospheric pollution. Gypsum plasters and gypsum-containing mortars fall systematically in the {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O range of Paris Basin Eocene evaporites indicating the origin of the raw materials (so-called 'Paris plaster'). Black crusts show the typical S and O isotope signatures observed elsewhere in Europe that can be attributed to atmospheric pollution, together with a marine component for Marseille. Boron isotopes for black crusts indicate coal combustion as principal boron source. Mortar isotope compositions discriminate three types, one similar to gypsum plasters, one strongly depleted in {sup 34}S, attributed to pyrite oxidation, and a third one close to atmospheric sulphates. The isotopic composition of sulphates and boron of most degraded building stones of the different monuments is well explained by the identified sulphate sources. In several cases (in particular for Chenonceau and Bourges, to some extent for Chartres), the impact of gypsum plaster as building and restoration material on the degradation of the stones in its vicinity was clearly demonstrated. The study illustrates the usefulness of multi-isotope studies to investigate stone degradation factors, as the combination of several isotope systematics increases the discriminatory power of isotope studies with respect to contaminant sources. - Research Highlights: {yields} Insight in stone weathering mechanisms by multi-isotope fingerprinting (B, S, O). {yields} Intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plaster, mortar) contribute to stone degradation

  10. Natural radioactivity and radiological hazards of building materials in Xianyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Yang Guang; Ren Chunhui

    2012-01-01

    Common building materials collected from Xianyang, China were analyzed for the natural radioactivity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using γ-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied building materials ranges from 13.4 to 69.9, 13.1–99.1 and 124.7–915.1 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide average activity of soil. To assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in all samples to the people, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index, indoor absorbed dose rate and total annual effective dose were estimated. The radium equivalent activities of the studied samples are below the internationally accepted values. The external hazard index and internal hazard index of all analyzed building materials are less than unity. The mean values of indoor absorbed dose rate for all building materials except for lime are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h −1 and the total annual effective dose values of building materials are lower than 1 mSv y −1 except for some cyan brick samples. The study shows the measured building materials do not pose significant source of radiation hazard and are safe for use in the construction of dwellings. - Highlights: ► Natural radioactivity in building materials was determined by gamma ray spectrometry. ► The radiological hazard of studied building materials is within the recommended safety limit. ► Most of the studied building materials do not pose significant radiation risk to residents.

  11. Study on the Application Mode and Legal Protection of Green Materials in Medical-Nursing Combined Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Xian

    2017-09-01

    In the context of green development, green materials are the future trend of Medical-Nursing Combined building. This paper summarizes the concept and types of green building materials. Then, on the basis of existing research, it constructs the green material system framework of Medical-Nursing Combined building, puts forward the application mode of green building materials, and studies the policy and legal protection of green material application.

  12. Physical basis of destruction of concrete and other building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleymanova, L. A.; Pogorelova, I. A.; Kirilenko, S. V.; Suleymanov, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the article the scientifically-grounded views of authors on the physical essence of destruction process of concrete and other materials are stated; it is shown that the mechanism of destruction of materials is similar in its essence during the mechanical, thermal, physical-chemical and combined influences, and that in its basis Newton's third law lays. In all cases destruction consists in decompaction of structures, loosening of the internal bonds in materials, in the further integrity damage and their division into separate loosely-bound (full destruction) and unbound with each other (incomplete destruction) elements, which depends on the kind of external influence and perfection of materials structure.

  13. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  14. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dzinun, Hazlini; Ponraj, M.; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Noor, Zainura Zainun [Institute of Environmental Water Resources and Management (IPASA), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Remaz, Dilshah [Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Iwao, Kenzo [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation) of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite), confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  15. Efficient photo-catalytic degradation of malachite green using nickel tungstate material as photo-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaïli, N; Boudjamaa, A; Kebir, M; Bachari, K

    2017-03-01

    The present study focused on the evaluation of photo-catalytic and photo-electrochemical properties of the photo-catalyst based on nickel tungstate material prepared by a nitrate method through the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye's. The effect of catalyst loading and dye concentration was examined. Physico-chemical, optical, electrical, electrochemical, and photo-electrochemical properties of the prepared material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET analysis, optical reflectance diffuse (DR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry (CV), current intensity, mott-shottky, and nyquist. XRD revealed the formation of monoclinic structure with a small particle size. BET surface area of the sample was around 10 m 2 /g. The results show that the degradation of MG was more than 80%, achieved after 3 h of irradiation at pH 4.6 and with a catalyst loading of 75 mg. Also, it was found that the dye photo-degradation obeyed the pseudo-first order kinetic via Langmuir Hinshelwood model.

  16. Metabolites of Trichoderma species isolated from damp building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, David R; Renaud, Justin B; Barasubiye, Tharcisse; Sumarah, Mark W; Miller, J David

    2017-07-01

    Buildings that have been flooded often have high concentrations of Trichoderma spores in the air while drying. Inhaled spores and spore and mycelial fragments contain large amounts of fungal glucan and natural products that contribute to the symptoms associated with indoor mould exposures. In this study, we considered both small molecules and peptaibol profiles of T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. citrinoviride, and T. harzianum strains obtained from damp buildings in eastern Canada. Twenty-residue peptaibols and sorbicillin-derived metabolites (1-6) including a new structure, (R)-vertinolide (1), were characterized from T. citrinoviride. Trichoderma koningiopsis produced several koninginins (7-10), trikoningin KA V, and the 11-residue lipopeptaibols trikoningin KB I and trikoningin KB II. Trichoderma atroviride biosynthesized a mixture of 19-residue trichorzianine-like peptaibols, whereas T. harzianum produced 18-residue trichokindin-like peptaibols and the 11-residue harzianin HB I that was subsequently identified from the studied T. citrinoviride strain. Two α-pyrones, 6-pentyl-pyran-2-one (11) and an oxidized analog (12), were produced by both T. atroviride and T. harzianum. Aside from exposure to low molecular weight natural products, inhalation of Trichoderma spores and mycelial fragments may result in exposure to membrane-disrupting peptaibols. This investigation contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the biologically active natural products produced by fungi commonly found in damp buildings.

  17. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.; Kass, J.N.

    1988-06-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys and three copper-based alloys are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The austenitic alloys are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and the high-nickel material Alloy 825. The copper-based alloys are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). Waste in the forms of both spent fuel assemblies from reactors and borosilicate glass will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including undesirable phase transformations due to a lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking; and transgranular stress corrosion cracking. Problems specific to welds, such as hot cracking, may also occur. A survey of the literature has been prepared as part of the process of selecting, from among the candidates, a material that is adequate for repository conditions. The modes of degradation are discussed in detail in the survey to determine which apply to the candidate alloys and the extent to which they may actually occur. The eight volumes of the survey are summarized in Sections 1 through 8 of this overview. The conclusions drawn from the survey are also given in this overview

  18. Research and Development of solar cell frame. Study on solar cell array solid with building material-business building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This is a NEDO annual report for 1985. A feasibility study was carried out from the viewpoints demanded both from the building material side and the solar cell. Evaluation from the technical, institutional, and economical viewpoints indicated the possibility of using a roof material solid with carbon-fiber-reinforced concrete and a curtain wall. The solar cell module was verified as a building material to be resistant against the external force, water, and heat. A problem left is how to enlarge the module. Integrated use of CFRC (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete) and a cell of maximum size (1,240 x 700 mm), which is industrially available, can be expected. Present solar cell array can be utilized as a building material as it is for a curtain wall. Cost calculation of the CFRC solid roofing material indicates 276 yen/KWH for 15 years depreciation, 10 % residual value, and 8% annual interest, which is a little expensive, but this cost may be applicable to the use as a curtain wall.

  19. Establishment of Low Energy Building materials and Equipment Database Based on Property Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yumin; Shin, Hyery; eon Lee, Seung

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide reliable service of materials information portal through the establishment of public big data by collecting and integrating scattered low energy building materials and equipment data. There were few cases of low energy building materials database in Korea have provided material properties as factors influencing material pricing. The framework of the database was defined referred with Korea On-line E-procurement system. More than 45,000 data were gathered by the specification of entities and with the gathered data, price prediction models for chillers were suggested. To improve the usability of the prediction model, detailed properties should be analysed for each item.

  20. Micro- and nano-scale characterization to study the thermal degradation of cement-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seungmin; Mondal, Paramita

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of hydration products of cement is known to cause changes in the micro- and nano-structure, which ultimately drive thermo-mechanical degradation of cement-based composite materials at elevated temperatures. However, a detailed characterization of these changes is still incomplete. This paper presents results of an extensive experimental study carried out to investigate micro- and nano-structural changes that occur due to exposure of cement paste to high temperatures. Following heat treatment of cement paste up to 1000 °C, damage states were studied by compressive strength test, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) atomic force microscopy (AFM) and AFM image analysis. Using experimental results and research from existing literature, new degradation processes that drive the loss of mechanical properties of cement paste are proposed. The development of micro-cracks at the interface between unhydrated cement particles and paste matrix, a change in C–S–H nano-structure and shrinkage of C–S–H, are considered as important factors that cause the thermal degradation of cement paste. - Highlights: • The thermal degradation of hydration products of cement is characterized at micro- and nano-scale using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). • The interface between unhydrated cement particles and the paste matrix is considered the origin of micro-cracks. • When cement paste is exposed to temperatures above 300 ºC, the nano-structure of C-S-H becomes a more loosely packed globular structure, which could be indicative of C-S-H shrinkage

  1. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C.; Bullen, D.B.

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Proposal for the use of new materials in the TOKAMAK building cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiva, L.

    2011-01-01

    It was considered relevant and innovative to apply new structural materials to the construction of the roof of the building that lodged the TOKAMAK reactor, with the aim of achieving a severe reduction of the weight of the roof structure that result in greater ease of mounting, minor charges on the walls and foundations of the building and a reduced impact on the distribution of masses of the building scheme.

  4. Elevated radon and thoron concentrations from natural radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Vivyurka, A.

    1980-01-01

    Radon levels in excess of 20 mWL were observed in an apartment building under construction in Elliot Lake. Tracer studies showed ventilation periods as long as 29 hours since the ventilation system of the building was not yet working. It was concluded that, once the contribution from thoron daughters was taken into account, the natural radioactivity of the concrete and other building materials was sufficient to produce the observed levels of radioactivity

  5. Cardboard Based Packaging Materials as Renewable Thermal Insulation of Buildings: Thermal and Life Cycle Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Čekon, Miroslav; Struhala, Karel; Slávik, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Cardboard based packaging components represent a material with a significant potential of renewable exploitation in buildings. This study presents the results of thermal and environmental analysis of existing packaging materials compared with standard conventional thermal insulations. Experimental measurements were performed to identify the thermal performance of studied cardboard packaging materials. Real-size samples were experimentally tested in laboratory measurements. The thermal resi...

  6. Modeling of electromigration salt removal methods in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2008-01-01

    for salt attack of various kinds, is one potential method to preserve old building envelopes. By establishing a model for ionic multi-species diffusion, which also accounts for external applied electrical fields, it is proposed that an important complement to the experimental tests and that verification...... with its ionic mobility properties. It is, further, assumed that Gauss’s law can be used to calculate the internal electrical field induced by the diffusion it self. In this manner the external electrical field applied can be modeled, simply, by assigning proper boundary conditions for the equation...

  7. Optimization of a phase change material wallboard for building use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph; Noel, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In construction, the use of phase change materials (PCM) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. A wallboard composed of a new PCM material is investigated in this paper to enhance the thermal behavior of a lightweight internal partition wall. The paper focuses on the optimization of phase change material thickness. The in-house software CODYMUR is used to optimize the PCM wallboard by the means of numerical simulations. The results show that an optimal PCM thickness exists. The optimal PCM thickness value is then calculated for use in construction

  8. Optimization of a phase change material wallboard for building use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph [Thermal Sciences Center of Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5008, INSA de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Bat Freyssinet, 40 Rue des Arts, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Noel, Jean [Free-lance Scientific Software Developer, 15 Place Carnot, 69002 Lyon (France)

    2008-08-15

    In construction, the use of phase change materials (PCM) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. A wallboard composed of a new PCM material is investigated in this paper to enhance the thermal behavior of a lightweight internal partition wall. The paper focuses on the optimization of phase change material thickness. The in-house software CODYMUR is used to optimize the PCM wallboard by the means of numerical simulations. The results show that an optimal PCM thickness exists. The optimal PCM thickness value is then calculated for use in construction. (author)

  9. Occurrence, degradation, and effect of polymer-based materials in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Scott; Sinclair, Chris; Boxall, Alistair

    2014-01-01

    There is now a plethora of polymer-based materials (PBMs) on the market, because of the increasing demand for cheaper consumable goods, and light-weight industrial materials. Each PBM constitutes a mixture of their representative polymer/sand their various chemical additives. The major polymer types are polyethylene, polypropylene,and polyvinyl chloride, with natural rubber and biodegradable polymers becoming increasingly more important. The most important additives are those that are biologically active, because to be effective such chemicals often have properties that make them resistant to photo-degradation and biodegradation. During their lifecycle,PBMs can be released into the environment form a variety of sources. The principal introduction routes being general littering, dumping of unwanted waste materials,migration from landfills and emission during refuse collection. Once in the environment,PBMs are primarily broken down by photo-degradation processes, but due to the complex chemical makeup of PBMs, receiving environments are potentially exposed to a mixture of macro-, meso-, and micro-size polymer fragments, leached additives, and subsequent degradation products. In environments where sunlight is absent (i.e., soils and the deep sea) degradation for most PBMs is minimal .The majority of literature to date that has addressed the environmental contamination or disposition of PBMs has focused on the marine environment. This is because the oceans are identified as the major sink for macro PBMs, where they are known to present a hazard to wildlife via entanglement and ingestion. The published literature has established the occurrence of microplastics in marine environment and beach sediments, but is inadequate as regards contamination of soils and freshwater sediments. The uptake of microplastics for a limited range of aquatic organisms has also been established, but there is a lack of information regarding soil organisms, and the long-term effects of

  10. Variability in energy and carbon dioxide balances of wood and concrete building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 OEstersund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    A variety of factors affect the energy and CO{sub 2} balances of building materials over their lifecycle. Previous studies have shown that the use of wood for construction generally results in lower energy use and CO{sub 2} emission than does the use of concrete. To determine the uncertainties of this generality, we studied the changes in energy and CO{sub 2} balances caused by variation of key parameters in the manufacture and use of the materials comprising a wood- and a concrete-framed building. Parameters considered were clinker production efficiency, blending of cement, crushing of aggregate, recycling of steel, lumber drying efficiency, material transportation distance, carbon intensity of fossil fuel, recovery of logging, sawmill, construction and demolition residues for biofuel, and growth and exploitation of surplus forest not needed for wood material production. We found the materials of the wood-framed building had lower energy and CO{sub 2} balances than those of the concrete-framed building in all cases but one. Recovery of demolition and wood processing residues for use in place of fossil fuels contributed most significantly to the lower energy and CO{sub 2} balances of wood-framed building materials. We conclude that the use of wood building material instead of concrete, coupled with greater integration of wood by-products into energy systems, would be an effective means of reducing fossil fuel use and net CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere. (author)

  11. Variability in energy and carbon dioxide balances of wood and concrete building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Sathre, Roger

    2006-01-01

    A variety of factors affect the energy and CO 2 balances of building materials over their lifecycle. Previous studies have shown that the use of wood for construction generally results in lower energy use and CO 2 emission than does the use of concrete. To determine the uncertainties of this generality, we studied the changes in energy and CO 2 balances caused by variation of key parameters in the manufacture and use of the materials comprising a wood- and a concrete-framed building. Parameters considered were clinker production efficiency, blending of cement, crushing of aggregate, recycling of steel, lumber drying efficiency, material transportation distance, carbon intensity of fossil fuel, recovery of logging, sawmill, construction and demolition residues for biofuel, and growth and exploitation of surplus forest not needed for wood material production. We found the materials of the wood-framed building had lower energy and CO 2 balances than those of the concrete-framed building in all cases but one. Recovery of demolition and wood processing residues for use in place of fossil fuels contributed most significantly to the lower energy and CO 2 balances of wood-framed building materials. We conclude that the use of wood building material instead of concrete, coupled with greater integration of wood by-products into energy systems, would be an effective means of reducing fossil fuel use and net CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. (author)

  12. Materials degradation in fission reactors: Lessons learned of relevance to fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Was, Gary S.

