WorldWideScience

Sample records for building envelope air

  1. Specifics of Building Envelope Air Leakage Problems and Airtightness Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodinecs Anatolijs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to transmission heat loses the infiltration of outdoor air can cause significant heat losses. The external building envelope should be airtight in order to prevent uncontrolled cold air infiltration. The article analysis modern building materials and structures influence on airtightness. The practical measurements of renovated buildings’ airtightness are presented and compared to non-renovated buildings. In addition paper presents data on airtightness measurements of whole multi apartment building and single apartment in analyzed building taking inco accout properties of building materials. The airtightness of single apartment was evaluated with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The results show that the airtightness measurements of multi apartment building can be evaluated by measuring single apartment on last floor with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The practical measurement of renovated buildings had shown the air leakage rate q50 of typical Latvian construction after renovation is between 2.5 and 2.9 m3/(m2·h. Since the building envelope has to minimize the heat loses (transmission and infiltration and ventilation system either mechanical or natural has to provide necessary air exchange, the building envelope airtightness shouldn’t be dependent on type of ventilation systems.

  2. Implementation of Models for Building Envelope Air Flow Fields in a Whole Building Hygrothermal Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karl Grau; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    cavity such as behind the exterior cladding of a building envelope, i.e. a flow which is parallel to the construction plane. (2) Infiltration/exfiltration of air through the building envelope, i.e. a flow which is perpendicular to the constructionplane. The paper presents the models and how they have...

  3. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available for use in the building. This is done through photovoltaic and solar water heating panels and wind turbines. Ideally these are integrated in the design of the building envelope to improve the aesthetic quality of the building and minimise material... are naturally ventilated. Renewable energy The building envelope includes renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics, wind turbines and solar water heaters and 10% of the building’s energy requirements are generated from these sources. Views All...

  4. Operative air temperature data for different measures applied on a building envelope in warm climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Baglivo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several technical combinations have been evaluated in order to design high energy performance buildings for the warm climate. The analysis has been developed in several steps, avoiding the use of HVAC systems.The methodological approach of this study is based on a sequential search technique and it is shown on the paper entitled “Envelope Design Optimization by Thermal Modeling of a Building in a Warm Climate” [1].The Operative Air Temperature trends (TOP, for each combination, have been plotted through a dynamic simulation performed using the software TRNSYS 17 (a transient system simulation program, University of Wisconsin, Solar Energy Laboratory, USA, 2010.Starting from the simplest building configuration consisting of 9 rooms (equal-sized modules of 5 × 5 m2, the different building components are sequentially evaluated until the envelope design is optimized. The aim of this study is to perform a step-by-step simulation, simplifying as much as possible the model without making additional variables that can modify their performances. Walls, slab-on-ground floor, roof, shading and windows are among the simulated building components. The results are shown for each combination and evaluated for Brindisi, a city in southern Italy having 1083 degrees day, belonging to the national climatic zone C. The data show the trends of the TOP for each measure applied in the case study for a total of 17 combinations divided into eight steps.

  5. THE USE OF AIR LAYERS IN BUILDING ENVELOPES FOR ENERGY SAVING DURING AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since there are no large natural energy resources in Belarus, energy savings ought to be a point of the special attention. With this regard it is important to develop modern ways of savings during the process of air conditioning inside new buildings with an air layer in the enclosure, especially in translucent ones. The system of ventilation of air layers in the enclosure of a building has been introduced in which air movement is caused by the gravitational and aerodynamic forces. It makes it possible to arrange further ventilation – a natural, forced or a hybrid one. With the purpose of increasing and streamlining natural draught the partitions are used separating the different parts of air layers. For natural ventilation with the use of gravitational forces the holes in the upper and lower parts of the partitions between adjacent air layers are applied. Natural ventilation in the holes of the partitions is regulated by movable shutters, blinds or other adjusting devices. For combined or forced air exchange between adjacent zones of air layers fans are used pumping air from the air layer zones with a higher temperature to zones of air layers with lower temperature and vice versa. When air exchange is forced, in order to intensify the infiltration of air into zones of air layers jets are laid on a hard surface. In order to cool a multi-layered enclosure of a building, where the movement of air between the air layers (that have been formed by internal partitions is being fulfilled by a natural, forced or combined mode, a part of the air or the total air processed inside the building (i.e. conditioned or non-conditioned air cooler as compared with the outside one is being sent to these strata. Combined or forced flow of the air processed inside the building into the air layers is done through the ducts associated with the output channels of the air conditioners. The internal partitions are equipped with the air valve hole.

  6. Energy performance and optimal control of air-conditioned buildings with envelopes enhanced by phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Na; Wang Shengwei; Ma Zhenjun; Sun Yongjun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Impact of PCM on the energy consumption and peak load demand as well as electricity cost of air-conditioned buildings. → Impact of load shifting control on energy consumption, peak load and electricity cost of air-conditioned PCM buildings. → Impact of demand limiting control on energy consumption, peak load and electricity cost of air-conditioned PCM buildings. → Energy/cost effects of different control strategies and use of PCM in energy-plus-demand-based pricing policy. → Energy/cost effects of different control strategies and use of PCM in time-based pricing policy. - Abstract: Studies are conducted to investigate the impacts of shape-stabilized phase change material (SSPCM) and different control strategies on the energy consumption and peak load demand as well as electricity cost of building air-conditioning systems at typical summer conditions in two climates (subtropical and dry continental climates). An office building using a typical variable air volume (VAV) air-conditioning system was selected and simulated as the reference building in this study. Its envelopes were enhanced by integrating the SSPCM layers into its walls while the air-conditioning system and other configurations of the building remained unchanged. The building system was tested under two typical weather conditions and two typical electricity pricing policies (i.e. time-based pricing and energy-plus-demand-based pricing). Test results show that the use of SSPCM in the building could reduce the building electricity cost significantly (over 11% in electricity cost reduction and over 20% in peak load reduction), under two pricing policies by using load shifting control and demand limiting control respectively. This paper presents the test results and the evaluation on the energy performance and the optimal control strategies of air-conditioned commercial buildings with envelopes enhanced by SSPCM.

  7. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  8. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  9. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  10. Bellanca building, Yellowknife : building envelope retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajewski, G. [A.D. Williams Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Bellanca building is a ten-story, commercial office building, located in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. The owner was concerned about annual fuel consumption, relative to other buildings of similar size. Tenants reported cold drafts and some ice build-up had been reported in the past, on the exterior of the cladding. In addition, some water penetration had occurred during rainfall. This presentation provided background information on the Bellanca building and discussed a building envelope retrofit project. A.D. Williams was hired in late 2006 in order to provide an opinion on the present condition of the building envelope. This presentation described the site investigation and presented an interior and exterior review of the building. It also presented a thermographic survey in order to map thermal anomalies and establish trends. Following acceptance of the report on findings, one of five options was selected for further development. This included removal of existing cladding, exterior gypsum wallboard, fiberglass insulation and application of BASF Walltite CT foam, sheathing, rigid insulation, drainage plane and new cladding. The preliminary design was then presented. This paper also described the tender and award of the contract; construction phase; and substantial completion of the project. tabs, figs.

  11. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  12. The performance of energy efficient residential building envelope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskiw, G.

    1996-08-01

    The adequacy and durability of residential building envelope systems under actual field conditions were evaluated. A building envelope offers protection from cold, heat, moisture, wind and noise. However, they are exposed to thermal, structural, and moisture stresses and their performance can degrade over time. Envelope performance was evaluated at 20 energy efficient and four conventional, detached modern homes in Winnipeg, Canada. The three complementary measurement tools were wood moisture content (WMC) of framing members, thermographic examinations, and airtightness tests. As expected, energy efficient building envelope systems performed better than the conventional systems. No evidence of envelope degradation was found in any of the energy efficient houses. The building envelopes using polyethylene air barriers performed slightly better than those which used the airtight drywall approach, although both were considered satisfactory. WMC levels were a bit lower in the polyethylene-clad house. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  13. Integrated Energy Design of the Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research...

  14. Utilizing the building envelope for power generation and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Wang, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat loading of the building envelope is caused by strong solar radiation and incorrect material selection. As a result of the heat loading of the building envelope, the indoor air temperature is increased, resulting in high energy consumption by air conditioners to maintain a comfortable indoor thermal environment. This study explores the use of a hybrid wall integrated with heat collectors (water piping system) and solar thermal power generators, which absorbs solar radiation through water to reduce heat transmission thereby saving energy and generating power. Power generation is achieved by an OD (oscillator device) that installed between a water tank (hot side) and building interior (cold side). The device acts by temperature differences between hot air (expansion) and cold air (contraction). CFD (computational dynamic simulation) was used to assess the effects of the hybrid wall on the interior environment. The results show that exterior heat is absorbed by cool water thereby reducing the heat transmission into the building, resulting in less energy consumption by air conditioners and power generation by use of temperature differences. - Highlights: • This study explores a hybrid building wall to save energy and generate power. • Power generators operated by air pressure change via hot tank and cool interior. • Less energy consumption by air conditioners and heating water. • Performance of CFD simulated results and experiment results are similar. • The energy saving efficiency is around 15 kWh/day via hybrid wall in west façade.

  15. Development of Building Envelope Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik Monefeldt; Munch-Andersen, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær

    2000-01-01

    It is expected that the heat insulation demands in the Danish Building Regulations will be further increased around 2005, in order to reduce the heating demand and the CO2-emission. A simple increase of the insulation thickness of common wall types seems not to be attractive due to the increased...... effect of the 2-dimensional heat loss, the large wall thickness, and the costs of the wide foundation. Therefore, new types of walls have been developed. It is sought to minimise the total heat loss as well as the material consumption. The target was to come up with new walls for which the construction...

  16. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  17. Selecting Energy Efficient Building Envelope Retrofits to Existing Department of Defense Building Using Value Focused Thinking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratt, David M

    2006-01-01

    ... these facilities that have the greatest potential for energy efficient building envelope retrofits. There are hundreds of various new building envelope technologies available to retrofit an existing building envelope, including window, roof, and wall technologies...

  18. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-19

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector's energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level. The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study combines the output of simple air exchange models with a limited set of housing characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modellers to use existing databases of housing characteristics to determine the impact of ventilation policy change on a population scale. The IVE model estimates of energy change when applied to US homes with limited parameterisation are shown to be comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model.

  19. Shape Control of Responsive Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christensen, Jesper Thøger

    2010-01-01

    The present paper considers shape control of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scop...... environmental system to a primary structural system joint into a collective behavioral system equipment with an actuator system is presented....... alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock-up concept of a secondary...

  20. Evolution of building envelope construction techniques in coastal British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattock, C.; Ito, K.; Oshikawa, T. [International Eco-House Inc., (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Changes in the significant evolutionary development over the past 3 years in building envelope construction for multi storey wood frame housing in British Columbia are described. The urban areas of this region are characterized by a maritime climate which features a high frequency of wind driven rain and little accumulation of snow. Buildings are exposed to high wetting with little drying potential, and moderate temperatures allow for fungal growth even in the winter. While as in the rest of Canada wetting is often due to condensation of moisture contained in indoor air as it leaks out of the building, in British Columbia wind driven rain is a much larger source of moisture. Given this, the following principles of moisture control have been promoted to the B.C. building industry in order of priority: 1) deflection - using parts and elements of the building such as overhangs and flashings that reduce the exposure of the exterior walls to rain, 2) drainage - using envelope assemblies that will then redirect liquid water to the outside, 3) employing drying elements that promote drying through diffusion such as highly permeable wall sheathings, and 4) use of durable materials - using materials that resist rot such as treated lumber, stainless steel fastenings, etc. A variety of air barrier systems other than the conventional sealed polyethylene approach have been employed because of the introduction of recent building code requirements for enhanced airtightness and air barrier durability combined with the use of rain screen construction. This variety of air barrier systems includes: an airtight drywall, an exterior permeable membrane, and an exterior impermeable membrane.

  1. Tightness of the thermal envelope of office and educational buildings; Klimaskaermens taethed i kontor- og undervisningsbygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsoee, N.C. (SBi, Aalborg (Denmark)); Radisch, N.H.; Nickel, J.; Treldal, J. (Ramboell Danmark A/S, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); Bundesen, E.W.; Nielsen, Carsten (DanEjendomme, Hellerup (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    In 2006 tightening of the energy regulations in the Danish Building Regulations were introduced including requirements regarding the tightness of the building envelope. The requirements are, with minor changes, continued in the current Building Regulations, BR10. During the past few years experience has been gained regarding both the actual execution of air tightness measurements and solutions that will lead to more air tight building envelopes. Experiences, however, are primarily related to single family houses. The report presents results of measurements in large buildings and discusses reasons for lack of knowledge and experience on the tightness of the building envelope in large buildings. Apparently, there is a need for dissemination of knowledge on the importance of a tight building envelope both in terms of energy consumption and indoor climate and in terms of the difficulties and costs associated with repairing leaks in a completed envelope. Air tightness must be brought into focus at an early stage in the planning process, and during the construction phase air tightness measurements should be performed, e.g. on facade sections or in parts of the building. The project team has attended a number of measurements in large buildings and further gained access to results of a large number of measurements. In summary, the results show that it is possible to achieve the required tightness, and in most buildings the results are better than the requirement of a maximum of 1.5 l/s per m{sub 2}. (Author)

  2. Residential building envelope heat gain and cooling energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Tsang, C.L.; Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, S.O.

    2005-01-01

    We present the energy use situation in Hong Kong from 1979 to 2001. The primary energy requirement (PER) nearly tripled during the 23-year period, rising from 195,405 TJ to 572,684 TJ. Most of the PER was used for electricity generation, and the electricity use in residential buildings rose from 7556 TJ (2099 GWh) to 32,799 TJ (9111 GWh), an increase of 334%. Air-conditioning accounted for about 40% of the total residential sector electricity consumption. A total of 144 buildings completed in the month of June during 1992-2001 were surveyed. Energy performance of the building envelopes was investigated in terms of the overall thermal transfer value (OTTV). To develop the appropriated parameters used in OTTV calculation, long-term measured weather data such as ambient temperature (1960-2001), horizontal global solar radiation (1992-2001) and global solar radiation on vertical surfaces (1996-2001) were examined. The OTTV found varied from 27 to 44 W/m 2 with a mean value of 37.7 W/m 2 . Building energy simulation technique using DOE-2.1E was employed to determine the cooling requirements and hence electricity use for building envelope designs with different OTTVs. It was found that cooling loads and electricity use could be expressed in terms of a simple two-parameter linear regression equation involving OTTV

  3. Genetic algorithm for building envelope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Fernández Bandera, Carlos; Gómez-Acebo Temes, Tomás; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutierrez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calibration methodology using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). • Uncertainty analysis formulas implemented directly in EnergyPlus. • The methodology captures the heat dynamic of the building with a high level of accuracy. • Reduction in the number of parameters involved due to sensitivity analysis. • Cost-effective methodology using temperature sensors only. - Abstract: Buildings today represent 40% of world primary energy consumption and 24% of greenhouse gas emissions. In our society there is growing interest in knowing precisely when and how energy consumption occurs. This means that consumption measurement and verification plans are well-advanced. International agencies such as Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) and International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) have developed methodologies to quantify savings. This paper presents a methodology to accurately perform automated envelope calibration under option D (calibrated simulation) of IPMVP – vol. 1. This is frequently ignored because of its complexity, despite being more flexible and accurate in assessing the energy performance of a building. A detailed baseline energy model is used, and by means of a metaheuristic technique achieves a highly reliable and accurate Building Energy Simulation (BES) model suitable for detailed analysis of saving strategies. In order to find this BES model a Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) is used, together with a highly efficient engine to stimulate the objective, thus permitting rapid achievement of the goal. The result is a BES model that broadly captures the heat dynamic behaviour of the building. The model amply fulfils the parameters demanded by ASHRAE and EVO under option D.

  4. TEMPERATURE FIELDS IN THE ZONE OF CONNECTION BETWEEN WINDOW AND BUILDING ENVELOPE

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Ivanov; A. N. Butenko; L. V. Karaseva

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement. To determine additional heat losses through window opening slopes, it is ne-cessary to calculate temperature fields of a wall in the zone of connection between window and building envelope. Two types of building envelopes are considered: solid brick wall and two-layer-wall of bricks and fiber foam concrete block interlayered with air.Results. The results obtained show the influence of a window on the temperature field of wall opening. Different types of wall structures are ...

  5. Integrated energy design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vraa Nielsen, M.

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building's facades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1) the importance of integrating knowledge in the early stages of design, and how it can be done; 2) understanding the facade's typology; and 3) the complex notion of comfort. The project touched not only on the technical capabilities and requirements governing facade design, but also the process by which it takes place. This was done by applying the methodology of Integrated Energy Design (IED) and analysing its applicability in the design of facades. A major part of the project was an actual engagement in the architectural process to test out incorporating a consciousness about energy and comfort as part of a more holistic performance evaluation. The research project illustrates the great potential in taking passive properties into account through a geometrical optimisation inherent in the development of the architectural concept. It demonstrates that integration of technical knowledge at the early stages of design not only can qualify the geometrical processing, but also facilitate the design development of the facade. Thereby a more holistic performance optimisation can be obtained through parameters such as overall facade geometry and orientation, functional organisation, room height and depth, facade layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over

  6. Performative building envelope design correlated to solar radiation and cooling energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky, Thiodore; Santoni

    2017-11-01

    Climate change as an ongoing anthropogenic environmental challenge is predominantly caused by an amplification in the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs), notably carbon dioxide (CO2) in building sector. Global CO2 emissions are emitted from HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) occupation to provide thermal comfort in building. In fact, the amount of energy used for cooling or heating building is implication of building envelope design. Building envelope acts as interface layer of heat transfer between outdoor environment and the interior of a building. It appears as wall, window, roof and external shading device. This paper examines performance of various design strategy on building envelope to limit solar radiation and reduce cooling loads in tropical climate. The design strategies are considering orientation, window to wall ratio, material properties, and external shading device. This research applied simulation method using Autodesk Ecotect to investigate simultaneously between variations of wall and window ratio, shading device composition and the implication to the amount of solar radiation, cooling energy consumption. Comparative analysis on the data will determine logical variation between opening and shading device composition and cooling energy consumption. Optimizing the building envelope design is crucial strategy for reducing CO2 emissions and long-term energy reduction in building sector. Simulation technology as feedback loop will lead to better performative building envelope.

  7. Intelligent building envelopes. Architectural concept and applications for daylighting quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyckmans, Annemie

    2005-11-15

    How does an intelligent building envelope manage the variable and sometimes conflictive occupant requirements that arise in a day lit indoor environment. This is the research question that provides the basis for this Ph.D. work. As it touches upon several fields of application, the research question is untangled into four steps, each of which corresponds to a chapter of the thesis. 1) What characterises intelligent behaviour for a building envelope. 2) What characterises indoor day lighting quality. 3) Which functions can an intelligent building envelope be expected to perform in the context of day lighting quality. 4) How are the materials, components and composition of an intelligent building envelope designed to influence this performance. The emphasis is on design, environmental aspects, energy conservation, functional analysis and physical applications.

  8. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  9. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M K

    1999-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  10. CONTROL OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS VIA THE REGULATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Košir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of comfortable, healthy and stimulating indoor environments in buildings has a direct impact on the users and on energy consumption, as well as on the wider soci-economic environment of society.The indoor environment of buildings is defined with the formulation of the building envelope, which functions as an interface between the internal and external environments and its users. A properly designed, flexible and adequately controlled building envelope is a starting point in the formulation of a high-quality indoor environment. The systematic treatment of the indoor environment and building envelope from a user’s point of view represents an engineering approach that enables the holistic treatment of buildings, as well as integrated components and systems. The presented division of indoor environment in terms of visual, thermal, olfactory, acoustic and ergonomic sub-environments enables the classification and selection of crucial factors influencing design. This selection and classification can be implemented in the design, as well as in control applications of the building envelope. The implementation of the approach described is demonstrated with an example of an automated control system for the internal environment of an office in the building of the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering.

  11. Analysis for Building Envelopes and Mechanical Systems Using 2012 CBECS Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Butzbaugh, Joshua B.; Cooke, Alan L.; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2018-03-14

    This report describes the aggregation and mapping of certain building characteristics data available in the most recent Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) (DOE EIA 2012) to describe most typical building construction practices. This report provides summary data for potential use in the support of modifications to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s commercial building prototypes used for building energy code analysis. Specifically, this report outlines findings and most typical design choices for certain building envelope and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system choices.

  12. Solar envelope concepts: moderate density building applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, R.L.; Berry, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Solar energy utilization in urban areas requires public guarantees that all property owners have direct access to the sun. The study examines the implications of this premise in relation to the need for cities to also encourage or accommodate rebuilding and future development. The public policy mechanism for guaranteeing solar access is conceptualized as a solar zoning envelope that allows the largest possible building bulk on a land parcel without shadowing neighboring properties during specified times. Step-by-step methods for generating solar envelopes are described with extensive drawings, showing a variety of urban platting and lot configurations. Development and design possibilities are examined on a selected set of Los Angeles sites with typically diverse urban characteristics. Envelope attributes suitable for encouraging moderate-density commercial and residential building are examined in the context of two hypothetical but realistic development programs: one for speculative office buildings and one for condominium housing. Numerous illustrations of envelope forms and prototypical building designs are provided. The results of development simulation studies on all test sites are tabulated to show building bulk, density, land-coverage and open space characteristics obtainable under the hypothesized envelopes.

  13. Modeling of heat and mass transfer in lateritic building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, Pierre

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the behavior of building envelopes made of local lateritic soil bricks subjected to different climatic conditions. The analysis is developed for the prediction of the temperature, relative humidity and water content behavior within the walls. The building envelopes studied in this work consist of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials, and limit the heat transfer between the atmospheric climate and the inside environment. In order to describe coupled heat and moisture transfer in wet porous materials, the coupled equations were solved by the introduction of diffusion coefficients. A numerical model HMtrans, developed for prediction of beat and moisture transfer in multi-layered building components, was used to simulate the temperature, water content and relative humidity profiles within the building envelopes. The results allow the prediction of the duration of the exposed building walls to the local weather conditions. They show that for any of three climatic conditions considered, relative humidity and water content do not exceed 87% and 5% respectively. There is therefore minimum possibility of water condensation in the materials studied. The durability of building envelopes made of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust is not strongly affected by the climatic conditions in tropical and equatorial regions. (author)

  14. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  15. Wall envelopes in office buildings: design trend and implications on cooling load of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.; Ahmed, A.Z.; Ahmed, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The wall envelope is a vital element of a building especially to a high rise building where its wall to building volume ratio is higher compared to other building forms. As well as a means of architectural expression, the wall envelope protects and regulates the indoor environment. In recent years there have been many applications of glass products and cladding systems in high-rise buildings built in Kuala Lumpur. This paper describes a recent research and survey on wall envelope designs adopted in 33 high-rise office buildings built in the central business district of Kuala Lumpur since 1990. This research adopts component design analysis to identify dominant trends on wall envelope design for the surveyed buildings. The paper seeks to discourse the implications of this design trend on energy consumption of high-rise office buildings in the country

  16. Towards a fourth skin? sustainability and double-envelope buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprose, P.R.; Robertson, G. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand)

    1996-05-01

    In several well publicised designs for `green` office buildings, the zone of meditation between inside and outside has been increased by the addition of a second building envelope. When interpreted as exemplars of sustainable architecture, the addition of a second wall in these buildings is questionable both biophysically and psycho-culturally. More constructive design strategies acknowledge the wider biophysical contexts of the human ecosystem, the prudent use of material and energy resources throughout a building`s life, make realistic use of climate, and promote psycho-cultural needs arising out of ecologism. (author)

  17. A model for the sustainable selection of building envelope assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huedo, Patricia, E-mail: huedo@uji.es [Universitat Jaume I (Spain); Mulet, Elena, E-mail: emulet@uji.es [Universitat Jaume I (Spain); López-Mesa, Belinda, E-mail: belinda@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this article is to define an evaluation model for the environmental impacts of building envelopes to support planners in the early phases of materials selection. The model is intended to estimate environmental impacts for different combinations of building envelope assemblies based on scientifically recognised sustainability indicators. These indicators will increase the amount of information that existing catalogues show to support planners in the selection of building assemblies. To define the model, first the environmental indicators were selected based on the specific aims of the intended sustainability assessment. Then, a simplified LCA methodology was developed to estimate the impacts applicable to three types of dwellings considering different envelope assemblies, building orientations and climate zones. This methodology takes into account the manufacturing, installation, maintenance and use phases of the building. Finally, the model was validated and a matrix in Excel was created as implementation of the model. - Highlights: • Method to assess the envelope impacts based on a simplified LCA • To be used at an earlier phase than the existing methods in a simple way. • It assigns a score by means of known sustainability indicators. • It estimates data about the embodied and operating environmental impacts. • It compares the investment costs with the costs of the consumed energy.

  18. A model for the sustainable selection of building envelope assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huedo, Patricia; Mulet, Elena; López-Mesa, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define an evaluation model for the environmental impacts of building envelopes to support planners in the early phases of materials selection. The model is intended to estimate environmental impacts for different combinations of building envelope assemblies based on scientifically recognised sustainability indicators. These indicators will increase the amount of information that existing catalogues show to support planners in the selection of building assemblies. To define the model, first the environmental indicators were selected based on the specific aims of the intended sustainability assessment. Then, a simplified LCA methodology was developed to estimate the impacts applicable to three types of dwellings considering different envelope assemblies, building orientations and climate zones. This methodology takes into account the manufacturing, installation, maintenance and use phases of the building. Finally, the model was validated and a matrix in Excel was created as implementation of the model. - Highlights: • Method to assess the envelope impacts based on a simplified LCA • To be used at an earlier phase than the existing methods in a simple way. • It assigns a score by means of known sustainability indicators. • It estimates data about the embodied and operating environmental impacts. • It compares the investment costs with the costs of the consumed energy.

  19. Biomimetic Architecture in Building Envelope Maintenance (A Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of biomimetic architecture on building envelope is the main structure of this research. The concept is believed more sustainable and efficient for energy saving, operating cost consumption, waste recycle and design renewal in the future. The inspiration from the nature developed the intention on this study to explore on what and how this concept to overcome the problems through design. Biomimicry does catch the attention of human to study more on the system and function of its nature course. The designers are not exception influenced by this concept when the form, shape, texture and colour inspired them in their design. The domination of building form will affect the building envelope as the skin of the structure. A clear impact on building failure is begun with building envelope appearance without a proper maintenance. The faults in building design place a heavy burden on the building for the rest of its operational life and there is no compensation for it. In such situations, the responsibility falls on the shoulders of the designer.

  20. Hygrothermal Simulation: A Tool for Building Envelope Design Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Anton TenWolde; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to gauge the risk of moisture problems while designing the building envelope? This article provides a brief introduction to computer-based hygrothermal (heat and moisture) simulation, shows how simulation can be useful as a design tool, and points out a number of im-portant considerations regarding model inputs and limita-tions. Hygrothermal simulation...

  1. The potential of building envelope greening to achieve quietness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Renterghem, T.; Hornikx, M.C.J.; Forssén, J.; Botteldooren, D.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of noise is one of the multiple benefits of building envelope greening measures. The potential of wall vegetation systems, green roofs, vegetated low screens at roof edges, and also combinations of such treatments, have been studied by means of combining 2D and 3D full-wave numerical

  2. Interior thermal insulation systems for historical building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Miloš; Solař, Miloš; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The design specifics of interior thermal insulation systems applied for historical building envelopes are described. The vapor-tight systems and systems based on capillary thermal insulation materials are taken into account as two basic options differing in building-physical considerations. The possibilities of hygrothermal analysis of renovated historical envelopes including laboratory methods, computer simulation techniques, and in-situ tests are discussed. It is concluded that the application of computational models for hygrothermal assessment of interior thermal insulation systems should always be performed with a particular care. On one hand, they present a very effective tool for both service life assessment and possible planning of subsequent reconstructions. On the other, the hygrothermal analysis of any historical building can involve quite a few potential uncertainties which may affect negatively the accuracy of obtained results.

  3. Moisture condensation on building envelopes in differential ventilated spaces in the tropics: quantitative assessment of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maisarah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation systems play a significant role in maintaining the indoor thermal and hygric balance. Nevertheless, the systems had been implicated to result in many problems. In the tropical climate, especially for energy efficiency purposes, building spaces are operated with differential ventilation. Such spaces operate on 24-hrs basis, some on 8-hrs while others are either naturally ventilated or served with mechanical supply-exhaust fan systems with non-conditioned outdoor air. This practice had been found to result in condensation problems. This study involves a quantitative appraisal of the effect of operative conditions and hygrothermal quality of building envelopes on condensation risk. The in-situ experiment is combined with an analytical approach to assessing the hygrothermal quality of building envelopes in a tropical climate building under differential ventilation between adjacent spaces. The case-studied building is with a known history of condensation and associated damages including mould growth. The microclimate measurement and hygrothermal performance of the wall and floor against condensation and mould growth risks had been previously reported elsewhere. As a step further, the present study evaluates the effects of various envelope insulation types and configurations together with the HVAC cooling set-points on envelope hygrothermal performance. The results revealed that overcooling the air-conditioned side increases condensation risk on the non-air-conditioned side of the envelopes. The envelopes failed criteria for surface condensation at existing operative conditions irrespective of envelope hygrothermal quality improvements. However, the envelope performed well at improved cooling operative conditions even at existing envelope hygrothermal quality. It is, therefore, important to ascertain the envelope hygrothermal quality as well the cooling operative conditions while embarking on energy efficiency operations in mechanical

  4. Building envelope influence on the annual energy performance in office buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmati Norbert L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to determine the quantitative influence of building envelope on the annual heating and cooling energy demand in office buildings demonstrated on a reference office-tower building located in Novi Sad, Serbia. The investigation intended to find preferable and applicable solutions for energy performance improvement in currently inefficient office buildings. A comparative and evaluative analysis was performed among the heating energy expenses and simulated values from the multi-zone model designed in EnergyPlus engine. The research determines an improved window to wall ratio using dynamic daylight simulation and presents the influence of glazing parameters (U-value, Solar heat gain coefficient - SHGC on the annual energy performance. Findings presented window to wall ratio reduction down to 30% and point out the significance of the SHGC parameter on the overall energy performance of buildings with high internal loads. The calculation of the air-ventilation energy demand according to EN 15251 is included respectively. Results offer effective methods for energy performance improvement in temperate climate conditions.

  5. CISBAT 2007 - Design and renovation of building envelopes (bioclimatic architecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the second part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of sustainable building envelopes the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Flexible photovoltaics integrated in transparent membrane and pneumatic foil constructions', 'Development of a numerical thermal model for double skin facades', 'Thermal performance analysis for an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings', 'Challenging the public building sector: optimization of energy performance by sustainable strategies', 'Simulation of the thermal performance of a climate adaptive skin', 'Possibilities for upgrading prefabricated concrete building envelopes', 'Experimental study of airflow and heat transfer in a double skin facade with blinds', 'Energy efficiency of a glazing system - Case study: a dynamic glazing and double skin facades - the use of venetian blinds and night ventilation for saving energy on mediterranean climate'. Poster-sessions on the subject include 'Adaptive building envelopes design ', 'GRC facade panels in Brazil', 'Solar absorptance of building opaque surfaces', 'Evaluating the thermal behavior of exterior walls (in residential buildings of hot-dry climate of Yazd)', 'Energy performance of buildings and local energy policy: the case of new residential buildings in Greve in Chianti (Firenze)', 'Space heating and domestic hot water energy demand in high-level-insulation multi-storey buildings in Tuscany (Italy)', 'Is 2000 W society possible, affordable, and socially acceptable for the Vaud existing school building?', 'Development of simplified method for measuring solar shading performance of windows', 'Studies of ecological architecture in China's Loess Plateau region', 'Contemporary mud

  6. Building envelope design for renewal of air by natural ventilation in moderate climates. Proposition of a designing methodology; Conception des enveloppes de batiments pour le renouvellement d'air par ventilation naturelle en climats temperes. Proposition d'une methodologie de conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The subject of this research is to produce methods and methodological tools for the architects to support the integration of natural ventilation systems in the building envelope design. Our research is situated to the interface between the architectural practice and the physical research on natural ventilation. We are interested in phenomena that can influence or force the strategy of ventilation. A morphological analysis of naturally ventilated buildings concerning the integration modes of natural ventilation systems is done permitting US to propose a typology and a topology of ventilation systems. We define criteria in relation to the thermal comfort, to the quality of air and the economy of energy to assess air renewal techniques. In complement of the sizing tool, we elaborate a methodology of conception for the integration of passives ventilation systems. Design guidelines permit US to conclude on an effective natural ventilation system which is well adapted to collective habitat. (author)

  7. Building envelope for New Buildings and Energy Renovation of Existing Buildings. Project results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Rose, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær

    1999-01-01

    of heat- and moistureflow is insufficiently documented for large insulation thicknesses. Thermal bridges, for instance, plays a larger role for the overall heat loss in these constructions, and moisture in insulation materials will decrease the overall performance of the construction.Due to these facts...... on the following subjects:Scientific basis for calculation programs, Development of calculationsmethods for heat transfer, Development of new building envelope components, Roofing system based on wooden roof elements, Roofing system with drying properties, Moisture uptake and drying from brick constructions...

  8. Development of building envelope structures; Udvikling af klimaskaermskonstruktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monefeldt Tommerup, H. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark); Munch-Andersen, J. [Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Hoersholm (Denmark); Kjaer Esbensen, P. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    2000-08-01

    The present report concludes the work concerning the development of building envelope constructions, which can form the basis of new buildings with considerably less heat demand than in the present building regulations. It has been made probable that it is technically possible to build exterior walls with less heat loss than those just complying with the requirements of the current building regulations with no considerable added use of material apart from insulation. In their structure many of the shown constructions resemble types that are used today, while others presuppose that one part of the wall is attached to the other part or possibly to the rafters. Calculations concerning the importance of heat capacity for a 100 m{sup 2} single-family house have been made which confirm that by using heavy rather than light envelope constructions the reduction of the heating requirements is relatively small. Therefore optimisation of the insulation level can be carried out separately on the building components. A method has been developed for the evaluation of the optimum insulation level for the individual building components of the building envelope based on life cycle cost analysis. The method is based on making up the changes in the operational energy costs/ heating-costs and the cost of construction due to a change in the insulation thickness over a 30-year period. The life span of the primary parts of the building envelope is estimated at 100 years. It is assumed that the gross energy consumption that covers the heating requirements and the heat loss (determined by a simple calculation of degree days) changes concurrently with the change in the insulation thickness, which has been proved to be a reasonable approximation. The life cycle cost analysis has been carried out for a test-house of about 100 m{sup 2} and with two different energy price scenarios: 0.60 dkk/kWh (including taxes and VAT) which roughly corresponds to the present energy price level, and 1.20 dkk

  9. Methodology for the Study of the Envelope Airtightness of Residential Buildings in Spain: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijó-Muñoz Jesús

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air leakage and its impact on the energy performance of dwellings has been broadly studied in countries with cold climates in Europe, US, and Canada. However, there is a lack of knowledge in this field in Mediterranean countries. Current Spanish building regulations establish ventilation rates based on ideal airtight envelopes, causing problems of over-ventilation and substantial energy losses. The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology that allows the characterization of the envelope of the housing stock in Spain in order to adjust ventilation rates taking into consideration air leakage. A methodology that is easily applicable to other countries that consider studying the airtightness of the envelope and its energetic behaviour improvement is proposed. A statistical sampling method has been established to determine the dwellings to be tested, considering relevant variables concerning airtightness: climate zone, year of construction, and typology. The air leakage rate is determined using a standardized building pressurization technique according to European Standard EN 13829. A representative case study has been presented as an example of the implementation of the designed methodology and results are compared to preliminary values obtained from the database.

  10. Building air exhaustion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Seijiro.

    1995-01-01

    An opening is formed on the side wall of a building such as of a nuclear power plant, and a blow out panel is held (supported) by a clip for closing the opening. A large-diameter pipeline is connected at one end to the opening so as to cover the blow out panel, and immersed at the other end in a pool water. When a pipeline such as of main steam pipelines is ruptured in the building, high temperature and high pressure coolants are flown out from the ruptured port, and the pressure in the building is elevated. The blow out panel falls off from the side of the building by the elevation of the pressure in the building. Steams or compressed air discharged from the opening is introduced to the pool through the large diameter pipeline, then the steams are condensed by the pool water and radioactive materials contained in the condensed steams are kept in the pool water. Radioactive materials contained in the released compression air are also removed into the pool water. (I.N.)

  11. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  12. Alternative methods for evaluation of airtightness of the building envelope; Alternativa metoder foer utvaerdering av byggnadsskalets lufttaethet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Wahlgren, Paula

    2008-07-01

    Airtightness plays an important role when constructing energy efficient, sustainable and healthy buildings. In order to obtain airtight buildings, the airtightness needs to be evaluated during the construction phase. This enables improvements of the airtightness in an easy and cost-efficient way. During the construction phase, it is difficult to quantify the airtightness. However, detecting and sealing air leakages are good measures to improve the airtightness of the building. Several methods to detect air leakages are presented. A methodology to search for air leakages in buildings during construction has been developed, together with contractors and experts, and the methodology has been used at two building sites. The quantifiable airtightness of a building is determined by measuring the airflow that enters or exits the building at a certain pressure difference over the building envelope. In some cases it is not possible to measure air tightness according to standard. Therefore, a number of alternative methods have been evaluated. These methods include: extrapolation of measured data to a range used in standard measurements, using a buildings ventilation system fans to create a pressure difference over the building envelope, measuring the airtightness of a smaller part of the building (apartment, fire compartment or component) and tracer gas measurements

  13. Analyzing energy consumption while heating one-layer building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytchikov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.

  14. Study of an experimental methodology for thermal properties diagnostic of building envelop

    OpenAIRE

    Yang , Yingying; Sempey , Alain; Vogt Wu , Tingting; Sommier , Alain; Dumoulin , Jean; Batsale , Jean ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The building envelope plays a critical role in determining levels of comfort and building efficiency. Its real thermal properties characterization is of major interest to be able to diagnose energy efficiency performance of buildings (new construction and retrofitted existing old building). Research and development on a possible methodology for energy diagnostic of the building envelop is a hot topic and necessary trend. Many kinds of sensors and instruments are used f...

  15. Advancing the manufacture of complex geometry GFRC for today's building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Henriksen

    2017-06-01

    With this research the current architectural knowledge base has been advanced in terms of complex geometry thin-walled GFRC for building envelopes. The identified solutions should allow building with complex geometries to be realised using thin-walled GFRC as the envelope cladding.

  16. Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bok Seong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each PCM has its own phase change temperature, which is the temperature at which latent heat is absorbed or released, it is important to use an appropriate PCM for the purpose of building envelope design. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope by analyzing the thermal load characteristics. As results, the annual heating load increased at every phase change temperature, but the peak heating load decreased by 3.19% with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C, and the lowest indoor temperature increased by 0.86 °C with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C. The annual cooling load decreased by 1.05% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak cooling load decreased by 1.30% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.50 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C. When the night ventilation was applied to the building HVAC system for better passive cooling performance, the annual cooling load decreased by 9.28% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak load decreased by 11.33% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.85 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C.

  17. Can envelope codes reduce electricity and CO2 emissions in different types of buildings in the hot climate of Bahrain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, H.

    2009-01-01

    The depletion of non-renewable resources and the environmental impact of energy consumption, particularly energy use in buildings, have awakened considerable interest in energy efficiency. Building energy codes have recently become effective techniques to achieve efficiency targets. The Electricity and Water Authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of building electricity consumption and CO 2 emissions to be achieved by using envelope thermal insulation codes. This paper investigates the ability of the current codes to achieve such a benchmark and evaluates their impact on building energy consumption. The results of a simulation study are employed to investigate the impact of the Bahraini codes on the energy and environmental performance of buildings. The study focuses on air-conditioned commercial buildings and concludes that envelope codes, at best, are likely to reduce the energy use of the commercial sector by 25% if the building envelope is well-insulated and efficient glazing is used. Bahraini net CO 2 emissions could drop to around 7.1%. The simulation results show that the current energy codes alone are not sufficient to achieve a 40% reduction benchmark, and therefore, more effort should be spent on moving towards a more comprehensive approach

  18. Modeling a Decision Support Tool for Buildable and Sustainable Building Envelope Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natee Singhaputtangkul

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and buildability requirements in building envelope design have significantly gained more importance nowadays, yet there is a lack of an appropriate decision support system (DSS that can help a building design team to incorporate these requirements and manage their tradeoffs at once. The main objective of this study is to build such a tool to facilitate a building design team to take into account sustainability and buildability criteria for assessment of building envelopes of high-rise residential buildings in Singapore. Literature reviews were conducted to investigate a comprehensive set of the sustainability and buildability criteria. This also included development of the tool using a Quality Functional Deployment (QFD approach combined with fuzzy set theory. A building design team was engaged to test the tool with the aim to evaluate usefulness of the tool in managing the tradeoffs among the sustainability and buildability criteria. The results from a qualitative data analysis suggested that the tool allowed the design team to effectively find a balance between the tradeoffs among the criteria when assessing multiple building envelope design alternatives. Main contributions of using this tool are achievement of a more efficient assessment of the building envelopes and more sustainable and buildable building envelope design.

  19. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagus, P.L.; Grot, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, San Diego, CA (United States); Grot, R.A. [Lagus Applied Technology, Olney, MD (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Multiobjective optimization design of green building envelope material using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ming-Der; Lin, Min-Der; Lin, Yu-Hao; Tsai, Kang-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An effective envelope energy performance model (BEM) was developed. • We integrated NSGA-II with the BEM to optimize the green building envelope. • A tradeoff plan of green building design for three conflict objectives was obtained. • The optimal envelope design efficiently reduced the construction cost of green building. - Abstract: To realize the goal of environmental sustainability, improving energy efficiency in buildings is a major priority worldwide. However, the practical design of green building envelopes for energy conservation is a highly complex optimization problem, and architects must make multiobjective decisions. In practice, methods such as multicriteria analyses that entail capitalizing on possibly many (but in nearly any case limited) alternatives are commonly employed. This study investigated the feasibility of applying a multiobjective optimal model on building envelope design (MOPBEM), which involved integrating a building envelope energy performance model with a multiobjective optimizer. The MOPBEM was established to provide a reference for green designs. A nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) was used to achieve a tradeoff design set between three conflicting objectives, namely minimizing the envelope construction cost (ENVCOST), minimizing the envelope energy performance (ENVLOAD), and maximizing the window opening rate (WOPR). A real office building case was designed using the MOPBEM to identify the potential strengths and weaknesses of the proposed MOPBEM. The results showed that a high ENVCOST was expended in simultaneously satisfying the low ENVLOAD and high WOPR. Various designs exhibited obvious cost reductions compared with the original architects' manual design, demonstrating the practicability of the MOPBEM.

  2. Simulation-based support for product development of innovative building envelope components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, R.C.G.M.; Singaravel, S.; Trcka, M.; Costola, D.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    A need for innovation in building envelope technologies forms a key element of technology roadmaps focusing on improvements in building energy efficiency. Many new products are being proposed and developed, but often, a lack of insights into building integration issues is an obstacle in typical

  3. Innovative Danish Building Envelope Components for Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    and in some cases very innovative envelope constructions. In this paper, two of the most interesting components are described; a prefabricated light-weight exterior wall element with a load-bearing plywood and steel frame and a foundation / slab on ground solution based on concrete and EPS insulation...

  4. To Investigate the Influence of Building Envelope and Natural Ventilation on Thermal Heat Balance in Office Buildings in Warm and Humid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Pradeep G.; Garg, Naresh Kumar; Kamath, Kiran

    2017-07-01

    India’s commercial building sector is witnessing robust growth. India continues to be a key growth market among global corporates and this is reflective in the steady growth in demand for prime office space. A recent trend that has been noted is the increase in demand for office spaces not just in major cities but also in smaller tier II and Tier III cities. Growth in the commercial building sector projects a rising trend of energy intensive mechanical systems in office buildings in India. The air conditioning market in India is growing at 25% annually. This is due to the ever increasing demand to maintain thermal comfort in tropical regions. Air conditioning is one of the most energy intensive technologies which are used in buildings. As a result India is witnessing significant spike in energy demand and further widening the demand supply gap. Challenge in India is to identify passive measures in building envelope design in office buildings to reduce the cooling loads and conserve energy. This paper investigates the overall heat gain through building envelope components and natural ventilation in warm and humid climate region through experimental and simulation methods towards improved thermal environmental performance.

  5. Towards Energy Demand Reduction in Social Housing Buildings: Envelope System Optimization Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Esquivias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the potential for the reduction of energy demand in residential buildings by acting on the exterior envelope, both in newly constructed buildings and in the retrofitting of existing stock. It focuses on analysing social housing buildings in Mediterranean areas and on quantifying the scope of that reduction in the application of different envelope design strategies, with the purpose of prioritizing their application based on their energy efficiency. The analyses and quantifications were made by means of the generation of energy models with the TRNSYS tool for simple or combined solutions, identifying possible potentials for reduction of the energy demand from 20% to 25%, basically by acting on the windows. The case study was a newly built social housing building of a closed block type located in Seville (Spain. Its constructive techniques and the insulation level of its envelope are standardized for current buildings widespread across Mediterranean Europe.

  6. Integrated Thermal-Energy Analysis of Innovative Translucent White Marble for Building Envelope Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Rosso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marble is a natural material, used in the construction field since antiquity. It has always been used to communicate monumentality and solidity. Nowadays new technologies permit marble to express new languages: particularly, translucent marble technology overturns the concept of solidity. The main issue to address is the lack of thermal-energy performance of such a thin stone layer as the only facade component. Conversely, Bianco Carrara and Statuario marbles, for instance, have intrinsic benefits as natural cool materials, due to their high solar reflectance and thermal emissivity. Thus, this paper analyzes the thermal-energy and environmental behavior of marble facade for a new designed building in New York City. An integrated analysis of the energy performance of the marble skin is performed through a preliminary experimental characterization, carried out for two different types of naturally white marble, for comparative purposes. Then, a dynamic simulation model of the building is developed to evaluate year-round benefits and drawbacks of the translucent marble envelope in terms of indoor thermal comfort and air-conditioning requirement. The analysis showed how the proposed marble facade is able to decrease the energy requirement for cooling up to 6%, demonstrating possible relevant perspectives for marble-based facades, even in energy-efficient buildings.

  7. Advancing the manufacture of complex geometry GFRC for today's building envelopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, T.N.

    2017-01-01

    Thin-walled glass fibre reinforced concrete (GFRC) panels are being used as the primary cladding material on many landmark buildings especially in the last decade. GFRC is an ideal material for building envelopes because it is durable, it can resist fire and the environmental impact is low compared

  8. Field performance of energy-efficient residential building envelope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The airtightness of 24 new houses was measured on a regular basis over periods of up to three years to evaluate the structures' air barrier systems and to study the possibility of air barrier degradation, as would be indicated by an increase in the measured air leakage rate. Ten of the houses were built with the polyethylene air barrier system and 14 using an early version of the airtight drywall approach (ADA). The 24 project houses were architecturally similar and of approximately equal size and general layout; stucco was the predominate wall finish.

  9. Phase Change Materials in Transparent Building Envelopes: A Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Vigna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Building envelopes can play a crucial role in building improvement efficiency, and the adoption of Phase Change Materials (PCMs, coupled with transparent elements, may: (i allow a better control of the heat flows from/to the outdoor environment, (ii increase the exploitation of solar energy at a building scale and (iii modulate light transmission in order to prevent glare effects. Starting from a literature review, focused on experimental works, this research identifies the main possible integrations of PCMs in transparent/translucent building envelope components (in glazing, in shutters and in multilayer façade system in order to draw a global picture of the potential and limitations of these technologies. Transparent envelopes with PCMs have been classified from the simplest “zero” technology, which integrates the PCM in a double glass unit (DGU, to more complex solutions—with a different number of glass cavities (triple glazed unit TGU, different positions of the PCM layer (internal/external shutter, and in combination with other materials (TIM, aerogel, prismatic solar reflector, PCM curtain controlled by an electric pump. The results of the analysis have been summarised in a Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis table to underline the strengths and weaknesses of transparent building envelope components with PCMs, and to indicate opportunities and threats for future research and building applications.

  10. Switching from static to adaptable and dynamic building envelopes: A paradigm shift for the energy efficiency in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Perino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The key role of the building envelope in attaining building energy efficiency and satisfactory indoor comfort has long been established. Nevertheless, until recent times, all efforts and attention have mainly been focused on increasing and optimizing the thermal insulation of the envelope components. This strategy was a winning approach for a long time, but its limitations became obvious when users and designers started to consider the overall energy demand of a building and started to aim for Zero Energy Building (ZEB or nearly ZEB goals. New and more revolutionary concepts and technologies needed to be developed to satisfy such challenging requirements. The potential benefits of this technological development are relevant since the building envelope plays a key role in controlling the energy and mass flows from outdoors to indoors (and vice versa and, moreover, the facades offer a significant opportunity for solar energy exploitation. Several researches have demonstrated that the limitation of the existing facades could be overcome only by switching from ‘static’ to ‘responsive’ and ‘dynamic’ systems, such as Multifunctional Facade Modules (MFMs and Responsive Building Elements (RBE. These components are able to continuously and pro-actively react to outdoor and indoor environment conditions and facilitate and enhance the exploitation of renewable and low exergy sources. In order to reduce the energy demand, to maximize the indoor comfort conditions and to produce energy at the site, these almost ‘self-sufficient’, or even ‘positive energy’ building skins frequently incorporate different technologies and are functionally connected to other building services and installations. An overview of the technological evolution of the building envelope that has taken place, ranging from traditional components to the innovative skins, will be given in this paper, while focusing on the different approaches that have characterized this

  11. Field performance of energy-efficient residential building envelope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowskiw, G.

    1992-05-01

    The air tightness of 24 new houses was measured on a regular basis over periods up to three years to evaluate the structures' air barrier systems and to study the possibility of air barrier degradation, as would be indicated by an increase in the measured leakage rate. Ten of the houses were built with the polyethylene air barrier system and 14 using an early version of the Airtight Drywall Approach (ADA). The 24 project houses were architecturally similar and of approximately equal size and general layout. The airtightness of the polyethylene air barrier houses was found to remain stable over their respective monitoring periods. It was concluded that no evidence could be found to indicate polyethylene is unsuited for use as an air barrier material in residential construction. Although 2 of the 10 houses demonstrated possible, albeit slight, evidence of airtightness degradation, the magnitude of these changes was small and judged not to be of practical significance. All but one of the polyethylene houses met the airtightness requirements of the R-2000 program at the end of their monitoring periods. The project houses with the lowest measured leakage rates were those built with the double wall system and polyethylene barriers. The study also found that the airtightness of the 14 ADA houses remained stable during the monitoring period and it was concluded that no evidence could be found to indicate that the ADA system is unsuited for use in residential construction. Although 6 of the 15 houses displayed possible, but also slight, evidence of airtightness degradation, the magnitude of the changes was small and not of practical significance. All 14 houses met the airtightness requirements of the R-2000 program at the end of their respective monitoring periods. 19 refs., 191 figs., 39 tabs.

  12. Procedures when calculating economy for building envelopes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    of using total-economy. Total-economy incorporates all present and future investments (e.g. operational and maintenance costs) into one number making it possible to invest more money when constructing a building and save the money later on due to lower cost for maintenance and energy consumption.This paper...

  13. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Buildings for calculating the Energy Cost Budget. In calculating the Design Energy Consumption of the... assumptions for calculating the Energy Cost Budget and default assumptions for the Design Energy Consumption... without operable windows shall be assumed to be 0.038 cfm/ft2 of gross exterior wall. Hotels/motels and...

  14. Parameter design for a phase change material board installed on the inner surface of building exterior envelopes for cooling in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Quan; Medina, Mario A.; Lee, Kyoung Ok; Liao, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase change material (PCM) boards were simulated in building envelopes. • The buildings were located in four cities with different climatic conditions. • Energy and mass efficiency was proposed to evaluate utilization of PCM board. • The optimal melting temperature increased with increasing mean air temperature. - Abstract: Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used for building envelope thermal management and for energy conservation because of their potential to absorb and release large amounts of heat with small wall temperature variations. In this paper, the heat transfer theory of a PCM board used for building envelopes is presented, together with a mathematical model based on the moving heat-source method. It was found that the model accurately predicted the position of the solid–liquid interface in time and space, comparing with the published data. Energy and mass efficiency (EME) was proposed to evaluate the energy efficiency of PCM boards in office buildings located in various climatic regions in China for cooling. The influences on EME of parameters, including melting temperature of PCM, PCM board thickness and the heat transfer coefficient of building envelope, were analyzed. The optimal melting temperatures of PCM board, which resulted in the peak EME, in office building were 24.1 °C in Shenyang, 25.0 °C in Kunming, 25.3 °C in Zhengzhou and 25.5 °C Changsha, respectively. The EME increased with the increasing heat transfer coefficient of building envelope. For the city of Changsha with higher outdoor air temperature, none of the PCM boards modeled contributed effectively.

  15. Cost Analysis of Simple Phase Change Material-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Southern U.S. Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shukla, Nitin [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fallahi, Ali [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Traditional thermal designs of building envelope assemblies are based on static energy flows, yet building envelopes are subject to varying environmental conditions. This mismatch between the steady-state principles and their dynamic operation can decrease thermal efficiency. Design work supporting the development of low-energy houses showed that conventional insulations may not always be the most cost effective solution to improvement envelope thermal performance. PCM-enhanced building envelopes that simultaneously reduce the total cooling loads and shift the peak-hour loads are the focus of this report.

  16. Multi-objective and multidisciplinary design optimization of large sports building envelopes : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.; Sun, Y.; Turrin, M.; von Buelow, P.; Paul, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in the conceptual envelope design of sports facilities, multiple engineering performance feedbacks (e.g. daylight, energy and structural performance) are expected to assist architectural design decision-making. In general, it is known as Building Performance Optimization in the conceptual

  17. Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Ostersund (Sweden); Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Ostersund (Sweden); Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Ostersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey of 3059 homeowners (response rate of 36%) selected by stratified random sampling during the summer of 2008. The results showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt building envelope energy efficiency measures. Policy measures to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures are discussed.

  18. Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey of 3059 homeowners (response rate of 36%) selected by stratified random sampling during the summer of 2008. The results showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt building envelope energy efficiency measures. Policy measures to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures are discussed.

  19. Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey of 3059 homeowners (response rate of 36%) selected by stratified random sampling during the summer of 2008. The results showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt building envelope energy efficiency measures. Policy measures to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures are discussed. (author)

  20. Delivering COBie data - Focus on curtain walls and building envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlshøj, Jan; Borin, P.; Carradori, M.

    COBie is a standard data framework whose main purpose is to transmit useful, reliable and us-able information collected throughout the whole building process and to be consumed in order to properly maintain the facility. Focusing on Facility Management information exchanges and considering the UK...... BIM policies and requirements, this paper shows the results obtained applying COBie to complex products such as curtain walls. Two Information Delivery Manuals (IDMs) were also developed, in order to provide a com-monly known and standardized framework, which can regulate the COBie-based information...

  1. Windows and Building Envelope Research and Development: A Roadmap for Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This Building Technologies Office (BTO) Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap identifies priority windows and building envelope R&D areas of interest. Cost and performance targets are identified for each key R&D area. The roadmap describes the technical and market challenges to be overcome, R&D activities and milestones, key stakeholders, and potential energy savings that could result if cost and performance targets are met. Methods for improving technology performance and specific strategies for reducing installed costs and mitigating any other market barriers, which would increase the likelihood of mass-market technology adoption, are identified. This roadmap is a useful resource for public and private decision makers evaluating and pursuing high-impact R&D focused on advancing next-generation energy efficient windows and building envelope technologies.

  2. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-06-01

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematic variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.

  3. New building envelope structures. Energy saving and moisture technology; Uudet vaipparakenteet. Energian saeaestoe ja kosteustekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokko, E.; Ojanen, T.; Salonvaara, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1997-12-31

    The publication summarizes the results that deal with reducing heating energy loss through building envelopes, improving hygric (moisture) behavior of structures and utilization solar energy. The objective was to produce new innovative structures and principles of applications for low-energy houses. The applications with the purpose of reducing heating energy consumption are based on conventional mineral wool and cellular plastic insulation materials, low-emissivity foils and coatings that reduce long-wave thermal radiation and building papers with desired properties. Utilization of solar energy was investigated with a solar energy collector system consisting of transparent insulation and glass layers, air circulation with natural convection and thermal mass. Thick light-weight mineral wool insulation layers in the exterior walls are in practice always somewhat non-ideal which increases convection air flows in or through the walls when compared to ideal structures. Increasing the thickness of the insulation layer makes it more non-ideal and thus susceptible to drawbacks of convection flows. Furthermore the internal moisture in the structure is distributed unevenly increasing the risk for mold growth and rotting. The convection effects in thick walls can be eliminated by isolating the insulation layers with air tight but vapor permeable vertical convection barriers. Significant portion of the total heat transfer in light-weight mineral wool insulation is caused by long-wave radiation (Infrared Radiation - IR). A low-emissivity foil attached directly to a surface of a mineral wool insulation has only a small effect on the thermal resistance of the whole insulation layer. Radiation inside thick insulation layers can be reduced significantly only by making use of fibers with low-emissivity surfaces or fibers transparent to IR-radiation and using low-emissivity foils on the sides of the layers. A `real life` structure consisting of a thick light-weight mineral wool

  4. Numerical simulation of phase change material composite wallboard in a multi-layered building envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwanzig, Stephen D.; Lian, Yongsheng; Brehob, Ellen G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A numerical method to study the heat transfer through a PCM composite wallboard is presented. ► PCM wallboard can reduce energy consumption and shift peak electricity load. ► There is an optimal location for the PCM wallboard in the building envelop. ► The PCM wallboard performance depends on weather conditions. - Abstract: Phase change materials (PCMs) have the capability to store/release massive latent heat when undergoing phase change. When impregnated or encapsulated into wallboard or concrete systems, PCMs can greatly enhance their thermal energy storage capacity and effective thermal mass. When used in the building envelope PCM wallboard has the potential to improve building operation by reducing the energy requirement for maintaining thermal comfort, downsizing the AC/heating equipment, and shifting the peak load from the electrical grid. In this work we numerically studied the potential of PCM on energy saving for residential homes. For that purpose we solved the one-dimensional, transient heat equation through the multi-layered building envelope using the Crank–Nicolson discretization scheme. A source term is incorporated to account for the thermal-physical properties of the composite PCM wallboard. Using this code we examined a PCM composite wallboard incorporated into the walls and roof of a typical residential building across various climate zones. The PCM performance was studied under all seasonal conditions using the latest typical meteorological year (TMY3) data for exterior boundary conditions. Our simulations show that PCM performance highly depends on the weather conditions, emphasizing the necessity to choose different PCMs at different climate zones. Comparisons were also made between different PCM wallboard locations. Our work shows that there exists an optimal location for PCM placement within building envelope dependent upon the resistance values between the PCM layer and the exterior boundary conditions. We further

  5. Format for description of building envelope components for use in an optimization process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    are decided by the architect or kept within limits due to public regulations, but even when these factors have been decided, some are left to be decided. Aspects like durability and the thermal performance are seldom specified by the architect, but might be addressed in national building codes. The national...... building codes specify minimum requirements for the aspects in question, but no trade-offs between the different aspects are allowed, being un-flexible. To allow for the use of optimization procedures in the design process a larger degree of flexibility is needed but first of all there is a need......When designing a building the number of possible combinations of aspects related to the performance of the building envelope are almost unlimited. Due to the physical laws governing e.g. the static performance of the building, some aspects should be kept within a certain interval. Other aspects...

  6. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 μm are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 μm) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its

  7. Multiobjective optimisation of energy systems and building envelope retrofit in a residential community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Raphael; Mavromatidis, Georgios; Orehounig, Kristina; Carmeliet, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous optimisation of building envelope retrofit and energy systems. • Retrofit and energy systems change interact and should be considered simultaneously. • Case study quantifies cost-GHG emission tradeoffs for different retrofit options. - Abstract: In this paper, a method for a multi-objective and simultaneous optimisation of building energy systems and retrofit is presented. Tailored to be suitable for the diverse range of existing buildings in terms of age, size, and use, it combines dynamic energy demand simulation to explore individual retrofit scenarios with an energy hub optimisation. Implemented as an epsilon-constrained mixed integer linear program (MILP), the optimisation matches envelope retrofit with renewable and high efficiency energy supply technologies such as biomass boilers, heat pumps, photovoltaic and solar thermal panels to minimise life cycle cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its multi-objective, integrated assessment of building transformation options and its ability to capture both individual building characteristics and trends within a neighbourhood, this method is aimed to provide developers, neighbourhood and town policy makers with the necessary information to make adequate decisions. Our method is deployed in a case study of typical residential buildings in the Swiss village of Zernez, simulating energy demands in EnergyPlus and solving the optimisation problem with CPLEX. Although common trade-offs in energy system and retrofit choice can be observed, optimisation results suggest that the diversity in building age and size leads to optimal strategies for retrofitting and building system solutions, which are specific to different categories. With this method, GHG emissions of the entire community can be reduced by up to 76% at a cost increase of 3% compared to the current emission levels, if an optimised solution is selected for each building category.

  8. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  9. Study of potential nonconformities of a new recreation center building's envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, M.; Kajl, S.; Lamarche, L.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a building envelope's analysis in order to verify the compliance with mandatory provisions of the Model National Energy Code for Buildings in Canada (MNECB 1997). Because some of the requirements are «not met», investigations were carried out to provide justifications in order to prove that the building can be considered as an exception to the mandatory provisions of MNECB. Therefore, we evaluate the impact of three (3) potential nonconformities of the building's walls on the building energy performance. In regards to article 3.1.1.1.4 of MNECB, there is an exception if it can be proved that permanent process (like heat recovery of refrigeration compressors) can produce at all times enough heat that no other heating source is required. First of all, by using simulation, we were able to indicate that almost all building's heating will be provided by energy recovery from ice rinks refrigeration systems (99.2%). Secondly, by using an energy analysis carried out with HEAT2 software, we can show that the increase of heating energy demand caused by the 3 studied walls is very low. This represents an increase of the heating energy demand of only 0.2%, and this, regardless of the heat recovery process. Because the nonconforming wall sections are small (0.97% of the envelope area), this mainly explains the minor impact in terms of building performance. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, we were able to recommend the building for consideration as an exception to the mandatory provisions of MNECB.

  10. Dynamic Exergy Analysis for the Thermal Storage Optimization of the Building Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bonetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a measure of energy “quality”, exergy is meaningful for comparing the potential for thermal storage. Systems containing the same amount of energy could have considerably different capabilities in matching a demand profile, and exergy measures this difference. Exergy stored in the envelope of buildings is central in sustainability because the environment could be an unlimited source of energy if its interaction with the envelope is optimised for maintaining the indoor conditions within comfort ranges. Since the occurring phenomena are highly fluctuating, a dynamic exergy analysis is required; however, dynamic exergy modelling is complex and has not hitherto been implemented in building simulation tools. Simplified energy and exergy assessments are presented for a case study in which thermal storage determines the performance of seven different wall types for utilising nocturnal ventilation as a passive cooling strategy. Hourly temperatures within the walls are obtained with the ESP-r software in free-floating operation and are used to assess the envelope exergy storage capacity. The results for the most suitable wall types were different between the exergy analysis and the more traditional energy performance indicators. The exergy method is an effective technique for selecting the construction type that results in the most favourable free-floating conditions through the analysed passive strategy.

  11. Impact of Air Tightness on the Evaluation of Building Energy Performance in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Šadauskienė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD requirements for the reduction of energy consumption, European national requirements have been created for building envelope thermal properties and calculation methodology to determine if building energy efficiency is created. This is however not true in all methodologies. The necessity of building air tightness appears only for new A class buildings, and there are no requirements for air tightness for other building classes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to improve the methodology for the calculation of energy efficiency of buildings, while taking into account the air tightness of the buildings. In order to achieve this aim, the sum energy consumption of investigated buildings was calculated, energy efficiency classes were determined, air tightness of the buildings was measured, and reasons for insufficient air tightness were analyzed. Investigation results show that the average value of air tightness of A energy efficiency class buildings is 0.6 h−1. The results of other investigated buildings, corresponding to B and C energy efficiency classes, show insufficient air tightness (the average n50 value is 6 h−1; herewith, energy consumption for heating is higher than calculated, according to the energy efficiency methodology. This paper provides an energy performance evaluation scheme, under which performed evaluation of energy performance of buildings ensures high quality construction work, building durability, and the reliability of heat-loss calculations.

  12. Optimum Application of Thermal Factors to Artificial Neural Network Models for Improvement of Control Performance in Double Skin-Enveloped Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Il Chin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an artificial neural network (ANN-based thermal control method for buildings with double skin envelopes that has rational relationships between the ANN model input and output. The relationship between the indoor air temperature and surrounding environmental factors was investigated based on field measurement data from an actual building. The results imply that the indoor temperature was not significantly influenced by vertical solar irradiance, but by the outdoor and cavity temperature. Accordingly, a new ANN model developed in this study excluded solar irradiance as an input variable for predicting the future indoor temperature. The structure and learning method of this new ANN model was optimized, followed by the performance tests of a variety of internal and external envelope opening strategies for the heating and cooling seasons. The performance tests revealed that the optimized ANN-based logic yielded better temperature conditions than the non-ANN based logic. This ANN-based logic increased overall comfortable periods and decreased the frequency of overshoots and undershoots out of the thermal comfort range. The ANN model proved that it has the potential to be successfully applied in the temperature control logic for double skin-enveloped buildings. The ANN model, which was proposed in this study, effectively predicted future indoor temperatures for the diverse opening strategies. The ANN-based logic optimally determined the operation of heating and cooling systems as well as opening conditions for the double skin envelopes.

  13. Study of an experimental methodology for thermal properties diagnostic of building envelop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingying; Sempy, Alain; Vogt Wu, Tingting; Sommier, Alain; Dumoulin, Jean; Batsale, Jean Christophe

    2017-04-01

    The building envelope plays a critical role in determining levels of comfort and building efficiency. Its real thermal properties characterization is of major interest to be able to diagnose energy efficiency performance of buildings (new construction and retrofitted existing old building). Research and development on a possible methodology for energy diagnostic of the building envelop is a hot topic and necessary trend. Many kinds of sensors and instruments are used for the studies. The application of infrared (IR) thermography in non-destructive evaluation has been widely employed for qualitative evaluations for building diagnostics; meanwhile, the IR thermography technology also has a large potentiality for the evaluation of the thermal characteristics of the building envelope. Some promising recent research studies have been carried out with such contactless measurement technique. Nevertheless, research efforts are still required for in situ measurements under natural environmental conditions. In order to develop new solutions for non-intrusive evaluation of local thermal performance, enabling quantitative assessment of thermal properties of buildings and materials, experiments were carried out on a multi-layer pratical scale wall fixed on a caisson placed in a climatic chamber. Six halogen lamps (1.5 kW for each lamp) placed in front of objective wall were used to emulate sunny conditions. The radiative heat flux emitted was monitored and modulated with time according to typical weather data set encountered in France. Both steady state and transient regime heat transfer were studied during these experiments. Contact sensors (thermocouples, heat flux meters, Peltier sensors) and non-contact sensors (thermal IR camera, pyranometer) were used to measure the temperatures and heat flux density evolution. It has to be noticed that the Peltier sensors have been tuned and used with a specific processing to set them compliant for heat flux density measurements. The

  14. Thermoelectricity analogy method for computing the periodic heat transfer in external building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Changhai; Wu Zhishen

    2008-01-01

    Simple and effective computation methods are needed to calculate energy efficiency in buildings for building thermal comfort and HVAC system simulations. This paper, which is based upon the theory of thermoelectricity analogy, develops a new harmonic method, the thermoelectricity analogy method (TEAM), to compute the periodic heat transfer in external building envelopes (EBE). It presents, in detail, the principles and specific techniques of TEAM to calculate both the decay rates and time lags of EBE. First, a set of linear equations is established using the theory of thermoelectricity analogy. Second, the temperature of each node is calculated by solving the linear equations set. Finally, decay rates and time lags are found by solving simple mathematical expressions. Comparisons show that this method is highly accurate and efficient. Moreover, relative to the existing harmonic methods, which are based on the classical control theory and the method of separation of variables, TEAM does not require complicated derivation and is amenable to hand computation and programming

  15. Air conditioning device for reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the opening areas of pipe lines for an air conditioning device at the portions passing through the shielding walls of a reactor building for a FBR type reactor, as well as reduce the size of the building. Constitution: Airs in the building for containing reactor are liquefied in an air liquefying mechanism. The liquefied airs are sent by way of pipe lines to each of evaporators, wherein each of the chambers are cooled because of latent heat of evaporation and evaporated airs are released to each of the chambers. The airs released to each of the chambers are collected into an exhaust chamber and sent by way of a duct to the air liquefying mechanism and liquefied again. Since the volume of the liquefied airs may be smaller than the amount conventionally required for usual cooled airs, the pipe lines passing through the shielding walls of the building can be of smaller diameter. This can decrease the opening areas of the pipe lines at the portions passing through the walls of the shieldings and, since the opening areas are smaller, the structure of the radiation shieldings can be simplified in these portions. Further, since the space of the pipe lines in the building is reduced extremely, the size of the building can be reduced. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Air Pollution in Museum Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main air pollutants relevant for preservation of cultural heritage objects. Air pollutants may originate from outdoor or indoor sources. Indoor sources include the emission of corrosive vapors from construction materials used for museum display settings. Air pollution may...

  17. Benchmarking the energy performance of office buildings: A data envelopment analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molinos-Senante, María

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of energy efficiency in buildings is an important challenge facing both developed and developing countries. Very few papers have assessed the energy efficiency of office buildings using real data. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an energy efficiency index for buildings having a large window-to-wall ratio, and uses this index to identify the main architectural factors affecting energy performance. This paper assesses, for the first time, the energy performances of 34 office buildings in Santiago, Chile, by using data envelopment analysis. Overall energy efficiency is decomposed into two indices: the architectural energy efficiency index, and the management energy efficiency index. This decomposition is an essential step in identifying the main drivers of energy inefficiency and designing measures for improvement. Office buildings examined here have significant room for improving their energy efficiencies, saving operational costs and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The methodology and results of this study will be of great interest to building managers and policymakers seeking to increase the sustainability of cities.

  18. Healthy Buildings and Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Healthy buildings are to a great extent a question of indoor air quality. The processes involved in air quality can be looked upon as a number of links in a chain. Typical links will be emission from building materials, convection and diffusion in the room, local airflow around a person, personal...... exposure and at last the effect of the air quality on the occupant. The best results will obviously be obtained by using building materials with low emission. However, there will always exist some emission and the ventilation will consequently be an important link....

  19. Methods for designing building envelope components prepared for repair and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    2000-01-01

    the deterministic and probabilistic approach. Based on an investigation of the data-requirement, user-friendliness and supposed accuracy (the accuracy of the different methods has not been evaluated due to the absence of field data) the method which combines the deterministic factor method with statistical...... to be prepared for repair and maintenance. Both of these components are insulation systems for flat roofs and low slope roofs; components where repair or replacement is very expensive if the roofing material fails in its function. The principle of both roofing insulation systems is that the insulation can...... of issues which are specified below:Further development of methods for designing building envelope components prepared for repair and maintenance, and ways of tracking and predicting performance through time once the components have been designed, implemented in a building design and built...

  20. Selection of the Climate Parameters for a Building Envelopes and Indoor Climate Systems Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Samarin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current research considers the principles of selection of the climate information needed for the building envelope and indoor climate design and adopted in Russia and some European countries. Special reference has been made to the shortcoming of methodologies that include the notion of a typical year, and the advantages of climate data sets generated via software-based designs, using pseudo-random number generators. The results of the average temperature of the coldest five-day period with various supplies were calculated using the numerical Monte-Carlo simulations, as well as the current climate data. It has been shown that there is a fundamental overlap between the statistical distribution of temperatures of both instances and the possibility of implementation a probabilistic-statistical method principle in the development of certain climate data, relative to envelopes and thermal conditions of a building. The calculated values were combined with the analytic expression of the normal law of random distribution and the correlations needed for the main parameter selection.

  1. Influence of PCMs in thermal insulation on thermal behaviour of building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dydek, K.; Furmański, P.; Łapka, P.

    2016-09-01

    A model of heat transfer through a wall consisting of a layer of concrete and PCM enhanced thermal insulation is considered. The model accounts for heat conduction in both layers, thermal radiation and heat absorption/release due to phase change in the insulation as well as time variation in the ambient temperature and insolation. Local thermal equilibrium between encapsulated PCM and light-weight thermal insulation was assumed. Radiation emission, absorption and scattering were also accounted for in the model. Comparison of different cases of heat flow through the building envelope was carried out. These cases included presence or absence of PCM and thermal radiation in the insulation, effect of emissivity of the PCM microcapsules as well as an effect of solar radiation or its lack on the ambient side of the envelope. Two ways of the PCM distribution in thermal insulation were also considered. The results of simulations were presented for conditions corresponding to the mean summer and winter seasons in Warsaw. It was found that thermal radiation plays an important role in heat transfer through thermal insulation layer of the wall while the presence of the PCM in it significantly contributes to damping of temperature fluctuations and a decrease in heat fluxes flowing into or lost by the interior of the building. The similar effect was observed for a decrease in emissivity of the microcapsules containing PCM.

  2. Biomimetic Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Mazzoleni

    2010-01-01

    How to translate the lessons learned from the analysis and observation of the animal world is the design learning experience presented in this article. Skin is a complex and incredibly sophisticated organ that performs various functions, including protection, sensation and heat and water regulation. In a similar way building envelopes serve multiple roles, as they are the interface between the building inhabitants and environmental elements. The resulting architectural building envelopes prot...

  3. Thermal mass vs. insulation building envelope design in six climatic regions of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available is defined in Ecotect as a homogenous enclosed volume of air. In most cases this corresponds to a single room. It is assumed that the air within a zone is able to mix freely. Every room in the simulation model was defined as distinct thermal zone... of the Ecotect simulation model and simulation of houses with base case characteristics and energy efficient measures in six South African cities. 3.1 Building infiltration rate measurements High infiltration rates means a leaky building meaning...

  4. Plotting the Flight Envelope of an Unmanned Aircraft System Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glīzde Nikolajs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on the development of an Unmanned Aircraft System. One of the design process steps in the preliminary design phase is the calculation of the flight envelope for the Unmanned Aircraft System air vehicle. The results obtained will be used in the further design process. A flight envelope determines the minimum requirements for the object in Certification Specifications. The present situation does not impose any Certification Specification requirements for the class of the Unmanned Aircraft System under the development of the general European Union trend defined in the road map for the implementation of the Unmanned Aircraft System. However, operation in common European Aerospace imposes the necessity for regulations for micro class systems as well.

  5. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  6. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  7. Indoor air quality – buildings design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhásová Šenitková Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention is being paid to indoor air quality as one of the main health and well-being factors. The indoor research is concerned mostly to indoor air chemicals within indoor engineering related to building design. The providing good indoor air quality can be achieved effectively by avoiding or reducing indoor air pollution sources and by selecting low-polluting building materials, both being low-cost and energyefficient solutions. On the base of the last large experimental monitoring results, it was possible to know the level of selected indoor chemicals occurrence, rank them as well as to predict the tendencies of occurrence and establish the priorities for the future. There has been very limited attention to rigorous analysis of buildings actual environmental impacts to date. Healthy/green/sustainable building practices are typically applied in unsystematic and inconsistent ways often without resolution of inherent conflicts between and among such practices. Designers, products manufacturers, constructors, and owners declare their buildings and the applied technologies to be beneficial to the environment without validating those claims.

  8. Climate Change Adopted Building Envelope as A Protector of Human Health in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Krystyna

    2017-10-01

    Recently, an expanded understanding of building performance acknowledges that all forces acting on buildings (climate, energies, information, and human agents) are not static and fixed, but rather mutable and transient. With the use of parametric and multi-criteria optimization digital tools, buildings’ envelopes can be designed to respond to various requirements. This paper explores the possibilities of architectural design to benefit human conditions, which encompasses mental well-being, environmental quality of life during the Climate Change era. The first part of the paper defines the main factors (such as: lack of green nature and sunlight, noise and pollution) which are influencing the formation of psychological disorder in big cities. The negative impact of these factors is constantly increasing in the time of Climate Change progressing. The second part presents results of the research program undertaken at West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin by author. The program goes on to attempt to solve the problem through architectural design. This study highlights a social problem, such as mental well-being, resulting from urbanization or effects of the climate change, and serves as a useful background for further research on the possibilities of redefining sustainable and human friendly design.

  9. A multi-criteria model for the comparison of building envelope energy retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Giuseppe; Fiore, Pierfrancesco

    2017-02-01

    In light of the current EU guidelines in the energy field, improving building envelope performance cannot be separated from the context of satisfying the environmental sustainability requirements, reducing the costs associated with the life cycle of the building as well as economic and financial feasibility. Therefore, identifying the "optimal" energy retrofit solutions requires the simultaneous assessment of several factors and thus becomes a problem of choice between several possible alternatives. To facilitate the work of the decision-makers, public or private, adequate decision support tools are of great importance. Starting from this need, a model based on the multi-criteria analysis "AHP" technique is proposed, along with the definition of three synthetic indices associated with the three requirements of "Energy Performance", "Sustainability Performance" and "Cost". From the weighted aggregation of the three indices, a global index of preference is obtained that allows to "quantify" the satisfaction level of the i-th alternative from the point of view of a particular group of decision-makers. The model is then applied, by way of example, to the case-study of the energetic redevelopment of a former factory, assuming its functional conversion. Twenty possible alternative interventions on the opaque vertical closures, resulting from the combination of three thermal insulators families (synthetic, natural and mineral) with four energy retrofitting techniques are compared and the results obtained critically discussed by considering the point of view of the three different groups of decision-makers.

  10. Isostatic lines’ study to optimize steel space grid envelope structures for tall buildings according to their solicitations

    OpenAIRE

    Señís López, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Based on the first study completed with wind tunnel tests, the aim of this paper is to define a second methodology for the optimization of steel space grid envelope structures for tall buildings according to their isostatic lines according to their solicitations. It is by means of the comparison NatHaz online database and numerical simulation research of wind flow repercussion in buildings, through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CDF), that we can understand and analyse the grid ...

  11. Design of the Building Envelope: A Novel Multi-Objective Approach for the Optimization of Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ascione

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the increasing worldwide attention to energy and the environmental performance of the building sector, building energy demand should be minimized by considering all energy uses. In this regard, the development of building components characterized by proper values of thermal transmittance, thermal capacity, and radiative properties is a key strategy to reduce the annual energy need for the microclimatic control. However, the design of the thermal characteristics of the building envelope is an arduous task, especially in temperate climates where the energy demands for space heating and cooling are balanced. This study presents a novel methodology for optimizing the thermo-physical properties of the building envelope and its coatings, in terms of thermal resistance, capacity, and radiative characteristics of exposed surfaces. A multi-objective approach is adopted in order to optimize energy performance and thermal comfort. The optimization problem is solved by means of a Genetic Algorithm implemented in MATLAB®, which is coupled with EnergyPlus for performing dynamic energy simulations. For demonstration, the methodology is applied to a residential building for two different Mediterranean climates: Naples and Istanbul. The results show that for Naples, because of the higher incidence of cooling demand, cool external coatings imply significant energy savings, whereas the insulation of walls should be high but not excessive (no more than 13–14 cm. The importance of high-reflective coating is clear also in colder Mediterranean climates, like Istanbul, although the optimal thicknesses of thermal insulation are higher (around 16–18 cm. In both climates, the thermal envelope should have a significant mass, obtainable by adopting dense and/or thick masonry layers. Globally, a careful design of the thermal envelope is always necessary in order to achieve high-efficiency buildings.

  12. Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Materials as an Energy Storage Medium in Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Abhari, Mr. Ramin [Renewable Energy Group, Inc.; Shukla, Dr. Nitin [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston; Kosny, Dr. Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston

    2015-01-01

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of phase change material (PCM) in building envelope systems. Several studies have reported the energy saving potential of PCM in building envelopes. However, wide application of PCMs in building applications has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel paraffin product made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application, with the ultimate goal of commercializing a low-cost PCM platform. The low-cost PCM pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation, installed in external walls and field-tested under natural weatherization conditions for a period of several months. In addition, several PCM samples and PCM-cellulose samples were prepared under controlled conditions for laboratory-scale testing. The laboratory tests were performed to determine the phase change properties of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. This article presents the data and analysis from the exterior test wall and the laboratory-scale test data. PCM behavior is influenced by the weather and interior conditions, PCM phase change temperature and PCM distribution within the wall cavity, among other factors. Under optimal conditions, the field data showed up to 20% reduction in weekly heat transfer through an external wall due to the PCM compared to cellulose-only insulation.

  13. Comparative effects of building envelope improvements and occupant behavioural changes on the exergy consumption for heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Shukuya, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    Much focus is put on measures to improve the building envelope system performance to reduce the impact of the building sector on the global environmental degradation. This paper compares the potential of building envelope improvements to those of a change in the occupant's behavioural pattern. Three cases of improvements together with a base case were analysed using exergy analysis, because the exergy concept is useful to understand the underlying processes and the necessary adjustments to the calculation of the heat-pump system. The assumptions for the occupant behaviour were set up based on our field measurements conducted in a dormitory building and the calculation was for steady-state conditions. It was found that the potential of occupant behavioural changes for the reduction in exergy consumption is more affected by the outdoor temperature compared to building envelope improvements. The influence of occupant behaviour was highly significant (more than 90% decrease of exergy consumption) when the temperature difference between indoors and outdoors is small, which is the case for long periods in regions with moderate temperatures during summer and/or winter. Nevertheless, both measures combined lead to a reduction from 76% up to 95% depending on the outside conditions and should be the final goal.

  14. Low-cost phase change material as an energy storage medium in building envelopes: Experimental and numerical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Abhari, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Testing of a low-cost bio-PCM in an exterior wall under varying weather conditions. • Numerical model validation and annual simulations of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. • Reduced wall-generated cooling electricity consumption due to the application of PCM. • PCM performance was sensitive to its location and distribution within the wall. - Abstract: A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of a phase change material (PCM) in the building envelope. Numerous studies over the last two decades have reported the energy saving potential of PCMs in building envelopes, but their wide application has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel PCM made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application. The PCM–HDPE pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation and then added to an exterior wall of a test building in a hot and humid climate, and tested over a period of several months. To demonstrate the efficacy of the PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation in reducing the building envelope heat gains and losses, a side-by-side comparison was performed with another wall section filled with cellulose-only insulation. Further, numerical modeling of the test wall was performed to determine the actual impact of the PCM–HDPE pellets on wall-generated heating and cooling loads and the associated electricity consumption. The model was first validated using experimental data and then used for annual simulations using typical meteorological year (TMY3) weather data. This article presents the experimental data and numerical analyses showing the energy-saving potential of the new PCM

  15. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  16. Quantifying the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2016-01-01

    Improper natural ventilation practices may deteriorate indoor air quality when in close proximity to roadways, although the intention is often to reduce energy consumption. In this study, we employed a CFD-based air quality model to quantify the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building. Our study found that the building envelope restricts dispersion and dilution of particulate matter. The indoor concentration in the baseline condition located 10m away from the roadway is roughly 16-21% greater than that at the edge of the roadway. The indoor flow recirculation creates a well-mixed zone with little variation in fine particle concentration (i.e., 253nm). For ultrafine particles (building, particle size, wind condition, and window size and location. A break-even point is observed at D'~2.1 (normalized distance from the roadway by the width of the road). The indoor particle concentration is greater than that at the highway where D'building planning, the distance from the roadway and the ambient wind condition need to be considered at the early design stage whereas the size and location of the window openings, the interior layout, and the placement of fresh air intakes are important to the indoor air quality of existing buildings adjacent to roadways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  18. Experimental building with new types of building envelope structures. Part 1: Structures/systems. Building system: Brick walls; Forsoegshus med nye typer klimaskaermskonstruktioner. Del 1: Konstruktioner/systemer - Byggesystem: Fuldmuret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The house described in this report is one of several experimental houses forming part of the project 'Experimental buildings with new types of building envelope structures'. One purpose of the project is to demonstrate that it is possible to build typical single-family houses with an energy consumption that meets expected increased building regulations. Furthermore, it is important that the houses can be made securely as regards construction technology and within reasonable financial limits. Thus, the purpose is also to contribute to strengthen the development of improved building envelope structures. Another purpose is to carry out detailed measurements of energy consumption in order to validate thermal performance of future building envelope structures. The report describes the constructive design and energy systems of the house plus heat loss calculations and expected energy consumption. (BA)

  19. Energy Performance and Optimal Control of Air-conditioned Buildings Integrated with Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na

    This thesis presents an overview of the previous research work on dynamic characteristics and energy performance of buildings due to the integration of PCMs. The research work on dynamic characteristics and energy performance of buildings using PCMs both with and without air-conditioning is reviewed. Since the particular interest in using PCMs for free cooling and peak load shifting, specific research efforts on both subjects are reviewed separately. A simplified physical dynamic model of building structures integrated with SSPCM (shaped-stabilized phase change material) is developed and validated in this study. The simplified physical model represents the wall by 3 resistances and 2 capacitances and the PCM layer by 4 resistances and 2 capacitances respectively while the key issue is the parameter identification of the model. This thesis also presents the studies on the thermodynamic characteristics of buildings enhanced by PCM and on the investigation of the impacts of PCM on the building cooling load and peak cooling demand at different climates and seasons as well as the optimal operation and control strategies to reduce the energy consumption and energy cost by reducing the air-conditioning energy consumption and peak load. An office building floor with typical variable air volume (VAV) air-conditioning system is used and simulated as the reference building in the comparison study. The envelopes of the studied building are further enhanced by integrating the PCM layers. The building system is tested in two selected cities of typical climates in China including Hong Kong and Beijing. The cold charge and discharge processes, the operation and control strategies of night ventilation and the air temperature set-point reset strategy for minimizing the energy consumption and electricity cost are studied. This thesis presents the simulation test platform, the test results on the cold storage and discharge processes, the air-conditioning energy consumption and demand

  20. Building Air Quality Guide: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Building Air Quality, developed by the EPA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, provides practical suggestions on preventing, identifying, and resolving indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in public and commercial buildings.

  1. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Fujrman, Jay [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Abdelaziz, Amar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    BTO works with researchers and industry to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. Air conditioning systems in buildings contribute to GHG emissions both directly through refrigerant emissions, as well as indirectly through fossil fuel combustion for power generation. BTO promotes pre-competitive research and development on next-generation HVAC technologies that support the phase down of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and consumption, as well as cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. DOE provides, with this report, a fact-based vision for the future of A/C use around the world. DOE intends for this vision to reflect a broad and balanced aggregation of perspectives. DOE brings together this content in an effort to support dialogue within the international community and help keep key facts and objectives at the forefront among the many important discussions.

  2. Measure Guideline. Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otis, Casey [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Maxwell, Sean [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

  3. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Attic Air Sealing Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored Guide to Attic Air Sealing by Building America research partner Building Science Corporation, which provides best practices for attic air sealing. The guide has had 21,000 views and 13,000 downloads since it was posted.

  5. Building occupancy diversity and HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zheng; Ghahramani, Ali; Becerik-Gerber, Burcin

    2016-01-01

    Approximately forty percent of total building energy consumption is attributed to HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems that aim to maintain healthy and comfortable indoor environments. An HVAC system is a network with several subsystems, and there exist heat transfer and balance among the zones of a building, as well as heat gains and losses through a building's envelope. Diverse occupancy (diversity in terms of when and how occupants occupy a building) in spaces could result in increase of loads that are not actual demands for an HVAC system, leading into inefficiencies. This paper introduces a framework to quantitatively evaluate the energy implications of occupancy diversity at the building level, where building information modeling is integrated to provide building geometries, HVAC system layouts, and spatial information as inputs for computing potential energy implications if occupancy diversity were to be eliminated. An agglomerate hierarchical clustering-based iterative evaluation algorithm is designed for iteratively eliminating occupancy diversity. Whole building energy simulations for a real-world building, as well as virtual reference buildings demonstrate that the proposed framework could effectively quantify the HVAC system energy efficiency affected by occupancy diversity and the framework is generalizable to different building geometries, layouts, and occupancy diversities. - Highlights: • Analyze relationships between occupancy diversity and HVAC energy efficiency. • Integrate BIM for quantifying energy implications of occupancy diversity. • Demonstrate the effectiveness and generalizability of iterative evaluation algorithm. • Improve agglomerative hierarchical clustering process using heap data structure.

  6. Building envelope regulations on thermal comfort in glass facade buildings and energy-saving potential for PMV-based comfort control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shu, Shiu-Ya [Department of Architecture, National United University, 1, Lien-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miaoli, 36003 (China)

    2011-04-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the effect of building envelope regulation on thermal comfort and on the energy-saving potential for PMV-based comfort control in glass facade buildings. Occurrences and severity of overheating, based on the PMV-PPD model contained in ISO 7730, were used for the thermal comfort assessment. Parametric study simulations for an actual building with a large glass facade were carried out to predict the changes in thermal comfort levels in a space due to different glazing types, depths of overhang and glazing areas, which are the key parameters of the building envelope regulation index, named ENVLOAD, in Taiwan. The result demonstrates that the ENVLOAD has significant effect on thermal comfort. Additionally, comparative simulations between PMV-based comfort control and conventional thermostatic control were performed to investigate the changes in the energy-saving potential of a thermal comfort-controlled space due to changes of its ENVLOAD. The results demonstrate that the energy-saving potential in a PMV-based controlled space increases with low ENVLOAD conditions. (author)

  7. Sensory evaluation of the air in 14 office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Schwab, R.; Mayer, E.

    1999-01-01

    The perceived air quality was assessed in eight mechanically and six naturally ventilated office buildings. On average, 44 offices were investigated in each building. A panel of 11 trained subjects assessed the perceived air quality in the spaces directly in the sensory unit decipol. The average...... perceived air quality in the 14 office buildings ranged from 3.4 to 7.8 decipol. The perceived air quality averaged 4.1 decipol in the mechanically ventilated buildings and 6.0 decipol in the naturally ventilated buildings. Within the buildings there was a large variation in perceived air quality between...... the offices. The results indicate that the occupants' behaviour is important for the pollution load and the air quality in offices....

  8. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  9. On the study of a sick building: the case of Athens Air Traffic Control Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assimakopoulos, V.D.; Helmis, C.G. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2004-07-01

    It is well known that in many cases the responsibility for the formation of the sick-building syndrome lies with the inappropriate envelope design, the misuse of the building by the inhabitants and the combination of indoor-outdoor pollution sources. In the case of Athens Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT), sick syndrome episodes were reported by the employees. In the present study, recently obtained indoor air quality measurements, during selected meteorological conditions, taken in the ATCT, are presented and discussed. These include concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which in many cases were thought responsible for the poor indoor environment. The measurements cover the indoor and outdoor environment of selected building regions, the ventilation systems and the plenum under the floor. The data indicates that there are certain places in the building where the VOCs concentrations were well above outdoor levels, while in others the concentrations were lower. Further analysis of the results showed that the central ventilation system is not sufficient for the building needs and that in some areas, either due to cleaning negligence or to the construction material used, VOCs pollution sources have developed. In order to eliminate these problems and to improve the indoor environment certain actions were taken. Following these interventions a second set of measurements were collected, inside and outside the ATCT building, which indicated a substantial improvement of the indoor air quality. (author)

  10. LDDX: A High Efficiency Air Conditioner for DOD Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Additional Benefits ........................................................................................................ 3 1.2.6 Deliverables...inadequate latent cooling can lead building managers to restrict ventilation to minimal levels that further compromise both the comfort and health of...bulb temperatures for outdoor air and return air respectively per ANSI/AHRI Standard 210/240 “Performance Rating of Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air

  11. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D. M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  12. Air tightness measurements in older Danish single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2017-01-01

    of the building envelope of older buildings despite the fact that the air tightness has a major influence on the energy use. In connection with renovation of the Danish building stock, the coming years will see increased focus on the air tightness of the building envelope like in other countries. This paper...

  13. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-04-12

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performing air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.