    2007-01-01

    The management of materials in power reactor systems has become a critically important activity in assuring the safe, reliable and economical operation of these facilities. Over the years, the commercial nuclear power reactor industry has faced numerous 'surprises' and unexpected occurrences in materials. Mitigation strategies have sometimes solved one problem at the expense of creating another. Other problems have been solved successfully and have motivated the development of techniques to foresee problems before they occur. This paper focuses on three aspects of fission reactor experience that may benefit future fusion systems. The first is identification of parameters and processes that have had a large impact on the behavior of materials in fission systems such as temperature, dose rate, surface condition, gradients, metallurgical variability and effects of the environment. The second is the development of materials performance and failure models to provide a basis for assuring component integrity. Last is the development of proactive materials management programs that identify and pre-empt degradation processes before they can become problems. These aspects of LWR experience along with the growing experience with materials in the more demanding advanced fission reactor systems form the basis for a set of 'lessons learned' to aid in the successful management of materials in fusion reactor systems

  13. State of the art on historic building insulation materials and retrofit strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumberga, Andra; Kass, Kristaps; Kamendere, Edite

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an analysis and evaluation of a state-of-the-art of internal insulation materials and methods for application in historic buildings, and review on methods, tools and guidelines used as decision making tools for implementation of internal insulation in historic buildings. Hist...

  14. An experimental setup for measuring generation and transport of radon in building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal, M.; Hendriks, N.A.; de Meijer, R.J.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Wit, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    This study describes an approach for measuring and modelling diffusive and advective transport of radon through building materials. The goal of these measurements and model calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon through building

  15. Experimental Setup for Measuring Diffusive and Advective Transport of Radon through Building Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, van der M.; Graaf, van der E.R.; Meijer, de R.J.; Wit, de M.H.; Hendriks, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study describes an approach for measuring and modelling diffusive and advective transport of radon through building materials. The goal of these measurements and model calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon through building

  16. Exploring the Importance of Employing Bio and Nano-Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Naguib

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The continued and increasing use of ordinary building materials to house the ever-growing world population ensures growing contributions of carbon (C to the active carbon cycle through carbon dioxide (C02 emissions from combustion and chemical reactions in the raw material to the atmosphere. To minimize this, materials should be conserved, reduce their unnecessary use, produce them more benignly and make them last longer, recycle and reuse materials. Thus, paper will focus on exploring alternative building materials and systems that can be developed in order to balance atmospheric carbon dioxide.  It also presents the Bio-inspired architecture approach that embraces the eco-friendly practices of using Biomaterials and Nano-materials for sustainable dwelling construction through a number of examples that shows how a building can be strongly related to its site.

  17. Comparison of salt solution and air drying methods for moisture fixation in highly porous building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Møldrup, Per

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research has identified some bio-based, porous building materials as good or excellent regulators of moisture in buildings. The ability of a material to absorb, release and store moisture is described by vapour sorption isotherms. It is necessary input to simulations of indoor...... building materials by a standardized testing method, using saturated salt solutions. Furthermore, results from the standard method are compared to values of moisture content for the same materials, obtained by air-drying at different relative humidity. This is done with the aim to compare the findings from...... the two methods with respect to time and repeatability of the results. Derived isotherms are further used as direct input in the building simulation software BSim, which is capable of predicting indoor environment parameters by solving coupled, transient heat and moisture transport equations using finite...

  18. The application of entropy weight topsis method for optimal choice in low radiological decorative building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guangwen; Hu Youhua; Liu Qian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the principle of TOPSIS method was introduced and applied to sorting the given indexes of glazed brick and granite respectively in different areas' decorative building materials in order to selecting the optimal low radiological decorative building materials. First, the entropy weight TOPSIS method was used for data processing about the sample numbers and radio nuclides content, and then different weights were given to different indexes. Finally, by using the SAS software for data analysis and sorting, we obtained that the optimal low radiological decorative building materials were Sichuan glazed brick and Henan granite. Through the results, it could be seen that the application of entropy weight TOPSIS method in selecting low radiological decorative building materials was feasible, and it will also provide the method reference. (authors)

  19. Quantitative method of X-ray diffraction phase analysis of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czuba, J.; Dziedzic, A.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative method of X-ray diffraction phase analysis of building materials, with use of internal standard, has been presented. The errors committed by determining the content of particular phases have been also given. (author)

  20. Materials ageing degradation programme in japan and proactive ageing management in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, T.

    2013-01-01

    Predictive and preventive maintenance technologies are increasingly of importance for the long term operation (LTO) of Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants. In order for the realization LTO to be successful, it is essential that aging degradation phenomena should be properly managed by using adequate maintenance programs based on foreseeing the aging phenomena and evaluating their rates of development, where Nuclear Power Plants can be continued to operate beyond the original design life depending upon the regulatory authority rules. In combination with Periodic Safety Review (PSR) and adequate maintenance program, a plant life can be extended to 60 years or more. Plant Life Management (PLiM) is based upon various maintenance program as well as systematic safety review updated based upon the state of the art of science and technology. One of the potential life time limiting issue would be materials ageing degradation and therefore an extensive efforts have been paid world-widely. In 2007, NISA launched a national program on Enhanced Ageing Management Program and 4 nationwide clusters were formed to carry out the national program where materials ageing degradation was one of the major topics. In addition to these degradation modes, one important activities in this program is proactive materials degradation management directed by the author which is a kind of the extension program of NRC PMDA program based upon more fundamental approach by a systematic elicitation by the experts nominated from all over the world. NISA program can be divided into two phases, one is from fiscal years (FY) 2006 - 2010 and the other FY 2011. Later phase is focusing more on System Safety due to Fukushima NPP accident. The main objectives of the Phase I is to evaluate potential and complex degradation phenomena and their mechanisms in order to identify future risks of component aging in nuclear power plants. The following items are of particular concern in this phase: (a) investigation of

  1. Monitoring Low-Cycle Fatigue Material-Degradation by Ultrasonic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Himawan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Any system consisting of structural material often undergoes fatigue, which is caused by dynamic load cycle. As a structural system, nuclear power plant is very likely to have low-cycle fatigue at many of its components. Taking into account the importance of monitoring low-cycle fatigue on structural components to prevent them from getting failure, the authors have conducted a work to monitor material degradation caused by low-cycle fatigue by using ultrasonic method. An alloy of Cu-40Zn was used as a test specimen. Ultrasonic water immersion procedure was employed in this ultrasonic test. The probe used is a focusing type and has frequency as high as 15 MHz. The specimen area tested is in the middle part divided into 14 points × 23 points. The results, which were frequency spectrums, were analyzed using two parameters: frequency spectrum peak intensity and attenuation function gradient. The analysis indicates that peak intensity increases at the beginning of load cycle and then decreases. Meanwhile, gradient of attenuation function is lower at the beginning of fatigue process, and then consistently gets higher. It concludes that low-fatigue material degradation can be monitored by using ultrasonic method.

  2. Power plant wastes capitalization as geopolymeric building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Litu, Loredana; Harja, Maria

    2017-11-01

    In this innovative study, we are present an investigation over the properties of geopolymeric materials prepared using ash supplied by power plant Iasi, Romania and sodium hydroxide solutions/pellets. Having as objective a minimum consumption of energy and materials was developed a class of advanced eco-materials. New synthesized materials can be used as a binder for cement replacement or for the removal/immobilization of pollutants from waste waters or soils. It offers an advanced and low cost-effective solution too many problems, where waste must be capitalized. The geopolymer formation, by hydrothermal method, is influenced by: temperature (20-600°C), alkali concentration (2M-6M), solid /liquid ratio (1-2), ash composition, time of heating (2-48 h), etc. The behaviour of the FTIR peak of 6M sample indicated upper quantity of geopolymer formation at the first stage of the reaction. XRD spectra indicated phases like sodalite, faujasite, Na-Y, which are known phases of geopolymer/zeolite. Advanced destroyed of ash particles due to geopolymerisation reaction were observed when the temperature was higher. At the constant temperature the percentage of geopolymer increases with increasing of curing time, from 4-48 h. Geopolymer materials are environmentally friendly, for its obtaining energy consumption, and CO2 emission is reduced compared to cement binder.

  3. Safety distance for preventing hot particle ignition of building insulation materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jiayun Song; Supan Wang; Haixiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Trajectories of flying hot particles were predicted in this work, and the temperatures during the movement were also calculated. Once the particle temperature decreased to the critical temperature for a hot particle to ignite building insulation materials, which was predicted by hot-spot ignition theory, the distance particle traveled was determined as the minimum safety distance for preventing the ignition of building insulation materials by hot particles. The results showed that for sphere ...

  4. Measurement of Ra-226 in building materials, with a Na I (Tl) scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, L.R.; Fuenteseca, J.W.; Rivera, C.A.; Aros, F.H.

    1992-01-01

    Ra-226 concentration in building materials is determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. Ra-226 contained in sundry materials employed in the construction of dwelling houses and public buildings in Antofagasta city is determined by counting the Pb-214 peaks at 295 KeV and 352 keV, and the Bi-214 peak at 609 keV recorded by means of a 7.5-cm Nal (TI) scintillation counter. (author)

  5. Natural radioactivity in some building materials and assessment of the associated radiation hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasumovic, Amira; Hankic, Ema; Kasic, Amela; Adrovic, Feriz [Tuzla Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Physics

    2018-04-01

    The results of the specific activities of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K measured in samples of commonly used building materials in Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented. Measurements were performed by gamma-ray spectrometer with coaxial HPGe detector. The surface radon exhalation and mass exhalation rates for selected building materials were also measured. The determined values of specific activities were in range from 3.16 ± 0.81 Bq kg{sup -1} to 64.79 ± 6.16 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, from 2.46 ± 0.95 Bq kg{sup -1} to 53.89 ± 3.67 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 28.44 ± 7.28 Bq kg{sup -1} to 557.30 ± 93.38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The radium equivalent activity, the activity concentration index, the external and internal hazard indices as well as the absorbed dose rate in indoor air and the corresponding annual effective dose, due to gamma-ray emission from the radioactive nuclides in the building material, were evaluated in order to assess the radiation hazards for people. The measured specific activities of the natural radioactive nuclides in all investigated building materials were compared with the published results for building materials from other European countries. It can be noted that the results from this study are similar to the data for building materials from neighbouring countries and for building materials used in the EU Member States. The radiological hazard parameters of the building materials were all within the recommended limits for safety use.

  6. Fatigue degradation and failure of rotating composite structures - Materials characterisation and underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamstedt, Kristofer; Andersen, Svend Ib Smidt

    2001-01-01

    The present review concerns rotating composite structures, in which fatigue degradation is of key concern for in-service failure. Such applications are for instance rotor blades in wind turbines, helicopter rotor blades, flywheels for energy storage,marine and aeronautical propellers, and rolls...... for paper machines. The purpose is to identify areas where impending efforts should be made to make better use of composite materials in these applications. In order to obtain better design methodologies,which would allow more reliable and slender structures, improved test methods are necessary. Furthermore...

  7. High Strength Phosphogypsum and Its Use as a Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Wellington Massayuki; Rossetto, Hebert Luis; de Souza, Milton Ferreira; Máduar, Marcelo Francis; de Campos, Marcia Pires; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci

    2008-08-01

    A new process (patent applied) that works equally well with both plaster of mineral gypsum and phosphogypsum for the preparation of gypsum components, UCOS, has been developed. The process consists of the following steps: humidification of plaster by fine water droplets, uni-axial compression, hydration reaction and drying. Strong hydrogen bonds develop among the crystals together with adhesion provided by confined water that accounts for nearly 70% of the adhesion forces. By reducing the plaster to water ratio to close the minimum necessary, new features are generated. An experimental house has been constructed, in which walls and ceilings have been built of gypsum and phosphogypsum. Since phosphogypsum potentially contain radioactive elements, the application of an activity concentration index to the phosphogypsum employed in the building was carried out.

  8. Review of Development Survey of Phase Change Material Models in Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein J. Akeiber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of phase change materials (PCMs in green buildings has been increasing rapidly. PCM applications in green buildings include several development models. This paper briefly surveys the recent research and development activities of PCM technology in building applications. Firstly, a basic description of phase change and their principles is provided; the classification and applications of PCMs are also included. Secondly, PCM models in buildings are reviewed and discussed according to the wall, roof, floor, and cooling systems. Finally, conclusions are presented based on the collected data.

  9. Penta-fibrillar assembly: A Building block collagen based materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is a smartness in the way the penta-fibrils behave in collagen based biomaterials. It is one of the intriguing nano material with a size of about 4 nano meter diagonal size. There are several intermolecular forces that participate in the penta fibrillar assembly, which derive importance in smart behavior of collagen.

  10. Floating houses “lanting” in Sintang: Assessment on sustainable building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, D.; Lubis, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    One important element in the concept of sustainable building is the use of materials. The higher the use of sustainable material in building, the more sustained the building. Lanting is one type of floating construction, usually made from wood, that can be found in settlement along the river, such as in the city of Sintang, West Kalimantan. Lanting is still survive today because it is still used by community whose lives are tied to the river, and also because of its flexible nature that is able to function as a ‘water building’ as well as ‘land building’, and it is also movable, in addition for land limitation in some places. However, the existence of lanting settlements in the city of Sintang faces insistence because it is considered slum, polluting the environment, the scarcity of wooden materials, disturbing the beauty of the city, and threatened by the concretized river banks by local government. This paper discussed the sustainability of waterfront buildings in the city of Sintang in terms of material uses, through the assessment of ‘green-features’ of the main materials used. Assessment results show that wood is the most green building material and lanting is considered at the highest sustainability level for its use of wooden materials.

  11. The Causes of Blistering in Boat Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    acrylate units (MET) Ethylene glycol (MET) Propylene glycol (MET) Neopentyl glycol (NET) Maleic acid or anhydride (unsaturated) (NET) lumaric acid...PROPYLENE GLYCOL OPA ORTHOPHTHALIC ACID VINYL - URETHANE BASED POLYESTER IqPG NEOPENTYL GLYCOL RESIN EG - ETHYLENE GLYCOL TMPD - 22,, - TRiMETHY...IPA Isophthalic acid WSN Low molecular weight water soluble material NPG Neopentyl glycol OPA Orthophthalio acid PG Propylene glycol MEKP Hethyl

  12. Nanocellulose as Material Building Block for Energy and Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangbing

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, I will discuss the fabrications, properties and device applications of functional nanostructured paper based on nanocellulose. Nanostructures with tunable optical, electrical, ionic and mechanical properties will be discussed. Lab-scale demonstration devices, including low-cost Na-ion batteries, microbial fuel cells, solar cells, transparent transistors, actuators and touch screens will be briefly mentioned. These studies show that nanocellulose is a promising green material for electronics and energy devices.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF BIO-BASED POLYMER MATRIX BUILDING MATERIAL AND FISH BONE DIAGRAM FOR MATERIAL EFFECT ON QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmamaw Tegegne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available These days cost of building materials are continuously increasing and the conventional construction materials for this particular purpose become low and low. The weight of conventional construction materials particularly building block is heavy and costly due to particularly cement. Thus, the objective of this paper is to develop an alternative light weight, high strength and relatively cost effective building material that satisfy the quality standard used in the country. A bio-based polymer matrix composite material for residential construction was experimentally developed. Sugar cane bagasse, thermoplastics (polyethylene g roup sand and red ash were used as materials alternatively. Mixing of the additives,melting of the hermoplastics, molding and curing (dryingwere the common methods used on the forming process of the samples. Mechanical behavior evaluation (testing of the product was carried out. Totally 45 specimens were produced and three replicate tests were performed per each test type. Quality analysis was carried out for group B material using Ishikawa diagram. The tensile strength of group A specimen was approximately 3 times greater than that of group B specimens. The compression strength of group A specimens were nearly 2 times greater than group B. Comparing to the conventional building materials(concert block and agrostoneproduced in the country, which the compression strength is 7Mpa and 16Mpa respectively, the newly produced materials show much better results in which Group A is 25.66 Mpa and group B is 16.66 Mpa. energy absorption capacity of group A specimens was approximately 3 times better than that of group B. Water absorption test was carried out for both groups and both showed excellent resistivity. Group A composite material specimens, showed better results in all parameters.

  14. Effect of oxygen in the simulated LOCA environments of the degradation of cable insulating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusuma, Y.; Okada, S.; Itoh, M.; Yagi, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Yoshida, K.; Machi, S.; Tamura, N.; Kawakami, W.