  14. Ventilation Positive Pressure Intervention Effect on Indoor Air Quality in a School Building with Moisture Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen-Winqvist, Camilla; Järvi, Kati; Toomla, Sander; Ahmed, Kaiser; Andersson, Maria A.; Mikkola, Raimo; Marik, Tamás; Salonen, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    This case study investigates the effects of ventilation intervention on measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a repaired school where occupants reported IAQ problems. Occupants’ symptoms were suspected to be related to the impurities leaked indoors through the building envelope. The study’s aim was to determine whether a positive pressure of 5–7 Pa prevents the infiltration of harmful chemical and microbiological agents from structures, thus decreasing symptoms and discomfort. Ventilation intervention was conducted in a building section comprising 12 classrooms and was completed with IAQ measurements and occupants’ questionnaires. After intervention, the concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased, and occupants’ negative perceptions became more moderate compared to those for other parts of the building. The indoor mycobiota differed in species composition from the outdoor mycobiota, and changed remarkably with the intervention, indicating that some species may have emanated from an indoor source before the intervention. PMID:29385772

  15. Ventilation Positive Pressure Intervention Effect on Indoor Air Quality in a School Building with Moisture Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen-Winqvist, Camilla; Järvi, Kati; Toomla, Sander; Ahmed, Kaiser; Andersson, Maria A; Mikkola, Raimo; Marik, Tamás; Kredics, László; Salonen, Heidi; Kurnitski, Jarek

    2018-01-30

    This case study investigates the effects of ventilation intervention on measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a repaired school where occupants reported IAQ problems. Occupants' symptoms were suspected to be related to the impurities leaked indoors through the building envelope. The study's aim was to determine whether a positive pressure of 5-7 Pa prevents the infiltration of harmful chemical and microbiological agents from structures, thus decreasing symptoms and discomfort. Ventilation intervention was conducted in a building section comprising 12 classrooms and was completed with IAQ measurements and occupants' questionnaires. After intervention, the concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) decreased, and occupants' negative perceptions became more moderate compared to those for other parts of the building. The indoor mycobiota differed in species composition from the outdoor mycobiota, and changed remarkably with the intervention, indicating that some species may have emanated from an indoor source before the intervention.

  16. State-of-the-art of intelligent building envelopes in the context of intelligent technical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böke, J.; Knaack, U.; Hemmerling, Marco

    2018-01-01

    The high and increasing requirements concerning energy consumption and the interior comfort of buildings result in a demand for more efficient façade constructions. In its role as a mediator between the exterior and interior of a building, the façade takes on a multitude of functions with effect

  17. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, K; Ono, S [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Computer Prediction of Air Quality in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Bjerg, Bjarne

    In modem livestock buildings the design of ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air quality. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air distribution makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry and heat sources in the design process. This paper...... presents numerical prediction of air flow in a livestock building compared with laboratory measurements. An example of the calculation of contaminant distribution is given, and the future possibilities of the method are discussed....

  19. Building Envelope Thermal Performance Assessment Using Visual Programming and BIM, based on ETTV requirement of Green Mark and GreenRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taki Eddine Seghier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accomplishment of green building design requirements and the achievement of the targeted credit points under a specific green rating system are known to be a task that is very challenging. Building Information Modeling (BIM design process and tools have already made considerable advancements in green building design and performance analysis. However, Green building design process is still lack of tools and workflows that can provide real-time feedback of building sustainability and rating during the design stage. In this paper, a new workflow of green building design assessment and rating is proposed based on the integration of Visual Programing Language (VPL and BIM. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a BIM-VPL based tool for building envelope design and assessment support. The focus performance metric in this research is building Envelope Thermal Transfer Value (ETTV which is an Energy Efficiency (EE prerequisite requirement (up to 15 credits in both Green Mark and GreenRE rating systems. The development of the tool begins first by creating a generic integration framework between BIM-VPL functionalities and ETTV requirements. Then, data is extracted from the BIM 3D model and managed using Revit, Excel and Dynamo for visual scripting. A sample project consisting of a hypothetical residential building is run and its envelope ETTV performance and rating score are obtained for the validation of the tool. This tool will support project team in building envelope design and assessment by allowing them to select the most appropriate façade configuration according to its performance efficiency and the green rating. Furthermore, this tool serves as proof of concept that building sustainability rating and compliance checking can be automatically processed through customized workflows developed based on BIM and VPL technologies.

  20. Relationships between air-tightness and its influencing factors of post-2006 new-build dwellings in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei [School of Architecture, Design and Environment, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Addressing air leakage of dwellings is important to improving energy efficiency and thermal comfort. This paper reports on the air permeability test results of 287 post-2006 new-build dwellings in the UK. The paper explores the relationships between air-tightness and its influencing factors including build method, dwelling type, management context, design target, season, number of significant penetrations, and envelope and floor area. One-way ANOVA analysis was utilised to compare means of air permeability in relation to the individual factors, and two- and three-way ANOVA analyses were applied for examining the interactions between them. The air-tightness of the dwellings averaged 5.97 m{sup 3}/(h m{sup 2}) at 50 Pa, which has improved from UK historic data. Dwellings built using precast concrete panels were significantly air-tighter than those built using timber frame, whilst those masonry and reinforced concrete frame dwellings were most leaky. Greater extent of innovative practice and 'self-build' procurement led to achieving superior air-tightness. Interaction was observed between 'build method' and 'dwelling type' and between 'dwelling type' and 'management context'. A modest positive correlation was noticed between air permeability and design target, which became weak in relation to the number of significant penetrations and envelope area. Applying the linear regression technique a predictive model is developed for estimating air permeability of dwellings. This model integrates the influencing factors and their significant interactions. The findings should contribute to future research in predicting impacts of controlling the influencing factors on achieving air-tightness of dwellings more consistently. (author)

  1. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J P

    1997-12-31

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively.

  2. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively

  3. Carbon footprint of a reflective foil and comparison with other solutions for thermal insulation in building envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proietti, Stefania; Desideri, Umberto; Sdringola, Paolo; Zepparelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Environmental and energy assessment of thermal insulating materials in building envelope. ► Carbon footprint of a reflective foil, conceived and produced by an Italian company. ► Study conducted according to principles of LCA – Life Cycle Assessment. ► Identification of main impacting processes and measures for reducing emissions. ► Comparison with traditional insulating materials (EPS and rockwool). - Abstract: The present study aims at assessing environmental and energy compatibility of different solutions of thermal insulation in building envelope. In fact a good insulation results in a reduction of heating/cooling energy consumptions; on the other hand construction materials undergo production, transformation and transport processes, whose energy and resources consumptions may lead to a significant decrease of the environmental benefits. The paper presents a detailed carbon footprint of a product (CFP, defined as the sum of greenhouse gas emissions and removals of a product system, expressed in CO 2 equivalents), which is a reflective foil conceived and produced by an Italian company. CFP can be seen as a Life Cycle Assessment with climate change as the single impact category; it does not assess other potential social, economic and environmental impacts arising from the provision of products. The analysis considers all stages of the life cycle, from the extraction of raw materials to the product’s disposal, i.e. “from cradle to grave”; it was carried out according to UNI EN ISO 14040 and 14044, and LCA modelling was performed using SimaPro software tool. On the basis of obtained results, different measures have been proposed in order to reduce emissions in the life cycle and neutralize residual carbon footprint. The results allowed to make an important comparison concerning the environmental performance of the reflective foil in comparison with other types of insulating materials

  4. Evaluation of Various Retrofitting Concepts of Building Envelope for Offices Equipped with Large Radiant Ceiling Panels by Dynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model were added, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for office retrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.

  5. Building air quality: A guide for building owners and facility managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The guide was intended to help those individuals responsible for air quality control in buildings to prevent indoor air quality problems from developing and resolving such problems quickly should they develop. Background information and guidance on dealing with indoor air quality problems were provided. Specific topics included: factors which affect indoor air quality; sources of indoor air contaminants; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; the role of building occupants; effective communication between managers and others involved; developing an indoor air quality (IAQ) profile; managing a building for good IAQ; diagnosing IAQ problems; mitigating IAQ problems, hiring professional assistance to solve an IAQ problem; common IAQ measurements; HVAC systems and IAQ; moisture with resultant mold and mildew conditions; asbestos (1332214); radon (10043922); and resources through which additional information can be obtained. Indoor air quality forms were included which can be modified to meet individual needs

  6. PCM/wood composite to store thermal energy in passive building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, C.; Vecstaudza, J.; Bajare, D.; Fernandez, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    The development of new materials to store thermal energy in a passive building system is a must to improve the thermal efficiency by thermal-regulating the indoor temperatures. This fact will deal with the reduction of the gap between energy supply and energy demand to achieve thermal comfort in building indoors. The aim of this work was to test properties of novel PCM/wood composite materials developed at Riga Technical University. Impregnation of PCM (phase change material) in wood increases its thermal mass and regulates temperature fluctuations during day and night. The PCM used are paraffin waxes (RT-21 and RT-27 from Rubitherm) and the wood used was black alder, the most common wood in Latvia. The PCM distribution inside wood sample has been studied as well as its thermophysical, mechanical and fire reaction properties. Developed composite materials are promising in the field of energy saving in buildings.

  7. Green, Clean, & Mean: Pushing the Energy Envelope in Tech Industry Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Rengie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Diamond, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Haves, Philip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nordman, Bruce [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Gerald [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    When it comes to innovation in energy and building performance, one can expect leading-edge activity from the technology sector. As front-line innovators in design, materials science, and information management, developing and operating high-performance buildings is a natural extension of their core business. The energy choices made by technology companies have broad importance given their influence on society at large as well as the extent of their own energy footprint. Microsoft, for example, has approximately 250 facilities around the world (30 million square feet of floor area), with significant aggregate energy use of approximately 4 million kilowatt-hours per day (Figure 1).

  8. Active House: an all active eco-architecture building envelope concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present trend in energy efficient eco-architecture dwellings is the passive house concept. The ventilation of many of these passive houses is critical. The development of sustainable buildings is driven by the need to preserve the balance of nature. The ventilation of many of these passive

  9. Application of Surrogate Models for Building Envelope Design Exploration and Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.; Šileryte, R.; D'Aquilio, A.; Turrin, M.; Attar, Ramtin; Chronis, Angelos; Hanna, Sean; Turrin, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Building performance simulations are usually timeconsuming. They may account for the major portion of time spent in Computational Design Optimization (CDO), for instance, annual hourly daylight and energy simulations. In this case, the optimization may become less efficient or even infeasible within

  10. Cool products for building envelope - Part I: Development and lab scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revel, G.M.; Martarelli, M.; Emiliani, M.; Gozalbo, A.; Orts, M.J.; Bengochea, M.T.; Guaita Delgado, L.; Gaki, A.; Katsiapi, A.; Taxiarchou, M.; Arabatzis, I.; Fasaki, I.; Hermanns, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology followed for the development of new cool products in order to widen the range of existing solutions both including coloured (even dark) materials and extending the application also to building vertical components. Cool coloured ceramic tiles and acrylic paints for

  11. Indoor Air Quality and Thermal Comfort in School Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents results to thermal comfort and environment quality questions in 21 school building rooms. Results show that about 80% of the occupants expressed satisfaction with their thermal comfort in only 11% of the buildings surveyed. Air quality scores were somewhat higher, with 26% of buildings having 80% or occupant satisfaction. With respect to thermal comfort and air quality performance goals set out by standards, most buildings appear to be falling far short. Occupant surveys offer a means to systematically measure this performance, and also to provide diagnostic information for building designers and operators. The odours from building materials as well as human odours were studied by field measurement. The odour intensity and indoor air acceptability were assessed by a sensory panel. The concentrations of total volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide were measured. The odours from occupancy and building materials were studied under different air change rate. The case study of indoor air acceptability concerning to indoor odours and its effect on perceived air quality are also presented in this paper.

  12. Air quality in low-ventilated museum storage buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Aasbjerg Jensen, Lars; Klenz Larsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Modern low-energy museum storage buildings are often designed for a low air exchange rate, on the order of less than 1 exchange per day. We investigated how this affected the indoor air quality in six Danish museum storage buildings. The infiltration of ambient pollutants, and the level to which...... internally-generated pollutants accumulate, were measured by passive sampling of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and organic acids. The air exchange rates and the interchange of air between storage rooms were measured by the per-fluorocarbon tracer gas method. Ambient pollutants were reduced in concentration...

  13. Performance Evaluation of Modern Building Thermal Envelope Designs in the Semi-Arid Continental Climate of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the thermal performance of a range of modern wall constructions used in the residential buildings of Tehran in order to find the most appropriate alternative to the traditional un-fired clay and brick materials, which are increasingly being replaced in favor of more slender wall constructions employing hollow clay, autoclaved aerated concrete or light expanded clay aggregate blocks. The importance of improving the building envelope through estimating the potential for energy saving due to the application of the most energy-efficient wall type is presented and the wall constructions currently erected in Tehran are introduced along with their dynamic and steady-state thermal properties. The application of a dynamic simulation tool is explained and the output of the thermal simulation model is compared with the dynamic thermal properties of the wall constructions to assess their performance in summer and in winter. Finally, the best and worst wall type in terms of their cyclic thermal performance and their ability to moderate outdoor conditions is identified through comparison of the predicted indoor temperature and a target comfort temperature.

  14. Indoor Air Quality of Residential Building Before and After Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánka, Imrich; Földváry, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of energy renovation on the indoor air quality of an apartment building during the heating season. The study was performed in one residential building before and after its renovation. An evaluation of the indoor air quality was performed using objective measurements and a subjective survey. The concentration of CO2 was measured in the bedrooms, and a sampling of the total volatile compounds (TVOC) was performed in the living rooms of the selected apartments. Higher concentrations of CO2 and TVOC were observed in the residential building after its renovation. The concentrations of CO2, and TVOC in some of the cases exceeded the recommended maximum limits, especially after implementing energy-saving measures on the building. The average air exchange rate was visibly higher before the renovation of the building. The current study indicates that large-scale renovations may reduce the quality of an indoor environment in many apartments, especially in the winter season.

  15. Combating the 'Sick Building Syndrome' by Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchai Nimcharoenwon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that many of symptoms attributed to the Sick Building Syndrome in air-conditioned office buildings are a result of considerably reduced negative ions in the internal atmosphere and that replacing the depleted negative ions can improve indoor air quality. This paper describes a method used to develop a formula (DOF-NIL formula for calculating the amount of negative ions to be added to air-conditioned buildings, to improve air quality. The formula enables estimates to be made based on how negative ions in the air are reduced by three main factors namely, Video Display Terminals (VDT; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC and Building Contents (BC. Calculations for a typical air-conditioned office, are compared with an Air Ion Counter instrument. The results show that the formula, when applied to a typical air-conditioned office, provides an accurate estimate for design purposes. The typical rate of additional negative-ions (ion-generating for a negative ion condition is found to be approximately 12.0 billion ions/hr for at least 4 hour ion-generating.

  16. Annual energy analysis of concrete containing phase change materials for building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Alexander M.; Jamet, Astrid; Sant, Gaurav; Pilon, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adding PCM to concrete walls can significantly reduce the cooling needs of buildings. • Climate, season, and wall orientation strongly affect energy and cost savings. • The PCM melting temperature should be near the desired indoor temperature. • Benefits are maximum for outdoor temperature oscillating around set indoor temperature. • Adding PCM had little effect on heating energy needs and associated cost savings. - Abstract: This paper examines the annual energy and cost savings potential of adding microencapsulated phase change material to the exterior concrete walls of an average-sized single family home in California climate zones 3 (San Francisco, CA) and 9 (Los Angeles, CA). The annual energy and cost savings were larger for South- and West-facing walls than for other walls. They were also the largest when the phase change temperature was near the desired indoor temperature. The addition of microencapsulated phase change material to the building walls reduced the cooling load in summer substantially more than the heating load in winter. This was attributed to the cold winter temperatures resulting in nearly unidirectional heat flux on many days. The annual cooling load reduction in an average-sized single family home in San Francisco and in Los Angeles ranged from 85% to 100% and from 53% to 82%, respectively, for phase change material volume fraction ranging from 0.1 to 0.3. The corresponding annual electricity cost savings ranged from $36 to $42 in San Francisco and from $94 to $143 in Los Angeles. From an energy standpoint, the best climate for using building materials containing uniformly distributed microencapsulated phase change material would have outdoor temperature oscillations centered around the desired indoor temperature for the entire year

  17. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program. Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation wrote a report on Phase 1 of the project that summarized a condition assessment of the homes and evaluated retrofit options within the constraints of the cooperative provided by GHI. Phase 2 was completed following monitoring in the 2013–2014 winter season; the results are summarized in this report. Phase 3 upgrades of heating equipment will be implemented in time for the 2014–2015 heating season and are not part of this report.

  18. Ten questions concerning green buildings and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinemann, Anne; Wargocki, Pawel; Rismanchi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the concern that green buildings may promote energy efficiency and other aspects of sustainability, but not necessarily the health and well-being of occupants through better indoor air quality (IAQ). We ask ten questions to explore IAQ challenges for green buildings as well...... as opportunities to improve IAQ within green buildings and their programs. Our focus is on IAQ, while recognizing that many factors influence human health and the healthfulness of a building. We begin with an overview of green buildings, IAQ, and whether and how green building certifications address IAQ. Next, we...... examine evidence on whether green buildings have better IAQ than comparable conventional buildings. Then, we identify so-called green practices and green products that can have unintended and unfavorable effects on IAQ. Looking ahead, we offer both immediate and longer-term actions, and a set of research...

  19. Strategy for good perceived air quality in sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik N; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Source control has been shown to be an effective strategy for improving air quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare the potential for achieving an improved perceived indoor air quality by selecting less-polluting building materials or by increasing the ventilati...

  20. CFD Simulation of Air Velocity Distribution in Occupied Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Zhang, G.; Bjerg, B.

    In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants in the de......In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants....... In this study laboratory measurements in a ventilated test room with "pig simulators" are compared with CFD-simulations....

  1. Analysis of energy efficiency retrofit schemes for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems in existing office buildings based on the modified bin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Ding, Yan; Geng, Geng; Zhu, Neng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified bin method is adopted to propose and optimize the EER schemes. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the analysis procedures of EER schemes. • Pertinent EER schemes for HVAC systems are proposed for the object building. - Abstract: Poor thermal performance of building envelop and low efficiencies of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can always be found in the existing office buildings with large energy consumption. This paper adopted a modified bin method to propose and optimize the energy efficiency retrofit (EER) schemes. An existing office building in Tianjin was selected as an example to demonstrate the procedures of formulating the design scheme. Pertinent retrofit schemes for HVAC system were proposed after the retrofit of building envelop. With comprehensive consideration of energy efficiency and economic benefits, the recommended scheme that could improve the overall energy efficiency by 71.20% was determined

  2. A multi-objective optimization model for energy-efficiency building envelope retrofitting plan with rooftop PV system installation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yuling; Xia, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective optimization model for building envelope retrofit is presented. • Facility performance degradation and maintenance is built into the model. • A rooftop PV system is introduced to produce electricity. • Economic factors including net present value and payback period are considered. - Abstract: Retrofitting existing buildings with energy-efficient facilities is an effective method to improve their energy efficiency, especially for old buildings. A multi-objective optimization model for building envelope retrofitting is presented. Envelope components including windows, external walls and roofs are considered to be retrofitted. Installation of a rooftop solar panel system is also taken into consideration in this study. Rooftop solar panels are modeled with their degradation and a maintenance scheme is studied for sustainability of energy and its long-term effect on the retrofitting plan. The purpose is to make the best use of financial investment to maximize energy savings and economic benefits. In particular, net present value, the payback period and energy savings are taken as the main performance indicators of the retrofitting plan. The multi-objective optimization problem is formulated as a non-linear integer programming problem and solved by a weighted sum method. Results of applying the designed retrofitting plan to a 50-year-old building consisting of 66 apartments demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  3. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A. [Thornton Energy Consulting (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Efficiency Solutions (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  4. Build Your Own Solar Air Heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The solar air heater is a simple device for catching some of the sun's energy to heat a home. Procedures for making and installing such a heater are presented. Included is a materials list, including tools needed for constructing the heater, sources for obtaining further details, and a list of material specifications. (JN)

  5. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  6. Optimization of sustainable buildings envelopes for extensive sheep farming through the use of dynamic energy simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Menconi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive sheep farming can be seen as a marginal market, compared to other livestock and agricultural activities, taking into account only the economic absolute values. But for many rural marginal areas within the European Community member states, in particular for those located in the Mediterranean area on hills or mountains with high landscape value, extensive sheep farming is not only the longest practiced animal farming activity, but also the most interesting considering its adaptability to the territorial morphology and the restrictions that have been established over the years in terms of sustainable rural development practices. At the moment, most of the structures used in this type of farming are built using low cost and sometimes recycled, but often unsuitable, materials. Few specific studies have been carried out on this particular issue assuming, presumably, that the very low profit margins of these activities made impossible any restructuring. Taken this into account, the new Rural Development Plans that will be issued in 2014 will surely contain some measure dedicated to innovations in farming structures and technology towards facilitating the application of the principles of energy optimization. This is the framework in which the present research has developed. The software that has been applied to perform the energy optimization analysis is the dynamic energy simulation engine Energy Plus. A case study farm has been identified in the small village of Ceseggi (PG, situated in Central Italy. For the case study optimum thermo hygrometric conditions have been identified to ensure the welfare of animals and operators and it has been hypothesized the insertion of an ideal HVAC system to achieve them. Afterwards were evaluated the different energy requirements of the building while varying the insulation material used on the vertical surfaces. The greater goal is to verify which could be the best insulation material for vertical

  7. Bibliography for the Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  8. Links Related to the Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  9. Biocompuestos para perfiles avanzados adaptados a la edificación = Biocomposites for Advanced Profiles Adapted to Building Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compuestos alternativos en el sector de la envolvente se obtienen por extrusión de estirado de secciones y perfiles de panel de enclavamiento estrechas. Estos elementos estructurales, resistentes al impacto, tienen la ventaja de una instalación más rápida y segura, y su diseño modular les hace idóneos para muchos edificios y otras aplicaciones. Un desarrollo adicional en esta área puede ser la obtención de una alternativa sostenible a los perfiles compuestos actuales. Estudios anteriores han demostrado que los compuestos fabricados a partir de materiales naturales tales como fibras y polímeros bio-derivados, ofrecen una alternativa sostenible a los polímeros y materiales compuestos tradicionales. El objetivo de este desarrollo es reemplazar el típico perfil de acero ligero. Los perfiles de acabado también se pueden utilizar para terminar tabiques de mampostería existentes, revestimiento de ejes mecánicos y de extracción y revestimiento de la columna. Los perfiles se han diseñado utilizando bio-polímeros, reforzados con fibras naturales. Se han establecido los parámetros de procesamiento y las formulaciones apropiadas de bioresina y fibras naturales. También se ha evaluado la adaptación de las técnicas de procesamiento de pultrusión existentes a las características concretas de los nuevos biomateriales y fibras naturales. Como resultado, los perfiles de pultrusión adaptados a la construcción se han desarrollado con la incorporación de nuevos materiales y biomateriales basados en resina. Abstract An alternative composites answer in the envelope sector is the fabrication by pultrusion of narrow interlocking panel sections and profiles. These impact-resistant structural elements have the advantage of quicker, safer installation and their modular design equally answers many identical building and other applications¡Error! No se encuentra el origen de la referencia.. An additional development in this area can be the

  10. A systematic indoor air quality audit approach for public buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Ehsan; da Silva, Manuel C Gameiro; Costa, J J

    2013-01-01

    Good indoor air quality (IAQ) in buildings provides a comfortable and healthy environment for the occupants to work, learn, study, etc. Therefore, it is important to ascertain the IAQ status in the buildings. This study is aimed to establish and demonstrate the comprehensive IAQ audit approach for public buildings, based on Portugal national laws. Four public buildings in Portugal are used to demonstrate the IAQ audit application. The systematic approach involves the measurement of physical parameters (temperature, relative humidity, and concentration of the suspended particulate matter), monitoring of the concentrations of selected chemical indicators [carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, ozone, and total volatile organic compounds], and the measurements of biological indicators (bacteria and fungi). In addition, air exchange rates are measured by the concentration decay method using metabolic CO(2) as the tracer gas. The comprehensive audits indicated some situations of common IAQ problems in buildings, namely: (1) insufficient ventilation rate, (2) too high particle concentration; and (3) poor filtration effectiveness and hygienic conditions in most of the air handling units. Accordingly, a set of recommendations for the improvement of IAQ conditions were advised to the building owner/managers.

  11. Indoor air quality in energy efficient buildings. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Judith; Berge, Magnar

    2012-07-01

    There is currently a major focus on measures to reduce global warming. Several international studies show that the energy efficiency of buildings is the easiest and most cost-effective climate action. Passive houses are characterized of that the buildings are more airtight, have more insulation and has balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. This report discusses about this one-sided focus on energy conservation, and if {sup c}hange{sup }in building methods can have a negative impact on indoor air quality and people's health. (Author)

  12. Translucent insulating building envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Jens Eg

    1997-01-01

    A new type of translucent insulating material has been tested. This material is made of Celulose-Acetat and have a honey-comb structure. The material has a high solar transmittance and is highly insulating. The material is relatively cheap to produce. Danish Title: Translucent isolerende klimaskærm....

  13. Requirements of air conditioners for office buildings. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1988-02-01

    Presenting numerous explanatory diagrams part two of the report deals with auxiliary ventilation systems (mechanical systems); the influence of different ventilation circuits on the air quality (particle concentration, floor and ceiling air outlets); the requirements of heating systems (dimensioning of heating systems, effects of ventilation systems on the heat demand, reduced heat demand owing to auxiliary ventilation systems); the requirements of cooling (cooling loads in office buildings, room temperatures in the case of natural cooling, auxiliary ventilation systems, and cooling by means of refrigerators, floor/ceiling cooling systems); permissible ambient air velocities (complaints about draughts). Bottom-to-top ventilation circuits were found to provide for better air qualities and lower ambient air velocities without increasing the systems' energy demand. (HWJ).

  14. Air Dispersion Modeling for Building 3026C/D Demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Sjoreen, Andrea L [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    This report presents estimates of dispersion coefficients and effective dose for potential air dispersion scenarios of uncontrolled releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) buildings 3026C, 3026D, and 3140 prior to or during the demolition of the 3026 Complex. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD system1-6 was used to compute these estimates. AERMOD stands for AERMIC Model, where AERMIC is the American Meteorological Society-EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee. Five source locations (three in building 3026D and one each in building 3026C and the filter house 3140) and associated source characteristics were determined with the customer. In addition, the area of study was determined and building footprints and intake locations of air-handling systems were obtained. In addition to the air intakes, receptor sites consisting of ground level locations on four polar grids (50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 500 m) and two intersecting lines of points (50 m separation), corresponding to sidewalks along Central Avenue and Fifth Street. Three years of meteorological data (2006 2008) were used each consisting of three datasets: 1) National Weather Service data; 2) upper air data for the Knoxville-Oak Ridge area; and 3) local weather data from Tower C (10 m, 30 m and 100 m) on the ORNL reservation. Annual average air concentration, highest 1 h average and highest 3 h average air concentrations were computed using AERMOD for the five source locations for the three years of meteorological data. The highest 1 h average air concentrations were converted to dispersion coefficients to characterize the atmospheric dispersion as the customer was interested in the most significant response and the highest 1 h average data reflects the best time-averaged values available from the AERMOD code. Results are presented in tabular and graphical form. The results for dose were obtained using radionuclide activities for each of the buildings provided by the customer.7

  15. Ventilation Positive Pressure Intervention Effect on Indoor Air Quality in a School Building with Moisture Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Vornanen-Winqvist

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigates the effects of ventilation intervention on measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ in a repaired school where occupants reported IAQ problems. Occupants’ symptoms were suspected to be related to the impurities leaked indoors through the building envelope. The study’s aim was to determine whether a positive pressure of 5–7 Pa prevents the infiltration of harmful chemical and microbiological agents from structures, thus decreasing symptoms and discomfort. Ventilation intervention was conducted in a building section comprising 12 classrooms and was completed with IAQ measurements and occupants’ questionnaires. After intervention, the concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 decreased, and occupants’ negative perceptions became more moderate compared to those for other parts of the building. The indoor mycobiota differed in species composition from the outdoor mycobiota, and changed remarkably with the intervention, indicating that some species may have emanated from an indoor source before the intervention.

  16. CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Renewables in a changing climate - Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems; CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Energies renouvelables et climat - Enveloppes et systemes environnementaux innovatifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scartezzini, J L [ed.

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings include the contributions presented at the 2005 CISBAT conference, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. Hosted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne and jointly organised by the Solar Energy and Buildings Physics Laboratory at the EPFL, Cambridge University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), this international conference looked at 'Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems'. Along with three keynote presentations on climate change, the use of renewables in the European Union and Swiss policies on solar energy, these 632-page conference proceedings include the conference's 106 presentations grouped in 10 sections. These cover the following topics: Design and renovation of building envelopes (33 contributions); solar collectors (16 contributions); active and passive cooling (9 contributions); indoor environment quality and health (10 contributions); optimisation of daylighting and electric lighting (5 contributions); advanced building control systems (2 contributions); environmental impacts of construction (4 contributions); networks and decentralised energy production (1 contribution); sustainable urban development (12 contributions) and software and new information technologies (14 contributions). Organised each second year, the two-day CISBAT international conference 2005 attracted more than 200 participants from all over the world.

  17. CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Renewables in a changing climate - Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems; CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Energies renouvelables et climat - Enveloppes et systemes environnementaux innovatifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scartezzini, J. L. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings include the contributions presented at the 2005 CISBAT conference, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. Hosted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne and jointly organised by the Solar Energy and Buildings Physics Laboratory at the EPFL, Cambridge University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), this international conference looked at 'Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems'. Along with three keynote presentations on climate change, the use of renewables in the European Union and Swiss policies on solar energy, these 632-page conference proceedings include the conference's 106 presentations grouped in 10 sections. These cover the following topics: Design and renovation of building envelopes (33 contributions); solar collectors (16 contributions); active and passive cooling (9 contributions); indoor environment quality and health (10 contributions); optimisation of daylighting and electric lighting (5 contributions); advanced building control systems (2 contributions); environmental impacts of construction (4 contributions); networks and decentralised energy production (1 contribution); sustainable urban development (12 contributions) and software and new information technologies (14 contributions). Organised each second year, the two-day CISBAT international conference 2005 attracted more than 200 participants from all over the world.

  18. Guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriske, Heinz-Joern; Szewzyk, Regine (eds.)

    2008-08-15

    The new guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings are intended as a response to current requirements in school practice. The recommendations aim to help to avoid mistakes in modernising school buildings and to provide hygiene-specific support in planning of new school buildings. The guidelines are laid out as follows: (a) In the general section the targets of the guidelines and the target groups are addressed. The current indoor hygiene situation in German schools is described, followed by the parameters with regard to peripheral issues which will not be dealt with further; (b) Part A deals with the hygiene requirements in the practical running of schools. Besides general requirements for maintenance and operation the important issues of cleaning and ventilation are considered, as well as minor building works; (c) Part B provides an overview of important chemical and biological contaminants in schools; (d) Part C looks at building and air conditioning requirements. The important issues of acoustic requirements is also addressed; (e) Part D shows how to deal practically with problem cases and list case studies with 'typical' procedures; (f) Part E provides a brief overview of existing renovation guidelines.

  19. Guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriske, Heinz-Joern; Szewzyk, Regine [eds.

    2008-08-15

    The new guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings are intended as a response to current requirements in school practice. The recommendations aim to help to avoid mistakes in modernising school buildings and to provide hygiene-specific support in planning of new school buildings. The guidelines are laid out as follows: (a) In the general section the targets of the guidelines and the target groups are addressed. The current indoor hygiene situation in German schools is described, followed by the parameters with regard to peripheral issues which will not be dealt with further; (b) Part A deals with the hygiene requirements in the practical running of schools. Besides general requirements for maintenance and operation the important issues of cleaning and ventilation are considered, as well as minor building works; (c) Part B provides an overview of important chemical and biological contaminants in schools; (d) Part C looks at building and air conditioning requirements. The important issues of acoustic requirements is also addressed; (e) Part D shows how to deal practically with problem cases and list case studies with 'typical' procedures; (f) Part E provides a brief overview of existing renovation guidelines.

  20. Relationship of Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollutants in a Naturally Ventilated Historical Building Envelope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    López-Aparicio, S.; Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila; Součková, M.; Grøntoft, T.; Ondráčková, Lucie; Stankiewicz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 7 (2011), s. 1460-1468 ISSN 0360-1323 Grant - others:MF NF(CZ) A/CZ0046/2/0001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : indoor/outdoor ration * natural ventilation * ammonia Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.400, year: 2011

  1. On Innovative Cool-Colored Materials for Building Envelopes: Balancing the Architectural Appearance and the Thermal-Energy Performance in Historical Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Rosso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Architectural expression and energy performance are key decision-drivers in the selection of a particular construction element, with the purpose of Urban Heat Island mitigation, energy-consumption reductions, and cultural heritage preservation in historical centers. In historical centers, the external layer of the envelope and the visible parts of the building are built with traditional materials and technological solutions, such as single-layer walls or brickworks, depending on the country’s context, while the energy performance is usually optimized by means of internal insulation layers, or other active and passive solutions. Thermal-energy efficient materials and construction elements for the temperate, warm climate of the Mediterranean area are usually light-colored to reflect the largest part of solar radiation, thus reducing energy demands for cooling and improving thermal comfort conditions for occupants. On the other hand, many historical centers in such areas are characterized by reddish or grayish colors. In this work, we considered Italian historical areas, and other countries in the Mediterranean area with present similar situations. Thus, in this study, innovative, cool-colored, cement-based materials were developed to improve the thermal-energy performance of the external envelope of historical/historic built environments, without altering their appearance. These materials were prepared directly on-site, by mixing two types of pigments to achieve the desired color saturation. Optic and thermal properties were assessed, and yearly dynamic simulations of a historic, listed, case study building were performed, by comparing traditional-colored mortar and the prototype cool mortar envelopes. The research demonstrates that such cool-colored materials can maintain lower surface temperatures (−8 °C, while reducing energy demands for cooling (−3%.

  2. Kinetic Super-Resolution Long-Wave Infrared (KSR LWIR) Thermography Diagnostic for Building Envelopes: Scott AFB, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    structures. The system software au- tomatically analyzes the thermal imagery and provides a custom report for each building that recommends cost-effective...possible using traditional thermogra- phy. This includes building facade data and building orientation. The au- tomated data processing system also

  3. Air solar collectors in building use - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Andrei-Stelian; Labihi, Abdelouhab; Croitoru, Cristiana; Catalina, Tiberiu

    2018-02-01

    In the current energy and environmental context it is imperative to implement systems based on renewable energy sources in order to reduce energy consumptions worldwide. Solar collectors are studied by many years and many researchers are focusing their attention in order to increase their efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Water solar collectors are often implemented for domestic hot water, heating or industrial processes and already have a place on the market. A promising system which is not yet widely known is represented by air solar collectors that could represent an efficient way to use the solar energy with a lower investment cost, a system that can be used in order to preheat the fresh air required for heating, drying, or to maintain a minimum temperature during winter. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on air solar collectors used mainly in buildings, acting as a solar wall. Air solar collectors are roughly classified into two types: glazed and opaque. The present study comprises the solar collector classification, applications and their main parameters with a special focus on opaque solar collectors.

  4. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2009-04-16

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  5. Air solar collectors in building use - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejan Andrei-Stelian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current energy and environmental context it is imperative to implement systems based on renewable energy sources in order to reduce energy consumptions worldwide. Solar collectors are studied by many years and many researchers are focusing their attention in order to increase their efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Water solar collectors are often implemented for domestic hot water, heating or industrial processes and already have a place on the market. A promising system which is not yet widely known is represented by air solar collectors that could represent an efficient way to use the solar energy with a lower investment cost, a system that can be used in order to preheat the fresh air required for heating, drying, or to maintain a minimum temperature during winter. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on air solar collectors used mainly in buildings, acting as a solar wall. Air solar collectors are roughly classified into two types: glazed and opaque. The present study comprises the solar collector classification, applications and their main parameters with a special focus on opaque solar collectors.

  6. Estimation of heat rejection based on the air conditioner use time and its mitigation from buildings in Taipei City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chun-Ming; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Urban Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The main work in the research focuses on the analysis and mitigation of the anthropogenic heat discharged from buildings, which is one of the main reasons leading to the heat island effect. The residential and commercial buildings, divided into 10 categories, with HVAC systems were analyzed by the building energy program, EnergyPlus. With the help of GIS, the heat rejection of all the residential and commercial buildings in DaAn Ward of Taipei City were evaluated, in which the spatial data and diurnal variation of the heat rejection were described by 3-h time periods. Furthermore, the effect of mitigation strategies was discussed. The first strategy was to change the wall/roof material of building envelope. The second and third strategies, from the viewpoint of energy saving, were to change the temperature setting of air conditioners and to turn off the lighting and equipment when not in use. The fourth strategy was to use a better efficiency of the cooling systems. Finally, the evaluation of installing the water-cooled cooling system, which discharges heat in the form of sensible and latent heat, was also included. (author)

  7. Environmental Assessment, Buildings 4133 and Building 4143, Historic Building Demolitions, Barksdale Air Foce Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Civil Engineer Center (AFCEC),JBSA Lackland,TX,78236 8... PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...Recreation 142 0.6 Softball fields, tennis courts, football field, parks/picnic areas, FamCamp, pools, golf course Open Space 16,450 75.0 Conservation

  8. 241-U-701 new compressor building and instrument air piping analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Building anchorage analysis is performed to qualify the design of the new compressor building foundation given in the ECN ''241-U-701 New Compressor Building.'' Recommendations for some changes in the ECN are made accordingly. Calculations show that the 6-in.-slab is capable of supporting the pipe supports, and that the building foundation, air compressor and dryer anchorage, and electric rack are adequate structurally. Analysis also shows that the instrument air piping and pipe supports for the compressed air system meet the applicable code requirements and are acceptable. The building is for the U-Farm instrument air systems

  9. Estimating radionuclide air concentrations near buildings: a screening approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Yildiran, M.

    1984-01-01

    For some facilities that routinely release small amounts of radionuclides to the atmosphere, such as hospitals, research laboratories, contaminated clothing laundries, and others, it is necessary to estimate the dose to persons very near the buildings from which the releases occur. Such facilities need simple screening procedures which provide reasonable assurance that as long as the calculated dose is less than some fraction of a relevant dose limit no individual will receive a dose in excess of that limit. Screening procedures have been proposed for persons living within hundreds of meters to a few kilometers from a source of radioactive effluent. This paper examines a screening technique for estimating long-term average radionuclide air concentrations within approximately 100 m of a building from which the release occurs. The technique is based on a modified gaussion plume model (HB model) which considers the influence of the tallest building within 100 m and is independant of atmospheric stability and downwind distance. 4 references, 2 tables

  10. Relative air temperature analysis external building on Gowa Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustamin, Tayeb; Rahim, Ramli; Baharuddin; Jamala, Nurul; Kusno, Asniawaty

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to data analyze the relative temperature and humidity of the air outside the building. Data retrieval taken from weather monitoring device (monitoring) Vaisala, RTU (Remote Terminal Unit), Which is part of the AWS (Automatic Weather Stations) Then Processing data processed and analyzed by using Microsoft Excel program in the form of graph / picture fluctuation Which shows the average value, standard deviation, maximum value, and minimum value. Results of data processing then grouped in the form: Daily, and monthly, based on time intervals every 30 minutes. The results showed Outside air temperatures in March, April, May and September 2016 Which entered in the thermal comfort zone according to SNI standard (Indonesian National Standard) only at 06.00-10.00. In late March to early April Thermal comfort zone also occurs at 15.30-18.00. The highest maximum air temperature occurred in September 2016 at 11.01-11.30 And the lowest minimum value in September 2016, time 6:00 to 6:30. The result of the next analysis shows the level of data conformity with thermal comfort zone based on SNI (Indonesian National Standard) every month.

  11. European database on indoor air pollution sources in buildings: Current status of database structure and software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, J.L.; Clausen, G.H.; Saarela, K.; Plokker, W.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Bishop, W.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de

    1996-01-01

    the European Joule II Project European Data Base for Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Buildings. The aim of the project is to produce a tool which would be used by designers to take into account the actual pollution of the air from the building elements and ventilation and air conditioning system

  12. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  13. Perceived air quality and sensory pollution loads in six Danish office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Krupicz, P.; Szczecinski, A.

    2002-01-01

    Perceived air quality and sensory pollution loads were measured in 6 office buildings with mechanical ventilation without recirculation, in each buildings in 6 representative non-smoking medium-sized and small offices with mixing ventilation. An untrained panel of 43 subjects assessed the air...... quality on a normal weekday when the building was occupied, and on a weekend without occupants in the building. On both occasions the ventilation system was in operation as on a normal working day. Outdoor air supply rate, air temperature, relative humidity, concentration of carbon dioxide and ultrafine...

  14. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings - Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, J. [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Fuhrman, J. [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, works with researchers and industry to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. Air conditioning (A/C) systems in buildings contribute to GHG emissions both directly through refrigerant emissions, as well as indirectly through fossil fuel combustion for power generation. BTO promotes pre-competitive research and development (R&D) on next-generation HVAC technologies that support the phase down of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and consumption, as well as cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. Over the past several decades, product costs and lifecycle cooling costs have declined substantially in many global markets due to improved, higher-volume manufacturing and higher energy efficiency driven by R&D investments and efficiency policies including minimum efficiency standards and labeling programs.1 This report characterizes the current landscape and trends in the global A/C market, including discussion of both direct and indirect climate impacts, and potential global warming impacts from growing global A/C usage. The report also documents solutions that can help achieve international goals for energy efficiency and GHG emissions reductions. The solutions include pathways related to low-global warming potential2 (GWP) refrigerants, energy efficiency innovations, long-term R&D initiatives, and regulatory actions. DOE provides, with this report, a fact-based vision for the future of A/C use around the world. DOE intends for this vision to reflect a broad and balanced aggregation of perspectives. DOE brings together this content in an effort to support dialogue within the international community and help keep key facts and objectives at the forefront among the many important discussions.

  15. The modifying effect of the building envelope on population exposure to PM2.5 from outdoor sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Shrubsole, C; Davies, M; Biddulph, P; Das, P; Hamilton, I; Vardoulakis, S; Mavrogianni, A; Jones, B; Oikonomou, E

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have estimated population exposure to PM2.5 by examining modeled or measured outdoor PM2.5 levels. However, few have taken into account the mediating effects of building characteristics on the ingress of PM2.5 from outdoor sources and its impact on population exposure in the indoor domestic environment. This study describes how building simulation can be used to determine the indoor concentration of outdoor-sourced pollution for different housing typologies and how the results can be mapped using building stock models and Geographical Information Systems software to demonstrate the modifying effect of dwellings on occupant exposure to PM2.5 across London. Building archetypes broadly representative of those in the Greater London Authority were simulated for pollution infiltration using EnergyPlus. In addition, the influence of occupant behavior on indoor levels of PM2.5 from outdoor sources was examined using a temperature-dependent window-opening scenario. Results demonstrate a range of I/O ratios of PM2.5, with detached and semi-detached dwellings most vulnerable to high levels of infiltration. When the results are mapped, central London shows lower I/O ratios of PM2.5 compared with outer London, an apparent inversion of exposure most likely caused by the prevalence of flats rather than detached or semi-detached properties. PMID:24713025

  16. First and second law analysis applied to building envelope: A theoretical approach on the potentiality of Bejan’s theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Biserni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Especially in the last decade, efforts have been made in developing the sustainable building assessment tools, which are usually performed based on fundamentals of the First Law of Thermodynamics. However, this approach does not provide a faithful thermodynamic evaluation of the overall energy conversion processes that occur in buildings, and a more robust approach should be followed. The relevance of Second Law analysis has been here highlighted: in addition to the calculation of energy balances, the concept of exergy is used to evaluate the quality of energy sources, resulting in a higher flexibility of strategies to optimize a building design. Reviews of the progress being made with the constructal law show that diverse phenomena can be considered manifestations of the tendency towards optimization captured by the constructal law. The studies based on First and Second Principle of Thermodynamics results to be affected by the extreme generality of the two laws, which is consequent of the fact that in thermodynamics the “any system” is a black box with no information about design, organization and evolution. In this context, an exploratory analysis on the potentiality of constructal theory, that can be considered a law of thermodynamics, has been finally outlined in order to assess the energy performance in building design.

  17. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  18. Multi-Objective Optimal Design of a Building Envelope and Structural System Using Cyber-Physical Modeling in a Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Whiteman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of a cyber-physical systems (CPS “loop-in-the-model” approach to optimally design the envelope and structural system of low-rise buildings subject to wind loads. Both the components and cladding (C&C and the main wind force resisting system (MWFRS are considered through multi-objective optimization. The CPS approach combines the physical accuracy of wind tunnel testing and efficiency of numerical optimization algorithms to obtain an optimal design. The approach is autonomous: experiments are executed in a boundary layer wind tunnel (BLWT, sensor feedback is monitored and analyzed by a computer, and optimization algorithms dictate physical changes to the structural model in the BLWT through actuators. To explore a CPS approach to multi-objective optimization, a low-rise building with a parapet wall of variable height is considered. In the BLWT, servo-motors are used to adjust the parapet to a particular height. Parapet walls alter the location of the roof corner vortices, reducing suction loads on the windward facing roof corners and edges, a C&C design load. At the same time, parapet walls increase the surface area of the building, leading to an increase in demand on the MWFRS. A combination of non-stochastic and stochastic optimization algorithms were implemented to minimize the magnitude of suction and positive pressures on the roof of a low-rise building model, followed by stochastic multi-objective optimization to simultaneously minimize the magnitude of suction pressures and base shear. Experiments were conducted at the University of Florida Experimental Facility (UFEF of the National Science Foundation’s (NSF Natural Hazard Engineering Research Infrastructure (NHERI program.

  19. Sources of indoor air contamination on the ground floor of a high-rise commercial building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayebzadeh, A.; Cragg-Elkouh, S.; Rancy, R.; Dufresne, A.

    1999-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a subject of growing concern in the developed world. Many sources of indoor air contamination in commercial and office buildings are recognised and have been investigated. In addition to the usual internal sources of air contaminants, other external sources from attached facilities can find their way into the building. This report presents the results of an indoor air quality survey in a high-rise office building which demonstrated an obvious seasonal change in regard to the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). Furthermore, a complementary survey in the same building was carried out to identify the relevant sources of air contamination in the building and the results indicated that an attached train station and the nearby street traffic had a significant impact on indoor air quality. (author)

  20. Benchmarking energy performance of residential buildings using two-stage multifactor data envelopment analysis with degree-day based simple-normalization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Endong; Shen, Zhigang; Alp, Neslihan; Barry, Nate

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage DEA model is developed to benchmark building energy efficiency. • Degree-day based simple normalization is used to neutralize the climatic noise. • Results of a real case study validated the benefits of this new model. - Abstract: Being able to identify detailed meta factors of energy performance is essential for creating effective residential energy-retrofitting strategies. Compared to other benchmarking methods, nonparametric multifactor DEA (data envelopment analysis) is capable of discriminating scale factors from management factors to reveal more details to better guide retrofitting practices. A two-stage DEA energy benchmarking method is proposed in this paper. This method includes (1) first-stage meta DEA which integrates the common degree day metrics for neutralizing noise energy effects of exogenous climatic variables; and (2) second-stage Tobit regression for further detailed efficiency analysis. A case study involving 3-year longitudinal panel data of 189 residential buildings indicated the proposed method has advantages over existing methods in terms of its efficiency in data processing and results interpretation. The results of the case study also demonstrated high consistency with existing linear regression based DEA.

  1. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building-wide level. An occupant-centric medical evaluation should guide environmental investigations, especially when screening results of building

  2. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  3. The effect of micro air movement on the heat and moisture characteristics of building constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    The research focuses on the effect of air movement through building constructions. Although the typical air movement inside building constructions is quite small (velocity is of order ~10-5 m/s), this research shows the impact on the heat and moisture characteristics. The paper presents a case study

  4. The effect of micro air movement on the heat and moisture characteristics of building constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The research focuses on the effect of air movement through building constructions. Although the typical air movement inside building constructions is quite small (velocity is of order ~10-5 m/s), this research shows the impact on the heat and moisture characteristics. The paper presents a case study

  5. Tools for Performance Simulation of Heat, Air and Moisture Conditions of Whole Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woloszyn, Monika; Rode, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Humidity of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings as well as durability of building components. Indoor humidity depends on several factors, such as moisture sources, air change, sorption in materials and possible condensation. Since all...... and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings” by considering all relevant parts of its constituents. It is believed that full understanding of these processes for the whole building is absolutely crucial for future energy optimization of buildings, as this cannot take place without...

  6. Effects of building roof greening on air quality in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jong-Jin; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Seung-Bu; Ryu, Young-Hee

    2012-12-01

    Building roof greening is a successful strategy for improving urban thermal environment. It is of theoretical interest and practical importance to study the effects of building roof greening on urban air quality in a systematic and quantitative way. In this study, we examine the effects of building roof greening on air quality in street canyons using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that includes the thermodynamic energy equation and the transport equation of passive, non-reactive pollutants. For simplicity, building roof greening is represented by specified cooling. Results for a simple building configuration with a street canyon aspect ratio of one show that the cool air produced due to building roof greening flows into the street canyon, giving rise to strengthened street canyon flow. The strengthened street canyon flow enhances pollutant dispersion near the road, which decreases pollutant concentration there. Thus, building roof greening improves air quality near the road. The degree of air quality improvement near the road increases as the cooling intensity increases. In the middle region of the street canyon, the air quality can worsen when the cooling intensity is not too strong. Results for a real urban morphology also show that building roof greening improves air quality near roads. The degree of air quality improvement near roads due to building roof greening depends on the ambient wind direction. These findings provide a theoretical foundation for constructing green roofs for the purpose of improving air quality near roads or at a pedestrian level as well as urban thermal environment. Further studies using a CFD model coupled with a photochemistry model and a surface energy balance model are required to evaluate the effects of building roof greening on air quality in street canyons in a more realistic framework.

  7. Simulation Tests in Whole Building Heat and Moisture Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Woloszyn, Monika

    2006-01-01

    An important part of the International Energy Agency project, ECBCS, Annex 41 is about modelling the integral heat, air and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling deals with all most relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, the building envelope...

  8. AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF OPERATIONAL CONTROL HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRENKO A. O.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Health and human performance largely determined by the conditions of climate and air quality in residential, administrative and residential and public buildings. At that, in turn, is influenced by the external environment and the climate, and the geometric dimensions of the room, and thermal performance building envelopes, and the location of the premises (Orientation, and many other factors. The result is the formation of complex systems, which control decision-making in conditions of multifactor [1]. In hygienic purposes it is necessary to strive to create the best indoor microclimate conditions, regardless of changes in the factors that affect the climate in residential, administrative and residential and public buildings. Develop systems to ensure the necessary microclimate parameters – it is a complex and important task, which will depend entirely comfortable and cozy environment for the person. The problem of the present time, there is a steady increase in the energy consumption of these systems, due to the rise in price of non-renewable energy sources, and our job is, to simulate the work of software systems necessary microclimate for the changes in the factors that affect it and to minimize the use of non-renewable energy sources. Analysis of recent research and publications. Domestic and foreign hygienists [2, 3, 4] to establish a connection between the climate in the room and in the workplace and the state of human health. Formation of the indoor climate of residential, administrative and residential and public buildings is influenced by many factors that have already noted earlier [5, 6]. Study of the processes of influence of various factors on human health is of great complexity. If we consider each process separately, and in this case they are not currently amenable to theoretical description clearer. To simulate the effect of these factors studies were conducted, which showed that, with sufficient

  9. Energy policy for integrating the building environmental performance model of an air conditioned building in a subtropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mui, K.W.

    2006-01-01

    For an air conditioned building, the major electricity consumption is by the heating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. As energy saving strategies may be in conflict with the criteria of indoor air quality and thermal comfort, a concept of the building environmental performance model (BEPM) has been developed to optimize energy consumption in HVAC systems without any deterioration of the indoor air quality and thermal comfort. The BEPM is divided into two main modules: the adaptive comfort temperature (ACT) module and the new demand control ventilation (nDCV) module. This study aims to enhance and prompt the conventional operation of the air side systems by incorporating temperature reset with the adaptive comfort temperature control and the new demand control ventilation system in high rise buildings in Hong Kong. A new example weather year (1991) was established as a reference to compute the energy use of HVAC systems in buildings in order to obtain more representative data for predicting annual energy consumption. A survey of 165 Hong Kong office buildings was conducted and it provided valuable information on the existing HVAC design values in different grades of private commercial buildings in Hong Kong. It was found that the actual measured values of indoor temperature were lower than the design ones. Furthermore, with the new example weather year and the integration of the BEPM into Grade A private office buildings in Hong Kong, the total energy saving of the air conditioning systems was calculated (i.e. a saving of HK$122 million in electrical consumption per year) while the thermal comfort for the occupants was also maintained

  10. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Research on Energy-Saving Optimization for the Performance Parameters of Rural-Building Shape and Envelope by TRNSYS-GenOpt in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilei Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to optimize the building shape parameters and envelope parameters influencing the rural building energy consumption in cold winter and hot summer climate. Several typical models are established and optimized by integrated TRNSYS and GenOpt. Single-objective optimization has provided guidance to the multi-dimensional optimization. Building shape and envelope parameters are considered simultaneously by multi-dimensional optimization. Results of the optimization showed significant reduction in terms of EC (energy consumption. When O (building orientation was SW (south by west 10°, LWR (length-width ratio was 1.1, WWRS (window-wall ratio in south with the range of 0.6–0.8, ITE (insulation thickness of exterior wall and ITR (insulation thickness of roof was 0.05 m and 0.08 m respectively, the building had minimal energy consumption. The results also indicated that the optimal EWT (exterior window type was plastic single-frame Low-E insulating glazing filled with inert gas, and the optimal shape of building is Re (rectangle. An effective method was provided to optimize the design of the rural building for the purpose of reducing building energy consumption in cold winter and hot summer climate.

  12. The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used as an energy-active building envelope material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhara, H.; Milko, J.; Danielewicz, J.; Sayegh, M.A.; Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M.; Ramos, J.B.; Lester, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel flat heat pipe design has been developed and utilised as a building envelope and thermal solar collector with and without (PV) bonded directly to its surface. The design of the new solar collector has been validated through full scale testing in Cardiff, UK where solar/thermal, uncooled PV and PV/T tests were carried out on three identical systems, simultaneously. The tests showed a solar/thermal energy conversion efficiency of around 64% for the collector with no PV and 50% for the system with the PV layer on it. The effect of cooling on the solar/electrical energy conversion efficiency was also investigated and an efficiency increase of about 15% was recorded for the cooled PV system due to the provided homogenous cooling. The new flat heat pipe solar collector is given the name “heat mat” and, in addition to being an efficient solar collector type, it is also designed to convert a building envelope materials to become energy-active. A full size roof that utilise this new building envelope material is reported in this paper to demonstrate the way this new collector is integrated as a building envelope material to form a roof. A thermal absorption test, in a controlled environment, from the ambient to the heat mat with no solar radiation is also reported. The test has proved the heat mat as an efficient thermal absorber from the ambient to the intermediate fluid that deliver the heat energy to the heat pump system. - Highlights: • A new flat heat pipe PV/T system that can be used as building materials is reported. • The new solar collector enhanced the performance of the PV by about 15%. • The new solar collector is capable of absorbing heat from ambient efficiently. • The new system is efficient from the solar/thermal conversion point of view.

  13. An energy efficient building for the Arctic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladyková, Petra

    through the building envelope in the winter due to the pressure difference, strong winds and low water ratio in the outdoor air. The Arctic is also defined by different conditions such as building techniques and availability of the materials and energy supply. The passive house uses the basic idea......The Arctic is climatically very different from a temperate climate. In the Arctic regions, the ambient temperature reaches extreme values and it has a direct large impact on the heat loss through the building envelope and it creates problems with the foundation due to the permafrost. The solar...... influence the infiltration heat loss through the building envelope. The wind patterns have large influences on the local microclimate around the building and create the snowdrift and problems with thawing, icing and possible condensation in the building envelope. The humidity in the interior is driven out...

  14. Definition and means of maintaining the room continuous air monitors portion of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-01-01

    Room Continuous Air Monitors (CAMs) are used in areas where there is potential for dispersible radioactive material. These CAMs provide audible and visual alarms to warn personnel of an increase in airborne radioactivity

  15. Eliminate the Army and Air Force Reserves: Building a Robust National Guard to Meet 21st Century Operational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE ELIMINATE THE ARMY AND AIR FORCE RESERVES: BUILDING A ROBUST NATIONAL GUARD TO MEET 21ST CENTURY OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES 5a...STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL ELIMINATE THE ARMY AND AIR FORCE RESERVES: BUILDING A ROBUST NATIONAL GUARD TO... ELIMINATE THE ARMY AND AIR FORCE RESERVES: BUILDING A ROBUST NATIONAL GUARD TO MEET 21ST CENTURY OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES by

  16. Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Kuckelkorn, Jens; Liu, Di; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xiao-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO 2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. - Highlights: • Low energy school buildings and classroom environment. • Heat recovery facility operating with an air conditioning unit. • Displacement ventilation influenced by the heat recovery efficiency. • Energy conservation of cooling and ventilation through heat recovery. • Enhancement of classroom environment with reduction of school building energy

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of improved air quality in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djukanovic, R.; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis of measures to improve air quality in an existing air-conditoned office building (11581 m2, 864 employees) was carried out for hot, temperate and cold climates and for two operating modes: Variable Air Volume (VAV) with economizer; and Constant Air Volume (CAV) with heat...... recovery. The annual energy cost and first cost of the HVAC system were calculat4ed using DOE 2.1E for different levels of air quality (10-50% dissatisfied). This was achieved by changing the outdoor air supply rate and the pollution loads. Previous studies have documented a 1.1% increase in office...

  18. Summary of Adsorption/Desorption Experiments for the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte; Tirkkonen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data for adsorption/desorption in building materials. Contribution to the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in buildings.......Experimental data for adsorption/desorption in building materials. Contribution to the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in buildings....

  19. Saving energy by using underfloor-air-distribution (UFAD) system in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alajmi, Ali; El-Amer, Wid

    2010-01-01

    The number of attempts by researchers to reduce building energy consumption has increased, ever since global warming became a serious issue. In this trend, a relatively new approach of air distribution, underfloor-air-distribution system (UFAD), has been widely used in new commercial buildings. This technique is simply accomplished by supplying air through a raised floor using different types of distribution configurations and outlets. In UFAD, the air is directly supplied to the occupants' area (occupied zone) causing occupants plumes and zone heat load stratify to the upper layer of the zone (unoccupied zone), which are later extracted from return points at high level. This flow pattern gives UFAD the advantage of using less energy than a conventional air-distribution system, ceiling-based air distribution (CBAD) due to lower pressure drop and lower air flow rate. This paper investigates the effectiveness of UFAD systems in commercial buildings for various types of application and at different air supply temperatures in a hot climate (The State of Kuwait). The findings show that UFAD has a significant saving of energy compared to CBAD (∼30%); in particular with high ceiling building types, as well as providing satisfactory comfort conditions for the occupants. Ultimately, more investigations should be done on conventional building heights (offices) to optimize the utilization of thermal stratification at design and operation stages.

  20. Rational use of supply air in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2009-01-01

    The ventilation rate influences the air quality by determining the intensity of pollution sources. This paper compared the intensity of the sensory pollution during occupied hours in an apartment ventilated by a constant air volume system and demand controlled ventilation systems controlled by oc...... by occupancy. The systems supplied the same total volume of air daily. It was found that the supply air could be used more rationally by redistributing it according to occupancy compared to maintaining a constant ventilation rate during all hours....

  1. Co-simulation of building energy simulation and computational fluid dynamics for whole-building heat, air and moisture engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirsadeghi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Building performance simulation (BPS) is widely applied to analyse heat, air and moisture (HAM) related issues in the indoor environment such as energy consumption, thermal comfort, condensation and mould growth. The uncertainty associated with such simulations can be high, and incorrect simulation

  2. Assessment of indoor air quality in office buildings across Europe - The OFFICAIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandin, Corinne; Trantallidi, Marilena; Cattaneo, Andrea; Canha, Nuno; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Mabilia, Rosanna; Perreca, Erica; Spinazzè, Andrea; Fossati, Serena; De Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Cornelissen, Eric; Sakellaris, Ioannis; Saraga, Dikaia; Hänninen, Otto; De Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Ventura, Gabriela; Wolkoff, Peder; Carrer, Paolo; Bartzis, John

    2017-02-01

    The European project OFFICAIR aimed to broaden the existing knowledge regarding indoor air quality (IAQ) in modern office buildings, i.e., recently built or refurbished buildings. Thirty-seven office buildings participated in the summer campaign (2012), and thirty-five participated in the winter campaign (2012-2013). Four rooms were investigated per building. The target pollutants were twelve volatile organic compounds, seven aldehydes, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter indoor air concentrations of formaldehyde and ozone did not exceed their respective WHO air quality guidelines, and those of acrolein, α-pinene, and d-limonene were lower than their estimated thresholds for irritative and respiratory effects. PM 2.5 indoor concentrations were higher than the 24-h and annual WHO ambient air quality guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Remedial Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System Buildings 2034/2035, Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    This remedial action plan (RAP) presents the scope for an expanded bioventing system for in situ treatment of fuel-contaminated soils in the vicinity of Buildings 2034 and 2035 at Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB), Washington...

  4. Indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment building before and after energy renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Földváry, Veronika; Langer, Sarka

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of global energy consumption. Most of the multifamily residential buildings in central Europe built in the 20th century do not satisfy the current requirements on energy efficiency. Nationwide remedial measures are taken to improve the energy ef...... exchange rates and acceptable and healthy IAQ. Without these considerations, energy reconstruction can adversely affect the quality of the indoor environment....... efficiency of these buildings and reduce their energy consumption. Since the impact of these measures on the indoor air quality is rarely considered, they often compromise indoor air quality due to decreased ventilation and infiltration rate. We compared the indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment...... building in Slovakia before and after energy renovation, during two subsequent winters. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of CO2, formaldehyde, NO2, and volatile organic compounds were performed during one week in January 2015 in 20 apartments in one multifamily building...

  5. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  6. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  7. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  8. Passive air exchanges between building and urban canyon via openings in a single facade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrios, K.; Hunt, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The results of an experimental study examining the steady exchange of air and heat between a building and an urban canyon are presented. The focus is on the effect of the canyon aspect ratio on the airflow through openings made exclusively in one side of the building. The interaction of the external wind flow and the internal thermally-driven flow was shown to depend upon the ratio of the building height H b to the canyon width W (distance between buildings forming the canyons). The trends observed as this aspect ratio (H b /W) was varied allow for identification of canyon geometries that yield reduced or enhanced building ventilation airflow rates

  9. Experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, Alberto; Ferro, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit equipped with a sensible polymer plate heat exchanger (PHE) for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings. The PHE is arranged in parallel triangular ducts. An experimental facility was designed to reproduce the typical outdoor and exhaust air conditions with regard to temperature and humidity. The unit was tested under balanced operation conditions, as commonly used in practice. A set of tests was conducted under the reference operating conditions to evaluate the PHE performance. Afterwards, an experimental parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of changing the operating conditions on the PHE performance. Experiments were carried out varying the inlet fresh air temperature, the exhaust air relative humidity and the air flow rate. The experimental results are shown and discussed in this paper.

  10. Assessment of codes, by-laws and regulations relating to air wells in building design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzil, Sharifah Fairuz Syed; Karamazaman, Nazli

    2017-10-01

    Codes and by-laws concerning air well design (for buildings and lavatories) in Malaysia has been established in the Malaysian Uniform Building By-Laws UBBL number 40 (1) and (2) since the 1980s. Wells are there to fulfill the ventilation and daylighting requirements. The minimum well area according to building storey height are compared between UBBL and the Singapore's well requirements from the Building Construction Authority BCA. A visual and graphical representation (with schematics building and well diagrams drawn to scale) of the minimum well sizes and dimensions is given. It can be seen that if the minimum requirement of well size is used for buildings above 8 storeys high, a thin well resulted which is not proportionate to the building height. A proposed dimension is graphed and given to be used in the UBBL which translated to graphics (3 dimensional buildings drawn to scale) created a much better well proportion.

  11. Contributions of Open Air Museums in preserving heritage buildings: study of open-air museums in South East England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraini Md Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most open air museums were established to preserve and present a threatened aspect of regional or national culture and to help forge a sense of identity and achievement. Britain's open air museums have aroused controversy among both museum professionals and building conservationists. They have been praised for spearheading innovative and vivacious approaches towards heritage interpretation and saving neglected buildings, while some have criticised them for inconsistent standards of conservation especially for taking buildings out of their original settings. Such architectural issues were strongly debated in the 1970s, while recent debates focus on popular approaches towards attracting the public to the past. This paper describes the evolution of open air museums in Britain, their contribution in conserving unloved buildings and how they have become an increasingly competitive tourist attraction. Observations and lessons learned from interviews and visit to two open air museums in South East England provides some insight about the importance of such museums. Operated as registered charity organisations, they have played significant roles not only in saving various buildings and structures from demolition but also in helping visitors to appreciate the rich heritage of these regions.

  12. [Schools, office buildings, leisure settings: diversity of indoor air quality issues. Global review on indoor air quality in these settings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandin, C; Derbez, M; Kirchner, S

    2012-07-01

    This review provides a global overview of indoor air quality issues in schools, office buildings and recreational settings. It presents the most recent scientific publications and the on-going work conducted in France in the frame of the indoor air quality Observatory. Monitoring campaigns on indoor air quality in schools have been carried out in the recent years in Europe. However, few studies have specifically addressed the role of exposure in these buildings on children's health. Indoor air quality in office buildings has been little studied so far. However, some specificities, such as emissions from electronic devices, frequent cleaning, impossibility to open windows in high-rise buildings, for example, should be examined and their role on the health and comfort studied. Finally, even if the time spent in recreational settings is short, the quality of indoor air should also be considered because of specific pollution. This is the case of indoor swimming pools (exposure to chlorination byproducts) and ice-rinks (exposure to exhaust from machines used to smooth the ice). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacterial and fungal indoor air characterization in two new bio climatic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Munoz, M.; Cobas Pupo, G.; Diaz Portuondo, E. E.; Gonzalez, A.; Amils Pibernat, R.; Sanchez Cabrero, B.

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, people spend most of their inside building where the air quality might not be good enough due to the high concentration of pollutants like Volatile Organic compounds (VOCs), bacteria or fungi. These factors could be the cause of allergies, asthma or a group of symptoms called Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). Most of the new saving energy buildings have a poor natural ventilation of their rooms that provokes an increase in pollutants and causes a discomfort feeling to the people exposed. (Author)

  14. Bacterial and fungal indoor air characterization in two new bio climatic buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Munoz, M.; Cobas Pupo, G.; Diaz Portuondo, E. E.; Gonzalez, A.; Amils Pibernat, R.; Sanchez Cabrero, B.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, people spend most of their inside building where the air quality might not be good enough due to the high concentration of pollutants like Volatile Organic compounds (VOCs), bacteria or fungi. These factors could be the cause of allergies, asthma or a group of symptoms called Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). Most of the new saving energy buildings have a poor natural ventilation of their rooms that provokes an increase in pollutants and causes a discomfort feeling to the people exposed. (Author)

  15. Optimization of air-curtain sealing efficiency with respect to heat transfer in naturally ventilated buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayrullina, A.; Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Sun, Y.; Pei, J.; Zhao, X

    This study presents results of coupled 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of an isolated naturally-ventilated building with the application of an air curtain to prevent heat transfer across a doorway. The considered parameters include air

  16. A Non-linear Stochastic Model for an Office Building with Air Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a non-linear heat dynamic model for a multi-room office building with air infiltration. Several linear and non-linear models, with and without air infiltration, are investigated and compared. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations and the model...

  17. Simulations of the potential revenue from investment in improved indoor air quality in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Djukanovic, Rade

    2005-01-01

    of improved worker performance; benefits from reduced health costs and sickness absence were not included. The building was simulated in a cold, a moderate and a hot climate. It was ventilated by a constant air volume (CAV) system with heat recovery and by a variable air volume (VAV) system with an economizer....... The air quality was improved by increasing the outdoor air supply rate and by reducing the pollution loads. These upgrades involved increased energy and HVAC maintenance costs, first costs of a HVAC system and building construction costs. But the additional investments were highly cost......-effective. The annual benefit due to improved air quality was up to 115 times higher than the increase in annual energy and maintenance costs. LCC analysis showed that productivity benefits resulting from a better indoor air quality were up to 60 times higher than the increased costs; the simple and discounted pay...

  18. Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality in multifamily residential buildings in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Földváry, Veronika; Bekö, Gabriel; Langer, Sarka

    2017-01-01

    efficiency of these buildings rarely consider their impact on the indoor air quality (IAQ). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of simple energy renovation on IAQ, air exchange rates (AER) and occupant satisfaction in Slovak residential buildings. Three pairs of identical naturally...... of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and total and individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were also measured. CO2 concentrations were significantly higher and AERs were lower in the renovated buildings. Formaldehyde concentrations increased after renovation and were positively correlated with CO2...

  19. Prediction of thermal sensation in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The PMV model agrees well with high-quality field studies in buildings with HVAC systems, situated in cold, temperate and warm climates, studied during both summer and winter. In non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates, occupants may sense the warmth as being less severe than the PMV...... predicts. The main reason is low expectations, but a metabolic rate that is estimated too high can also contribute to explaining the difference. An extension of the PMV model that includes an expectancy factor is introduced for use in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. The extended PMV model...... agrees well with quality field studies in non-air-conditioned buildings of three continents....

  20. Extension of the PMV model to non-air-conditioned building in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The PMV model agrees well with high-quality field studies in buildings with HVAC systems, situated in cold, temperate and warm climates, studied during both summer and winter. In non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates, occupants may sense the warmth as being less severe than the PMV...... predicts. The main reason is low expectations, but a metabolic rate that is estimated too high can also contribute to explaining the difference. An extension of the PMV model that includes an expectancy factor is introduced for use in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. The extended PMV model...... agrees well with quality field studies in non-air-conditioned buildings of three continents....

  1. Investigation of the Indoor Environment in a Passive House Apartment Building Heated by Ventilation Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysholt Hansen, MathiasYoung Bok; Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2014-01-01

    comfort and the performance of the air heating system and solar shading. Thermal comfort category B according to ISO 7730 was obtained in the building during field measurements, indicating that the air heating system was able to maintain comfort conditions in winter, when the outdoor temperature had been...... building project finished medio 2012. The design challenge was met with a concept of air heating that is individually controlled in every room. It also applies external solar shading. This study used indoor climate measurements and dynamic simulations in one of these apartment buildings to evaluate thermal...... unusual low for a longer period. The dynamic simulations also indicated that air heating during winter can provide a comfortable thermal environment. Dynamic simulations also demonstrated that during summer, apartments with automatic external solar screens had no serious overheating, whereas in apartments...

  2. Experimental Air-Tightness Analysis in Mediterranean Buildings after Windows Retrofit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romana d’Ambrosio Alfano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ in buildings are strongly affected by air leakages. Several studies reveal that the energy loss owing to leaky windows can account for up to 40% of the total building energy demand. Furthermore, at the design stage, the possible infiltration of outdoor air through windows is not taken into account when determining the nominal outdoor airflow rate of the ventilation system. This practice may result in an oversizing of the ventilation system and consequent energy waste. Thus, the air-tightness class of a wall assembly should be assessed for each window component considering the type of material, the presence of the seal, the type of closure, the sealing and the maintenance condition. In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of air-tightness measurements carried out using the fan pressurization method in three residential buildings located in the Mediterranean region before and after a window retrofit. Two different window retrofits were investigated: the application of rubber seals on window frames and the substitution of existing windows with new certified high performance windows. The effectiveness of such retrofits was estimated also in terms of energy saving. Test results demonstrated a high variability of the building air tightness after window retrofits, despite the fact that air tight–certified windows were used.

  3. Office Building Occupant's Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about physical aspects of the workplace: location, work environment, availability of natural light and the aesthetics of office design, such ... people can do to ensure that their indoor environment is a healthy one. IAQ Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) : EPA's I-BEAM software program ...

  4. Air Tight: Building Inflatables/Inflatable Construction: Planning and Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2016-01-01

    A design-build seminar consisting of students from Physics, Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Robotic, Material Science, Art, and Architecture who will work together on a deployable "closed-loop" inflatable greenhouse for Mars in theory, and an Earth analogue physical mockup on campus.

  5. European indoor air quality audit project in 56 office buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Groes, L.; Clausen, G.H.; Fanger, F.O.; Valbjorn, O.; Bernhard, C.A.; Roulet, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    A European project started at the end of 1992, in which, in addition to current methods, trained sensory panels were used to investigate office buildings all over Europe. The main aim of this EC-Audit was to develop assessment procedures and guid-ance on ventilation and source control, to help

  6. An International Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or making it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it does not have adverse effects on indoor air quality (IAQ). Annex 68......In order to achieve nearly net zero energy use, both new and energy refurbished existing buildings will in the future need to be still more efficient and optimized. Since such buildings can be expected to be already well insulated, airtight, and have heat recovery systems installed, one of the next......, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy performance whilst providing...

  7. The influence of surface treatment on mass transfer between air and building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    for the experiments: gypsum board and calcium silicate. The wallpaper and paint were used as finishing materials. Impact of the following parameters for changes of RH was studied: coating, temperature and air movement. The measurements showed that acryl paint (diffusion open) can significantly decrease mass uptake......The processes of mass transfer between air and building structure and in the material influence not only the conditions within the material but also inside the connected air spaces. The material which absorbs and desorbs water vapour can be used to moderate the amplitude of indoor relative humidity...... and therefore to participate in the improvement of the indoor air quality and energy saving. Many parameters influence water vapour exchange between indoor air and building material. The aim of this work is to present the change of mass transfer under different climatic and material conditions. The measurements...

  8. Application of FMEA-DEA (Failure Modes and Effect Analysis - Data Envelopment Analysis) to the air conditioning system of the control room a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa Junior, Gilberto Varanda

    2007-03-01

    This dissertation presents the FMEA-DEA analysis application to the air conditioning system of the control room of a nuclear power plant. After obtaining the failure modes, the index associated to the occurrence probability, the severity of the effects and the potential of detention, a priority order is established for the failure modes or deviations. This number is obtained by multiplying the three mentioned index that vary in a natural scale from 1 to 10, where the higher the index, the more critical the situation will be. In this work, it is intended to use a model based on the data envelopment analysis, DEA jointly with the FMEA, to identify the current efficiency of the system and which failure modes or deviations are considered more critical, and by means of the weights attributed for the mathematical modeling to identify which index are contributing more for these deviations. From this identification, improvements can be set, which may consider administrative changes, operator training and so on, thus adding value to the final product. (author)

  9. A Method for Thermal Dimensioning and for Energy Behavior Evaluation of a Building Envelope PCM Layer by Using the Characteristic Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Mazzeo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Net zero energy buildings (nZEB require the development of innovative technologies such as the use of phase change materials (PCMs in walls for the energy requalification of low inertia buildings. The presence of a PCM layer in the external building wall, due to the effect of storage and release of latent energy phenomena, modifies the energy behavior, both during the summer and winter periods. This paper addresses the problem of the definition of the energetic behavior of a layer subject to phase change with periodic non-sinusoidal boundary conditions, characterizing the external walls of air-conditioned buildings. In such conditions, the layer is the site of the formation of one or more bi-phase interfaces, which originate on the boundary surfaces, or are always present and fluctuate within the layer. It is also possible that the layer does not undergo any phase change. The study has been developed by a finite difference numeric calculation model which explicitly determines the number and the position of the bi-phase interfaces that originate in the layer and the temperature and the heat flux fields. The surface heat fluxes are used to evaluate the PCM layer energetic behavior in terms of energy transferred through the boundary surfaces and of stored energy in sensible and latent form. The proposed method employs the characteristic day that it is periodically repeated for all the days of the considered month. The use of the characteristic days drastically reduces the computational burden of the numerical calculation and it allows to obtain guidance on the behaviour of the PCM throughout the year, in accordance with the variability of external climatic conditions, in order to select the PCM with the most suitable thermophysical properties. The methodology developed is applied to PCM layers with different melting temperatures and subject to climatic conditions of two locations, one with a continental climate and the second one with a

  10. [Biological contamination in office buildings related to ventilation/air conditioning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bródka, Karolina; Sowiak, Małgorzata; Kozajda, Anna; Cyprowski, Marcin; Irena, Szadkowska-Stańczyk

    2012-01-01

    Indoor air is contaminated with microorganisms coming from both the atmospheric air and sources present in premises. The aim of this study was to analyze the concentrations of biological agents in office buildings, dependending on ventilation/air conditioning system and season. The study covered office buildings (different in the system of ventila-tion/air conditioning). Air samples for assessing the levels of inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, were taken at the selected stationary points of each building during summer and winter. The air was sampled for 6 h, using portable sets consisting of the GilAir 5 pump and the head filled with a filter of fiber glass. The samples for the presence of airborne bacteria and fungi were collected twice during the day using the impaction method. Average concentrations of inhalable dust, bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in office premises were 0.09 mg/m3, 6.00 x 10(2) cfu/m3, 4.59 x 10(1) cfu/m3, 0.42 ng/m3 and 3.91 ng/m3, respectively. Higher concentrations of the investigated agents were found in summer. In premises with air conditioning concentrations of airborne fungi, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans and inhalable dust were significantly lower in winter. In summer the trend was reverse except for (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans. Concentrations of biological agents were affected by the season and the presence of air conditioning. Concentrations of inhalable dust, bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, observed inside the office buildings, were significantly higher in summer than in winter. The presence of the air conditioning system modified in various ways the levels of biological agents. Its influence was greater on the concentration of fungi and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans than on that of bacteria and endotoxins.

  11. Public works: Building a Monument to Modern Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayvelyse Allen-Mossman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between the project of modernity and urbanism has been key to understanding the city of Buenos Aires’ material transformations throughout the 20th century. This paper considers how thinking about the issues of modernity and urbanism from the perspective of monuments--namely, the Obelisk of Buenos Aires--sheds new light on how elements of this modernizing project were undertaken and how its material markers have been used and manipulated, and modified through their representation in cultural discourse on the city. Rethinking Buenos Aires from the Obelisk implies literally thinking from underground, from the subway lines that form its base and transform it into a popular symbol of mobility.

  12. LDDX: A High Efficiency Air Conditioner for DOD Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and the entire 2016 cooling season. The LDDX-WF prototype met its performance objectives to supply dry air and to modulate the Sensible Heat Ratio... heat transfer of the desiccant on the fin is an effective substitute for the conductive heat transfer of the aluminum fins used in a conventional...respectively. 22 The May 2014 laboratory operation of the LDDX-WF prototype was the first opportunity to measure heat and mass transfer

  13. Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with an HVAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Sa; Bonetta, Si; Mosso, S; Sampò, S; Carraro, E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level and composition of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of an Italian office building equipped with a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected in three open-space offices during different seasons. The microbial levels in the outdoor air, supply air diffusers, fan coil air flow and air treatment unit humidification water tank were used to evaluate the influence of the HVAC system on indoor air quality (IAQ). A medium-low level of bacterial contamination (50-500 CFU/m(3)) was found in indoor air. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most commonly found genera, probably due to human presence. A high fungal concentration was measured due to a flood that occurred during the winter. The indoor seasonal distribution of fungal genera was related to the fungal outdoor distribution. Significant seasonal and daily variation in airborne microorganisms was found, underlining a relationship with the frequency of HVAC system switching on/off. The results of this monitoring highlight the role of the HVAC system on IAQ and could be useful to better characterise bacterial and fungal population in the indoor air of office buildings.

  14. Application of building envelope energy-saving design in public architecture%建筑围护结构节能设计在公共建筑中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子江

    2012-01-01

    以孝感市公共建筑——天工楼为例,根据建筑功能要求和当地气候特点,在建筑单体设计中,合理地确定建筑的朝向、平面形状、外观体型,选用节能建筑材料对建筑围护结构的墙体、屋面、窗户进行节能设计的实践应用,使围护结构的热工参数达到了《公共建筑节能设计标准》(GB50189-2005)的要求,改善了建筑室内热环境,实现了公共建筑减少建筑总能耗50%的目标.%According to the construction of functional requirements and characteristics of local climate, taking Tiangong building of Xiaogan public building as an example, we reasonably determined the orientation, plane shape and appearance physique of the building, and selected the energy - saving building materials to the building envelope wall, roof and windows. The results show that the thermal parameter of enclosure structure meets the requirement of Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public (GB50189 -2005), the indoor thermal environment of building is improved and the goal of reducing the total energy consumption 50% of the building is achieved.

  15. UNDERGROUND AIR DUCT TO CONTROL RISING MOISTURE IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS: IMPROVED DESIGN AND ITS DRYING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pazderka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground air ducts along peripheral walls of a building are a remediation method, which principle is to enable an air flow along the moist building structure’s surface to allow a sufficient evaporation of moisture from the structure. This measure reduces the water transport (rising moisture into the higher parts of the wall where the high water content in masonry is undesirable. Presently, underground air ducts are designed as masonry structures, which durability in contact with ground moisture is limited. The article describes a new design of an underground air duct, which is based on specially shaped concrete blocks (without wet processes, because the blocks are completely precast. The air duct from concrete blocks is situated completely below the ground surface (exterior or below the floor (interior. Thanks to this, the system is invisible and does not disturb the authentic look of rehabilitated historic buildings. The efficiency of the air duct technical solution was verified by the results of tests (based on the measured moisture values conducted on a laboratory model. The experimental study showed that the moisture in the masonry equipped with the presented underground air duct had decreased considerably compared to the reference sample, namely by 43 % on average. The experimental study was numerically validated through numerical simulations performed with the program WUFI 2D.

  16. Locating room air-conditioners at floor level for energy saving in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, C.F.; Lee, W.L.; Chen Hua

    2009-01-01

    Residential air-conditioning becomes a common feature in our daily life. They are typically installed at high level known as ceiling-based system (CAC). With the increasing use of floor-based air-conditioning system in commercial buildings for energy saving, it is proposed in this study to locate a top discharge/front return air-conditioner at floor level to resemble a floor-based air-conditioning system (FAC) to curb energy use in residential buildings. Given the concerns about draught discomfort and thermal stratification associated with floor-based air-conditioning systems, the objective of this study is to evaluate the air distribution performance and to quantify the possible energy benefits. Bedroom was chosen as a sensitive case for detailed air distribution performance evaluation. Experimental study, CFD simulations and energy simulations were conducted in achieving the specific objectives. CAC and FAC were installed in a bedroom-like environmental chamber for experimental study at different indoor and outdoor conditions. The air velocities and temperatures at various positions and levels inside the chamber were measured to determine the air distribution performance indices (ADPI) and airflow draft risk (DR). The cooling output, power consumption and coefficient of performance (COP) of the two units were measured and calculated for comparison. The experimental results show that ADPI of CAC and FAC are 92.3% and 84.6%, respectively. COP of FAC is 8.11% higher than CAC, and the corresponding DR are comparable. The experimental results were used to validate the CFD simulations as well as providing actual performance data for predicting the energy use of applying CAC and FAC in a case-study building. CFD simulations and draught assessment confirmed that there is no potential draught discomfort and thermal stratification associated with the use of FAC. Energy simulations predicted that the associated energy saving is 6.9%. Wider use of FAC in residential

  17. Locating room air-conditioners at floor level for energy saving in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, C.F.; Lee, Hua; Chen, W.L. [Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom (China)

    2009-08-15

    Residential air-conditioning becomes a common feature in our daily life. They are typically installed at high level known as ceiling-based system (CAC). With the increasing use of floor-based air-conditioning system in commercial buildings for energy saving, it is proposed in this study to locate a top discharge/front return air-conditioner at floor level to resemble a floor-based air-conditioning system (FAC) to curb energy use in residential buildings. Given the concerns about draught discomfort and thermal stratification associated with floor-based air-conditioning systems, the objective of this study is to evaluate the air distribution performance and to quantify the possible energy benefits. Bedroom was chosen as a sensitive case for detailed air distribution performance evaluation. Experimental study, CFD simulations and energy simulations were conducted in achieving the specific objectives. CAC and FAC were installed in a bedroom-like environmental chamber for experimental study at different indoor and outdoor conditions. The air velocities and temperatures at various positions and levels inside the chamber were measured to determine the air distribution performance indices (ADPI) and airflow draft risk (DR). The cooling output, power consumption and coefficient of performance (COP) of the two units were measured and calculated for comparison. The experimental results show that ADPI of CAC and FAC are 92.3% and 84.6%, respectively. COP of FAC is 8.11% higher than CAC, and the corresponding DR are comparable. The experimental results were used to validate the CFD simulations as well as providing actual performance data for predicting the energy use of applying CAC and FAC in a case-study building. CFD simulations and draught assessment confirmed that there is no potential draught discomfort and thermal stratification associated with the use of FAC. Energy simulations predicted that the associated energy saving is 6.9%. Wider use of FAC in residential

  18. Management of air-conditioning systems in residential buildings by using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair F. Rezeka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rising concern in reducing the energy consumption in buildings. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system is the biggest consumer of energy in buildings. In this study, management of the air-conditioning system of a building for efficient energy operation and comfortable environment is investigated. The strategy used in this work depends on classifying the rooms to three different groups: very important rooms, important rooms and normal rooms. The total mass flow rate is divided between all rooms by certain percentage using a fuzzy-logic system to get the optimum performance for each room. The suggested Building Management System (BMS was found capable of keeping errors in both temperature and humidity within the acceptable limits at different operating conditions. The BMS can save the chilled/hot water flow rate and the cooling/heating capacity of rooms.

  19. IEA Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    with heat recovery systems, one of the next focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or to make it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it has no have adverse effects...... on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Annex 68, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy...... performance whilst providing comfortable and healthy indoor environments. New paradigms for demand control of ventilation will be investigated, which consider the pollution loads and occupancy in buildings. The thermal and moisture conditions of such will be considered because of interactions between...

  20. Performance Based Envelopes: A Theory of Spatialized Skins and the Emergence of the Integrated Design Professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Trubiano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Realigning the design of building envelopes within the measures of air, light and heat has rendered possible an inventive form of practice whose benefits are far in excess of the metrics of data and analysis. For many of its most advanced practitioners, the contemporary design of facades engages the true potential of “performance” when it deepens, broadens and complicates the theoretical dimension of this most liminal of surfaces. Of particular interest to this paper is a discussion of new theoretical paradigms associated with the design and operation of high performance envelopes of which four characteristics of this emergent sub-discipline are herein examined. To begin with, the way in which building envelopes are no longer separators, dividers and barriers between a building’s interior and exterior conditions, but rather, “spatially” defined environments that fully engage the totality of a building’s engineering systems, is discussed. Cantilevered Louvers, Double Skin Facades and Hybrid Conditioned Atria are representative of this new paradigm as is the use of Responsive Technologies to optimize their behaviors. Lastly, the paper examines the rise of the new integrated design building envelope professional called upon to deliver ever-better performing skins, whether in the guise of energy modeler, climate engineer or façade construction specialist. Hence, this paper develops a theoretical structure within which to describe, analyze and interpret the values made possible by this new and expanding field of performance based envelopes.

  1. Air temperature and relative humidity in Dome Fuji Station buildings, East Antarctic ice sheet, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Kameda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the living condition in Dome Fuji Station in 2003, air temperature and relative humidity in the station were measured. Thermocouples with data logger and a ventilated psychrometer were used for the measurements. Average air temperature from February 11, 2003 to January 14, 2004 (missing period: July 19 to August 17 in the Dome Fuji Station buildings were as follows: Generator room 24.7℃, Dining room 23.5℃, Observation room 21.1℃, Dormitory room 18.2℃, Corridor 18.2℃, Food storage 8.2℃ and Old ice coring site -51.3℃. Average outside air temperature (1.5m height from the snow surface during the period was -54.4℃. A remarkable increase of outside air temperature (+30℃ at maximum due to a blocking high event was observed from October 31, 2003 to November 10, 2003 at Dome Fuji, during which increase of air temperature from 5 to 8°C in the station buildings was recorded. Snow on the station buildings was partly melted and some of the melted water penetrated into the station. This was the only time snow melted during the wintering over party's stay at the station. Average relative humidity in the station buildings obtained using a small humidifier was about 25%; the relative humidity without using the humidifier ranged from 9.0 to 22.9%.

  2. Automation of air disinfection and lighting in agricultural buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Yuferev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the urgency of this problem and modern ways of its solving. Modern disinfection and lighting systems are not developed enough. The authors proposed to automate the system of disinfection, dust removal and lighting in the farm building. We developed algorithm on the basis of which the universal program in the programming language C ++ was written. Assembled the microprocessor set ARDUINO. The program is included in the microprocessor ATMEGA, which is part of ARDUINO. As a basis for the disinfection system, a two-component ARUF device was used, which includes two decontaminating components: an ultraviolet lamp and an aerosol dispenser. Each of the algorithms (lighting and disinfection consists of 3 parts: data collection and analysis, control, data output to the display. The sequence of 3 parts is 1 cycle, then it repeated. In the first part on the basis of indications of sensors assignment to variables of some values was carried out. In the second part, based on the values of the variables, the decontamination and lighting devices are controlled. In the third part due to changing the screen number, variable, it is possible to switch the display and view the status of the installation and external parameters. The program, written on the basis of algorithms, is universal and suitable for almost any poultry and livestock buildings. All parameters (the time of the beginning and completion of the ARUV operation within 24 hours, the daily time of the illumination of a certain cycle, the maximum and minimum humidity, the duration of each cycle used for control and management are variables. Operator can set the items using the display in the menu.

  3. Building Envelope Thermal Performance Assessment Using Visual Programming and BIM, based on ETTV requirement of Green Mark and GreenRE

    OpenAIRE

    Taki Eddine Seghier; Lim Yaik Wah; Mohd Hamdan Ahmad; Williams Opeyemi Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Accomplishment of green building design requirements and the achievement of the targeted credit points under a specific green rating system are known to be a task that is very challenging. Building Information Modeling (BIM) design process and tools have already made considerable advancements in green building design and performance analysis. However, Green building design process is still lack of tools and workflows that can provide real-time feedback of building sustainability and rating du...

  4. Performance advancement of solar air-conditioning through integrated system design for building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Lee, C.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study is to advance the energy performance of solar air-conditioning system through appropriate component integration from the absorption refrigeration cycle and proper high-temperature cooling. In the previous studies, the solar absorption air-conditioning using the working pair of water – lithium bromide (H 2 O–LiBr) is found to have prominent primary energy saving than the conventional compression air-conditioning for buildings in the hot-humid climate. In this study, three integration strategies have been generated for solar cooling, namely integrated absorption air-conditioning; integrated absorption-desiccant air-conditioning; and integrated absorption-desiccant air-conditioning for radiant cooling. To realize these ideas, the working pair of ammonia – water (NH 3 –H 2 O) was used in the absorption cycle, rather than H 2 O–LiBr. As such, the evaporator and the condenser can be separate from the absorption refrigeration cycle for the new configuration of various integrated design alternatives. Through dynamic simulation, the year-round primary energy saving of the proposed integration strategies for solar NH 3 –H 2 O absorption air-conditioning systems could be up to 50.6% and 25.5%, as compared to the conventional compression air-conditioning and the basic solar H 2 O–LiBr absorption air-conditioning respectively. Consequently, carbon reduction of building air-conditioning can be achieved more effectively through the integrated system design in the hot and humid cities. - Highlights: • Three integration strategies, IAAU, IADAU and IADAU-RC, are proposed to advance solar air-conditioning. • NH 3 –H 2 O is adopted for absorption refrigeration instead of H 2 O–LiBr. • Separate evaporator and condenser, desiccant cooling and radiant cooling are designed for IADAU-RC. • IADAU-RC can have 50.6% primary energy saving against the conventional air-conditioning

  5. [Indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds in large buildings: pollution levels and remaining issues after revision of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Kamijima, Michihiro; Shibata, Eiji; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Tamie

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to clarify indoor air pollution levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in large buildings after revising of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002. We measured indoor air VOC concentrations in 57 (97%) out of a total of 61 large buildings completed within one year in half of the area of Nagoya, Japan, from 2003 through 2007. Airborne concentrations of 13 carbonyl compounds were determined with diffusion samplers and high-performance liquid chromatography, and of the other 32 VOCs with diffusion samplers and gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer. Formaldehyde was detected in all samples of indoor air but the concentrations were lower than the indoor air quality standard value set in Japan (100 microg/m3). Geometric mean concentrations of the other major VOCs, namely toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-dichlorobenzene and acetaldehyde were also low. 2E1H was found to be one of the predominating VOCs in indoor air of large buildings. A few rooms in a small number of buildings surveyed showed high concentrations of 2E1H, while low concentrations were observed in most rooms of those buildings as well as in other buildings. It was estimated that about 310 buildings had high indoor air pollution levels of 2E1H, with increase during the 5 years from 2003 in Japan. Indoor air pollution levels of VOCs in new large buildings are generally good, although a few rooms in a small number of buildings showed high concentrations in 2E1H, a possible causative chemical in sick building symptoms. Therefore, 2E1H needs particular attention as an important indoor air pollutant.