    1990-01-01

    Five kinds of insulating and jacketing materials for the cables used in nuclear power plants were exposed to various LOCA environments of both simultaneous and sequential methods using SEAMATE-II. Experimental conditions of the simultaneous LOCA tests were done at different radiation dose rate, steam temperature and amount of air added to the LOCA environments. The sequential tests consist of two stages, that is, pre-irradiation and subsequent steam/spray exposure. Pre-irradiation conditions and subsequent steam/spray exposure conditions of the sequential LOCA tests are systematically changed in order to find appropriate conditions which can bring about the degradation of same degree to those obtained for various simultaneous LOCA simulations. Tensile properties, insulating resistance and water sorption of the insulating materials exposed to various LOCA environments are measured and discussed. (author). 11 refs, 19 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Effect of Material Variability and Mechanical Eccentricity on the Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio Puppio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the influence of material variability on the seismic vulnerability assessment of reinforced concrete buildings. Existing r.c. buildings are affected by a strong dispersion of material strengths of both the base materials. This influences the seismic response in linear and nonlinear static analysis. For this reason, it is useful to define a geometrical parameter called “material eccentricity”. As a reference model, an analysis of a two storey building is presented with a symmetrical plan but asymmetrical material distribution. Furthermore, an analysis of two real buildings with a similar issue is performed. Experimental data generate random material distributions to carry out a probabilistic analysis. By rotating the vector that defines the position of the center of strength it is possible to describe a strength domain that is characterized by equipotential lines in terms of the Risk Index. Material eccentricity is related to the Ultimate Shear of non-linear static analyses. This relevant uncertainty, referred to as the variation of the center of strength, is not considered in the current European and Italian Standards. The “material eccentricity” therefore reveals itself to be a relevant parameter to considering how material variability affects such a variation.

  16. A matrix in life cycle perspective for selecting sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysundara, U.G. Yasantha [Ministry of Education, Isurupaya, Battaramulla (Sri Lanka); Babel, Sandhya [Environmental Technology Program, School of Biochemical Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a matrix to select sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka, taking into consideration environmental, economic and social assessments of materials in a life cycle perspective. Five building elements, viz., foundations, roofs, ceilings, doors and windows, and floors are analyzed based on materials used for these elements. Environmental burdens associated with these elements are analyzed in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts such as global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Economic analysis is based on market prices and affordability of materials. Social factors that are taken into account are thermal comfort, interior (aesthetics), ability to construct quickly, strength and durability. By compiling the results of analyses, two building types with minimum and maximum impacts are identified. These two cases along with existing buildings are compared in a matrix of environmental, economic and social scores. Analysis of the results also indicates need for higher consideration of environmental parameters in decision-making over social and economic factors, as social and economic scores do not vary much between cases. Hence, this matrix helps decision-makers to select sustainable materials for buildings, meaningfully, and thus helps to move towards a more sustainable buildings and construction sector. (author)

  17. Development of phase change materials based microencapsulated technology for buildings: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, V.V.; Kaushik, S.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tyagi, S.K. [School of Infrastructure Technology and Resource Management, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra 182320, J and K (India); Akiyama, T. [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-86283 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change material (PCM) have been recognized as one of the most advanced energy technologies in enhancing the energy efficiency and sustainability of buildings. Now the research is focus on suitable method to incorporate PCMs with building. There are several methods to use phase change materials (PCMs) in thermal energy storage (TES) for different applications. Microencapsulation is one of the well known and advanced technologies for better utilization of PCMs with building parts, such as, wall, roof and floor besides, within the building materials. Phase change materials based microencapsulation for latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) systems for building application offers a challenging option to be employed as effective thermal energy storage and a retrieval device. Since the particular interest in using microencapsulation PCMs for concrete and wall/wallboards, the specific research efforts on both subjects are reviewed separately. This paper presents an overview of the previous research work on microencapsulation technology for thermal energy storage incorporating the phase change materials (PCMs) in the building applications, along with few useful conclusive remarks concluded from the available literature. (author)

  18. Natural radioactivity and dose from marble used as building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.

    1999-01-01

    The activities of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K radionuclides have been measured in marble chips collected from the factories in Islamabad, Pakistan using NaI(TI) gamma ray spectrometer. The spectrometry system was calibrated with a reference material RGI obtained from IAEA. The activity measurements were based upon 1460.8 keV, 1764.5 keV and 2614.6 keV energies of /sup 40/K, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th, respectively. The spectrum stripping was done by matrix inversion method. The calculated specific activities of the marble samples varied from 4 Bq.kg/sup -1/ to 63 Bq.kg/sup -1/ for /sup 40/K. The Radium equivalent activities, have been calculated and were found to vary from 26 Bq.kg/sup -1/ to 100 Bq.kg/sup -1/, respectively. These values are within the limit by OECD (Ra /sub eq/ < 370 Bq.kg/sup -1/) and ICRP-60 (Ra/sub eq/ < 100 Bq.kg/sup -1/ for the safe use of the construction materials for dwelling. H/sub ex/ and h/sub in/ indices ranges from 0.0716 to 0.2692 and from 0.0831 to 0.4277, respectively which are also less than 1 according to OECD limit. The calculated values of overall absorbed dose rate for marble samples varies from 13 nGy.h/sup -1/ to 46 nGy.h/sup -1/. Dose rate (nGy/hr per Bq/kg) using Ingree code at a distance of 1 meter from floor varies from 10 to 65 for /sup 226/Ra, 11 to 53 for /sup 232/Th and 1 to 9 for /sup 40/K for all marble samples. All these results indicate that marble samples under study are safe for use as a construction material. (author)

  19. Photon Interaction Studies with Some Glasses and Building Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harvinder; Singh, Kulwant; Sharma, Gopi; Nathuram, R.; Sahota, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients of some shielding materials, namely, Bakelite, black cement, white cement, plaster of paris, and concrete were determined at 356-, 511-, 662-, 1173-, and 1332-keV energies, and those of glasses containing oxides of B, Cd, Pb, and Bi were determined only at 662 keV using a narrow beam transmission method. These coefficients of glasses were then used to determine their interaction cross sections, effective atomic numbers, and electron densities. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical values. It has been proven that glasses have a potential application as a transparent radiation shielding

  20. Identification and cause of decay of building materials used in the architectural heritage of Bizerte city (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghlami, Karima; Lopez-Arce, Paula; Navarro, Antonia; Zornoza-Indart, Ainara; Gómez, David

    2017-04-01

    Monuments and historical buildings of Bizerte show a disturbing state of degradation. In order to propose a compatible materials for the restauration works such as stone of substitution and restauration mortars, a geological context was analysed with the objectif to localize historical quarries accompanied by a sedimentological study to identify the exploited geological formations. Petrophysical and chemical caracterisation of both stone and mortars have been carried out. With the aim to determine the origin of the erosion and the degree of stone decay, a combination of micro-destructive and non-destructive techniques have been used on-site and in-lab. Moisture measurements, ultrasonic velocity propagation and water absorption by Karsten pipe test together with polarized light and fluorescence optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry and ion chromatography analyses were carried out to perform petrophysical characterization of stone samples and determination of soluble salts. For the characterization of mortars, granulometric study was performed to determine the nature of components and their grain size distribution. Thin sections of mortar samples were examined for the petrographical and mineralogical characterization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of finely pulverized samples was performed in order to identify the mineral crystalline phases of the mortars. Thermal analyses [thermogravimetry (TG)] were performed in order to determine the nature of the binder and its properties. Porosity was determined following UNE-EN 1936 (2007) standart test. Geological and petrographical study showed that historical buildings are essentially built with high porous bioclastic calcarenite partially cemented by calcite which is Würm in age and outcrops all along the northern coast of Bizerte where several historical quarries were identified. Occasionally, two other types of lithologies were used as building stones and they correspond to two varieties of oligocene

  1. Polyhedral Boranes: A Versatile Building Block for Nanoporous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Daniel Jon

    The studies described in this dissertation examine several new concepts related to polyhedral boranes and their applications towards the synthesis of novel nanoporous materials. The unique thermal and chemical robustness, rigidity, quasi-spherical geometry, and high boron content of polyhedral boranes are explored to generate materials not possible with typical organic synthons. Aside from the fundamental synthetic work, this work was also aimed at solving larger global issues such as energy storage and new routes to therapeutics. Chapter 2 highlights the discovery of the first highly porous carborane-based metal-organic framework, where the spherical nature of the carborane increases volumetric surface area without reducing pore volume. Chapter 3 examines the first tritopic carborane-based ligand and the stabilizing effect the rigid, sterically bulky carboranyl groups have on highly porous topologies not stable with typical organic ligands. Chapters 4 and 5 describe the use of polyhedral borane-based ligands as a means to influence and generate unexpected topologies. Lastly, chapter 6 explores using a simple carborane-based ligand that harnesses the power of coordination-driven assembly to rapidly generate a high boron-containing supramolecular cuboctahedron.

  2. Radon concentration and exhalation rates in building material samples from crushing zone in Shivalik Foot Hills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pundir, Anil; Kamboj, Sunil; Bansal, Vakul; Chauhan, R.P.; Rana, Rajinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) is an inert radioactive gas in the decay chain of uranium ( 238 U). It continuously emanates from soil to the atmosphere. Radon and its progeny are the major natural radioactive sources for the ambient radioactivity on Earth. A number of studies on radon were performed in recent decades focusing on its transport and movement in the atmosphere under different meteorological conditions. Building materials are the main source of radon inside buildings. Some construction materials are naturally more radioactive and removal of such material from the earth's crust and their subsequent use in construction of buildings further enhances the radioactivity level. The knowledge of radioactivity level in the building materials makes us aware about the management, guidelines and standards in construction of buildings. The main objective of the present investigations is to measure radon Concentration and exhalation rates in the samples collected from the Crushing zone of Shivalik foot hills. Different types of materials are being used in Northern part of India for construction of dwellings. For the measurement of radon concentration and its exhalation rates in building materials, LR-115 detectors were exposed in closed plastic canisters for three months. At the end of the exposure time, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process in 2.5N NaOH solution. The tracks produced by the alpha particles were observed and counted under an optical Olympus microscope at 600X. The measured track density was converted into radon concentration using a calibration factor. The surface and mass exhalation rates of radon have also been calculated using present data. The results indicate that the radon concentration varies appreciably from sample to sample and they were found to satisfy the safety criteria. There are samples in which radon concentration is higher and may enhance the indoor radiation levels when used as building construction materials. (author)

  3. Radioactivity in building materials : a first overview of the European scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisi, Rosabianca; D'Alessandro, Marco; Nuccetelli, Cristina; Risica, Serena

    2008-01-01

    With a wide research into the national and international literature an inventory was created of building materials in Europe, characterised on the basis of activity concentration of the main natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K). Materials of natural origin and containing industrial by-products were both accounted for. The inventory allowed to calculate the activity concentration index I - suggested by a European technical guidance document - for many building materials in Europe. A first identification of materials was thus made, which could be subject to controls or restrictions as for movement and/or use if the index were to be adopted by the European legislation. The analysis presented in this paper is a first attempt to discuss the data of our inventory and only five materials have been analysed. In a near future a more complete discussion will be published, also considering natural stones and superficial materials. As regards natural stones a tentative grouping will be made, classifying stones by their geological origin. Moreover, if enough data were available, we will also assess the radiation protection consequences of the potential use of by-products of industrial origin in building materials. Finally, the activity concentration of 232 Th, often higher than that of 226 Ra, in building materials shows the need of improving research into the health effects of the 232 Th chain, in particular of thoron concentration indoors. (author)

  4. Atmospheric methane removal by methane-oxidizing bacteria immobilized on porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganendra, G; De Muynck, W; Ho, A.; Hoefman, S.; De Vos, P.; Boeckx, P.; Boon, N.

    2014-01-01

    Biological treatment using methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) immobilized on six porous carrier materials have been used to mitigate methane emission. Experiments were performed with different MOB inoculated in building materials at high (similar to 20 % (v/v)) and low (similar to 100 ppmv) methane

  5. Application of earth building materials for low-income housing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characteristics, properties, problems and other factors associated with earth materials for building houses, especially in the tropical regions of the world are identified. The inter-relationships among these factors which inhibit the adoption of earth materials and the recommendations for overcoming the problems in a ...

  6. A metric for characterizing the effectiveness of thermal mass in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talyor, Robert A.; Miner, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposes a metric for interior thermal mass materials (floors, walls, counters). • Simple, yet effective, metric composed of easily calculated ‘local’ and ‘global’ variables. • Like Energy Star, the proposed metric gives a single number to aid consumer choice. • The metric is calculated and compared for selected, readily available data. • Drywall, concrete flooring, and wood paneling are quite effective thermal mass. - Abstract: Building energy use represents approximately 25% of the average total global energy consumption (for both residential and commercial buildings). Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) – in most climates – embodies the single largest draw inside our buildings. In many countries around the world a concerted effort is being made towards retrofitting existing buildings to improve energy efficiency. Better windows, insulation, and ducting can make drastic differences in the energy consumption of a building HVAC system. Even with these improvements, HVAC systems are still required to compensate for daily and seasonal temperature swings of the surrounding environment. Thermal mass inside the thermal envelope can help to alleviate these swings. While it is possible to add specialty thermal mass products to buildings for this purpose, commercial uptake of these products is low. Common building interior building materials (e.g. flooring, walls, countertops) are often overlooked as thermal mass products, but herein we propose and analyze non-dimensional metrics for the ‘benefit’ of selected commonly available products. It was found that location-specific variables (climate, electricity price, material price, insolation) can have more than an order of magnitude influence in the calculated metrics for the same building material. Overall, this paper provides guidance on the most significant contributors to indoor thermal mass, and presents a builder- and consumer-friendly metric to inform decisions about

  7. Studies on radon exhalation rate from building materials of Mysuru district, Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandini, M.; Lavanya, B.S.K.; Chandrashekara, M.S.; Pruthvi Rani, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, mass exhalation rate of 222 Rn from soil and building materials was studied using scintillation based Smart Radon Monitor (SRM) and also using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) employing Can Technique, following standard procedure. Mass exhalation rate of 222 Rn from various building material samples such as brick, sand, cement, concrete and from different types of flooring materials was determined. The results obtained from these methods were compared and analysed. The samples of construction materials were collected from various locations of Mysuru city. The city has an area of about 128 sq km with population of about 1 million. Mining industries of magnetite, dunite and lime stone are located around Mysuru city. In addition to this, quarrying and crushing of granite stones for building activities also exist nearby

  8. Determination of natural radioactivity in building materials used in Tunisian dwellings by gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hizem, N.; Fredj, A. B.; Ghedira, L.

    2005-01-01

    The radioisotopic content of 17 samples of natural and manufactured building materials collected in Tunisia have been analysed by using gamma spectrometry. From the measured gamma ray spectra, activity concentrations are determined for 232 Th, 226 Ra, 235 U and 40 K. The total effective dose and the activity concentration index are calculated applying the dose criteria recommended by the European Union for building materials. The results of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K found in Tunisian building materials indicate that radium and thorium concentrations do not exceed 40 Bq kg -1 , but potassium concentration varies between 50 and 1215 Bq kg -1 . The total effective dose rates per person indoors are determined to be between 0.07 and 0.86 mSv y -1 . Only two materials exceed the reference level of 0.3 mSv y -1 . The activity concentration index is <1. (authors)

  9. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in Tunisian building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, F; Oueslati, M; Abdelli, W; Samaali, M; Ben Tekaya, M

    2012-12-01

    Building materials can expose public and workers to radiation because of their content of radium, thorium and potassium isotopes. This is why it is very important from the radiological point of view to survey the natural radioactivity content of commonly used building materials in any country. This work consists of the measurement of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in a variety of commonly used building materials in Tunisia and on the estimation of their radiological hazard. The maximum value of radium equivalent for the studied materials was equal to 169 Bq kg(-1) and corresponds to the clay brick, which is lower than the recommended value of 370 Bq kg(-1). In this work, several radiological indexes were calculated and were found to be under their highest permitted limit.

  10. Earth as Building Material – an overview of RILEM activities and recent Innovations in Geotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyncke Johan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the different earth building techniques, the latest innovations and the normative aspects. The oldest man made earth constructions known to exist date back to 10 000 BC. Since then, earth has remained a popular building material throughout history. With time, different techniques evolved, starting from sundried adobe blocks to cob constructions, rammed earth walls and compressed earth bricks. Today these techniques are still being optimized and alternative binders, specifically adapted admixtures and surface treatments are being developed. Even though nearly one third of the world’s population lives in an earth construction, few specific building standards and testing methods exist. Many of the tests used today are based on tests for concrete and thus do not take into account the complex nature of earth constructions, such as their sensitivity to water. RILEM, the union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures, set up a new Technical Committee in 2016: TC TCE (Testing and Characterisation of Earth-based building materials and elements. This committee, consisting of an international group of experts on the topic, aim to define testing procedures for earth as a building construction material. To end with, this paper also gives a short introduction to “Deep soil mixing”, an “earth” building technique dedicated to geotechnical engineering.

  11. Estimation of the radon dose in buildings by measuring the exhalation rate from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, V.; Kovler, K.; Perevalov, A.; Kelm, H.

    2004-01-01

    We review the accumulator technique using active (CRM) and passive detectors (activated charcoal and electret). We describe the ERS2 detector, an electrostatic radon sampler followed by alpha spectrometry, with improved algorithm and adapted to measure the exhalation rate from walls. The technique produces accurate results over a broad range of materials: concrete, Pumice, ceramics, tiles, granite, etc. The measured exhalation rate is the same, within errors, as measured by the standard detectors

  12. The influence of surface treatment on mass transfer between air and building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    for the experiments: gypsum board and calcium silicate. The wallpaper and paint were used as finishing materials. Impact of the following parameters for changes of RH was studied: coating, temperature and air movement. The measurements showed that acryl paint (diffusion open) can significantly decrease mass uptake......The processes of mass transfer between air and building structure and in the material influence not only the conditions within the material but also inside the connected air spaces. The material which absorbs and desorbs water vapour can be used to moderate the amplitude of indoor relative humidity...... and therefore to participate in the improvement of the indoor air quality and energy saving. Many parameters influence water vapour exchange between indoor air and building material. The aim of this work is to present the change of mass transfer under different climatic and material conditions. The measurements...

  13. Microstructure and microanalysis of some ancient building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, A.J.; Rayment, D.L.; Pettifer, K.

    1988-12-01

    In order to assess the very long term of durability of modern Portland cements for encapsulating certain types of radioactive waste, the microstructure and microanalysis of concretes of various ages made from such cements are compared with those from similar materials of ancient origins with ages upto 2500 years used in early Greek, Roman and British Construction. Most of the historical 'concretes' examined were heavily carbonated and at best showed only traces of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase, the heart of modern Portland Cement concretes. The notable exception was the 1700 years old concrete from Hadrian's Wall - the mortar in this was rich in C-S-H. The modern concrete samples, from 10 to 140 years old, showed little carbonation and their compositions of the C-S-H phase were very similar to those found from Hadrian's Wall. From all the evidence examined, it is concluded that the C-S-H phase is capable of surviving intact for several thousands of years in the absence of external chemical attack. (author)

  14. A New European COST Network 'NORM4Building' (TU1301) for the Reuse of NORM Containing Residues in Building Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeyers, W.; Schreurs, S.

    2014-01-01

    The new COST action was initiated on the 1st of January 2014 and runs for four years. COST is supported by the EU RTD Framework Program. In the presentation more information on how to participate in the network will be provided. In the presentation the new approach and new initiatives of the NORM4BUILDING network, that has its first meeting here in the DEAD SEA Hotel on the 12-13/02/2014, will be introduced. The NORM4Building materials network will be an open network of researchers. An Advisory Board consisting mainly from NORM processing and construction industries and relevant associations and regulators are invited to work in collaboration with the scientists that will populate the various working groups and the management committee of the new COST action

  15. Bacillus megaterium mediated mineralization of calcium carbonate as biogenic surface treatment of green building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2013-12-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is a biomineralization process that has various applications in remediation and restoration of range of building materials. In the present study, calcifying bacteria, Bacillus megaterium SS3 isolated from calcareous soil was applied as biosealant to enhance the durability of low energy, green building materials (soil-cement blocks). This bacterial isolate produced high amounts of urease, carbonic anhydrase, extra polymeric substances and biofilm. The calcium carbonate polymorphs produced by B. megaterium SS3 were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy. These results suggested that calcite is the most predominant carbonate formed by this bacteria followed by vaterite. Application of B. megaterium SS3 as biogenic surface treatment led to 40 % decrease in water absorption, 31 % decrease in porosity and 18 % increase in compressive strength of low energy building materials. From the present investigation, it is clear that surface treatment of building materials by B. megaterium SS3 is very effective and eco friendly way of biodeposition of coherent carbonates that enhances the durability of building materials.

  16. The Effect of Mechanical Load on the Thermal Conductivity of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical load on the thermal conductivity of building materials in the design of envelope parts of building structures is studied. A typical building material is chosen in the practical investigation of this effect, namely the cement mortar. It is concluded that in the range of hygroscopic moisture content, lower levels of mechanical load, typically up to 90 % of compressive strength (CS, are not dangerous from the point of view of worsening the designed thermal properties, but in the overhygroscopic region, the load as low as 57 % of CS may be dangerous. The higher levels of loading are found to be always significant because they lead to marked increase of thermal conductivity which is always a negative information for a building designer.

  17. Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kil; Kim, Min Kyu; Hofmayer, Charles; Braverman, Joseph; Nie, Jinsuo

    2009-03-01

    This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 2 scope of work. This research focused on methods that could be used to represent the long-term behavior of materials used at NPPs. To achieve this BNL reviewed time-dependent models which can approximate the degradation effects of the key materials used in the construction of structures and passive components determined to be of interest in the Year 1 effort. The intent was to review the degradation models that would cover the most common time-dependent changes in material properties for concrete and steel components

  18. Effect of top electrode material on radiation-induced degradation of ferroelectric thin film structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Steven J.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Deng, Carmen Z.; Callaway, Connor P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Paul, McKinley K. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Woodward Academy, College Park, Georgia 30337 (United States); Fisher, Kenzie J. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Riverwood International Charter School, Atlanta, Georgia 30328 (United States); Guerrier, Jonathon E.; Jones, Jacob L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Rudy, Ryan Q.; Polcawich, Ronald G. [Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Glaser, Evan R.; Cress, Cory D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-07-14

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the dielectric and piezoelectric responses of Pb[Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}]O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film stacks were investigated for structures with conductive oxide (IrO{sub 2}) and metallic (Pt) top electrodes. The samples showed, generally, degradation of various key dielectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical responses when exposed to 2.5 Mrad (Si) {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. However, the low-field, relative dielectric permittivity, ε{sub r}, remained largely unaffected by irradiation in samples with both types of electrodes. Samples with Pt top electrodes showed substantial degradation of the remanent polarization and overall piezoelectric response, as well as pinching of the polarization hysteresis curves and creation of multiple peaks in the permittivity-electric field curves post irradiation. The samples with oxide electrodes, however, were largely impervious to the same radiation dose, with less than 5% change in any of the functional characteristics. The results suggest a radiation-induced change in the defect population or defect energy in PZT with metallic top electrodes, which substantially affects motion of internal interfaces such as domain walls. Additionally, the differences observed for stacks with different electrode materials implicate the ferroelectric–electrode interface as either the predominant source of radiation-induced effects (Pt electrodes) or the site of healing for radiation-induced defects (IrO{sub 2} electrodes).

  19. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  20. Relation of historical quarrying, material utilization and performance on buildings in Eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Pirinen, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Finland might seem to have lower stone heritage compared to other southern European countries, but it has been the main exporter of dimension stone to the majestic buildings that made St.Petersburg a recognized cultural heritage. In Finland, though, the stone seems undervalued. The only dramatic and predominant stone buildings are those of agencies and administrations located in the towns, where the stone has been used to impress and symbolize value. Romantic style used massive bossy stone in building's full height and created fine traditional carvings. Otherwise the communities have mainly built settlements in contact with the nature, with materials easily available and of low cost, following architectonical trends of the periods and producing interesting stone details. During the past years, research has been conducted on historical buildings interconnecting scientific and artistic approach to evaluate material durability and cultural relevance of the artifacts. Generally until mid 20th century the stone has been traditionally used massive for basements and walls. The materials still present good mechanical characteristics and most often the weathering level after hundreds of years of exposure had reached only the first millimeters from the curst. Instead the old methodology for deposit exploitation has left visible signs on the buildings. Some examples are visible from Kuopio. The exploitation of small, easy-to-reach surface deposits, even if planned by local experts, has affected quality and appearance of historical buildings. As an example the excavation of shallow quarries where also weathered crop was kept as a product has characterized the basement of the Niirala school that presents change in colors due to original material more than to weathering on site. Fissuring is also visible on a couple of blocks while marks on the rocks depict the old excavation method. Most often the deposits had been in the vicinities, frequently hidden by further construction

  1. Earth building materials in pre-historic domestic architectures on the south of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Patrícia; Faria, Paulina

    2008-01-01

    HERITAGE 2008 - World Heritage and Sustainable Development. Barcelos: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development, Vol. 2, p. 571-579 Pre-historic architectures reveal a profound knowledge of building materials and their selection and application. Depending on each geographical context or functional needs, pre-historic man developed and applied different building techniques. Archaeological vestiges from several pre-historic settlements of southwest Iberia has shown that s...

  2. Old materials and techniques to improve the durability of earth buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Camões, Aires; Eires, R.; Jalali, Said

    2012-01-01

    Quite a big part of the world’s heritage is still made by earth constructions. The durability of the existent heritage, as well as the new earth buildings is particularly conditioned by erosion caused by water action, especially in countries with high rainfall index. With this research one intends to value the ancient knowledge in order to allow higher durability. Analysing the old building techniques to protect the earth material from the water action it is possible to understand how ear...

  3. Mechanical behavior of sustainable building materials using PET waste and industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez, C. A; Mendoza-Rangel, J. M; González, J. R; Rodríguez, J. A; Valdez, P

    2015-01-01

    The building industry is facing the challenge of satisfying a growing demand for housing spaces that can be mitigated by the use of construction materials manufactured with industrial by-products that allow the production of low-cost housing with a low environmental impact. In this research, an alternative building system to manufacture lightweight masonry blocks with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and fiber-reinforced panels using binary mixture (Portland cement and fly ash), was s...

  4. CONTRIBUTION TO THE POTENTIAL OF USING FRP MATERIALS IN THE REHABILITATION AND STABILIZATION OF TIMBERED BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Čejka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wooden log, timbered perimeter and interior walls ranked among the most common building constructions used from the Early Middle Ages. In most cases, the local natural resources, i.e. wood, clay, straw and stone, were used for building houses with wooden framing. This article outlines typical defects and failures of timbered houses, “classic” techniques for the rehabilitation of these defects and failures indicating the potential of using composite materials based on high- strength fibres and epoxy resin in the rehabilitation and strengthening of timbered buildings.

  5. 13th International conference on environmental degradation of materials in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 13th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems was held on August 19-23, 2007 in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. More of a scientific meeting than a convention, this conference series is the premier nuclear industry corrosion meeting where the 225 registrations consisted of world experts of the field from utilities, engineering and service organizations, manufacturers, research establishments and universities gathered to listen to 144 technical papers on new work and to explore new insights into corrosion mechanisms in the many water cooled systems in nuclear power plants. Over 225 delegates attended the conference, over 144 technical papers were presented in the following sessions: IASCC; Waste; PWR Secondary; Ni-Base Welds; Operating Experience; Low Alloy Steels; Alloy 800 Steam Generator Tubing; Zirconium Alloys; Crack Growth; SCWR; PWR Primary; BWR SCC; Irradiation Effects; Flow Accelerated Corrosion; and, Nobel Metal

  6. Degradation of recycled PET fibers in Portland cement-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.A.; Betioli, A.M.; Gleize, P.J.P.; Roman, H.R.; Gomez, L.A.; Ribeiro, J.L.D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the durability of recycled PET fibers embedded in cement-based materials, fiber-reinforced mortar specimens were tested until 164 days after mixing. Compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths, elasticity modulus, and toughness of the specimens were determined. The mortars were also analyzed by SEM. The results have shown that PET fibers have no significant influence on mortars strengths and elasticity modulus. However, the toughness indexes I 5 , I 10 , and I 20 decreased with time due to the degradation of PET fibers by alkaline hydrolysis when embedded in the cement matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and SEM analysis of PET fibers immersed and kept for 150 days in alkaline solutions supported the conclusions

  7. Optimum Installation of Sorptive Building Materials Using Contribution Ratio of Pollution Source for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seonghyun; Seo, Janghoo

    2016-04-01

    Reinforcing the insulation and airtightness of buildings and the use of building materials containing new chemical substances have caused indoor air quality problems. Use of sorptive building materials along with removal of pollutants, constant ventilation, bake-out, etc. are gaining attention in Korea and Japan as methods for improving such indoor air quality problems. On the other hand, sorptive building materials are considered a passive method of reducing the concentration of pollutants, and their application should be reviewed in the early stages. Thus, in this research, activated carbon was prepared as a sorptive building material. Then, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted, and a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials was derived according to the indoor environment using the contribution ratio of pollution source (CRP) index. The results show that a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials can be derived by predicting the contribution ratio of pollutant sources according to the CRP index.

  8. Technical and management challenges associated with structural materials degradation in nuclear reactors in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, F.P.

    2007-01-01

    There are active plans worldwide to increase nuclear power production by significant amounts. In the near term (i.e. by 2020) this will be accomplished by, (a) increasing the power output of the existing reactors and extending their life, and by, (b) constructing new reactors that are very similar to the current water-cooled designs. Beyond 2025-2030, it is possible that new reactors (i.e. the 'GEN IV' designs) will be very different from those currently in service. A full discussion of the technical and management concerns associated with materials degradation that might arise over the next 40 years would need to address a wide range of topics. Quite apart from discussing the structural integrity issues for the materials of construction and the fuel cladding, the debate would also need to cover, for example, fuel resources and the associated issues of fuel cycle management and waste disposal, manufacturing capacity, inspection capabilities, human reliability, etc., since these all impact to one degree or another on the choice of material and the reactor operating conditions. For brevity, the scope of this article is confined to the integrity of the materials of construction for passive components in the current water-cooled reactors and the evolutionary designs (which will dominate the near term new constructions), and the very different GEN IV reactor designs. In all cases the operating environments will be more aggressive than currently encountered. For instance, the concerns for flow accelerated corrosion and flow-induced vibration will be increased under extended power uprate conditions for the current water-cooled reactors. Of greater concern, the design life will be at least 60 years for all of the new reactors and for those current reactors operating with extended licenses. This automatically presents challenges with regard to managing both irradiation damage in metallic and non-metallic materials of construction, and environmentally assisted cracking. This

  9. External exposure doses due to gamma emitting natural radionuclides in some Egyptian building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharram, B M; Suliman, M N; Zahran, N F; Shennawy, S E; El Sayed, A R

    2012-01-01

    Using of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K and their progeny results in an external exposures of the housing of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for typical Egyptian rooms are calculated using the analytical method and activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in some building materials. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling assumed. Different room models are assumed to discuss variation of indoor dose rates according to variation in room construction. Activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K content in eight samples representative Clay soil and different building materials used in most recent Egyptian building were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The specific activity for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, from the selected samples, were in the range 14.15-60.64, 2.75-84.66 and 7.35-554.4Bqkg(-1), respectively. The average indoor absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 0.005μGyh(-1) to 0.071μGyh(-1) and the corresponding population-weighted annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation varies from 0.025 to 0.345mSv. An outdoor dose rate for typical building samples in addition to some radiological hazards has been introduced for comparison. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Creep resistance and material degradation of a candidate Ni–Mo–Cr corrosion resistant alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Sachin L., E-mail: sachin@ansto.gov.au [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Bhattacharyya, Dhriti [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Yuan, Guangzhou; Li, Zhijun J. [Center of Thorium Molten Salts Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Budzakoska-Testone, Elizabeth; De Los Reyes, Massey; Drew, Michael; Edwards, Lyndon [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2016-09-30

    This study investigated the creep deformation properties of GH3535, a Ni–Mo–Cr corrosion resistant structural alloy being considered for use in future Gen IV molten salt nuclear reactors (MSR) operating at around 700 °C. Creep testing of the alloy was conducted at 650–750 °C under applied stresses between 85–380 MPa. From the creep rupture results the long term creep strain and rupture life of the alloy were estimated by applying the Dorn Shepard and Larson Miller time-temperature parameters and the alloy's allowable ASME design stresses at the MSR's operating temperature were evaluated. The material's microstructural degradation at creep rupture was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructural study revealed that the material failure was due to wedge cracking at triple grain boundary points and cavitation at coarse secondary grain boundary precipitates, nucleated and grown during high temperature exposure, leading to intergranular crack propagation. EBSD local misorientation maps clearly show that the root cause of cavitation and crack propagation was due to large strain localisation at the grain boundaries and triple points instigated by grain boundary sliding during creep deformation. This caused the grain boundary decohesion and subsequent material failure.

  11. Fatigue degradation and failure of rotating composite structures - Materials characterisation and underlying mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamstedt, E K; Andersen, S I

    2001-03-01

    The present review concerns rotating composite structures, in which fatigue degradation is of key concern for in-service failure. Such applications are for instance rotor blades in wind turbines, helicopter rotor blades, flywheels for energy storage, marine and aeronautical propellers, and rolls for paper machines. The purpose is to identify areas where impending efforts should be made to make better use of composite materials in these applications. In order to obtain better design methodologies, which would allow more reliable and slender structures, improved test methods are necessary. Furthermore, the relation between structural, component and specimen test results should be better understood than what is presently the case. Improved predictive methods rely on a better understanding of the underlying damage mechanisms. With mechanism-based models, the component substructure or even the material microstructure could be optimised for best possible fatigue resistance. These issues are addressed in the present report, with special emphasis on test methods, and scaling from damage mechanisms to relevant material properties. (au)

  12. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Low-cost NORM concentrations measuring technique for building materials of Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, Akmal; Safarov, Askar; Azimov, Askarali; Darby, Iain G.