  6. An Analysis of the Design-Build Delivery Approach in Air Force Military Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Construction (Department of the Air Force, 2000), known as the Blue Book , for a comprehensive description of the Air Force MILCON process and policy...procurement (Mouritsen, 1993; Songer & Molenaar , 1997; Chan et al., 2002) synonymously when describing design-build methods. Delivery and procurement...broad applicability of the new approach (Buckingham, 1989; Mouritsen, 1993; Molenaar & Songer, 1998). The pendulum has now shifted away from the early

  7. Effect of using low-polluting building materials and increasing ventilation on perceived indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Zuczek, P. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The potential of improving perceived air quality indoors was quantified when low-polluting materials are used and when building ventilation is increased. This was done by studying the relationships between ventilation rate and the perceived indoor air quality. A sensory panel assessed the air quality in test rooms ventilated with realistic outdoor air supply rates, where combinations of high- and low-polluting wall, floor and ceiling materials were set up. These materials were ranked as high- and low-polluting using sensory assessments of air quality in small-scale glass chambers, where they were tested individually. Substituting materials ranked as high-polluting with materials ranked as lower-polluting improved the perceived air quality in the test rooms. This improvement was greater than what was achieved by a realistic increase of the ventilation rate in the test rooms. Thus reducing pollution emitted from building materials that affects the perceived air quality has a considerable potential of limiting the energy for ventilation without compromising indoor air quality. (au)

  8. Fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation in the air distribution system of a multi-story office building: VOC production and possible relationship to a sick building syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Noble, J. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Complaints characteristic of those for sick building syndrome prompted mycological investigations of a modern multi-story office building on the Gulf coast in the Southeastern United States (Houston-Galveston area). The air handling units and fiberglass duct liner of the heating, ventilating and air conditioning system of the building, without a history of catastrophic or chronic water damage, demonstrated extensive colonization with Penicillium spp and Cladosporium herbarum. Although dense fungal growth was observed on surfaces within the heating-cooling system, most air samples yielded fewer than 200 CFU m-3. Several volatile compounds found in the building air were released also from colonized fiberglass. Removal of colonized insulation from the floor receiving the majority of complaints of mouldy air and continuous operation of the units supplying this floor resulted in a reduction in the number of complaints.

  9. Bacterial community structures in air conditioners installed in Japanese residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Kouta; Oikawa, Yurika; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial community structures in four Japanese split-type air conditioners were analyzed using a next-generation sequencer. A variety of bacteria were detected in the air filter of an air conditioner installed on the first floor. In the evaporator of this air conditioner, bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium, or the family of Sphingomonadaceae, were predominantly detected. On the other hand, the majority of bacteria detected in the air filters and evaporators of air conditioners installed on the fifth and twelfth floors belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The source of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae may have been aerosols generated by toilet flushing in the buildings. Our results suggested the possibility that the bacterial contamination in the air conditioners was affected by the floor level on which they were installed. The air conditioner installed on the lower floor, near the ground, may have been contaminated by a variety of outdoor bacteria, whereas the air conditioners installed on floors more distant from the ground may have been less contaminated by outdoor bacteria. However, these suppositions may apply only to the specific split-type air conditioners that we analyzed, because our sample size was small.

  10. Improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort in office building by using combination filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrein, H.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Hariri, A.; Leman, A. M.; Afandi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Poor indoor air quality and thermal comfort condition in the workspace affected the occupants’ health and work productivity, especially when adapting the recirculation of air in heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. The recirculation of air was implemented in this study by mixing the circulated returned indoor air with the outdoor fresh air. The aims of this study are to assess the indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) in the office buildings, equipped with combination filters. The air filtration technique consisting minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) filter and activated carbon fiber (ACF) filter, located before the fan coil units. The findings of the study show that the technique of mixing recirculation air with the fresh air through the combination filters met the recommended thermal comfort condition in the workspace. Furthermore, the result of the post-occupancy evaluation (POE) and the environmental measurements comply with the ASHRAE 55 standard. In addition, the level of CO2 concentration continued to decrease during the period of the measurement.

  11. European indoor air quality survey in 56 office buildings; Europees binnenluchtkwaliteitsonderzoek in 56 kantoorgebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluyssen, P.M. [Afdeling Binnenmilieu, Bouwfysica en Installaties, TNO Bouw, Delft (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    The title survey started at the end of 1992. Trained sensory panels were used to investigate office buildings all over Europe. Measurements were performed at five selected locations in each building. The buildings were studied while normally occupied and ventilated to identify the pollution sources in the spaces and to quantify the total pollution load caused by the occupants and their activities and the ventilation systems. The investigation included physical and chemical measurements, assessment of the perceived air quality in the spaces by a trained sensory panel, and measurement of the outdoor air supply to the spaces. A questionnaire for evaluating retrospective and immediate symptoms and perceptions was given to the occupants of the buildings. The building characteristics were described by use of a check-list. The annual energy consumption of the buildings and the weather conditions were registered. Results and conclusions of the audit in 56 buildings in Europe are presented. The analysis and discussion of the results are a summary of the work done and show that ventilation is not the solution for the removal of pollutants, but that source control is the first method to be applied. Furthermore, the analysis and discussions are focused mainly on the comparison between sensory assessments and the other measurements performed. 13 figs., 7 tabs., 25 refs.

  12. Comfort air temperature influence on heating and cooling loads of a residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, C.; Șoriga, I.; Gheorghian, A. T.; Stanciu, D.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the thermal behavior and energy loads of a two-level residential building designed for a family of four, two adults and two students, for different inside comfort levels reflected by the interior air temperature. Results are intended to emphasize the different thermal behavior of building elements and their contribution to the building's external load. The most important contributors to the building thermal loss are determined. Daily heating and cooling loads are computed for 12 months simulation in Bucharest (44.25°N latitude) in clear sky conditions. The most important aspects regarding sizing of thermal energy systems are emphasized, such as the reference months for maximum cooling and heating loads and these loads’ values. Annual maximum loads are encountered in February and August, respectively, so these months should be taken as reference for sizing thermal building systems, in Bucharest, under clear sky conditions.

  13. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  14. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  15. Air-to-air heat recovery devices for small buildings : interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    With the escalation of fuel costs, many people are turning to tighter, better insulated buildings as a means of achieving energy conservation. This is especially true in northern climates, where heating seasons are long and severe. Installing efficie...

  16. Design of environmentally friendly calcium sulfate-based building materials : towards an improved indoor air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the performance based design and development of an environmentally friendly calcium sulfate-based indoor building product towards an improved indoor air quality. Here "environmental friendly" is referred to the environment related subjects including: (1) the selection of raw

  17. Occupant Time Period of Thermal Adaption to Change of Outdoor Air Temperature in Naturally Ventilated Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Wargocki, Pawel; Xiong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The present work proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption of occupants in naturally ventilated building, based on the relationship between their neutral temperatures and running mean outdoor air temperature. Based on the data of the field investigation, the subjects’ time...

  18. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabanskis A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  19. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance – Part II: Development of an accelerated aging method for roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleiman, Mohamad [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Berdahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gilbert, Haley E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quelen, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marlot, Lea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Preble, Chelsea V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Montalbano, Amandine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosseler, Olivier [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Akbari, Hashem [Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-09

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products₋single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles₋and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. In conclusion, this accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  20. Ventilated air cavities for the control of rising damp in historical buildings. Functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª T. Gil Muñoz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the behavior of ventilated air cavities and their level of efficiency when used for the control of rising damp and the associated pathological damage in walls and foundations of historical buildings. The methodology is based on experiments on-site and monitoring. Knowledge of local climate conditions, the surroundings of the building, its construction features and the type of foundation constitute the preliminary conditions for the monitoring. In order to reach the goal we have measured several parameters according to a plan, developed graphical tools for the study, and prepared statistical data. The building of this system has not always been accompanied by a thorough assessment that would justify the intervention. The results show how this situation has affected the design strategies and sizing of the ventilated air cavities, limiting in many cases their efficiency.

  1. Task-Oriented and Relationship-Building Communications between Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inwon Kang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By questioning the lopsided attention on task-oriented factors in air traffic controller-pilot communication, the current study places an equal weighting on both task-oriented and relationship-building communications, and investigates how each type of communication influences sustainable performance in airline operation team. Results show that both task-oriented and relationship-building communications in terms of sustainability of team process predicted greater communication satisfaction at work. Also, both task interdependence and shared leadership influenced both types of air traffic controller-pilot communication. However, only relationship-building communication had a direct influence on perceived work performance whereas task-oriented communication had not. Along with task-oriented factors, this study raises the relationship-oriented factors as important resources for the sustainable team performance in airline industry.

  2. 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program: Air lock cover block refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.B.; Holton, L.K. Jr.; Gale, R.M.

    1989-05-01

    The high-density concrete cover blocks shielding the pipe trench in the hot-cell air lock of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells had accumulated fixed radioactivity ranging from 1100 to 22, 000 mrad/hr. A corresponding increase in the radiation exposure to personnel entering the air lock, together with ALARA concerns, led to the removal of the contaminated concrete surface with a hydraulic spaller and the emplacement of a stainless steel covering over a layer of grout. The resultant saving in radiation exposure is estimated to be 7200 mrad for personnel completing burial box runs for the 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program. Radiation exposure to all staff members entering the air lock is now at least 50% lower. 3 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab

  3. Energy Optimized Envelope for Cold Climate Indoor Agricultural Growing Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hachem-Vermette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the development of building envelope design for improved energy performance of a controlled indoor agricultural growing center in a cold climate zone (Canada, 54° N. A parametric study is applied to analyze the effects of envelope parameters on the building energy loads for heating, cooling and lighting, required for maintaining growing requirement as obtained in the literature. A base case building of rectangular layout, incorporating conventionally applied insulation and glazing components, is initially analyzed, employing the EnergyPlus simulation program. Insulation and glazing parameters are then modified to minimize energy loads under assumed minimal lighting requirement. This enhanced design forms a base case for analyzing effects of additional design parameters—solar radiation control, air infiltration rate, sky-lighting and the addition of phase change materials—to obtain an enhanced design that minimizes energy loads. A second stage of the investigation applies a high lighting level to the enhanced design and modifies the design parameters to improve performance. A final part of the study is an investigation of the mechanical systems and renewable energy generation. Through the enhancement of building envelope components and day-lighting design, combined heating and cooling load of the low level lighting configuration is reduced by 65% and lighting load by 10%, relative to the base case design. Employing building integrated PV (BIPV system, this optimized model can achieve energy positive status. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC, are discussed, as potential means to offset increased energy consumption associated with the high-level lighting model.

  4. Comparison of salt solution and air drying methods for moisture fixation in highly porous building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Møldrup, Per

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research has identified some bio-based, porous building materials as good or excellent regulators of moisture in buildings. The ability of a material to absorb, release and store moisture is described by vapour sorption isotherms. It is necessary input to simulations of indoor...... building materials by a standardized testing method, using saturated salt solutions. Furthermore, results from the standard method are compared to values of moisture content for the same materials, obtained by air-drying at different relative humidity. This is done with the aim to compare the findings from...... the two methods with respect to time and repeatability of the results. Derived isotherms are further used as direct input in the building simulation software BSim, which is capable of predicting indoor environment parameters by solving coupled, transient heat and moisture transport equations using finite...

  5. Air conditioning device for pool facilities in nuclear power plant buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taruishi, Yoshiaki; Ishida, Seiji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the temperature and humidity conditions for the working circumstance, prevent condensations on the wall surface and enable the reduction in the irradiation exposure to workers. Constitution: Air intake ports are provided on the side wall of a fuel storage pool or an equipment installation pool above the water level and connected by way of their exhaust ducts to the exhaust ducts of an air ventilation system. While on the other hand, air feed ducts having horizontally opened blowing ports and air exhaust ducts having horizontally opened exhaust ports above and in adjacent to the air feed ducts are provided on the side walls of the pool buildings at the height near the floor level. With this structure, fresh outdoor airs blown out horizontally from the blowing ports provided near the floor level can improve the temperature and humidity conditions of the working circumstance for the workers working on the floor. Further, an air clean up device is provided to the feed and exhaust systems for clean up the feed and exhaust airs. (Furukawa, Y.)

  6. Enveloping Aerodynamic Decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Kerry T. (Inventor); Aaron, Kim M. (Inventor); McRonald, Angus D. (Inventor); Gates, Kristin L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An inflatable aerodynamic deceleration method and system is provided for use with an atmospheric entry payload. The inflatable aerodynamic decelerator includes an inflatable envelope and an inflatant, wherein the inflatant is configured to fill the inflatable envelope to an inflated state such that the inflatable envelope surrounds the atmospheric entry payload, causing aerodynamic forces to decelerate the atmospheric entry payload.

  7. Air flows in big cavity, building aeraulics; ecoulements de l`air en grande cavite, aeraulique des batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop day was jointly organized by the French society of thermal engineers (SFT) and the university group of thermal engineers (GUT). This compilation of proceedings comprises 10 papers dealing with: the use of zonal models for the prediction of the temperature field inside buildings; prediction of the natural ventilation air renewing inside a cavity with a single big aperture using a finite-difference code; experimental validation of the EOL-3D code in industrial ventilating; precise numerical modeling of flows inside ventilated or not-ventilated cavities with pollutant species using a finite difference field code; building aeraulics at Electricite de France (EdF): from the basic research to field applications; experimental study of a heavy vertical jet, influence on the thermal comfort inside a air-conditioned room; study of non-isothermal 3-D free jets: comparison of measurement results with field code modeling; natural air-conditioning of accommodations in humid tropical climate; natural ventilating in humid tropical climate, proposition for a method of evaluation of the velocity coefficients; comparison between measurements and calculations concerning the atmosphere of occupied rooms. (J.S.)

  8. Air leakage analysis of research reactor HANARO building in typhoon condition for the nuclear emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Goany Up; Lee, Hae Cho; Kim, Bong Seok; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Pyung Kyu [Dept. of Emergency Preparedness, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To find out the leak characteristic of research reactor 'HANARO' building in a typhoon condition MELCOR code which normally is used to simulate severe accident behavior in a nuclear power plant was used to simulate the leak rate of air and fission products from reactor hall after the shutdown of the ventilation system of HANARO reactor building. For the simulation, HANARO building was designed by MELCOR code and typhoon condition passed through Daejeon in 2012 was applied. It was found that the leak rate is 0.1%·day{sup -1} of air, 0.004%·day{sup -1} of noble gas and 3.7×10{sup -5}%·day{sup -1} of aerosol during typhoon passing. The air leak rate of 0.1%·day can be converted into 1.36 m{sup 3}·hr{sup -1} , but the design leak rate in HANARO safety analysis report was considered as 600 m3·hr{sup -1} under the condition of 20 m·sec{sup -1} wind speed outside of the building by typhoon. Most of fission products during the maximum hypothesis accident at HANARO reactor will be contained in the reactor hall, so the direct radiation by remained fission products in the reactor hall will be the most important factor in designing emergency preparedness for HANARO reactor.

  9. Performance analysis of air source heat pump system for office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dong Won; KIm, Yong Chan [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young Soo [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the performance of an air source heat pump system installed in a commercial building is analyzed using the developed heat pump performance model and building load simulation data of several regions in Korea. The performance test of an air source heat pump system with a variable speed compressor is tested to develop model that considers changes in the performance characteristics of the heat pump system under various operating conditions. The heat pump system is installed in an environmental chamber, and the experimental equipment is set up according to the manufacturer' specifications as well as the AHRI 1230 test specifications. The performance test conditions of the heat pump system are selected using a central composite design method, in which 29 points for each cooling and heating mode are selected. The developed performance model based on experimental data predicts experimental values with an error of ±5 %. Building cooling and heating loads in three regions in Korea are analyzed using TRNSYS software, which includes standard building and weather data from Seoul, Daejeon and Busan in Korea. The effects of outdoor air temperature and part load ratio on the performance and regional monthly average power consumption of the heat pump system are analyzed.

  10. Applying water cooled air conditioners in residential buildings in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua; Lee, W.L.; Yik, F.W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a realistic prediction of the potential energy saving for using water cooled air conditioners in residential buildings in Hong Kong. A split type air conditioner with air cooled (AAC) and water cooled (WAC) options was set up for experimental study at different indoor and outdoor conditions. The cooling output, power consumption and coefficient of performance (COP) of the two options were measured and calculated for comparison. The experimental results showed that the COP of the WAC is, on average, 17.4% higher than that of the AAC. The results were used to validate the mathematical models formulated for predicting the performance of WACs and AACs at different operating conditions and load characteristics. While the development of the mathematical models for WACs was reported in an earlier paper, this paper focuses on the experimental works for the AAC. The mathematical models were further used to predict the potential energy saving for application of WACs in residential buildings in Hong Kong. The predictions were based on actual building developments and realistic operating characteristics. The overall energy savings were estimated to be around 8.7% of the total electricity consumption for residential buildings in Hong Kong. Wider use of WACs in subtropical cities is, therefore, recommended

  11. Improving energy performance of school buildings while ensuring indoor air quality ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Rachel; Goldberger, Itamar [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel). Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Structural Engineering and Construction Management; Paciuk, Monica [National Building Research Institute, Technion, Haifa (Israel)

    2007-09-15

    Energy conscious design of school buildings, as well as deemed-to-satisfy provisions in a Performance Based Energy Code, should address the problem known as the energy efficiency - thermal comfort - indoor air quality dilemma (EE-TC-IAQ Dilemma). In warm and moderate climates, the large internal heat sources usually found in school buildings prevent achieving thermal comfort without active cooling in summer, but are not sufficient to eliminate the need for heating in winter. Commonly used air-conditioners do not improve air quality, while natural ventilation induces uncontrolled energy losses. In this study, a step by step process was used for the development of deemed-to-satisfy design solutions, which cope with the EE-TC-IAQ Dilemma, for a performance based code. A distinction is made between improving building design variables and improving ventilation schemes. Results indicate that implementation of improved ventilation schemes in an otherwise well designed energy-conscious building result in savings of 28-30% and 17-18% for northern and southern classroom orientations, respectively. (author)

  12. Air leakage analysis of research reactor HANARO building in typhoon condition for the nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Goany Up; Lee, Hae Cho; Kim, Bong Seok; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Pyung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    To find out the leak characteristic of research reactor 'HANARO' building in a typhoon condition MELCOR code which normally is used to simulate severe accident behavior in a nuclear power plant was used to simulate the leak rate of air and fission products from reactor hall after the shutdown of the ventilation system of HANARO reactor building. For the simulation, HANARO building was designed by MELCOR code and typhoon condition passed through Daejeon in 2012 was applied. It was found that the leak rate is 0.1%·day -1 of air, 0.004%·day -1 of noble gas and 3.7×10 -5 %·day -1 of aerosol during typhoon passing. The air leak rate of 0.1%·day can be converted into 1.36 m 3 ·hr -1 , but the design leak rate in HANARO safety analysis report was considered as 600 m3·hr -1 under the condition of 20 m·sec -1 wind speed outside of the building by typhoon. Most of fission products during the maximum hypothesis accident at HANARO reactor will be contained in the reactor hall, so the direct radiation by remained fission products in the reactor hall will be the most important factor in designing emergency preparedness for HANARO reactor

  13. Evaluation of Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning (HVAC System Performance in an Administrative Building in Tehran (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mari Oriyad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the factors influencing on indoor air quality of the buildings is performance of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. These systems supply clean and odorless air, with temperature, humidity, and air velocity within comfort ranges for the residents. The aim of this study was to evaluate performance HVAC system in an administrative building in Tehran. .Material and Method: A questionnaire, developed in their research was used to assess the building occupants’ perception about the performance of HVAC system. To evaluate the performance of HVAC systems, air velocities were measured in the diffusers using a thermal anemometer. Moreover, CO2 concentration, air temperature and relative humidity were measured in the whole floors of the building. Air distribution inside the building was evaluated using smoke test. .Results: Most of the studied people complained about the direction of airflow, thermal conditions and cigarette odor. The highest level of carbon dioxide was measured at 930 ppm inside the restaurant. The maximum and minimum air temperatures and relative humidity were measured 28.3-13.8° C and 28.4-23% respectively. Smoke test showed that the air distribution/direction wasn’t suitable in one third of air diffusers. .Conclusion: Improper air distribution / direction was the main problem with the studied HVAC system which could be corrected by adjusting and balancing of the system.

  14. Optimization and Performance Study of Select Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rajeev

    Buildings contribute a significant part to the electricity demand profile and peak demand for the electrical utilities. The addition of renewable energy generation adds additional variability and uncertainty to the power system. Demand side management in the buildings can help improve the demand profile for the utilities by shifting some of the demand from peak to off-peak times. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning contribute around 45% to the overall demand of a building. This research studies two strategies for reducing the peak as well as shifting some demand from peak to off-peak periods in commercial buildings: 1. Use of gas heat pumps in place of electric heat pumps, and 2. Shifting demand for air conditioning from peak to off-peak by thermal energy storage in chilled water and ice. The first part of this study evaluates the field performance of gas engine-driven heat pumps (GEHP) tested in a commercial building in Florida. Four GEHP units of 8 Tons of Refrigeration (TR) capacity each providing air-conditioning to seven thermal zones in a commercial building, were instrumented for measuring their performance. The operation of these GEHPs was recorded for ten months, analyzed and compared with prior results reported in the literature. The instantaneous COPunit of these systems varied from 0.1 to 1.4 during typical summer week operation. The COP was low because the gas engines for the heat pumps were being used for loads that were much lower than design capacity which resulted in much lower efficiencies than expected. The performance of equivalent electric heat pump was simulated from a building energy model developed to mimic the measured building loads. An economic comparison of GEHPs and conventional electrical heat pumps was done based on the measured and simulated results. The average performance of the GEHP units was estimated to lie between those of EER-9.2 and EER-11.8 systems. The performance of GEHP systems suffers due to lower efficiency at

  15. Particle size distribution and composition in a mechanically ventilated school building during air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J L; Larson, R R; Eskelson, E; Wood, E M; Veranth, J M

    2008-10-01

    Particle count-based size distribution and PM(2.5) mass were monitored inside and outside an elementary school in Salt Lake City (UT, USA) during the winter atmospheric inversion season. The site is influenced by urban traffic and the airshed is subject to periods of high PM(2.5) concentration that is mainly submicron ammonium and nitrate. The school building has mechanical ventilation with filtration and variable-volume makeup air. Comparison of the indoor and outdoor particle size distribution on the five cleanest and five most polluted school days during the study showed that the ambient submicron particulate matter (PM) penetrated the building, but indoor concentrations were about one-eighth of outdoor levels. The indoor:outdoor PM(2.5) mass ratio averaged 0.12 and particle number ratio for sizes smaller than 1 microm averaged 0.13. The indoor submicron particle count and indoor PM(2.5) mass increased slightly during pollution episodes but remained well below outdoor levels. When the building was occupied the indoor coarse particle count was much higher than ambient levels. These results contribute to understanding the relationship between ambient monitoring station data and the actual human exposure inside institutional buildings. The study confirms that staying inside a mechanically ventilated building reduces exposure to outdoor submicron particles. This study supports the premise that remaining inside buildings during particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes reduces exposure to submicron PM. New data on a mechanically ventilated institutional building supplements similar studies made in residences.

  16. Air movement, gender and risk of sick building headache among employees in a Jakarta office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Winarti

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though office buildings are usually equipped with ventilation system or air conditioning to create a comfortable working environment, yet there is still found a number of sick building syndrome (SBS symptoms. One of the symptoms of SBS is SBS headache. Therefore, it is crucial to identify risk factors related to SBS headache. Cases were subjects who have suffered SBS headache, and controls were subjects who did not suffered headache for the last one month. Cases and controls were selected through a survey on all of employees in the said office during the period of May to August 2002. Total respondents were 240 employees including 36 people suffered SBS headache (15%. Compared to the normal air movement, faster air movement decreased the risk of SBS headache by 57% [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.43; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.19-0.95]. Female employees, compared to the males ones, had a higher risk of getting SBS headache by almost three times (adjusted OR = 2.96: 95% CI: 1.29-6.75. Employees who had breakfast irregularly, had a lower risk to SBS headache than those who have breakfast regularly (adjusted OR=0.31; 95% CI: 0.09-0.84. Temperature, humidity and smoking habits were not noted correlated to SBS headache. Female workers had greater risk of suffering SBS headache. In addition slower air movement increased the risk of SBS headache. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the progress of air in order to reduce the risk of SBS headache, especially for female workplace. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 171-7Keywords: sick building syndrome headache, gender, air movement

  17. Alternative for Summer Use of Solar Air Heaters in Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. González-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Among solar thermal technologies for indoor heating, solar air heaters (SAH are appealing for implementation on existing buildings due to their simplicity, fewer risks related to the working fluid, and possible independence from the building structure. However, existing research work mainly focuses on winter use and still fails in providing effective solutions for yearly operation, which would enhance their interest. With the aim of analysing an alternative summer use, this work firstly characterises a double channel-single pass solar air collector through experimentation. From the obtained results, modelling and simulation tasks have been conducted to evaluate the possibilities of using hot air, provided by the SAH, while operating under summer conditions within a closed loop, to feed an air-to-water heat exchanger for domestic hot water (DHW production. The system is studied through simulation under two different configurations for a case study in Valladolid (Spain, during the period from May to September for different airflows in the closed loop. Results show that daily savings can vary from 27% to 85% among the different operating conditions; a configuration where make-up water is fed to the heat exchanger being preferable, with a dedicated water tank for the solar heated water storage of the minimum possible volume. The more favourable results for the harshest months highlight the interest of extending the use of the solar air heaters to the summer period.

  18. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  19. Indoor air quality in the Swedish housing stock and its dependence on building characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Bekö, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    .47h-1). The majority of houses (80%) did not comply with the building code that requires 0.5 air changes per hour. The median concentrations in single-family houses and apartments were 6.0 and 10μg/m3, respectively, for NO2, 22 and 13μg/m3 for formaldehyde, and 236 and 143μg/m3 for TVOC. All......Data from a recent Swedish survey on the status of the housing stock and indoor air quality were placed in the public domain by the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning in 2011. The available parameters included the year of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation...

  20. Energy performance and indoor air quality in modern buildings in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten; Vahala, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A new dormitory for engineering students "Apisseq" was built in Sisimiut, Greenland in 2010. Its purpose is not only to provide accommodation for students, but thanks to its complex monitoring system, it enables researchers to evaluate the building's energy performance and indoor air quality. Some......, which have negative effects on the energy performance and indoor air quality. The heat demand in 2011 was 26.5% higher than expected. One of the main causes of the extra heat demand is the fact that the ventilation system was over-dimensioned, and although it is running on the lowest fan power...... of the installed technologies are not commonly used in the current Greenlandic building stock. Therefore, evaluation of their performance under local conditions is essential for further use and development. The first year of operation has disclosed some errors made during the design process and construction phase...

  1. Energy analysis of under-floor air distribution (UFAD) system: An office building case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alajmi, Ali F.; Abou-Ziyan, Hosny Z.; El-Amer, Wid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The key issue for efficient performance of UFAD system is to ensure the thermal stratification establishment. • The unnecessarily excess air supplied to the room deteriorates the thermal stratification. • Improper UFAD operation increases the fan power and HVAC electric demand. • The proper UFAD system is typically more efficient than the existed UFAD system with energy savings of about 23–37%. • UFAD system shows over the CBAD system saving by about 37–39% during the peak months and 51% during October. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental and theoretical investigation to evaluate an under-floor air distribution (UFAD) system existed in an office building working on hot climate. Air temperature a distribution and supply air velocity are measured in two measuring stations; each consists of eight temperature sensors which were installed to measure room air temperatures along zone height. The obtained data shows an inefficient operation of the UFAD system which deteriorates the advantages of energy saving that presumed by UFAD system. The building energy simulation program, EnergyPlus, was used to identify the best setting of UFAD system and compare it with the existed UFAD and the conventional ceiling based air distribution (CBAD) system. The simulation results show that setting of room thermostat at 26 °C and supply air temperature at 18 °C provides the best efficient UFAD system. Due to improper operation of the tested UFAD system, its actual consumption is found to be higher than the best simulated UFAD by 23–37% during July to October. Also, the simulation results show that the HVAC demand of UFAD is lower than CBAD by 37–39% during July–September and 51% in October

  2. Fire hazards analysis of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Air Support Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.L.; Satterwhite, D.G.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the methods, analyses, results, and conclusions of a fire hazards risk analysis performed for the RWMC Air Support Buildings. An evaluation of the impact for adding a sprinkler system is also presented. Event and fault trees were used to model and analyze the waste storage process. Tables are presented indicating the fire initiators providing the highest potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. Engineering insights drawn form the data are also provided.

  3. Carbon air pollution reflected in deposits on chosen building materials of Prague Castle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Zeman, Antonín; Trejtnarová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 409, č. 21 (2011), s. 4606-4611 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : historical building materials * air pollution * carbonaceous matter Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.286, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711007431

  4. Fire hazards analysis of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Air Support Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.L.; Satterwhite, D.G.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the methods, analyses, results, and conclusions of a fire hazards risk analysis performed for the RWMC Air Support Buildings. An evaluation of the impact for adding a sprinkler system is also presented. Event and fault trees were used to model and analyze the waste storage process. Tables are presented indicating the fire initiators providing the highest potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. Engineering insights drawn form the data are also provided

  5. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Honggang; Cao Shanping; Chang Wenjing [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zeng Hui, E-mail: huizeng0608@gmail.com [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 2.5} (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 10} (Particulate Matter up to 10 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached {approx}141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: > Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. > PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. > The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. > Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  6. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Honggang; Cao Shanping; Chang Wenjing; Zeng Hui

    2011-01-01

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM 2.5 (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ 15 PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM 10 (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ 15 PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ 15 PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: → Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. → PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. → The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. → Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  7. Fuzzy logic control of air-conditioning system in residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hamid Attia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rising concern in reducing the energy consumption in building. Heating ventilation and air condition system is the biggest consumer of energy in building. In this study, fuzzy logic control of the air conditioning system of building for efficient energy operation and comfortable environment is investigated. A theoretical model of the fan coil unit (FCU and the heat transfer between air and coolant fluid is derived. The controlled variables are the room temperature and relative humidity and control consequents are the percentage of chilled and hot water flow rates at summer and the percentage of hot water and steam injected flow rates at winter. A computer simulation has been conducted and fuzzy control results are compared with that of conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative control. It was found that the proposed control strategy satisfies the space load and at the same time to achieve the comfort zone, as defined by the ASHRAE code. Meanwhile PID control fails to adjust the room temperature at part-load operations. It has been demonstrated that fuzzy controller operation is more efficient and consumes less energy than PID control.

  8. Characteristics of air pollutant dispersion around a high-rise building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kwok, K.C.S.; Liu, X.-P.; Niu, J.-L.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical wind tunnel model was proposed. The computed results of the pollutant diffusion around a typical Hong Kong high-rise building model (at a linear scale of 1:30), were found to show a similar trend to the outcomes of self-conducted experimental measurements that the pathways of pollutant migration for windward and leeward pollutant emission are different. For the case with windward pollutant emission at the 3rd floor within a re-entry, the pollutant migrated downwards due to the downwash created by the wind. In contrast, for the case with leeward pollution emission, dispersion is dominated by intense turbulent mixing in the near wake and characterized by the upward migration of the pollutant in the leeward re-entry. The simulated results of haze-fog (HF) studies confirm that the pathway of pollutant migration is dominated by wind–structure interaction and buoyancy effect only plays a minor role in the dispersion process. - Highlights: • A self-developed numerical wind tunnel model was proposed. • Characteristics of air pollutant dispersion with windward/leeward emission were discussed. • Wind–structure interaction controls the air pollutant dispersion around the building. - The different characteristics of air pollutant dispersion around a high-rise building, for both cases of a dispersion source in either the windward face or leeward face, are dominated by wind–structure interaction, with buoyancy effect playing only a minor role

  9. Performance curves of room air conditioners for building energy simulation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, José W.; Abadie, Marc O.; Moura, Luís M.; Mendonça, Kátia C.; Mendes, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental characteristic curves for two room air conditioners are presented. • These results can be implemented in building simulation codes. • The energy consumption under different conditions can numerically determine. • The labeled higher energy efficiency product not always provides the best result. - Abstract: In order to improve the modeling of air conditioners in building simulation tools, the characteristic curves for total cooling capacity, sensible cooling capacity and energy efficiency ratio of two room units were determined. They were obtained by means of standard capacity tests on climatic chambers in a set of environmental conditions described by external dry- and internal wet bulb temperatures. Afterward, the performance of these two units and that of four other units, with and without taking into to account the thermodynamic variations of the surrounding environments on it, were compared using a whole building simulation program for simulating a conditioned space. The comparative analysis showed that the air conditioner with the higher energy efficiency rating not always provides the lowest power consumption in real conditions of use

  10. A study of building structural features associated with high indoor air concentrations of organochlorine termiticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaniello, D L; Gun, R T; Tkaczuk, M N; Hann, C; Crea, J

    1993-09-01

    As part of a two-year study of post-treatment residential exposure to the termiticide, aldrin, the building structural features of ten houses with crawl-space-type floors were assessed by an independent inspector. Building attributes recorded on a checklist included the age of the dwelling, room characteristics, floor details and the nature of subfloor ventilation. At the end of each inspection, the inspector, who was blinded to data on airborne aldrin concentrations, provided a rating of expected indoor air contamination. Several of the building attributes, including the age of the house, the area of exterior subfloor vents, as well as the inspector's rating, were significantly correlated with airborne aldrin values. No single building variable, however, was highly correlated with every measure of aldrin concentration over a 12-month period. The observed data are consistent with poor subfloor ventilation and a 'leaky' floor being important contributors to indoor air pollution. It is recommended that pest control companies advise householders about any obvious floor and ventilation deficiencies before soil treatment work is undertaken. Pesticide exposure (by analogy with geological radon exposure) may be reduced by sealing gaps in floors and/or by improving subfloor ventilation.

  11. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects. Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  12. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniyenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects). Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  13. Factors influencing indoor air quality in an urban high rise apartment building (retitled as "Air Pollution and air exchange in an urban high rise apartment building")

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EP...

  14. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  15. Assessment of productivity loss in air-conditioned buildings using PMV index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, R. [Halton OY, Kausala (Finland); Tan, F. [CapitaLand Commercial Limited, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-07-01

    This theoretical study reports on the assessment of productivity loss in air-conditioned office buildings using the PMV approach and makes use of Wyon's reviews [D.P. Wyon, P.O. Fanger, B.W. Olesen, C.J.K. Pedersen, The mental performance of subjects clothed for comfort at two different air temperatures, Ergonomics 18 (1975) 358-374; D.P. Wyon, Individual microclimate control: required range, probable benefits and current feasibility, in: Proceedings of Indoor Air '96, Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, 1996; D.P. Wyon, Indoor environmental effects on productivity. IAQ 96 Paths to better building environments/Keynote address. Y. Kevin. Atlanta, ASHRAE, pp. 5-15] as the basis to compare and to relate how the productivity loss could be minimised through improved thermal comfort design criteria. The finding shows that task-related performance is significantly correlated with the human perception of thermal environment that in turn is dependent on temperatures. Different combinations of thermal criteria (air velocity, clo, metabolic, etc.) can lead to similar PMV value and the PMV equation is useful to predict productivity loss that is due to the rate of change in thermal conditions. The study also highlights the issues that remain to be resolved in future research. (author)

  16. Feasibility study of a novel dew point air conditioning system for China building application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xudong; Yang, Shuang; Duan, Zhiyin; Riffat, Saffa B. [School of the Built Environment, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The paper investigated the feasibility of a novel dew point evaporative cooling for air conditioning of buildings in China regions. The issues involved include analyses of China weather conditions, investigation of availability of water for dew point cooling, and assessment of cooling capacity of the system within various regions of China. It is concluded that the dew point system is suitable for most regions of China, particularly northern and west regions of China where the climate is hot and dry during the summer season. It is less suitable for Guangzhou and Shanghai where climates are hot and humid. However, an air pre-treatment process involving a silica-gel dehumidification will enable the technology to be used for these humid areas. Lower humidity results in a higher difference between the dry bulb and dew point of the air, which benefits the system in terms of enhancing its cooling performance. Tap water has adequate temperature to feed the system for cooling and its consumption rate is in the range 2.6-3 litres per kWh cooling output. The cooling output of the system ranges from 1.1 to 4.3 W per m{sup 3}/h air flow rate in China, depending on the region where the system applies. For a unit with 2 kW of cooling output, the required air volume flow rate varies with its application location and is in the range 570-1800 m{sup 3}/h. For a 50 m{sup 2} building with 60 W/m{sup 2} cooling load, if the system operates at working hours, i.e., 09:00 to 17:00 h, its daily water consumption would be in the range of 60-70 litres. Compared with mild or humid climates, the dry and hot climates need less air volume flow rate and less water. (author)

  17. Optimum Installation of Sorptive Building Materials Using Contribution Ratio of Pollution Source for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seonghyun; Seo, Janghoo

    2016-04-01

    Reinforcing the insulation and airtightness of buildings and the use of building materials containing new chemical substances have caused indoor air quality problems. Use of sorptive building materials along with removal of pollutants, constant ventilation, bake-out, etc. are gaining attention in Korea and Japan as methods for improving such indoor air quality problems. On the other hand, sorptive building materials are considered a passive method of reducing the concentration of pollutants, and their application should be reviewed in the early stages. Thus, in this research, activated carbon was prepared as a sorptive building material. Then, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted, and a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials was derived according to the indoor environment using the contribution ratio of pollution source (CRP) index. The results show that a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials can be derived by predicting the contribution ratio of pollutant sources according to the CRP index.

  18. Indoor radon problem in energy efficient multi-storey buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I V; Vasilyev, A V; Onishchenko, A D; Kiselev, S M; Zhukovsky, M V

    2014-07-01

    Modern energy-efficient architectural solutions and building construction technologies such as monolithic concrete structures in combination with effective insulation reduce air permeability of building envelope. As a result, air exchange rate is significantly reduced and conditions for increased radon accumulation in indoor air are created. Based on radon survey in Ekaterinburg, Russia, remarkable increase in indoor radon concentration level in energy-efficient multi-storey buildings was found in comparison with similar buildings constructed before the-energy-saving era. To investigate the problem of indoor radon in energy-efficient multi-storey buildings, the measurements of radon concentration have been performed in seven modern buildings using radon monitoring method. Values of air exchange rate and other parameters of indoor climate in energy-efficient buildings have been estimated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Comparison among Detailed and Simplified Calculation Methods for Thermal and Energy Assessment of the Building Envelope and the Shadings of a New Wooden nZEB House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Carletti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with research carried out by the University of Florence on the thermal and energy performances of a recently built nZEB in Mediterranean Italian area. Heterogeneous component and thermal bridges performances have been analysed and critically evaluated with different calculation methods, and the results in terms of energy consumptions for heating and cooling have been compared. Some solar shading devices have been evaluated to reduce the building energy need for cooling. Main results of the research are presented for the components and thermal bridges properties and for the energy balance of the building implemented with different solar shadings.

  20. Effect of air humidification on the sick building syndrome and perceived indoor air quality in hospitals: a four month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, K; Norbäck, D; Akselsson, R

    1994-01-01

    The sensation of dryness and irritation is essential in the sick building syndrome (SBS), and such symptoms are common in both office and hospital employees. In Scandinavia, the indoor relative humidity in well ventilated buildings is usually in the range 10-35% in winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam air humidification on SBS and perceived air quality during the heating season. The study base consisted of a dynamic population of 104 hospital employees, working in four new and well ventilated geriatric hospital units in southern Sweden. Air humidification raised the relative air humidity to 40-45% in two units during a four months period, whereas the other two units served as controls with relative humidity from 25-35%. Symptoms and perceived indoor air quality were measured before and after the study period by a standardised self administered questionnaire. The technical measurements comprised room temperature, air humidity, static electricity, exhaust air flow, aerosols, microorganisms, and volatile organic compounds in the air. The most pronounced effect of the humidification was a significant decrease of the sensation of air dryness, static electricity, and airway symptoms. After four months of air humidification during the heating season, 24% reported a weekly sensation of dryness in humidified units, compared with 73% in controls. No significant changes in symptoms of SBS or perceived air quality over time were found in the control group. The room temperature in all units was between 21-23 degrees C, and no significant effect of air humidification on the air concentration of aerosols or volatile organic compounds was found. No growth of microorganisms was found in the supply air ducts, and no legionella bacteria were found in the supply water of the humidifier. Air humidification, however, significantly reduced the measured personal exposure to static electricity. It is concluded that air humidification during the heating season

  1. Wind-induced single-sided natural ventilation in buildings near a long street canyon: CFD evaluation of street configuration and envelope design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Z.T.; Mak, C.M.

    2018-01-01

    an urban context, this study investigates the wind-induced single-sided natural ventilation in buildings near a long street canyon under a perpendicular wind direction using CFD method. Four aspect ratios (AR) of the street canyon, from 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0, are investigated to examine the influence...

  2. How tall buildings affect turbulent air flows and dispersion of pollution within a neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristodemou, Elsa; Boganegra, Luz Maria; Mottet, Laetitia; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Constantinou, Achilleas; Pain, Christopher; Robins, Alan; ApSimon, Helen

    2018-02-01

    The city of London, UK, has seen in recent years an increase in the number of high-rise/multi-storey buildings ("skyscrapers") with roof heights reaching 150 m and more, with the Shard being a prime example with a height of ∼310 m. This changing cityscape together with recent plans of local authorities of introducing Combined Heat and Power Plant (CHP) led to a detailed study in which CFD and wind tunnel studies were carried out to assess the effect of such high-rise buildings on the dispersion of air pollution in their vicinity. A new, open-source simulator, FLUIDITY, which incorporates the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method, was implemented; the simulated results were subsequently validated against experimental measurements from the EnFlo wind tunnel. The novelty of the LES methodology within FLUIDITY is based on the combination of an adaptive, unstructured, mesh with an eddy-viscosity tensor (for the sub-grid scales) that is anisotropic. The simulated normalised mean concentrations results were compared to the corresponding wind tunnel measurements, showing for most detector locations good correlations, with differences ranging from 3% to 37%. The validation procedure was followed by the simulation of two further hypothetical scenarios, in which the heights of buildings surrounding the source building were increased. The results showed clearly how the high-rise buildings affected the surrounding air flows and dispersion patterns, with the generation of "dead-zones" and high-concentration "hotspots" in areas where these did not previously exist. The work clearly showed that complex CFD modelling can provide useful information to urban planners when changes to cityscapes are considered, so that design options can be tested against environmental quality criteria. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance analysis of an energy efficient building prototype by using TRNSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Kun; Wang, Wen; Giles, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Buildings section accouts for a large part of the total primary energy consumption. This paper reports a simulative study on an energy efficient building prototype named MIDMOD by using TRNSYS program. The prototype is a new genre of affordable medium density building concepts that are more adaptable, durable, and energy efficient as whole-life housing typologies than those currently available.The building envelope thermal insulation and air tightness are enhanced to reduce heat loss. Several...

  4. Evaluation of the indoor air quality minimum ventilation rate procedure for use in California retail buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, S M; Mendell, M J; Chan, W R; Barrios, M; Sidheswaran, M A; Sullivan, D P; Eliseeva, E A; Fisk, W J

    2015-02-01

    This research assesses benefits of adding to California Title-24 ventilation rate (VR) standards a performance-based option, similar to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers 'Indoor Air Quality Procedure' (IAQP) for retail spaces. Ventilation rates and concentrations of contaminants of concern (CoC) were measured in 13 stores. Mass balance models were used to estimate 'IAQP-based' VRs that would maintain concentrations of all CoCs below health- or odor-based reference concentration limits. An intervention study in a 'big box' store assessed how the current VR, the Title 24-prescribed VR, and the IAQP-based VR (0.24, 0.69, and 1.51 air changes per hour) influenced measured IAQ and perceived of IAQ. Neither current VRs nor Title 24-prescribed VRs would maintain all CoCs below reference limits in 12 of 13 stores. In the big box store, the IAQP-based VR kept all CoCs below limits. More than 80% of subjects reported acceptable air quality at all three VRs. In 11 of 13 buildings, saving energy through lower VRs while maintaining acceptable IAQ would require source reduction or gas-phase air cleaning for CoCs. In only one of the 13 retail stores surveyed, application of the IAQP would have allowed reduced VRs without additional contaminant-reduction strategies. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. The importance of determining the air exchange rate in flats and buildings for calculations of the averted indoor inhalation doses arising from contaminated outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, Karel; Thomas, J.; Bulanek, B.; Lenk, J.; Marikova, S.

    2015-01-01

    The indoor-outdoor air exchange rate is an important parameter when refining estimates of the averted inhaled doses to population in houses and buildings after an emergency event resulting in contamination of outdoor air with a radioactive material. The air exchange rates measured in 70 occupied houses and in 20 unoccupied houses using N 2 O as the tracer gas are presented, and the results of modelling the averted doses in the residential buildings for both gaseous and aerosol outdoor contaminants are demonstrated. (orig.)

  6. Air exchanges and indoor carbon dioxide concentration in Australian pig buildings: Effect of housing and management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhazi, T. M.; Stott, P.; Rutley, D.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in improving air quality within livestock buildings. However, the influence of housing and management factors on air exchange rates and indoor gas concentrations is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing and management...... production, although these buildings may not always provide an optimal environment for pig production. (C) 2011 IAgrE. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Experimental simulation of air quality in street canyon under changes of building orientation and aspect ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F; Ohba, Masaake

    2012-09-01

    To assist validation of numerical simulations of urban pollution, air quality in a street canyon was investigated using a wind tunnel as a research tool under neutral atmospheric conditions. We used tracer gas techniques from a line source without buoyancy. Ethylene (C(2)H(4)) was used as the tracer gas. The street canyon model was formed of six parallel building rows of the same length. The flow and dispersion field was analyzed and measured using a hot-wire anemometer with split fiber probe and fast flame ionization detector. The diffusion flow field in the boundary layer within the street canyon was examined at different locations, with varying building orientations (θ=90°, 112.5°, 135° and 157.5°) and street canyon aspect ratios (W/H=1/2, 3/4 and 1) downwind of the leeward side of the street canyon model. Results show that velocity increases with aspect ratio, and with θ>90°. Pollutant concentration increases as aspect ratio decreases. This concentration decreases exponentially in the vertical direction, and decreases as θ increases from 90°. Measured pollutant concentration distributions indicate that variability of building orientation and aspect ratio in the street canyon are important for estimating air quality in the canyon. The data presented here can be used as a comprehensive database for validation of numerical models.