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of natural radionuclides of building materials are important in order to estimate exposure of humans to radiation, who can spend up to 80% of their time indoors. One of the indicators of building materials' safety is the radium equivalent activity, which is regulated by national and international normative documents [1,2,3]. Materials with Ra(eq) =stone, red sand, granite, white marble and concrete cubes was performed both before and after ageing of samples (10, 20, 30 and 40 days). Measurement times of samples were 1, 3, 6 and 12 hours. Samples were measured in 1 liter Marinelli beaker geometry, using NaI(Tl) spectrometers with crystal sizes 2.5 x 2.5 in and 3.1 x 3.1 in. Efficiency calibration of spectrometers was done using certified volumetric (1 liter Marinelli beaker) Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 sources filled with silica sand and density 1,7 kg/l. Herein we present results indicating that one hour measuring may be sufficient for samples in 1 liter Marinelli beakers offering prospect of significant time and cost improvements. References: 1. NEA-OECD (1979): Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by Group of Experts of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Paris 2. STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) (2003): The radioactivity of building materials and ash. Regulatory Guides on Radiation Safety (ST Guides) ST 12.2 (Finland) (8 October 2003) 3. GOST 30108-94 (1995): Building materials and elements. Determination of specific activity of natural radioactive nuclei. Interstate Standard. 4. Krisiuk E.M. et al., (1971). A study on Radioactivity in Building Materials (Leningrad: Research Institute for radiation Hygiene) 5. Beretka, J., & Mathew, P. J. (1985). Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, waste and by-products. Health Physics, 48, 87-95. 6. Uosif M.A.M. (2014). Estimation of Radiological Hazards of Some Egyptian Building Materials Due to Natural Radioactivity. International Journal

  14. Early detection of critical material degradation by means of electromagnetic multi-parametric NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szielasko, Klaus; Tschuncky, Ralf; Rabung, Madalina; Seiler, Georg; Altpeter, Iris; Dobmann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Boller, Christian

    2014-02-01

    With an increasing number of power plants operated in excess of their original design service life an early recognition of critical material degradation in components will gain importance. Many years of reactor safety research allowed for the identification and development of electromagnetic NDE methods which detect precursors of imminent damage with high sensitivity, at elevated temperatures and in a radiation environment. Regarding low-alloy heat-resistant steel grade WB 36 (1.6368, 15NiCuMoNb5), effects of thermal and thermo-mechanical aging on mechanical-technological properties and several micromagnetic parameters have been thoroughly studied. In particular knowledge regarding the process of copper precipitation and its acceleration under thermo-mechanical load has been enhanced. Whilst the Cu-rich WB 36 steel is an excellent model material to study and understand aging effects related to neutron radiation without the challenge of handling radioactive specimens in a hot cell, actually neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel materials were investigated as well. The neutron fluence experienced and the resulting shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature were determined electromagnetically, and it was shown that weld and base material can be distinguished from the cladded side of the RPV wall. Low-cycle fatigue of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 347 (1.4550, X6CrNiNb18-10) has been characterized with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) at temperatures of up to 300 °C. Time-of-flight and amplitude of the transmitted ultrasound signal were evaluated against the number of load cycles applied and observed as an indication of the imminent material failure significantly earlier than monitoring stresses or strains.

  15. Early detection of critical material degradation by means of electromagnetic multi-parametric NDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szielasko, Klaus; Tschuncky, Ralf; Rabung, Madalina; Altpeter, Iris; Dobmann, Gerd [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Seiler, Georg; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Boller, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany and Saarland University, Chair of NDT and Quality Assurance, Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2014-02-18

    With an increasing number of power plants operated in excess of their original design service life an early recognition of critical material degradation in components will gain importance. Many years of reactor safety research allowed for the identification and development of electromagnetic NDE methods which detect precursors of imminent damage with high sensitivity, at elevated temperatures and in a radiation environment. Regarding low-alloy heat-resistant steel grade WB 36 (1.6368, 15NiCuMoNb5), effects of thermal and thermo-mechanical aging on mechanical-technological properties and several micromagnetic parameters have been thoroughly studied. In particular knowledge regarding the process of copper precipitation and its acceleration under thermo-mechanical load has been enhanced. Whilst the Cu-rich WB 36 steel is an excellent model material to study and understand aging effects related to neutron radiation without the challenge of handling radioactive specimens in a hot cell, actually neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel materials were investigated as well. The neutron fluence experienced and the resulting shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature were determined electromagnetically, and it was shown that weld and base material can be distinguished from the cladded side of the RPV wall. Low-cycle fatigue of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 347 (1.4550, X6CrNiNb18-10) has been characterized with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) at temperatures of up to 300 °C. Time-of-flight and amplitude of the transmitted ultrasound signal were evaluated against the number of load cycles applied and observed as an indication of the imminent material failure significantly earlier than monitoring stresses or strains.

  16. Early detection of critical material degradation by means of electromagnetic multi-parametric NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szielasko, Klaus; Tschuncky, Ralf; Rabung, Madalina; Altpeter, Iris; Dobmann, Gerd; Seiler, Georg; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Boller, Christian

    2014-01-01

    With an increasing number of power plants operated in excess of their original design service life an early recognition of critical material degradation in components will gain importance. Many years of reactor safety research allowed for the identification and development of electromagnetic NDE methods which detect precursors of imminent damage with high sensitivity, at elevated temperatures and in a radiation environment. Regarding low-alloy heat-resistant steel grade WB 36 (1.6368, 15NiCuMoNb5), effects of thermal and thermo-mechanical aging on mechanical-technological properties and several micromagnetic parameters have been thoroughly studied. In particular knowledge regarding the process of copper precipitation and its acceleration under thermo-mechanical load has been enhanced. Whilst the Cu-rich WB 36 steel is an excellent model material to study and understand aging effects related to neutron radiation without the challenge of handling radioactive specimens in a hot cell, actually neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel materials were investigated as well. The neutron fluence experienced and the resulting shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature were determined electromagnetically, and it was shown that weld and base material can be distinguished from the cladded side of the RPV wall. Low-cycle fatigue of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 347 (1.4550, X6CrNiNb18-10) has been characterized with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) at temperatures of up to 300 °C. Time-of-flight and amplitude of the transmitted ultrasound signal were evaluated against the number of load cycles applied and observed as an indication of the imminent material failure significantly earlier than monitoring stresses or strains

  17. Innovative Development of Building Materials Industry of the Region Based on the Cluster Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottaeva Asiiat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues of innovative development of building materials industry of the region based on the cluster approach. Determined the significance of regional cluster development of the industry of construction materials as the effective implementation of the innovative breakthrough of the region as an important part of strategies for strengthening innovation activities may be to support the formation and development of cluster structures. Analyses the current situation with innovation in the building materials industry of the region based on the cluster approach. In the course of the study revealed a direct correlation between involvement in innovative activities on a cluster basis, and the level of development of industry of construction materials. The conducted research allowed identifying the factors that determine the innovation process, systematization and classification which determine the sustainable functioning of the building materials industry in the period of active innovation. The proposed grouping of innovations for the construction industry taking into account industry-specific characteristics that reflect modern trends of scientific and technological progress in construction. Significance of the study lies in the fact that the proposals and practical recommendations can be used in the formation mechanism of innovative development of building materials industry and the overall regional construction complex of Russian regions by creating clusters of construction.

  18. Atmospheric methane removal by methane-oxidizing bacteria immobilized on porous building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; De Muynck, Willem; Ho, Adrian; Hoefman, Sven; De Vos, Paul; Boeckx, Pascal; Boon, Nico

    2014-04-01

    Biological treatment using methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) immobilized on six porous carrier materials have been used to mitigate methane emission. Experiments were performed with different MOB inoculated in building materials at high (~20 % (v/v)) and low (~100 ppmv) methane mixing ratios. Methylocystis parvus in autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) exhibited the highest methane removal rate at high (28.5 ± 3.8 μg CH₄ g⁻¹ building material h⁻¹) and low (1.7 ± 0.4 μg CH₄ g⁻¹ building material h⁻¹) methane mixing ratio. Due to the higher volume of pores with diameter >5 μm compared to other materials tested, AAC was able to adsorb more bacteria which might explain for the higher methane removal observed. The total methane and carbon dioxide-carbon in the headspace was decreased for 65.2 ± 10.9 % when M. parvus in Ytong was incubated for 100 h. This study showed that immobilized MOB on building materials could be used to remove methane from the air and also act as carbon sink.

  19. Building materials. VOC emissions, diffusion behaviour and implications from their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2012-10-01

    Five cement- and five lime-based building materials were examined in an environmental chamber for their emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Typical VOCs were below detection limits, whereas not routinely analysed VOCs, like neopentyl glycol (NPG), dominated the cement-based products emissions, where, after 72 h, it was found to occur, in levels as high as 1400 μg m(-3), accounting for up to 93% of total VOCs. The concentrations of NPG were not considerably changed between the 24 and 72 h of sampling. The permeability of building materials was assessed through experiments with a dual environmental chamber; it was shown that building materials facilitate the diffusion of chemicals through their pores, reaching equilibrium relatively fast (6 h). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Anisotropy of Building Materials on the Moisture Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drchalová

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of anisotropy of building materials on the moisture transfer in the design of envelope parts of building structures is studied. Two typical fibre containing plate building materials produced in the Czech Republic, Dekalux and Dekalit P, are chosen for the demonstration of this effect. Experimental results show that while for lighter Dekalit P, an order of magnitude difference in the moisture diffusivities k for the two basic orientations, i.e. along and across the plate, is observed, for the heavier Dekalux the differences in k are within the errorbar of the experimental method. As follows from the experimental results, compacting of surface layers of the plates of light fibred materials is very favorable from the point of view of moisture penetration but one should keep in mind that any local damage of the surface layer can result in a considerably faster moisture transfer in the direction along the plate.

  1. Natural radionuclide and radiological assessment of building materials in high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Moghaddam, Masoud Vahabi; Fathabadi, Nasrin

    2013-04-01

    Building materials, collected from different sites in Ramsar, a northern coastal city in Iran, were analyzed for their natural radionuclide contents. The measurements were carried out using a high resolution high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bqkg(-1), 187 Bqkg(-1), and 1350 Bqkg(-1), respectively. The radiological hazards incurred from the use of these building materials were estimated through various radiation hazard indices. The result of this survey shows that values obtained for some samples are more than the internationally accepted maximum limits and as such, the use of them as a building material pose significant radiation hazard to individuals.

  2. Method for evaluating building materials with a high content of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1979-01-01

    In order to avoid increased radiation doses to the population due to the introduction of building materials with an unusually high content of radioactivity, a method for evaluating building materials has been developed. An expression for the gamma radiation due to radium, thorium and potassium 40 has been proposed by a Scandinavian group. When this value for a given material does not exceed 1, then no restriction is placed. Should it exceed 1, then the material is subjected to further investigation. Similarly, since the radon concentration depends on the radium content, an expression for this is proposed. Should this be less than unity the material may be sold freely. Should it exceed unity, further investigations must be made. Measurements have also been made on the exhalation of radon from concrete, and the results are given. An expression including this exhalation rate and the ventilation rate, giving the radon concentration is given. (JIW)

  3. Application of Nanotechnology-Based Thermal Insulation Materials in Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozsaky David

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology-based materials have previously been used by space research, pharmaceuticals and electronics, but in the last decade several nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials have appeared in building industry. Nowadays they only feature in a narrow range of practice, but they offer many potential applications. These options are unknown to most architects, who may simply be afraid of these materials owing to the incomplete and often contradictory special literature. Therefore, they are distrustful and prefer to apply the usual and conventional technologies. This article is intended to provide basic information about nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials for designers. It describes their most important material properties, functional principles, applications, and potential usage options in building construction.

  4. A protocol for lifetime energy and environmental impact assessment of building insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Som S.; Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre O.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist, which provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different building insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines. - Highlights: • We proposed a protocol to evaluate the environmental impacts of insulation materials. • The protocol considers all life cycle stages of an insulation material. • Both the direct environmental impacts and the indirect impacts are defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided operational energy’ is defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided environmental impact’ is defined

  5. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India using gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravisankar, R.; Vanasundari, K.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Rajalakshmi, A.; Suganya, M.; Vijayagopal, P.; Meenakshisundaram, V.

    2012-01-01

    The natural level of radioactivity in building materials is one of the major causes of external exposure to γ-rays. The primordial radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the radioactivity level in building materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the specific activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in commonly used building materials from Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India, using gamma-ray spectrometer. The radiation hazard due to the total natural radioactivity in the studied building materials was estimated by different approaches. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and the radium equivalent activity in studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards. - Highlights: ► Most of the building materials contain natural radionuclides. ► The radioactivity level in building materials is used to assess the radiological hazards to human. ► We present the results for the measured activities and radiation hazards of building materials. ► We report that the studied building materials do not pose any significant radiation hazard.

  6. Measurement of Rn-222 concentrations in building materials used in jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.M.; Abumyrad, K.M.; Kullab, M.K.; Albataina, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, the concentrations of the radiative inert gas Rn-222 emanated from the building materials that are commonly in jordan have been studied. For this purpose, samples of ten jordanian building materials of different masses were prepared in plastic cans sealed to passive integrated dosimeters containing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors which are very sensitive to alpha-particles. The Rn-222 concentrations in these samples range from 137 Bq/m 3 to 267 Bq/m 3 with an average of 189 Bq/m 3 . These levels were found to be consistent with those measured by other workers in other countries. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Chemical physics analysis for building materials of Bangunan Panggung Drama Jalan Bandar Kuala Lumpur Malaysia: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Zuliskandar Ramli; Asmah Hj Yahaya

    2004-01-01

    The paper discussed the studies carried-out using XRD, x-ray diffraction technique on the historical building materials i.e. mortars, paints, concretes - Panggung Drama - old theatre stage building located at Jalan Bandar, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

  8. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in building materials used in Yan'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Caifeng

    2013-03-01

    The concentration of natural radionuclides in commonly used building materials collected from Yan'an, China, was determined using gamma ray spectroscopy with a NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentration of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K in the studied building materials ranges from 9.4-73.1, 11.5-86.9, and 258.9-1,055.1 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the world mean values for soil. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin), indoor air absorbed dose rate, and annual effective dose rate due to natural radionuclides in samples were estimated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwellings made of the studied building materials. The calculated Raeq values of all building materials (75.7-222.1 Bq kg⁻¹) are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹. The values of Hex and Hin are less than unity. The mean values of indoor air absorbed dose rates of all building materials (101.0 ± 14.1-177.0 ± 6.8 nGy h⁻¹) are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h⁻¹, while the mean values of annual effective dose range from 0.50 ± 0.07-0.87 ± 0.03 mSv y⁻¹, which are lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y⁻¹. It is found that these materials may be used safely as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards to inhabitants.

  9. A diffusivity model for predicting VOC diffusion in porous building materials based on fractal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Zhou, Xiaojun; Wang, Dengjia; Song, Cong; Liu, Jiaping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fractal theory is introduced into the prediction of VOC diffusion coefficient. • MSFC model of the diffusion coefficient is developed for porous building materials. • The MSFC model contains detailed pore structure parameters. • The accuracy of the MSFC model is verified by independent experiments. - Abstract: Most building materials are porous media, and the internal diffusion coefficients of such materials have an important influences on the emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pore structure of porous building materials has a significant impact on the diffusion coefficient. However, the complex structural characteristics bring great difficulties to the model development. The existing prediction models of the diffusion coefficient are flawed and need to be improved. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests of typical porous building materials, this study developed a new diffusivity model: the multistage series-connection fractal capillary-bundle (MSFC) model. The model considers the variable-diameter capillaries formed by macropores connected in series as the main mass transfer paths, and the diameter distribution of the capillary bundles obeys a fractal power law in the cross section. In addition, the tortuosity of the macrocapillary segments with different diameters is obtained by the fractal theory. Mesopores serve as the connections between the macrocapillary segments rather than as the main mass transfer paths. The theoretical results obtained using the MSFC model yielded a highly accurate prediction of the diffusion coefficients and were in a good agreement with the VOC concentration measurements in the environmental test chamber.

  10. Assessment of natural radioactivity in major building materials of Xiangyang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tingting; Lu, Xinwei [Shaanxi Normal Univ., Xi' an (China). School of Tourism and Environment

    2014-10-01

    The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in the commonly used building materials collected from Xiangyang were measured using NaI (Tl) gamma spectrometer. The radioactivity values of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in the studied samples ranged from 130.5 to 1006.3, 8.4 to 164.0, and 8.7 to 145.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides have been compared with the typical published world values. Radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indexes, external and internal exposure indexes, indoor air absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate have been calculated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with natural radionuclides in the studied materials. The calculated values of all the assessed indices in the analyzed building materials except for fly ash are below the internationally accepted limits indicating that these building materials can be safely used in dwellings construction and do not lead to any significant radiation exposure to occupants. Nevertheless, the annual effective dose rate values of all fly ash samples, external and internal hazard indexes values in most fly ash samples exceed the recommended values. It is, therefore, desirable to regularly monitor the natural radioactivity level of the building materials products made from fly ash.

  11. Assessment of natural radioactivity in major building materials of Xiangyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Tingting; Lu, Xinwei

    2014-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the commonly used building materials collected from Xiangyang were measured using NaI (Tl) gamma spectrometer. The radioactivity values of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the studied samples ranged from 130.5 to 1006.3, 8.4 to 164.0, and 8.7 to 145.6 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides have been compared with the typical published world values. Radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indexes, external and internal exposure indexes, indoor air absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate have been calculated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with natural radionuclides in the studied materials. The calculated values of all the assessed indices in the analyzed building materials except for fly ash are below the internationally accepted limits indicating that these building materials can be safely used in dwellings construction and do not lead to any significant radiation exposure to occupants. Nevertheless, the annual effective dose rate values of all fly ash samples, external and internal hazard indexes values in most fly ash samples exceed the recommended values. It is, therefore, desirable to regularly monitor the natural radioactivity level of the building materials products made from fly ash.

  12. Measurements of VOC adsorption/desorption characteristics of typical interior building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Y.; Zhang, J.S.; Shaw, C.Y.

    2000-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on interior building material surfaces (i.e., the sink effect) can affect the VOC concentrations in a building, and thus need to be accounted for an indoor air quality (IAQ) prediction model. In this study, the VOC adsorption/desorption characteristics (sink effect) were measured for four typical interior building materials including carpet, vinyl floor tile, painted drywall, and ceiling tile. The VOCs tested were ethylbenzene, cyclohexanone, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, benzaldehyde, and dodecane. These five VOCs were selected because they are representative of hydrocarbons, aromatics, ketones, aldehydes, and chlorine substituted compounds. The first order reversible adsorption/desorption model was based on the Langmuir isotherm was used to analyze the data and to determine the equilibrium constant of each VOC-material combination. It was found that the adsorption/desorption equilibrium constant, which is a measure of the sink capacity, increased linearly with the inverse of the VOC vapor pressure. For each compound, the adsorption/desorption equilibrium constant, and the adsorption rate constant differed significantly among the four materials tested. A detailed characterization of the material structure in the micro-scale would improve the understanding and modeling of the sink effect in the future. The results of this study can be used to estimate the impact of sink effect on the VOC concentrations in buildings.

  13. Determination of natural radionuclides content in some building materials in Nigeria by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, J A

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study undertaken to determine the natural radioactivity present in some building materials in Nigeria using a gamma-ray spectrometer with a hyper pure germanium detector. A total of 118 samples of commonly used building materials were collected from manufacturers and suppliers of these materials. The mean radioactivity concentrations measured in the different building materials varied from 9.4 to 62.9, 1.3 to 88.4, and 21.5 to 762.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K. The average contents of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for all the samples were 36.3, 46.5, and 320.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively, lower than the world average for building materials (50, 50, and 500 Bq kg(-1)). The calculated mean radium equivalent activity and external and internal hazard indices for the entire sample were lower than United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation recommended limits and comparable with results of similar studies undertaken in other countries. The mean annual gonadal equivalent doses of some of the samples were higher than the world average value for soil.

  14. Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Baykan, U N; Sen, K

    2008-03-01

    A total of 183 samples of 20 different commonly used structural and covering building materials were collected from housing and other building construction sites and from suppliers in Ankara to measure the natural radioactivity due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with two HPGe detectors. The specific activities of the different building materials studied varied from 0.5 +/- 0.1 to 144.9 +/- 4.9 Bq kg(-1), 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 169.9 +/- 6.6 Bq kg(-1) and 2.0 +/- 0.1 to 1792.3 +/- 60.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The results show that the lowest mean values of the specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 0.8 +/- 0.5, 0.9 +/- 0.4 and 4.1 +/- 1.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, measured in travertine tile while the highest mean values of the specific activity of the same radionuclides are 78.5 +/- 18.1 (ceramic wall tile), 77.4 +/- 53.0 (granite tile) and 923.4 +/- 161.0 (white brick), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the gamma-index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The mean values of the gamma-index and the estimated annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation inside the room for structural building materials ranged from 0.15 to 0.89 and 0.2 to 1.1 mSv, respectively. Applying criteria recently recommended for building materials in the literature, four materials meet the exemption annual dose criterion of 0.3 mSv, five materials meet the annual dose limit of 1 mSv and only one material slightly exceeds this limit. The mean values of the gamma-index for all building materials were lower than the upper limit of 1.

  15. Energy and economic analysis of a building enclosure outfitted with a phase change material board (PCMB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Quan; Medina, Mario A.; Lee, Kyoung Ok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase change material boards (PCMBs) were simulated in building enclosures. • Energy and economic savings for these buildings were estimated. • The buildings were located in five cities with different climatic conditions. • The energy savings ratio was 100% when a cold energy source was used. • A mean electricity savings ratio of 13.1% was obtained. - Abstract: This paper presents energy and economic analyses related to the application of phase change materials boards (PCMBs) in building enclosures during the cooling season. A heat transfer model was developed, which was implemented via a computer program. Simulations were carried out using weather data files from five cities located in five different climate regions in China. Energy savings from using a natural cold source (e.g., outdoor air) and electricity savings from a reduction in electricity by air conditioning systems were evaluated. The energy savings ratio (ESR) and simple payback period (SPP) were used to assess the application of PCMBs in building enclosures. The selection of optimum phase transition temperatures for the PCMs for the various climates was made using indoor and outdoor air temperatures, as well as SPP. For space cooling purposes, it was suggested that phase transition temperatures should be at least 3 °C higher than the mean outdoor air temperature. Simple payback period suggested the possibility of the cost effective use of PCMBs in occupied buildings for moderate temperature climates

  16. Phase Change Materials in Transparent Building Envelopes: A Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Vigna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Building envelopes can play a crucial role in building improvement efficiency, and the adoption of Phase Change Materials (PCMs, coupled with transparent elements, may: (i allow a better control of the heat flows from/to the outdoor environment, (ii increase the exploitation of solar energy at a building scale and (iii modulate light transmission in order to prevent glare effects. Starting from a literature review, focused on experimental works, this research identifies the main possible integrations of PCMs in transparent/translucent building envelope components (in glazing, in shutters and in multilayer façade system in order to draw a global picture of the potential and limitations of these technologies. Transparent envelopes with PCMs have been classified from the simplest “zero” technology, which integrates the PCM in a double glass unit (DGU, to more complex solutions—with a different number of glass cavities (triple glazed unit TGU, different positions of the PCM layer (internal/external shutter, and in combination with other materials (TIM, aerogel, prismatic solar reflector, PCM curtain controlled by an electric pump. The results of the analysis have been summarised in a Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis table to underline the strengths and weaknesses of transparent building envelope components with PCMs, and to indicate opportunities and threats for future research and building applications.

  17. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle-Zermeño, R. del; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J.M.; Martínez, M.; Fernández, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A concrete formulation was optimized using Bottom Ash and APC ash. ► 10% of APC ash achieves good compromise between economic and performance aspects. ► The crushed concrete was evaluated as secondary building granular material. ► The environmental behavior allows its use as secondary material. ► The abrasion resistance is not good enough for its use as a road sub-base material. - Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured

  18. Experimental study of radioactive aerosols emission during the thermal degradation of organic materials in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Yvette

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive products may be released during a fire in nuclear fuel cycles facilities. These products must be confined to avoid a contamination spread in the environment. It is therefore necessary to be able to predict the amount and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive material that may be airborne. The aim of this study is to determine experimentally the release of contamination aerosols in a typical fire scenario involving plutonium oxide in a glove box. Firstly, this phenomenon has been studied in a small scale test chamber where samples of polymethylmethacrylate (Plexiglas) contaminated by cerium oxide (used as a substitute for plutonium oxide) were submitted to thermal degradation (pyrolysis and combustion). The release of radioactive material is determined by the quantity of contaminant emitted, the kinetics of the release and the particle size distribution of aerosols. Secondly, the development of an experimental procedure allowed to realize large scale fires in more realistic conditions. The experimental tools developed in the course of this study allow to consider application to other scenarios. (author) [fr

  19. Degradation of photovoltaic backsheet materials under multi-factor accelerated UV light exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinke, Addison G.; Gok, Abdulkerim; Ifeanyi, Silas I.; French, Roger H.; Bruckman, Laura S.

    2017-08-01

    Long term outdoor durability of photovoltaic (PV) module backsheets is critical to a module's power output over its lifetime. The use of uoropolymer-based backsheets or the addition of stabilizers to polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) and polyamide (PA) type backsheets can help extend their lifetime. This study presents the performance of 21 backsheets made of 8 different material combinations under ASTM G154 Cycle 4 accelerated light exposures. The backsheets were subjected to 4000 hours of high irradiance UVA light at a peak intensity of 1.55 W=m2 at 340 nm at 70°C with and without a condensing humidity cycle at 50°C. Backsheets were evaluated, with repeated measurements, using various evaluation techniques to identify and assess potential signs of degradation. These evaluations included the yellowness index (YI), CIE color space coordinates, and gloss at 20, 60, and 85°. The temporal evolution of the relative color change ΔE was statistically analyzed to develop a stress-response model which used the UVA light dose to predict color change. It was found that the PVF/PET/E backsheet performed the best while PET/PET/E and THV/PET/EVA backsheets performed the worst. Additionally, substantial variation in color change response, attributable to key manufacturing differences, was observed within a given material type.

  20. In vitro degradation and cell response of calcium carbonate composite ceramic in comparison with other synthetic bone substitute materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fupo; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Fanwen; Zhu, Jixiang; Tian, Xiumei; Chen, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    The robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) can be acquired by fast sintering calcium carbonate at a low temperature (650 °C) using a biocompatible, degradable phosphate-based glass (PG) as sintering agent. In the present study, the in vitro degradation and cell response of CC/PG were assessed and compared with 4 synthetic bone substitute materials, calcium carbonate ceramic (CC), PG, hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics. The degradation rates in decreasing order were as follows: PG, CC, CC/PG, β-TCP, and HA. The proliferation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) cultured on the CC/PG was comparable with that on CC and PG, but inferior to HA and β-TCP. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of rMSCs on CC/PG was lower than PG, comparable with β-TCP, but higher than HA. The rMSCs on CC/PG and PG had enhanced gene expression in specific osteogenic markers, respectively. Compared to HA and β-TCP, the rMSCs on the CC/PG expressed relatively lower level of collagen I and runt-related transcription factor 2, but showed more considerable expression of osteopontin. Although CC, PG, HA, and β-TCP possessed impressive performances in some specific aspects, they faced extant intrinsic drawbacks in either degradation rate or mechanical strength. Based on considerable compressive strength, moderate degradation rate, good cell response, and being free of obvious shortcoming, the CC/PG is promising as another choice for bone substitute materials. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vitro degradation and cell response of CC/PG were compared to 4 materials. • The CC/PG showed moderate degradation rate. • The CC/PG exhibited good cell response. • The CC/PG was free of obvious drawback compared to other materials

  1. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  2. Building materials as a source of a possible radiation exposure of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pensko, J.; Burkart, W.

    1986-12-01

    Two main pathways of exposure contribute to the human radiation exposure indoors: external whole body irradiation from gamma-rays originating from the walls, and exposure of lung tissue by alpha-rays emitted by radon daughters present in the inhaled air. Natural radioactive elements present in building materials produce both kinds of radioactive exposure. Uranium, thorium and potassium are sources of gamma radiations. Materials containing radium can create an alpha-radiation hazard for the human respiratory system through the exhalation of radon from room surfaces. Measurements of the natural radioactivity of building materials made in several European countries are reviewed. A preliminary assessment of the radioactivity content of potentially hazardous materials on the Swiss market shows elevated levels in imported phosphogypsum and tuff. (author)

  3. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et......Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive...... the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...

  4. The Effect of Different Water Temperatures on Retention Loss and Material Degradation of Locator Attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Lillian Pui Yuk; Vitale, Nicola Di; Petridis, Haralampos; McDonald, Ailbhe

    2017-08-01

    To examine the changes in Locator attachments after exposure to different water temperatures and cyclic loading. Four groups of pink Locator attachments (3.0 lb. light retention replacement patrix attachments; 10 per group) were soaked for the equivalent of 5 years of use in distilled water at the following temperatures: 20°C, 37°C, 60°C. One group was kept dry to test the effect of water. A universal testing machine was used to measure the retention force of each treated attachment during 5500 insertion and removal cycles, simulating approximately 5 years of use. The results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA by ranks. Surface changes of tested attachments were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The exposure to 60°C water significantly increased the percentage of retention loss in Locator attachments (p < 0.05) compared to the 20°C water group and significantly reduced the final retention force compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). SEM examinations revealed severe cracking and material degradation in Locator attachments after exposure to 60°C water and cyclic loading, which were not evident in other groups. Cracking was observed after exposure to 60˚C water before cyclic loading. Exposure to 60°C water, potentially similar to denture cleansing procedures, could cause cracking in Locator attachments. Cracking is associated with hydrolytic degradation of nylon at 60°C. The change in structure could result in a significant loss of retention. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. A review on the development of reinforced ice for use as a building material in cold regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, N.K.; Pronk, A.D.C.; Shatalina, I.N.; Janssen, F.H.M.E.; Houben, R.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Carrying building materials into remote cold regions makes construction in these regions difficult and rather expensive. The need for such materials can be reduced by the use of both ice and ice-soil composites. In cold regions ice is abundant and cheap. However, using ice as a building material has

  6. Development and Application of High-Cr Ferritic Stainless Steels as Building Exterior Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong H.; Lee, Yong H.; Lee, Yong D.

    2008-01-01

    Stainless Steels have been widely used as a building exterior materials in Asian countries for the last decade. It is required for the materials in this field to have an aesthetic appearance,a relatively high strength, and an excellent corrosion resistance. Other metallic materials such as copper, aluminum, and carbon steels have been also used as the exterior materials. Considering the cost of maintenance, stainless steel, having the outstanding corrosion resistance, is replacing other materials in the several parts in the building exteriors. Ferritic stainless steel has been applied as the roofing materials because its thermal expansion is much smaller than that of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, it is suitable for the large-scale construction such as airport terminal, convention center, and football stadium. To improve the corrosion resistance of the ferritic stainless steels, the modification of alloy composition has been studied to develop new grade materials and the progress in the surface technology has been introduced. Corrosion properties, of these materials were evaluated in the laboratory and in the field for longer than two years. High-Cr ferritic stainless steel showed excellent corrosion resistance to the atmospheric environments. In the region close to the sea, the corrosion resistance of high-Cr ferritic stainless steel was much superior to that of other materials, which may prove this steel to be the appropriate materials for the construction around seashore. In some of the large constructions around seashore in South Korea, high-Cr ferritic stainless steels have been used as the building exterior materials for six years

  7. Development and Application of High-Cr Ferritic Stainless Steels as Building Exterior Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong H.; Lee, Yong H.; Lee, Yong D. [POSCO Technical Reseaarch Lab., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Stainless Steels have been widely used as a building exterior materials in Asian countries for the last decade. It is required for the materials in this field to have an aesthetic appearance,a relatively high strength, and an excellent corrosion resistance. Other metallic materials such as copper, aluminum, and carbon steels have been also used as the exterior materials. Considering the cost of maintenance, stainless steel, having the outstanding corrosion resistance, is replacing other materials in the several parts in the building exteriors. Ferritic stainless steel has been applied as the roofing materials because its thermal expansion is much smaller than that of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, it is suitable for the large-scale construction such as airport terminal, convention center, and football stadium. To improve the corrosion resistance of the ferritic stainless steels, the modification of alloy composition has been studied to develop new grade materials and the progress in the surface technology has been introduced. Corrosion properties, of these materials were evaluated in the laboratory and in the field for longer than two years. High-Cr ferritic stainless steel showed excellent corrosion resistance to the atmospheric environments. In the region close to the sea, the corrosion resistance of high-Cr ferritic stainless steel was much superior to that of other materials, which may prove this steel to be the appropriate materials for the construction around seashore. In some of the large constructions around seashore in South Korea, high-Cr ferritic stainless steels have been used as the building exterior materials for six years.