  8. Energy Efficiency in Buildings as an Air Quality Compliance Approach: Opportunities for the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Edward

    2002-05-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of end-use equipment in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors can reduce air pollution emissions and greenhouse gases significantly. Because energy efficiency is an effective means of reducing multi-pollutant emissions, it is important to ensure that energy efficiency is a fully engaged component of emission-reduction programs. However, while energy-efficiency measures are perceived by many stakeholders to be important options for improving air quality, some members in the air quality community are concerned about the ability of these measures to fit in a regulatory framework-in particular, the ability of emissions reductions from energy-efficiency measures to be real, quantifiable, certifiable, and enforceable. Hence, there are few air quality programs that include energy efficiency as a tool for complying with air quality regulations. This paper describes the connection between energy consumption and air quality, the potential role of energy-efficiency measures to meet air quality regulations, the barriers and challenges to the use of these measures in the air quality regulatory environment, and the potential role that the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Building Technology, State and Community Programs (EERE-Buildings) could play in this area. EERE-Buildings can play a very important role in promoting energy efficiency in the air quality community, in ways that are fully consistent with its overall mission. EERE-Buildings will need to work with other stakeholders to aggressively promote energy efficiency via multiple means: publications, analytical tools, pilot programs, demonstrations, and program and policy analysis and evaluation. EERE-Buildings and state energy officials have considerable experience in implementing and monitoring energy-savings projects, as well as in designing documentation and verification requirements of energy-efficiency improvements

  9. Remote tritium-in-air sampling in reactor building at NAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.R.; Lal Chand

    2000-01-01

    Tritium-in-air activity is an important parameter in PHW reactors from the point of view of internal exposure and heavy water escape from the system. The sampling technique in vogue in PHWRs, for measurement of tritium-in-air activity, requires collection of on the spot sample from different areas using a portable sampler. This sampler uses the bubbler method of sampling. As the areas of sampling are numerous, this technique is time consuming, laborious and can lead to significant internal exposure in areas where tritium-in-air activity is high. This technique is also error prone due to the heavy workload involved. A new scheme, in which the sampling of all the areas of reactor building is done through a sampling station, has been introduced for the first time in NAPS. This sampling station facilitates collection of samples from all the areas of reactor building, remotely and simultaneously at one place thereby reducing time, labour, exposure and error. This paper gives the details of the sampling system installed at NAPS. (author)

  10. Characteristics of radon and its progeny concentrations in air-conditioned office buildings in Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, S.; Furukawa, M.; Shicchi, Y.; Sanada, T.; Yamada, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A series of measurements were carried out to understand the characteristics of radon and its progeny in air-conditioned office buildings. Long-term measurements of radon were made with etched track detectors. Continuous measurements of radon and its progeny concentrations were also conducted in some buildings to study their temporal variations. The results show that radon and its progeny concentrations routinely varied along with working activities. They are generally low while people are working, due to air conditioning, whereas they rise steadily after the air conditioning stops. When considering action levels not only in homes but also workplaces, attention should be paid to annual doses from the viewpoint of radiation protection. The annual dose is generally estimated with a long-term measurement of radon concentration using a passive device such as an etched track detector. Since its reading corresponds to a long-term average concentration regardless of working hours, the annual dose will be overestimated. When comparing a real dose after considering the working hours, they differ by a factor of more than 2. (author)

  11. Turbulence and Air Exchange in a Two-Dimensional Urban Street Canyon Between Gable Roof Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, Michela; Badas, Maria Grazia; Ferrari, Simone; Seoni, Alessandro; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally investigate the effect of a typical building covering: the gable roof, on the flow and air exchange in urban canyons. In general, the morphology of the urban canopy is very varied and complex, depending on a large number of factors, such as building arrangement, or the morphology of the terrain. Therefore we focus on a simple, prototypal shape, the two-dimensional canyon, with the aim of elucidating some fundamental phenomena driving the street-canyon ventilation. Experiments are performed in a water channel, over an array of identical prismatic obstacles representing an idealized urban canopy. The aspect ratio, i.e. canyon-width to building-height ratio, ranges from 1 to 6. Gable roof buildings with 1:1 pitch are compared with flat roofed buildings. Velocity is measured using a particle-image-velocimetry technique with flow dynamics discussed in terms of mean flow and second- and third-order statistical moments of the velocity. The ventilation is interpreted by means of a simple well-mixed box model and the outflow rate and mean residence time are computed. Results show that gable roofs tend to delay the transition from the skimming-flow to the wake-interference regime and promote the development of a deeper and more turbulent roughness layer. The presence of a gable roof significantly increases the momentum flux, especially for high packing density. The air exchange is improved compared to the flat roof buildings, and the beneficial effect is more significant for narrow canyons. Accordingly, for unit aspect ratio gable roofs reduce the mean residence time by a factor of 0.37 compared to flat roofs, whereas the decrease is only by a factor of 0.9 at the largest aspect ratio. Data analysis indicates that, for flat roof buildings, the mean residence time increases by 30% when the aspect ratio is decreased from 6 to 2, whereas this parameter is only weakly dependent on aspect ratio in the case of gable roofs.

  12. Human Perception, SBS Sympsoms and Performance of Office Work during Exposure to Air Polluted by Building Materials and Personal Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt

    The present thesis deals with the impact of polluted air from building materials and personal computers on human perception, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of office work. These effects have been studies in a series of experiments that are described in two different chapters...

  13. Storage envelopes or sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater, J.R.; Wagman, P.I.

    1980-01-01

    A storage envelope or sleeve particularly for processed X-ray films is described. It consists of front and back panels joined together at a hinge line and connected along the intermediate sides by connecting flaps. An inner pocket is formed from a third flap which is folded to lie against the inner face of the back panel. The panels may have additional score lines parallel to the closed sides of the envelope and the inner pocket so that the envelope and the inner pocket can accommodate bulky contents. The free edge of the pocket is inset from the open side of the envelope, and finger cut-outs may be provided to facilitate access to the contents of the envelope and the pocket. (author)

  14. A flexible and low cost experimental stand for air source heat pump for Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crăciun, Vasile S.; Bojesen, Carsten; Blarke, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Energy systems are faced with the challenges of reducing dependency on fossil fuels, while handling increasing penetration levels of intermittent renewables such as wind and solar power. At the same time, the efficient consumption of energy is vital for avoiding the impacts from increasing fuel...... prices. A significant part of this challenge may be dealt with in the way space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water production which is provided to residential and commercial buildings. Air source heat pumps (ASHP) are widely used conversion technologies for providing building thermal energy...... services; cooling, heating, and water heating. ASHP does not have a constant temperature for the primary source like: soil, ground water, or surface water heat pumps. In result, laboratory experiments and tests are faced by the problem of having to handle a wide range of conditions under which...

  15. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  16. Evaluation of the Indoor Air Quality Procedure for Use in Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barrios, Marcella [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parthasarathy, Srinandini [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sidheswaran, Meera [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Katerina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    California's building efficiency standards (Title 24) mandate minimum prescribed ventilation rates (VRs) for commercial buildings. Title 24 standards currently include a prescriptive procedure similar to ASHRAE’s prescriptive “ventilation rate procedure”, but does not include an alternative procedure, akin to ASHRAE’s non-prescriptive “indoor air quality procedure” (IAQP). The IAQP determines minimum VRs based on objectively and subjectively evaluated indoor air quality (IAQ). The first primary goal of this study was to determine, in a set of California retail stores, the adequacy of Title 24 VRs and observed current measured VRs in providing the level of IAQ specified through an IAQP process, The second primary goal was to evaluate whether several VRs implemented experimentally in a big box store would achieve adequate IAQ, assessed objectively and subjectively. For the first goal, a list of contaminants of concern (CoCs) and reference exposure levels (RELs) were selected for evaluating IAQ. Ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor CoC concentrations were measured in 13 stores, including one “big box” store. Mass balance models were employed to calculate indoor contaminant source strengths for CoCs in each store. Using these source strengths and typical outdoor air contaminant concentrations, mass balance models were again used to calculate for each store the “IAQP” VR that would maintain indoor CoC concentrations below selected RELs. These IAQP VRs were compared to the observed VRs and to the Title 24- prescribed VRs. For the second goal, a VR intervention study was performed in the big box store to determine how objectively assessed indoor contaminant levels and subjectively assessed IAQ varied with VR. The three intervention study VRs included an approximation of the store’s current VR [0.24 air changes per hour (ACH)], the Title 24-prescribed VR [0.69 ACH], and the calculated IAQPbased VR [1.51 ACH]). Calculations of IAQP-based VRs

  17. Modeling of an Air Conditioning System with Geothermal Heat Pump for a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to address climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions attaches great importance to research aimed at using renewable energy. Geothermal energy is an interesting alternative concerning the production of energy for air conditioning of buildings (heating and cooling, through the use of geothermal heat pumps. In this work a model has been developed in order to simulate an air conditioning system with geothermal heat pump. A ground source heat pump (GSHP uses the shallow ground as a source of heat, thus taking advantage of its seasonally moderate temperatures. GSHP must be coupled with geothermal exchangers. The model leads to design optimization of geothermal heat exchangers and to verify the operation of the geothermal plant.

  18. Estimation of release of tritium from measurements of air concentrations in reactor building of PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to estimate the releases from measured air concentrations of tritium at various locations in Reactor Building (RB). Design data of Kaiga Generating Station and sample measurements of tritium concentrations at various locations in RB and discharges for a period of fortnight were used. A comparison has also been made with actual measurements. It has been observed that there is good matching in estimated and actual measurements of tritium release on some days while on some days there is high difference

  19. Energy managemant through PCM based thermal storage system for building air-conditioning: Tidel Park, Chennai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nallusamy, N.; Sampath, S.; Velraj, R.

    2006-01-01

    Many modern building are designed for air-conditioning and the amount of electrical energy required for providing air-conditioning can be very significant especially in the tropics. Conservation of energy is major concern to improve the overall efficiency of the system. Integration is energy storage with the conventional system gives a lot of potential for energy saving and long-term economics. Thermal energy storage systems can improve energy management and help in matching supply and demand patterns. In the present work, a detailed study has been done on the existing thermal energy storage system used in the air-conditioning system in Tidel Park, Chennai. The present study focuses on the cool energy storage system. The modes of operation and advantages of such a system for energy management are highlighted. The reason for the adoption of combined storage system and the size of the storage medium in the air-conditioning plant are analyzed. The possibility of using this concept in other cooling and heating applications, such as storage type solar water heating system, has been explored

  20. Air intake device for at least one stand-by aggregate installed in an emergency power supply building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, A.; Schilling, R.

    1980-01-01

    Stand-by aggregates are installed in an energency power supply building in order to ensure the cooling of nuclear power plants during accidents. In order to assure the stand-by aggregates to be supplied with combustion air also in the case of fire, each stand-by aggregate is provided with two intake pipes for the combustion air, which are horizontally lead through the building wall on the opposite sides of the energency power supply building. Fire valves are incorporated in the inlet pipes, and one of them will always close in the case of fire. (orig.) [de

  1. DEA (data envelopment analysis)-assisted supporting measures for ground coupled heat pumps implementing in Italy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, L.; Colantoni, A.; Castellucci, S.; Carlini, M.; Vecchione, L.; Savuto, E.; Pallozzi, V.; Di Carlo, A.; Bocci, E.; Moneti, M.; Cocchi, S.; Boubaker, K.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing of the energy consumption is producing serious global warming issues. Mainly most of greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries come from building equipments. In this context, GCHPs (ground coupled heat pumps) are candidate solution as air conditioning systems in buildings due to their higher efficiency compared to conventional devices. Actually, ground coupled heat pump systems are widely, recognized among the most efficient and comfortable used systems. Nevertheless, economic efficiency of the ground coupled heat pumps has to be proved. In this study, DEA (data envelopment analyses) method is applied to a real case in Italy. - Highlights: • Original investigation in terms of energy demands in buildings. • Gathering conjoint classical and scientific analyses. • Presenting original DEA (data envelopment analysis) economic optimization scheme analyses. • Outlining economical feasibility of an efficient low enthalpy-geothermal plant with GCHP (ground coupled heat pump) exchangers.

  2. Protective plasma envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, V.N.; Konstantinov, S.G.; Kudryavtsev, A.M.; Myskin, O.K.; Panasyuk, V.M.; Tsel'nik, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    A method of creating an annular plasma envelope used to protect the hot plasma from flows of impurities and gases from the walls of the vacuum chamber is described. The diameter of the envelope is 30 cm, the thickness of the wall is 1.5 cm, the length is 2.5 m, and its density is from 10 13 to 10 14 cm -3 . The envelope attenuates the incident (from outside) flow of helium 10-fold and the low of hydrogen 20-fold

  3. The role of the U.S. Department of Energy in indoor air quality and building ventilation policy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Program; Talbott, J.M. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Building Technologies; Moses, D.O. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Analysis

    1993-12-31

    Building ventilation consumes about 5.8 exajoules of energy each year in the U.S. The annual cost of this-energy, used for commercial building fans (1.6 exajoules/yr) and the heating and cooling of outside air (4.2 exajoules/yr), is about $US 33 billion per year. Energy conservation measures that reduce heating and cooling season ventilation rates 15 to 35 % in commercial and residential buildings can result in a national savings of about 0.6 to 15 exajoules (doll US 3-8 billion) per year assuming no reduction of commercial building fan energy use. The most significant adverse environmental impact of reduced ventilation and infiltration is the potential degradation of the building`s indoor air quality. Potential benefits to the U.S from the implementation of sound indoor air quality and building ventilation reduction policies include reduced building-sector energy consumption; reduced indoor, outdoor, and global pollution; reduced product costs; reduced worker absenteeism; reduced health care costs; reduced litigation; increased worker well-being and absenteeism; reduced health care costs; reduced litigation; increased productivity; and increased product quality and competitiveness. (author)

  4. Building characteristics, indoor air quality and recurrent wheezing in very young children (BAMSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenius, G; Svartengren, M; Korsgaard, J; Nordvall, L; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M

    2004-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of building characteristics and indoor air quality on recurrent wheezing in infants. We followed a birth cohort (BAMSE) comprising 4089 children, born in predefined areas of Stockholm, during their first 2 years of life. Information on exposures was obtained from parental questionnaires when the children were 2 months and on symptoms and diseases when the children were 1 and 2 years old. Children with recurrent wheezing, and two age-matched controls per case, were identified and enrolled in a nested case-control study. The homes were investigated and ventilation rate, humidity, temperature and NO2 measured. We found that living in an apartment erected after 1939, or in a private home with crawl space/concrete slab foundation were associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing, odds ratio (OR) 2.5 (1.3-4.8) and 2.5 (1.1-5.4), respectively. The same was true for living in homes with absolute indoor humidity >5.8 g/kg, OR 1.7 (1.0-2.9) and in homes where windowpane condensation was consistently reported over several years, OR 2.2 (1.1-4.5). However, air change rate and type of ventilation system did not seem to affect the risk. In conclusion, relatively new apartment buildings, single-family homes with crawl space/concrete slab foundation, elevated indoor humidity, and reported wintertime windowpane condensation were associated with recurrent wheezing in infants. Thus, improvements of the building quality may have potential to prevent infant wheezing.

  5. Design of evaporative-cooling roof for decreasing air temperatures in buildings in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindangen, Jefrey I.; Umboh, Markus K.

    2017-03-01

    This subject points to assess the benefits of the evaporative-cooling roof, particularly for buildings with corrugated zinc roofs. In Manado, many buildings have roofed with corrugated zinc sheets; because this material is truly practical, easy and economical application. In general, to achieve thermal comfort in buildings in a humid tropical climate, people applying cross ventilation to cool the air in the room and avoid overheating. Cross ventilation is a very popular path to achieve thermal comfort; yet, at that place are other techniques that allow reducing the problem of excessive high temperature in the room in the constructions. This study emphasizes applications of the evaporative-cooling roof. Spraying water on the surface of the ceiling has been executed on the test cell and the reuse of water after being sprayed and cooled once more by applying a heat exchanger. Initial results indicate a reliable design and successfully meet the target as an effective evaporative-cooling roof technique. Application of water spraying automatic and cooling water installations can work optimally and can be an optimal model for the cooling roof as one of the green technologies. The role of heat exchangers can lower the temperature of the water from spraying the surface of the ceiling, which has become a hot, down an average of 0.77° C. The mass flow rate of the cooling water is approximately 1.106 kg/h and the rate of heat flow is around 515 Watt, depend on the site.

  6. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Cao, Shan-Ping; Chang, Wen-Jing; Zeng, Hui

    2011-07-01

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM(2.5) (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM(10) (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ(15)PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼ 141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  8. Safe operating envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, N [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs.

  9. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, N.

    1997-01-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs

  10. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  11. On the potential importance of transient air flow in advective radon entry into buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Holman, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have investigated, using a mathematical model, the temporal variations of air flux within the soil mass surrounding a basement in the presence of time dependent periodic variations of barometric pressure and a persistent under-pressure at the basement. The results of transient air flow show that for a homogeneous soil medium, the effects of barometric fluctuations are most significant in the cases where soil permeability to air is low and the fluctuation frequency is high. In these cases, the barometric fluctuation can greatly enhance the magnitude of fluxes as well as introduce flow direction reversals from surrounding soil into the basement. These large fluxes with direction reversals have strong implications in regard to advective transport of radon. The results suggest that the transient oscillations have to be accounted for in quantifying radon entry into buildings. In the actual field set up, the transient behavior will be further influenced by soil permeability heterogeneity, by soil moisture variations, and by the effects of multiple periodic components in the barometric pressure fluctuations

  12. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  13. Temperature and Humidity Control in Air-Conditioned Buildings with lower Energy Demand and increased Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim; Martos, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    Air-conditioning is not only a matter of temperature control. Thermal comfort and good indoor air quality are mainly a matter of humidity. Human health and well being may suffer seriously from inadequate humidity and/or too low temperatures in a room. A case study involving supermarket air......%. For indoor air temperature and humidity control, the use of an ice slurry (´Binary Ice´)was compared to conventional chilled water. The use of Binary Ice instead of chilled water makes the air handling and air distribution installation much simpler, recirculation of air becomes obsolete, and a higher portion...... of ambient air can be supplied, thus improving the indoor air quality still further. Reheating of air is not necessary when using Binary Ice. The introduction of chilled air into a room requires a different type of air outlet, however. When using Binary Ice, energy savings are high for climates with low...

  14. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid climates--why are we not getting it right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, S C

    2016-02-01

    While there are plenty of anecdotal experiences of overcooled buildings in summer, evidence from field studies suggests that there is indeed an issue of overcooling in tropical buildings. The findings suggest that overcooled buildings are not a consequence of occupant preference but more like an outcome of the HVAC system design and operation. Occupants' adaptation in overcooled indoor environments through additional clothing cannot be regarded as an effective mitigating strategy for cold thermal discomfort. In the last two decades or so, several field studies and field environmental chamber studies in the tropics provided evidence for occupants' preference for a warmer temperature with adaptation methods such as elevated air speeds. It is important to bear in mind that indoor humidity levels are not compromised as they could have an impact on the inhaled air condition that could eventually affect perceived air quality. This review article has attempted to track significant developments in our understanding of the thermal comfort issues in air-conditioned office and educational buildings in hot and humid climates in the last 25 years, primarily on occupant preference for thermal comfort in such climates. The issue of overcooled buildings, by design intent or otherwise, is discussed in some detail. Finally, the article has explored some viable adaptive thermal comfort options that show considerable promise for not only improving thermal comfort in tropical buildings but are also energy efficient and could be seen as sustainable solutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effect of Air Cleaning Technologies in Conjunction With the Use of Rotary Heat Exchangers in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Ekberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a research project concerning the possibilities of applying efficient air cleaning technologies using rotary heat exchanger in residential buildings. The purpose of this project was to identify and adapt new air-cleaning technologies for implementation in HVAC systems...... with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop and a 4 cm thick activated carbon filter were selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measurements included testing of the filters, separately and combined, in a ductwork to study the efficiency...

  16. Application of a solar refrigeration system by absorption for the air conditioning of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machielsen, Cees H. M [Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg (Netherlands); Hagendijk, Andre E [Consultancy and Research (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Sofri project, a cooperation between Ceeran Ltd and The Delft University of Technology. The main objective of this project is to develop the necessary knowledge and experience to commercialize solar-assisted air conditioning and dehumidification systems in the Dutch Caribbean. The project is motivated by the present needs of the Dutch Caribbean for renewable energy sources and the fact that the Caribbean has a high and uniform insolation throughout the year. Furthermore, hotels and offices in this area use more than 40% of their energy for air-conditioning purposes. Therefore solar-assisted air conditioning systems are a logic approach in reducing the energy demand and to lower the peak electricity reducing the energy demands for the local power station. Ceeran Ltd has the objective to reach full commercialization of the proposed technologies in the Dutch Caribbean. The research is concentrated on liquid absorption machines and solar collection systems such as flat plates with selective surfaces, heat pipe evacuated tubes flat plate collectors, and Compound Parabolic Concentrators. The first demonstration unit is planned to be installed in an office building in Curacao. The installation consists of a 35 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption machine driven by 100 m{sup 2} flat pate collectors with a gas backup system. The system will provide comfort air-conditioning for this these type of office buildings during daytime. [Spanish] Este documento describe el proyecto SOFRI, una cooperacion entre Ceeran, Ltd, y la Universidad Tecnologica del Delft. El principal objetivo de este proyecto es el de desarrollar el conocimiento necesario y la experiencia para comercializar los sistemas de aire acondicionado y deshumidificacion ayudados por la energia solar en el Caribe Holandes. Este proyecto ha sido motivado por las actuales necesidades del Caribe Holandes de fuentes de energia renovable y por el hecho de que el Caribe tiene una alta y uniforme insolacion

  17. Envelope colour on thermal load in hot humid Hong Kong: Effect of hue, value, and chroma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VickyCHENG; EdwardNG

    2003-01-01

    Cooling energy consumption of a building can be significantly reduced by limiting solar heat gain through envelope, in which depends on the intensity of impinging solar radiation and on the colour of external surface. Albedo, from the thermal point of view, is the prime parameter of interest; however, it does appear to be too conceptual in practice. Architects, when considering choices of envelope colour, the actual decision is between various colours: yellow, blue, or green rather than a single numerical albedo. This study is to investigate the effect and magnitude of colour, in terms of visual qualities hue, value (lightness), and chroma (saturation), on thermal load of buildings. In the experiment, air temperatures inside test cells painted into different colours were measured, the results suggest that colour attribute: chroma has negligible effect on thermal performance of building envelope, while value has significant thermal effect. The effect of hue, as shown in this study, was insignificant, however further study might be needed as to obtain a clearer picture of its effect.

  18. CMHC research project: Testing of air barrier construction details, II: Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Air leakage control through the building envelope of wood framed houses is more important than ever. The leakage of air is controlled by the air barrier system. There are several new technologies to construct an air barrier system for the building envelope. These are the Poly Approach, the Air Drywall Approach and the EASE system. The development of these systems was undertaken primarily by the building community without significant research and development. The purpose of this study was to determine the actual performance of several different types of construction details for each of the different approaches. Each of these details was designed and constructed using one of the air barrier methods and tested in the laboratory. The test details included the sill plate, the partition wall, the stair stringer, the electrical outlets, the bathtub detail, the plumbing stack detail, the metal chimney detail, the bathroom fan detail and the EASE wall system.

  19. Comparative study of air conditioning systems with vapor compression chillers using the concept of green buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutenberg da Silva Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to compare two different cooling systems that use vapor compression chillers for air conditioning environments. It was proposed to compare different operations in isolated and combined action operations. These operations are evaluated in the concepts of green buildings. A mathematical model was developed based on the principles of mass and energy conservation and complemented by various functions so as to determine the thermophysical properties and efficiencies of the compressors. The equations of the model were solved by the EES (Engineering Equation Solver program. The model evaluates the influence of the main HVAC operating parameters of the chilled water system when operating under three different configurations. The results showed that the system with a differentiated compression presents a COP equal to that of the system with screw chillers in the range  0-300 RTs, and a COP hat is on average 9% higher in the range 400-800 RTs.

  20. Impact of coupled heat and moisture transfer effects on buildings energy consuption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferroukhi Mohammed Yacine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupled heat, air, and moisture transfers through building envelope have an important effect on prediction of building energy requirements. Several works were conducted in order to integrate hygrothermal transfers in dynamic buildings simulations codes. However, the incorporation of multidirectional hygrothermal transfer analysis in the envelope into building simulation tools is rarely considered. In this work, coupled heat, air, and moisture (HAM transfer model in multilayer walls was established. Thereafter, the HAM model is coupled dynamically to a building behavior code (BES.The coupling concerns a co-simulation between COMSOL Multiphysics and TRNSYS software. Afterward, the HAM-BES co-simulation accuracy was verified. Then, HAM-BES co-simulation platform was applied to a case study with various types of climates (temperate, hot and humid, cold and humid. Three simulations cases were carried out. The first simulation case consists of the TRNSYS model without HAM transfer model. The second simulation case, 1-D HAM model for the envelope was integrated in TRNSYS code. For the third one, 1-D HAM model for the wall and 2-D HAM model for thermal bridges were coupled to the thermal building model of TRNSYS. Analysis of the results confirms the significant impact of 2-D envelope hygrothermal transfers on the indoor thermal and moisture behavior of building as well as on the energy building assessment. These conclusions are shown for different studied climates.

  1. Simulations of the impacts of building height layout on air quality in natural-ventilated rooms around street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Zhong, Ke; Chen, Yonghang; Kang, Yanming

    2017-10-01

    Numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of building height ratio (i.e., HR, the height ratio of the upstream building to the downstream building) on the air quality in buildings beside street canyons, and both regular and staggered canyons were considered for the simulations. The results show that the building height ratio affects not only the ventilation fluxes of the rooms in the downstream building but also the pollutant concentrations around the building. The parameter, outdoor effective source intensity of a room, is then proposed to calculate the amount of vehicular pollutants that enters into building rooms. Smaller value of this parameter indicates less pollutant enters the room. The numerical results reveal that HRs from 2/7 to 7/2 are the favorable height ratios for the regular canyons, as they obtain smaller values than the other cases. While HR values of 5/7, 7/7, and 7/5 are appropriate for staggered canyons. In addition, in terms of improving indoor air quality by natural ventilation, the staggered canyons with favorable HR are better than those of the regular canyons.

  2. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  3. Effect of ventilation on perceived quality of air polluted by building materials. A summary of reported data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Vondruskova, J. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-02-15

    This paper summarizes existing data on how varying ventilation rates affect the perceived quality of air polluted by building materials. This is done by reviewing literature dealing with exposure-response relationships, i.e. the log-linear relationships between the concentration of pollutants (exposure) and the perceived air quality (response). The reviewed data originate from studies with single building materials performed in small-scale ventilated chambers and from studies carried out in a full-scale setting resembling normal offices. Perceived air quality expressed in terms of acceptability as assessed by untrained panels was included. The results show that the exposure-response relationships vary for different building materials as regards the impact of changing ventilation rate on perceived air quality and the level of perceived air quality at a constant ventilation rate. This applies both for the data collected in small-scale and in full-scale experiments. The differences may be caused by the experimental conditions, psychological factors, physiological factors, and chemical/physical factors. A well controlled study taking these factors into account with several different building materials, is thus recommended to further study whether the observed results have practical significance. These experiments should be carried out under realistic fullscale conditions. (au)

  4. Impact of height and shape of building roof on air quality in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F.

    2011-09-01

    A building's roof shape and roof height play an important role in determining pollutant concentrations from vehicle emissions and its complex flow patterns within urban street canyons. The impact of the roof shape and height on wind flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants from vehicle exhaust within urban canyons were investigated numerically using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Two-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were analyzed using standard κ- ɛ turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The diffusion fields in the urban canyons were examined with three roof heights ( Z H/ H = 0.17, 0.33 and 0.5) and five roof shapes: (1) flat-shaped roof, (2) slanted-shaped roof, (3) downwind wedge-shaped roof, (4) upwind wedge-shaped roof, and (5) trapezoid-shaped roof. The numerical model was validated against the wind tunnels results in order to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical simulations agreed reasonably with the wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicated that the pollutant concentration increased as the roof height decreases. It also decreased with the slanted and trapezoid-shaped roofs but increased with the flat-shaped roof. The pollutant concentration distributions simulated in the present work, indicated that the variability of the roof shapes and roof heights of the buildings are important factors for estimating air quality within urban canyons.

  5. Field study of thermal comfort in non-air-conditioned buildings in a tropical island climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shilei; Pang, Bo; Qi, Yunfang; Fang, Kun

    2018-01-01

    The unique geographical location of Hainan makes its climate characteristics different from inland areas in China. The thermal comfort of Hainan also owes its uniqueness to its tropical island climate. In the past decades, there have been very few studies on thermal comfort of the residents in tropical island areas in China. A thermal environment test for different types of buildings in Hainan and a thermal comfort field investigation of 1944 subjects were conducted over a period of about two months. The results of the survey data show that a high humidity environment did not have a significant impact on human comfort. The neutral temperature for the residents in tropical island areas was 26.1 °C, and the acceptable temperature range of thermal comfort was from 23.1 °C to 29.1 °C. Residents living in tropical island areas showed higher heat resistance capacity, but lower cold tolerance than predicted. The neutral temperature for females (26.3 °C) was higher than for males (25.8 °C). Additionally, females were more sensitive to air temperature than males. The research conclusions can play a guiding role in the thermal environment design of green buildings in Hainan Province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inventory of the French data about the air quality inside buildings; Inventaire des donnees francaises sur la qualite de l'air a l'interieur des batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosqueron, L; Nedellec, V

    2001-12-01

    In the framework of the implementation of the French observatory for the indoor air quality (OQAI), the Vincent Nedellec consulting office (VNC) has carried out an inventory study of the French data relative to the air quality inside buildings on request of the building scientific and technical center (CSTB). Only data relative to dwellings, office and school buildings are considered. The pollutants considered in this study are: nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), inert particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs: benzene, glycol ethers, formaldehyde), bacteria, legionella, fungi, moulds, animal allergens, radon, asbestos and artificial mineral fibers, lead, biocides. The objective is to identify the available French data, to collect them and to analyze their validity, in particular in terms of methodology, representativeness and extrapolation. Data are presented separately for each pollutant. (J.S.)

  7. Fresh-air cooling ceilings in an administration building; Frischluft-Kuehldecken in einem Verwaltungsgebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1995-06-01

    In the construction of the new building of the Deutsche Innenbau GmbH in Muelheim much importance was attached to aesthetics and functionality. If the employees are enthusiastic after one year of operation this is mainly due to the ideal climatic conditions: Glazings with insulating glass (k=1,4 W/m{sup 2}k), high-quality thermal insulation of the breasts shading system with motor-driven screen at the outside, radiators with thermostatic valves and a fresh air cooling ceiling. The article describes the course of construction of the total air-conditioning and ventilation technique. (orig.) [Deutsch] Beim Neubau der DIG Deutsche Innenbau GmbH in Muelheim an der Ruhr legte man grossen Wert auf Aesthetik und Funktionalitaet. Wenn die Mitarbeiter nach einem Jahr Betrieb begeistert sind, so liegt dies grossenteils an idealen klimatechnischen Voraussetzungen: Verglasung mit Waermeschutzglas (K=1,4 W/m{sup 2}K), hochwertige Waermedaemmung der Bruestungen, aussenliegender Sonnenschutz mit motorbetaetigten Raffstoren, Radiatoren mit Thermostatventilen und einem Frischluft-Kuehldecken-System. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die Vorgehensweise beim Bau der gesamten Klima- und Lueftungstechnik. (orig.)

  8. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  9. Building integrated photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, M.J.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Reinders, Angèle; Verlinden, Pierre; Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations can be realized in different situations and on different scales, such as at a building level. PV installations at the building level can either be added to the building envelope, which is called building added PV (BAPV), or they can be integrated into the building

  10. Simulation of whole building coupled hygrothermal-airflow transfer in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Menghao; Walton, George; Belarbi, Rafik; Allard, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The coupled heat, air and moisture transfer between building envelopes and indoor air is complicated, and has a significant influence on the indoor environment and the energy performance of buildings. In the paper, a model for predicting coupled multi-zone hygrothermal-airflow transfer is presented. Both heat and moisture transfer in the building envelope and multi-zone indoor airflow are simultaneously considered; their interactions are modeled. The coupled system model is implemented into Matlab-Simulink, and is validated by using a series of testing tools and experiments. The new program is applied to investigate the moisture transfer effect on indoor air humidity and building energy consumption in different climates (hot-humid, temperate and hot-dry climates). The results show that not accounting for hygrothermal effects in modeling will result in overestimation of energy costs for hot and humid climate situations and possible over sizing of plant leading to inefficient operation.

  11. Thermal behavior studies in building using artificial neural network for non air conditioned terrace house in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainazlan Md Zain; Mohd Nasir Taib; Shahrizam Mohd Shah Baki

    2006-01-01

    Strategies to improve energy efficiency in buildings have continuously being improved and becoming more effective as new knowledge on the building behavior and technology continue to develop. Nevertheless, effort to explore for further improvement must continuously undertake to seek more energy efficient and cost effective systems. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is currently one of the most popular mechanisms to forecast any form of behavior and phenomena. Building thermal behavior can be studied and potential for energy utilization improvement without compromising thermal comfort can be explored using ANN. This paper explores the possibility of monitoring, predicting and forecasting the thermal behavior inside a building space and the optimization of building design. Typical result of experimental data and simulated data is presented. The sample house used adopted various thermal comfort strategies like cross ventilation and space air flow consideration

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1979-12-01

    The research reported in this volume was undertaken during FY 1979 within the Energy & Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This volume will comprise a section of the Energy & Environment Division 1979 Annual Report, to be published in the summer of 1980. Work reported relate to: thermal performance of building envelopes; building ventilation and indoor air quality; a computer program for predicting energy use in buildings; study focused specifically on inherently energy intensive hospital buildings; energy efficient windows and lighting; potential for energy conservation and savings in the buildings sector; and evaluation of energy performance standards for residential buildings.

  13. Energy efficient hybrid nanocomposite-based cool thermal storage air conditioning system for sustainable buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameshwaran, R.; Kalaiselvam, S.

    2013-01-01

    The quest towards energy conservative building design is increasingly popular in recent years, which has triggered greater interests in developing energy efficient systems for space cooling in buildings. In this work, energy efficient silver–titania HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-based cool thermal energy storage) system combined with building A/C (air conditioning) system was experimentally investigated for summer and winter design conditions. HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposite particles embedded PCM) used as the heat storage material has exhibited 7.3–58.4% of improved thermal conductivity than at its purest state. The complete freezing time for HiNPCM was reduced by 15% which was attributed to its improved thermophysical characteristics. Experimental results suggest that the effective energy redistribution capability of HiTES system has contributed for reduction in the chiller nominal cooling capacity by 46.3% and 39.6% respectively, under part load and on-peak load operating conditions. The HiTES A/C system achieved 27.3% and 32.5% of on-peak energy savings potential in summer and winter respectively compared to the conventional A/C system. For the same operating conditions, this system yield 8.3%, 12.2% and 7.2% and 10.2% of per day average and yearly energy conservation respectively. This system can be applied for year-round space conditioning application without sacrificing energy efficiency in buildings. - Highlights: • Energy storage is acquired by HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-thermal storage) system. • Thermal conductivity of HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposites-PCM) was improved by 58.4%. • Freezing time of HiNPCM was reduced by 15% that enabled improved energy efficiency. • Chiller nominal capacity was reduced by 46.3% and 39.6% in on-peak and part load respectively. • HiTES A/C system achieved appreciable energy savings in the range of 8.3–12.2%

  14. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  15. Folded Plate Structures as Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Buelow, Peter von; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    This paper treats applications of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in structural systems for folded façade solutions. Previous work on CLT-based systems for folded roofs has shown a widening range of structural possibilities to develop timber-based shells. Geometric and material properties play...... CLT-based systems, which are studied and analysed by using a combination of digital tools for structural and environmental design and analysis. The results show gainful, rational properties of folded systems and beneficial effects from an integration of architectural and environmental performance...... criteria in the design of CLT-based façades....

  16. Discrete optimization in architecture building envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the extremely modular systems that meet two criteria: they allow the creation of structurally sound free-form structures, and they are comprised of as few types of modules as possible. Divided into two parts, it presents Pipe-Z (PZ) and Truss-Z (TZ) systems. PZ is more fundamental and forms spatial mathematical knots by assembling one type of unit (PZM). The shape of PZ is controlled by relative twists of a sequence of congruent PZMs. TZ is a skeletal system for creating free-form pedestrian ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals in space. TZ structures are composed of four variations of a single basic unit subjected to affine transformations (mirror reflection, rotation and combination of both). .

  17. Experimental investigation of the influence of the air jet trajectory on convective heat transfer in buildings equipped with air-based and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    -state and dynamic conditions. With the air-based cooling system, a dependency of the convective heat transfer on the air jet trajectory has been observed. New correlations have been developed, introducing a modified Archimedes number to account for the air flow pattern. The accuracy of the new correlations has been...... evaluated to±15%. Besides the study with an air-based cooling system, the convective heat transfer with a radiant cooling system has also been investigated. The convective flow at the activated surface is mainly driven by natural convection. For other surfaces, the complexity of the flow and the large......The complexity and diversity of airflow in buildings make the accurate definition of convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTCs) difficult. In a full-scale test facility, the convective heat transfer of two cooling systems (active chilled beam and radiant wall) has been investigated under steady...

  18. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  19. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  20. [Hygienic assessment of a recirculatory combined air-conditioning extract-and-input system in office building].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysheva, A G; Abramov, E G

    2006-01-01

    The high concentrations of lead were reveled in the air and dust of some premises and on the filters of a combined air-conditioning extract-and-input system in the high-rise office buildings located in the ecologically lead favorable environment. The dust content of lead in some premises on the first floors dust was as high as 200 mg/kg, which was more than 6 times higher than that in the soil at the highway near the office buildings. The use of new technologies and devices for cleaning and optimizing the air in the premises requires analytical studies to assess the quality of the environment, by taking into account the optimal conditions of their operation.

  1. Thermal performance of air-conditioned office buildings constructed with inclined walls in different climates in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.L.S.; Chow, T.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A generic fully air-conditioned office building with inclined walls was modeled. • Simulations were run under climatic conditions in three modern cities in China. • Reduction in cooling load can outweigh the increase in heating load for Hong Kong. • Inclined angle of 30° is appropriate for inverted pyramidal building in Hong Kong. • Building constructed with inclined walls is not encouraged in Shanghai and Beijing. - Abstract: An inverted pyramidal building is built with inclined walls instead of the traditional vertical façades. In terms of thermal performance, an inverted pyramidal building can provide a self-shading effect against the beam solar radiation, leading to a reduction in solar heat gain as well as building cooling load. On the other hand, the heating requirement of an inverted pyramidal building will be increased in winter. There is a strong dependency of building performance on the climatic condition. In this study, a generic air-conditioned office building with inclined walls set at different inclination angles was modeled using a building energy simulation program. Computer simulations were run to assess the thermal performance of the building constructed with inclined walls under different climatic conditions in three modern cities in China–Hong Kong, Shanghai and Beijing. The results reveal that for the building cases with inclined walls set at different inclination angles in subtropical Hong Kong, the saving in annual cooling load ranges from 0.6% to 10.9% and can outweigh the increase in heating load. Moreover, an inclination angle of 30° was found as a better design option for an inverted pyramidal building with symmetrical layout design under the climatic condition in Hong Kong. For the other two cities: Shanghai and Beijing, the saving in cooling load due to self-shading effect cannot offset the increased heating requirement. Design and construction of an inverted pyramidal building is not encouraged in these two

  2. A Novel Distributed Economic Model Predictive Control Approach for Building Air-Conditioning Systems in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinan Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the penetration of grid-connected renewable energy generation, microgrids are facing stability and power quality problems caused by renewable intermittency. To alleviate such problems, demand side management (DSM of responsive loads, such as building air-conditioning system (BACS, has been proposed and studied. In recent years, numerous control approaches have been published for proper management of single BACS. The majority of these approaches focus on either the control of BACS for attenuating power fluctuations in the grid or the operating cost minimization on behalf of the residents. These two control objectives are paramount for BACS control in microgrids and can be conflicting. As such, they should be considered together in control design. As individual buildings may have different owners/residents, it is natural to control different BACSs in an autonomous and self-interested manner to minimize the operational costs for the owners/residents. Unfortunately, such “selfish” operation can result in abrupt and large power fluctuations at the point of common coupling (PCC of the microgrid due to lack of coordination. Consequently, the original objective of mitigating power fluctuations generated by renewable intermittency cannot be achieved. To minimize the operating costs of individual BACSs and simultaneously ensure desirable overall power flow at PCC, this paper proposes a novel distributed control framework based on the dissipativity theory. The proposed method achieves the objective of renewable intermittency mitigation through proper coordination of distributed BACS controllers and is scalable and computationally efficient. Simulation studies are carried out to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed control framework.

  3. Multistep building of a soft plant protein film at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Alexandre; Banc, Amélie; Stocco, Antonio; In, Martin; Ramos, Laurence

    2018-09-15

    Gliadins are edible wheat storage proteins well known for their surface active properties. In this paper, we present experimental results on the interfacial properties of acidic solutions of gliadin studied over 5 decades of concentrations, from 0.001 to 110 g/L. Dynamic pendant drop tensiometry reveals that the surface pressure Π of gliadin solutions builds up in a multistep process. The series of curves of the time evolution of Π collected at different bulk protein concentrations C can be merged onto a single master curve when Π is plotted as a function of αt where t is the time elapsed since the formation of the air/water interface and α is a shift parameter that varies with C as a power law with an exponent 2. The existence of such time-concentration superposition, which we evidence for the first time, indicates that the same mechanisms govern the surface tension evolution at all concentrations and are accelerated by an increase of the bulk concentration. The scaling of α with C is consistent with a kinetic of adsorption controlled by the diffusion of the proteins in the bulk. Moreover, we show that the proteins adsorption at the air/water interface is kinetically irreversible. Correlated evolutions of the optical and elastic properties of the interfaces, as probed by ellipsometry and surface dilatational rheology respectively, provide a consistent physical picture of the building up of the protein interfacial layer. A progressive coverage of the interface by the proteins occurs at low Π. This stage is followed, at higher Π, by conformational rearrangements of the protein film, which are identified by a strong increase of the dissipative viscoelastic properties of the film concomitantly with a peculiar evolution of its optical profile that we have rationalized. In the last stage, at even higher surface pressure, the adsorption is arrested; the optical profile is not modified while the elasticity of the interfacial layer dramatically increases with the

  4. On detonation dynamics in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures: Theory and application to Olkiluoto reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silde, A.; Lindholm, I.

    2000-02-01

    This report consists of the literature study of detonation dynamics in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures, and the assessment of shock pressure loads in Olkiluoto 1 and 2 reactor building under detonation conditions using the computer program DETO developed during this work at VTT. The program uses a simple 1-D approach based on the strong explosion theory, and accounts for the effects of both the primary or incident shock and the first (oblique or normal) reflected shock from a wall structure. The code results are also assessed against a Balloon experiment performed at Germany, and the classical Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory. The whole work was carried out as a part of Nordic SOS-2.3 project, dealing with severe accident analysis. The initial conditions and gas distribution of the detonation calculations are based on previous severe accident analyses by MELCOR and FLUENT codes. According to DETO calculations, the maximum peak pressure in a structure of Olkiluoto reactor building room B60-80 after normal shock reflection was about 38.7 MPa if a total of 3.15 kg hydrogen was assumed to burned in a distance of 2.0 m from the wall structure. The corresponding pressure impulse was about 9.4 kPa-s. The results were sensitive to the distance used. Comparison of the results to classical C-J theory and the Balloon experiments suggested that DETO code represented a conservative estimation for the first pressure spike under the shock reflection from a wall in Olkiluoto reactor building. Complicated 3-D phenomena of shock wave reflections and focusing, nor the propagation of combustion front behind the shock wave under detonation conditions are not modeled in the DETO code. More detailed 3-D analyses with a specific detonation code are, therefore, recommended. In spite of the code simplifications, DETO was found to be a beneficial tool for simple first-order assessments of the structure pressure loads under the first reflection of detonation shock waves. The work on assessment

  5. The influence of opening windows and doors on the natural ventilation rate of a residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of air exchange rates due to intentional window and door openings in a research test house located in a residential environment is presented. These data inform the development of ventilation rate control strategies as building envelopes are tightened to improve the e...

  6. Applying a novel extra-low temperature dedicated outdoor air system in office buildings for energy efficiency and thermal comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Han; Lee, W.L.; Jia, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dedicated outdoor air system was proposed and investigated. • The proposed system adopts extra-low temperature outdoor air for space cooling. • The extra-low temperature air was generated by a multi-stage direct expansion coil. • Heat pipe was added to the proposed system to recover the waste cooling energy. • Energy and exergy analysis as well as thermal comfort analysis were conducted. - Abstract: A novel dedicated outdoor air system consisting of a multi-stage direct expansion coil and a zero-energy heat pipe to generate extra-low temperature outdoor air to avoid moisture-related problems was proposed in this study. The proposed system’s performance in achieving the desirable air conditions and better energy efficiency objectives is compared with a conventional direct expansion system for air-conditioning of a typical office building in Hong Kong based on simulation investigations. The simulations were carried out using equipment performance data of a pilot study, and realistic building and system characteristics. It was found that the proposed system, as compared to the conventional system, could reduce the annual indoor discomfort hours by 69.4%. An energy and exergy analysis was also conducted. It was revealed that the proposed system could reduce the annual air-conditioning energy use by 15.6% and the system exergy loss rate by 13.6%. The associated overall exergy efficiency was also found 18.6% higher. The findings of this study confirm that the proposed system is better than the conventional system in terms of both energy and exergy efficiency and the desirable air conditions.

  7. (Quasi-)Poisson enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan-Hong; Yao, Yuan; Ye, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra and Poisson enveloping algebra for a non-commutative Poisson algebra. We prove that for a non-commutative Poisson algebra, the category of quasi-Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra, and the category of Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its Poisson enveloping algebra.

  8. Climate control in cultural heritage buildings in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz [The National Museum, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Conservation; Brostroem, Tor [Gotland Univ., Visby (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Conservation heating has been used for decades to control the RH in cultural heritage buildings. But if the building is not used for living or working, heating is not needed for human comfort. The chemical decay of organic materials depends mainly on temperature, so it is better for preservation to reduce heating. The air exchange rate is related to the design of the building envelope. With rising energy prices humidity control by dehumidification may be an attractive alternative. The potential for energy efficient RH control was examined for a generic building exposed to the monthly average outside temperature and RH in Denmark. The indoor temperature was allowed to follow the outside average, whereas the indoor RH was controlled to 40 % 50 % 60 % or 70 %. Dehumidification was implemented in three different buildings: A recent museum store, a medieval church, and an 18th century country mansion. The energy consumption depends on the RH set point, the air exchange rate and the source of liquid moisture to the building. The air exchange rate related to the design of the building envelope. Single glazed windows and doors are the most important sources of leakage to buildings. Lack of maintenance may lead to poor performance of the dehumidifier and waste energy. (orig.)