  8. ANALYTICAL MODEL OF DAMAGED AIRCRAFT SKIN BONDED REPAIRS ASSUMING THE MATERIAL PROPERTIES DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search of optimal variants for composite repair patches allows to increase the service life of a damaged air- plane structure. To sensibly choose the way of repair, it is necessary to have a computational complex to predict the stress- strain condition of "structure-adhesive-patch" system and to take into account the damage growth considering the material properties change. The variant of the computational complex based on inclusion method is proposed.For calculation purposes the repair bonded joint is divided into two areas: a metal plate with patch-shaped hole and a "patch-adhesive layer-skin" composite plate (inclusion.Calculation stages:Evaluation of the patch influence to the skin stress-strain condition, stress distribution between skin and patch in the case of no damage. Calculation of the stress-strain condition is performed separately for the skin with hole and for the inclusion; solutions are coupled based on strain compatibility.Definition of the damage growth parameters at new stress-strain condition due to bonded patch existence. Skincrack stress intensity factors are found to identify the crack growth velocity. Patch is modelled as a set of "springs" bridging the crack.Degradation analysis of elasticity properties for the patch material.Repair effectiveness is evaluated with respect to crack growth velocity reduction in the initial material in compari- son with the case of the patch absence.Calculation example for the crack repair effectiveness depending on number of loading cycles for the 7075-T6 aluminum skin is given. Repair patches are carbon-epoxy, glass-epoxy and boron-epoxy material systems with quasi- isotropic layup and GLARE hybrid metal-polymeric material.The analysis shows the high effectiveness of the carbon-epoxy patch. Due to low stiffness, the glass-epoxy patchdemonstrates the least effectiveness. GLARE patch containing the fiberglass plies oriented across the crack has the same effectiveness as the carbon and

  9. Experimental evaluation of passive cooling using phase change materials (PCM) for reducing overheating in public building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mateo-Garcia, Monica; McGough, Danny; Caratella, Kassim; Ure, Zafer

    2018-02-01

    Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) is essential for the health and productivity of building users. The risk of overheating in buildings is increasing due to increased density of occupancy of people and heat emitting equipment, increase in ambient temperature due to manifestation of climate change or changes in urban micro-climate. One of the solutions to building overheating is to inject some exposed thermal mass into the interior of the building. There are many different types of thermal storage materials which typically includes sensible heat storage materials such as concrete, bricks, rocks etc. It is very difficult to increase the thermal mass of existing buildings using these sensible heat storage materials. Alternative to these, there are latent heat storage materials called Phase Change Materials (PCM), which have high thermal storage capacity per unit volume of materials making them easy to implement within retrofit project. The use of Passive Cooling Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in the form of PCM PlusICE Solutions has been investigated in occupied spaces to improve indoor environmental quality. The work has been carried out using experimental set-up in existing spaces and monitored through the summer the months. The rooms have been monitored using wireless temperature and humidity sensors. There appears to be significant improvement in indoor temperature of up to 5°K in the room with the PCM compared to the monitored control spaces. The success of PCM for passive cooling is strongly dependent on the ventilation strategy employed in the spaces. The use of night time cooling to purge the stored thermal energy is essential for improved efficacy of the systems to reduce overheating in the spaces. The investigation is carried within the EU funded RESEEPEE project.

  10. Degradation of atrazine and isoproturon in surface and sub-surface soil materials undergoing different moisture and aeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Salah; Wood, Martin

    2005-02-01

    The influence of different moisture and aeration conditions on the degradation of atrazine and isoproturon was investigated in environmental samples aseptically collected from surface and sub-surface zones of agricultural land. The materials were maintained at two moisture contents corresponding to just above field capacity or 90% of field capacity. Another two groups of samples were adjusted with water to above field capacity, and, at zero time, exposed to drying-rewetting cycles. Atrazine was more persistent (t(1/2) = 22-35 days) than isoproturon (t(1/2) = 5-17 days) in samples maintained at constant moisture conditions. The rate of degradation for both herbicides was higher in samples maintained at a moisture content of 90% of field capacity than in samples with higher moisture contents. The reduction in moisture content in samples undergoing desiccation from above field capacity to much lower than field capacity enhanced the degradation of isoproturon (t(1/2) = 9-12 days) but reduced the rate of atrazine degradation (t(1/2) = 23-35 days). This demonstrates the variability between different micro-organisms in their susceptibility to desiccation. Under anaerobic conditions generated in anaerobic jars, atrazine degraded much more rapidly than isoproturon in materials taken from three soil profiles (0-250 cm depth). It is suggested that some specific micro-organisms are able to survive and degrade herbicide under severe conditions of desiccation. Copyright (c) 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Dose and radon measurements inside houses containing ash as building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodnar, R.; Lendvai, Z.; Somlai, J.; Nemeth, C.

    1996-01-01

    Radon concentration and external dose have been measured in dwellings that contain by-products of coal burning for building materials. The concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th, 238 U and 226 Ra have been determined in the materials. The date are analyzed according to indices frequently used for decision of utilizing the by-products. The observed daily fluctuation of the radon concentration in dwellings might exceed a factor of 5. (author)

  12. Material and welding development of anchor plates to build nuclear power plant by blue arc process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    To build nuclear power plants, anchor plates are plenty used. These anchor plates serve as a system with the purpose to fix many heavy components or a simple stair. Considering the necessity of element fabrication fastly, with reasonable economy and quality, the arc study welding process (blue arc) was used. A special development of the material concept as well as a welding procedure and a subsuppliers qualification of the raw material was necessary. (Author) [pt

  13. Usability of Clay Mixed Red Mud as Building Material in Transdanubian (Hungary) Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sas, Z.; Somlai, J.J.; Szeiler, G.; Kovacs, T.

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used building materials in Hungary and in numerous country of the world are the bricks, which made from clays. Due to the congenial internal structure properties of the clays these raw materials can be mixed with other materials, provides great possibility to reuse industrial by-products as additive material. The production and inbuilt of new types of synthetic building materials based on NORM (naturally occurring radioactive materials) by-products is raising concerns among authorities, public and scientists. Several NORM residues produced in large quantity, such as: phospogypsum (phosphate industry), red mud (aluminium processing industry), fly ash, coal slag (coal burning and steelworks) and so on are presently under investigation. The aluminum manufacturing in Ajka (Hungary) started in 1943. As a result of the bauxite refining activities up to now approximately 30 Mt of red mud has been produced in Hungary, stored in reservoirs. The radionuclide content of the bauxite usually exceeds the world average in soils (WA), which entirely remains in the by-product during Bayer process. The exposure pathways in case of application of NORM residues have to be explored in order to reveal the potential risks of NORMs on residents. The gamma radiation originated from the primordial radionuclides (K-40; U-238; Th-232) and their daughter elements found in nature and in building materials as well increase the external dose of the human body. In the EU the Radiation Protection 112 (RP 112) guideline serves for classification of building material, wherein the gamma exposure is limited by I-index

  14. THE MODEL CONSTRUCTIONS OF PRICE FORMING OF BUILDING MATERIALS MANUFACTURE IN BASHKORTOSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.N. Gizatullin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work attempt has been done analyze the influence of the environmental factors, as outward, as inside to choice of the strategy and the pricing of the industry of the building materials of Bashkortostan. This article examines the competitive surroundings of enterprises and branches in a aspect of the regional market of the building industry’s production. The evaluation of the compatibility is given of the price and competitive strategy. As a result of the research and pricing majority of industry’s enterprises had no official document stating their per pose in a pricing area. In reason of analysis the general situation of the industry building materials the enterprises of Bashkortostan, the conception of pricing is determined on functional level.

  15. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1988-05-01

    Three copper-based alloys --- CDA 102 (OFHC copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni) --- are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for emplacement. The three copper-based alloys discussed here are being considered in addition to the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials discussed in Volume 3. The decay of radionuclides will result in substantial heat generation and in fluxes of gamma radiation. In this environment, container materials may degrade by atmospheric oxidation, uniform aqueous phase corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) in tarnishing environments, or intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in nontarnishing environments. This report is a critical survey of available data on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three copper-based alloys. The requisite conditions for TGSCC and IGSCC include combinations of stress, oxygen, ammonia or nitrite, and water. Note that nitrite is generated by gamma radiolysis of moisture films in air but that ammonia is not. TGSCC has been observed in CDA 102 and CDA 613 exposed to moist ammonia-containing environments whereas SCC has not been documented for CDA 715 under similar conditions. SCC is also promoted in copper by nitrite ions. Furthermore, phosphorus-deoxidized copper is unusually susceptible to embrittlement in such environments. The presence of tin in CDA 613 prevents IGSCC. It is believed that tin segregates to grain boundaries, where it oxidizes very slowly, thereby inhibiting the oxidation of aluminum. 117 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Fungal Microbiomes Associated with Green and Non-Green Building Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Kanistha; Vesper, Stephen; Green, Brett J; Yermakov, Mikhail; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Water-damaged buildings can lead to fungal growth and occupant health problems. Green building materials, derived from renewable sources, are increasingly utilized in construction and renovations. However, the question as to what fungi will grow on these green compared to non-green materials, after they get wet, has not been adequately studied. By determining what fungi grow on each type of material, the potential health risks can be more adequately assessed. In this study, we inoculated green and non-green pieces of ceiling tile, composite board, drywall, and flooring with indoor dust containing a complex mixture of naturally occurring fungi. The materials were saturated with water and incubated for two months in a controlled environment. The resulting fungal microbiomes were evaluated using ITS amplicon sequencing. Overall, the richness and diversity of the mycobiomes on each pair of green and non-green pieces were not significantly different. However, different genera dominated on each type of material. For example, Aspergillus spp. had the highest relative abundance on green and non-green ceiling tiles and green composite boards, but Peniophora spp. dominated the non-green composite board. In contrast, Penicillium spp. dominated green and non-green flooring samples. Green gypsum board was dominated by Phialophora spp. and Stachybotrys spp., but non-green gypsum board by Myrothecium spp. These data suggest that water-damaged green and non-green building materials can result in mycobiomes that are dominated by fungal genera whose member species pose different potentials for health risks.

  17. Natural radionuclides in ceramic building materials available in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamannan, B; Viruthagiri, G; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-10-01

    The activity concentrations of radium, thorium and potassium can vary from material to material and they should be measured as the radiation is hazardous for human health. Thus, studies have been planned to obtain the radioactivity of ceramic building materials used in Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India. The radioactivity of some ceramic materials used in this region has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyzer. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, from the selected ceramic building materials, were in the range of 9.89-30.75, 24.68-70.4, 117.19-415.83 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity, absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and annual effective dose rate associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiation hazards of the natural radioactivity in the ceramic building materials. It was found that none of the results exceeds the recommended limit value.

  18. Radiological and hazardous material characterization report for the south portion of the 313 Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of the characterization was to determine the extent of radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials, to allow the preparation of an accurate cost estimate, and to plan for pre-demolition cleanup work to support building isolation. The scope of services for the project included the following tasks: Records Review and Interviews; Site Reconnaissance; Radiological Survey; and Sampling and Analysis

  19. Building Materials, Ionizing Radiation and HBIM: A Case Study from Pompei (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Argenziano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a different point of view on the conservation of the built heritage, adding ionizing radiation to the most well-known digital documentation dataset. Igneous building materials characterize most of the built heritage in the Campania region, and in a large part of southern Italy. The ionizing radiations proceeding from these materials can produce stochastic biological effects on the exposed living beings. The research team designed and tested a technical-scientific protocol to survey and analyse this natural phenomenon in association with the use of geological material for building purposes. Geographical Information Systems (GISs, City Information Modelling (CIM, and Building Information Modelling (BIM are the digital tools used to manage the construction entities and their characteristics, and then to represent the thematic data as false-colour images. The emission spectra of fair-faced or plastered materials as a fingerprint of their nature is proposed as a non-invasive method. Due to both the huge presence of historical buildings and an intense touristic flow, the main square of Pompei has been selected as a study area.

  20. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    1999-01-01

    rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete,autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 m Bq h"-"1 kg "-"1. Under consideration...

  1. Cost-benefit analysis of decreased ventilation rates and radon exhalation from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Decreased ventilation, achieved by weather stripping and other tightening measures, is the most cost effective way to energy conservation. A very low investment can result in a considerable decrease in ventilation rate. For a typical detached house in Sweden this can be equivalent to a decrease in oil consumption of 0.5 m 3 . At present price this corresponds to a saving of SEK 1200, 150 US dollars per annum. The contribution of the building materials to the concentration of radon in indoor air is approximately the inverse to air exchange rate. For a small change in ventilation rate and cost, in SEK/man Sv or US dollar/man Sv, is a function of ventilation rate, exhalation from building materials, the ratio between surface of walls, floor and ceiling to the volume of air. Thus, it is possible to find the specific ventilation rate where the marginal cost for a small increase in ventilation rate and the marginal reduction in radon concentration will give a specific amount of money for each man Sv. Examples are given. Conclusions are that for most building materials in a climate like the Swedish, there are other factors than exhalation of radon from building materials that sets the lower limit of recommendable ventilation rate. (Author)

  2. Electrokinetic salt removal from porous building materials using ion exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, K.; Van Soestbergen, M.; Pel, L.

    The removal of salt from porous building materials under the influence of an applied voltage gradient normally results in high pH gradients due to the formation of protons and hydroxyl ions at the electrodes. The formed acidic and alkaline regions not only lead to disintegration of the porous

  3. Electrokinetic salt removal from porous building materials using ion exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, K.; Soestbergen, van M.; Pel, L.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of salt from porous building materials under the influence of an applied voltage gradient normally results in high pH gradients due to the formation of protons and hydroxyl ions at the electrodes. The formed acidic and alkaline regions not only lead to disintegration of the porous

  4. Laboratory study of the PCB transport from primary sources to building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  5. Measurements of radon exhalation from building materials under model climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jann, O.; Schneider, U.; Koeppke, J.; Lehmann, R.

    2003-01-01

    The inhalation of 222 Rn (radon) is the most important reason for lung cancer as a result of smoking. The cause for enhanced radon concentration in the air of buildings is mostly the building ground. But also building products can lead to increased radon concentrations in indoor air when the products contain raw materials or residues with higher contents of 226 Ra (radium), especially in combination with low air exchange rates. For a realistic estimation of radon concentrations it is helpful to perform emission tests on the basis of emission test chambers. Emissions test chambers are already used successfully for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from different materials and products. The analysis of radon in air was performed with a test device based on the principle of ionisation chamber (ATMOS 12 D). It could be show that radon concentrations emitted from building materials can be determined reliably if certain boundary conditions such as temperature, relative humidity and especially area specific air flow rate are met. It was also shown that reduced area specific air flow rates or reduced air exchange rates lead to higher radon concentrations. It is remarkable that no conclusion can be drawn from the activity concentration of radium to the radon concentration in the air. Therefore in some cases much higher radon concentrations in air were determined that had been expected. Obviously diffusion within the material plays an important role. (orig.)

  6. Calculation of coal power plant cost on agricultural and material building impact of emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochamad Nasrullah; Wiku Lulus Widodo

    2016-01-01

    Calculation for externally cost of Coal Power Plant (CPP) is very important. This paper is focus on CPP appear SO 2 impact on agricultural plant and material building. AGRIMAT'S model from International Atomic Energy Agency is model one be used to account environmental damage for air impact because SO 2 emission. Analysis method use Impact Pathways Assessment: Determining characteristic source, Exposure Response Functions (ERF), Impacts and Damage Costs, and Monetary Unit Cost. Result for calculate shows that SO 2 that issued CPP, if value of SO 2 is 19,3 μg/m3, damage cost begins valuably positive. It shows that the land around CPP has decrease prosperity, and it will disadvantage for agricultural plant. On material building, SO 2 resulting damage cost. The increase humidity price therefore damage cost on material building will increase cost. But if concentration SO 2 increase therefore damage cost that is appear on material building decrease. Expected this result can added with external cost on health impact of CPP. External cost was done at developed countries. If it is done at Indonesia, therefore generation cost with fossil as more expensive and will get implication on issue cut back gases greenhouse. On the other side, renewable energy and also alternative energy as nuclear have opportunity at national energy mix system. (author)

  7. Uranium concentration in building materials used in the central region of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, R.H.; El-Tahawy, M.S.; Ghods, A.