  9. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie with techno......Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie...

  10. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary......, environmental dynamics and occupancy dynamics. Lastly, a physical prototype is created, which illustrates the physical expression of the bi-materials and the problems related to manufacturing of these composite structures.......The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary...

  11. Symptoms prevalence among office workers of a sealed versus a non-sealed building: associations to indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, José Luiz de Magalhães; Boechat, José Laerte; Gioda, Adriana; dos Santos, Celeste Yara; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler; Lapa e Silva, José Roberto

    2009-11-01

    An increasing number of complaints related to time spent in artificially ventilated buildings have been progressively reported and attributed, at least in part, to physical and chemical exposures in the office environment. The objective of this research was to investigate the association between the prevalence of work-related symptoms and the indoor air quality, comparing a sealed office building with a naturally ventilated one, considering, specially, the indoor concentration of TPM, TVOCs and the main individual VOCs. A cross-sectional study was performed to compare the prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms among 1736 office workers of a sealed office building and 950 of a non-sealed one, both in Rio de Janeiro's downtown. The prevalence of symptoms was obtained by a SBS standardized questionnaire. The IAQ of the buildings was evaluated through specific methods, to determine the temperature, humidity, particulate matter and volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. Upper airways and ophthalmic symptoms, tiredness and headache were highly prevalent in both buildings. Some symptoms were more prevalent in the sealed building: "eye dryness" 33.3% and 27.1% (p: 0.01); "runny nose" 37.3% and 31.3% (p: 0.03); "dry throat" 42% and 36% (p: 0.02); and "lethargy" 58.5% and 50.5% (p: 0.03) respectively. However, relative humidity and indoor total particulate matter (TPM) concentration as well as total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were paradoxically greater in the non-sealed building, in which aromatic compounds had higher concentration, especially benzene. The analysis between measured exposure levels and resulting symptoms showed no association among its prevalence and TPM, TVOCs, benzene or toluene concentration in none of the buildings. Other disregarded factors, like undetected VOCs, mites, molds and endotoxin concentrations, may be associated to the greater prevalence of symptoms in the sealed building.

  12. The radon gas at the context of legislation on the quality of internal air in buildings - the Portuguese experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Paulo G.A.N.; Pereira, Alcides J.S.C.; Neves, Luis J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Radon gas has been recognized as an important environmental risk factor, especially when found in high concentrations inside buildings, and is currently classified by the World Health Organization as a carcinogen type 1. In this context, there is legislation in Portugal since 2006 that sets limits to its concentration in indoor air. The aim of this work was to synthesize the existing legislation with focus on the sampling and analysis. Some statistical data about the measurements obtained in the Natural Radioactivity Laboratory, of the Department of Earth Sciences, of the University of Coimbra are presented, and discussed in the context of the National Energy Certification of Buildings System

  13. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schmidt, Justin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  14. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  15. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments. © The Author 2015

  16. Pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The post office on CERN's Prévessin site is still selling pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days. Hurry while stocks last!   The special envelopes, which are valid in France for non-priority letters weighing up to 20 grams, are ideal for your Christmas and New Year correspondence. A set of ten envelopes, each featuring a different image, costs € 8.70 or 10 CHF. The post office is located in Building 866 on the Prévessin site and is open Mondays to Thursdays from 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.

  17. Area balance method for calculation of air interchange in fire-resesistance testing laboratory for building products and constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargsyan Samvel Volodyaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire-resistance testing laboratory for building products and constructions is a production room with a substantial excess heat (over 23 W/m . Significant sources of heat inside the aforementioned laboratory are firing furnace, designed to simulate high temperature effects on structures and products of various types in case of fire development. The excess heat production in the laboratory during the tests is due to firing furnaces. The laboratory room is considered as an object consisting of two control volumes (CV, in each of which there may be air intake and air removal, pollutant absorption or emission. In modeling air exchange conditions the following processes are being considered: the processes connected with air movement in the laboratory room: the jet stream in a confined space, distribution of air parameters, air motion and impurity diffusion in the ventilated room. General upward ventilation seems to be the most rational due to impossibility of using local exhaust ventilation. It is connected with the peculiarities of technological processes in the laboratory. Air jets spouted through large-perforated surface mounted at the height of 2 m from the floor level, "flood" the lower control volume, entrained by natural convective currents from heat sources upward and removed from the upper area. In order to take advantage of the proposed method of the required air exchange calculation, you must enter additional conditions, taking into account the provision of sanitary-hygienic characteristics of the current at the entrance of the service (work area. Exhaust air containing pollutants (combustion products, is expelled into the atmosphere by vertical jet discharge. Dividing ventilated rooms into two control volumes allows describing the research process in a ventilated room more accurately and finding the air exchange in the lab room during the tests on a more reasonable basis, allowing to provide safe working conditions for the staff without

  18. Green buildings: Implications for acousticians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    This presentation will deal with the practical implications of green design protocols of the US Green Building Council on interior acoustics of buildings. Three areas of particular consequence to acousticians will be discussed. Ventilation Systems: reduced energy consumption goals dictate reliance on natural cooling and ventilation using ambient air when possible. The consequent large openings in the building envelope to bring fresh air into rooms, and similar sized openings to transfer the mixed air out, can severely compromise the noise isolation of the rooms concerned. Radiant Cooling: the heavy concrete floors of buildings can be used as a thermal flywheel to lessen the cooling load, which forces the concrete ceilings to be exposed to the occupied rooms for heat transfer, and strictly limits the application of acoustical absorption on the ceilings. This challenges the room acoustics design. Green Materials: the LEED protocols require the elimination of potentially harmful finishes, including fibrous materials which may impact air quality or contribute to health problems. Since the backbone of sound absorption is glass and mineral fibres, this further challenges provision of superior room acoustics. Examples and commentary will be provided based on current and recent projects.

  19. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  20. Uncertain data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to present the milestones in the progression of uncertain Data envelopment analysis (DEA). Chapter 1 gives some basic introduction to uncertain theories, including probability theory, credibility theory, uncertainty theory and chance theory. Chapter 2 presents a comprehensive review and discussion of basic DEA models. The stochastic DEA is introduced in Chapter 3, in which the inputs and outputs are assumed to be random variables. To obtain the probability distribution of a random variable, a lot of samples are needed to apply the statistics inference approach. Chapter 4

  1. Epizootiological characteristics of viable bacteria and fungi in indoor air from porcine, chicken, or bovine husbandry confinement buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Katharine; Lim, Gyeong-Dong; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Shin, Kyung-Min; Song, Eun-Seob; Gautam, Ravi; Kim, Chang-Yul; Lee, Kyungsuk; Shin, Seungwon; Yoo, Han-Sang; Heo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms found in bioaerosols from animal confinement buildings not only foster the risk of spreading diseases among livestock buildings, but also pose health hazards to farm workers and nearby residents. This study identified the various microorganisms present in the air of swine, chicken, and cattle farms with different kinds of ventilation conditions in Korea. Microbial air samples were collected onto Petri dishes with bacterial or fungal growth media using a cascade impactor. Endotoxin levels in total dust were determined by the limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic QCL method. Prevalent Gram-positive bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) lentus, S. chromogenes, Bacillus (B.) cereus, B. licheniformis, and Enterococcus faecalis, while the dominant fungi and Gram-negative bacteria were Candida albicans and Sphingomonas paucimobilis, respectively. Considering no significant relationship between the indoor dust endotoxin levels and the isolation of Gram-negative bacteria from the indoor air, monitoring the indoor airborne endotoxin level was found to be also critical for risk assessment on health for animals or workers. The present study confirms the importance of microbiological monitoring and control on animal husbandry indoor air to ensure animal and worker welfare. PMID:27456779

  2. Modeled effects of an improved building insulation scenario in Europe on air pollution, health and societal costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Holst, Gitte Juel; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2015-01-01

    scenario in Europe would have substantial benefits on health through improvements in air pollution. Health effects and societal cost savings may significantly counterbalance investment costs and should be taken into account when evaluating strategies for mitigation of global warming....... with extensions. Mean annual changes in the main air pollutants were derived for each country. World Health Organization (WHO) and European Union (EU) data on populations and on impacts of pollutants were used to derive health effects and costs. Effects on indoor air quality were not assessed. Results: Projected...... 78678 LY in Europe. A total of 7173 cases of persistent chronic bronchitis could be avoided annually. Several other health outcomes improved similarly. The saved societal costs totaled 6.64 billion € annually. Conclusions: In addition to carbon emission reductions, an improved building insulation...

  3. PCM-air heat exchangers for free-cooling applications in buildings: Experimental results of two real-scale prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, Ana; Dolado, Pablo; Marin, Jose M.; Zalba, Belen

    2009-01-01

    Latent heat storage using phase change materials (PCM) can be used for free-cooling. In this application low air temperature is used to solidify the PCM during the night and then during the next day, the inside air of a building can be cooled down by exchanging heat with PCM. Short times for charging and discharging the PCM are required. PCM have in general low thermal conductivity, therefore the heat exchanger design is very important to fulfil free-cooling requirements. This paper presents an experimental setup for testing PCM-air real-scale heat exchangers and the results for two real-scale prototypes. Results show that a heat exchanger using a PCM with lower thermal conductivity and lower total stored energy, but adequately designed, has higher cooling power and can be applied for free-cooling

  4. Indoor air quality in mechanically ventilated residential dwellings/low-rise buildings: A review of existing information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aganovic, Amar; Hamon, Mathieu; Kolarik, Jakub

    Mechanical ventilation has become a mandatory requirement in multiple European standards addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) and ventilation in residential dwellings (single family houses and low-rise apartment buildings). This article presents the state of the art study through a review...... of the existing literature, to establish a link between ventilation rate and key indoor air pollutants. Design characteristics of a mechanical ventilation system such as supply/exhaustairflow, system and design of supply and exhaust outlets were considered. The performance of various ventilation solutionswas......-house ventilation rate was reported below 0.5h-1 or 14 l/s·person in bedrooms, the concentrations of the pollutants elevated above minimum threshold limits (CO2>1350 ppm; TVOC >3000 μg/m3) defined by the standard. Insufficient or non-existent supply of air was related to significantly higher pollutant...

  5. Low air exchange rate causes high indoor radon concentration in energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, A.V.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Zhukovsky, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1995, requirements on energy-efficient building construction were established in Russian Building Codes. In the course of time, utilisation of such technologies became prevailing, especially in multi-storey building construction. According to the results of radon survey in buildings constructed meeting new requirements on energy efficiency, radon concentration exceeds the average level in early-constructed buildings. Preponderance of the diffusion mechanism of radon entry in modern multi-storey buildings has been experimentally established. The experimental technique of the assessment of ventilation rate in dwellings under real conditions was developed. Based on estimates of average ventilation rate, it was approved that measures to increase energy efficiency lead to reduction in ventilation rate and accumulation of higher radon concentrations indoors. Obtained ventilation rate values have to be considered as extremely low. (authors)

  6. Low air exchange rate causes high indoor radon concentration in energy-efficient buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A V; Yarmoshenko, I V; Zhukovsky, M V

    2015-06-01

    Since 1995, requirements on energy-efficient building construction were established in Russian Building Codes. In the course of time, utilisation of such technologies became prevailing, especially in multi-storey building construction. According to the results of radon survey in buildings constructed meeting new requirements on energy efficiency, radon concentration exceeds the average level in early-constructed buildings. Preponderance of the diffusion mechanism of radon entry in modern multi-storey buildings has been experimentally established. The experimental technique of the assessment of ventilation rate in dwellings under real conditions was developed. Based on estimates of average ventilation rate, it was approved that measures to increase energy efficiency lead to reduction in ventilation rate and accumulation of higher radon concentrations indoors. Obtained ventilation rate values have to be considered as extremely low. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Solar-assisted absorption air-conditioning systems in buildings: Control strategies and operational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Ali; Pintaldi, Sergio; White, Stephen D.; Morrison, Graham L.; Rosengarten, Gary; Taylor, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation model of a solar driven absorption chiller is developed in detail. • Three control strategies were proposed in the solar loop of the plant. • Series and parallel auxiliary heater arrangements were investigated. • The results showed the auxiliary-heater in parallel outperformed the series one. • Solar fraction can be increased by 20% by implementing the proposed configuration. - Abstract: Solar-assisted cooling technology has enormous potential for air-conditioning applications since both solar energy supply and cooling energy demand are well correlated. Unfortunately, market uptake of solar cooling technologies has been slow due to the high capital cost and limited design/operational experience. In the present work, different designs and operational modes for solar heating and cooling (SHC) absorption chiller systems are investigated and compared in order to identify the preferred design strategies for these systems. Three control scenarios are proposed for the solar collector loop. The first uses a constant flow pump, while the second and third control schemes employ a variable speed pump, where the solar collector (SC) set-point temperature could be either fixed or adjusted to the required demand. Series and parallel arrangements, between the auxiliary heater and the storage tank, have been examined in detail from an energy efficiency perspective. A simulation model for different system layouts is developed in the transient system simulation environment (TRNSYS, Version 17). Simulation results revealed that the total solar fraction of the plant is increased by up to 11% when a variable speed solar loop pump is used to achieve a collector set-point temperature adjusted according to the building load demand. Another significant finding of this study is that a parallel configuration for the auxiliary heater out-performs a conventional series configuration. The yearly performance of an auxiliary heater in parallel with the storage

  8. Multiscale modelling for better hygrothermal prediction of porous building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belarbi Rafik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to understand the influence of the microstructuralgeometric parameters of porous building materials on the mechanisms of coupled heat, air and moisture transfers, in order to predict behavior of the building to control and improve it in its durability. For this a multi-scale approach is implemented. It consists of mastering the dominant physical phenomena and their interactions on the microscopic scale. Followed by a dual-scale modelling, microscopic-macroscopic, of coupled heat, air and moisture transfers that takes into account the intrinsic properties and microstructural topology of the material using X-ray tomography combined with the correlation of 3D images were undertaken. In fact, the hygromorphicbehavior under hydric solicitations was considered. In this context, a model of coupled heat, air and moisture transfer in porous building materials was developed using the periodic homogenization technique. These informations were subsequently implemented in a dynamic computation simulation that model the hygrothermalbehaviourof material at the scale of the envelopes and indoor air quality of building. Results reveals that is essential to consider the local behaviors of materials, but also to be able to measure and quantify the evolution of its properties on a macroscopic scale from the youngest age of the material. In addition, comparisons between experimental and numerical temperature and relative humidity profilesin multilayers wall and in building envelopes were undertaken. Good agreements were observed.

  9. Analysis Of A Neuro-Fuzzy Approach Of Air Pollution: Building A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian-Daniel NEAGU

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates the necessity of an Artificial Intelligence (AI-based approach of air quality in urban and industrial areas. Some related results of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs and Fuzzy Logic (FL for environmental data are considered: ANNs are proposed to the problem of short-term predicting of air pollutant concentrations in urban/industrial areas, with a special focus in the south-eastern Romania. The problems of designing a database about air quality in an urban/industrial area are discussed. First results confirm ANNs as an improvement of classical models and show the utility of ANNs in a well built air monitoring center.

  10. Cooling load calculations of radiant and all-air systems for commercial buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    The authors simulated in TRNSYS three radiant systems coupled with a 50% sized variable air volume (VAV) system and a 50% sized all-air VAV system with night ventilation. The objective of this study was to identify the differences in the cooling load profiles of the examined systems when they are......The authors simulated in TRNSYS three radiant systems coupled with a 50% sized variable air volume (VAV) system and a 50% sized all-air VAV system with night ventilation. The objective of this study was to identify the differences in the cooling load profiles of the examined systems when...

  11. Mauritius green building handbook, vol 1: Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available of the load- and non-load-bearing walls, including all doors and windows. Walls A wall is a continuous, usually vertical structure that is thin relative to its length and height (Emmitt & Gorse, 2005). Apart from functioning as structural elements... of thermal insulation, the greater the effect of thermal bridging (Emmitt & Gorse, 2005). Areas where thermal bridging typically occurs is through single pane glazing, metal door and window frames, solid masonry sections (window and door heads and sills...

  12. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  13. A garage-building programme for the city of Vienna and resulting air quality. Related health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C; Walter, R [Inst. of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    Urban traffic influences air quality in cities considerably. This is particularly true for the medieval parts of the big European cities, which have not been designed for today s heavy traffic. A problem closely associated with city traffic, is the lack of parking lots, particularly for residents. In Vienna, the parking problem is tackled by the building of underground car parks. In the next years more than 50 large garages (>100 sites) are being planned. The main goal is the clearing of the beautiful old places and streets of Vienna from the bulk of parking vehicles and supplying the citizens with parking spaces in the neighbourhood. According to a recent decision of the City Council of Vienna the construction of `large garages` (>100 parking spaces) requires an official approval by various local authorities. Among them are those responsible for town design and architecture, for fire precaution and fire fighting, for city traffic, for planning and building and for environmental health. In this context the Institute of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna faced the task of establishing criteria for a health risk assessment linked with `large garages`. Health-risks may be caused by air pollution and noise. This presentation deals with the air pollution problem. Air pollution problems may occur due to traffic in and out of the garage, by insufficient ventilation systems and by construction failures. In the garage programme the health officers have to bring evidence that residents of the houses with underground car parks and residents in the close neighbourhood are not exposed to any health risk due to air pollution

  14. A garage-building programme for the city of Vienna and resulting air quality. Related health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Walter, R. [Inst. of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    Urban traffic influences air quality in cities considerably. This is particularly true for the medieval parts of the big European cities, which have not been designed for today s heavy traffic. A problem closely associated with city traffic, is the lack of parking lots, particularly for residents. In Vienna, the parking problem is tackled by the building of underground car parks. In the next years more than 50 large garages (>100 sites) are being planned. The main goal is the clearing of the beautiful old places and streets of Vienna from the bulk of parking vehicles and supplying the citizens with parking spaces in the neighbourhood. According to a recent decision of the City Council of Vienna the construction of `large garages` (>100 parking spaces) requires an official approval by various local authorities. Among them are those responsible for town design and architecture, for fire precaution and fire fighting, for city traffic, for planning and building and for environmental health. In this context the Institute of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna faced the task of establishing criteria for a health risk assessment linked with `large garages`. Health-risks may be caused by air pollution and noise. This presentation deals with the air pollution problem. Air pollution problems may occur due to traffic in and out of the garage, by insufficient ventilation systems and by construction failures. In the garage programme the health officers have to bring evidence that residents of the houses with underground car parks and residents in the close neighbourhood are not exposed to any health risk due to air pollution

  15. Heterogeneous photocatalysis applied to indoor building material : towards an improved indoor air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, kinetics of the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of nitric oxide (NO, as a typical air pollutant) is addressed. An extended Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction rate model is proposed to describe the PCO of NO under indoor air conditions. The derived model incorporates the influence

  16. Effects of diffuser airflow minima on occupant comfort, air mixing, and building energy use (RP-1515)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Hoyt, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    There is great energy-saving potential in reducing variable air volume box minimum airflow set-points to about 10% of maximum. Typical savings are on the order of 10%-30% of total HVAC energy, remarkable for an inexpensive controls set-point change that properly maintains outside air ventilation....

  17. Methods for air cleaning and protection of building occupants from airborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    germicidal irradiation (UVGI), photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), plasmacluster ions and other technologies for air disinfection and purification from pathogens are analyzed with respect to currently used air distribution principles. The importance of indoor air characteristics, such as temperature, relative...... of transmission, i.e. the generation of pathogen laden droplets originating in the respiratory tract of an infected individual, the survivability of the pathogens, their dispersal indoors and their transfer to a healthy person are reviewed. The advantages and the drawbacks of air dilution, filtration, ultraviolet...... humidity and velocity for the efficiency of each method is analyzed, taking into consideration the nature of the pathogens themselves. The applicability of the methods to the different types of total volume air distribution used at present indoors, i.e. mixing, displacement and underfloor ventilation...

  18. Performance of a prototype micro wind turbine in the manmade wind field from air conditioner of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Goh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing waste energy from the manmade air fields of buildings presents a new area of renewable energy to explore. Due to the unpredictability of the natural wind, this study is to evaluate the practicality for harnessing waste energy from the air conditioner exhaust units which are a more constant and predictable source available in the buildings. A prototype of the micro wind turbine has been designed to minimize the negative effect of the exhaust sources. After the micro wind turbine was manufactured, the performance of the turbine was tested in the selected air conditioner exhaust unit. Increasing the rotor solidity and decreasing the resistance of the generator contribute to improved starting torque and decreased generator break in torque respectively in the design. The power generation of the micro wind turbine increases with an increase of the rotor speed. The 24-hour operation of the prototype presents an observation for both exhaust performance and power generation prediction when the prototype is mounted on the exhaust unit.

  19. Energy and economic analysis of a building air-conditioner with a phase change material (PCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiyat, Nattaporn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase change material of Rubitherm20 was applied with the air-conditioner under the climate of Thailand. • PCM was used to reduce cooling load and electrical power of the air-conditioner. • Mathematical model of the packed ball bed of PCM was presented to predict the thermal performance. - Abstract: In this study, a concept of using phase change material (PCM) for improving cooling efficiency of an air-conditioner had been presented under Thailand climate. Rubitherm20 (RT-20) was selected to evaluate the thermal performance by reducing the air temperature entering the evaporating coil. The model of PCM celluloid balls had been performed with the air-conditioner. For the experiment, 2 TR of R-134a air-conditioner was chosen to test a pack bed of PCM balls with thickness 40 cm. The pressure drops of the air flowing through the bed were considered with and without a set of by-pass tubes along the height of the storage bed. The mathematical model of the air-conditioner with the PCM storage was developed and verified with the testing results. From the study results, it could be seen that pressure drops of the bed with and without bypass tubes were nearly the same results. Thus, PCM ball pack bed using RT-20 without bypass tubes was used to improve the cooling efficiency of the air-conditioner. The experimental result of the modified unit was compared and verified with the mathematical model, which agreed quite well with the simulation result. Finally, the model was used to analyze the economic result, which found that the electrical consumption of the modified air-conditioner could be decreased around 3.09 kW h/d. The saving cost from the PCM bed could be 9.10% of 170.03 USD/y and the payback period was around 4.15 y

  20. Preliminary assessment of BTEX concentrations in indoor air of residential buildings and atmospheric ambient air in Ardabil, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Sadegh; Rostami, Roohollah; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    BTEX concentrations in indoor and outdoor air of 50 homes were studied in Ardabil city and their influencing parameters including; heating system, using gas stove and samovar, tobacco smoking, the floors in which the monitored homes were located, and kitchen plan were considered in the study. Risk assessment analysis was carried out with the obtained concentrations based on EPA IRIS reference doses. BTEX compounds were sampled by charcoal tubes and the samples were analyzed by a GC-FID. Concentrations of benzene (15.18 μg/m3 vs. 8.65 μg/m3), toluene (69.70 μg/m3 vs. 40.56 μg/m3), ethylbenzene (12.07 μg/m3 vs. 4.92 μg/m3) and xylene (48.08 μg/m3 vs. 7.44 μg/m3) in indoor air were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the levels quantified for outdoor air. The obtained concentrations of benzene were considerably higher than the recommended value of 5 μg/m3 established by Iran environmental protection organization. Among the BTEX compounds, benzene (HQ = 0.51) and xylene (HQ = 0.47) had notable hazard quotient and were the main pollutants responsible for high hazard index in the monitored homes (HI = 1.003). The results showed considerably high cancer risk for lifetime exposure to the indoor (125 × 10-6) and outdoor (71 × 10-6) benzene. Indoor benzene concentrations in homes were significantly influenced by type of heating system, story, and natural gas appliances.

  1. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for surface coating of wood building products by reading the rule summary and history, with links to the federal register notices, additional documents, related rules and compliance information

  2. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented.

  3. Determine concentration radon 222Rn in the air inside and outside the buildings at the summer province of Baghdad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ataby, N.R.; Aisa, B.H.; Jebir, H.M.; Hatem, J.N.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, Was use of solid-state nuclear track detectors in the measurement of concentrations of radon 222 Rn inside and outside of the buildings in the summer and winter of the Baghdad province and because of the high features of the technical sensitivity and efficiency to record track of charged particles (such as protons and alpha particles and fission fragments) . Is the radon of Environmental Pollutions that is caused health problems , that was seemed the concern at the problem of pollution, radon gas 222 Rn and thoron gas 220 Rn and the considerable risk resulting from exposure to these isotopes by alpha particles emitted which have proved the relationship between exposure to emitted alpha particles with the incidence of disease of lung cancer. In this study, measured the concentration of radon 222 Rn inside and outside buildings in the summer and winter in several areas from the Baghdad province and as showed in the attached tables. Been studied the environmental radioactivity and measurement of the concentration of radon gas in the air in different parts of the city of Baghdad. the highest concentration was Found in the second Orf ali (A) (of the Sadr City) for the summer and was (37.973 Bq/m3) outside the building and ((53.400 Bq/m3 inside the building, either for the winter season was (55.773 Bq/m3) outside the building and (Bq/m3 58.148) inside the building for the same region and This is the concentration within the limits allowed

  4. Air Source Heat Pump a Key Role in the Development of Smart Buildings in Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile S.; Trifa, Viorel; Bojesen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    An important challenge for energy systems today is reducing dependency on fossil fuels, while handling increasing penetration levels of intermittent renewables such as wind and solar power. The efficient consumption of energy is a vital mater for a sustainable energy system. A significant part...... of energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water production which are provided to residential and commercial buildings. Air source heat pumps (ASHP) are widely used conversion technologies all over the world for providing building thermal energy services as: cooling, heating......, and water heating. ASHP does not have a constant temperature for the primary source like: soil, ground water, or surface water heat pumps but still have a majority in usage. As result, laboratory experiments and tests are faced by the problem of having to handle a wide range of conditions under which...

  5. A comparative study on energetic, exergetic and environmental performance assessments of novel M-Cycle based air coolers for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Hepbasli, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Applying exergy, environment and sustainability analyses to the three (novel M-Cycle based) air coolers. ► Assessing energy and exergy efficiencies, environmental impact and sustainability. ► Proposing System II (using PV-based electricity) as the most environmentally friendly air cooler. ► Proposing System III (using coal-based electricity) as the most efficient air cooler. - Abstract: In this study, three various novel air coolers based on M-Cycle are evaluated using energy and exergy analyses based efficiency assessments along with environmental impact and sustainability parameters. The M-Cycle systems are considered to cool a building room air while their inlet air parameters are same, but outlet cooled air parameters are different. Systems I and III draw electricity directly taken from an electric grid in the building while System II, which is stand alone system, produces and draws electricity from its solar PV panels. In the energy analysis, wet bulb effectiveness, cooling capacity, Coefficient of Performance (energetic COP) and Primary Energy Ratio (PER) are found. In the exergy analysis, exergy input and output rates, exergy loss rate, exergy destruction rate, Exergetic Coefficient of Performance (COP ex ), Primary Exergy Ratio (PE x R) and exergy efficiency are obtained for six different dead state temperatures changing between 10 °C and 35 °C. Also, sustainability assessments of the systems are obtained using sustainability index (SI) tool for these various dead state temperatures. Finally, environmental assessments of the systems are calculated from their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (gCO 2 /kW h) due to their electricity consumptions. Maximum exergy efficiencies and sustainability assessments are found to be 35.13% and 1.5415 for System III and 34.94% and 1.5372 for System II, respectively. GHG emissions of the systems are calculated to be 2119.68 gCO 2 /day, 153.6 gCO 2 /day and 3840 gCO 2 /day for Systems I, II and III

  6. Indoor air-quality measurements in energy-efficient residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Pepper, J.H.; Young, R.

    1980-05-01

    The potential impact on indoor air quality of energy-conserving measures that reduce ventilation is being assessed in a field-monitoring program conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using a mobile laboratory, on-site monitoring of infiltration rate, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, total aldehydes, and particulates was conducted in three houses designed to be energy-efficient. Preliminary results show that energy-conserving design features that reduce air-exchange rates compromise indoor air quality; specifically, indoor levels of several pollutants were found to exceed levels detected outdoors. Although the indoor levels of most pollutants are within limits established by present outdoor air-quality standards, considerable work remains to be accomplished before health-risk effects can be accurately assessed and broad-scale regulatory guidelines revised to comply with energy-conservation goals.

  7. Energy Performance Indicators in the Swedish Building Procurement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Allard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, all new buildings need to comply with the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning’s requirement on specific purchased energy (kWh/m2. Accordingly, this indicator is often used to set design criteria in the building procurement process. However, when energy use is measured in finished buildings, the measurements often deviate significantly from the design calculations. The measured specific purchased energy does not necessarily reflect the responsibility of the building contractor, as it is influenced by the building operation, user behavior and climate. Therefore, Swedish building practitioners may prefer other indicators for setting design criteria in the building procurement process. The aim of this study was twofold: (i to understand the Swedish building practitioners’ perspectives and opinions on seven building energy performance indicators (envelope air leakage, U-values for different building parts, average U-value, specific heat loss, heat loss coefficient, specific net energy, and specific purchased energy; and (ii to understand the consequences for the energy performance of multi-family buildings of using the studied indicators to set criteria in the procurement process. The study involved a Delphi approach and simulations of a multi-family case study building. The studied indicators were discussed in terms of how they may meet the needs of the building practitioners when used to set building energy performance criteria in the procurement process.

  8. Methods for air cleaning and protection of building occupants from airborne pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolashikov, Z.D.; Melikov, A.K. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Nils Koppels Alle, building 402, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-07-15

    This article aims to draw the attention of the scientific community towards the elevated risks of airborne transmission of diseases and the associated risks of epidemics or pandemics. The complexity of the problem and the need for multidisciplinary research is highlighted. The airborne route of transmission, i.e. the generation of pathogen laden droplets originating in the respiratory tract of an infected individual, the survivability of the pathogens, their dispersal indoors and their transfer to a healthy person are reviewed. The advantages and the drawbacks of air dilution, filtration, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), plasmacluster ions and other technologies for air disinfection and purification from pathogens are analyzed with respect to currently used air distribution principles. The importance of indoor air characteristics, such as temperature, relative humidity and velocity for the efficiency of each method is analyzed, taking into consideration the nature of the pathogens themselves. The applicability of the cleaning methods to the different types of total volume air distribution used at present indoors, i.e. mixing, displacement and underfloor ventilation, as well as advanced air distribution techniques (such as personalized ventilation) is discussed. (author)

  9. Multiple regression models for energy use in air-conditioned office buildings in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Wan, Kevin K.W.; Liu Dalong; Tsang, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    An attempt was made to develop multiple regression models for office buildings in the five major climates in China - severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild, and hot summer and warm winter. A total of 12 key building design variables were identified through parametric and sensitivity analysis, and considered as inputs in the regression models. The coefficient of determination R 2 varies from 0.89 in Harbin to 0.97 in Kunming, indicating that 89-97% of the variations in annual building energy use can be explained by the changes in the 12 parameters. A pseudo-random number generator based on three simple multiplicative congruential generators was employed to generate random designs for evaluation of the regression models. The difference between regression-predicted and DOE-simulated annual building energy use are largely within 10%. It is envisaged that the regression models developed can be used to estimate the likely energy savings/penalty during the initial design stage when different building schemes and design concepts are being considered.

  10. Investigation the effect of outdoor air infiltration on the heat-shielding characteristics the outer walls of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytchikov, Yu. S.; Kostuganov, A. B.; Saparev, M. E.; Belyakov, I. G.

    2018-03-01

    The presented article considers the influence of infiltrated outdoor air on the heat-shielding characteristics of the exterior walls of modern residential and public buildings. A review of the sources devoted to this problem confirmed its relevance at the present time, especially for high-rise buildings. The authors of the article analyzed the effect of longitudinal and transverse air infiltration on the heat-shielding characteristics of the outer wall of a 25-story building that was built in Samara. The results showed a significant reduction of the reduced resistance to the heat transfer of the outer wall when air is infiltrated through it. There are the results of full-scale examination of external walls to confirm the calculated data. Based on the results of the study carried out by the authors of the article, general recommendations on the internal finishing of the outer walls of high-rise buildings are given.

  11. Energy reduction of building air-conditioner with phase change material in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattaporn Chaiyat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a concept of using phase change material (PCM for improving cooling efficiency of an air-conditioner had been presented under Thai climate. Paraffin waxes melting point at around 20 °C was selected to evaluate the thermal performance by reducing the air temperature entering the evaporating coil. The model of PCM celluloid balls had been performed with the air-conditioner. Moreover, the mathematical model of the air-conditioner with the PCM storage was developed and verified with the testing results. From the study results, it could be seen that the simulated data agreed quite well with the experimental result at the discrepant around 2–4%. Finally, the model was used to analyze the economic result which was found that the electrical consumption of the modified air-conditioner could be decreased 3.09 kW h/d. The electrical power consumption of the modified unit was 36.27 kW h/d at the operating time 15 h/d compared with 39.36 kW h/d of the normal unit at the operating time 12 h/d. The saving cost of the PCM bed could be 9.10% or 170.03 USD and the payback period was 4.15 y.

  12. Inversion Build-Up and Cold-Air Outflow in a Small Alpine Sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Manuela; Whiteman, C. David; Dorninger, Manfred

    2017-06-01

    Semi-idealized model simulations are made of the nocturnal cold-air pool development in the approximately 1-km wide and 100-200-m deep Grünloch basin, Austria. The simulations show qualitatively good agreement with vertical temperature and wind profiles and surface measurements collected during a meteorological field expedition. A two-layer stable atmosphere forms in the basin, with a very strong inversion in the lowest part, below the approximate height of the lowest gap in the surrounding orography. The upper part of the stable layer is less strongly stratified and extends to the approximate height of the second-lowest gap. The basin atmosphere cools most strongly during the first few hours of the night, after which temperatures decrease only slowly. An outflow of air forms through the lowest gap in the surrounding orography. The outflow connects with a weak inflow of air through a gap on the opposite sidewall, forming a vertically and horizontally confined jet over the basin. Basin cooling shows strong sensitivity to surface-layer characteristics, highlighting the large impact of variations in vegetation and soil cover on cold-air pool development, as well as the importance of surface-layer parametrization in numerical simulations of cold-air-pool development.

  13. Air-Filled Nanopore Based High-Performance Thermal Insulation Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gangåssæter, Haakon Fossen; Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Alex Mofid, Sohrab; Gao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    State-of-the-art thermal insulation solutions like vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and aerogels have low thermal conductivity, but their drawbacks may make them unable to be the thermal insulation solutions that will revolutionize the building industry regarding energy-efficient building envelopes. Nevertheless, learning from these materials may be crucial to make new and novel high-performance thermal insulation products. This study presents a review on the state-of-the-art air-filled thermal...

  14. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  15. Linear concentrating collector as an air heater in the heating system of building in Polish climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemś Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the performance of a concentrating collector in the heating system of a residential building. Air was used as the working fluid. The heating requirements of the building were determined for each day of the year. The amount of direct irradiation reaching the absorber’s surface on all the days of the year was determined with the use of hourly meteorological data for Wroclaw, shared by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Growth. It was assumed that the collector is equipped with a tracking system working in one axis. Calculations and comparisons were made for the amount of solar irradiation for three values of the receiver’s inclination angle: β1=60°, β2=90° and β3=30°. Statistical method was used in order to determine the optimum inclination of the mirror and the amount of flowing air. This method involves creating a plan of experiment with three levels of changeability for two input factors. In the last stage, the amount of heat obtained from the installation during all the days of the year was analysed. The gains were juxtaposed on the diagram with the building’s heat demand. The analysis has shown that the heat requirements can be met only partially.

  16. Overview of Green Building Material (GBM Policies and Guidelines with Relevance to Indoor Air Quality Management in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to offer a preliminary overview of Taiwan’s success in green building material (GBM efforts through legal systems and promotion measures, which are relevant to the contribution to indoor air quality (IAQ due to sustainability and health issues. In the first part of the paper, the IAQ regulations are summarized to highlight the second nation (i.e., Taiwan around the world in IAQ management by the law. In addition, the permissible exposure limits (PEL in Taiwan for airborne hazardous substances were first promulgated in 1974 to deal with occupational health issues in the workplace environment. In the second part of the paper, the developing status of the GBM in Taiwan is analyzed to unravel its connection with the Indoor Air Quality Management Act (IAQMA, promulgated on 23 November 2011. By the end of September 2017, a total of 645 GBM labels have been conferred, covering over 5000 green products. Due to the effectiveness of source control, the healthy GBM occupies most of the market, accounting for about 75%. The IAQMA, which took force in November 2012, is expected to significantly increase the use of healthy GBM in new building construction and remodeling, especially in low formaldehyde (HCHO/volatile organic compound (VOC-emitting products.

  17. Induced Air Movement for Wide-Span Schools in Humid Asia. Educational Building Digest 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Schools in the hot and humid zones of the Asian region are narrow to ensure good ventilation. The purpose of this report is to show that it is possible, through appropriate design, to obtain sufficient breeze for thermal comfort in buildings as wide as 15 meters. Some of the conclusions of a study of the subject are summarized. The summary is…

  18. Vulnerability to air pollution: a building block in assessing vulnerability to multiple stressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2010-08-30

    Full Text Available security Mental conditions Some practical examples Many people: • dependent on grants •illiterate •jobless •with HIV/AIDS, TB •AIDS orphans •affected by crime and violence •use dirty fuels Many sewage plants don’t function properly... and the overall quality of the assessment Exposure to Air Pollution © CSIR 2009 www.csir.co.za Air pollution PM, SOx, NOx, O3, VOCs,etc. Measured/Modelled Urban development Land use distribution Meteorology Cultural practices...

  19. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  20. Experimental investigation of a two-inlet air-based building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tingting; Athienitis, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BIPV/T system thermal efficiency is 5% higher using two inlets compared to one. • BIPV/T thermal efficiency is 7.6% higher using semi-transparent than opaque PV. • Detailed air temperature profile in BIPV/T channel is obtained. • Nusselt number correlations are developed. - Abstract: An experimental study of thermal characteristics of a novel two-inlet air-based open-loop building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system using a full-scale solar simulator is presented. Experimental prototypes of one-inlet and two-inlet BIPV/T systems were constructed for conducting comparative experiments. Variations of BIPV/T systems are also investigated including systems employing opaque mono-crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) panels and systems employing semi-transparent mono-crystalline PV panels. Experimental results demonstrate that an equivalent two-inlet system with frameless PV panels can increase the thermal efficiency by 5% compared to a conventional one-inlet system, and that the BIPV/T system with semi-transparent PV panels achieves 7.6% higher thermal efficiency due to the absorption of some solar radiation at the bottom surface in the BIPV/T system cavity. Also, the two-inlet BIPV/T design is easily implemented and does not add significant cost. Detailed air temperature measurements reveal that the mixing of the warm outlet air from the first section and the cool ambient air drawn in from the second inlet contributes to the improved performance of the two-inlet system. Based on a thermal network model of the BIPV/T system and experimental data, correlations are developed for the convective heat transfer coefficients in the two sections. These are necessary for further analysis and development of BIPV/T system with multiple inlets.

  1. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, Ai; Rafee, B Mohd; Juahir, Hafizan; Azman, Azf; Nizar, Am; Izwyn, Z; Syahidatussyakirah, K; Muhaimin, Aa; Yunos, Ma Syafiq; Anita, Ar; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, Ms; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Hasmadi, I Mohd; Azhar, Mn Mohamad; Azizan, Hs; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J; Rozalini, M; Kamarul, Ft

    2012-01-01

    To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint), which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort. This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a categorizing method for further IAQ

  2. Building Strategic Conformal Automation for Air Traffic Control Using Machine Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtuit, Robert; Borst, C.; van Kampen, E.; van Paassen, M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Acceptance of automation has been a bottleneck for successful introduction of automation in Air Trac Control. Strategic conformal automation has been proven to increase automation acceptance, by creating a better match between automation and operator decision-making. In this paper strategic

  3. Energy performance and Indoor Air Quality in Modern Buildings in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    A new dormitory for engineering students “Apisseq” was built in the town of Sisimiut, Greenland in 2010. Its purpose is not only to provide accommodation for students. Thanks to its complex monitoring system it enables researchers to evaluate the building’s energy performance and indoor air quality...

  4. Energy performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant air-conditioning system for commercial building in main climate zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Ronghui; Lu, Lin; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of solar liquid desiccant AC system in four climate regions was conducted. • System performance was determined by relationship of sensible and latent cooling load. • For humid area, saving amount is large by handling latent load with solar energy. • For dry area, electricity saving rate is considerable due to the high COP of chillers. • For buildings with mild SHR, the system performance was not as good as others. - Abstract: Liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) system, which consists of a liquid desiccant ventilation system for dehumidification and an air-handling unit for cooling, has become a promising alternative for conventional technology. To evaluate its feasibility and applicability, the simulation of solar-assisted LDAC (SLDAC) in commercial buildings in five cities of four main climate regions were conducted, including Singapore in Tropical, Houston and Beijing in Temperate, Boulder in Arid and Los Angeles in Mediterranean. Results showed that the system’s performance was seriously affected by the ratios of building’s sensible and latent cooling load. For buildings located in humid areas with low sensible-total heat ratio (SHR), the electricity energy reduction of SLDAC was high, about 450 MW h in Houston and Singapore, which accounted for 40% of the total energy consumption in cooling seasons. The cost payback period was as short as approximately 7 years. The main reason is that the energy required for handling the moisture could be saved by liquid desiccant dehumidification, and the regeneration heat could be covered by solar collectors. For buildings in dry climate with high SHR, the total cooling load was low, but up to 45% electricity of AC system could be saved in Boulder because the chiller COP could be significantly improved during more than 70% operation time. The cost payback period was around 22 years, which was acceptable. However, for the buildings with mild SHR, such as those in Beijing and Los

  5. A review of air exchange rate models for air pollution exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Schultz, Bradley D; Sohn, Michael D; Long, Thomas; Langstaff, John; Williams, Ronald; Isaacs, Kristin; Meng, Qing Yu; Stallings, Casson; Smith, Luther

    2014-11-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings where people spend their time. The AER, which is the rate of exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pollutants and for removal of indoor-emitted air pollutants. This paper presents an overview and critical analysis of the scientific literature on empirical and physically based AER models for residential and commercial buildings; the models highlighted here are feasible for exposure assessments as extensive inputs are not required. Models are included for the three types of airflows that can occur across building envelopes: leakage, natural ventilation, and mechanical ventilation. Guidance is provided to select the preferable AER model based on available data, desired temporal resolution, types of airflows, and types of buildings included in the exposure assessment. For exposure assessments with some limited building leakage or AER measurements, strategies are described to reduce AER model uncertainty. This review will facilitate the selection of AER models in support of air pollution exposure assessments.

  6. Achieving sustainable buildings: the role of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Hassam Nasarullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing population and global economy, the dependency on usage of non-renewable resources of energy is cumulating in direct proportion. Nevertheless, the non-renewable potential of these resources is certainly a leading worldwide issue, and one, which has gained substantial international interest over the past decades. Large and attractive opportunities exist to reduce building's energy use at lower costs and higher returns than other sectors. At the same time, substantial investments will be required to achieve this target as outlined by the Paris Agreement. These will require the combination of social, economic and environmental actions, including building energy codes, investment subsidies, labelling and reporting mechanisms, increased and trained workforce capacity, and evolving energy-efficient designs and HVAC technologies.

  7. Energy Payback Time Calculation for a Building Integrated Semitransparent Thermal (BISPVT) System with Air Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Kanchan Mudgil; Deepali Kamthania

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the energy payback time (EPBT) of building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BISPVT) system for Srinagar, India. Three different photovoltaic (PV) modules namely mono crystalline silicon (m-Si), poly crystalline silicon (p-Si), and amorphous silicon (a-Si) have been considered for calculation of EPBT. It is found that, the EPBT is lowest in m-Si. Hence, integration of m-Si PV modules on the roof of a room is economical.

  8. Detrimental effect of Air pollution, Corrosion on Building Materials and Historical Structures

    OpenAIRE

    N. Venkat Rao; M. Rajasekhar; Dr. G. Chinna Rao

    2016-01-01

    The economy of any country would be drastically changed if there were no corrosion. The annual cost of corrosion world wise is over 3 % of the worlds GDP. As pet the sources available, India losses $ 45 billion every year on account of corrosion of infrastructure, Industrial machinery and other historical heritage. Keeping this critical and alarming situation in view, this paper focuses on how all these forms of corrosion affect building materials and historical structures. It als...

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction 340-A building tank sludge clean out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060 and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96 for the removal of sludge from six storage tanks located inside the 340-A Building, which is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site

  10. The LHC on an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays ...

  11. The LHC in an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (Ferney-Voltaire, Prévessin...

  12. Contribution of natural ventilation in a double skin envelope to heating load reduction in winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu-Min; Sohn, Jang-Yeul [Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Soo-Young [Department of Housing and Interior Design, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Shin, Sung-Woo [Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea)

    2009-11-15

    This study examined the contribution of a double skin envelope (DSE) to the heating energy savings brought about by natural ventilation in office buildings. A DSE was applied to the east- and west-facing walls on an actual three-floor building. Field measurements and computer simulations were performed in winter. The results implied that the DSE on the west-facing wall contributed to energy savings when natural ventilation was supplied from the cavity to the indoor space. The DSE facing east was not recommended for energy savings by natural ventilation because of its smaller exposure to solar irradiance. Multiple linear regression models were developed based on field measurements to predict the temperature variation in the cavities, and effective control logics will be discussed in a future study. Of all variables, the outdoor air temperature was the most significant factor influencing the air temperature in the cavity. Computer simulation indicated that the air in the cavity was heated to the required temperature without consuming additional energy when the ratio of the diffused irradiance to global irradiance was smaller than 0.69. The cavity in the DSE worked as a thermal buffer zone and contributed to reducing heating energy consumption by 14.71% in January. (author)

  13. Classification of buildings mold threat using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łagód, Grzegorz; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Guz, Łukasz; Sobczuk, Henryk

    2017-07-01

    Mold is considered to be one of the most important features of Sick Building Syndrome and is an important problem in current building industry. In many cases it is caused by the rising moisture of building envelopes surface and exaggerated humidity of indoor air. Concerning historical buildings it is mostly caused by outdated raising techniques among that is absence of horizontal isolation against moisture and hygroscopic materials applied for construction. Recent buildings also suffer problem of mold risk which is caused in many cases by hermetization leading to improper performance of gravitational ventilation systems that make suitable conditions for mold development. Basing on our research there is proposed a method of buildings mold threat classification using electronic nose, based on a gas sensors array which consists of MOS sensors (metal oxide semiconductor). Used device is frequently applied for air quality assessment in environmental engineering branches. Presented results show the interpretation of e-nose readouts of indoor air sampled in rooms threatened with mold development in comparison with clean reference rooms and synthetic air. Obtained multivariate data were processed, visualized and classified using a PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and ANN (Artificial Neural Network) methods. Described investigation confirmed that electronic nose - gas sensors array supported with data processing enables to classify air samples taken from different rooms affected with mold.

  14. Reuse and Upcycling of Municipal Waste for ZEB Envelope Design in European Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pennacchia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal waste in order to decrease energy demand from the building sector and, at the same time, improve eco-friendly waste management at the local scale. The reuse of waste for building envelope structures is one of the main principles of the Earthship buildings model, based on the use of passive solar principles in autonomous earth-sheltered homes. This Earthship principle has been analyzed in order to optimize buildings’ energy performance and reuse municipal waste for new building envelope structures in urban areas. Indeed, the elaborated structures have been designed for urban contexts, with the aim of reuse waste coming from surrounding landfills. The methods include an analysis of thermal performance of urban waste for designing new building envelope structures realized by assembling waste and isolating materials not foreseen in Earthship buildings. The reused materials are: cardboard tubes, automobile tires, wood pallets, and plastic and glass bottles. Finally, comparing economic costs of these new building envelope structures, the obtained results highlight their economic feasibility compared to a traditional structure with similar thermal transmittance.

  15. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  16. The Correlation of Radon Concentration with Various Building Attributes at U.S. Air Force Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    these daughter products that continue to decay giving off radiation which can then lead to the development of lung cancer . The United States Air Force...USAF) is concerned about the increased risk of developing lung cancer by persons exposed to elevated levels of radon in their domiciles and in their...CONOM 0 S * 0 0 a N&NO.)C Nowfum - a w em C mec0- C Mama - 00 4.4 .Q0 0 40 VO O 02ýCt > a MW 0 5 O 0 500 0 ’-ONM > Co S- -W N 00l 0 N 0 O--0 CPe go - Na Wm

  17. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan,1 B Mohd Rafee,1 Hafizan Juahir,2 AZF Azman,1 AM Nizar,3 Z Izwyn,4 K Syahidatussyakirah,1 AA Muhaimin,5 MA Syafiq Yunos,6 AR Anita,1 J Muhamad Hanafiah,1 MS Shaharuddin,7 A Mohd Ibthisham,8 I Mohd Hasmadi,9 MN Mohamad Azhar,1 HS Azizan,1 I Zulfadhli,10 J Othman,11 M Rozalini,12 FT Kamarul131Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Environmental Science/ Environmental Forensics Research Center (ENFORCE, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 7Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 8Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 9Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 10Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 11Department of Counselor Education and Psychology Counseling, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 12Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Unit, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, 13ERALAB SDN. BHD. (Environmental Research and Analytical Laboratory Sdn. Bhd., Selangor, MALAYSIAPurpose: To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial

  18. A new insight into opaque envelopes in a passive solar house: Properties and roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong; Liu, Minghou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new insight into the opaque envelopes of a passive solar house was gained. • Five parts of envelopes, i.e., roof, south/east/west/north walls, were discussed. • Each part of envelopes were analyzed separately rather than treated as a whole. • Ideal properties of materials for each envelope are diverse from one another. • Differences are related to the envelopes’ leading roles as a heater or a cooler. - Abstract: Passive solar houses are effective solutions for minimizing the operating energy of buildings. The building envelopes of passive solar houses exert a significant influence on the degree of indoor thermal comfort. The focus of this study was the construction of high-performance opaque envelopes, i.e., the roof and walls, for a passive solar house, and a new conception of the envelopes from the perspective of the relation between the properties and roles was provided. The discussion was conducted based on a comprehensive range of envelope materials that were distinguished by the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. For the first time, each part of the envelopes was analyzed separately rather than considered as an entire envelope. By analyzing each envelope individually, the optimum properties of each envelope were found to be distinct from each other. The distinctions are determined by the dominant role of each envelope, which is associated with the location and absorbed solar irradiation. For summer or hot climate applications, when the dominant role is a cooler, the envelope, e.g., the south wall, should consist of materials with high thermal conductivity and large heat capacity; if a heater is the dominant role, the envelope, e.g., the roof, should consist of materials with low thermal conductivity. For winter or cold climate applications, the envelopes with a leading role of a heater or a cooler require materials with high or low thermal conductivity, respectively. Under the guidance of the results, a discussion

  19. Thermal environmental case study of an existing underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system in a high-rise building in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Y. H.; Poh, K. S.

    2015-09-01

    The performance of an existing underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system in a renowned high-rise office tower in Malaysia was studied to identify the root cause issues behind the poor indoor air quality. Occupants are the best thermal sensor. The building was detected with the sick building syndrome (SBS) that causes runny noses, flu-like symptoms, irritated skin, and etc. Long period of exposure to indoor air pollutants may increase the occupant's health risk. The parameters such as the space temperature, relative humidity, air movement, air change, fresh air flow rate, chilled water supply and return are evaluated at three stories that consist of five open offices. A full traverse study was carried out at one of the fresh air duct. A simplified duct flow measurement method using pitot-tubes was developed. The results showed that the diffusers were not effective in creating the swirl effect to the space. Internal heat gain from human and office electrical equipment were not drawn out effectively. Besides, relative humidity has exceeded the recommended level. These issues were caused by the poor maintenance of the building. The energy efficiency strategy of the UFAD system comes from the higher supply air temperature. It may leads to insufficient cooling load for the latent heat gained under improper system performance. Special care and considerations in design, construction and maintenance are needed to ensure the indoor air quality to be maintained. Several improvements were recommended to tackle the existing indoor air quality issues. Solar system was studied as one of the innovative method for retrofitting.

  20. A simplified method for the thermal design of buildings in overseas departments; Methode simplifiee pour la conception thermique du batiment dans les DOM-TOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The main principles of climate (more especially tropical climate), thermal comfort and thermal architectural design are first reviewed, with emphasis on wall, roof and window heat transfers and natural and artificial air conditioning in tropical houses and buildings, with the objective of minimizing energy consumption and maximizing thermal comfort. Meteorological data and calculation diagrams are given for site and orientation optimization and building envelope dimensioning and design in tropical zones (example of New Caledonia)

  1. A decision support tool for evaluating the air quality and wind comfort induced by different opening configurations for buildings in canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M; Chau, C K; Chan, E H W; Jia, J

    2017-01-01

    This study formulated a new index for evaluating both the air quality and wind comfort induced by building openings at the pedestrian level of street canyons. The air pollutant concentrations and wind velocities induced by building openings were predicted by a series of CFD simulations using ANSYS Fluent software based on standard k-ɛ model. The types of opening configurations investigated inside isolated and non-isolated canyons included separations, voids and permeable elements. It was found that openings with permeability values of 10% were adequate for improving the air quality and wind comfort conditions for pedestrians after considering the reduction in development floor areas. Openings were effective in improving the air quality in isolated canyons and different types of opening configurations were suggested for different street aspect ratios. On the contrary, openings were not always found effective for non-isolated canyons if there were pollutant sources in adjacent street canyons. As such, it would also be recommended introducing openings to adjacent canyons along with openings to the target canyons. The formulated index can help city planners and building designers to strike an optimal balance between air quality and wind comfort for pedestrians when designing and planning buildings inside urban streets and thus promoting urban environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Building and environmental factors that influence bacterial and fungal loading on air conditioning cooling coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, A; Siegel, J A; Mendell, M J; Peccia, J

    2018-05-30

    We investigated bacterial and fungal concentrations on cooling coils of commercial AC units and quantified associations between microbial loads and AC unit or building operational parameters. A field campaign was conducted to sample 25 AC units in the humid, subtropical climate of Southern CT, USA and 15 AC units in the hot-summer Mediterranean climate of Sacramento, CA, USA. Median concentrations (with interquartile range) of bacteria and fungi on the cooling coils were 1.2 × 10 7 (5.1 × 10 6 -3.9 × 10 7 ) cells/m 2 and 7.6 × 10 5 (5.6 × 10 4 -4.4 × 10 6 ) spore equivalents (SE)/m 2 , respectively. Concentrations varied among units with median unit concentrations ranging three orders of magnitude for bacteria and seven orders of magnitude for fungi. Controlled comparisons and multivariable regressions indicate that dominant factors associated with AC coil loading include the nominal efficiency of upstream filters (P = .008 for bacteria and P < .001 for fungi) and coil moisture, which was reflected in fungal loading differences between top and bottom halves of the AC coils in Southern CT (P = .05) and the dew points of the two climates considered (P = .04). Environmental and building characteristics explained 42% (P < .001) of bacterial concentration variability and 66% (P < .001) of fungal concentration variability among samples. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of organic coatings to reduce air leakage through cracks in the Pickering NGS 'A' reactor building 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, J.J.; Sato, J.A.; Hampton, J.H.D.; Cullen, R.; Paterson, G.; Chan, P.; Rajagopalan, R.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure tests conducted in 1992 on the Pickering NGS 'A' Reactor Building 1 showed that the containment leakage rate of the building was close to the licensing limit. The leakage was found to be pressure dependent and was attributed to cracks in the concrete dome. A number of solutions were studied by a task group, and the application of an organic coating to the exterior surface of the dome was identified as the most viable solution under the constraints of schedule and cost. In addition to reducing the air leakage rate, the coating material must be flexible to bridge existing moving cracks, it must have excellent adhesion to the concrete substrate to sustain the design pressure of 41.4 kPa(g) during pressure tests, and it must be durable for an exterior application and service conditions. Five candidate organic coating materials were selected for laboratory testing. As a result of the testing, a single-component elastomeric polyurethane coating was selected to be used on the dome. This paper discusses the selection process, laboratory tests and results, and the application of the polyurethane coating system to the exterior concrete dome surface. However, the main emphasis of the paper is on the laboratory evaluation of the five candidate materials. (author). 2 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Indoor air pollution levels in public buildings in Thailand and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinmalee, Aungsiri; Srimongkol, Kasama; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2009-09-01

    Levels of pollutants including PM2.5 and PM2.5 composition (black carbon and water soluble ions), SO(2), NO(2), CO, CO(2), and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) were monitored for indoor and outdoor air at a university campus and a shopping center, both located in the Northern suburb of Bangkok. Sampling was done during December 2005-February 2006 on both weekdays and weekends. At the university, indoor monitoring was done in two different air conditioned classrooms which shows the I/O ratios for all pollutants to be below 0.5-0.8 during the weekends. However, on weekdays the ratios for CO(2) and most detected BTEX were above 1.0. The concept of classroom occupancy was defined using a function of the student number in a lecture hour and the number of lecture hours per day. Classroom 2, which had a higher occupancy than classroom 1, was characterized by higher concentrations of most pollutants. PM2.5 was an exception and was higher in classroom 1 (37 microg/m(3), weekdays) as compared to classroom 2 (26 microg/m(3), weekdays) which was likely linked to the dust resuspension from the carpeted floor in the former. Monitoring was also done in the shopping mall at three different sites. Indoor pollutants levels and the I/O ratios at the shopping mall were higher than at the university. Levels of all pollutants measured at the car park, except for toluene and CO(2), were the highest. I/O ratios of the pollutants at the mall were above 1.0, which indicates the relatively higher influence of the indoor sources. However, the black carbon content in PM2.5 outdoor is higher than indoor, which suggest the important contribution from outdoor combustion sources such as the traffic. Major sources of outdoor air pollution in the areas were briefly discussed. Exposure modeling was applied using the time activity and measured pollutant concentrations to assess the exposure of different groups of people in the study areas. High exposure to PM2.5, especially for the people

  5. Simulation Speed Analysis and Improvements of Modelica Models for Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorissen, Filip; Wetter, Michael; Helsen, Lieve

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents an approach for speeding up Modelica models. Insight is provided into how Modelica models are solved and what determines the tool’s computational speed. Aspects such as algebraic loops, code efficiency and integrator choice are discussed. This is illustrated using simple building simulation examples and Dymola. The generality of the work is in some cases verified using OpenModelica. Using this approach, a medium sized office building including building envelope, heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and control strategy can be simulated at a speed five hundred times faster than real time.

  6. Impacts of city-block-scale countermeasures against urban heat-island phenomena upon a building's energy-consumption for air-conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikegawa, Yukihiro [Department of Environmental Systems, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8506 (Japan); Genchi, Yutaka [Research Center for Life Cycle Assessment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroaki [Institute for Environmental Management Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    This study quantifies the possible impacts of urban heat-island countermeasures upon buildings' energy use during summer in Tokyo metropolis. Considering the dependency of the buildings air temperature upon the local urban canopy structure, Tokyo urban canopies were classified in the city-block-scale using the sky-view factor (svf). Then, a multi-scale model system describing the interaction between buildings' energy use and urban meteorological conditions was applied to each classified canopy. In terms of urban warming alleviation and cooling energy saving, simulations suggested that the reduction in the air-conditioning anthropogenic heat could be the most effective measure in office buildings' canopies, and that vegetative fraction increase on the side walls of buildings in residential canopies. Both measures indicated daily and spatially averaged decreases in near-ground summer air temperature of 0.2-1.2{sup o}C. The simulations also suggested these temperature decreases could result in the buildings' cooling energy-savings of 4-40%, indicating remarkable savings in residential canopies. These temperature drops and energy savings tended to increase with the decrease of the svf of urban canopies. (author)

  7. A mathematical model for supplying air-cooling for a building using a packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marewo, G.T. [Zimbabwe Univ., Mathematics Dept., Harare (Zimbabwe); Henwood, D.J. [School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    The cooling system at the Harare International School uses a packed bed system for storing the coldness of the night-time to be used later for day-time air-conditioning. A two-phase mathematical model is described for the packed bed which includes heat dispersion in the fluid, and heat loss to the environment. This is in contrast to other studies, where at least one of these terms is neglected to simplify the mathematical model. A numerical method for obtaining a solution is proposed and implemented. Using measured inlet temperatures, the measured and predicted outlet temperatures of the bed show good trend agreement. The differences in detail are examined through sensitivity analyses for both the heat convection transfer and air velocity. It is apparent that adjusting these parameters can increase the agreement between the predicted and measured data. A parametric study for heat storage with various materials and bed sizes is given, which indicates how the code may be used as a tool for improving design and operational parameters. Practical application: A mathematical model of a packed bed is described; the bed is made up of fluid flowing over solid material with heat interchange between the two. The solid material is idealized as spheres and the fluid temperature is assumed uniform in a cross-section of the bed. The model includes heat interchange between the bed and its surrounding environment and allows for time varying fluid velocity. The input data is the inlet temperature to the bed, which may be measured. The comparison with measured data may be helpful to anyone attempting to develop and test a similar model. The sensitivity tests give an understanding of the significance of some of the parameters involved. The Appendix gives a mathematical statement of the problem and an outline of an approach to developing computer code for a numerical solution. (Author)

  8. The use of MATLAB-SIMULINK for evaluation of thermal building behavior; O uso do MATLAB-SIMULINK para avaliacao do comportamento termico de ambientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathan; Oliveira, Gustavo H.C.; Araujo, Humberto X. de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas Termicos]|[Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Automacao e Sistemas]. E-mail: nmendes@ccet.pucpr.br; oliv@ ccet.pucpr.br; araujo@ ccet.pucpr.br

    2000-07-01

    We describe a mathematical model applied to both building thermal analysis and control systems design. We use a lumped approach to model the room air temperature and a multi-layer model for the building envelope. The capacitance model allows to study the transient analysis of room air temperature when it is submitted to sinusoidal variation of external air temperature, representing a case study for the city of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. To evaluate the building performance with thermal parameters, we use MATLAB/SIMULINK. In the results section, we show the influences of thermal capacitance on the building air temperature and energy consumption and the advantages of using MATLAB/SIMULINK in building thermal and energy analysis as well. (author)

  9. Building-related health symptoms and classroom indoor air quality: a survey of school teachers in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielb, C; Lin, S; Muscatiello, N; Hord, W; Rogers-Harrington, J; Healy, J

    2015-08-01

    Most previous research on indoor environments and health has studied school children or occupants in non-school settings. This investigation assessed building-related health symptoms and classroom characteristics via telephone survey of New York State school teachers. Participants were asked about 14 building-related symptoms and 23 classroom characteristics potentially related to poor indoor air quality (IAQ). Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between these symptoms and each classroom characteristic, controlling for potential confounders. About 500 teachers completed the survey. The most frequently reported classroom characteristics included open shelving (70.7%), food eaten in class (65.5%), dust (59.1%), and carpeting (46.9%). The most commonly reported symptoms included sinus problems (16.8%), headache (15.0%), allergies/congestion (14.8%), and throat irritation (14.6%). Experiencing one or more symptoms was associated most strongly with reported dust (relative risk (RR) = 3.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62-5.13), dust reservoirs (RR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.72-2.65), paint odors (RR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.40-2.13), mold (RR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.39-2.11), and moldy odors (RR = 1.65 95% CI: 1.30-2.10). Stronger associations were found with increasing numbers of reported IAQ-related classroom characteristics. Similar results were found with having any building-related allergic/respiratory symptom. This research adds to the body of evidence underscoring the importance to occupant health of school IAQ. Teachers play an important role in educating children, and teacher well-being is important to this role. Health symptoms among New York teachers while at work are common and appear to be associated with numerous characteristics related to poor classroom IAQ. Improving school Indoor Air Quality may reduce sickness and absenteeism and improve teacher performance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Robert; Metcalf, Richard; Bevill, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant's large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis

  11. CMHC [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation] research project: Testing of air barrier construction details 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-31

    Air leakage control through the building envelope of wood framed houses is more important than ever. This is because owners expect better temperature control, higher indoor humidity in winter, low energy consumption and building durability. The leakage of air is controlled by the air barrier system. There are several new technologies to construct an air barrier system for the building envelope. These are the Poly Approach, the Air Drywall Approach (ADA) and the EASE system. The development of these systems was undertaken primarily by the building community without significant research and development. While it is believed that these methods improve airtightness it is not known if the improvement is marginal or significant. A study was conducted to determine actual performace of several different types of construction details for each of the different approaches. Each of these details was designed and constructed using one of the air barrier methods and tested in the laboratory. The test details included sill plate, the partition wall, the stair stringer, the electrical outlets, the bathtub detail, the plumbing stack detail, the metal chimney detail, the bathroom fan detail and the EASE wall system. The test results revealed that the Poly, ADA and EASE approaches reduce air leakage by a factor of six, if applied with a modest degree of workmanship. Further, certain Poly details are to be reconsidered because they lack adequate support against design wind load pressures. 37 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Building energy performance analysis by an in-house developed dynamic simulation code: An investigation for different case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, Annamaria; Palombo, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new dynamic simulation code for building energy performance analysis is presented. • The thermal behavior of each building element is modeled by a thermal RC network. • The physical models implemented in the code are illustrated. • The code was validated by the BESTEST standard procedure. • We investigate residential buildings, offices and stores in different climates. - Abstract: A novel dynamic simulation model for the building envelope energy performance analysis is presented in this paper. This tool helps the investigation of many new building technologies to increase the system energy efficiency and it can be carried out for scientific research purposes. In addition to the yearly heating and cooling load and energy demand, the obtained output is the dynamic temperature profile of indoor air and surfaces and the dynamic profile of the thermal fluxes through the building elements. The presented simulation model is also validated through the BESTEST standard procedure. Several new case studies are developed for assessing, through the presented code, the energy performance of three different building envelopes with several different weather conditions. In particular, dwelling and commercial buildings are analysed. Light and heavyweight envelopes as well as different glazed surfaces areas have been used for every case study. With the achieved results interesting design and operating guidelines can be obtained. Such data have been also compared vs. those calculated by TRNSYS and EnergyPlus. The detected deviation of the obtained results vs. those of such standard tools are almost always lower than 10%

  13. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Strauss

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today’s demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions. New technologies offer one possible way to do so. They open new approaches in designing, producing and processing building construction and facades. Finding the one capable of having big impact is difficult – Additive Manufacturing is one possible answer. The term ‘AM Envelope’ (Additive Manufacturing Envelope describes the transfer of this technology to the building envelope. Additive Fabrication is a building block that aids in developing the building envelope from a mere space enclosure to a dynamic building envelope. First beginnings of AM facade construction show up when dealing with relevant aspects like material consumption, mounting or part’s performance. From those starting points several parts of an existing post-and-beam façade system were optimized, aiming toward the implementation of AM into the production chain. Enhancements on all different levels of production were achieved: storing, producing, mounting and performance. AM offers the opportunity to manufacture facades ‘just in time’. It is no longer necessary to store or produce large numbers of parts in advance. Initial investment for tooling can be avoided, as design improvements can be realized within the dataset of the AM part. AM is based on ‘tool-less’ production, all parts can be further developed with every new generation. Producing tool-less also allows for new shapes and functional parts in small batch sizes – down to batch size one. The parts performance can be re-interpreted based on the demands within the system, not based on the limitations of conventional manufacturing. AM offers new ways of materializing the physical part around its function. It leads toward customized

  14. Air quality in swine growing and finishing facilities with different building typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cecchin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration of gases in three swine growing and finishing facilities with different building typologies, regarding floor and dividers. The experiment compared three treatments: pen with water depth, pen with partially slotted floor on the sides, and pen with partially slotted floor on sides and in the center. Measurements of instantaneous concentrations of ammonia (NH3 ppm and carbon dioxide (CO2 ppm were taken at animal level. The levels of sound pressure (dB at animal level and at 1.50 m from the floor were also recorded. It was observed that the pen with water depth was the one with the highest average concentration of NH3. Although there was a significant difference in CO2 concentrations, the observed values are within the limits allowed by the Brazilian standards; thus, it is assumed that the facilities do not cause discomfort in relation to CO2 levels. The pen with water depth possibly caused discomfort to the animals, since the NH3 concentration was above the values that can cause problems to the animals, according to the recommendation of the literature. There was no influence of the type of pen on the sound pressure at any time.

  15. A strategy for prioritising interactive measures for enhancing energy efficiency of air-conditioned buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.L.; Yik, F.W.H.; Jones, P.

    2003-01-01

    Within a given budget, selection of the optimal set of measures for enhancing the energy efficiency of a building is often based on the relative order of the feasible measures, prioritised according to either the life cycle cost saving or the economic benefit-cost ratio of the measures. A sensitivity analysis shows that, compared to the life cycle cost analysis, the benefit-cost ratio analysis is less susceptible to the influence of uncertainties in the estimates of the present value of the life cycle energy saving and cost. Where interactive measures are involved, the effects of some are dependent on the co-existence of other measures. The prioritisation determined according to the benefit-cost ratios of individual measures, each taken in the absence of all the others, can lead to the choice of a range of measures that is below optimal. Selection of the optimal set of energy efficiency enhancement measures requires a multistep approach, which is exemplified by the case study described in the paper

  16. Impact of air pollution in deterioration of carbonate building materials in Italian urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barca, Donatella; Comite, Valeria; Belfiore, Cristina M.; Bonazza, Alessandra; La Russa, Mauro F.; Ruffolo, Silvestro A.; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino; Sabbioni, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Geochemical study of black crusts developed on three monuments located in Milan, Florence and Rome. • Trace element composition of the black crusts is greatly influenced by anthropogenic pollution. • Geochemical characterization of black crusts can be used as a reliable indicator of environmental pollution. - Abstract: This work presents results from a petrographic, morphological and chemical study of the black crusts developing on monuments in three Italian cities, the Cathedral of Milan, the Cathedral of St. Maria del Fiore in Florence, and the Vittoriano Monument in Rome. Black crusts (BCs) were studied with traditional techniques such as optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR), in combination with laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which has shown itself to be particularly useful in determining concentrations of heavy metals in BCs. Although the BCs of the three monuments show general enrichment in heavy metals with respect to the substrate (S), interesting differences were observed among them. The BCs from Milan are the richest in heavy metals, particularly Pb and Zn, reflecting the severe air pollution of this very large city, which, in addition to its intense traffic, is located in the most highly industrialized area of Northern Italy. The BCs from the south-eastern side of the Cathedral of St. Maria del Fiore in Florence, facing a pedestrian area, show little enrichment in heavy metals, and those from the Vittoriano Monument in Rome, which is exposed to intense road traffic, display variable enrichment, attributable to mobile emission sources. Results show that the various enrichment trends in heavy metals observed in the BCs of these three monuments are due to many factors: various sources of anthropogenic pollution, sampling height, exposure, orientation, and the shape of the deposition

  17. Algae façade as green building method: application of algae as a method to meet the green building regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerbo, Heru W.; Martokusumo, Widjaja; Donny Koerniawan, M.; Aulia Ardiani, Nissa; Krisanti, Susan

    2017-12-01

    The Local Government of Bandung city has stipulated a Green Building regulation through the Peraturan Walikota Number 1023/2016. Signed by the mayor in October 2016, Bandung became the first city in Indonesia that put green building as mandatory requirement in the building permit (IMB) process. Green Building regulation is intended to have more efficient consumption of energy and water, improved indoor air quality, management of liquid and solid waste etc. This objective is attained through various design method in building envelope, ventilation and air conditioning system, lighting, indoor transportation system, and electrical system. To minimize energy consumption of buildings that have large openings, sun shading device is often utilized together with low-E glass panes. For buildings in hot humid tropical climate, this method reduces indoor air temperature and thus requires less energy for air conditioning. Indoor air quality is often done by monitoring the carbon dioxide levels. Application of algae as part of building system façade has recently been introduced as replacement of large glass surface in the building façade. Algae are not yet included in the green building regulation because it is relatively new. The research will investigate, with the help of the modelling process and extensive literature, how effective is the implementation of algae in building façade to reduce energy consumption and improve its indoor air quality. This paper is written based on the design of ITB Innovation Park as an ongoing architectural design-based research how the algae-integrated building façade affects the energy consumption.

  18. Moisture performance of building materials: From material characterization to building simulation using the Moisture Buffer Value concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc Olivier [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil); LEPTAB, University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, 17042 Cedex 1 (France); Mendonca, Katia Cordeiro [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Predicting the indoor air relative humidity evolution is of great importance to evaluate people thermal comfort, perceived air quality and energy consumption. In building environments, porous materials of the envelope and furniture act on the indoor air humidity by reducing its variations. Solving the physical processes involved inside the porous materials requires the knowledge of the material hygrothermal properties that needs multiple and, for some of them, time-consuming experimental procedures. Recently, both the NORDTEST Project and Japanese Industrial Standard described a new Moisture Buffer Capacity index that accounts for surrounding air vapor concentration variation. The Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) indicates the amount of water vapor that is transported in or out of a material, during a certain period of time, when the vapor concentration of the surrounding air varies. The MBV evaluation requires only one experimental procedure and its value permits a direct comparison of the building materials moisture performance. However, two limitations can be distinguished: first, no relation between the MBV and the usual material hygrothermal properties has been clearly identified and second, no model has been proposed to actually use the MBV in building simulation. The present study aims to solve these two problems. First, the MBV fundamentals are introduced and discussed; followed by its relation with the usual material properties. Then, a lumped model for building simulation, whose parameters can be determined from the MBV experimental procedure, is described. To finish, examples of the use of this MBV-based lumped model for moisture prediction in buildings are presented. (author)

  19. Nature of 'unseen' galactic envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that unseen matter in a galactic envelope or in a group of galaxies may consist of substellar bodies originating as the first permanent 'stars' in the formation of a very massive galaxy according to a model for galaxy-formation on the basis of simple big-bang cosmology. (Auth.)

  20. Handbook on data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, William W; Zhu, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on extensively used Data Envelopment Analysis topics, this volume aims to both describe the state of the field and extend the frontier of DEA research. New chapters include DEA models for DMUs, network DEA, models for supply chain operations and applications, and new developments.

  1. Assessment of infiltration heat recovery and its impact on energy consumption for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solupe, Mikel; Krarti, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five steady-state air infiltration heat recovery or IHR models are described and compared. • IHR models are incorporated within whole-building simulation analysis tool. • IHR can reduce the thermal loads of residential buildings by 5–30%. - Abstract: Infiltration is a major contributor to the energy consumption of buildings, particularly in homes where it accounts for one-third of the heating and cooling loads. Traditionally, infiltration is calculated independent of the building envelope performance, however, it has been established that a thermal coupling exists between the infiltration and conduction heat transfer of the building envelope. This effect is known as infiltration heat recovery (IHR). Experiments have shown that infiltration heat recovery can typically reduce the infiltration thermal load by 10–20%. Currently, whole-building energy simulation tools do not account for the effect of infiltration heat recovery on heating and cooling loads. In this paper, five steady-state IHR models are described to account for the thermal interaction between infiltration air and building envelope components. In particular, inter-model and experimental comparisons are carried out to assess the prediction accuracy of five IHR models. In addition, the results from a series of sensitivity analyses are presented, including an evaluation of the predictions for heating energy use associated with four audited homes obtained from whole-building energy simulation analysis with implemented infiltration heat recovery models. Experimental comparison of the IHR models reveal that the predictions from all the five models are consistent and are within 2% when 1-D flow and heat transfer conditions are considered. When implementing IHR models to a whole-building simulation environment, a reduction of 5–30% in heating consumption is found for four audited residential homes

  2. Numerical model for stack gas diffusion in terrain with buildings. Variations in air flow and gas concentration with additional building near stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sada, Koichi; Michioka, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoichi; Komiyama, Sumito; Numata, Kunio

    2009-01-01

    A numerical simulation method for predicting atmospheric flow and stack gas diffusion using a calculation domain of several km around a stack under complex terrain conditions containing buildings has been developed. The turbulence closure technique using a modified k-ε-type model without a hydrostatic approximation was used for flow calculation, and some of the calculation grids near the ground were treated as buildings using a terrain-following coordinate system. Stack gas diffusion was predicted using the Lagrangian particle model, that is, the stack gas was represented by trajectories of released particles. The developed numerical model was applied to a virtual terrain and building conditions in this study prior to the applications of a numerical model for real terrain and building conditions. The height of the additional building (H a ), located about 200 m leeward from the stack, was varied (i.e., H a =0, 20, 30 and 50 m), and its effects on airflow and the concentration of stack gas at a released height of 75 m were calculated. Furthermore, effective stack height, which was used in the safety analysis of atmospheric diffusion for nuclear facilities in Japan, was evaluated from the calculated ground-level concentration of stack gas. The cavity region behind the additional building was calculated, and turbulence near the cavity was observed to decrease when the additional building was present. According to these flow variations with the additional building, tracer gas tended to diffuse to the ground surface rapidly with the additional building at the leeward position of the cavity, and the ground-level stack gas concentration along the plume axis also increased with the height of the additional building. However, the variations in effective stack height with the height of the additional building were relatively small and ranged within several m in this study. (author)

  3. Building a QC Database of Meteorological Data From NASA KSC and the United States Air Force's Eastern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James C.; Barbre, Robert E.; Orcutt, John M.; Decker, Ryan K.

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (EV44) has provided atmospheric databases and analysis in support of space vehicle design and day-of-launch operations for NASA and commercial launch vehicle programs launching from the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), co-located on the United States Air Force's Eastern Range (ER) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ER is one of the most heavily instrumented sites in the United States measuring various atmospheric parameters on a continuous basis. An inherent challenge with the large databases that EV44 receives from the ER consists of ensuring erroneous data are removed from the databases, and thus excluded from launch vehicle design analyses. EV44 has put forth great effort in developing quality control (QC) procedures for individual meteorological instruments; however, no standard QC procedures for all databases currently exist resulting in QC databases that have inconsistencies in variables, methodologies, and periods of record. The goal of this activity is to use the previous efforts by EV44 to develop a standardized set of QC procedures from which to build flags within the meteorological databases from KSC and the ER, while maintaining open communication with end users from the launch community to develop ways to improve, adapt and grow the QC database. Details of the QC checks are described. The flagged data points will be plotted in a graphical user interface (GUI) as part of a manual confirmation that the flagged data do indeed need to be removed from the archive. As the rate of launches increases with additional launch vehicle programs, more emphasis is being placed to continually update and check weather databases for data quality before use in launch vehicle design and certification analyses.

  4. Inventory of the French data about the air quality inside buildings; Inventaire des donnees francaises sur la qualite de l'air a l'interieur des batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosqueron, L.; Nedellec, V.

    2001-12-01

    In the framework of the implementation of the French observatory for the indoor air quality (OQAI), the Vincent Nedellec consulting office (VNC) has carried out an inventory study of the French data relative to the air quality inside buildings on request of the building scientific and technical center (CSTB). Only data relative to dwellings, office and school buildings are considered. The pollutants considered in this study are: nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), inert particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs: benzene, glycol ethers, formaldehyde), bacteria, legionella, fungi, moulds, animal allergens, radon, asbestos and artificial mineral fibers, lead, biocides. The objective is to identify the available French data, to collect them and to analyze their validity, in particular in terms of methodology, representativeness and extrapolation. Data are presented separately for each pollutant. (J.S.)

  5. Balancing energy and daylighting performances for envelope design: A new index and proposition of a case study in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Jing Chao; Xue, Peng; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Liu, Jia Ping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Daylighting and energy performances were studied simultaneously. •Energy demands of lighting and air-conditioning systems were both included. •Luminous comfort was quantified by Ave. DA 300 with the range from 29.6% to 57.8%. •Energy Daylight Rate was proposed as a simple multi-objective optimization approach. •Optimal scenarios for all directions were tested and chosen by EDR method. -- Abstract: Being healthy and energy saving have become two important principles of building development. Daylight is an influential factor with the characteristics of both photometry and radiometry. Irradiance brings solar heat gains that transfer to building cooling load, while illuminance provides a luminous environment and affects artificial lighting system at the same time. To balance the energy and daylighting performances, it is reasonable to minimize the environmental load under moderate comfort conditions. This study first quantified luminous comfort with a dynamic daylighting metric, average daylight autonomy (Ave. DA 300 ), from a questionnaire survey and simulation work. The benchmark of this metric should range from 29.6% to 57.8% for high-rise residential buildings. With this guideline, the Hong Kong public housing units is found that part of units lack of daylight due to the high building floor and density, while some units have potential to save energy by compromising daylighting performance. Therefore, a new index, energy daylight rate (EDR), is proposed to help decide the best scenario of envelope design for both daylighting and shading purposes. The results show that opening a secondary window is an efficient way to bring more light in and lengthening overhang is an efficient way to block excessive sunlight. This method and the new index are proved to have the ability to help defining proper building envelope design at the early stage.

  6. Solar thermal energy / exhaust air heat pump / wood pellet furnace for a sustainable heat supply of low energy buildings in older buildings; Solarthermie / Abluft-Waermepumpe / Pelletofen. Kombisysteme zur nachhaltigen Waermeversorgung von Niedrigenergiehaeusern im Gebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, Nikolaus; Born, Rolf [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Staerz, Norbert [Ingenieurbuero inPlan, Pfungstadt (Germany)

    2009-11-13

    The research project under consideration reports on combination systems for a sustainable heat supply for low-energy buildings in older building. For this, a central and decentralized system configuration consisting of solar thermal energy, exhaust air heat pump and wood pellet furnace are presented. Solutions for an interaction of these three heat suppliers in one plant are designated regarding the control strategy. The fundamentals of the computerized simulations for the central and decentralized system are presented. A cost estimate with both variants of the combination system as well as a comparison with conventional energy-saving heat supply systems follow.

  7. Physical Quality of Air and Sick Building Syndrome in Office Employees of “X” Company in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Putra Effendi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical symptoms had led to the suggestion that a disease called Sick Building Syndrome (SBS occured to the office of “X” Company in the city of Jakarta. This research that used a random sampling technique examined the physical air quality of the “X” Company, such as indoor temperature and humidity aspects, the SBS cases of 90 workers. Research results on the Company “X” office workers showed that, (1 47.8% workers had cases of SBS; and, (2 a value of 0.714 was acquired from the result of bivariate analysis using Chi square statistics program with p value of 0.325 and RP of 95 percent. This signifies that there were no relations between indoor temperature and humidity with the SBS cases of the Company “X” workers in Jakarta City. Possibilities of other factors were found to trigger the SBS symptoms such as chemical and microbiological factors (from work tools and facilities, and psychosocial factor (from the workers themselves

  8. Isolation and Identification of Air Borne Fungal Spores and Fragments in Buildings within Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinkafi Sa’adatu Aliyu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Indoor air contains a complex mixture of microorganisms, microorganism fragments, and by products such as molds, bacteria, endotoxins, mycotoxins, and volatile microbial organic compounds. Airborne fungi and bacteria can be toxic, allergenic and/or infectious. A research was conducted to determine the number and types of airborne fungal spores in Buildings of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria. Five (5 areas were chosen within the University for the Survey, these were student Hostel, Staff Quarters, Botanical garden, Microbiology laboratory and city campus of Usmanu Danfodiyo University. . A total number of fifteen (15 petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar each were vertically placed in each sampler and exposed at end of each height and site for 10 and 20 minutes respectively.  A total of thirteen (13 different fungal specie were identified namely; Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A fumigates, A. ustus, A. terreus, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Alterneria altenata, Rhizopus oryzae,  R. stolonifer, Helminthosporum sp., Penicillum candidum and Absedia corymbifera. Aspergillus niger had the highest frequency of occurrence of (14.9%, Helminthosporus species had the least frequency of occurrence of (1.5%. Conclusively it was observed that the concentration of fungal spores was high in the upper surface than the ground level at the time of the survey.

  9. Building America Case Study: Standard- Versus High-Velocity Air Distribution in High-Performance Townhomes, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-09

    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance. Results show that the small-diameter system provides more uniform temperatures from floor to floor in the three-story townhome. No clear energy consumption benefit was observed from either system. The builder is continuing to explore the small-diameter system as its new standard system to provide better comfort and indoor air quality. The homebuilder also explored the possibility of shifting its townhome product to meet the U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home National Program Requirements. Ultimately, the builder decided that adoption of these practices would be too disruptive midstream in the construction cycle. However, the townhomes met the ENERGY STAR Version 3.0 program requirements.

  10. Study on the Development of an Optimal Heat Supply Control Algorithm for Group Energy Apartment Buildings According to the Variation of Outdoor Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kurl Kwak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have developed an optimal heat supply algorithm which minimizes the heat loss through the distribution pipe line in a group energy apartment. Heating load variation of a group energy apartment building according to the outdoor air temperature was predicted by a correlation obtained from calorimetry measurements of all households in the apartment building. Supply water temperature and mass flow rate were simultaneously controlled to minimize the heat loss rate through the distribution pipe line. A group heating apartment building located in Hwaseong city, Korea, which has 1473 households, was selected as the object building to test the present heat supply algorithm. Compared to the original heat supply system, the present system adopting the proposed control algorithm reduced the heat loss rate by 10.4%.

  11. Experiences when employing different alternatives for envelope upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peru Elguezabal Esnarrizaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of achieving the 2020 goals in terms of energy savings and improving efficiency are guiding numerous research initiatives looking for more insulated envelopes, dealing with thermal performance of insulation materials and envelope systems. Nevertheless, the envelope integrates within the building and this improvement on the insulation performance has to be properly adopted, taking into account the interrelation of main elements composing the overall system (facade, frame, slabs, openings, partitions etc., as well as side effects originated not only for new erected buildings, but specifically in renovation and retrofitting works. This paper describes real experiences when considering various options for upgrading the facade through the increase of the insulation capacity, starting from external overcladding prefabricated panels and ventilated facades, advancing to more sustainable low carbon systems and ending with even more highly insulated solutions employing aerogels. Lessons from these cases, where energy and hygrothermal assessments have being carried out, demonstrate the influence of the design and construction phases and the relevance of disregarded effects such as minor thermal bridges, uncontrolled craftsmanship on site, and moisture transfer for the different technologies considered. Finally, possible alternatives are provided to overcome some of the detected difficulties, such as combination with non-metallic structural components and building membranes, and being prepared for future challenges and new developments when these isolative elements are combined with other technologies, as for example, renewable energy harvesting devices.  

  12. Measurement of air kerma rates for 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field by ionisation chamber and build-up plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowatari, Munehiko; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tsutsumi, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    The 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray calibration field by the (19)F(p, αγ)(16)O reaction is to be served at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. For the determination of air kerma rates using an ionisation chamber in the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field, the establishment of the charged particle equilibrium must be achieved during measurement. In addition to measurement of air kerma rates by the ionisation chamber with a thick build-up cap, measurement using the ionisation chamber and a build-up plate (BUP) was attempted, in order to directly determine air kerma rates under the condition of regular calibration for ordinary survey meters and personal dosemeters. Before measurements, Monte Carlo calculations were made to find the optimum arrangement of BUP in front of the ionisation chamber so that the charged particle equilibrium could be well established. Measured results imply that air kerma rates for the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field could be directly determined under the appropriate condition using an ionisation chamber coupled with build-up materials. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The correlation of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system with other environmental parameters in commercial buildings as possible indicator for indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Soo Shen; Mak, Joon Wah; Chen, Donald K F; Ambu, Stephen

    2017-02-07

    The free-living protozoan Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen that is ubiquitous in our environment. However, its role in affecting indoor air quality and ill-health of indoor occupants is relatively unknown. The present study investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system and its correlation with other indoor air quality parameters, used in the industry code of practice and its potential as an indicator for indoor air quality. Indoor air quality assessments were carried out in nine commercial buildings with approval from the building management, and the parameters assessed were as recommended by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. The presence of Acanthamoeba was determined through dust swabs from the ventilation system and indoor furniture. Logistic regression was performed to study the correlation between assessed parameters and occupants' complaints. A total of 107 sampling points were assessed and 40.2% of the supplying air diffuser and blowing fan and 15% of the furniture were positive for cysts. There was a significant correlation between Acanthamoeba detected from the ventilation system with ambient total fungus count (r=0.327; p=0.01) and respirable particulates (r=0.276; p=0.01). Occupants' sick building syndrome experience also correlated with the presence of Acanthamoeba in the ventilation system (r=0.361; p=0.01) and those detected on the furniture (r=0.290; p=0.01). Logistic regression showed that there was a five-fold probability of sick building syndrome among occupants when Acanthamoeba was detected in the ventilation system.

  14. Air condensation thermo-pumps for residential and small commercial buildings; Les thermopompes a condensation par air dans le residentiel et le petit tertiaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carteret, P. [Societe Airwell, (France)

    1997-12-31

    The advantages of recent air conditioning systems in terms of temperature control, air quality, air renewal, humidity control, air distribution, acoustic comfort, flexibility, are reviewed and some aspects concerning the evolution of the market in France are discussed (steady growth of the AC residential market). The different types of air conditioning systems are presented (direct expansion with the split-system, and cool water system); the characteristics, advantages and investment/operation costs of split-system and multi-splits thermo-pumps and hot water / cooled water production central units are described

  15. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  16. Transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G C [OSRAM SYLVANIA, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2005-09-07

    Transparent ceramic materials with optical qualities comparable to single crystals of similar compositions have been developed in recent years, as a result of the improved understanding of powder-processing-fabrication- sintering-property inter-relationships. These high-temperature materials with a range of thermal and mechanical properties are candidate envelopes for focused-beam, short-arc lamps containing various fills operating at temperatures higher than quartz. This paper reviews the composition, structure and properties of transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials including sapphire, small-grained polycrystalline alumina, aluminium oxynitride, yttrium aluminate garnet, magnesium aluminate spinel and yttria-lanthana. A satisfactory thermal shock resistance is required for the ceramic tube to withstand the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in lamps. Thermophysical properties, along with the geometry, size and thickness of a transparent ceramic tube, are important parameters in the assessment of its resistance to fracture arising from thermal stresses in lamps during service. The corrosive nature of lamp-fill liquid and vapour at high temperatures requires that all lamp components be carefully chosen to meet the target life. The wide range of new transparent ceramics represents flexibility in pushing the limit of envelope materials for improved beamer lamps.

  17. Solar envelope zoning: application to the city planning process. Los Angeles case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Solar envelope zoning represents a promising approach to solar access protection. A solar envelope defines the volume within which a building will not shade adjacent lots or buildings. Other solar access protection techniques, such as privately negotiated easements, continue to be tested and implemented but none offer the degree of comprehensiveness evident in this approach. Here, the City of Los Angeles, through the Mayor's Energy Office, the City Planning Department, and the City Attorney's Office, examine the feasibility of translating the concept of solar envelopes into zoning techniques. They concluded that envelope zoning is a fair and consistent method of guaranteeing solar access, but problems of complexity and uncertainty may limit its usefulness. Envelope zoning may be inappropriate for the development of high density centers and for more restrictive community plans. Aids or tools to administer envelope zoning need to be developed. Finally, some combination of approaches, including publicly recorded easements, subdivision approval and envelope zoning, need to be adopted to encourage solar use in cities. (MHR)

  18. Energetic performances of an optimized passive Solar Heating Prototype used for Tunisian buildings air-heating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdaoui, Farah; Hazami, Majdi; Naili, Nabiha; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The study of a Solar Heating Prototype to prevail the buildings air-heating needs. • A parametric study of the system was achieved by means of the TRNSYS program. • The monthly internal temperature during cold months ranges between 22 and 25 °C. • The results shows that the relative humidity inside the monozone room of about 40%. - Abstract: This paper deals with the energetic performances of a Solar Heating Prototype (SHP) conceived in our laboratory to prevail the Tunisian households’ air-heating needs. The conceived SHP mainly consists of a flat-plate solar collector, solar hot water tank and an active layer integrated inside a single room. Firstly, a complete model is formulated taking into account various modes of heat transfer in the SHP by means of the TRNSYS simulation program. To validate the TRNSYS model, experimental tests under local weather conditions were performed for 2 days spread over 2 months (March and April 2013). Predicted results were compared to the measurements in order to determine the accuracy of the simulation program. A parametric study was then achieved by means of the TRNSYS program in order to optimize SHP design parameters (Collector area, collector mass flow rate, floor mass flow rate, storage tank volume and thickness of the active layer). The optimization of all design parameters shows that to achieve a maximum performances from the SHP it is essential to use a solar collector with an area equal to 6 m 2 area, a collector mass flow rate equal to 100 kg h −1 and a hot water storage tank with a capacity equal to 450 l. Concerning the floor heating, the optimal values of mass flow rate and the active layer thickness are 200 kg h −1 and 0.06 m, respectively. The long-term SHP performances were afterward evaluated by means of the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data relative to Tunis, Tunisia. Results showed that for an annual total solar insolation of about 6493.37 MJ m −2 the average solar fraction

  19. Energy Design Analysis and Evaluation of a Proposed Air Rescue and Fire Fighting Administration Building for Teterboro Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Pless, S.; Talbert, B.; Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2003-07-01

    A new/proposed building for the Teterboro Airport was selected as a case study for High Performance Building Initiative research efforts. This report documents research-level energy analysis conducted on the Teterboro Airport building during predesign and design phases of the project.

  20. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)