    1997-01-01

    Within a radiological survey of the building materials used in the urban dwellings in the central region of Egypt, the uranium concentration in 80 representative samples of raw and fabricated building materials are determined using laser fluorimetry technique. For 40 samples from the studied raw building materials of sand, gravel, gypsum, lime-stone, granite and marble the determined uranium concentration values range between 0.3 and 3.6 ppm for all these samples except for one type of granite having the corresponding value of 7.8 ppm. For 37 samples from studied fabricated building materials of normal cement, clay brick, sand brick, tiles and ceramic plates the determined uranium concentration values range from 0.5 to 3.4 ppm. The corresponding values for three types of iron cement are 3.1, 6.1 and 9.3 ppm. The radium-226 content (of the uranium-238 series) in the same samples was determined using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometers based on HP Ge-detectors. The data obtained by the two techniques are in good agreement for the majority of the studied samples. (author)

  8. Stepwise transformation of the molecular building blocks in a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie; Wojtas, Łukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    When immersed in solutions containing Cu(II) cations, the microporous metal-organic material P11 ([Cd4(BPT)4]·[Cd(C 44H36N8)(S)]·[S], BPT = biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate) undergoes a transformation of its [Cd 2(COO)6]2- molecular building blocks

  9. Microbes on building materials - Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols as common basis for molecular analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettenauer, Joerg D., E-mail: joerg.ettenauer@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Pinar, Guadalupe, E-mail: Guadalupe.Pinar@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Lopandic, Ksenija, E-mail: Ksenija.Lopandic@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Spangl, Bernhard, E-mail: Bernhard.Spangl@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Science, Institute of Applied Statistics and Computing (IASC), Gregor Mendel-Str. 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Ellersdorfer, Guenther, E-mail: Guenther.Ellersdorfer@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Voitl, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Voitl@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Sterflinger, Katja, E-mail: Katja.Sterflinger@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-11-15

    The study of microbial life in building materials is an emerging topic concerning biodeterioration of materials as well as health risks in houses and at working places. Biodegradation and potential health implications associated with microbial growth in our residues claim for more precise methods for quantification and identification. To date, cultivation experiments are commonly used to gain insight into the microbial diversity. Nowadays, molecular techniques for the identification of microorganisms provide efficient methods that can be applied in this field. The efficiency of DNA extraction is decisive in order to perform a reliable and reproducible quantification of the microorganisms by qPCR or to characterize the structure of the microbial community. In this study we tested thirteen DNA extraction methods and evaluated their efficiency for identifying (1) the quantity of DNA, (2) the quality and purity of DNA and (3) the ability of the DNA to be amplified in a PCR reaction using three universal primer sets for the ITS region of fungi as well as one primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA of bacteria with three typical building materials - common plaster, red brick and gypsum cardboard. DNA concentration measurements showed strong variations among the tested methods and materials. Measurement of the DNA yield showed up to three orders of magnitude variation from the same samples, whereas A260/A280 ratios often prognosticated biases in the PCR amplifications. Visualization of the crude DNA extracts and the comparison of DGGE fingerprints showed additional drawbacks of some methods. The FastDNA Spin kit for soil showed to be the best DNA extraction method and could provide positive results for all tests with the three building materials. Therefore, we suggest this method as a gold standard for quantification of indoor fungi and bacteria in building materials. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up to thirteen extraction methods were evaluated with three

  10. Microbes on building materials — Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols as common basis for molecular analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettenauer, Jörg D.; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lopandic, Ksenija; Spangl, Bernhard; Ellersdorfer, Günther; Voitl, Christian; Sterflinger, Katja

    2012-01-01

    The study of microbial life in building materials is an emerging topic concerning biodeterioration of materials as well as health risks in houses and at working places. Biodegradation and potential health implications associated with microbial growth in our residues claim for more precise methods for quantification and identification. To date, cultivation experiments are commonly used to gain insight into the microbial diversity. Nowadays, molecular techniques for the identification of microorganisms provide efficient methods that can be applied in this field. The efficiency of DNA extraction is decisive in order to perform a reliable and reproducible quantification of the microorganisms by qPCR or to characterize the structure of the microbial community. In this study we tested thirteen DNA extraction methods and evaluated their efficiency for identifying (1) the quantity of DNA, (2) the quality and purity of DNA and (3) the ability of the DNA to be amplified in a PCR reaction using three universal primer sets for the ITS region of fungi as well as one primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA of bacteria with three typical building materials — common plaster, red brick and gypsum cardboard. DNA concentration measurements showed strong variations among the tested methods and materials. Measurement of the DNA yield showed up to three orders of magnitude variation from the same samples, whereas A260/A280 ratios often prognosticated biases in the PCR amplifications. Visualization of the crude DNA extracts and the comparison of DGGE fingerprints showed additional drawbacks of some methods. The FastDNA Spin kit for soil showed to be the best DNA extraction method and could provide positive results for all tests with the three building materials. Therefore, we suggest this method as a gold standard for quantification of indoor fungi and bacteria in building materials. -- Highlights: ► Up to thirteen extraction methods were evaluated with three building materials.

  11. Enhancement of global flood damage assessments using building material based vulnerability curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englhardt, Johanna; de Ruiter, Marleen; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    This study discusses the development of an enhanced approach for flood damage and risk assessments using vulnerability curves that are based on building material information. The approach draws upon common practices in earthquake vulnerability assessments, and is an alternative for land-use or building occupancy approach in flood risk assessment models. The approach is of particular importance for studies where there is a large variation in building material, such as large scale studies or studies in developing countries. A case study of Ethiopia is used to demonstrate the impact of the different methodological approaches on direct damage assessments due to flooding. Generally, flood damage assessments use damage curves for different land-use or occupancy types (i.e. urban or residential and commercial classes). However, these categories do not necessarily relate directly to vulnerability of damage by flood waters. For this, the construction type and building material may be more important, as is used in earthquake risk assessments. For this study, we use building material classification data of the PAGER1 project to define new building material based vulnerability classes for flood damage. This approach will be compared to the widely applied land-use based vulnerability curves such as used by De Moel et al. (2011). The case of Ethiopia demonstrates and compares the feasibility of this novel flood vulnerability method on a country level which holds the potential to be scaled up to a global level. The study shows that flood vulnerability based on building material also allows for better differentiation between flood damage in urban and rural settings, opening doors to better link to poverty studies when such exposure data is available. Furthermore, this new approach paves the road to the enhancement of multi-risk assessments as the method enables the comparison of vulnerability across different natural hazard types that also use material-based vulnerability curves

  12. Thermal Degradation Kinetics Modeling of Benzophenones and Xanthones during High-Temperature Oxidation of Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent. Plant Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelders, Theresa; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2015-06-10

    Degradation of the major benzophenones, iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside-4-O-glucoside and iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside, and the major xanthones, mangiferin and isomangiferin, of Cyclopia genistoides followed first-order reaction kinetics during high-temperature oxidation of the plant material at 80 and 90 °C. Iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside-4-O-glucoside was shown to be the most thermally stable compound. Isomangiferin was the second most stable compound at 80 °C, while its degradation rate constant was influenced the most by increased temperature. Mangiferin and iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside had comparable degradation rate constants at 80 °C. The thermal degradation kinetic model was subsequently evaluated by subjecting different batches of plant material to oxidative conditions (90 °C/16 h). The model accurately predicted the individual contents of three of the compounds in aqueous extracts prepared from oxidized plant material. The impact of benzophenone and xanthone degradation was reflected in the decreased total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts, as determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and DPPH(•) scavenging assays.

  13. Annual mean effective dose of Slovak population due to natural radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanekova, H.

    2006-01-01

    Natural radiation is the main source of exposure to humans. The basic raw materials, generally used in the construction industry, contain natural radionuclides which reflects their natural origin and the geological conditions at the site of production. In the last time, most building materials are manufactured from secondary raw materials with higher concentration of natural radionuclides. The estimation of the 226 Ra content as well as the 232 Th and 40 K concentration in building materials and products is essential for the evaluation of the external x-ray contribution to the exposure. The building materials with high value of 226 Ra coupled with pronounced porosity of the final products make them potential indoor Rn sources. It means that external exposure and part of inhalation dose from radon and its progeny inside of building is caused to the radiation from the primordial radionuclides pres ent in building materials and products and can increase the indoor natural radiation exposure. For keeping the population exposure as low as reasonably achievable is in the Slovak legislation the radioactive content of primordial radionuclides in building materials and products regulated and the maximum of specific activity is 370 Bq.kg-1 of radium equivalent activity and 120 Bq.kg-1 of 226 Ra. The Health ministry and Slovak metrological institute nominated the department of Radiation Hygiene of Slovak medical university to investigate regularly the content of natural radionuclides and also the radon emanation in samples of raw and secondary building materials and products used in Slovak building industry. In the framework of the screening of building materials and products there were analyzed over 3 000 samples. The natural radionuclides are assessed through their progeny photo peaks. The specific activity of nuclides is determined as weighted average of their photo peaks. The obtained results are corrected to the background distribution and to the self absorption in the

  14. Energy Performance and Optimal Control of Air-conditioned Buildings Integrated with Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na

    This thesis presents an overview of the previous research work on dynamic characteristics and energy performance of buildings due to the integration of PCMs. The research work on dynamic characteristics and energy performance of buildings using PCMs both with and without air-conditioning is reviewed. Since the particular interest in using PCMs for free cooling and peak load shifting, specific research efforts on both subjects are reviewed separately. A simplified physical dynamic model of building structures integrated with SSPCM (shaped-stabilized phase change material) is developed and validated in this study. The simplified physical model represents the wall by 3 resistances and 2 capacitances and the PCM layer by 4 resistances and 2 capacitances respectively while the key issue is the parameter identification of the model. This thesis also presents the studies on the thermodynamic characteristics of buildings enhanced by PCM and on the investigation of the impacts of PCM on the building cooling load and peak cooling demand at different climates and seasons as well as the optimal operation and control strategies to reduce the energy consumption and energy cost by reducing the air-conditioning energy consumption and peak load. An office building floor with typical variable air volume (VAV) air-conditioning system is used and simulated as the reference building in the comparison study. The envelopes of the studied building are further enhanced by integrating the PCM layers. The building system is tested in two selected cities of typical climates in China including Hong Kong and Beijing. The cold charge and discharge processes, the operation and control strategies of night ventilation and the air temperature set-point reset strategy for minimizing the energy consumption and electricity cost are studied. This thesis presents the simulation test platform, the test results on the cold storage and discharge processes, the air-conditioning energy consumption and demand

  15. RESRAD-BUILD: A computer model for analyzing the radiological doses resulting from the remediation and occupancy of buildings contaminated with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; LePoire, D.J.; Jones, L.G.

    1994-11-01

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material. The transport of radioactive material inside the building from one compartment to another is calculated with an indoor air quality model. The air quality model considers the transport of radioactive dust particulates and radon progeny due to air exchange, deposition and resuspension, and radioactive decay and ingrowth. A single run of the RESRAD-BUILD code can model a building with up to: three compartments, 10 distinct source geometries, and 10 receptor locations. A shielding material can be specified between each source-receptor pair for external gamma dose calculations. Six exposure pathways are considered in the RESRAD-BUILD code: (1) external exposure directly from the source; (2) external exposure to materials deposited on the floor; (3) external exposure due to air submersion; (4) inhalation of airborne radioactive particulates; (5) inhalation of aerosol indoor radon progeny; and (6) inadvertent ingestion of radioactive material, either directly from the sources or from materials deposited on the surfaces of the building compartments

  16. Bio-susceptibility of materials and thermal insulation systems used for historical buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterflinger, Katja; Ettenauer, Joerg; Pinar, Guadalupe

    2013-04-01

    In historical buildings of Northern countries high levels of energy are necessary to reach comfortable temperatures especially during the cold season. For this reason historical buildings are now also included in country specific regulations and ordinances to enhance the "energy - efficiency". Since an exterior insulation - as it is commonly used for modern architecture - is incompatible with monument protection, several indoor insulation systems based on historical and ecological materials, are on the market that should improve the thermic performance of a historical building. However, using organic materials as cellulose, loam, weed or wood, bears the risk of fungal growth and thus may lead to health problems in indoor environments. For this reason 5 different ecological indoor insulations systems were tested for their bio-susceptibility against various fungi both under natural conditions - after 2 years of installation in an historical building - and under laboratory conditions with high levels of relative humidity. Fungal growth was evaluated by classical isolation and cultivation as well as by molecular methods. The materials turned out to have a quite different susceptibility towards fungal contamination. Whereas insulations made of bloated Perlite (plaster and board) did not show any fungal growth after 2 years of exposition, the historical insulation made of loam and weed had high cell counts of various fungi. In laboratory experiments wooden softboard represented the best environment for fungal growth. As a result from this study, plaster and board made of bloated Perlite are presented as being the most appropriate materials for thermal insulation at least from the microbiological and hygienic point of view. For future investigations and for the monitoring of fungi in insulation and other building materials we suggest a molecular biology approach with a common protocol for quantitative DNA-extraction and amplification.

  17. Damage Assessment Technologies for Prognostics and Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Hull, Amy B.; Malik, Shah

    2009-01-01

    There are approximately 440 operating reactors in the global nuclear power plant (NPP) fleet with an average age greater than 20 years and design lives of 30 or 40 years. The United States is currently implementing license extensions of 20 years on many plants, and consideration is now being given to the concept of 'life-beyond-60', license extension from 60 to 80 years and potentially longer. In almost all countries with NPPs, authorities are looking at some form of license renewal program. In support of NPP license renewal over the past decade, various national and international programs have been initiated. This paper discusses stressor-based prognostics and its role as part of emerging trends in Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) applied to nuclear power plant structures, systems and components (SSC). The paper concisely explains the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) program in PMMD, the basic principles of PMMD and its relationship to advanced diagnostics and prognostics. It then provides an assessment of the state of maturity for diagnostic and prognostic technologies, including NDE and related technologies for damage assessment, and the current trend to move from condition-based maintenance to on-line monitoring for advanced diagnostics and stressor-based prognostics. This development in technology requires advances in sensors; better understanding of what and how to measure within a nuclear power plant; enhanced data interrogation, communication and integration; new prediction models for damage/aging evolution; system integration for real-world deployments and quantification of uncertainties in what are inherently ill-posed problems. Stressor-based analysis is based upon understanding which stressor characteristics (e.g., pressure transients) provide a percussive indication that can be used for mapping subsequent damage due to a specific degradation mechanism. The resulting physical damage and the associated decrease in asset

  18. Characterization of cement-based ancient building materials in support of repository seal materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1983-12-01

    Ancient mortars and plasters collected from Greek and Cypriot structures dating to about 5500 BC have been investigated because of their remarkable durability. The characteristics and performance of these and other ancient cementitious materials have been considered in the light of providing information on longevity of concrete materials for sealing nuclear waste geological repositories. The matrices of these composite materials have been characterized and classified into four categories: (1) gypsum cements; (2) hydraulic hydrated lime and hydrated-lime cements; (3) hydraulic aluminous and ferruginous hydrated-lime cements (+- siliceous components); and (4) pozzolana/hydrated-lime cements. Most of the materials investigated, including linings of ore-washing basins and cisterns used to hold water, are in categories (2) and (3). The aggregates used included carbonates, sandstones, shales, schists, volcanic and pyroclastic rocks, and ore minerals, many of which represent host rock types of stratigraphic components of a salt repository. Numerous methods were used to characterize the materials chemically, mineralogically, and microstructurally and to elucidate aspects of both the technology that produced them and their response to the environmental exposure throughout their centuries of existence. Their remarkable properties are the result of a combination of chemical (mineralogical) and microstructural factors. Durability was found to be affected by matrix mineralogy, particle size and porosity, and aggregate type, grading, and proportioning, as well as method of placement and exposure conditions. Similar factors govern the potential for durability of modern portland cement-containing materials, which are candidates for repository sealing. 29 references, 29 figures, 6 tables

  19. Influence of man-made aluminosilicate raw materials on physical and mechanical properties of building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodchenko, A. A.; Lesovik, V. S.; Stoletov, A. A.; Glagolev, E. S.; Volodchenko, A. N.; Magomedov, Z. G.

    2018-03-01

    It has been identified that man-made aluminosilicate raw materials represented by clay rock of varied genesis can be used as energy-efficient raw materials to obtain efficient highly-hollow non-autoclaved silicate materials. A technique of structure formation in the conditions of pressureless steam treatment has been offered. Cementing compounds of non- autoclaved silicate materials based on man-made aluminosilicate raw materials possess hydraulic properties that are conditioned by the process of further formation and recrystallization of calcium silicate hydrates, which optimizes the ratio between gellike and crystalline components and densifies the cementing compound structure, which leads to improvement of performance characteristics. Increasing the performance characteristics of the obtained products is possible by changing the molding conditions. For this reason, in order to create high-density material packaging and, as a result, to increase the strength properties of the products, it is reasonable to use higher pressure, under which raw brick is formed, which will facilitate the increase of quality of highly-hollow products.

  20. Modeling volatile organic compounds sorption on dry building materials using double-exponential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Baoqing; Ge, Di; Li, Jiajia; Guo, Yuan; Kim, Chang Nyung

    2013-01-01

    A double-exponential surface sink model for VOCs sorption on building materials is presented. Here, the diffusion of VOCs in the material is neglected and the material is viewed as a surface sink. The VOCs concentration in the air adjacent to the material surface is introduced and assumed to always maintain equilibrium with the material-phase concentration. It is assumed that the sorption can be described by mass transfer between the room air and the air adjacent to the material surface. The mass transfer coefficient is evaluated from the empirical correlation, and the equilibrium constant can be obtained by linear fitting to the experimental data. The present model is validated through experiments in small and large test chambers. The predicted results accord well with the experimental data in both the adsorption stage and desorption stage. The model avoids the ambiguity of model constants found in other surface sink models and is easy to scale up